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Sample records for 3d flexible circuit

  1. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  2. Development of 3D integrated circuits for HEP

    SciTech Connect

    Yarema, R.; /Fermilab

    2006-09-01

    Three dimensional integrated circuits are well suited to improving circuit bandwidth and increasing effective circuit density. Recent advances in industry have made 3D integrated circuits an option for HEP. The 3D technology is discussed in this paper and several examples are shown. Design of a 3D demonstrator chip for the ILC is presented.

  3. High-performance, mechanically flexible, and vertically integrated 3D carbon nanotube and InGaZnO complementary circuits with a temperature sensor.

    PubMed

    Honda, Wataru; Harada, Shingo; Ishida, Shohei; Arie, Takayuki; Akita, Seiji; Takei, Kuniharu

    2015-08-26

    A vertically integrated inorganic-based flexible complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) inverter with a temperature sensor with a high inverter gain of ≈50 and a low power consumption of <7 nW mm(-1) is demonstrated using a layer-by-layer assembly process. In addition, the negligible influence of the mechanical flexibility on the performance of the CMOS inverter and the temperature dependence of the CMOS inverter characteristics are discussed.

  4. 3D Printing of Shape Memory Polymers for Flexible Electronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Zarek, Matt; Layani, Michael; Cooperstein, Ido; Sachyani, Ela; Cohn, Daniel; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2016-06-01

    The formation of 3D objects composed of shape memory polymers for flexible electronics is described. Layer-by-layer photopolymerization of methacrylated semicrystalline molten macromonomers by a 3D digital light processing printer enables rapid fabrication of complex objects and imparts shape memory functionality for electrical circuits.

  5. 3D Printing: 3D Printing of Shape Memory Polymers for Flexible Electronic Devices (Adv. Mater. 22/2016).

    PubMed

    Zarek, Matt; Layani, Michael; Cooperstein, Ido; Sachyani, Ela; Cohn, Daniel; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2016-06-01

    On page 4449, D. Cohn, S. Magdassi, and co-workers describe a general and facile method based on 3D printing of methacrylated macromonomers to fabricate shape-memory objects that can be used in flexible and responsive electrical circuits. Such responsive objects can be used in the fabrication of soft robotics, minimal invasive medical devices, sensors, and wearable electronics. The use of 3D printing overcomes the poor processing characteristics of thermosets and enables complex geometries that are not easily accessible by other techniques.

  6. Multifunctional, Highly Flexible, Free-Standing 3D Polypyrrole Foam.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunhui; Ding, Yujie; Yuan, Ye; Cao, Anyuan; He, Xiaodong; Peng, Qingyu; Li, Yibin

    2016-08-01

    Multifunctional, highly flexible 3D polypyrrole (PPy) foam is fabricated via a simple electrodeposition method by using nickel foam as the template. The 3D PPy foam has a unique interior structure and is robust enough to manipulate directly. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Radiation Effects in 3D Integrated SOl SRAM Circuits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-23

    Comparing Neutrons and Protons Data Monoenergetic neutrons and protons are used to characterize single event effects in electronics circuits, and are...for proton irradiation with energies between 4.8 and 500 MeV. Results are compared with 14-MeV neutron irradiation. Single event upset cross-section...fabricating circuits for space applications. singIe event effects, SOl, fully depleted, 3D integration, neutron , protons, upset cross-section U U U U SAR

  8. Flexible Piezoresistive Sensors Embedded in 3D Printed Tires.

    PubMed

    Emon, Md Omar Faruk; Choi, Jae-Won

    2017-03-22

    In this article, we report the development of a flexible, 3D printable piezoresistive pressure sensor capable of measuring force and detecting the location of the force. The multilayer sensor comprises of an ionic liquid-based piezoresistive intermediate layer in between carbon nanotube (CNT)-based stretchable electrodes. A sensor containing an array of different sensing units was embedded on the inner liner surface of a 3D printed tire to provide with force information at different points of contact between the tire and road. Four scaled tires, as well as wheels, were 3D printed using a flexible and a rigid material, respectively, which were later assembled with a 3D-printed chassis. Only one tire was equipped with a sensor and the chassis was driven through a motorized linear stage at different speeds and load conditions to evaluate the sensor performance. The sensor was fabricated via molding and screen printing processes using a commercially available 3D-printable photopolymer as 3D printing is our target manufacturing technique to fabricate the entire tire assembly with the sensor. Results show that the proposed sensors, inserted in the 3D printed tire assembly, could detect forces, as well as their locations, properly.

  9. Flexible Piezoresistive Sensors Embedded in 3D Printed Tires

    PubMed Central

    Emon, Md Omar Faruk; Choi, Jae-Won

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we report the development of a flexible, 3D printable piezoresistive pressure sensor capable of measuring force and detecting the location of the force. The multilayer sensor comprises of an ionic liquid-based piezoresistive intermediate layer in between carbon nanotube (CNT)-based stretchable electrodes. A sensor containing an array of different sensing units was embedded on the inner liner surface of a 3D printed tire to provide with force information at different points of contact between the tire and road. Four scaled tires, as well as wheels, were 3D printed using a flexible and a rigid material, respectively, which were later assembled with a 3D-printed chassis. Only one tire was equipped with a sensor and the chassis was driven through a motorized linear stage at different speeds and load conditions to evaluate the sensor performance. The sensor was fabricated via molding and screen printing processes using a commercially available 3D-printable photopolymer as 3D printing is our target manufacturing technique to fabricate the entire tire assembly with the sensor. Results show that the proposed sensors, inserted in the 3D printed tire assembly, could detect forces, as well as their locations, properly. PMID:28327533

  10. Engineering-Aligned 3D Neural Circuit in Microfluidic Device.

    PubMed

    Bang, Seokyoung; Na, Sangcheol; Jang, Jae Myung; Kim, Jinhyun; Jeon, Noo Li

    2016-01-07

    The brain is one of the most important and complex organs in the human body. Although various neural network models have been proposed for in vitro 3D neuronal networks, it has been difficult to mimic functional and structural complexity of the in vitro neural circuit. Here, a microfluidic model of a simplified 3D neural circuit is reported. First, the microfluidic device is filled with Matrigel and continuous flow is delivered across the device during gelation. The fluidic flow aligns the extracellular matrix (ECM) components along the flow direction. Following the alignment of ECM fibers, neurites of primary rat cortical neurons are grown into the Matrigel at the average speed of 250 μm d(-1) and form axon bundles approximately 1500 μm in length at 6 days in vitro (DIV). Additionally, neural networks are developed from presynaptic to postsynaptic neurons at 14 DIV. The establishment of aligned 3D neural circuits is confirmed with the immunostaining of PSD-95 and synaptophysin and the observation of calcium signal transmission.

  11. Flexible phosphorene devices and circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Weinan; Yogeesh, Maruthi N.; Akinwande, Deji

    2015-05-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors with high carrier mobilities and sizeable bandgap are desirable for future high-speed and low power mechanically flexible nanoelectronics. In this work, we report encapsulated bottom-gated black phosphorus (BP) field-effect transistors (FETs) on flexible polyimide affording maximum carrier mobility of about 310cm2/V•s and current on/off ratio exceeding 103. Essential circuits of flexible electronic systems enabled by the device ambipolar functionality, high-mobility and current saturation are demonstrated in this work, including digital inverter, frequency doubler, and analog amplifiers featuring a voltage gain of ~8.7, which is the state-of-the-art value for flexible 2D semiconductor based amplifiers. In addition, we demonstrate the single FET based flexible BP amplitude-modulated (AM) demodulator, an active stage in radio receivers.

  12. 3D vision assisted flexible robotic assembly of machine components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogun, Philips S.; Usman, Zahid; Dharmaraj, Karthick; Jackson, Michael R.

    2015-12-01

    Robotic assembly systems either make use of expensive fixtures to hold components in predefined locations, or the poses of the components are determined using various machine vision techniques. Vision-guided assembly robots can handle subtle variations in geometries and poses of parts. Therefore, they provide greater flexibility than the use of fixtures. However, the currently established vision-guided assembly systems use 2D vision, which is limited to three degrees of freedom. The work reported in this paper is focused on flexible automated assembly of clearance fit machine components using 3D vision. The recognition and the estimation of the poses of the components are achieved by matching their CAD models with the acquired point cloud data of the scene. Experimental results obtained from a robot demonstrating the assembly of a set of rings on a shaft show that the developed system is not only reliable and accurate, but also fast enough for industrial deployment.

  13. Flexible 3D pharmacophores as descriptors of dynamic biological space.

    PubMed

    Nettles, James H; Jenkins, Jeremy L; Williams, Chris; Clark, Alex M; Bender, Andreas; Deng, Zhan; Davies, John W; Glick, Meir

    2007-10-01

    Development of a pharmacophore hypothesis related to small-molecule activity is pivotal to chemical optimization of a series, since it defines features beneficial or detrimental to activity. Although crystal structures may provide detailed 3D interaction information for one molecule with its receptor, docking a different ligand to that model often leads to unreliable results due to protein flexibility. Graham Richards' lab was one of the first groups to utilize "fuzzy" pattern recognition algorithms taken from the field of image processing to solve problems in protein modeling. Thus, descriptor "fuzziness" was partly able to emulate conformational flexibility of the target while simultaneously enhancing the speed of the search. In this work, we extend these developments to a ligand-based method for describing and aligning molecules in flexible chemical space termed FEature POint PharmacophoreS (FEPOPS), which allows exploration of dynamic biological space. We develop a novel, combinatorial algorithm for molecular comparisons and evaluate it using the WOMBAT dataset. The new approach shows superior retrospective virtual screening performance than earlier shape-based or charge-based algorithms. Additionally, we use target prediction to evaluate how FEPOPS alignments match the molecules biological activity by identifying the atoms and features that make the key contributions to overall chemical similarity. Overall, we find that FEPOPS are sufficiently fuzzy and flexible to find not only new ligand scaffolds, but also challenging molecules that occupy different conformational states of dynamic biological space as from induced fits.

  14. 3D flexible water channel: stretchability of nanoscale water bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jige; Wang, Chunlei; Wei, Ning; Wan, Rongzheng; Gao, Yi

    2016-03-01

    Artificial water channels can contribute to a better understanding of natural water channels and offer a highly selective, advanced conductance system. Most studies use nanotubes, however it is difficult to fabricate a flexible structure, and the nanosized diameter brings nanoconfinement effects, and nanotube toxicity arouses biosafety concerns. In this paper, we use an electric field to restrain the water molecules to form a nanoscale water bridge as an artificial water channel to connect a separated solid plate by molecular dynamics simulations. We observe strong 3D flexible stretchability in the water bridge, maintaining a variable length and an arbitrary angle for a considerably long time. The stretching of the water bridge enables it to be polarized at an arbitrary angle and the stretchability is linearly dependent upon the polarization strength. More interestingly, we show the possibility of establishing complex water networks, e.g., triangle, rectangle, hexagon, and tetrahedron-tetrahedron water networks. Our results may help realize structurally flexible and environmentally friendly water channels for lab-on-a-chip applications in nanofluidics.Artificial water channels can contribute to a better understanding of natural water channels and offer a highly selective, advanced conductance system. Most studies use nanotubes, however it is difficult to fabricate a flexible structure, and the nanosized diameter brings nanoconfinement effects, and nanotube toxicity arouses biosafety concerns. In this paper, we use an electric field to restrain the water molecules to form a nanoscale water bridge as an artificial water channel to connect a separated solid plate by molecular dynamics simulations. We observe strong 3D flexible stretchability in the water bridge, maintaining a variable length and an arbitrary angle for a considerably long time. The stretching of the water bridge enables it to be polarized at an arbitrary angle and the stretchability is linearly

  15. Cholinergic circuits in cognitive flexibility.

    PubMed

    Prado, Vania F; Janickova, Helena; Al-Onaizi, Mohammed A; Prado, Marco A M

    2017-03-14

    Cognitive flexibility, the ability to adjust behavior in response to new and unexpected conditions in the environment, is essential for adaptation to new challenges and survival. The cholinergic system is an important modulator of this complex behavior however, the exact cholinergic circuits involved in this modulation and the precise influence of acetylcholine (ACh) in the process is still not fully understood. Here we review the role of different cholinergic circuits in cognitive flexibility. Strong evidence indicates that cholinergic interneurons (CINs) from the dorsomedial striatum are essential for facilitating the establishment of a new selected strategy; an effect that seems to depend mainly on activation of muscarinic receptors. Cholinergic neurons from the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (nBM), which project to the prefrontal cortex, seem to modulate the initial inhibition of a previously learned strategy, however, this concept is still controversial. Additionally, some studies suggest that basal forebrain cholinergic neurons projecting to the hippocampus, basolateral amygdala, and posterior parietal cortex may also participate on the modulation of cognitive flexibility. We highlight the fact that when investigating effects of ACh on behavioral flexibility, or any other behavior, one has to keep in mind two important particularities of the cholinergic system: (1) Many cholinergic neurons in the brain co-release glutamate or GABA with ACh. Methodologies that rely on neuronal silencing or ablation lead to simultaneous elimination of both neurotransmitters, making interpretation of results complex. (2) The cholinergic gene locus has a unique organization, with the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) gene present within the intron between the first and second exons of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) gene. Thus, behavioral studies using transgenic animals generated with ChAT bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones should be considered

  16. A flexible fast 3D profilometry based on modulation measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Yunfu; Su, Xianyu; Chen, Yanfei; Wang, Ying

    2011-03-01

    This paper proposes a flexible fast profilometry based on modulation measurement. Two orthogonal gratings through a beam splitter are vertically projected on an object surface, and the measured object is placed between the imaging planes of the two gratings. Then the image of the object surface modulated by the orthogonal gratings can be obtained by a CCD camera in the same direction as the grating projection. This image is processed by the operations consisting of performing the Fourier transform, spatial frequency filtering and inverse Fourier transform. Using the modulation distributions of two grating patterns, we can reconstruct the 3D shape of the object. In the measurement process, we only need to capture one fringe pattern, so it is faster than the MMP and remains the advantages of it. In the article, the principle of this method, the setup of the measurement system, some simulations and primary experiment results are given. The simulative and experimental result proves it can restore the 3D shape of the complex object fast and comparatively accurate. Because only one fringe pattern is needed in the testing, our method has a promising extensive application prospect in real-time acquiring and dynamic measurement of 3D data of complex objects.

  17. SurfCuit: Surface-Mounted Circuits on 3D Prints.

    PubMed

    Umetani, Nobuyuki; Schmidt, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    The SurfCuit system integrates circuits into 3D prints by mounting them on the printed surface. SurfCuit does not require tedious circuit casing design or expensive setups, allowing users to build complex, highly conductive circuit patterns for consumer-level desktop fused decomposition modeling (FDM) 3D printers and thus expediting the process of circuit construction for 3D models.https://extras.computer.org/extra/mcg2017030052s1.mp4.

  18. 2D and 3D heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    2014-03-01

    Exponential increases in the amount of data that need to be sensed, communicated, and processed are continuing to drive the complexity of our computing, networking, and sensing systems. High degrees of integration is essential in scalable, practical, and cost-effective microsystems. In electronics, high-density 2D integration has naturally evolved towards 3D integration by stacking of memory and processor chips with through-silicon-vias. In photonics, too, we anticipate highdegrees of 3D integration of photonic components to become a prevailing method in realizing future microsystems for information and communication technologies. However, compared to electronics, photonic 3D integration face a number of challenges. This paper will review two methods of 3D photonic integration --- fs laser inscription and layer stacking, and discuss applications and future prospects.

  19. 3D atlas of brain connections and functional circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jinghong; Nowinski, Wieslaw L.; Fock, Loe K.; Dow, Douglas E.; Chuan, Teh H.

    1997-05-01

    This work aims at the construction of an extendable brain atlas system which contains: (i) 3D models of cortical and subcortical structures along with their connections; (ii) visualization and exploration tools; and (iii) structures and connections editors. A 3D version of the Talairach- Tournoux brain atlas along with 3D Brodmann's areas are developed, co-registered, and placed in the Talairach stereotactic space. The initial built-in connections are thalamocortical ones. The structures and connections editors are provided to allow the user to add and modify cerebral structures and connections. Visualization and explorations tools are developed with four ways of exploring the brain connections model: composition, interrogation, navigation and diagnostic queries. The atlas is designed as an open system which can be extended independently in other centers according to their needs and discoveries.

  20. Zipper Connectors for Flexible Electronic Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Kevin N.

    2003-01-01

    Devices that look and function much like conventional zippers on clothing have been proposed as connectors for flexible electronic circuits. Heretofore, flexible electronic circuits have commonly included rigid connectors like those of conventional rigid electronic circuits. The proposed zipper connectors would make it possible to connect and disconnect flexible circuits quickly and easily. Moreover, the flexibility of zipper connectors would make them more (relative to rigid connectors) compatible with flexible circuits, so that the advantages of flexible circuitry could be realized more fully. Like a conventional zipper, a zipper according to the proposal would include teeth anchored on flexible tapes, a slider with a loosely attached clasp, a box at one end of the rows of mating teeth, and stops at the opposite ends. The tapes would be made of a plastic or other dielectric material. On each of the two mating sides of the zipper, metal teeth would alternate with dielectric (plastic) teeth, there being two metal teeth for each plastic one. When the zipper was closed, each metal tooth from one side would be in mechanical and electrical contact with a designated metal tooth from the other side, and these mating metal teeth would be electrically insulated from the next pair of mating metal teeth by an intervening plastic tooth. The metal teeth would be soldered or crimped to copper tabs. Wires or other conductors connected to electronic circuits would be soldered or crimped to the ends of the tabs opposite the teeth.

  1. Lightning Modelling: From 3D to Circuit Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, H.; Abdi, M.; Issac, F.; Prost, D.

    2012-05-01

    The topic of this study is electromagnetic environment and electromagnetic interferences (EMI) effects, specifically the modelling of lightning indirect effects [1] on aircraft electrical systems present on deported and highly exposed equipments, such as nose landing gear (NLG) and nacelle, through a circuit approach. The main goal of the presented work, funded by a French national project: PREFACE, is to propose a simple equivalent electrical circuit to represent a geometrical structure, taking into account mutual, self inductances, and resistances, which play a fundamental role in the lightning current distribution. Then this model is intended to be coupled to a functional one, describing a power train chain composed of: a converter, a shielded power harness and a motor or a set of resistors used as a load for the converter. The novelty here, is to provide a pre-sizing qualitative approach allowing playing on integration in pre-design phases. This tool intends to offer a user-friendly way for replying rapidly to calls for tender, taking into account the lightning constraints. Two cases are analysed: first, a NLG that is composed of tubular pieces that can be easily approximated by equivalent cylindrical straight conductors. Therefore, passive R, L, M elements of the structure can be extracted through analytical engineer formulas such as those implemented in the partial element equivalent circuit (PEEC) [2] technique. Second, the same approach is intended to be applied on an electrical de-icing nacelle sub-system.

  2. Direct Desktop Printed-Circuits-on-Paper Flexible Electronics

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yi; He, Zhizhu; Gao, Yunxia; Liu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    There currently lacks of a way to directly write out electronics, just like printing pictures on paper by an office printer. Here we show a desktop printing of flexible circuits on paper via developing liquid metal ink and related working mechanisms. Through modifying adhesion of the ink, overcoming its high surface tension by dispensing machine and designing a brush like porous pinhead for printing alloy and identifying matched substrate materials among different papers, the slightly oxidized alloy ink was demonstrated to be flexibly printed on coated paper, which could compose various functional electronics and the concept of Printed-Circuits-on-Paper was thus presented. Further, RTV silicone rubber was adopted as isolating inks and packaging material to guarantee the functional stability of the circuit, which suggests an approach for printing 3D hybrid electro-mechanical device. The present work paved the way for a low cost and easygoing method in directly printing paper electronics.

  3. Direct Desktop Printed-Circuits-on-Paper Flexible Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi; He, Zhizhu; Gao, Yunxia; Liu, Jing

    2013-05-01

    There currently lacks of a way to directly write out electronics, just like printing pictures on paper by an office printer. Here we show a desktop printing of flexible circuits on paper via developing liquid metal ink and related working mechanisms. Through modifying adhesion of the ink, overcoming its high surface tension by dispensing machine and designing a brush like porous pinhead for printing alloy and identifying matched substrate materials among different papers, the slightly oxidized alloy ink was demonstrated to be flexibly printed on coated paper, which could compose various functional electronics and the concept of Printed-Circuits-on-Paper was thus presented. Further, RTV silicone rubber was adopted as isolating inks and packaging material to guarantee the functional stability of the circuit, which suggests an approach for printing 3D hybrid electro-mechanical device. The present work paved the way for a low cost and easygoing method in directly printing paper electronics.

  4. Tunable quantum interference in a 3D integrated circuit

    PubMed Central

    Chaboyer, Zachary; Meany, Thomas; Helt, L. G.; Withford, Michael J.; Steel, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated photonics promises solutions to questions of stability, complexity, and size in quantum optics. Advances in tunable and non-planar integrated platforms, such as laser-inscribed photonics, continue to bring the realisation of quantum advantages in computation and metrology ever closer, perhaps most easily seen in multi-path interferometry. Here we demonstrate control of two-photon interference in a chip-scale 3D multi-path interferometer, showing a reduced periodicity and enhanced visibility compared to single photon measurements. Observed non-classical visibilities are widely tunable, and explained well by theoretical predictions based on classical measurements. With these predictions we extract Fisher information approaching a theoretical maximum. Our results open a path to quantum enhanced phase measurements. PMID:25915830

  5. Tunable quantum interference in a 3D integrated circuit.

    PubMed

    Chaboyer, Zachary; Meany, Thomas; Helt, L G; Withford, Michael J; Steel, M J

    2015-04-27

    Integrated photonics promises solutions to questions of stability, complexity, and size in quantum optics. Advances in tunable and non-planar integrated platforms, such as laser-inscribed photonics, continue to bring the realisation of quantum advantages in computation and metrology ever closer, perhaps most easily seen in multi-path interferometry. Here we demonstrate control of two-photon interference in a chip-scale 3D multi-path interferometer, showing a reduced periodicity and enhanced visibility compared to single photon measurements. Observed non-classical visibilities are widely tunable, and explained well by theoretical predictions based on classical measurements. With these predictions we extract Fisher information approaching a theoretical maximum. Our results open a path to quantum enhanced phase measurements.

  6. Flexible composite film for printed circuit board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yabe, K.; Asakura, M.; Tanaka, H.; Soda, A.

    1982-01-01

    A flexible printed circuit for a printed circuit board in which layers of reaction product composed of a combination of phenoxy resin - polyisocyanate - brominated epoxy resin, and in which the equivalent ratio of those functional groups is hydroxyl group: isocyanate group: epoxy group - 1 : 0.2 to 2 : 0.5 to 3 are laminated on at least one side of saturated polyester film is discussed.

  7. Tool for Crimping Flexible Circuit Leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulse, Aaron; Diftler, Myron A.

    2009-01-01

    A hand tool has been developed for crimping leads in flexible tails that are parts of some electronic circuits -- especially some sensor circuits. The tool is used to cut the tails to desired lengths and attach solder tabs to the leads. For tailoring small numbers of circuits for special applications, this hand tool is a less expensive alternative to a commercially available automated crimping tool. The crimping tool consists of an off-the-shelf hand crimping tool plus a specialized crimping insert designed specifically for the intended application.

  8. Laser patterning of highly conductive flexible circuits.

    PubMed

    Ji, Seok Young; Ajmal, C Muhammed; Kim, Taehun; Chang, Won Seok; Baik, Seunghyun

    2017-04-21

    There has been considerable attention paid to highly conductive flexible adhesive (CFA) materials as electrodes and interconnectors for future flexible electronic devices. However, the patterning technology still needs to be developed to construct micro-scale electrodes and circuits. Here we developed the selective laser sintering technology where the pattering and curing were accomplished simultaneously without making additional masks. The CFA was composed of micro-scale Ag flakes, multiwalled carbon nanotubes decorated with Ag nanoparticles, and a nitrile-butadiene-rubber matrix. The Teflon-coated polyethylene terephthalate film was used as a flexible substrate. The width of lines (50-500 μm) and circuit patterns were controlled by the programmable scanning of a focused laser beam (power = 50 mW, scanning speed = 1 mm s(-1)). The laser irradiation removed solvent and induced effective coalescence among fillers providing a conductivity as high as 25 012 S cm(-1). The conductivity stability was excellent under the ambient air and humid environments. The normalized resistance change of the pattern was smaller than 1.2 at the bending radius of 5 mm. The cyclability and adhesion of the laser-sintered line pattern on the substrate was excellent. A flexible circuit was fabricated sequentially for operating light emitting diodes during the bending motion, demonstrating excellent feasibility for practical applications in flexible electronics.

  9. Laser patterning of highly conductive flexible circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Seok Young; Muhammed Ajmal, C.; Kim, Taehun; Chang, Won Seok; Baik, Seunghyun

    2017-04-01

    There has been considerable attention paid to highly conductive flexible adhesive (CFA) materials as electrodes and interconnectors for future flexible electronic devices. However, the patterning technology still needs to be developed to construct micro-scale electrodes and circuits. Here we developed the selective laser sintering technology where the pattering and curing were accomplished simultaneously without making additional masks. The CFA was composed of micro-scale Ag flakes, multiwalled carbon nanotubes decorated with Ag nanoparticles, and a nitrile-butadiene-rubber matrix. The Teflon-coated polyethylene terephthalate film was used as a flexible substrate. The width of lines (50-500 μm) and circuit patterns were controlled by the programmable scanning of a focused laser beam (power = 50 mW, scanning speed = 1 mm s-1). The laser irradiation removed solvent and induced effective coalescence among fillers providing a conductivity as high as 25 012 S cm-1. The conductivity stability was excellent under the ambient air and humid environments. The normalized resistance change of the pattern was smaller than 1.2 at the bending radius of 5 mm. The cyclability and adhesion of the laser-sintered line pattern on the substrate was excellent. A flexible circuit was fabricated sequentially for operating light emitting diodes during the bending motion, demonstrating excellent feasibility for practical applications in flexible electronics.

  10. Hard and flexible optical printed circuit board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, El-Hang; Lee, Hyun Sik; Lee, S. G.; O, B. H.; Park, S. G.; Kim, K. H.

    2007-02-01

    We report on the design and fabrication of hard and flexible optical printed circuit boards (O-PCBs). The objective is to realize generic and application-specific O-PCBs, either in hard form or flexible form, that are compact, light-weight, low-energy, high-speed, intelligent, and environmentally friendly, for low-cost and high-volume universal applications. The O-PCBs consist of 2-dimensional planar arrays of micro/nano-scale optical wires, circuits and devices that are interconnected and integrated to perform the functions of sensing, storing, transporting, processing, switching, routing and distributing optical signals on flat modular boards. For fabrication, the polymer and organic optical wires and waveguides are first fabricated on a board and are used to interconnect and integrate micro/nano-scale photonic devices. The micro/nano-optical functional devices include lasers, detectors, switches, sensors, directional couplers, multi-mode interference devices, ring-resonators, photonic crystal devices, plasmonic devices, and quantum devices. For flexible boards, the optical waveguide arrays are fabricated on flexible poly-ethylen terephthalate (PET) substrates by UV embossing. Electrical layer carrying VCSEL and PD array is laminated with the optical layer carrying waveguide arrays. Both hard and flexible electrical lines are replaced with high speed optical interconnection between chips over four waveguide channels up to 10Gbps on each. We discuss uses of hard or flexible O-PCBs for telecommunication systems, computer systems, transportation systems, space/avionic systems, and bio-sensor systems.

  11. IR Sensor Synchronizing Active Shutter Glasses for 3D HDTV with Flexible Liquid Crystal Lenses

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jeong In

    2013-01-01

    IR sensor synchronizing active shutter glasses for three-dimensional high definition television (3D HDTV) were developed using a flexible liquid crystal (FLC) lens. The FLC lens was made on a polycarbonate (PC) substrate using conventional liquid crystal display (LCD) processes. The flexible liquid crystal lens displayed a maximum transmission of 32% and total response time of 2.56 ms. The transmittance, the contrast ratio and the response time of the flexible liquid crystal lens were superior to those of glass liquid crystal lenses. Microcontroller unit and drivers were developed as part of a reception module with power supply for the IR sensor synchronizing active shutter glasses with the flexible liquid crystal lens prototypes. IR sensor synchronizing active shutter glasses for 3D HDTV with flexible liquid crystal lenses produced excellent 3D images viewing characteristics.

  12. Dielectric Spectroscopic Detection of Early Failures in 3-D Integrated Circuits.

    PubMed

    Obeng, Yaw; Okoro, C A; Ahn, Jung-Joon; You, Lin; Kopanski, Joseph J

    The commercial introduction of three dimensional integrated circuits (3D-ICs) has been hindered by reliability challenges, such as stress related failures, resistivity changes, and unexplained early failures. In this paper, we discuss a new RF-based metrology, based on dielectric spectroscopy, for detecting and characterizing electrically active defects in fully integrated 3D devices. These defects are traceable to the chemistry of the insolation dielectrics used in the through silicon via (TSV) construction. We show that these defects may be responsible for some of the unexplained early reliability failures observed in TSV enabled 3D devices.

  13. Dielectric Spectroscopic Detection of Early Failures in 3-D Integrated Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Okoro, C. A.; Ahn, Jung-Joon; You, Lin; Kopanski, Joseph J.

    2015-01-01

    The commercial introduction of three dimensional integrated circuits (3D-ICs) has been hindered by reliability challenges, such as stress related failures, resistivity changes, and unexplained early failures. In this paper, we discuss a new RF-based metrology, based on dielectric spectroscopy, for detecting and characterizing electrically active defects in fully integrated 3D devices. These defects are traceable to the chemistry of the insolation dielectrics used in the through silicon via (TSV) construction. We show that these defects may be responsible for some of the unexplained early reliability failures observed in TSV enabled 3D devices. PMID:26664695

  14. Development of Flexible Multilayer Circuits and Cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Kevin N.; Bryant, Robert; Holloway, Nancy; Draughon, Fred

    2005-01-01

    A continuing program addresses the development of flexible multilayer electronic circuits and associated flexible cables. This development is undertaken to help satisfy aerospace-system-engineering requirements for efficient, lightweight electrical and electronic subsystems that can fit within confined spaces, adhere to complexly shaped surfaces, and can be embedded within composite materials. Heretofore, substrate layers for commercial flexible circuitry have been made from sheets of Kapton (or equivalent) polyimide and have been bonded to copper conductors and to other substrate layers by means of adhesives. The substrates for the present developmental flexible circuitry are made from thin films of a polyimide known as LaRC(TM)-SI. This polyimide is thermoplastic and, therefore, offers the potential to eliminate delamination and the need for adhesives. The development work undertaken thus far includes experiments in the use of several techniques of design and fabrication (including computer-aided design and fabrication) of representative flexible circuits. Anticipated future efforts would focus on multilayer bonding, fabrication of prototypes, and overcoming limitations.

  15. Heterogeneous 3D IC Stacking Using Ultra-Dense Mechanically Flexible Interconnects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-31

    presents gold passivated dense NiW mechanically flexible interconnects (MFIs) for advanced 3D heterogeneous IC integration. The MFIs are fabricated...Mechanically flexible interconnect mold patterning G. Mechanically flexible interconnect electroplating and releasing H. Electroless gold plating...sequence leaving free-standing MFIs. Finally, the MFIs on the test chip are passivated by electroless gold plating. Fig. 3 shows SEM images of high

  16. A multiply-add engine with monolithically integrated 3D memristor crossbar/CMOS hybrid circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, B.; Lastras-Montaño, M. A.; Adam, G.; Prezioso, M.; Hoskins, B.; Cheng, K.-T.; Strukov, D. B.

    2017-02-01

    Silicon (Si) based complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology has been the driving force of the information-technology revolution. However, scaling of CMOS technology as per Moore’s law has reached a serious bottleneck. Among the emerging technologies memristive devices can be promising for both memory as well as computing applications. Hybrid CMOS/memristor circuits with CMOL (CMOS + “Molecular”) architecture have been proposed to combine the extremely high density of the memristive devices with the robustness of CMOS technology, leading to terabit-scale memory and extremely efficient computing paradigm. In this work, we demonstrate a hybrid 3D CMOL circuit with 2 layers of memristive crossbars monolithically integrated on a pre-fabricated CMOS substrate. The integrated crossbars can be fully operated through the underlying CMOS circuitry. The memristive devices in both layers exhibit analog switching behavior with controlled tunability and stable multi-level operation. We perform dot-product operations with the 2D and 3D memristive crossbars to demonstrate the applicability of such 3D CMOL hybrid circuits as a multiply-add engine. To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of a functional 3D CMOL hybrid circuit.

  17. A multiply-add engine with monolithically integrated 3D memristor crossbar/CMOS hybrid circuit.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, B; Lastras-Montaño, M A; Adam, G; Prezioso, M; Hoskins, B; Payvand, M; Madhavan, A; Ghofrani, A; Theogarajan, L; Cheng, K-T; Strukov, D B

    2017-02-14

    Silicon (Si) based complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology has been the driving force of the information-technology revolution. However, scaling of CMOS technology as per Moore's law has reached a serious bottleneck. Among the emerging technologies memristive devices can be promising for both memory as well as computing applications. Hybrid CMOS/memristor circuits with CMOL (CMOS + "Molecular") architecture have been proposed to combine the extremely high density of the memristive devices with the robustness of CMOS technology, leading to terabit-scale memory and extremely efficient computing paradigm. In this work, we demonstrate a hybrid 3D CMOL circuit with 2 layers of memristive crossbars monolithically integrated on a pre-fabricated CMOS substrate. The integrated crossbars can be fully operated through the underlying CMOS circuitry. The memristive devices in both layers exhibit analog switching behavior with controlled tunability and stable multi-level operation. We perform dot-product operations with the 2D and 3D memristive crossbars to demonstrate the applicability of such 3D CMOL hybrid circuits as a multiply-add engine. To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of a functional 3D CMOL hybrid circuit.

  18. A multiply-add engine with monolithically integrated 3D memristor crossbar/CMOS hybrid circuit

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, B.; Lastras-Montaño, M. A.; Adam, G.; Prezioso, M.; Hoskins, B.; Cheng, K.-T.; Strukov, D. B.

    2017-01-01

    Silicon (Si) based complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology has been the driving force of the information-technology revolution. However, scaling of CMOS technology as per Moore’s law has reached a serious bottleneck. Among the emerging technologies memristive devices can be promising for both memory as well as computing applications. Hybrid CMOS/memristor circuits with CMOL (CMOS + “Molecular”) architecture have been proposed to combine the extremely high density of the memristive devices with the robustness of CMOS technology, leading to terabit-scale memory and extremely efficient computing paradigm. In this work, we demonstrate a hybrid 3D CMOL circuit with 2 layers of memristive crossbars monolithically integrated on a pre-fabricated CMOS substrate. The integrated crossbars can be fully operated through the underlying CMOS circuitry. The memristive devices in both layers exhibit analog switching behavior with controlled tunability and stable multi-level operation. We perform dot-product operations with the 2D and 3D memristive crossbars to demonstrate the applicability of such 3D CMOL hybrid circuits as a multiply-add engine. To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of a functional 3D CMOL hybrid circuit. PMID:28195239

  19. Fabrication of light, flexible and multifunctional graphene nanoribbon fibers via a 3D solution printing method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingqiang; Zhang, Shuai; Song, Yuanjun; Dong, Jidong; Wei, Huawei; Xie, Huaquan; Fang, Xiaojiao; Shao, Lu; Huang, Yudong; Jiang, Zaixing

    2016-11-18

    Graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs) are one of the most promising carbon based materials. The integration of 2D GONR sheets into macroscopic materials, such as continuous fibers or film, leads the way in translating the good properties of individual GONR sheets into macroscopic and ordered materials for future applications. In this study, we first report the fabrication of GONR fibers utilizing GONR sheets as the raw material without any supporting surfactant or polymer. The method of fabricating fibers is referred to as '3D solution printing'. GONR fibers exhibit good mechanical and electrical properties, whose tensile strength and electrical conductivity could reach up to 95 MPa and 680 S cm(-1), respectively. Hence, the fabricated 3D integrated circuits are lighter and smaller compared to traditional metal circuits, and with high electrical properties. The 3D integrated circuits, therefore, have a bright future prospect.

  20. Fabrication of light, flexible and multifunctional graphene nanoribbon fibers via a 3D solution printing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingqiang; Zhang, Shuai; Song, Yuanjun; Dong, Jidong; Wei, Huawei; Xie, Huaquan; Fang, Xiaojiao; Shao, Lu; Huang, Yudong; Jiang, Zaixing

    2016-11-01

    Graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs) are one of the most promising carbon based materials. The integration of 2D GONR sheets into macroscopic materials, such as continuous fibers or film, leads the way in translating the good properties of individual GONR sheets into macroscopic and ordered materials for future applications. In this study, we first report the fabrication of GONR fibers utilizing GONR sheets as the raw material without any supporting surfactant or polymer. The method of fabricating fibers is referred to as ‘3D solution printing’. GONR fibers exhibit good mechanical and electrical properties, whose tensile strength and electrical conductivity could reach up to 95 MPa and 680 S cm-1, respectively. Hence, the fabricated 3D integrated circuits are lighter and smaller compared to traditional metal circuits, and with high electrical properties. The 3D integrated circuits, therefore, have a bright future prospect.

  1. Flexible and wearable 3D graphene sensor with 141 KHz frequency signal response capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, R.; Zhang, H.; Cai, Y.; Ruan, J.; Qu, K.; Liu, E.; Ni, X.; Lu, M.; Dong, X.

    2017-09-01

    We developed a flexible force sensor consisting of 3D graphene foam (GF) encapsulated in flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Because the 3D GF/PDMS sensor is based on the transformation of an electronic band structure aroused by static mechanical strain or KHz vibration, it can detect frequency signals by both tuning fork tests and piezoelectric ceramic transducer tests, which showed a clear linear response from audio frequencies, including frequencies up to 141 KHz in the ultrasound range. Because of their excellent response with a wide bandwidth, the 3D GF/PDMS sensors are attractive for interactive wearable devices or artificial prosthetics capable of perceiving seismic waves, ultrasonic waves, shock waves, and transient pressures.

  2. A hybrid approach for addressing ring flexibility in 3D database searching.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, J

    1997-01-01

    A hybrid approach for flexible 3D database searching is presented that addresses the problem of ring flexibility. It combines the explicit storage of up to 25 multiple conformations of rings, with up to eight atoms, generated by the 3D structure generator CORINA with the power of a torsional fitting technique implemented in the 3D database system UNITY. A comparison with the original UNITY approach, using a database with about 130,000 entries and five different pharmacophore queries, was performed. The hybrid approach scored, on an average, 10-20% more hits than the reference run. Moreover, specific problems with unrealistic hit geometries produced by the original approach can be excluded. In addition, the influence of the maximum number of ring conformations per molecule was investigated. An optimal number of 10 conformations per molecule is recommended.

  3. Flexible optical wire-bonding for planar lightwave circuits packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panepucci, Roberto R.; Zakariya, Abdullah J.; Liu, Tao

    2007-09-01

    A platform that enables optical coupling from fiber-ribbon connectors to planar lightwave circuits (PLCs) is described. Flexible optical waveguides are used to form a variable length directional coupler that inserts and extracts light from a waveguide located arbitrarily inside the chip. The contact length can be adjusted for optimal coupling allowing manufacturing variation in materials, widths and cladding thicknesses present on a chip. This approach may be ideal for packaging WDM devices as the 3dB bandwidth of the coupling covers the whole 1300 -1700 nm fiber-optic telecommunication range. Coupling length control in the range of 0.05-0.2 μm leads to maximum coupling in excess of 80% for the range of conditions investigated. Simulations of the performance are discussed and initial fabrication and optical coupling results are presented.

  4. Flexible Microstrip Circuits for Superconducting Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chervenak, James; Mateo, Jennette

    2013-01-01

    Flexible circuits with superconducting wiring atop polyimide thin films are being studied to connect large numbers of wires between stages in cryogenic apparatus with low heat load. The feasibility of a full microstrip process, consisting of two layers of superconducting material separated by a thin dielectric layer on 5 mil (approximately 0.13 mm) Kapton sheets, where manageable residual stress remains in the polyimide film after processing, has been demonstrated. The goal is a 2-mil (approximately 0.051-mm) process using spin-on polyimide to take advantage of the smoother polyimide surface for achieving highquality metal films. Integration of microstrip wiring with this polyimide film may require high-temperature bakes to relax the stress in the polyimide film between metallization steps.

  5. Autonomous microfluidic capillaric circuits replicated from 3D-printed molds.

    PubMed

    Olanrewaju, A O; Robillard, A; Dagher, M; Juncker, D

    2016-09-21

    We recently developed capillaric circuits (CCs) - advanced capillary microfluidic devices assembled from capillary fluidic elements in a modular manner similar to the design of electric circuits (Safavieh & Juncker, Lab Chip, 2013, 13, 4180-4189). CCs choreograph liquid delivery operations according to pre-programmed capillary pressure differences with minimal user intervention. CCs were thought to require high-precision micron-scale features manufactured by conventional photolithography, which is slow and expensive. Here we present CCs manufactured rapidly and inexpensively using 3D-printed molds. Molds for CCs were fabricated with a benchtop 3D-printer, poly(dimethylsiloxane) replicas were made, and fluidic functionality was verified with aqueous solutions. We established design rules for CCs by a combination of modelling and experimentation. The functionality and reliability of trigger valves - an essential fluidic element that stops one liquid until flow is triggered by a second liquid - was tested for different geometries and different solutions. Trigger valves with geometries up to 80-fold larger than cleanroom-fabricated ones were found to function reliably. We designed retention burst valves that encode sequential liquid delivery using capillary pressure differences encoded by systematically varied heights and widths. Using an electrical circuit analogue of the CC, we established design rules to ensure strictly sequential liquid delivery. CCs autonomously delivered eight liquids in a pre-determined sequence in <7 min. Taken together, our results demonstrate that 3D-printing lowers the bar for other researchers to access capillary microfluidic valves and CCs for autonomous liquid delivery with applications in diagnostics, research and education.

  6. Measured 3D turbulent mixing in a small-scale circuit breaker model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basse, Nils T.; Kissing, Christopher; Bini, Riccardo

    2011-06-01

    Turbulence plays a key role in several physical processes related to the interruption of current in a gas circuit breaker (GCB). In this paper we study one aspect, namely turbulent gas mixing in the heating volume of a small-scale 3D GCB model. Mixing is observed using a shadowgraphy setup; postprocessing extracts information on the time-varying velocity field. Discharges with two different current amplitudes were studied and their repeatability investigated. A measure of mixing completeness, the largest vortex area, was investigated. The experiments reported upon in this paper were done in air at atmospheric pressure.

  7. Effect of Random Geometric Uncertainty on the Computational Design of a 3-D Flexible Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gumbert, C. R.; Newman, P. A.; Hou, G. J.-W.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of geometric uncertainty due to statistically independent, random, normally distributed shape parameters is demonstrated in the computational design of a 3-D flexible wing. A first-order second-moment statistical approximation method is used to propagate the assumed input uncertainty through coupled Euler CFD aerodynamic / finite element structural codes for both analysis and sensitivity analysis. First-order sensitivity derivatives obtained by automatic differentiation are used in the input uncertainty propagation. These propagated uncertainties are then used to perform a robust design of a simple 3-D flexible wing at supercritical flow conditions. The effect of the random input uncertainties is shown by comparison with conventional deterministic design results. Sample results are shown for wing planform, airfoil section, and structural sizing variables.

  8. A flexible 3D laser scanning system using a robotic arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Zixuan; Zhou, Xiang; Gao, Xiaofei; Zhang, Guanliang

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we present a flexible 3D scanning system based on a MEMS scanner mounted on an industrial arm with a turntable. This system has 7-degrees of freedom and is able to conduct a full field scan from any angle, suitable for scanning object with the complex shape. The existing non-contact 3D scanning system usually uses laser scanner that projects fixed stripe mounted on the Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) or industrial robot. These existing systems can't perform path planning without CAD models. The 3D scanning system presented in this paper can scan the object without CAD models, and we introduced this path planning method in the paper. We also propose a practical approach to calibrating the hand-in-eye system based on binocular stereo vision and analyzes the errors of the hand-eye calibration.

  9. Predicting 3D Structure, Flexibility, and Stability of RNA Hairpins in Monovalent and Divalent Ion Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ya-Zhou; Jin, Lei; Wang, Feng-Hua; Zhu, Xiao-Long; Tan, Zhi-Jie

    2015-01-01

    A full understanding of RNA-mediated biology would require the knowledge of three-dimensional (3D) structures, structural flexibility, and stability of RNAs. To predict RNA 3D structures and stability, we have previously proposed a three-bead coarse-grained predictive model with implicit salt/solvent potentials. In this study, we further develop the model by improving the implicit-salt electrostatic potential and including a sequence-dependent coaxial stacking potential to enable the model to simulate RNA 3D structure folding in divalent/monovalent ion solutions. The model presented here can predict 3D structures of RNA hairpins with bulges/internal loops (<77 nucleotides) from their sequences at the corresponding experimental ion conditions with an overall improved accuracy compared to the experimental data; the model also makes reliable predictions for the flexibility of RNA hairpins with bulge loops of different lengths at several divalent/monovalent ion conditions. In addition, the model successfully predicts the stability of RNA hairpins with various loops/stems in divalent/monovalent ion solutions. PMID:26682822

  10. New 3D structuring process for non-integrated circuit related technologies (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri, Lamia; Possémé, Nicolas; Landis, Stéfan; Milesi, Frédéric; Gaillard, Frédéric-Xavier

    2017-04-01

    Fabrication processes that microelectronic developed for Integrated circuit (IC) technologies for decades, do not meet the new emerging structuration's requirements, in particular non-IC related technologies one, such as MEMS/NEMS, Micro-Fluidics, photovoltaics, lenses. Actually complex 3D structuration requires complex lithography patterning approaches such as gray-scale electron beam lithography, laser ablation, focused ion beam lithography, two photon polymerization. It is now challenging to find cheaper and easiest technique to achieve 3D structures. In this work, we propose a straightforward process to realize 3D structuration, intended for silicon based materials (Si, SiN, SiOCH). This structuration technique is based on nano-imprint lithography (NIL), ion implantation and selective wet etching. In a first step a pattern is performed by lithography on a substrate, then ion implantation is realized through a resist mask in order to create localized modifications in the material, thus the pattern is transferred into the subjacent layer. Finally, after the resist stripping, a selective wet etching is carried out to remove selectively the modified material regarding the non-modified one. In this paper, we will first present results achieved with simple 2D line array pattern processed either on Silicon or SiOCH samples. This step have been carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of this new structuration process. SEM pictures reveals that "infinite" selectivity between the implanted areas versus the non-implanted one could be achieved. We will show that a key combination between the type of implanted ion species and wet etching chemistries is required to obtain such results. The mechanisms understanding involved during both implantation and wet etching processes will also be presented through fine characterizations with Photoluminescence, Raman and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) for silicon samples, and ellipso-porosimetry and Fourier Transform Infra

  11. SOFIA: a flexible source finder for 3D spectral line data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, Paolo; Westmeier, Tobias; Giese, Nadine; Jurek, Russell; Flöer, Lars; Popping, Attila; Winkel, Benjamin; van der Hulst, Thijs; Meyer, Martin; Koribalski, Bärbel S.; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Courtois, Hélène

    2015-04-01

    We introduce SOFIA, a flexible software application for the detection and parametrization of sources in 3D spectral line data sets. SOFIA combines for the first time in a single piece of software a set of new source-finding and parametrization algorithms developed on the way to future H I surveys with ASKAP (WALLABY, DINGO) and APERTIF. It is designed to enable the general use of these new algorithms by the community on a broad range of data sets. The key advantages of SOFIA are the ability to: search for line emission on multiple scales to detect 3D sources in a complete and reliable way, taking into account noise level variations and the presence of artefacts in a data cube; estimate the reliability of individual detections; look for signal in arbitrarily large data cubes using a catalogue of 3D coordinates as a prior; provide a wide range of source parameters and output products which facilitate further analysis by the user. We highlight the modularity of SOFIA, which makes it a flexible package allowing users to select and apply only the algorithms useful for their data and science questions. This modularity makes it also possible to easily expand SOFIA in order to include additional methods as they become available. The full SOFIA distribution, including a dedicated graphical user interface, is publicly available for download.

  12. 3D flexible NiTi-braided elastomer composites for smart structure applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, L.; Vokoun, D.; Šittner, P.; Finckh, H.

    2012-04-01

    While outstanding functional properties of thin NiTi wires are nowadays well recognized and beneficially utilized in medical NiTi devices, development of 2D/3D wire structures made out of these NiTi wires remains challenging and mostly unexplored. The research is driven by the idea of creating novel 2D/3D smart structures which inherit the functional properties of NiTi wires and actively utilize geometrical deformations within the structure to create new/improved functional properties. Generally, textile technology provides attractive processing methods for manufacturing 2D/3D smart structures made out of NiTi wires. Such structures may be beneficially combined with soft elastomers to create smart deformable composites. Following this route, we carried out experimental work focused on development of 3D flexible NiTi-braided elastomer composites involving their design, laboratory manufacture and thermomechanical testing. We describe the manufacturing technology and structural properties of these composites; and perform thermomechanical tests on the composites, focusing particularly on quasistatic tensile properties, energy absorption, damping and actuation under tensile loading. Functional thermomechanical properties of the composites are discussed with regard to the mechanical properties of the components and architecture of the composites. It is found that the composites indeed inherit all important features of the thermomechanical behavior of NiTi wires but, due to their internal architecture, outperform single NiTi wires in some features such as the magnitude of recoverable strain, superelastic damping capacity and thermally induced actuation strain.

  13. Flexible drift-compensation system for precise 3D force mapping in severe drift environments

    SciTech Connect

    Rahe, Philipp; Schuette, Jens; Kuehnle, Angelika; Schniederberend, Werner; Reichling, Michael; Abe, Masayuki; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki

    2011-06-15

    The acquisition of dense 3D data sets is of great importance, but also a challenge for scanning probe microscopy (SPM). Thermal drift often induces severe distortions in the data, which usually constrains the acquisition of dense data sets to experiments under ultra-high vacuum and low-temperature conditions. Atom tracking is an elegant approach to compensate for thermal drift and to position the microscope tip with highest precision. Here, we present a flexible drift compensation system which can easily be connected to existing SPM hardware. Furthermore, we describe a 3D data acquisition and position correction protocol, which is capable of handling large and non-linear drift as typically present in room temperature measurements. This protocol is based on atom-tracking for precise positioning of the tip and we are able to acquire dense 3D data sets over several hours at room temperature. The performance of the protocol is demonstrated by presenting 3D data taken on a CaCO{sub 3}(1014) surface with the data density being as large as 85x85x500 pixel.

  14. Flexible fabrication of multi-scale integrated 3D periodic nanostructures with phase mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Liang Leon

    designed with isotropic properties attractive for generating a complete photonic band gap (PBG). An isolation layer was used between adjacent polymer layers to offer a reversal coating for sample preparation of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging and top surface planarization. Electron beam lithography has been employed to fabricate a multi-level nano-grating phase mask that produces a diamond-like 3D nanostructure via phase mask lithography, promising for creating photonic crystal (PC) templates that can be inverted with high-index materials and form a complete PBG at telecommunication wavelengths. A laser scanning holographic method for 3D exposure in thick photoresist is introduced that combines the unique advantages of large area 3D holographic interference lithography (HIL) with the flexible patterning of laser direct writing to form both micro- and nano-structures in a single exposure step. Phase mask interference patterns accumulated over multiple overlapping scans are shown to stitch seamlessly and form highly uniform 3D nanostructure with beam size scaled to small 200 microm diameter. Further direct-write holography demonstrates monolithical writing of multi-scale lab-on-a-chip with multiple functionalities including on-chip integrated fluorescence. Various 3D periodic nanostructures are demonstrated over a 15 mmx15 mm area, through full 40 microm photoresist thickness and with uniform structural and optical properties revealed by focused ion beam (FIB) milling, SEM imaging and stopband measures. The lateral and axial periods scale from respective 1500 nm to 570 nm and 9.2 microm to 1.2 microm to offer a Gamma-Z stopband at 1.5 microm. Overall, laser scanning is presented as a facile means to embed 3D PC nanostructure within microfluidic channels for integration into an optofluidic lab-on-chip, demonstrating a new laser HIL writing approach for creating multi-scale integrated microsystems.

  15. Compact, Flexible Telemetry-Coding Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard B.; Tooley, Matthew; Settles, Beverly

    1993-01-01

    Circuits encoding binary telemetry data designed to synthesize any number of selectable codes. Designed for use aboard spacecraft, with features also making them attractive for terrestrial applications: Simple and compact relative to prior coding circuits, built with commercial integrated circuits, and incorporate protective redundancy. Output distortions minimized, and spurious attenuated and/or abbreviated output pulses eliminated.

  16. Flexible simulation framework to couple processes in complex 3D models for subsurface utilization assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempka, Thomas; Nakaten, Benjamin; De Lucia, Marco; Nakaten, Natalie; Otto, Christopher; Pohl, Maik; Tillner, Elena; Kühn, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Utilization of the geological subsurface for production and storage of hydrocarbons, chemical energy and heat as well as for waste disposal requires the quantification and mitigation of environmental impacts as well as the improvement of georesources utilization in terms of efficiency and sustainability. The development of tools for coupled process simulations is essential to tackle these challenges, since reliable assessments are only feasible by integrative numerical computations. Coupled processes at reservoir to regional scale determine the behaviour of reservoirs, faults and caprocks, generally demanding for complex 3D geological models to be considered besides available monitoring and experimenting data in coupled numerical simulations. We have been developing a flexible numerical simulation framework that provides efficient workflows for integrating the required data and software packages to carry out coupled process simulations considering, e.g., multiphase fluid flow, geomechanics, geochemistry and heat. Simulation results are stored in structured data formats to allow for an integrated 3D visualization and result interpretation as well as data archiving and its provision to collaborators. The main benefits in using the flexible simulation framework are the integration of data geological and grid data from any third party software package as well as data export to generic 3D visualization tools and archiving formats. The coupling of the required process simulators in time and space is feasible, while different spatial dimensions in the coupled simulations can be integrated, e.g., 0D batch with 3D dynamic simulations. User interaction is established via high-level programming languages, while computational efficiency is achieved by using low-level programming languages. We present three case studies on the assessment of geological subsurface utilization based on different process coupling approaches and numerical simulations.

  17. A flexible new method for 3D measurement based on multi-view image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Haihua; Zhao, Zhimin; Cheng, Xiaosheng; Guo, Changye; Jia, Huayu

    2016-11-01

    Three-dimensional measurement is the base part for reverse engineering. The paper developed a new flexible and fast optical measurement method based on multi-view geometry theory. At first, feature points are detected and matched with improved SIFT algorithm. The Hellinger Kernel is used to estimate the histogram distance instead of traditional Euclidean distance, which is immunity to the weak texture image; then a new filter three-principle for filtering the calculation of essential matrix is designed, the essential matrix is calculated using the improved a Contrario Ransac filter method. One view point cloud is constructed accurately with two view images; after this, the overlapped features are used to eliminate the accumulated errors caused by added view images, which improved the camera's position precision. At last, the method is verified with the application of dental restoration CAD/CAM, experiment results show that the proposed method is fast, accurate and flexible for tooth 3D measurement.

  18. Relating functional connectivity in V1 neural circuits and 3D natural scenes using Boltzmann machines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yimeng; Li, Xiong; Samonds, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    Bayesian theory has provided a compelling conceptualization for perceptual inference in the brain. Central to Bayesian inference is the notion of statistical priors. To understand the neural mechanisms of Bayesian inference, we need to understand the neural representation of statistical regularities in the natural environment. In this paper, we investigated empirically how statistical regularities in natural 3D scenes are represented in the functional connectivity of disparity-tuned neurons in the primary visual cortex of primates. We applied a Boltzmann machine model to learn from 3D natural scenes, and found that the units in the model exhibited cooperative and competitive interactions, forming a “disparity association field”, analogous to the contour association field. The cooperative and competitive interactions in the disparity association field are consistent with constraints of computational models for stereo matching. In addition, we simulated neurophysiological experiments on the model, and found the results to be consistent with neurophysiological data in terms of the functional connectivity measurements between disparity-tuned neurons in the macaque primary visual cortex. These findings demonstrate that there is a relationship between the functional connectivity observed in the visual cortex and the statistics of natural scenes. They also suggest that the Boltzmann machine can be a viable model for conceptualizing computations in the visual cortex and, as such, can be used to predict neural circuits in the visual cortex from natural scene statistics. PMID:26712581

  19. Relating functional connectivity in V1 neural circuits and 3D natural scenes using Boltzmann machines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yimeng; Li, Xiong; Samonds, Jason M; Lee, Tai Sing

    2016-03-01

    Bayesian theory has provided a compelling conceptualization for perceptual inference in the brain. Central to Bayesian inference is the notion of statistical priors. To understand the neural mechanisms of Bayesian inference, we need to understand the neural representation of statistical regularities in the natural environment. In this paper, we investigated empirically how statistical regularities in natural 3D scenes are represented in the functional connectivity of disparity-tuned neurons in the primary visual cortex of primates. We applied a Boltzmann machine model to learn from 3D natural scenes, and found that the units in the model exhibited cooperative and competitive interactions, forming a "disparity association field", analogous to the contour association field. The cooperative and competitive interactions in the disparity association field are consistent with constraints of computational models for stereo matching. In addition, we simulated neurophysiological experiments on the model, and found the results to be consistent with neurophysiological data in terms of the functional connectivity measurements between disparity-tuned neurons in the macaque primary visual cortex. These findings demonstrate that there is a relationship between the functional connectivity observed in the visual cortex and the statistics of natural scenes. They also suggest that the Boltzmann machine can be a viable model for conceptualizing computations in the visual cortex and, as such, can be used to predict neural circuits in the visual cortex from natural scene statistics.

  20. A flexible 3D vision system based on structured light for in-line product inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skotheim, Øystein; Nygaard, Jens Olav; Thielemann, Jens; Vollset, Thor

    2008-02-01

    A flexible and highly configurable 3D vision system targeted for in-line product inspection is presented. The system includes a low cost 3D camera based on structured light and a set of flexible software tools that automate the measurement process. The specification of the measurement tasks is done in a first manual step. The user selects regions of the point cloud to analyze and specifies primitives to be characterized within these regions. After all measurement tasks have been specified, measurements can be carried out on successive parts automatically and without supervision. As a test case, a measurement cell for inspection of a V-shaped car component has been developed. The car component consists of two steel tubes attached to a central hub. Each of the tubes has an additional bushing clamped to its end. A measurement is performed in a few seconds and results in an ordered point cloud with 1.2 million points. The software is configured to fit cylinders to each of the steel tubes as well as to the inside of the bushings of the car part. The size, position and orientation of the fitted cylinders allow us to measure and verify a series of dimensions specified on the CAD drawing of the component with sub-millimetre accuracy.

  1. A flexible-dose dispenser for immediate and extended release 3D printed tablets.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Katarzyna; Isreb, Abdullah; Alhnan, Mohamed A

    2015-10-01

    The advances in personalised medicine increased the demand for a fast, accurate and reliable production method of tablets that can be digitally controlled by healthcare staff. A flexible dose tablet system is presented in this study that proved to be suitable for immediate and extended release tablets with a realistic drug loading and an easy-to-swallow tablet design. The method bridges the affordable and digitally controlled Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) 3D printing with a standard pharmaceutical manufacturing process, Hot Melt Extrusion (HME). The reported method was compatible with three methacrylic polymers (Eudragit RL, RS and E) as well as a cellulose-based one (hydroxypropyl cellulose, HPC SSL). The use of a HME based pharmaceutical filament preserved the linear relationship between the mass and printed volume and was utilized to digitally control the dose via an input from computer software with dose accuracy in the range of 91-95%. Higher resolution printing quality doubled the printing time, but showed a little effect on in vitro release pattern of theophylline and weight accuracy. Physical characterization studies indicated that the majority of the model drug (theophylline) in the 3D printed tablet exists in a crystal form. Owing to the small size, ease of use and the highly adjustable nature of FDM 3D printers, the method holds promise for future individualised treatment.

  2. Flexible laboratory system for 3D x-ray microtomography of 3-50 mm specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimann, David A.; Flynn, Michael J.; Hames, Sean M.

    1995-03-01

    Point projection microradiography has established value for imaging large, wet, opaque, and intact specimens in 2D projection views. We have developed a 3D microtomography system by combining the principles of microradiography with computed tomography (CT). An extension of conventional CT methods is utilized to yield 3D data from 2D microradiographic projections. Use of 2D cone beam projections rather than 1D projections of a slice simplifies the specimen motion hardware, and reduces the amount of wasted radiation. Our imaging system consists of a microfocus x-ray source and x-ray image intensifier coupled to a CCD camera. The system is flexible in the size of specimens which can be imaged. Resolving power varies with specimen size from 4 lp/mm for 50 mm diameter objects to 40 lp/mm for 3 mm diameter objects. Image resolution is isotropic in three dimensions. The 3D nature of the resulting image data can be used to visualize internal structure and compute stereologic parameters such as volume, surface area, and surface/volume orientation. This instrument has been used to image bone specimens in studies of human vertebrae, human femoral necks, dog metacarpals, and rabbit tibias. Other applications include imaging small industrial parts, plastics, ceramics, composite materials, and geologic specimens.

  3. Mechanically Flexible and High-Performance CMOS Logic Circuits.

    PubMed

    Honda, Wataru; Arie, Takayuki; Akita, Seiji; Takei, Kuniharu

    2015-10-13

    Low-power flexible logic circuits are key components required by the next generation of flexible electronic devices. For stable device operation, such components require a high degree of mechanical flexibility and reliability. Here, the mechanical properties of low-power flexible complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) logic circuits including inverter, NAND, and NOR are investigated. To fabricate CMOS circuits on flexible polyimide substrates, carbon nanotube (CNT) network films are used for p-type transistors, whereas amorphous InGaZnO films are used for the n-type transistors. The power consumption and voltage gain of CMOS inverters are <500 pW/mm at Vin = 0 V (<7.5 nW/mm at Vin = 5 V) and >45, respectively. Importantly, bending of the substrate is not found to cause significant changes in the device characteristics. This is also observed to be the case for more complex flexible NAND and NOR logic circuits for bending states with a curvature radius of 2.6 mm. The mechanical stability of these CMOS logic circuits makes them ideal candidates for use in flexible integrated devices.

  4. The numerical study of the cavitation-structure interaction around 3D flexible hydrofoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi-liang, Hu; Ying, Chen; Chuan-jing, Lu

    2015-12-01

    The closely coupled approach combined the Finite Volume Method (FVM) solver and the Finite Element Method (FEM) solver is applied to simulation the cavitation-structure interaction of a 3D cantilevered flexible hydrofoil in water tunnel. In the cavitating flow, the elastic hydrofoil would deform or vibrate in bending and twisting mode. And the motion of the foil would affect the characteristics of the cavity and the hydrodynamic load on the foil in turn. With smaller cavitation numbers (σv=2.15), the frequency spectrum of the lift on the foil would contain two frequencies which are associated to the cavity shedding and the first bend frequency of the hydrofoil. With larger cavitation number (σv=2.55), the frequency of the lift is completely dominated by the natural frequency of the foil.

  5. Reliability Assessment of a Robust Design Under Uncertainty for a 3-D Flexible Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gumbert, Clyde R.; Hou, Gene J. -W.; Newman, Perry A.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents reliability assessment results for the robust designs under uncertainty of a 3-D flexible wing previously reported by the authors. Reliability assessments (additional optimization problems) of the active constraints at the various probabilistic robust design points are obtained and compared with the constraint values or target constraint probabilities specified in the robust design. In addition, reliability-based sensitivity derivatives with respect to design variable mean values are also obtained and shown to agree with finite difference values. These derivatives allow one to perform reliability based design without having to obtain second-order sensitivity derivatives. However, an inner-loop optimization problem must be solved for each active constraint to find the most probable point on that constraint failure surface.

  6. Flexible circuits with integrated switches for robotic shape sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harnett, C. K.

    2016-05-01

    Digital switches are commonly used for detecting surface contact and limb-position limits in robotics. The typical momentary-contact digital switch is a mechanical device made from metal springs, designed to connect with a rigid printed circuit board (PCB). However, flexible printed circuits are taking over from the rigid PCB in robotics because the circuits can bend while carrying signals and power through moving joints. This project is motivated by a previous work where an array of surface-mount momentary contact switches on a flexible circuit acted as an all-digital shape sensor compatible with the power resources of energy harvesting systems. Without a rigid segment, the smallest commercially-available surface-mount switches would detach from the flexible circuit after several bending cycles, sometimes violently. This report describes a low-cost, conductive fiber based method to integrate electromechanical switches into flexible circuits and other soft, bendable materials. Because the switches are digital (on/off), they differ from commercially-available continuous-valued bend/flex sensors. No amplification or analog-to-digital conversion is needed to read the signal, but the tradeoff is that the digital switches only give a threshold curvature value. Boundary conditions on the edges of the flexible circuit are key to setting the threshold curvature value for switching. This presentation will discuss threshold-setting, size scaling of the design, automation for inserting a digital switch into the flexible circuit fabrication process, and methods for reconstructing a shape from an array of digital switch states.

  7. Sandwich-format 3D printed microfluidic mixers: a flexible platform for multi-probe analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kise, Drew P; Reddish, Michael J; Dyer, R Brian

    2015-01-01

    We report on a microfluidic mixer fabrication platform that increases the versatility and flexibility of mixers for biomolecular applications. A sandwich-format design allows the application of multiple spectroscopic probes to the same mixer. A polymer spacer is ‘sandwiched’ between two transparent windows, creating a closed microfluidic system. The channels of the mixer are defined by regions in the polymer spacer that lack material and therefore the polymer need not be transparent in the spectral region of interest. Suitable window materials such as CaF2 make the device accessible to a wide range of optical probe wavelengths, from the deep UV to the mid-IR. In this study, we use a commercially available 3D printer to print the polymer spacers to apply three different channel designs into the passive, continuous-flow mixer, and integrated them with three different spectroscopic probes. All three spectroscopic probes are applicable to each mixer without further changes. The sandwich-format mixer coupled with cost-effective 3D printed fabrication techniques could increase the applicability and accessibility of microfluidic mixing to intricate kinetic schemes and monitoring chemical synthesis in cases where only one probe technique proves insufficient. PMID:26855478

  8. Fast and flexible 3D object recognition solutions for machine vision applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Effenberger, Ira; Kühnle, Jens; Verl, Alexander

    2013-03-01

    In automation and handling engineering, supplying work pieces between different stages along the production process chain is of special interest. Often the parts are stored unordered in bins or lattice boxes and hence have to be separated and ordered for feeding purposes. An alternative to complex and spacious mechanical systems such as bowl feeders or conveyor belts, which are typically adapted to the parts' geometry, is using a robot to grip the work pieces out of a bin or from a belt. Such applications are in need of reliable and precise computer-aided object detection and localization systems. For a restricted range of parts, there exists a variety of 2D image processing algorithms that solve the recognition problem. However, these methods are often not well suited for the localization of randomly stored parts. In this paper we present a fast and flexible 3D object recognizer that localizes objects by identifying primitive features within the objects. Since technical work pieces typically consist to a substantial degree of geometric primitives such as planes, cylinders and cones, such features usually carry enough information in order to determine the position of the entire object. Our algorithms use 3D best-fitting combined with an intelligent data pre-processing step. The capability and performance of this approach is shown by applying the algorithms to real data sets of different industrial test parts in a prototypical bin picking demonstration system.

  9. Facile synthesis 3D flexible core-shell graphene/glass fiber via chemical vapor deposition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Direct deposition of graphene layers on the flexible glass fiber surface to form the three-dimensional (3D) core-shell structures is offered using a two-heating reactor chemical vapor deposition system. The two-heating reactor is utilized to offer sufficient, well-proportioned floating C atoms and provide a facile way for low-temperature deposition. Graphene layers, which are controlled by changing the growth time, can be grown on the surface of wire-type glass fiber with the diameter from 30 nm to 120 um. The core-shell graphene/glass fiber deposition mechanism is proposed, suggesting that the 3D graphene films can be deposited on any proper wire-type substrates. These results open a facile way for direct and high-efficiency deposition of the transfer-free graphene layers on the low-temperature dielectric wire-type substrates. PACS 81.05.U-; 81.07.-b; 81.15.Gh PMID:25170331

  10. A novel graphene based nanocomposite for application in 3D flexible micro-supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marasso, S. L.; Rivolo, P.; Giardi, R.; Mombello, D.; Gigot, A.; Serrapede, M.; Benetto, S.; Enrico, A.; Cocuzza, M.; Tresso, E.; Pirri, C. F.

    2016-06-01

    In this work a hybrid graphene-based flexible micro-supercapacitor (MSC) exploiting a novel composite material was fabricated and extensively characterized. The MSC electrodes have been obtained from a synthesized composite aerogel of reduced graphene oxide and polycrystalline nanoparticles of molybdenum (IV) oxide (MoO2) and then dispersed in a solution containing poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Usually in MSCs the electrons have to percolate through the nanostructured Three-dimensional (3D) matrix in order to reach the collectors, made by metal thin films that provide electrical contacts only on the surface of active material. In the attempt to enable a more efficient charge transfer and to allow direct electrical contact without metal deposition, in this study a highly doped PEDOT acting both as current collector and as binder for the nanocomposite material has been employed. 3D MSCs were fabricated through a Lithographie, Galvanoformung, Abformung (LIGA)-like process to obtain high aspect ratio microstructures in polydimethylsiloxane replicas. Capacitance values of 94 F g-1 for the nanocomposite and of 14 mF cm-2 for the device were achieved. Moreover, bending test has demonstrated good performance preservation in a U shape conformation of the device.

  11. High power density microbial fuel cell with flexible 3D graphene-nickel foam as anode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanyu; Wang, Gongming; Ling, Yichuan; Qian, Fang; Song, Yang; Lu, Xihong; Chen, Shaowei; Tong, Yexiang; Li, Yat

    2013-11-07

    The structure and electrical conductivity of anode play a significant role in the power generation of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this study, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) reduced graphene oxide-nickel (denoted as rGO-Ni) foam as an anode for MFC through controlled deposition of rGO sheets onto the nickel foam substrate. The loading amount of rGO sheets and electrode surface area can be controlled by the number of rGO loading cycles. 3D rGO-Ni foam anode provides not only a large accessible surface area for microbial colonization and electron mediators, but also a uniform macro-porous scaffold for effective mass diffusion of the culture medium. Significantly, at a steady state of the power generation, the MFC device with flexible rGO-Ni electrodes produced an optimal volumetric power density of 661 W m(-3) calculated based on the volume of anode material, or 27 W m(-3) based on the volume of the anode chamber. These values are substantially higher than that of plain nickel foam, and other conventional carbon based electrodes (e.g., carbon cloth, carbon felt, and carbon paper) measured in the same conditions. To our knowledge, this is the highest volumetric power density reported for mL-scale MFC device with a pure strain of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. We also demonstrated that the MFC device can be operated effectively in a batch-mode at least for a week. These new 3D rGO-Ni electrodes show great promise for improving the power generation of MFC devices.

  12. 3D customized and flexible tactile sensor using a piezoelectric nanofiber mat and sandwich-molded elastomer sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bit Lee, Han; Kim, Young Won; Yoon, Jonghun; Lee, Nak Kyu; Park, Suk-Hee

    2017-04-01

    We developed a skin-conformal flexible sensor in which three-dimensional (3D) free-form elastomeric sheets were harmoniously integrated with a piezoelectric nanofiber mat. The elastomeric sheets were produced by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molding via using a 3D printed mold assembly, which was adaptively designed from 3D scanned skin surface geometry. The mold assembly, fabricated using a multi-material 3D printer, was composed of a pair of upper/lower mold parts and an interconnecting hinge, with material properties are characterized by different flexibilities. As a result of appropriate deformabilites of the upper mold part and hinge, the skin-conformal PDMS structures were successfully sandwich molded and demolded with good repeatability. An electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene) nanofiber mat was prepared as the piezoelectric active layer and integrated with the 3D elastomeric parts. We confirmed that the highly responsive sensing performances of the 3D integrated sensor were identical to those of a flat sensor in terms of sensitivity and the linearity of the input-output relationship. The close 3D conformal skin contact of the flexible sensor enabled discernable perception of various scales of physical stimuli, such as tactile force and even minute skin deformation caused by the tester’s pulse. Collectively from the 3D scanning design to the practical application, our achievements can potentially meet the needs of tailored human interfaces in the field of wearable devices and human-like robots.

  13. Highly conductive, capacitive, flexible and soft electrodes based on a 3D graphene-nanotube-palladium hybrid and conducting polymer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Randriamahazaka, Hyacinthe; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2014-12-29

    Highly conductive, capacitive and flexible electrodes are fabricated by employing 3D graphene-nanotube-palladium nanostructures and a PEDOT:PSS conducting polymer. The fabricated flexible electrodes, without any additional metallic current collectors, exhibit increased charge mobility and good mechanical properties; they also allow greater access to the electrolyte ions and hence are suitable for flexible energy storage applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. High speed and flexible PEB 3D diffusion simulation based on Sylvester equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Pei-Chun; Chen, Charlie Chung-Ping

    2013-04-01

    Post exposure bake (PEB) Diffusion effect is one of the most difficult issues in modeling chemically amplified resists. These model equations result in a system of nonlinear partial differential equations describing the time rate of change reaction and diffusion. Verifying such models are difficult, so numerical simulations are needed to solve the model equations. In this paper, we propose a high speed 3D resist image simulation algorithm based on a novel method to solve the PEB Diffusion equation. Our major discovery is that the matrix formulation of the diffusion equation under the Crank- Nicolson scheme can be derived into a special form, AX+XB=C, where the X matrix is a 3D resist image after diffusion effect, A and B matrices contain the diffusion coefficients and the space relationship between directions x, y and z. These matrices are sparse, symmetric and diagonal dominant. The C matrix is the last time-step resist image. The Sylvester equation can be reduced to another form as (I⊗A + BT⊗I) X =C, in which the operator ⊗ is the Kronecker product notation. Compared with a traditional convolution method, our method is more useful in a way that boundary conditions can be more flexible. From our experimental results, we see that the error of the convolution method can be as high as 30% at borders of the design pattern. Furthermore, since the PEB temperature may not be uniform at multi-zone PEB, the convolution method might not be directly applicable in this scenario. Our method is about 20 times faster than the convolution method for a single time step (2 seconds) as illustrated in the attached figure. To simulate 50 seconds of the flexible PEB diffusion process, our method only takes 210 seconds with a convolution set up for a 1240×1240 working area. We use the typical 45nm immersion lithography in our work. The exposure wavelength is set to 193nm; the NA is 1.3775; and the diffusion coefficient is 1.455×10-17m2/s at PEB temperature 150°C along with PEB

  15. Flexible and tunable silicon photonic circuits on plastic substrates

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Li, Huan; Li, Mo

    2012-01-01

    Flexible microelectronics has shown tremendous promise in a broad spectrum of applications, especially those that cannot be addressed by conventional microelectronics in rigid materials and constructions. These unconventional yet important applications range from flexible consumer electronics to conformal sensor arrays and biomedical devices. A recent paradigm shift in implementing flexible electronics is to physically transfer highly integrated devices made in high-quality, crystalline semiconductors on to plastic substrates. Here we demonstrate a flexible form of silicon photonics using the transfer-and-bond fabrication method. Photonic circuits including interferometers and resonators have been transferred onto flexible plastic substrates with preserved functionalities and performance. By mechanically deforming, the optical characteristics of the devices can be tuned reversibly over a remarkably large range. The demonstration of the new flexible photonic systems based on the silicon-on-plastic (SOP) platform could open the door to many future applications, including tunable photonics, optomechanical sensors and biomechanical and bio-photonic probes. PMID:22953043

  16. Flexible and tunable silicon photonic circuits on plastic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Li, Huan; Li, Mo

    2012-09-01

    Flexible microelectronics has shown tremendous promise in a broad spectrum of applications, especially those that cannot be addressed by conventional microelectronics in rigid materials and constructions. These unconventional yet important applications range from flexible consumer electronics to conformal sensor arrays and biomedical devices. A recent paradigm shift in implementing flexible electronics is to physically transfer highly integrated devices made in high-quality, crystalline semiconductors on to plastic substrates. Here we demonstrate a flexible form of silicon photonics using the transfer-and-bond fabrication method. Photonic circuits including interferometers and resonators have been transferred onto flexible plastic substrates with preserved functionalities and performance. By mechanically deforming, the optical characteristics of the devices can be tuned reversibly over a remarkably large range. The demonstration of the new flexible photonic systems based on the silicon-on-plastic (SOP) platform could open the door to many future applications, including tunable photonics, optomechanical sensors and biomechanical and bio-photonic probes.

  17. Synthetic 3D diamond-based electrodes for flexible retinal neuroprostheses: Model, production and in vivo biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Bendali, Amel; Rousseau, Lionel; Lissorgues, Gaëlle; Scorsone, Emmanuel; Djilas, Milan; Dégardin, Julie; Dubus, Elisabeth; Fouquet, Stéphane; Benosman, Ryad; Bergonzo, Philippe; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge

    2015-10-01

    Two retinal implants have recently received the CE mark and one has obtained FDA approval for the restoration of useful vision in blind patients. Since the spatial resolution of current vision prostheses is not sufficient for most patients to detect faces or perform activities of daily living, more electrodes with less crosstalk are needed to transfer complex images to the retina. In this study, we modelled planar and three-dimensional (3D) implants with a distant ground or a ground grid, to demonstrate greater spatial resolution with 3D structures. Using such flexible 3D implant prototypes, we showed that the degenerated retina could mould itself to the inside of the wells, thereby isolating bipolar neurons for specific, independent stimulation. To investigate the in vivo biocompatibility of diamond as an electrode or an isolating material, we developed a procedure for depositing diamond onto flexible 3D retinal implants. Taking polyimide 3D implants as a reference, we compared the number of neurones integrating the 3D diamond structures and their ratio to the numbers of all cells, including glial cells. Bipolar neurones were increased whereas there was no increase even a decrease in the total cell number. SEM examinations of implants confirmed the stability of the diamond after its implantation in vivo. This study further demonstrates the potential of 3D designs for increasing the resolution of retinal implants and validates the safety of diamond materials for retinal implants and neuroprostheses in general.

  18. Circuit and method for producing a flexible reference voltage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Roger D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A flexible reference voltage circuit includes a circuit for producing a first digital signal representative of a range of reference voltage levels; a circuit for producing a second digital signal representative of a selected reference voltage level within the range of reference voltage levels; an adder for adding the first and second digital signals to produce a third digital signal; and a digital to analog converter for providing an output voltage in response to the third digital signal. The method of producing a flexible reference voltage performed by the circuit is also claimed. The invention can be used with a differential protection circuit to provide a series of trip level ranges, with a series of selectable trip levels in each range. This is accomplished in a high accuracy circuit which is relatively simple to construct, thereby minimizing size and complexity of the current sensor module, in differential protection applications, or the circuitry, if used in a power system controller. Standard digital logic components can be used to perform the necessary range/level decoding.

  19. [Flexible print circuit technology application in biomedical engineering].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lihua; Cao, Yi; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2013-06-01

    Flexible print circuit (FPC) technology has been widely applied in variety of electric circuits with high precision due to its advantages, such as low-cost, high specific fabrication ability, and good flexibility, etc. Recently, this technology has also been used in biomedical engineering, especially in the development of microfluidic chip and microelectrode array. The high specific fabrication can help making microelectrode and other micro-structure equipment. And good flexibility allows the micro devices based on FPC technique to be easily packaged with other parts. In addition, it also reduces the damage of microelectrodes to the tissue. In this paper, the application of FPC technology in biomedical engineering is introduced. Moreover, the important parameters of FPC technique and the development trend of prosperous applications is also discussed.

  20. Gigahertz flexible graphene transistors for microwave integrated circuits.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chao-Hui; Lain, Yi-Wei; Chiu, Yu-Chiao; Liao, Chen-Hung; Moyano, David Ricardo; Hsu, Shawn S H; Chiu, Po-Wen

    2014-08-26

    Flexible integrated circuits with complex functionalities are the missing link for the active development of wearable electronic devices. Here, we report a scalable approach to fabricate self-aligned graphene microwave transistors for the implementation of flexible low-noise amplifiers and frequency mixers, two fundamental building blocks of a wireless communication receiver. A devised AlOx T-gate structure is used to achieve an appreciable increase of device transconductance and a commensurate reduction of the associated parasitic resistance, thus yielding a remarkable extrinsic cutoff frequency of 32 GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency of 20 GHz; in both cases the operation frequency is an order of magnitude higher than previously reported. The two frequencies work at 22 and 13 GHz even when subjected to a strain of 2.5%. The gigahertz microwave integrated circuits demonstrated here pave the way for applications which require high flexibility and radio frequency operations.

  1. Light-driven 3D droplet manipulation on flexible optoelectrowetting devices fabricated by a simple spin-coating method.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dongyue; Park, Sung-Yong

    2016-05-21

    Technical advances in electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) over the past few years have extended our attraction to three-dimensional (3D) devices capable of providing more flexibility and functionality with larger volumetric capacity than conventional 2D planar ones. However, typical 3D EWOD devices require complex and expensive fabrication processes for patterning and wiring of pixelated electrodes that also restrict the minimum droplet size to be manipulated. Here, we present a flexible single-sided continuous optoelectrowetting (SCOEW) device which is not only fabricated by a spin-coating method without the need for patterning and wiring processes, but also enables light-driven 3D droplet manipulations. To provide photoconductive properties, previous optoelectrowetting (OEW) devices have used amorphous silicon (a-Si) typically fabricated through high-temperature processes over 300 °C such as CVD or PECVD. However, most of the commercially-available flexible substrates such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) experience serious thermal deformation under such high-temperature processes. Because of this compatibility issue of conventional OEW devices with flexible substrates, light-driven 3D droplet manipulations have not yet been demonstrated on flexible substrates. Our study overcomes this compatibility issue by using a polymer-based photoconductive material, titanium oxide phthalocyanine (TiOPc) and thus SCOEW devices can be simply fabricated on flexible substrates through a low-cost, spin-coating method. In this paper, analytical studies were conducted to understand the effects of light patterns on static contact angles and EWOD forces. For experimental validations of our study, flexible SCOEW devices were successfully fabricated through the TiOPc-based spin-coating method and light-driven droplet manipulations (e.g. transportation, merging, and splitting) have been demonstrated on various 3D terrains such as inclined

  2. Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuit (3D IC) Key Technology: Through-Silicon Via (TSV).

    PubMed

    Shen, Wen-Wei; Chen, Kuan-Neng

    2017-12-01

    3D integration with through-silicon via (TSV) is a promising candidate to perform system-level integration with smaller package size, higher interconnection density, and better performance. TSV fabrication is the key technology to permit communications between various strata of the 3D integration system. TSV fabrication steps, such as etching, isolation, metallization processes, and related failure modes, as well as other characterizations are discussed in this invited review paper.

  3. Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuit (3D IC) Key Technology: Through-Silicon Via (TSV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Wen-Wei; Chen, Kuan-Neng

    2017-01-01

    3D integration with through-silicon via (TSV) is a promising candidate to perform system-level integration with smaller package size, higher interconnection density, and better performance. TSV fabrication is the key technology to permit communications between various strata of the 3D integration system. TSV fabrication steps, such as etching, isolation, metallization processes, and related failure modes, as well as other characterizations are discussed in this invited review paper.

  4. Development of 3D carbon nanotube interdigitated finger electrodes on polymer substrate for flexible capacitive sensor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chih-Fan; Wang, Jhih-Yu; Liu, Yu-Chia; Tsai, Ming-Han; Fang, Weileun

    2013-11-01

    This study reports a novel approach to the implementation of 3D carbon nanotube (CNT) interdigitated finger electrodes on flexible polymer, and the detection of strain, bending curvature, tactile force and proximity distance are demonstrated. The merits of the presented CNT-based flexible sensor are as follows: (1) the silicon substrate is patterned to enable the formation of 3D vertically aligned CNTs on the substrate surface; (2) polymer molding on the silicon substrate with 3D CNTs is further employed to transfer the 3D CNTs to the flexible polymer substrate; (3) the CNT-polymer composite (˜70 μm in height) is employed to form interdigitated finger electrodes to increase the sensing area and initial capacitance; (4) other structures such as electrical routings, resistors and mechanical supporters are also available using the CNT-polymer composite. The preliminary fabrication results demonstrate a flexible capacitive sensor with 50 μm high CNT interdigitated electrodes on a poly-dimethylsiloxane substrate. The tests show that the typical capacitance change is several dozens of fF and the gauge factor is in the range of 3.44-4.88 for strain and bending curvature measurement; the sensitivity of the tactile sensor is 1.11% N-1 a proximity distance near 2 mm away from the sensor can be detected.

  5. Development of 3D carbon nanotube interdigitated finger electrodes on polymer substrate for flexible capacitive sensor application.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chih-Fan; Wang, Jhih-Yu; Liu, Yu-Chia; Tsai, Ming-Han; Fang, Weileun

    2013-11-08

    This study reports a novel approach to the implementation of 3D carbon nanotube (CNT) interdigitated finger electrodes on flexible polymer, and the detection of strain, bending curvature, tactile force and proximity distance are demonstrated. The merits of the presented CNT-based flexible sensor are as follows: (1) the silicon substrate is patterned to enable the formation of 3D vertically aligned CNTs on the substrate surface; (2) polymer molding on the silicon substrate with 3D CNTs is further employed to transfer the 3D CNTs to the flexible polymer substrate; (3) the CNT-polymer composite (~70 μm in height) is employed to form interdigitated finger electrodes to increase the sensing area and initial capacitance; (4) other structures such as electrical routings, resistors and mechanical supporters are also available using the CNT-polymer composite. The preliminary fabrication results demonstrate a flexible capacitive sensor with 50 μm high CNT interdigitated electrodes on a poly-dimethylsiloxane substrate. The tests show that the typical capacitance change is several dozens of fF and the gauge factor is in the range of 3.44-4.88 for strain and bending curvature measurement; the sensitivity of the tactile sensor is 1.11% N(-1); a proximity distance near 2 mm away from the sensor can be detected.

  6. Soft tissue models: easy and inexpensive flexible 3D printing as a help in surgical planning of cardiovascular disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starosolski, Zbigniew; Ezon, David S.; Krishnamurthy, Rajesh; Dodd, Nicholas; Heinle, Jeffrey; Mckenzie, Dean E.; Annapragada, Ananth

    2017-03-01

    We developed a technology that allows a simple desktop 3D printer with dual extruder to fabricate 3D flexible models of Major AortoPulmonary Collateral Arteries. The study was designed to assess whether the flexible 3D printed models could help during surgical planning phase. Simple FDM 3D printers are inexpensive, versatile in use and easy to maintain, but complications arise when the designed model is complex and has tubular structures with small diameter less than 2mm. The advantages of FDM printers are cost and simplicity of use. We use precisely selected materials to overcome the obstacles listed above. Dual extruder allows to use two different materials while printing, which is especially important in the case of fragile structures like pulmonary vessels and its supporting structures. The latter should not be removed by hand to avoid a truncation of the model. We utilize the water soluble PVA as a supporting structure and Poro-Lay filament for flexible model of AortoPulmonary collateral arteries. Poro-Lay filament is different as compared to all the other flexible ones like polymer-based. Poro-Lay is rigid while printing and this allows printing of structures small in diameter. It achieves flexibility after washing out of printed model with water. It becomes soft in touch and gelatinous. Using both PVA and Poro-Lay gives a huge advantage allowing to wash out the supporting structures and achieve flexibility in one washing operation, saving time and avoiding human error with cleaning the model. We evaluated 6 models for MAPCAS surgical planning study. This approach is also cost-effective - an average cost of materials for print is less than $15; models are printed in facility without any delays. Flexibility of 3D printed models approximate soft tissues properly, mimicking Aortopulmonary collateral arteries. Second utilization models has educational value for both residents and patients' family. Simplification of 3D flexible process could help in other models

  7. 20-junction photonic power converter performance under non-uniform illumination calculated by 3D distributed circuit model (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahal, Sanmeet; Wilkins, Mathew M.; Masson, Denis P.; Fafard, Simon; Valdivia, Christopher E.; Hinzer, Karin

    2017-04-01

    Distributed circuit models (DCM) divide photovoltaic devices into discrete elementary units. Each unit is assigned an equivalent circuit based on geometry and location, with circuit parameters being fit to or extrapolated from experimental results. Interconnection of these elementary units with ohmic resistors representing lateral and vertical resistances within the layers of the device forms the complete circuit model. DCMs allow grid design optimization, simulation of chromatic aberration, luminescent coupling and analysis of power losses due to regionally specific resistances, which are not possible with simple lumped models. Previous DCMs have been limited to 1-3 junction devices, using a 2D surface model, or use of a one-diode circuit model for the cell junctions. Furthermore, a DCM can be used to simulate complex multi-junction devices with non-uniform illumination, whereas in comprehensive physics-based simulators like Synopsys TCAD Sentaurus this would require vastly greater computational resources. In this work, a parameterized 3D distributed circuit model was developed to calculate the performance of III-V solar cells and photonic power converters (PPC) with a variable number of epitaxially stacked pn junctions. We validated these calculations against published results using a similar 3D model for a 1-junction solar cell. Furthermore, experimental results from Azastra Opto's 20-junction PPC illuminated by an 845 nm diode laser are compared. These devices are designed with many pn junctions to achieve higher voltages and to operate under non-uniform illumination profiles from a laser or LED. The effect on device performance of varying both these parameters will be discussed.

  8. Flexible organic transistors and circuits with extreme bending stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Zschieschang, Ute; Klauk, Hagen; Someya, Takao

    2010-12-01

    Flexible electronic circuits are an essential prerequisite for the development of rollable displays, conformable sensors, biodegradable electronics and other applications with unconventional form factors. The smallest radius into which a circuit can be bent is typically several millimetres, limited by strain-induced damage to the active circuit elements. Bending-induced damage can be avoided by placing the circuit elements on rigid islands connected by stretchable wires, but the presence of rigid areas within the substrate plane limits the bending radius. Here we demonstrate organic transistors and complementary circuits that continue to operate without degradation while being folded into a radius of 100μm. This enormous flexibility and bending stability is enabled by a very thin plastic substrate (12.5μm), an atomically smooth planarization coating and a hybrid encapsulation stack that places the transistors in the neutral strain position. We demonstrate a potential application as a catheter with a sheet of transistors and sensors wrapped around it that enables the spatially resolved measurement of physical or chemical properties inside long, narrow tubes.

  9. Flexible organic transistors and circuits with extreme bending stability.

    PubMed

    Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Zschieschang, Ute; Klauk, Hagen; Someya, Takao

    2010-12-01

    Flexible electronic circuits are an essential prerequisite for the development of rollable displays, conformable sensors, biodegradable electronics and other applications with unconventional form factors. The smallest radius into which a circuit can be bent is typically several millimetres, limited by strain-induced damage to the active circuit elements. Bending-induced damage can be avoided by placing the circuit elements on rigid islands connected by stretchable wires, but the presence of rigid areas within the substrate plane limits the bending radius. Here we demonstrate organic transistors and complementary circuits that continue to operate without degradation while being folded into a radius of 100 μm. This enormous flexibility and bending stability is enabled by a very thin plastic substrate (12.5 μm), an atomically smooth planarization coating and a hybrid encapsulation stack that places the transistors in the neutral strain position. We demonstrate a potential application as a catheter with a sheet of transistors and sensors wrapped around it that enables the spatially resolved measurement of physical or chemical properties inside long, narrow tubes.

  10. Conception d'un circuit d'etouffement pour photodiodes a avalanche en mode geiger pour integration heterogene 3d

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Alexandre

    Le Groupe de Recherche en Appareillage Medical de Sherbrooke (GRAMS) travaille actuellement sur un programme de recherche portant sur des photodiodes a avalanche mono-photoniques (PAMP) operees en mode Geiger en vue d'une application a la tomographie d'emission par positrons (TEP). Pour operer dans ce mode; la PAMP, ou SPAD selon l'acronyme anglais (Single Photon Avalanche Diode), requiert un circuit d'etouffement (CE) pour, d'une part, arreter l'avalanche pouvant causer sa destruction et, d'autre part. la reinitialiser en mode d'attente d'un nouveau photon. Le role de ce CE comprend egalement une electronique de communication vers les etages de traitement avance de signaux. La performance temporelle optimale du CE est realisee lorsqu'il est juxtapose a la PAMP. Cependant, cela entraine une reduction de la surface photosensible ; un element crucial en imagerie. L'integration 3D, a base d'interconnexions verticales, offre une solution elegante et performante a cette problematique par l'empilement de circuits integres possedant differentes fonctions (PAMP, CE et traitement avance de signaux). Dans l'approche proposee, des circuits d'etouffement de 50 pm x 50 pm realises sur une technologie CMOS 130 mn 3D Tezzaron, contenant chacun 112 transistors, sont matrices afin de correspondre a une matrice de PAMP localisee sur une couche electronique superieure. Chaque circuit d'etouffement possede une gigue temporelle de 7,47 ps RMS selon des simulations faites avec le logiciel Cadence. Le CE a la flexibilite d'ajuster les temps d'etouffement et de recharge pour la PAMP tout en presentant une faible consommation de puissance (~ 0,33 mW a 33 Mcps). La conception du PAMP necessite de supporter des tensions superieures aux 3,3 V de la technologie. Pour repondre a ce probleme, des transistors a drain etendu (DEMOS) ont ete realises. En raison de retards de production par Ies fabricants, les circuits n'ont pu etre testes physiquement par des mesures. Les resultats de ce memoire

  11. Flexible longitudinal magnetization contrast in spectrally overlapped 3D-MSI metal artifact reduction sequences: Technical considerations and clinical impact.

    PubMed

    Koch, Kevin M; Koff, Matthew F; Shah, Parina H; Kanwischer, Adriana; Gui, Dawei; Potter, Hollis G

    2015-11-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that increased overlap of spectral bins in three-dimensional multispectral imaging techniques (3D-MSI) can aid in reducing residual artifacts near metal implants. However, increasing spectral overlap also necessitates consideration of saturation effects for species with long T1 values. Here, an interleaved spectral bin acquisition strategy is presented for overlapping 3D-MSI that allows for flexible choice of repetition times while simultaneously addressing these cross talk concerns. A phantom imaging experiment is used to illustrate the amplified effect of cross talk on 3D-MSI acquisitions. A methodological approach to address cross talk across a variety of prescribed repetition times is then described. Using the presented principles, a clinical subject with a total hip replacement was imaged to generate T1, proton density, and short-tau inversion recovery contrasts. In addition, a fracture instrumentation case was imaged pre- and postcontrast using T1-weighted spectrally overlapped 3D-MSI. Phantom results demonstrate that conventional spectral interleaving approaches can generate unwanted signal characteristics in heavily overlapped 3D-MSI. Clinical images using the presented methods successfully demonstrate T1, proton density, and inversion recovery image contrasts using heavily overlapped 3D-MSI. Through automated management of spectral bin distributions across multiple interleaves, a variety of longitudinal magnetization contrasts can efficiently be acquired without any clinically relevant cross-talk impact using heavily overlapped 3D-MSI. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Flexible black phosphorus ambipolar transistors, circuits and AM demodulator.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weinan; Yogeesh, Maruthi N; Yang, Shixuan; Aldave, Sandra H; Kim, Joon-Seok; Sonde, Sushant; Tao, Li; Lu, Nanshu; Akinwande, Deji

    2015-03-11

    High-mobility two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors are desirable for high-performance mechanically flexible nanoelectronics. In this work, we report the first flexible black phosphorus (BP) field-effect transistors (FETs) with electron and hole mobilities superior to what has been previously achieved with other more studied flexible layered semiconducting transistors such as MoS2 and WSe2. Encapsulated bottom-gated BP ambipolar FETs on flexible polyimide afforded maximum carrier mobility of about 310 cm(2)/V·s with field-effect current modulation exceeding 3 orders of magnitude. The device ambipolar functionality and high-mobility were employed to realize essential circuits of electronic systems for flexible technology including ambipolar digital inverter, frequency doubler, and analog amplifiers featuring voltage gain higher than other reported layered semiconductor flexible amplifiers. In addition, we demonstrate the first flexible BP amplitude-modulated (AM) demodulator, an active stage useful for radio receivers, based on a single ambipolar BP transistor, which results in audible signals when connected to a loudspeaker or earphone. Moreover, the BP transistors feature mechanical robustness up to 2% uniaxial tensile strain and up to 5000 bending cycles.

  13. Paper-Based Inkjet-Printed Flexible Electronic Circuits.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Guo, Hong; Chen, Jin-Ju; Sowade, Enrico; Wang, Yu; Liang, Kun; Marcus, Kyle; Baumann, Reinhard R; Feng, Zhe-Sheng

    2016-10-05

    Printed flexible electronics have been widely studied for their potential use in various applications. In this paper, a simple, low-cost method of fabricating flexible electronic circuits with high conductivity of 4.0 × 10(7) S·m(-1) (about 70% of the conductivity of bulk copper) is demonstrated. Teslin paper substrate is treated with stannous chloride (SnCl2) colloidal solution to reduce the high ink absorption rate, and then the catalyst ink is inkjet-printed on its surface, followed by electroless deposition of copper at low temperature. In spite of the decrease in conductance to some extent, electronic circuits fabricated by this method can maintain function even under various folding angles or after repeated folding. This developed technology has great potential in a variety of applications, such as three-dimensional devices and disposable RFID tags.

  14. Gas microstrip detectors based on flexible printed circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Salomon, M.; Crowe, K.; Faszer, W.; Lindsay, P.; Curran Maier, J.M.

    1995-09-01

    Microstrip Gas Detectors (MSGC`s) were introduced some years ago as position sensitive detectors capable of operating at very high rates. The authors have studied the properties of a new type of Gas Microstrip Counter built using flexible printed circuit technology. They describe the manufacturing procedures, the assembly of the device, as well as its operation under a variety of conditions, gases and types of radiation. They also describe two new passivation materials, tantalum and niobium, which produce effective surfaces.

  15. Inclusions detection using Lamb waves in flexible printed circuits.

    PubMed

    Jenot, F; Ouaftouh, M; Xu, W-J; Duquennoy, M; Ourak, M

    2006-12-22

    The materials used for the manufacture of flexible printed circuits are selected according to various characteristics: thermal and electrical behavior, moisture absorption, flexibility... Those are determined by the basic materials of the three components of the circuit, which are the conducting layer, the adhesive layer and the dielectric film. Such circuits have a typical thickness of about 200 microm and are therefore an interesting solution for a great number of electronic applications. However, these circuits can present various defects like inclusions, delaminations, cracks... In this work, we are interested in the detection of inclusions using guided waves propagation in such structures. These waves also called Lamb waves have the advantage of propagating over long distances while informing us about the totality of the inspected volume. According to the range of frequencies considered and the method used for their generation, it is possible to make profitable use of different propagation modes. To serve this purpose, laser-induced thermoelastic excitation of the first antisymmetric Lamb waves mode is studied. The results obtained are analysed using signal processing methods and then compared in order to clearly highlight the potentialities of these guided waves for the detection of inclusions in such samples.

  16. Laser Scanning Holographic Lithography for Flexible 3D Fabrication of Multi-Scale Integrated Nano-structures and Optical Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Liang Leon; Herman, Peter R

    2016-02-29

    Three-dimensional (3D) periodic nanostructures underpin a promising research direction on the frontiers of nanoscience and technology to generate advanced materials for exploiting novel photonic crystal (PC) and nanofluidic functionalities. However, formation of uniform and defect-free 3D periodic structures over large areas that can further integrate into multifunctional devices has remained a major challenge. Here, we introduce a laser scanning holographic method for 3D exposure in thick photoresist that combines the unique advantages of large area 3D holographic interference lithography (HIL) with the flexible patterning of laser direct writing to form both micro- and nano-structures in a single exposure step. Phase mask interference patterns accumulated over multiple overlapping scans are shown to stitch seamlessly and form uniform 3D nanostructure with beam size scaled to small 200 μm diameter. In this way, laser scanning is presented as a facile means to embed 3D PC structure within microfluidic channels for integration into an optofluidic lab-on-chip, demonstrating a new laser HIL writing approach for creating multi-scale integrated microsystems.

  17. Laser Scanning Holographic Lithography for Flexible 3D Fabrication of Multi-Scale Integrated Nano-structures and Optical Biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Liang (Leon); Herman, Peter R.

    2016-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) periodic nanostructures underpin a promising research direction on the frontiers of nanoscience and technology to generate advanced materials for exploiting novel photonic crystal (PC) and nanofluidic functionalities. However, formation of uniform and defect-free 3D periodic structures over large areas that can further integrate into multifunctional devices has remained a major challenge. Here, we introduce a laser scanning holographic method for 3D exposure in thick photoresist that combines the unique advantages of large area 3D holographic interference lithography (HIL) with the flexible patterning of laser direct writing to form both micro- and nano-structures in a single exposure step. Phase mask interference patterns accumulated over multiple overlapping scans are shown to stitch seamlessly and form uniform 3D nanostructure with beam size scaled to small 200 μm diameter. In this way, laser scanning is presented as a facile means to embed 3D PC structure within microfluidic channels for integration into an optofluidic lab-on-chip, demonstrating a new laser HIL writing approach for creating multi-scale integrated microsystems.

  18. Laser Scanning Holographic Lithography for Flexible 3D Fabrication of Multi-Scale Integrated Nano-structures and Optical Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Liang (Leon); Herman, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) periodic nanostructures underpin a promising research direction on the frontiers of nanoscience and technology to generate advanced materials for exploiting novel photonic crystal (PC) and nanofluidic functionalities. However, formation of uniform and defect-free 3D periodic structures over large areas that can further integrate into multifunctional devices has remained a major challenge. Here, we introduce a laser scanning holographic method for 3D exposure in thick photoresist that combines the unique advantages of large area 3D holographic interference lithography (HIL) with the flexible patterning of laser direct writing to form both micro- and nano-structures in a single exposure step. Phase mask interference patterns accumulated over multiple overlapping scans are shown to stitch seamlessly and form uniform 3D nanostructure with beam size scaled to small 200 μm diameter. In this way, laser scanning is presented as a facile means to embed 3D PC structure within microfluidic channels for integration into an optofluidic lab-on-chip, demonstrating a new laser HIL writing approach for creating multi-scale integrated microsystems. PMID:26922872

  19. Scalable fluidic injector arrays for viral targeting of intact 3-D brain circuits.

    PubMed

    Chan, Stephanie; Bernstein, Jacob; Boyden, Edward

    2010-01-21

    Our understanding of neural circuits--how they mediate the computations that subserve sensation, thought, emotion, and action, and how they are corrupted in neurological and psychiatric disorders--would be greatly facilitated by a technology for rapidly targeting genes to complex 3-dimensional neural circuits, enabling fast creation of "circuit-level transgenics." We have recently developed methods in which viruses encoding for light-sensitive proteins can sensitize specific cell types to millisecond-timescale activation and silencing in the intact brain. We here present the design and implementation of an injector array capable of delivering viruses (or other fluids) to dozens of defined points within the 3-dimensional structure of the brain (Figure. 1A, 1B). The injector array comprises one or more displacement pumps that each drive a set of syringes, each of which feeds into a polyimide/fused-silica capillary via a high-pressure-tolerant connector. The capillaries are sized, and then inserted into, desired locations specified by custom-milling a stereotactic positioning board, thus allowing viruses or other reagents to be delivered to the desired set of brain regions. To use the device, the surgeon first fills the fluidic subsystem entirely with oil, backfills the capillaries with the virus, inserts the device into the brain, and infuses reagents slowly (<0.1 microliters/min). The parallel nature of the injector array facilitates rapid, accurate, and robust labeling of entire neural circuits with viral payloads such as optical sensitizers to enable light-activation and silencing of defined brain circuits. Along with other technologies, such as optical fiber arrays for light delivery to desired sets of brain regions, we hope to create a toolbox that enables the systematic probing of causal neural functions in the intact brain. This technology may not only open up such systematic approaches to circuit-focused neuroscience in mammals, and facilitate labeling of

  20. Efficient Electrochemical and Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting by a 3D Nanostructured Carbon Supported on Flexible Exfoliated Graphene Foil.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yang; Qiu, Ming; Zhang, Tao; Ma, Ji; Liu, Shaohua; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Yuan, Chris; Feng, Xinliang

    2017-01-01

    A novel 3D Co-Nx |P-complex-doped carbon grown on flexible exfoliated graphene foil is designed and constructed for both electrochemical and photoelectrochemical water splitting. The coordination of Co-Nx active centers hybridized with that of neighboring P atoms enhances the electron transfer and optimizes the charge distribution of the carbon surface, which synergistically promotes reaction kinetics by providing more exposed active sites. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Similarity searching in databases of flexible 3D structures using autocorrelation vectors derived from smoothed bounded distance matrices.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Nicholas; Clark, David E; Willett, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory study of a novel method for flexible 3-D similarity searching based on autocorrelation vectors and smoothed bounded distance matrices. Although the new approach is unable to outperform an existing 2-D similarity searching in terms of enrichment factors, it is able to retrieve different compounds at a given percentage of the hit-list and so may be a useful adjunct to other similarity searching methods.

  2. Characterization of low loss microstrip resonators as a building block for circuit QED in a 3D waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoepfl, D.; Muppalla, P. R.; Schneider, C. M. F.; Kasemann, S.; Partel, S.; Kirchmair, G.

    2017-08-01

    Here we present the microwave characterization of microstrip resonators, made from aluminum and niobium, inside a 3D microwave waveguide. In the low temperature, low power limit internal quality factors of up to one million were reached. We found a good agreement to models predicting conductive losses and losses to two level systems for increasing temperature. The setup presented here is appealing for testing materials and structures, as it is free of wire bonds and offers a well controlled microwave environment. In combination with transmon qubits, these resonators serve as a building block for a novel circuit QED architecture inside a rectangular waveguide.

  3. The SVX3D integrated circuit for dead-timeless silicon strip readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Milgrome, O.; Zimmerman, T.; Volobouev, I.; Ely, R. P.; Connolly, A.; Fish, D.; Affolder, T.; Sill, A.

    1999-10-01

    The revision D of the SVX3 readout IC has been fabricated in the Honeywell radiation-hard 0.8 μm bulk CMOS process, for instrumenting 712,704 silicon strips in the upgrade to the Collider Detector at Fermilab. This final revision incorporates new features and changes to the original architecture that were added to meet the goal of dead-timeless operation. This paper describes the features central to dead-timeless operation, and presents test data for un-irradiated and irradiated SVX3D chips.

  4. Remote artificial eyes using micro-optical circuit for long-distance 3D imaging perception.

    PubMed

    Thammawongsa, Nopparat; Yupapin, Preecha P

    2016-01-01

    A small-scale optical device incorporated with an optical nano-antenna is designed to operate as the remote artificial eye using a tiny conjugate mirror. A basic device known as a conjugate mirror can be formed using the artificial eye device, the partially reflected light intensities from input source are interfered and the 3D whispering gallery modes formed within the ring centers, which can be modulated and propagated to the object. The image pixel is obtained at the center ring and linked with the optic nerve in the remote area via the nano-antenna, which is useful for blind people.

  5. Flexible bidentate pyridine and chiral ligands in the self-assembly of supramolecular 3-D cages.

    PubMed

    Chi, Ki-Whan; Addicott, Chris; Kryschenko, Yury K; Stang, Peter J

    2004-02-06

    Discrete, nanoscopic 3-D cages are prepared in high yield via coordination-driven self-assembly from a variety of building blocks, including bidentate 3-substituted pyridines, chiral, and silicon-based tripods. All are characterized by NMR ((31)P, (1)H) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

  6. Study of materials and machines for 3D printed large-scale, flexible electronic structures using fused deposition modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seyeon

    The 3 dimensional printing (3DP), called to additive manufacturing (AM) or rapid prototyping (RP), is emerged to revolutionize manufacturing and completely transform how products are designed and fabricated. A great deal of research activities have been carried out to apply this new technology to a variety of fields. In spite of many endeavors, much more research is still required to perfect the processes of the 3D printing techniques especially in the area of the large-scale additive manufacturing and flexible printed electronics. The principles of various 3D printing processes are briefly outlined in the Introduction Section. New types of thermoplastic polymer composites aiming to specified functional applications are also introduced in this section. Chapter 2 shows studies about the metal/polymer composite filaments for fused deposition modeling (FDM) process. Various metal particles, copper and iron particles, are added into thermoplastics polymer matrices as the reinforcement filler. The thermo-mechanical properties, such as thermal conductivity, hardness, tensile strength, and fracture mechanism, of composites are tested to figure out the effects of metal fillers on 3D printed composite structures for the large-scale printing process. In Chapter 3, carbon/polymer composite filaments are developed by a simple mechanical blending process with an aim of fabricating the flexible 3D printed electronics as a single structure. Various types of carbon particles consisting of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), conductive carbon black (CCB), and graphite are used as the conductive fillers to provide the thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) with improved electrical conductivity. The mechanical behavior and conduction mechanisms of the developed composite materials are observed in terms of the loading amount of carbon fillers in this section. Finally, the prototype flexible electronics are modeled and manufactured by the FDM process using Carbon/TPU composite filaments and

  7. Beyond Rotatable Bond Counts: Capturing 3D Conformational Flexibility in a Single Descriptor

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A new molecular descriptor, nConf20, based on chemical connectivity, is presented which captures the accessible conformational space of a molecule. Currently the best available two-dimensional descriptors for quantifying the flexibility of a particular molecule are the rotatable bond count (RBC) and the Kier flexibility index. We present a descriptor which captures this information by sampling the conformational space of a molecule using the RDKit conformer generator. Flexibility has previously been identified as a key feature in determining whether a molecule is likely to crystallize or not. For this application, nConf20 significantly outperforms previously reported single-variable classifiers and also assists rule-based analysis of black-box machine learning classification algorithms. PMID:28024401

  8. Beyond Rotatable Bond Counts: Capturing 3D Conformational Flexibility in a Single Descriptor.

    PubMed

    Wicker, Jerome G P; Cooper, Richard I

    2016-12-27

    A new molecular descriptor, nConf20, based on chemical connectivity, is presented which captures the accessible conformational space of a molecule. Currently the best available two-dimensional descriptors for quantifying the flexibility of a particular molecule are the rotatable bond count (RBC) and the Kier flexibility index. We present a descriptor which captures this information by sampling the conformational space of a molecule using the RDKit conformer generator. Flexibility has previously been identified as a key feature in determining whether a molecule is likely to crystallize or not. For this application, nConf20 significantly outperforms previously reported single-variable classifiers and also assists rule-based analysis of black-box machine learning classification algorithms.

  9. A 3-D RBF-FD elliptic solver for irregular boundaries: modeling the atmospheric global electric circuit with topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayona, V.; Flyer, N.; Lucas, G. M.; Baumgaertner, A. J. G.

    2015-04-01

    A numerical model based on Radial Basis Function-generated Finite Differences (RBF-FD) is developed for simulating the Global Electric Circuit (GEC) within the Earth's atmosphere, represented by a 3-D variable coefficient linear elliptic PDE in a spherically-shaped volume with the lower boundary being the Earth's topography and the upper boundary a sphere at 60 km. To our knowledge, this is (1) the first numerical model of the GEC to combine the Earth's topography with directly approximating the differential operators in 3-D space, and related to this (2) the first RBF-FD method to use irregular 3-D stencils for discretization to handle the topography. It benefits from the mesh-free nature of RBF-FD, which is especially suitable for modeling high-dimensional problems with irregular boundaries. The RBF-FD elliptic solver proposed here makes no limiting assumptions on the spatial variability of the coefficients in the PDE (i.e. the conductivity profile), the right hand side forcing term of the PDE (i.e. distribution of current sources) or the geometry of the lower boundary.

  10. Spatial and planar optical circuit for flexible ROADM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikama, Kota; Ikuma, Yuichiro; Suzuki, Kenya; Takahashi, Tetsuo

    2016-02-01

    A high port count wavelength selective switch (HPC-WSS) is a key component when constructing colorless, directionless, and contentionless ROADM because it provides increased flexibility and scalability. We have been developing HPC-WSSs by combining a waveguide-based optical frontend and free-space optics, which we call a spatial and planar optical circuit (SPOC) platform. In this paper, we present an HPC-WSS and a low-loss transponder aggregator based on a SPOC platform, and we also describe the reliability of the frontend, which is a key enabler for the SPOC platform.

  11. FLASHFLOOD: A 3D Field-based similarity search and alignment method for flexible molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitman, Michael C.; Huber, Wolfgang K.; Horn, Hans; Krämer, Andreas; Rice, Julia E.; Swope, William C.

    2001-07-01

    A three-dimensional field-based similarity search and alignment method for flexible molecules is introduced. The conformational space of a flexible molecule is represented in terms of fragments and torsional angles of allowed conformations. A user-definable property field is used to compute features of fragment pairs. Features are generalizations of CoMMA descriptors (Silverman, B.D. and Platt, D.E., J. Med. Chem., 39 (1996) 2129.) that characterize local regions of the property field by its local moments. The features are invariant under coordinate system transformations. Features taken from a query molecule are used to form alignments with fragment pairs in the database. An assembly algorithm is then used to merge the fragment pairs into full structures, aligned to the query. Key to the method is the use of a context adaptive descriptor scaling procedure as the basis for similarity. This allows the user to tune the weights of the various feature components based on examples relevant to the particular context under investigation. The property fields may range from simple, phenomenological fields, to fields derived from quantum mechanical calculations. We apply the method to the dihydrofolate/methotrexate benchmark system, and show that when one injects relevant contextual information into the descriptor scaling procedure, better results are obtained more efficiently. We also show how the method works and include computer times for a query from a database that represents approximately 23 million conformers of seventeen flexible molecules.

  12. Rapid Low-Temperature 3D Integration of Silicon Nanowires on Flexible Substrates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoonkap; Kim, Han-Jung; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Choi, Dae-Geun; Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Jung, Joo-Yun; Jeon, Sohee; Lee, Eung-Sug; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Lee, Jihye

    2015-08-26

    The vertical integration of 1D nanostructures onto the 2D substrates has the potential to offer significant performance gains to flexible electronic devices due to high integration density, large surface area, and improved light absorption and trapping. A simple, rapid, and low temperature transfer bonding method has been developed for this purpose. Ultrasonic vibration is used to achieve a low temperature bonding within a few seconds, resulting in a polymer-matrix-free, electrically conducting vertical assembly of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with a graphene/PET substrate. The microscopic structure, and mechanical and electrical characteristics of the interface between the transferred SiNW array and graphene layer are subsequently investigated, revealing that this creates a mechanically robust and electrically Ohmic contact. This newly developed ultrasonic transfer bonding technique is also found to be readily adaptable for diverse substrates of both metal and polymer. It is therefore considered as a valuable technique for integrating 1D vertical nanostructures onto the 2D flexible substrates for flexible photovoltaics, energy storage, and water splitting systems.

  13. Free-space coherent optical communication with orbital angular, momentum multiplexing/demultiplexing using a hybrid 3D photonic integrated circuit.

    PubMed

    Guan, Binbin; Scott, Ryan P; Qin, Chuan; Fontaine, Nicolas K; Su, Tiehui; Ferrari, Carlo; Cappuzzo, Mark; Klemens, Fred; Keller, Bob; Earnshaw, Mark; Yoo, S J B

    2014-01-13

    We demonstrate free-space space-division-multiplexing (SDM) with 15 orbital angular momentum (OAM) states using a three-dimensional (3D) photonic integrated circuit (PIC). The hybrid device consists of a silica planar lightwave circuit (PLC) coupled to a 3D waveguide circuit to multiplex/demultiplex OAM states. The low excess loss hybrid device is used in individual and two simultaneous OAM states multiplexing and demultiplexing link experiments with a 20 Gb/s, 1.67 b/s/Hz quadrature phase shift keyed (QPSK) signal, which shows error-free performance for 379,960 tested bits for all OAM states.

  14. Simultaneous Aerodynamic Analysis and Design Optimization (SAADO) for a 3-D Flexible Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gumbert, Clyde R.; Hou, Gene J.-W.

    2001-01-01

    The formulation and implementation of an optimization method called Simultaneous Aerodynamic Analysis and Design Optimization (SAADO) are extended from single discipline analysis (aerodynamics only) to multidisciplinary analysis - in this case, static aero-structural analysis - and applied to a simple 3-D wing problem. The method aims to reduce the computational expense incurred in performing shape optimization using state-of-the-art Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) flow analysis, Finite Element Method (FEM) structural analysis and sensitivity analysis tools. Results for this small problem show that the method reaches the same local optimum as conventional optimization. However, unlike its application to the win,, (single discipline analysis), the method. as I implemented here, may not show significant reduction in the computational cost. Similar reductions were seen in the two-design-variable (DV) problem results but not in the 8-DV results given here.

  15. Writing of 3D optical integrated circuits with ultrashort laser pulses in the presence of strong spherical aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukharin, M. A.; Skryabin, N. N.; Khudyakov, D. V.; Vartapetov, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    A novel technique was proposed for 3D femtosecond writing of waveguides and optical integrated circuits in the presence of strong spherical aberration, caused by inscription at significantly different depth under the surface of optical glasses and crystals. Strong negative effect of spherical aberration and related asymmetry of created structures was reduced due to transition to the cumulative thermal regime of femtosecond interaction with the material. The differences in the influence of spherical aberration effect in a broad depth range (larger than 200 µm) was compensated by dynamic adjustment of laser pulse energy during the process of waveguides recording. The presented approach has been experimentally implemented in fused silica. Obtained results can be used in production of a broad class of femtosecond written three-dimensional integrated optical systems, inscripted at non-optimal (for focusing lens) optical depth or in significantly extended range of depths.

  16. 3D micro-lenses for free space intra-chip coupling in photonic-integrated circuits (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Robert; Williams, Gwilym I.; Ladak, Sam; Smowton, Peter M.

    2017-02-01

    The integration of multiple optical elements on a common substrate to create photonic integrated circuits (PIC) has been successfully applied in: fibre-optic communications, photonic computing and optical sensing. The push towards III-Vs on silicon promises a new generation of integrated devices that combine the advantages of both integrated electronics and optics in a single substrate. III-V edge emitting laser diodes offer high efficiency and low threshold currents making them ideal candidates for the optically active elements of the next generation of PICs. Nevertheless, the highly divergent and asymmetric beam shapes intrinsic to these devices limits the efficiency with which optical elements can be free space coupled intra-chip; a capability particularly desirable for optical sensing applications e.g. [1]. Furthermore, the monolithic nature of the integrated approach prohibits the use of macroscopic lenses to improve coupling. However, with the advent of 3D direct laser writing, three dimensional lenses can now be manufactured on a microscopic-scale [2], making the use of micro-lens technology for enhanced free space coupling of integrated optical elements feasible. Here we demonstrate the first use of 3D micro-lenses to improve the coupling efficiency of monolithically integrated lasers. Fabricated from IP-dip photoresist using a Nanoscribe GmbH 3D lithography tool, the lenses are embedded directly onto a structured GaInP/AlGaInP substrate containing arrays of ridge lasers free space coupled to one another via a 200 μm air gap. We compare the coupling efficiency of these lasers with and without micro-lenses through photo-voltage and beam profile measurements and discuss optimisation of lens design.

  17. Investigation of flexibility in Myosin V using a new 3D mechanical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghshenas-Jaryani, Mahdi

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents the development of a three dimensional rigid multibody model for the simulation and analysis of motor protein locomotion. The interesting aspect of this model is that it retains the mass properties, in contrast to the commonly used models which omit mass properties at the nano scale. The disproportionate size of the small mass of Myosin V relative to the large viscous friction forces requires a small integration step size that leads to a long simulation run time; however, the proposed model can be numerically integrated in a reasonable amount of time. This paper discusses modeling flexibility in the protein as an extension of the original rigid body model. Empirical studies have shown that Myosin V's neck domain can be considered as three pairs of tandem elements called IQ motifs which can bending at junctures between them. Therefore, each neck is modeled by three rigid bodies connected by ball-and-socket joints together, rather than single rigid body has been used in the previous works. Euler parameters are used to model the orientation of bodies in order to eliminate singularities in the description of orientation. In order to accomplish this, the equations of motion are reduced to minimal form using changing holonomic and non-holonomic constraints applied to the model which represent the normalization of the Euler parameters as well as contact and impact non-penetration conditions. The differences between the dynamic behavior of the new mechanical model, with flexible neck domains, and the original rigid body model are compared using simulation results.

  18. Apparatus And Method Of Using Flexible Printed Circuit Board In Optical Transceiver Device

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Bryan, Robert P.; Carson, Richard F.; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; McCormick, Frederick B.; Peterson, David W.; Peterson, Gary D.; Reysen, Bill H.

    2005-03-15

    This invention relates to a flexible printed circuit board that is used in connection with an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module. In one embodiment, the flexible printed circuit board has flexible metal layers in between flexible insulating layers, and the circuit board comprises: (1) a main body region orientated in a first direction having at least one electrical or optoelectronic device; (2) a plurality of electrical contact pads integrated into the main body region, where the electrical contact pads function to connect the flexible printed circuit board to an external environment; (3) a buckle region extending from one end of the main body region; and (4) a head region extending from one end of the buckle region, and where the head region is orientated so that it is at an angle relative to the direction of the main body region. The electrical contact pads may be ball grid arrays, solder balls or land-grid arrays, and they function to connect the circuit board to an external environment. A driver or amplifier chip may be adapted to the head region of the flexible printed circuit board. In another embodiment, a heat spreader passes along a surface of the head region of the flexible printed circuit board, and a window is formed in the head region of the flexible printed circuit board. Optoelectronic devices are adapted to the head spreader in such a manner that they are accessible through the window in the flexible printed circuit board.

  19. A practical and flexible implementation of 3D MRI in the Earth's magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Halse, Meghan E; Coy, Andrew; Dykstra, Robin; Eccles, Craig; Hunter, Mark; Ward, Rob; Callaghan, Paul T

    2006-09-01

    The Earth's magnetic field, though weak, is appealing for NMR applications because it is highly homogeneous, globally available and free. However, the practicality of Earth's field NMR (EFNMR) has long been limited by the need to perform experiments in outdoor locations where the local field homogeneity is not disrupted by ferrous or magnetic objects and where ultra-low frequency (ULF) noise sources are at a minimum. Herein we present a flexible and practical implementation of MRI in the Earth's magnetic field that demonstrates that EFNMR is not as difficult as it was previously thought to be. In this implementation, pre-polarization and ULF noise shielding, achieved using a crude electromagnet, are used to significantly improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) even in relatively noisy environments. A three axis gradient coil set, in addition to providing imaging gradients, is used to provide first-order shims such that sub-hertz linewidths can routinely be achieved, even in locations of significant local field inhomogeneity such as indoor scientific laboratories. Temporal fluctuations in the magnitude of the Earth's magnetic field are measured and a regime found within which these variations in Larmor frequency produce no observable artefacts in reconstructed images.

  20. Fast 3D molecular superposition and similarity search in databases of flexible molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krämer, Andreas; Horn, Hans W.; Rice, Julia E.

    2003-01-01

    We present a new method (fFLASH) for the virtual screening of compound databases that is based on explicit three-dimensional molecular superpositions. fFLASH takes the torsional flexibility of the database molecules fully into account, and can deal with an arbitrary number of conformation-dependent molecular features. The method utilizes a fragmentation-reassembly approach which allows for an efficient sampling of the conformational space. A fast clique-based pattern matching algorithm generates alignments of pairs of adjacent molecular fragments on the rigid query molecule that are subsequently reassembled to complete database molecules. Using conventional molecular features (hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, charges, and hydrophobic groups) we show that fFLASH is able to rapidly produce accurate alignments of medium-sized drug-like molecules. Experiments with a test database containing a diverse set of 1780 drug-like molecules (including all conformers) have shown that average query processing times of the order of 0.1 seconds per molecule can be achieved on a PC.

  1. Ultra-Small Reader/Writer with Multiple Contactless Interfaces on a Flexible Circuit Board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Hideaki; Ikeda, Minoru; Hosoda, Yasuhiro

    In order to incorporate the reader/writers (RWs) into mobile electronic devices, miniaturization and flexibility are required. To meet these requirements, we fabricate an ultra-small RW with multiple contactless interfaces by mounting main unit circuits inside the antenna coil and using flexible multi-layer circuit board.

  2. Manufacturing of polymer optical waveguides using self-assembly effect on pre-conditioned 3D-thermoformed flexible substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Gerd-Albert; Wolfer, Tim; Zeitler, Jochen; Franke, Jörg; Suttmann, Oliver; Overmeyer, Ludger

    2017-02-01

    Optical data communication is increasingly interesting for many applications in industrial processes. Therefore mass production is required to meet the requested price and lot sizes. Polymer optical waveguides show great promises to comply with price requirements while providing sufficient optical quality for short range data transmission. A high efficient fabrication technology using polymer materials could be able to create the essential backbone for 3D-optical data transmission in the future. The approach for high efficient fabrication technology of micro optics described in this paper is based on a self-assembly effect of fluids on preconditioned 3D-thermoformed polymer foils. Adjusting the surface energy on certain areas on the flexible substrate by flexographic printing mechanism is presented in this paper. With this technique conditioning lines made of silicone containing UV-varnish are printed on top of the foils and create gaps with the exposed substrate material in between. Subsequent fabrication processes are selected whether the preconditioned foil is coated with acrylate containing waveguide material prior or after the thermoforming process. Due to the different surface energy this material tends to dewet from the conditioning lines. It acts like regional barriers and sets the width of the arising waveguides. With this fabrication technology it is possible to produce multiple waveguides with a single coating process. The relevant printing process parameters that affect the quality of the generated waveguides are discussed and results of the produced waveguides with width ranging from 10 to 300 μm are shown.

  3. Flexible 3D Nanoporous Graphene for Desalination and Bio-decontamination of Brackish Water via Asymmetric Capacitive Deionization.

    PubMed

    El-Deen, Ahmed G; Boom, Remko M; Kim, Hak Yong; Duan, Hongwei; Chan-Park, Mary B; Choi, Jae-Hwan

    2016-09-28

    Nanoporous graphene based materials are a promising nanostructured carbon for energy storage and electrosorption applications. We present a novel and facile strategy for fabrication of asymmetrically functionalized microporous activated graphene electrodes for high performance capacitive desalination and disinfection of brackish water. Briefly, thiocarbohydrazide coated silica nanoparticles intercalated graphene sheets are used as a sacrificial material for creating mesoporous graphene followed by alkaline activation process. This fabrication procedure meets the ideal desalination pore diameter with ultrahigh specific surface area ∼ 2680 m(2) g(-1) of activated 3D graphene based micropores. The obtained activated graphene electrode is modified by carboxymethyl cellulose as negative charge (COO(-2)) and disinfectant quaternary ammonium cellulose with positively charged polyatomic ions of the structure (NR4(+)). Our novel asymmetric coated microporous activated 3D graphene employs nontoxic water-soluble binder which increases the surface wettability and decreases the interfacial resistance and moreover improves the electrode flexibility compared with organic binders. The desalination performance of the fabricated electrodes was evaluated by carrying out single pass mode experiment under various cell potentials with symmetric and asymmetric cells. The asymmetric charge coated microporous activated graphene exhibits exceptional electrosorption capacity of 18.43 mg g(-1) at a flow rate of 20 mL min(-1) upon applied cell potential of 1.4 V with initial NaCl concentration of 300 mg L(-1), high charge efficiency, excellent recyclability, and, moreover, good antibacterial behavior. The present strategy provides a new avenue for producing ultrapure water via green capacitive deionization technology.

  4. Combination of molecular dynamics method and 3D-RISM theory for conformational sampling of large flexible molecules in solution.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Tatsuhiko; Hirata, Fumio

    2008-04-30

    We have developed an algorithm for sampling the conformational space of large flexible molecules in solution, which combines the molecular dynamics (MD) method and the three-dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) theory. The solvent-induced force acting on solute atoms was evaluated as the gradient of the solvation free energy with respect to the solute-atom coordinates. To enhance the computation speed, we have applied a multiple timestep algorithm based on the RESPA (Reversible System Propagator Algorithm) to the combined MD/3D-RISM method. By virtue of the algorithm, one can choose a longer timestep for renewing the solvent-induced force compared with that of the conformational update. To illustrate the present MD/3D-RISM simulation, we applied the method to a model of acetylacetone in aqueous solution. The multiple timestep algorithm succeeded in enhancing the computation speed by 3.4 times for this model case. Acetylacetone possesses an intramolecular hydrogen-bonding capability between the hydroxyl group and the carbonyl oxygen atom, and the molecule is significantly stabilized due to this hydrogen bond, especially in gas phase. The intramolecular hydrogen bond was kept intact during almost entire course of the MD simulation in gas phase, while in the aqueous solutions the bond is disrupted in a significant number of conformations. This result qualitatively agrees with the behavior on a free energy barrier lying upon the process for rotating a torsional degree of freedom of the hydroxyl group, where it is significantly reduced in aqueous solution by a cancellation between the electrostatic interaction and the solvation free energy.

  5. Three-Dimensional Flexible Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Logic Circuits Based On Two-Layer Stacks of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yudan; Li, Qunqing; Xiao, Xiaoyang; Li, Guanhong; Jin, Yuanhao; Jiang, Kaili; Wang, Jiaping; Fan, Shoushan

    2016-02-23

    We have proposed and fabricated stable and repeatable, flexible, single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin film transistor (TFT) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits based on a three-dimensional (3D) structure. Two layers of SWCNT-TFT devices were stacked, where one layer served as n-type devices and the other one served as p-type devices. On the basis of this method, it is able to save at least half of the area required to construct an inverter and make large-scale and high-density integrated CMOS circuits easier to design and manufacture. The 3D flexible CMOS inverter gain can be as high as 40, and the total noise margin is more than 95%. Moreover, the input and output voltage of the inverter are exactly matched for cascading. 3D flexible CMOS NOR, NAND logic gates, and 15-stage ring oscillators were fabricated on PI substrates with high performance as well. Stable electrical properties of these circuits can be obtained with bending radii as small as 3.16 mm, which shows that such a 3D structure is a reliable architecture and suitable for carbon nanotube electrical applications in complex flexible and wearable electronic devices.

  6. Modeling a Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger with RELAP5-3D for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    The main purpose of this report is to design a printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant and carry out Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) simulation using RELAP5-3D. Helium was chosen as the coolant in the primary and secondary sides of the heat exchanger. The design of PCHE is critical for the LOCA simulations. For purposes of simplicity, a straight channel configuration was assumed. A parallel intermediate heat exchanger configuration was assumed for the RELAP5 model design. The RELAP5 modeling also required the semicircular channels in the heat exchanger to be mapped to rectangular channels. The initial RELAP5 run outputs steady state conditions which were then compared to the heat exchanger performance theory to ensure accurate design is being simulated. An exponential loss of pressure transient was simulated. This LOCA describes a loss of coolant pressure in the primary side over a 20 second time period. The results for the simulation indicate that heat is initially transferred from the primary loop to the secondary loop, but after the loss of pressure occurs, heat transfers from the secondary loop to the primary loop.

  7. Flexible, solid-state, ion-conducting membrane with 3D garnet nanofiber networks for lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Fu, Kun Kelvin; Gong, Yunhui; Dai, Jiaqi; Gong, Amy; Han, Xiaogang; Yao, Yonggang; Wang, Chengwei; Wang, Yibo; Chen, Yanan; Yan, Chaoyi; Li, Yiju; Wachsman, Eric D; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-06-28

    Beyond state-of-the-art lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology with metallic lithium anodes to replace conventional ion intercalation anode materials is highly desirable because of lithium's highest specific capacity (3,860 mA/g) and lowest negative electrochemical potential (∼3.040 V vs. the standard hydrogen electrode). In this work, we report for the first time, to our knowledge, a 3D lithium-ion-conducting ceramic network based on garnet-type Li6.4La3Zr2Al0.2O12 (LLZO) lithium-ion conductor to provide continuous Li(+) transfer channels in a polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based composite. This composite structure further provides structural reinforcement to enhance the mechanical properties of the polymer matrix. The flexible solid-state electrolyte composite membrane exhibited an ionic conductivity of 2.5 × 10(-4) S/cm at room temperature. The membrane can effectively block dendrites in a symmetric Li | electrolyte | Li cell during repeated lithium stripping/plating at room temperature, with a current density of 0.2 mA/cm(2) for around 500 h and a current density of 0.5 mA/cm(2) for over 300 h. These results provide an all solid ion-conducting membrane that can be applied to flexible LIBs and other electrochemical energy storage systems, such as lithium-sulfur batteries.

  8. Flexible, solid-state, ion-conducting membrane with 3D garnet nanofiber networks for lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, Kelvin; Gong, Yunhui; Dai, Jiaqi; Gong, Amy; Han, Xiaogang; Yao, Yonggang; Wang, Chengwei; Wang, Yibo; Chen, Yanan; Yan, Chaoyi; Li, Yiju; Wachsman, Eric D.; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-06-01

    Beyond state-of-the-art lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology with metallic lithium anodes to replace conventional ion intercalation anode materials is highly desirable because of lithium's highest specific capacity (3,860 mA/g) and lowest negative electrochemical potential (˜3.040 V vs. the standard hydrogen electrode). In this work, we report for the first time, to our knowledge, a 3D lithium-ion-conducting ceramic network based on garnet-type Li6.4La3Zr2Al0.2O12 (LLZO) lithium-ion conductor to provide continuous Li+ transfer channels in a polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based composite. This composite structure further provides structural reinforcement to enhance the mechanical properties of the polymer matrix. The flexible solid-state electrolyte composite membrane exhibited an ionic conductivity of 2.5 × 10-4 S/cm at room temperature. The membrane can effectively block dendrites in a symmetric Li | electrolyte | Li cell during repeated lithium stripping/plating at room temperature, with a current density of 0.2 mA/cm2 for around 500 h and a current density of 0.5 mA/cm2 for over 300 h. These results provide an all solid ion-conducting membrane that can be applied to flexible LIBs and other electrochemical energy storage systems, such as lithium-sulfur batteries.

  9. Flexible, solid-state, ion-conducting membrane with 3D garnet nanofiber networks for lithium batteries

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Kun (Kelvin); Gong, Yunhui; Dai, Jiaqi; Gong, Amy; Han, Xiaogang; Yao, Yonggang; Wang, Chengwei; Wang, Yibo; Chen, Yanan; Yan, Chaoyi; Li, Yiju; Wachsman, Eric D.; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-01-01

    Beyond state-of-the-art lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology with metallic lithium anodes to replace conventional ion intercalation anode materials is highly desirable because of lithium’s highest specific capacity (3,860 mA/g) and lowest negative electrochemical potential (∼3.040 V vs. the standard hydrogen electrode). In this work, we report for the first time, to our knowledge, a 3D lithium-ion–conducting ceramic network based on garnet-type Li6.4La3Zr2Al0.2O12 (LLZO) lithium-ion conductor to provide continuous Li+ transfer channels in a polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based composite. This composite structure further provides structural reinforcement to enhance the mechanical properties of the polymer matrix. The flexible solid-state electrolyte composite membrane exhibited an ionic conductivity of 2.5 × 10−4 S/cm at room temperature. The membrane can effectively block dendrites in a symmetric Li | electrolyte | Li cell during repeated lithium stripping/plating at room temperature, with a current density of 0.2 mA/cm2 for around 500 h and a current density of 0.5 mA/cm2 for over 300 h. These results provide an all solid ion-conducting membrane that can be applied to flexible LIBs and other electrochemical energy storage systems, such as lithium–sulfur batteries. PMID:27307440

  10. 3D flexible O/N Co-doped graphene foams for supercapacitor electrodes with high volumetric and areal capacitances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Tianfeng; Wan, Zunyuan; Wang, Zilei; Wen, Yuxiang; Liu, Mengting; Peng, Shanglong; He, Deyan; Hou, Juan; Huang, Fei; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-12-01

    3D flexible O/N co-doped graphene foams (GF) have been designed and fabricated successfully via combining the compression/hot curing strategy with chemical reduction and hydrothermal treatment, in which melamine foams were used not only as the source of N/O functional groups for the introduction of pseudocapacitance but also as the sacrificial template to inhibit the agglomeration of graphene. Also, the mechanism for method of the compressing/hot curing has been investigated systematically. And the resultant GF demonstrates excellent mechanical strength and flexibility. When the compacting GF is used as free-standing electrodes for supercapacitor, it exhibits more excellent ability of charge storage than that of pristine graphene foams. And 10 MPa-GF electrodes delivers high areal capacitance of 375 μF cm-2 at a current density of 1 A g-1, excellent rate capabilities and superior cycling stability of above 100%. According to the analysis of capacitance contribution for 10 MPa-GF electrode, the pseudocapacitance originated from N/O functional groups is up to ∼65% of the contribution of total capacitance. Moreover, the symmetric supercapacitor comprised of 10 MPa-GF electrodes presents a maximum energy density of 16 Wh kg-1 (8 Wh L-1) and a maximum power density of 17 kW kg-1 (8.6 kW L-1).

  11. Flexible 3D porous CuO nanowire arrays for enzymeless glucose sensing: in situ engineered versus ex situ piled.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianfei; Zhu, Yihua; Yang, Xiaoling; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Ying; Li, Chunzhong

    2015-01-14

    Convenient determination of glucose in a sensitive, reliable and cost-effective way has aroused sustained research passion, bringing along assiduous investigation of high-performance electroactive nanomaterials to build enzymeless sensors. In addition to the intrinsic electrocatalytic capability of the sensing materials, electrode architecture at the microscale is also crucial for fully enhancing the performance. In this work, free-standing porous CuO nanowire (NW) was taken as a model sensing material to illustrate this point, where an in situ formed 3D CuO nanowire array (NWA) and CuO nanowires pile (NWP) immobilized with polymer binder by conventional drop-casting technique were both studied for enzymeless glucose sensing. The NWA electrode exhibited greatly promoted electrochemistry characterized by decreased overpotential for electro-oxidation of glucose and over 5-fold higher sensitivity compared to the NWP counterpart, benefiting from the binder-free nanoarray structure. Besides, its sensing performance was also satisfying in terms of rapidness, selectivity and durability. Further, the CuO NWA was utilized to fabricate a flexible sensor which showed excellent performance stability against mechanical bending. Thanks to its favorable electrode architecture, the CuO NWA is believed to offer opportunities for building high-efficiency flexible electrochemical devices.

  12. 3D modelling and construction of a standard cross section of the Euganean Hydrothermal circuit - NE Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pola, Marco; Zampieri, Dario; Fabbri, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    software uses 2D model sections, therefore the standard cross section will be useful as starting point for the hydrothermal model and to test its parameters sensitivity. The analysis of some available unpublished seismic lines, located few kilometres to the southeast of the EGF, has permitted to construct a 3D model of the subsurface, performed by gOcad. In the north-western part, including the EGF, the main constraint is given by the stratigraphies of deep wells penetrating the bedrock for few kilometres. Therefore, this work confirms the idea that the outflow of the thermal waters, in the area near the Euganei Hills, is caused by the local extensional regime related to the strike-slip kinematics of the Schio - Vicenza fault system.

  13. Advances in Current Rating Techniques for Flexible Printed Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Twist Capsule Assemblies are power transfer devices commonly used in spacecraft mechanisms that require electrical signals to be passed across a rotating interface. Flexible printed circuits (flex tapes, see Figure 2) are used to carry the electrical signals in these devices. Determining the current rating for a given trace (conductor) size can be challenging. Because of the thermal conditions present in this environment the most appropriate approach is to assume that the only means by which heat is removed from the trace is thru the conductor itself, so that when the flex tape is long the temperature rise in the trace can be extreme. While this technique represents a worst-case thermal situation that yields conservative current ratings, this conservatism may lead to overly cautious designs when not all traces are used at their full rated capacity. A better understanding of how individual traces behave when they are not all in use is the goal of this research. In the testing done in support of this paper, a representative flex tape used for a flight Solar Array Drive Assembly (SADA) application was tested by energizing individual traces (conductors in the tape) in a vacuum chamber and the temperatures of the tape measured using both fine-gauge thermocouples and infrared thermographic imaging. We find that traditional derating schemes used for bundles of wires do not apply for the configuration tested. We also determine that single active traces located in the center of a flex tape operate at lower temperatures than those on the outside edges.

  14. A 3D porous zinc MOF constructed from a flexible tripodal ligand: Synthesis, structure, and photoluminescence property

    SciTech Connect

    Wen Lili; Wang Dong'e; Wang Chenggang; Wang Feng; Li Dongfeng Deng Kejian

    2009-03-15

    A new metal-organic framework, [Zn{sub 5}(trencba){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O] (1) [H{sub 3}trencba=N,N,N',N',N'',N''-tris[(4-carboxylate-2-yl)methyl]-tris (2-aminoethyl)amine], constructed from a flexible tripodal ligand based on C{sub 3} symmetric tris(2-aminoethyl)amine, has been synthesized hydrothermally and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TG, XRD and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound 1 contains an unprecedented linear penta-nuclear zinc cluster fragment. Each ligand links four penta-nuclear fragments, and every fragment links eight ligands to generate a three-dimensional non-interpenetrated porous framework. The uncoordinated water molecules were observed trapped in the void pores. Compound 1 represents the first example of (6,8)-connected 3D bi-nodal framework based on a single kind of organic ligand. The photoluminescence measurements showed that complex 1 exhibits relatively stronger blue emissions at room temperature than that of the ligand. - Graphical abstract: The MOF [Zn{sub 5}(trencba){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O] (H{sub 3}trencba=N,N,N',N',N',N'-tris[(4-carboxylate-2-yl)methyl]-tris (2-aminoethyl)amine) reveals a (6,8)-connected bi-nodal three-dimensional porous framework with unprecedented penta-nuclear fragment, which appears to be a good candidate of hybrid inorganic-organic photoactive materials.

  15. Non-planar interconnects in double-sided flexible Cu-PET substrates using a laser-assisted maskless microdeposition process: 3D finite element modeling and experimental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabari, Elahe; Tong, Steven; Azhari, Amir; Toyserkani, Ehsan

    2014-03-01

    Non-planar (3D) interconnects have an important role in the electronic packaging industry these days. These unconventional interconnects allow manufacturers to save materials and space while connecting circuit components on flexible and non-planar substrates. Among a variety of flexible boards, double-sided flexible substrates have attracted the electronic industry to effectively and compactly develop miniaturized flexible devices such as sensors-on-chips. This study reports our developmental procedure for the creation of non-planar silver interconnects on the edge of double-sided copper substrates separated by a layer of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) using laser-assisted maskless microdeposition (LAMM). The article consists of the characterization of the LAMM process to effectively deposit Ag nanoparticles for production of conductive interconnects. Several parameters, including the deposition and laser processing parameters, are optimized to achieve interconnects free of pores, cracks and delamination. For investigating the topography and microstructure of interconnects, various analytical tools, such as SEM, XRD, Profilometery, and EDS were used. Furthermore, a 3D finite element numerical model was developed to predict the laser processing of silver nanoparticles on the substrate. The model includes a coupled thermal and structural governing physics to derive the temperature history throughout the simulation as well as strain/displacement within the substrate, which is identified the major source of cark formation in Ag tracks. The SEM micrographs of the laser processed nanoparticles suggest that a minimum of 1.24 W laser power was needed for an effective nanoparticles sintering to obtain conductive 3D interconnects with minimum amount of cracks whereas a 1.7 W laser power caused PET to decompose.

  16. Reciprocal inhibition of inhibition: A circuit motif for flexible categorization in stimulus selection

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Eric I.

    2011-01-01

    As a precursor to the selection of a stimulus for gaze and attention, a midbrain network categorizes stimuli into “strongest” and “others.” The categorization tracks flexibly, in real-time, the absolute strength of the strongest stimulus. In this study, we take a first principles approach to computations that are essential for such categorization. We demonstrate that classical feedforward lateral inhibition cannot produce flexible categorization. However, circuits in which the strength of lateral inhibition varies with the relative strength of competing stimuli categorize successfully. One particular implementation - reciprocal inhibition of feedforward lateral inhibition – is structurally the simplest, and it outperforms others in flexibly categorizing rapidly and reliably. Strong predictions of this anatomically supported circuit model are validated by neural responses measured in the owl midbrain. The results demonstrate the extraordinary power of a remarkably simple, neurally grounded circuit motif in producing flexible categorization, a computation fundamental to attention, perception, and decision-making. PMID:22243757

  17. Ultra-smooth glassy graphene thin films for flexible transparent circuits

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiao; Wu, Jiang; Qian, Zhicheng; Wang, Haiyan; Jian, Jie; Cao, Yingjie; Rummeli, Mark H.; Yi, Qinghua; Liu, Huiyun; Zou, Guifu

    2016-01-01

    Large-area graphene thin films are prized in flexible and transparent devices. We report on a type of glassy graphene that is in an intermediate state between glassy carbon and graphene and that has high crystallinity but curly lattice planes. A polymer-assisted approach is introduced to grow an ultra-smooth (roughness, <0.7 nm) glassy graphene thin film at the inch scale. Owing to the advantages inherited by the glassy graphene thin film from graphene and glassy carbon, the glassy graphene thin film exhibits conductivity, transparency, and flexibility comparable to those of graphene, as well as glassy carbon–like mechanical and chemical stability. Moreover, glassy graphene–based circuits are fabricated using a laser direct writing approach. The circuits are transferred to flexible substrates and are shown to perform reliably. The glassy graphene thin film should stimulate the application of flexible transparent conductive materials in integrated circuits. PMID:28138535

  18. Stereopsis and 3D surface perception by spiking neurons in laminar cortical circuits: a method for converting neural rate models into spiking models.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yongqiang; Grossberg, Stephen

    2012-02-01

    A laminar cortical model of stereopsis and 3D surface perception is developed and simulated. The model shows how spiking neurons that interact in hierarchically organized laminar circuits of the visual cortex can generate analog properties of 3D visual percepts. The model describes how monocular and binocular oriented filtering interact with later stages of 3D boundary formation and surface filling-in in the LGN and cortical areas V1, V2, and V4. It proposes how interactions between layers 4, 3B, and 2/3 in V1 and V2 contribute to stereopsis, and how binocular and monocular information combine to form 3D boundary and surface representations. The model suggests how surface-to-boundary feedback from V2 thin stripes to pale stripes helps to explain how computationally complementary boundary and surface formation properties lead to a single consistent percept, eliminate redundant 3D boundaries, and trigger figure-ground perception. The model also shows how false binocular boundary matches may be eliminated by Gestalt grouping properties. In particular, the disparity filter, which helps to solve the correspondence problem by eliminating false matches, is realized using inhibitory interneurons as part of the perceptual grouping process by horizontal connections in layer 2/3 of cortical area V2. The 3D sLAMINART model simulates 3D surface percepts that are consciously seen in 18 psychophysical experiments. These percepts include contrast variations of dichoptic masking and the correspondence problem, the effect of interocular contrast differences on stereoacuity, Panum's limiting case, the Venetian blind illusion, stereopsis with polarity-reversed stereograms, da Vinci stereopsis, and perceptual closure. The model hereby illustrates a general method of unlumping rate-based models that use the membrane equations of neurophysiology into models that use spiking neurons, and which may be embodied in VLSI chips that use spiking neurons to minimize heat production. Copyright

  19. Integrated silicon and silicon nitride photonic circuits on flexible substrates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Li, Mo

    2014-06-15

    Flexible integrated photonic devices based on crystalline materials on plastic substrates have a promising potential in many unconventional applications. In this Letter, we demonstrate a fully integrated photonic system including ring resonators and grating couplers, based on both crystalline silicon and silicon nitride, on flexible plastic substrate by using the stamping-transfer method. A high yield has been achieved by a simple, yet reliable transfer method without significant performance degradation.

  20. Enhancement of electrochemical performances for LiFePO4/C with 3D-grape-bunch structure and selection of suitable equivalent circuit for fitting EIS results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangfeng; Luo, Dongmei; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Zhao

    2015-09-01

    The LiFePO4/C composite with 3D-grape-bunch structure is successfully synthesized through a novel hydrothermal method. Sucrose is used as in-situ coating carbon source, and the hydroxylated MWCNTs are used as connecting carbon wires which can be embedded into the carbon coating via self-assembling of the hydrophilic groups to form 3D-grape-bunch structure. The influences of the 3D-grape-bunch structure on the morphology, structure and electrochemical performance of the LiFePO4/C composites are investigated by XRD, SEM, TEM, BET, galvanostatic charge/discharge tests, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests. Especially, four kinds of the equivalent circuit models usually employed to analysis the EISs of LiFePO4 as cathode material for Li-ion battery are discussed, and the suitable equivalent circuit for fitting EIS of LiFePO4/C composite with 3D-grape-bunch structure is selected. The optimal LiFePO4/C composite with 3D-grape-bunch structure owing to its good conductive network and high graphitic degree (low ID/IG value) of residual carbon exhibits a stable and high reversible capacity of 160.5 mAh g-1 at 0.1C and 108.4 mAh g-1 even at 10.0C, and the cycling capacity retention rate reaches 99.9% over 60 cycles. Moreover, it also exhibits high conductivity, good reversibility and excellent stability in EIS and CV tests.

  1. Development of 3-D Mechanical Models of Electric Circuits and Their Effect on Students' Understanding of Electric Potential Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balta, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Visualizing physical concepts through models is an essential method in many sciences. While students are mostly proficient in handling mathematical aspects of problems, they frequently lack the ability to visualize and interpret abstract physical concepts in a meaningful way. In this paper, initially the electric circuits and related concepts were…

  2. 1-D, 2-D and 3-D Negative-Refraction Metamaterials at Optical Frequencies: Optical Nano-Transmission-Line and Circuit Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engheta, Nader; Alu, Andrea

    2006-03-01

    In recent years metamaterials have offered new possibilities for overcoming some of the intrinsic limitations in wave propagation. Their realization at microwave frequencies has followed two different paths; one consisting of embedding resonant inclusions in a host dielectric, and the other following a transmission-line approach, i.e., building 1-D, 2-D, or 3-D cascades of circuit elements, respectively, as linear, planar or bulk right- or left-handed metamaterials. The latter is known to provide larger bandwidth and better robustness to ohmic losses. Extending these concepts to optical frequencies is a challenging task, due to changes in material response to electromagnetic waves at these frequencies. However, recently we have studied theoretically how it may be possible to have circuit nano-elements at these frequencies by properly exploiting plasmonic resonances. Here we present our theoretical work on translating the circuit concepts of right- and left-handed metamaterials into optical frequencies by applying the analogy between nanoparticles and nanocircuit elements in transmission lines. We discuss how it is possible to synthesize optical negative-refraction metamaterials by properly cascading plasmonic and non-plasmonic elements in 1-D, 2-D and 3-D geometries.

  3. 3D nitrogen-doped graphene foam with encapsulated germanium/nitrogen-doped graphene yolk-shell nanoarchitecture for high-performance flexible Li-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Mo, Runwei; Rooney, David; Sun, Kening; Yang, Hui Ying

    2017-01-04

    Flexible electrochemical energy storage devices have attracted extensive attention as promising power sources for the ever-growing field of flexible and wearable electronic products. However, the rational design of a novel electrode structure with a good flexibility, high capacity, fast charge-discharge rate and long cycling lifetimes remains a long-standing challenge for developing next-generation flexible energy-storage materials. Herein, we develop a facile and general approach to three-dimensional (3D) interconnected porous nitrogen-doped graphene foam with encapsulated Ge quantum dot/nitrogen-doped graphene yolk-shell nano architecture for high specific reversible capacity (1,220 mAh g(-1)), long cycling capability (over 96% reversible capacity retention from the second to 1,000 cycles) and ultra-high rate performance (over 800 mAh g(-1) at 40 C). This work paves a way to develop the 3D interconnected graphene-based high-capacity electrode material systems, particularly those that suffer from huge volume expansion, for the future development of high-performance flexible energy storage systems.

  4. 3D nitrogen-doped graphene foam with encapsulated germanium/nitrogen-doped graphene yolk-shell nanoarchitecture for high-performance flexible Li-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Runwei; Rooney, David; Sun, Kening; Yang, Hui Ying

    2017-01-01

    Flexible electrochemical energy storage devices have attracted extensive attention as promising power sources for the ever-growing field of flexible and wearable electronic products. However, the rational design of a novel electrode structure with a good flexibility, high capacity, fast charge-discharge rate and long cycling lifetimes remains a long-standing challenge for developing next-generation flexible energy-storage materials. Herein, we develop a facile and general approach to three-dimensional (3D) interconnected porous nitrogen-doped graphene foam with encapsulated Ge quantum dot/nitrogen-doped graphene yolk-shell nano architecture for high specific reversible capacity (1,220 mAh g-1), long cycling capability (over 96% reversible capacity retention from the second to 1,000 cycles) and ultra-high rate performance (over 800 mAh g-1 at 40 C). This work paves a way to develop the 3D interconnected graphene-based high-capacity electrode material systems, particularly those that suffer from huge volume expansion, for the future development of high-performance flexible energy storage systems.

  5. 3D nitrogen-doped graphene foam with encapsulated germanium/nitrogen-doped graphene yolk-shell nanoarchitecture for high-performance flexible Li-ion battery

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Runwei; Rooney, David; Sun, Kening; Yang, Hui Ying

    2017-01-01

    Flexible electrochemical energy storage devices have attracted extensive attention as promising power sources for the ever-growing field of flexible and wearable electronic products. However, the rational design of a novel electrode structure with a good flexibility, high capacity, fast charge–discharge rate and long cycling lifetimes remains a long-standing challenge for developing next-generation flexible energy-storage materials. Herein, we develop a facile and general approach to three-dimensional (3D) interconnected porous nitrogen-doped graphene foam with encapsulated Ge quantum dot/nitrogen-doped graphene yolk-shell nano architecture for high specific reversible capacity (1,220 mAh g−1), long cycling capability (over 96% reversible capacity retention from the second to 1,000 cycles) and ultra-high rate performance (over 800 mAh g−1 at 40 C). This work paves a way to develop the 3D interconnected graphene-based high-capacity electrode material systems, particularly those that suffer from huge volume expansion, for the future development of high-performance flexible energy storage systems. PMID:28051065

  6. Planar patterned stretchable electrode arrays based on flexible printed circuits

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, R E; Boyce, C M; Boyce, M C; Pruitt, B L

    2013-01-01

    For stretchable electronics to achieve broad industrial application, they must be reliable to manufacture and must perform robustly while undergoing large deformations. We present a new strategy for creating planar stretchable electronics and demonstrate one such device, a stretchable microelectrode array based on flex circuit technology. Stretchability is achieved through novel, rationally designed perforations that provide islands of low strain and continuous low-strain pathways for conductive traces. This approach enables the device to maintain constant electrical properties and planarity while undergoing applied strains up to 15%. Materials selection is not limited to polyimide composite devices and can potentially be implemented with either soft or hard substrates and can incorporate standard metals or new nano-engineered conductors. By using standard flex circuit technology, our planar microelectrode device achieved constant resistances for strains up to 20% with less than a 4% resistance offset over 120,000 cycles at 10% strain. PMID:24244075

  7. Planar patterned stretchable electrode arrays based on flexible printed circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Boyce, C. M.; Boyce, M. C.; Pruitt, B. L.

    2013-10-01

    For stretchable electronics to achieve broad industrial application, they must be reliable to manufacture and must perform robustly while undergoing large deformations. We present a new strategy for creating planar stretchable electronics and demonstrate one such device, a stretchable microelectrode array based on flex circuit technology. Stretchability is achieved through novel, rationally designed perforations that provide islands of low strain and continuous low-strain pathways for conductive traces. This approach enables the device to maintain constant electrical properties and planarity while undergoing applied strains up to 15%. Materials selection is not limited to polyimide composite devices and can potentially be implemented with either soft or hard substrates and can incorporate standard metals or new nano-engineered conductors. By using standard flex circuit technology, our planar microelectrode device achieved constant resistances for strains up to 20% with less than a 4% resistance offset over 120 000 cycles at 10% strain.

  8. The effect of reinforcement on the tear properties of flexible circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Acton, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    The tear properties of Kapton flexible circuitry are very poor. To better understand the properties of flex circuits and how to reinforce them, four different reinforcing materials were applied to a typical flex circuit and the tear properties were measured. Teflon film, nylon fabric, glass fabric and kevlar fabric were all laminated to a flex circuit with Pyralux (a Dupont tradename) adhesive. The fabrics were laminated in both a 0/90 and a +- 45 configuration. Five tests were performed, Graves, crescent, trousers, tensile and single edge notch (SEN). Of the four materials used for reinforcement, kevlar clearly showed the greatest overall improvement in tear properties. However, kevlar also provided the greatest processing difficulties. All of the reinforced circuits had an increase in thickness which resulted in an unacceptable loss of flexibility.

  9. The effect of reinforcement on the tear properties of flexible circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acton, A. E.

    The tear properties of Kapton flexible circuitry are very poor. To better understand the properties of flex circuits and how to reinforce them, four different reinforcing materials were applied to a typical flex circuit and the tear properties were measured. Teflon film, nylon fabric, glass fabric and Kevlar fabric were all laminated to a flex circuit with Pyralux (a Dupont tradename) adhesive. The fabrics were laminated in both a 0/90 and a + or - 45 configuration. Five tests wereperformed, Graves, crescent, trousers, tensile and single edge notch (SEN). Of the four materials used for reinforcement, Kevlar clearly showed the greatest overall improvement in tear properties. However, Kevlar also provided the greatest processing difficulties. All of the reinforced circuits had an increase in thickness which resulted in an unacceptable loss of flexibility.

  10. Medium-scale carbon nanotube thin-film integrated circuits on flexible plastic substrates.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qing; Kim, Hoon-sik; Pimparkar, Ninad; Kulkarni, Jaydeep P; Wang, Congjun; Shim, Moonsub; Roy, Kaushik; Alam, Muhammad A; Rogers, John A

    2008-07-24

    The ability to form integrated circuits on flexible sheets of plastic enables attributes (for example conformal and flexible formats and lightweight and shock resistant construction) in electronic devices that are difficult or impossible to achieve with technologies that use semiconductor wafers or glass plates as substrates. Organic small-molecule and polymer-based materials represent the most widely explored types of semiconductors for such flexible circuitry. Although these materials and those that use films or nanostructures of inorganics have promise for certain applications, existing demonstrations of them in circuits on plastic indicate modest performance characteristics that might restrict the application possibilities. Here we report implementations of a comparatively high-performance carbon-based semiconductor consisting of sub-monolayer, random networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes to yield small- to medium-scale integrated digital circuits, composed of up to nearly 100 transistors on plastic substrates. Transistors in these integrated circuits have excellent properties: mobilities as high as 80 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), subthreshold slopes as low as 140 m V dec(-1), operating voltages less than 5 V together with deterministic control over the threshold voltages, on/off ratios as high as 10(5), switching speeds in the kilohertz range even for coarse (approximately 100-microm) device geometries, and good mechanical flexibility-all with levels of uniformity and reproducibility that enable high-yield fabrication of integrated circuits. Theoretical calculations, in contexts ranging from heterogeneous percolative transport through the networks to compact models for the transistors to circuit level simulations, provide quantitative and predictive understanding of these systems. Taken together, these results suggest that sub-monolayer films of single-walled carbon nanotubes are attractive materials for flexible integrated circuits, with many potential areas of

  11. Development of 3D Urchin-Shaped Coaxial Manganese Dioxide@Polyaniline (MnO2@PANI) Composite and Self-Assembled 3D Pillared Graphene Foam for Asymmetric All-Solid-State Flexible Supercapacitor Application.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Kalyan; Yue, Chee Yoon; Sk, Md Moniruzzaman; Jena, Rajeeb Kumar

    2017-05-10

    We have fabricated high-energy-density all-solid-state flexible asymmetric supercapacitor by using a facile novel 3D hollow urchin-shaped coaxial manganese dioxide@polyaniline (MnO2@PANI) composite as positive electrode and 3D graphene foam (GF) as negative electrode materials with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/KOH gel electrolyte. The coaxial MnO2@PANI composite was fabricated by hydrothermal route followed by oxidation without use of an external oxidant. The formation mechanism of the 3D hollow MnO2@PANI composite occurs first by nucleation and growth of the MnO2 crystal species via dissolution-recrystallization and oriented attachment mechanisms followed by the oxidation of aniline monomers on the MnO2 crystalline template. The self-assembled 3D graphene block was synthesized by hydrothermal route using vitamin C as a reducing agent. The microstructures of the composites are analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. The morphology is characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which clearly showed the formation of urchin-shaped coaxial MnO2@PANI composite. The electrochemical studies are explored by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectrometry, and cyclic charge-discharge tests. The symmetric all-solid-state flexible MnO2@PANI//MnO2@PANI and GF//GF supercapacitors exhibit the specific capacitance of 129.2 and 82.1 F g(-1) at 0.5 A/g current density, respectively. The solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor shows higher energy density (37 Wh kg(-1)) with respect to the solid-state symmetric supercapacitors MnO2@PANI//MnO2@PANI and GF//GF, where the obtained energy density are found to be 17.9 and 11.4 Wh kg(-1), respectively, at 0.5 A/g current density. Surprisingly, the asymmetric supercapacitor shows a high energy density of 22.3 Wh kg(-1) at a high current density of 5 A g(-1). The solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor shows a

  12. Low-cost, flexible, and self-cleaning 3D nanocone anti-reflection films for high-efficiency photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Kwong-Hoi; Lin, Qingfeng; Chou, Hungtao; Zhang, Qianpeng; Fu, Huiying; Qi, Pengfei; Fan, Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    Low-cost engineered nanotemplates are used to mold flexible nanocone anti-reflection (AR) films. Both optical reflectance measurements and photovoltaics characterizations demonstrate that the flexible nanocone AR films can considerably suppress device front-side reflectance and thus improve the power conversion efficiency of high-efficiency thin-film CdTe solar cells. Additionally, these nanocone AR films are found to be superhydrophobic and thus possess self-cleaning capability.

  13. Distinct basal ganglia circuits controlling behaviors guided by flexible and stable values

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoung F.; Hikosaka, Okihide

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Choosing valuable objects is critical for survival, but their values may change flexibly or remain stable. Therefore, animals should be able to update the object values flexibly by recent experiences and retain them stably by long-term experiences. However, it is unclear how the brain encodes the two conflicting forms of values and controls behavior accordingly. We found that distinct circuits of the primate caudate nucleus control behavior selectively in the flexible and stable value conditions. Single caudate neurons encoded the values of visual objects in a regionally distinct manner: flexible value coding in the caudate head, and stable value coding in the caudate tail. Monkeys adapted in both conditions by looking at objects with higher values. Importantly, inactivation of each caudate subregion disrupted the high-low value discrimination selectively in the flexible or stable context. This parallel complementary mechanism enables animals to choose valuable objects in both flexible and stable conditions. PMID:23954031

  14. Distinct basal ganglia circuits controlling behaviors guided by flexible and stable values.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung F; Hikosaka, Okihide

    2013-09-04

    Choosing valuable objects is critical for survival, but their values may change flexibly or remain stable. Therefore, animals should be able to update the object values flexibly by recent experiences and retain them stably by long-term experiences. However, it is unclear how the brain encodes the two conflicting forms of values and controls behavior accordingly. We found that distinct circuits of the primate caudate nucleus control behavior selectively in the flexible and stable value conditions. Single caudate neurons encoded the values of visual objects in a regionally distinct manner: flexible value coding in the caudate head and stable value coding in the caudate tail. Monkeys adapted in both conditions by looking at objects with higher values. Importantly, inactivation of each caudate subregion disrupted the high-low value discrimination selectively in the flexible or stable context. This parallel complementary mechanism enables animals to choose valuable objects in both flexible and stable conditions.

  15. Comparison of outcomes of tricuspid annuloplasty with 3D-rigid versus flexible prosthetic ring for functional tricuspid regurgitation secondary to rheumatic mitral valve disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haiping; Wang, Xin; Lv, Zhenqian; Liu, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Background Annuloplasty bands and rings are widely used for repairing functional tricuspid regurgitation (FTR). However, the question regarding which is the ideal annuloplasty device remains unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and mid-term durability of tricuspid ring annuloplasty for FTR secondary to rheumatic mitral valve disease using flexible Cosgrove-Edwards band and the rigid Edwards MC3 ring (Edwards Lifesciences, LLC, Irvine, CA, USA). Methods We retrospectively collected the clinical data of those who underwent mitral valve replacement (MVR) in concomitant with tricuspid ring annuloplasty from 2009 to 2013. The flexible band was used in 46 patients (flexible group), and the 3D rigid ring was used in 60 patients (rigid group). Echocardiographic evaluation of tricuspid function was performed preoperatively and postoperatively. Results The grade of TR was significantly improved compared to preoperative values in two groups. There was no significant difference regarding postoperative TR grade between the two groups at 1 week and 2–3 months but there was statistical significant difference at postoperative 6–12 months, and 2–3 years. During the follow up period, 25 of 46 patients (54.3%) in flexible group and 22 of 60 patients (30.3%) in rigid group developed recurrent TR. Freedom from recurrent TR in flexible group is significant lower than rigid group in each postoperative follow up period. Conclusions These findings suggest that 3D rigid ring annuloplasty might be more effective for tricuspid ring annuloplasty in FTR in mid-term postoperative periods when compared to flexible band. PMID:28066587

  16. A 3-D RBF-FD solver for modeling the atmospheric global electric circuit with topography (GEC-RBFFD v1.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayona, V.; Flyer, N.; Lucas, G. M.; Baumgaertner, A. J. G.

    2015-10-01

    A numerical model based on radial basis function-generated finite differences (RBF-FD) is developed for simulating the global electric circuit (GEC) within the Earth's atmosphere, represented by a 3-D variable coefficient linear elliptic partial differential equation (PDE) in a spherically shaped volume with the lower boundary being the Earth's topography and the upper boundary a sphere at 60 km. To our knowledge, this is (1) the first numerical model of the GEC to combine the Earth's topography with directly approximating the differential operators in 3-D space and, related to this, (2) the first RBF-FD method to use irregular 3-D stencils for discretization to handle the topography. It benefits from the mesh-free nature of RBF-FD, which is especially suitable for modeling high-dimensional problems with irregular boundaries. The RBF-FD elliptic solver proposed here makes no limiting assumptions on the spatial variability of the coefficients in the PDE (i.e., the conductivity profile), the right hand side forcing term of the PDE (i.e., distribution of current sources) or the geometry of the lower boundary.

  17. Highly-flexible 3D Li2S/graphene cathode for high-performance lithium sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiarui; Chen, Yuanfu; Lv, Weiqiang; Wen, Kechun; Li, Pingjian; Qi, Fei; Wang, Zegao; Zhang, Wanli; Li, Yanrong; Qin, Wu; He, Weidong

    2016-09-01

    Three-dimensional Li2S/graphene hierarchical architecture (3DLG) is synthesized with a facile infiltration method. Highly-crystalline Li2S nanoparticles are deposited homogenously into three-dimensional graphene foam (3DGF) network grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), resulting in 3DLG with high surface area, porosity, flexibility and conductivity. The 3DLG is employed as flexible, free-standing and binder-free cathode without metallic current collectors or conducting additives. Due to the unique structure, the 3DLG exhibits a high discharge capacity of 894.7 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C, a high capacity retention of 87.7% after 300 cycles at 0.2 C, and the high-rate capacity up to 4 C reaches 598.6 mAh g-1. The cyclic performance is record-breaking compared to the previous reports on free-standing graphene-Li2S cathodes. Flexible lithium-sulfur batteries based on the high-capacity 3DLG cathode have promising application potentials in flexible electronics, electrical vehicles, etc.

  18. Flexible and low-voltage integrated circuits constructed from high-performance nanocrystal transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, David K; Lai, Yuming; Diroll, Benjamin T; Murray, Christopher B; Kagan, Cherie R

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals are emerging as a new class of solution-processable materials for low-cost, flexible, thin-film electronics. Although these colloidal inks have been shown to form single, thin-film field-effect transistors with impressive characteristics, the use of multiple high-performance nanocrystal field-effect transistors in large-area integrated circuits has not been shown. This is needed to understand and demonstrate the applicability of these discrete nanocrystal field-effect transistors for advanced electronic technologies. Here we report solution-deposited nanocrystal integrated circuits, showing nanocrystal integrated circuit inverters, amplifiers and ring oscillators, constructed from high-performance, low-voltage, low-hysteresis CdSe nanocrystal field-effect transistors with electron mobilities of up to 22 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), current modulation >10(6) and subthreshold swing of 0.28 V dec(-1). We fabricated the nanocrystal field-effect transistors and nanocrystal integrated circuits from colloidal inks on flexible plastic substrates and scaled the devices to operate at low voltages. We demonstrate that colloidal nanocrystal field-effect transistors can be used as building blocks to construct complex integrated circuits, promising a viable material for low-cost, flexible, large-area electronics.

  19. Flexible printed circuit boards laser bonding using a laser beam homogenization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joohan; Choi, Haewoon

    2012-11-01

    A laser micro-bonding process using laser beam shaping is successfully demonstrated for flexible printed circuit boards. A CW Ytterbium fiber laser with a wavelength of 1070 nm and a laser power density of 1-7 W/mm2 is employed as a local heat source for bonding flexible printed circuit boards to rigid printed circuit boards. To improve the bonding quality, a micro-lens array is used to modify the Gaussian laser beam for the bonding process. An electromagnetic modeling and heat transfer simulation is conducted to verify the effect of the micro-lens array on the laser bonding process. The optimal bonding parameters are found experimentally. As the measured temperature ramp rate of the boards exceeds 1100 K/s, bonding occurs within 100-200 ms at a laser power density of 5 W/mm2. The bonding quality of the FPCB is verified with a shear strength test. Process characteristics are also discussed.

  20. Controlling depth of focus in 3D image reconstructions by flexible and adaptive deformation of digital holograms.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, P; Paturzo, M; Memmolo, P; Finizio, A

    2009-09-15

    We show here that through an adaptive deformation of digital holograms it is possible to manage the depth of focus in 3D imaging reconstruction. Deformation is applied to the original hologram with the aim to put simultaneously in focus, and in one reconstructed image plane, different objects lying at different distances from the hologram plane (i.e., CCD sensor). In the same way, by adapting the deformation it is possible to extend the depth of field having a tilted object entirely in focus. We demonstrate the method in both lensless as well as in microscope configuration.

  1. Pulsed laser deposition-assisted synthesis of porous WP2 nanosheet arrays integrated on graphite paper as a 3D flexible cathode for efficient hydrogen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Mingyu; Guo, Weimeng; Wu, Tianli; Wang, Xiaodeng; Zhang, Dingke; Wang, Shuxia; Chen, Shijian

    2017-10-01

    Herein, porous WP2 nanosheet arrays integrated on graphite paper (P-WP2 NSs/GP) as 3D flexible cathode for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) are prepared by in situ phosphidation via vacuum encapsulation assisted by pulsed laser deposition technique. Compared to the electrode without pre-deposition process, the enhanced catalytic activities are attributed to the increased effective catalyst loading and the reinforced charge transport kinetics. The results make the present P-WP2 NSs/GP as a promising cathode for energy conversion and paves a new way for designing and fabricating efficient electrodes toward HER.

  2. Flexible Fabrication of Shape-Controlled Collagen Building Blocks for Self-Assembly of 3D Microtissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Meng, Zhaoxu; Ma, Jingyun; Shi, Yang; Xu, Hui; Lykkemark, Simon; Qin, Jianhua

    2015-08-12

    Creating artificial tissue-like structures that possess the functionality, specificity, and architecture of native tissues remains a big challenge. A new and straightforward strategy for generating shape-controlled collagen building blocks with a well-defined architecture is presented, which can be used for self-assembly of complex 3D microtissues. Collagen blocks with tunable geometries are controllably produced and released via a membrane-templated microdevice. The formation of functional microtissues by embedding tissue-specific cells into collagen blocks with expression of specific proteins is described. The spontaneous self-assembly of cell-laden collagen blocks into organized tissue constructs with predetermined configurations is demonstrated, which are largely driven by the synergistic effects of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. This new strategy would open up new avenues for the study of tissue/organ morphogenesis, and tissue engineering applications.

  3. Synthesis of chitin nanofibers, MWCNTs and MnO2 nanoflakes 3D porous network flexible gel-film for high supercapacitive performance electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shengnan; Li, Dagang

    2017-03-01

    As the porous structure and conductivity result in improvement of electrochemical properties, the chitin nanofibers (ChNFs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and MnO2 (manganese dioxide) nanoflakes 3D porous network core-shell structure gel-film was fabricated for flexible free-standing supercapacitor electrodes. The electrodes were characterized by various techniques and the results demonstrate that the as-synthesized ChNFs/MWCNTs/MnO2 gel-film electrodes exhibits excellent supercapacitive behaviours. The ChNFs/MWCNTs/MnO2 gel-film electrode shows a high capacitance of 295.2 mF/cm2 at 0.1 mA/cm2 in 1 M Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte because of its 3D porous structure. Furthermore, the electrodes also showed surprising cycling stability for 5000 cycles with retention rate up to 157.14% at 1 mA/cm2. The data presents great promise in the application of high-performance flexible supercapacitors with the low cost, light-weight and excellent cycling ability.

  4. A novel and simple method of printing flexible conductive circuits on PET fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zehong; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Zhikang; Yu, Dan

    2017-02-01

    Flexible conductive circuits on PET fabrics were fabricated by a simple approach. Firstly, well dispersed nano-silver colloids with average size of 87 nm were synthesized with poly (vinyl pyrrolidone). Then, by adding polyurethane and thickening agent into these colloids, Ag NP-based ink was produced and printed on PET fabrics by screen printing. Conductive patterns were achieved through the swelling process of polyurethane and the decrease of contact resistance between nano-silver particles when immersed in dichloromethane (DCM) and diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DMDAAC) mixed solution. After it was dried at 40 °C,the surface resistivity was about 0.197 Ω cm with width 1.9 mm, and thickness 20 μm. Moreover, the effects of different DCM contents on the conductivity and the film forming ability have been investigated. We believe these foundings will provide some important analysis for printing flexible conductive circuits on textiles.

  5. Fast Fabrication of Flexible Functional Circuits Based on Liquid Metal Dual-Trans Printing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Yu, Yang; Yang, Jun; Liu, Jing

    2015-11-25

    A dual-trans method to print the first functional liquid-metal circuit layout on poly(vinyl chloride) film, and then transfer it into a poly(dimethylsiloxane) substrate through freeze phase transition processing for the fabrication of a flexible electronic device. A programmable soft electronic band and a temperature-sensing module wirelessly communicate with a mobile phone, demonstrating the efficiency and capability of the method. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Ag Nanoparticle-Grafted PAN-Nanohump Array Films with 3D High-Density Hot Spots as Flexible and Reliable SERS Substrates.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongbo; Meng, Guowen; Huang, Qing; Hu, Xiaoye; He, Xuan; Tang, Haibin; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Fadi

    2015-10-28

    A facile fabrication approach of large-scale flexible films is reported, with one surface side consisting of Ag-nanoparticle (Ag-NP) decorated polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanohump (denoted as Ag-NPs@PAN-nanohump) arrays. This is achieved via molding PAN films with ordered nanohump arrays on one side and then sputtering much smaller Ag-NPs onto each of the PAN-nanohumps. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of the Ag-NPs@PAN-nanohump array films can be improved by curving the flexible PAN film with ordered nanohump arrays during the Ag-sputtering process to increase the density of the Ag-NPs on the sidewalls of the PAN-nanohumps. More 3D hot spots are thus achieved on a large-scale. The Ag-NPs@PAN-nanohump array films show high SERS activity with good Raman signal reproducibility for Rhodamine 6G probe molecules. To trial their practical application, the Ag-NPs@PAN-nanohump array films are employed as SERS substrates for trace detection of trinitrotoluene and a congener of polychlorinated biphenyls. A lower detection limit of 10(-12) m and 10(-5) m can be achieved, respectively. Furthermore, the flexible Ag-NPs@PAN-nanohump array films can also be utilized as swabs to probe traces of methyl parathion on the surface of fruits such as apples. The as-fabricated SERS substrates therefore have promising potential for applications in rapid safety inspection and environmental protection.

  7. Flexible packaging of solid-state integrated circuit chips with elastomeric microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bowei; Dong, Quan; Korman, Can E.; Li, Zhenyu; Zaghloul, Mona E.

    2013-01-01

    A flexible technology is proposed to integrate smart electronics and microfluidics all embedded in an elastomer package. The microfluidic channels are used to deliver both liquid samples and liquid metals to the integrated circuits (ICs). The liquid metals are used to realize electrical interconnects to the IC chip. This avoids the traditional IC packaging challenges, such as wire-bonding and flip-chip bonding, which are not compatible with current microfluidic technologies. As a demonstration we integrated a CMOS magnetic sensor chip and associate microfluidic channels on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate that allows precise delivery of small liquid samples to the sensor. Furthermore, the packaged system is fully functional under bending curvature radius of one centimetre and uniaxial strain of 15%. The flexible integration of solid-state ICs with microfluidics enables compact flexible electronic and lab-on-a-chip systems, which hold great potential for wearable health monitoring, point-of-care diagnostics and environmental sensing among many other applications.

  8. Flexible packaging of solid-state integrated circuit chips with elastomeric microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bowei; Dong, Quan; Korman, Can E.; Li, Zhenyu; Zaghloul, Mona E.

    2013-01-01

    A flexible technology is proposed to integrate smart electronics and microfluidics all embedded in an elastomer package. The microfluidic channels are used to deliver both liquid samples and liquid metals to the integrated circuits (ICs). The liquid metals are used to realize electrical interconnects to the IC chip. This avoids the traditional IC packaging challenges, such as wire-bonding and flip-chip bonding, which are not compatible with current microfluidic technologies. As a demonstration we integrated a CMOS magnetic sensor chip and associate microfluidic channels on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate that allows precise delivery of small liquid samples to the sensor. Furthermore, the packaged system is fully functional under bending curvature radius of one centimetre and uniaxial strain of 15%. The flexible integration of solid-state ICs with microfluidics enables compact flexible electronic and lab-on-a-chip systems, which hold great potential for wearable health monitoring, point-of-care diagnostics and environmental sensing among many other applications.

  9. Integrated digital printing of flexible circuits for wireless sensing (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Ping; Whiting, Gregory L.; Schwartz, David E.; Ng, Tse Nga; Krusor, Brent S.; Ready, Steve E.; Daniel, George; Veres, Janos; Street, Bob

    2016-09-01

    Wireless sensing has broad applications in a wide variety of fields such as infrastructure monitoring, chemistry, environmental engineering and cold supply chain management. Further development of sensing systems will focus on achieving light weight, flexibility, low power consumption and low cost. Fully printed electronics provide excellent flexibility and customizability, as well as the potential for low cost and large area applications, but lack solutions for high-density, high-performance circuitry. Conventional electronics mounted on flexible printed circuit boards provide high performance but are not digitally fabricated or readily customizable. Incorporation of small silicon dies or packaged chips into a printed platform enables high performance without compromising flexibility or cost. At PARC, we combine high functionality c-Si CMOS and digitally printed components and interconnects to create an integrated platform that can read and process multiple discrete sensors. Our approach facilitates customization to a wide variety of sensors and user interfaces suitable for a broad range of applications including remote monitoring of health, structures and environment. This talk will describe several examples of printed wireless sensing systems. The technologies required for these sensor systems are a mix of novel sensors, printing processes, conventional microchips, flexible substrates and energy harvesting power solutions.

  10. Realization of reliable and flexible logic gates using noisy nonlinear circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, K.; Rajamohamed, I.; Sinha, Sudeshna; Ditto, William L.; Bulsara, Adi R.

    2009-11-01

    It was shown recently [Murali et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 104101 (2009)] that when one presents two square waves as input to a two-state system, the response of the system can produce a logical output (NOR/OR) with a probability controlled by the interplay between the system noise and the nonlinearity (that characterizes the bistable dynamics). One can switch or "morph" the output into another logic operation (NAND/AND) whose probability displays analogous behavior; the switching is accomplished via a controlled symmetry-breaking dc input. Thus, the interplay of nonlinearity and noise yields flexible and reliable logic behavior, and the natural outcome is, effectively, a logic gate. This "logical stochastic resonance" is demonstrated here via a circuit implementation using a linear resistor, a linear capacitor and four CMOS-transistors with a battery to produce a cubiclike nonlinearity. This circuit is simple, robust, and capable of operating in very high frequency regimes; further, its ease of implementation with integrated circuits and nanoelectronic devices should prove very useful in the context of reliable logic gate implementation in the presence of circuit noise.

  11. Fractal dendrite-based electrically conductive composites for laser-scribed flexible circuits

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cheng; Cui, Xiaoya; Zhang, Zhexu; Chiang, Sum Wai; Lin, Wei; Duan, Huan; Li, Jia; Kang, Feiyu; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Fractal metallic dendrites have been drawing more attentions recently, yet they have rarely been explored in electronic printing or packaging applications because of the great challenges in large-scale synthesis and limited understanding in such applications. Here we demonstrate a controllable synthesis of fractal Ag micro-dendrites at the hundred-gram scale. When used as the fillers for isotropically electrically conductive composites (ECCs), the unique three-dimensional fractal geometrical configuration and low-temperature sintering characteristic render the Ag micro dendrites with an ultra-low electrical percolation threshold of 0.97 vol% (8 wt%). The ultra-low percolation threshold and self-limited fusing ability may address some critical challenges in current interconnect technology for microelectronics. For example, only half of the laser-scribe energy is needed to pattern fine circuit lines printed using the present ECCs, showing great potential for wiring ultrathin circuits for high performance flexible electronics. PMID:26333352

  12. Fractal dendrite-based electrically conductive composites for laser-scribed flexible circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Cheng; Cui, Xiaoya; Zhang, Zhexu; Chiang, Sum Wai; Lin, Wei; Duan, Huan; Li, Jia; Kang, Feiyu; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2015-09-01

    Fractal metallic dendrites have been drawing more attentions recently, yet they have rarely been explored in electronic printing or packaging applications because of the great challenges in large-scale synthesis and limited understanding in such applications. Here we demonstrate a controllable synthesis of fractal Ag micro-dendrites at the hundred-gram scale. When used as the fillers for isotropically electrically conductive composites (ECCs), the unique three-dimensional fractal geometrical configuration and low-temperature sintering characteristic render the Ag micro dendrites with an ultra-low electrical percolation threshold of 0.97 vol% (8 wt%). The ultra-low percolation threshold and self-limited fusing ability may address some critical challenges in current interconnect technology for microelectronics. For example, only half of the laser-scribe energy is needed to pattern fine circuit lines printed using the present ECCs, showing great potential for wiring ultrathin circuits for high performance flexible electronics.

  13. Fractal dendrite-based electrically conductive composites for laser-scribed flexible circuits.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng; Cui, Xiaoya; Zhang, Zhexu; Chiang, Sum Wai; Lin, Wei; Duan, Huan; Li, Jia; Kang, Feiyu; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2015-09-03

    Fractal metallic dendrites have been drawing more attentions recently, yet they have rarely been explored in electronic printing or packaging applications because of the great challenges in large-scale synthesis and limited understanding in such applications. Here we demonstrate a controllable synthesis of fractal Ag micro-dendrites at the hundred-gram scale. When used as the fillers for isotropically electrically conductive composites (ECCs), the unique three-dimensional fractal geometrical configuration and low-temperature sintering characteristic render the Ag micro dendrites with an ultra-low electrical percolation threshold of 0.97 vol% (8 wt%). The ultra-low percolation threshold and self-limited fusing ability may address some critical challenges in current interconnect technology for microelectronics. For example, only half of the laser-scribe energy is needed to pattern fine circuit lines printed using the present ECCs, showing great potential for wiring ultrathin circuits for high performance flexible electronics.

  14. Flexible low-voltage organic integrated circuits with megahertz switching frequencies (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zschieschang, Ute; Takimiya, Kazuo; Zaki, Tarek; Letzkus, Florian; Richter, Harald; Burghartz, Joachim N.; Klauk, Hagen

    2015-09-01

    A process for the fabrication of integrated circuits based on bottom-gate, top-contact organic thin-film transistors (TFTs) with channel lengths as short as 1 µm on flexible plastic substrates has been developed. In this process, all TFT layers (gate electrodes, organic semiconductors, source/drain contacts) are patterned with the help of high-resolution silicon stencil masks, thus eliminating the need for subtractive patterning and avoiding the exposure of the organic semiconductors to potentially harmful organic solvents or resists. The TFTs employ a low-temperature-processed gate dielectric that is sufficiently thin to allow the TFTs and circuits to operate with voltages of about 3 V. Using the vacuum-deposited small-molecule organic semiconductor 2,9-didecyl-dinaphtho[2,3-b:2',3'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (C10 DNTT), TFTs with an effective field-effect mobility of 1.2 cm2/Vs, an on/off current ratio of 107, a width-normalized transconductance of 1.2 S/m (with a standard deviation of 6%), and a signal propagation delay (measured in 11-stage ring oscillators) of 420 nsec per stage at a supply voltage of 3 V have been obtained. To our knowledge, this is the first time that megahertz operation has been achieved in flexible organic transistors at supply voltages of less than 10 V. In addition to flexible ring oscillators, we have also demonstrated a 6-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC) in a binary-weighted current-steering architecture, based on TFTs with a channel length of 4 µm and fabricated on a glass substrate. This DAC has a supply voltage of 3.3 V, a circuit area of 2.6 × 4.6 mm2, and a maximum sampling rate of 100 kS/s.

  15. Chip- and board-level optical interconnections using rigid flexible optical electrical printed circuit boards.

    PubMed

    Hwang, S H; Lee, W-J; Lim, J W; Jung, K Y; Cha, K S; Rho, B S

    2008-05-26

    A new optical interconnection scheme based on a rigid flexible optical electrical printed circuit board (RFOE-PCB) is suggested. The easily installed RFOE-PCB can be universally applied for both chip- and board-level optical interconnections. This letter describes the detailed fabrication process, optical properties, and heat-resisting property of the RFOE-PCB. The fabricated RFOE-PCB was also successfully demonstrated with a 2.5-Gb/s data transmission through a 45 degrees-ended optical waveguide embedded in the RFOE-PCB.

  16. Ultrasonic measurements of surface defects on flexible circuits using high-frequency focused polymer transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagle, Sanat; Habib, Anowarul; Melandsø, Frank

    2017-07-01

    High-frequency transducers made from a layer-by-layer deposition method are investigated as transducers for ultrasonic imaging. Prototypes of adhesive-free transducers with four active elements were made on a high-performance poly(ether imide) substrate with precision milled spherical cavities used to produce focused ultrasonic beams. The transducer prototypes were characterized using a pulse-echo experimental setup in a water tank using a glass plate as a reflector. Then, transducer was used in a three-dimensional ultrasonic scanning tank, to produce high-resolution ultrasonic images of flexible electronic circuits with the aim to detect defects in the outermost cover layer.

  17. Flexible printed circuits with integral molded connectors. A manufacturing methods and technology program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, J. A.

    1981-03-01

    This is the final report of the program on Flexible Printed Circuits with Integral Molded Connectors (Flexicon). Performed under contract with the U.S. Army Missile Command, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, it concentrated on the improvement of Flexible Printed Wiring (FPW) terminations for cable to cable, cable to printed wiring board, and cable to chassis applications. During the course of this program, several significant advances have been made in termination processes as well as in automated facility configuration and operation. This report details these development, referencing several additional documents and reports. The final outcome can be simply summarized. Through the use of industrial laser technology, new high speed epoxy developments, and microprocessor controlled automation, processes for termination of FPW to connectors have been developed which can result in 6 to 1 cost reduction of terminated systems with significantly improved system reliability and maintainability.

  18. Design of a smart ECG garment based on conductive textile electrode and flexible printed circuit board.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhipeng; Luo, Kan; Liu, Chengyu; Li, Jianqing

    2017-08-09

    A smart electrocardiogram (ECG) garment system was designed for continuous, non-invasive and comfortable ECG monitoring, which mainly consists of four components: Conductive textile electrode, garment, flexible printed circuit board (FPCB)-based ECG processing module and android application program. Conductive textile electrode and FPCB-based ECG processing module (6.8 g, 55 mm × 53 mm × 5 mm) are identified as two key techniques to improve the system's comfort and flexibility. Preliminary experimental results verified that the textile electrodes with circle shape, 40 mm size in diameter, and 5 mm thickness sponge are best suited for the long-term ECG monitoring application. The tests on the whole system confirmed that the designed smart garment can obtain long-term ECG recordings with high signal quality.

  19. Novel metal-organic and supramolecular 3D frameworks constructed from flexible biphenyl-2,5,3‧-tricarboxylate blocks: Synthesis, structural features and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Ao; Li, Yu; Zhang, Ze-Min; Zou, Xun-Zhong; Gu, Jin-Zhong; Kirillov, Alexander M.; Chen, Jin-Wei; Chen, Yun-Bo

    2017-10-01

    Biphenyl-2,5,3‧-tricarboxylic acid (H3L) was selected as an unexplored tricarboxylate building block and applied for the hydrothermal synthesis of three novel coordination compounds, namely a 0D tetramer [Co4(HL)2(μ3-HL)2(phen)6(H2O)2]·3H2O (1) and two 3D metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) [Cd3(μ5-L)(μ6-L)(py)(μ-H2O)2(H2O)]n·H2O (2) and [Zn3(μ4-L)2(2,2‧-bpy)(μ-4,4‧-bpy)]n·2H2O (3). These products were easily generated in aqueous medium from the corresponding metal(II) chlorides, H3L, and various N-donor ancillary ligands, selected from 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), pyridine (py), 2,2‧-bipyridine (2,2‧-bpy), and 4,4‧-bipyridine (4,4‧-bpy). Compounds 1-3 were isolated as stable crystalline solids and were fully characterized by IR and UV-vis spectroscopy, elemental, thermogravimetric (TGA), powder (PXRD) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Compound 1 possesses a discrete tetracobalt(II) structure, which is extended into a 3D H-bonded network with the pcu topology. In contrast, MOF 2 discloses a very complex trinodal 4,5,12-connected net with an undocumented topology, while MOF 3 features the nce/I topological framework. The magnetic (for 1) and luminescence (for 2 and 3) properties were also studied and discussed. The present study thus widens a still very limited family of metal-organic and supramolecular frameworks driven by flexible biphenyl-2,5,3‧-tricarboxylate building blocks.

  20. Potential up-scaling of inkjet-printed devices for logical circuits in flexible electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, Kalyan Yoti E-mail: enrico.sowade@mb.tu-chemnitz.de; Sowade, Enrico E-mail: enrico.sowade@mb.tu-chemnitz.de; Martínez-Domingo, Carme; Ramon, Eloi; Carrabina, Jordi; Gomes, Henrique Leonel; Baumann, Reinhard R.

    2015-02-17

    Inkjet Technology is often mis-believed to be a deposition/patterning technology which is not meant for high fabrication throughput in the field of printed and flexible electronics. In this work, we report on the 1) printing, 2) fabrication yield and 3) characterization of exemplary simple devices e.g. capacitors, organic transistors etc. which are the basic building blocks for logical circuits. For this purpose, printing is performed first with a Proof of concept Inkjet printing system Dimatix Material Printer 2831 (DMP 2831) using 10 pL small print-heads and then with Dimatix Material Printer 3000 (DMP 3000) using 35 pL industrial print-heads (from Fujifilm Dimatix). Printing at DMP 3000 using industrial print-heads (in Sheet-to-sheet) paves the path towards industrialization which can be defined by printing in Roll-to-Roll format using industrial print-heads. This pavement can be termed as 'Bridging Platform'. This transfer to 'Bridging Platform' from 10 pL small print-heads to 35 pL industrial print-heads help the inkjet-printed devices to evolve on the basis of functionality and also in form of up-scaled quantities. The high printed quantities and yield of inkjet-printed devices justify the deposition reliability and potential to print circuits. This reliability is very much desired when it comes to printing of circuits e.g. inverters, ring oscillator and any other planned complex logical circuits which require devices e.g. organic transistors which needs to get connected in different staged levels. Also, the up-scaled inkjet-printed devices are characterized and they reflect a domain under which they can work to their optimal status. This status is much wanted for predicting the real device functionality and integration of them into a planned circuit.

  1. Potential up-scaling of inkjet-printed devices for logical circuits in flexible electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Kalyan Yoti; Sowade, Enrico; Martínez-Domingo, Carme; Ramon, Eloi; Carrabina, Jordi; Gomes, Henrique Leonel; Baumann, Reinhard R.

    2015-02-01

    Inkjet Technology is often mis-believed to be a deposition/patterning technology which is not meant for high fabrication throughput in the field of printed and flexible electronics. In this work, we report on the 1) printing, 2) fabrication yield and 3) characterization of exemplary simple devices e.g. capacitors, organic transistors etc. which are the basic building blocks for logical circuits. For this purpose, printing is performed first with a Proof of concept Inkjet printing system Dimatix Material Printer 2831 (DMP 2831) using 10 pL small print-heads and then with Dimatix Material Printer 3000 (DMP 3000) using 35 pL industrial print-heads (from Fujifilm Dimatix). Printing at DMP 3000 using industrial print-heads (in Sheet-to-sheet) paves the path towards industrialization which can be defined by printing in Roll-to-Roll format using industrial print-heads. This pavement can be termed as "Bridging Platform". This transfer to "Bridging Platform" from 10 pL small print-heads to 35 pL industrial print-heads help the inkjet-printed devices to evolve on the basis of functionality and also in form of up-scaled quantities. The high printed quantities and yield of inkjet-printed devices justify the deposition reliability and potential to print circuits. This reliability is very much desired when it comes to printing of circuits e.g. inverters, ring oscillator and any other planned complex logical circuits which require devices e.g. organic transistors which needs to get connected in different staged levels. Also, the up-scaled inkjet-printed devices are characterized and they reflect a domain under which they can work to their optimal status. This status is much wanted for predicting the real device functionality and integration of them into a planned circuit.

  2. WindoWorks: A flexible program for computerized testing of accelerator control system electronic circuit boards

    SciTech Connect

    Utterback, J.

    1993-09-01

    Since most accelerator control system circuit boards reside in a commercial bus architecture, such as CAMAC or VMEbus, a computerized test station is needed for exercising the boards. This test station is needed for the development of newly designed prototypes, for commissioning newly manufactured boards, for diagnosing boards which have failed in service, and for long term testing of boards with intermittent failure problems. WindoWorks was created to address these needs. It is a flexible program which runs on a PC compatible computer and uses a PC to bus crate interface. WindoWorks was designed to give the user a flexible way to test circuit boards. Each test is incapsulated into a window. By bringing up several different windows the user can run several different tests simultaneously. The windows are sizable, and moveable. They have data entry boxes so that the test can be customized to the users preference. The windows can be used in conjunction with each other in order to create supertests. There are several windows which are generic. They can be used to test basic functions on any VME (or CAMAC) board. There are other windows which have been created to test specific boards. New windows for testing specific boards can be easily created by a Pascal programmer using the WindoWorks framework.

  3. Inverter Circuits Using ZnO Nanoparticle Based Thin-Film Transistors for Flexible Electronic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Vidor, Fábio F.; Meyers, Thorsten; Hilleringmann, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Innovative systems exploring the flexibility and the transparency of modern semiconducting materials are being widely researched by the scientific community and by several companies. For a low-cost production and large surface area applications, thin-film transistors (TFTs) are the key elements driving the system currents. In order to maintain a cost efficient integration process, solution based materials are used as they show an outstanding tradeoff between cost and system complexity. In this paper, we discuss the integration process of ZnO nanoparticle TFTs using a high-k resin as gate dielectric. The performance in dependence on the transistor structure has been investigated, and inverted staggered setups depict an improved performance over the coplanar device increasing both the field-effect mobility and the ION/IOFF ratio. Aiming at the evaluation of the TFT characteristics for digital circuit applications, inverter circuits using a load TFT in the pull-up network and an active TFT in the pull-down network were integrated. The inverters show reasonable switching characteristics and V/V gains. Conjointly, the influence of the geometry ratio and the supply voltage on the devices have been analyzed. Moreover, as all integration steps are suitable to polymeric templates, the fabrication process is fully compatible to flexible substrates. PMID:28335282

  4. Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites with Highly Enhanced Strength and Conductivity for Flexible Electric Circuits.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ji-Young; Kim, Han-Sem; Kim, Jeong Hun; Shin, Ueon Sang; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2015-07-21

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have an important role in nanotechnology due to their unique properties, retaining the inherent material flexibility, superior strength, and electrical conductivity, unless the bottleneck of CNTs persists and the aggregated structure is overcome. Here, we report on the highly enhanced mechanical and electrical properties of the CNT-chitosan nanocomposites through homogeneous dispersion of CNTs into chitosan solution using a high-pressure homogenizer. The optimal condition is a 50% (w/w) chitosan-CNT film, providing about 7 nm thickness of homogeneous chitosan layer on CNTs, a good tensile strength of 51 MPa, high electrical conductivity under 16 Ω/sq, and a stable bending and folding performance. This CNT-chitosan nanocomposite with highly enhanced properties is an amenable material to fabricate structures of various shapes such as films, sensors, and circuits and also enables a simple and cost-effective approach to improve the performance of a device that presents the first flexible and soft electric circuits yet reported using only CNT-chitosan as the conductor.

  5. Radiation-tolerant, low-mass, high bandwidth, flexible printed circuit cables for particle physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, N. C.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Seidel, S.

    2016-09-01

    The design of meter long flexible printed circuit cables required for low-mass ultra-high speed signal transmission in the high radiation environment of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider is described. The design geometry is a differential embedded microstrip with 100 Ω nominal impedance. Minimal mass and maximal radiation hardness are pre-eminent considerations. Several dielectric materials are compared. To reduce mass, a cross hatched ground plane is applied. The long flexible printed circuit cables are characterized in bit error rate tests, attenuation versus frequency, mechanical response to temperature induced stress, and dimensional implications on radiation length. These tests are performed before and after irradiation with 1 MeV neutrons to 2×1016/cm2 and 800 MeV protons to 2×1016 1-MeV neutron equivalent/cm2. A 1.0 m Kapton cable with cross hatched ground plane, effective bandwidth of 4.976 gigabits per second, 0.0160% of a radiation length, and no detectable radiation-induced mechanical or electrical degradation is obtained.

  6. DynEarthSol3D: An Efficient and Flexible Unstructured Finite Element Method to Study Long-Term Tectonic Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, E.; Choi, E.; Lavier, L. L.; Calo, V. M.

    2013-12-01

    Many tectonic problems treat the lithosphere as a compressible elastic material, which can also flow viscously or break in a brittle fashion depending on the stress level applied and the temperature conditions. We present a flexible methodology to address the resulting complex material response, which imposes severe challenges on the discretization and rheological models used. This robust, adaptive, multidimensional, finite element method solves the momentum balance and the heat equation in Lagrangian form with unstructured simplicial mesh (triangles in 2D and tetrahedra in 3D). The mesh locking problem is avoided by using averaged volumetric strain rate to update the stress. The solver uses contingent mesh adaptivity in places where shear strain is focused (localization) during remeshing. A simple scheme of mesh coarsening is employed to prevent tiny elements during remeshing. Lagrangian markers are used to track multiple compositions of rocks. The code is parallelized via OpenMP with graph coloring. We detail the solver and verify it in a number of benchmark problems against analytic and numerical solutions from the literature.

  7. Five novel transition metal coordination polymers with 2D/3D framework structure based on flexible H{sub 2}tzda and ancillary ligand bpe

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yuting; Xu Yan; Fan Yaoting; Hou Hongwei

    2009-10-15

    Five new transition metal coordination polymers based on H{sub 2}tzda and co-ligand bpe, {l_brace}[M(tzda)(bpe)].H{sub 2}O{r_brace}{sub n} [M=Zn(1), Cd(2), Mn(3), Co(4)] and [Ni{sub 2}(tzda){sub 2}(bpe){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (5) [H{sub 2}tzda=(1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-diyldithio)diacetic acid, bpe=1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane], have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Compounds 1-4 feature a 2D-layered architecture generated from [M(tzda)]{sub n} moiety with double-chain structure cross-linking bpe spacers. However, the conformations bpe adopts in 3 and 4 are different from those in 1 and 2 due to the rotation of C-C single bond in bpe. Polymer 5 exhibits an interesting 3D porous framework with 2-fold interpenetration, in which intriguing 1D double helix chains are observed. The photoluminescence properties of 1 and 2 in the solid-state at room temperature are investigated. In addition, variable-temperature magnetic data show weak antiferromagnetic behavior in 3-5. - Graphical abstract: Five new transition metal coordination polymers based on flexible H{sub 2}tzda and bpe have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, luminescent emission spectra and low-temperature magnetic measurements, respectively.

  8. Medical 3-D Printing.

    PubMed

    Furlow, Bryant

    2017-05-01

    Three-dimensional printing is used in the manufacturing industry, medical and pharmaceutical research, drug production, clinical medicine, and dentistry, with implications for precision and personalized medicine. This technology is advancing the development of patient-specific prosthetics, stents, splints, and fixation devices and is changing medical education, treatment decision making, and surgical planning. Diagnostic imaging modalities play a fundamental role in the creation of 3-D printed models. Although most 3-D printed objects are rigid, flexible soft-tissue-like prosthetics also can be produced. ©2017 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  9. Development of a flexible circuit board for low-background experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Alan; Barton, Paul; Dhar, Ankur; Larsen, Joern; Loach, James

    2017-01-01

    Future underground rare-event search experiments, such as neutrinoless double-beta decay searches, have stringent requirements for the radiopurity of materials placed near the active detector medium. Parylene is a polymer that has a high chemical purity and the vapor deposition process by which it is laid down tends to purify it further. In this talk the technique to fabricate a low-mass, flexible circuit board, with conductive traces photoligthographically patterned on a parylene substrate, is discussed. The performance of a proof-of-principle temperature sensor is presented. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 and by the Shanghai Key Lab for Particle Physics and Cosmology (SKLPPC), Grant No. 15DZ2272100.

  10. Ductile electroless Ni-P coating onto flexible printed circuit board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenchang; Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Yurong; Mitsuzak, Naotoshi; Chen, Zhidong

    2016-03-01

    In this study, a ductile electroless Ni-P coating on the flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) was prepared in an acidic nickel plating bath. The addition of dipropylamine (DPA) in electroless plating not only improves the ductility of the Ni-P coating, but also enhances the corrosion resistance. The further analysis reveals that the ductility improvement and enhancement of corrosion resistance for the Ni-P coating may be due to the fact that the addition of DPA significantly refines the volume of columnar nodule and reduce the porosity, thus leading to the released internal stress. In addition, it was found that the nodule within the Ni-P coating grew into a columnar structure, which may be also contribute to the improvement of ductility.

  11. Flexible, low-latency architecture for qubit control and measurement in circuit QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlothuizen, Wouter; Deurloo, D.; Sterke, J. De; Vermeulen, R.; Schouten, R. N.; Dicarlo, Leo

    Increasing qubit numbers in circuit QED requires an extensible architecture for digital waveform generation of qubit control and measurement signals. For quantum error correction, the ability to select from a number of predetermined waveforms based on measurement results will become paramount. We present a room-temperature architecture with very low latency from measurement to waveform output. This modular FPGA-based system can generate both baseband and RF modulated signals using DACs clocked at 1 GHz. A backplane that interconnects several modules allows exchange of (measurement) information between modules and maintains deterministic timing across those modules. We replace the typical line based sequencer used in arbitrary waveform generators by a user programmable processor that treats waveforms and measurements as instructions added to a conventional CPU architecture. This allows for flexible coding of triggering, repetitions, delays and interactions between measurement and signal generation. We acknowledge funding from the Dutch Research Organization (NWO), an ERC Synergy Grant, and European project SCALEQIT.

  12. Modular integration of electronics and microfluidic systems using flexible printed circuit boards.

    PubMed

    Wu, Amy; Wang, Lisen; Jensen, Erik; Mathies, Richard; Boser, Bernhard

    2010-02-21

    Microfluidic systems offer an attractive alternative to conventional wet chemical methods with benefits including reduced sample and reagent volumes, shorter reaction times, high-throughput, automation, and low cost. However, most present microfluidic systems rely on external means to analyze reaction products. This substantially adds to the size, complexity, and cost of the overall system. Electronic detection based on sub-millimetre size integrated circuits (ICs) has been demonstrated for a wide range of targets including nucleic and amino acids, but deployment of this technology to date has been limited due to the lack of a flexible process to integrate these chips within microfluidic devices. This paper presents a modular and inexpensive process to integrate ICs with microfluidic systems based on standard printed circuit board (PCB) technology to assemble the independently designed microfluidic and electronic components. The integrated system can accommodate multiple chips of different sizes bonded to glass or PDMS microfluidic systems. Since IC chips and flex PCB manufacturing and assembly are industry standards with low cost, the integrated system is economical for both laboratory and point-of-care settings.

  13. Encapsulate-and-peel: fabricating carbon nanotube CMOS integrated circuits in a flexible ultra-thin plastic film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Pingqi; Zhang, Qing

    2014-02-01

    Fabrication of single-walled carbon nanotube thin film (SWNT-TF) based integrated circuits (ICs) on soft substrates has been challenging due to several processing-related obstacles, such as printed/transferred SWNT-TF pattern and electrode alignment, electrical pad/channel material/dielectric layer flatness, adherence of the circuits onto the soft substrates etc. Here, we report a new approach that circumvents these challenges by encapsulating pre-formed SWNT-TF-ICs on hard substrates into polyimide (PI) and peeling them off to form flexible ICs on a large scale. The flexible SWNT-TF-ICs show promising performance comparable to those circuits formed on hard substrates. The flexible p- and n-type SWNT-TF transistors have an average mobility of around 60 cm2 V-1 s-1, a subthreshold slope as low as 150 mV dec-1, operating gate voltages less than 2 V, on/off ratios larger than 104 and a switching speed of several kilohertz. The post-transfer technique described here is not only a simple and cost-effective pathway to realize scalable flexible ICs, but also a feasible method to fabricate flexible displays, sensors and solar cells etc.

  14. All-Printed Flexible and Stretchable Electronics.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Mohammed G; Kramer, Rebecca

    2017-03-01

    A fully automated additive manufacturing process that produces all-printed flexible and stretchable electronics is demonstrated. The printing process combines soft silicone elastomer printing and liquid metal processing on a single high-precision 3D stage. The platform is capable of fabricating extremely complex conductive circuits, strain and pressure sensors, stretchable wires, and wearable circuits with high yield and repeatability.

  15. Neuron Stimulation Device Integrated with Silicon Nanowire-Based Photodetection Circuit on a Flexible Substrate.

    PubMed

    Jung, Suk Won; Shin, Jong Yoon; Pi, Kilwha; Goo, Yong Sook; Cho, Dong-Il Dan

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes a neural stimulation device integrated with a silicon nanowire (SiNW)-based photodetection circuit for the activation of neurons with light. The proposed device is comprised of a voltage divider and a current driver in which SiNWs are used as photodetector and field-effect transistors; it has the functions of detecting light, generating a stimulation signal in proportion to the light intensity, and transmitting the signal to a micro electrode. To show the applicability of the proposed neural stimulation device as a high-resolution retinal prosthesis system, a high-density neural stimulation device with a unit cell size of 110 × 110 μ m and a resolution of 32 × 32 was fabricated on a flexible film with a thickness of approximately 50 μm. Its effectiveness as a retinal stimulation device was then evaluated using a unit cell in an in vitro animal experiment involving the retinal tissue of retinal Degeneration 1 (rd1) mice. Experiments wherein stimulation pulses were applied to the retinal tissues successfully demonstrate that the number of spikes in neural response signals increases in proportion to light intensity.

  16. Neuron Stimulation Device Integrated with Silicon Nanowire-Based Photodetection Circuit on a Flexible Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Suk Won; Shin, Jong Yoon; Pi, Kilwha; Goo, Yong Sook; Cho, Dong-il “Dan”

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a neural stimulation device integrated with a silicon nanowire (SiNW)-based photodetection circuit for the activation of neurons with light. The proposed device is comprised of a voltage divider and a current driver in which SiNWs are used as photodetector and field-effect transistors; it has the functions of detecting light, generating a stimulation signal in proportion to the light intensity, and transmitting the signal to a micro electrode. To show the applicability of the proposed neural stimulation device as a high-resolution retinal prosthesis system, a high-density neural stimulation device with a unit cell size of 110×110 μm and a resolution of 32×32 was fabricated on a flexible film with a thickness of approximately 50 μm. Its effectiveness as a retinal stimulation device was then evaluated using a unit cell in an in vitro animal experiment involving the retinal tissue of retinal Degeneration 1 (rd1) mice. Experiments wherein stimulation pulses were applied to the retinal tissues successfully demonstrate that the number of spikes in neural response signals increases in proportion to light intensity. PMID:27916963

  17. Design of a CMOS readout circuit on ultra-thin flexible silicon chip for printed strain gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsobky, Mourad; Mahsereci, Yigit; Keck, Jürgen; Richter, Harald; Burghartz, Joachim N.

    2017-09-01

    Flexible electronics represents an emerging technology with features enabling several new applications such as wearable electronics and bendable displays. Precise and high-performance sensors readout chips are crucial for high quality flexible electronic products. In this work, the design of a CMOS readout circuit for an array of printed strain gauges is presented. The ultra-thin readout chip and the printed sensors are combined on a thin Benzocyclobutene/Polyimide (BCB/PI) substrate to form a Hybrid System-in-Foil (HySiF), which is used as an electronic skin for robotic applications. Each strain gauge utilizes a Wheatstone bridge circuit, where four Aerosol Jet® printed meander-shaped resistors form a full-bridge topology. The readout chip amplifies the output voltage difference (about 5 mV full-scale swing) of the strain gauge. One challenge during the sensor interface circuit design is to compensate for the relatively large dc offset (about 30 mV at 1 mA) in the bridge output voltage so that the amplified signal span matches the input range of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The circuit design uses the 0. 5 µm mixed-signal GATEFORESTTM technology. In order to achieve the mechanical flexibility, the chip fabrication is based on either back thinned wafers or the ChipFilmTM technology, which enables the manufacturing of silicon chips with a thickness of about 20 µm. The implemented readout chip uses a supply of 5 V and includes a 5-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC), a differential difference amplifier (DDA), and a 10-bit successive approximation register (SAR) ADC. The circuit is simulated across process, supply and temperature corners and the simulation results indicate excellent performance in terms of circuit stability and linearity.

  18. Autonomous microfluidic capillaric circuits replicated from 3D-printed molds† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6lc00764c Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Olanrewaju, A. O.; Robillard, A.; Dagher, M.

    2016-01-01

    We recently developed capillaric circuits (CCs) – advanced capillary microfluidic devices assembled from capillary fluidic elements in a modular manner similar to the design of electric circuits (Safavieh & Juncker, Lab Chip, 2013, 13, 4180–4189). CCs choreograph liquid delivery operations according to pre-programmed capillary pressure differences with minimal user intervention. CCs were thought to require high-precision micron-scale features manufactured by conventional photolithography, which is slow and expensive. Here we present CCs manufactured rapidly and inexpensively using 3D-printed molds. Molds for CCs were fabricated with a benchtop 3D-printer, poly(dimethylsiloxane) replicas were made, and fluidic functionality was verified with aqueous solutions. We established design rules for CCs by a combination of modelling and experimentation. The functionality and reliability of trigger valves – an essential fluidic element that stops one liquid until flow is triggered by a second liquid – was tested for different geometries and different solutions. Trigger valves with geometries up to 80-fold larger than cleanroom-fabricated ones were found to function reliably. We designed retention burst valves that encode sequential liquid delivery using capillary pressure differences encoded by systematically varied heights and widths. Using an electrical circuit analogue of the CC, we established design rules to ensure strictly sequential liquid delivery. CCs autonomously delivered eight liquids in a pre-determined sequence in <7 min. Taken together, our results demonstrate that 3D-printing lowers the bar for other researchers to access capillary microfluidic valves and CCs for autonomous liquid delivery with applications in diagnostics, research and education. PMID:27722504

  19. Mechanically flexible nanoscale silicon integrated circuits powered by photovoltaic energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahrjerdi, D.; Bedell, S. W.; Khakifirooz, A.; Cheng, K.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we demonstrate mechanically flexible extremely thin silicon on insulator (ETSOI) ring oscillators with a stage delay of ∼16 ps at a power supply voltage of 0.9 V. Extensive electrical analyses of the flexible ETSOI devices reveal the unchanged properties of the devices during the layer transfer process. Furthermore, we discuss the use of flexible silicon and gallium arsenide photovoltaic energy harvesters for powering flexible ETSOI ring oscillators under different illumination conditions. Our results illustrate innovative pathways for the implementation of optically powered flexible ETSOI technology in future flexible hybrid electronics.

  20. Logic circuits composed of flexible carbon nanotube thin-film transistor and ultra-thin polymer gate dielectric.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dongil; Yoon, Jinsu; Lee, Juhee; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Bae, Hagyoul; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Seong, Hyejeong; Im, Sung Gap; Choi, Sung-Jin; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-05-17

    Printing electronics has become increasingly prominent in the field of electronic engineering because this method is highly efficient at producing flexible, low-cost and large-scale thin-film transistors. However, TFTs are typically constructed with rigid insulating layers consisting of oxides and nitrides that are brittle and require high processing temperatures, which can cause a number of problems when used in printed flexible TFTs. In this study, we address these issues and demonstrate a method of producing inkjet-printed TFTs that include an ultra-thin polymeric dielectric layer produced by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) at room temperature and highly purified 99.9% semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Our integrated approach enables the production of flexible logic circuits consisting of CNT-TFTs on a polyethersulfone (PES) substrate that have a high mobility (up to 9.76 cm(2) V(-1) sec(-)1), a low operating voltage (less than 4 V), a high current on/off ratio (3 × 10(4)), and a total device yield of 90%. Thus, it should be emphasized that this study delineates a guideline for the feasibility of producing flexible CNT-TFT logic circuits with high performance based on a low-cost and simple fabrication process.

  1. Logic circuits composed of flexible carbon nanotube thin-film transistor and ultra-thin polymer gate dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dongil; Yoon, Jinsu; Lee, Juhee; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Bae, Hagyoul; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Seong, Hyejeong; Im, Sung Gap; Choi, Sung-Jin; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-05-01

    Printing electronics has become increasingly prominent in the field of electronic engineering because this method is highly efficient at producing flexible, low-cost and large-scale thin-film transistors. However, TFTs are typically constructed with rigid insulating layers consisting of oxides and nitrides that are brittle and require high processing temperatures, which can cause a number of problems when used in printed flexible TFTs. In this study, we address these issues and demonstrate a method of producing inkjet-printed TFTs that include an ultra-thin polymeric dielectric layer produced by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) at room temperature and highly purified 99.9% semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Our integrated approach enables the production of flexible logic circuits consisting of CNT-TFTs on a polyethersulfone (PES) substrate that have a high mobility (up to 9.76 cm2 V‑1 sec‑1), a low operating voltage (less than 4 V), a high current on/off ratio (3 × 104), and a total device yield of 90%. Thus, it should be emphasized that this study delineates a guideline for the feasibility of producing flexible CNT-TFT logic circuits with high performance based on a low-cost and simple fabrication process.

  2. Logic circuits composed of flexible carbon nanotube thin-film transistor and ultra-thin polymer gate dielectric

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongil; Yoon, Jinsu; Lee, Juhee; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Bae, Hagyoul; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Seong, Hyejeong; Im, Sung Gap; Choi, Sung-Jin; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Printing electronics has become increasingly prominent in the field of electronic engineering because this method is highly efficient at producing flexible, low-cost and large-scale thin-film transistors. However, TFTs are typically constructed with rigid insulating layers consisting of oxides and nitrides that are brittle and require high processing temperatures, which can cause a number of problems when used in printed flexible TFTs. In this study, we address these issues and demonstrate a method of producing inkjet-printed TFTs that include an ultra-thin polymeric dielectric layer produced by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) at room temperature and highly purified 99.9% semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Our integrated approach enables the production of flexible logic circuits consisting of CNT-TFTs on a polyethersulfone (PES) substrate that have a high mobility (up to 9.76 cm2 V−1 sec−1), a low operating voltage (less than 4 V), a high current on/off ratio (3 × 104), and a total device yield of 90%. Thus, it should be emphasized that this study delineates a guideline for the feasibility of producing flexible CNT-TFT logic circuits with high performance based on a low-cost and simple fabrication process. PMID:27184121

  3. Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, L. Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Flexibility is an important aspect of all sports and recreational activities. Flexibility can be developed and maintained by stretching exercises. Exercises designed to develop flexibility in ankle joints, knees, hips, and the lower back are presented. (JN)

  4. Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, L. Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Flexibility is an important aspect of all sports and recreational activities. Flexibility can be developed and maintained by stretching exercises. Exercises designed to develop flexibility in ankle joints, knees, hips, and the lower back are presented. (JN)

  5. Self-Patterning of Silica/Epoxy Nanocomposite Underfill by Tailored Hydrophilic-Superhydrophobic Surfaces for 3D Integrated Circuit (IC) Stacking.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Chia-Chi; James, Nathan Pataki; Lin, Ziyin; Chen, Yun; Liu, Yan; Moon, Kyoung-Sik; Li, Zhuo; Wong, C P

    2017-03-15

    As microelectronics are trending toward smaller packages and integrated circuit (IC) stacks nowadays, underfill, the polymer composite filled in between the IC chip and the substrate, becomes increasingly important for interconnection reliability. However, traditional underfills cannot meet the requirements for low-profile and fine pitch in high density IC stacking packages. Post-applied underfills have difficulties in flowing into the small gaps between the chip and the substrate, while pre-applied underfills face filler entrapment at bond pads. In this report, we present a self-patterning underfilling technology that uses selective wetting of underfill on Cu bond pads and Si3N4 passivation via surface energy engineering. This novel process, fully compatible with the conventional underfilling process, eliminates the issue of filler entrapment in typical pre-applied underfilling process, enabling high density and fine pitch IC die bonding.

  6. Oblique incidence of semi-guided waves on step-like folds in planar dielectric slabs: Lossless vertical interconnects in 3D integrated photonic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, Andre; Alhaddad, Samer; Hammer, Manfred; Förstner, Jens

    2016-02-01

    Semi-guided light propagation across linear folds of slab waveguides is being considered. Radiation losses vanish beyond certain critical angles of incidence, as can be understood by arguments resembling Snell's law. One thus realizes lossless propagation through 90-degree corner configurations, where the remaining guided waves are still subject to pronounced reflection and polarization conversion. A step-like system of two of these sharp corners can then be viewed as a system akin to a Fabry-Perot interferometer, with two partial reflectors at a distance given by the vertical separation of the slab cores. The respective resonance effect enables full transmission of semiguided, laterally plane waves through the step structures. One obtains a configuration that optically connects guiding layers at different elevation levels in a 3-D integrated optical chip, without radiation losses, over large distances, and reasonably broadband. We show rigorous quasi-analytical results for typical high-contrast Si/SiO2 structures. Although the full-transmission effect requires a symmetric system, here realized by slab waveguides with a silicon core sandwiched between thick silica substrate and cover layers, simulations for configurations with air cover show that a certain asymmetry can well be afforded.

  7. Flexible logic circuits based on top-gate thin film transistors with printed semiconductor carbon nanotubes and top electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Weiwei; Liu, Zhen; Zhao, Jianwen; Xu, Wenya; Gu, Weibing; Zhang, Xiang; Qian, Long; Cui, Zheng

    2014-11-01

    In this report printed thin film transistors and logic circuits on flexible substrates are reported. The top-gate thin film transistors were made of the sorted semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (sc-SWCNTs) ink as channel material and printed silver lines as top electrodes and interconnect. 5 nm HfOx thin films pre-deposited on PET substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) act as the adhesion layers to significantly improve the immobilization efficiency of sc-SWCNTs and environmental stability. The immobilization mechanism was investigated in detail. The flexible partially-printed top-gate SWCNT TFTs display ambipolar characteristics with slightly strong p-type when using 50 nm HfOx thin films as dielectric layer, as well as the encapsulation layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 120 °C. The hole mobility, on/off ratio and subthreshold swing (SS) are ~46.2 cm2 V-1 s-1, 105 and 109 mV per decade, respectively. Furthermore, partially-printed TFTs show small hysteresis, low operating voltage (2 V) and high stability in air. Flexible partially-printed inverters show good performance with voltage gain up to 33 with 1.25 V supply voltage, and can work at 10 kHz. The frequency of flexible partially-printed five-stage ring oscillators can reach 1.7 kHz at supply voltages of 2 V with per stage delay times of 58.8 μs. This work paves a way to achieve printed SWCNT advanced logic circuits and systems on flexible substrates.In this report printed thin film transistors and logic circuits on flexible substrates are reported. The top-gate thin film transistors were made of the sorted semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (sc-SWCNTs) ink as channel material and printed silver lines as top electrodes and interconnect. 5 nm HfOx thin films pre-deposited on PET substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) act as the adhesion layers to significantly improve the immobilization efficiency of sc-SWCNTs and environmental stability. The immobilization mechanism

  8. Flexible logic circuits based on top-gate thin film transistors with printed semiconductor carbon nanotubes and top electrodes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weiwei; Liu, Zhen; Zhao, Jianwen; Xu, Wenya; Gu, Weibing; Zhang, Xiang; Qian, Long; Cui, Zheng

    2014-12-21

    In this report printed thin film transistors and logic circuits on flexible substrates are reported. The top-gate thin film transistors were made of the sorted semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (sc-SWCNTs) ink as channel material and printed silver lines as top electrodes and interconnect. 5 nm HfOx thin films pre-deposited on PET substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) act as the adhesion layers to significantly improve the immobilization efficiency of sc-SWCNTs and environmental stability. The immobilization mechanism was investigated in detail. The flexible partially-printed top-gate SWCNT TFTs display ambipolar characteristics with slightly strong p-type when using 50 nm HfO(x) thin films as dielectric layer, as well as the encapsulation layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 120 °C. The hole mobility, on/off ratio and subthreshold swing (SS) are ∼ 46.2 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), 10(5) and 109 mV per decade, respectively. Furthermore, partially-printed TFTs show small hysteresis, low operating voltage (2 V) and high stability in air. Flexible partially-printed inverters show good performance with voltage gain up to 33 with 1.25 V supply voltage, and can work at 10 kHz. The frequency of flexible partially-printed five-stage ring oscillators can reach 1.7 kHz at supply voltages of 2 V with per stage delay times of 58.8 μs. This work paves a way to achieve printed SWCNT advanced logic circuits and systems on flexible substrates.

  9. 3D Surgical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  10. Design and evaluation of an MRI compatible axial compression device for 3D assessment of spinal deformity and flexibility in AIS.

    PubMed

    Adam, Clayton; Izatt, Maree; Askin, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) offers a valuable research tool for the assessment of 3D spinal deformity in AIS, however the horizontal patient position imposed by conventional scanners removes the axial compressive loading on the spine. The objective of this study was to design, construct and test an MRI compatible compression device for research into the effect of axial loading on spinal deformity using supine MRI scans. The device was evaluated by performing unloaded and loaded supine MRI scans on a series of 10 AIS patients. The patient group had a mean initial (unloaded) major Cobb angle of 43+/-7 degrees, which increased to 50+/-9 degrees on application of the compressive load. The 7 degrees increase in mean Cobb angle is consistent with that reported by a previous study comparing standing versus supine posture in scoliosis patients (Torell et al, 1985. Spine 10:425-7).

  11. Solderable and electroplatable flexible electronic circuit on a porous stretchable elastomer.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Gi Seok; Baek, Dong-Hyun; Jung, Ha Chul; Song, Ji Hoon; Moon, Jin Hee; Hong, Suck Won; Kim, In Young; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    A variety of flexible and stretchable electronics have been reported for use in flexible electronic devices or biomedical applications. The practical and wider application of such flexible electronics has been limited because commercial electronic components are difficult to be directly integrated into flexible stretchable electronics and electroplating is still challenging. Here, we propose a novel method for fabricating flexible and stretchable electronic devices using a porous elastomeric substrate. Pressurized steam was applied to an uncured polydimethylsiloxane layer for the simple and cost-effective production of porous structure. An electroplated nickel anchor had a key role in bonding commercial electronic components on elastomers by soldering techniques, and metals could be stably patterned and electroplated for practical uses. The proposed technology was applied to develop a plaster electrocardiogram dry electrode and multi-channel microelectrodes that could be used as a long-term wearable biosignal monitor and for brain signal monitoring, respectively.

  12. Ultra-thin and low-power optical interconnect module based on a flexible optical printed circuit board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Sung Hwan; Lee, Woo-Jin; Kim, Myoung Jin; Jung, Eun Joo; Kim, Gye Won; An, Jong Bae; Jung, Ki Young; Cha, Kyung Soon; Rho, Byung Sup

    2012-07-01

    We describe an ultra-thin and low-power optical interconnect module for mobile electronic devices such as mobile phones and notebooks. The module was fabricated by directly packaging optic and electronic components onto a thin and flexible optical printed circuit board having a size of 70×8×0.25 mm. The completed active module has features of thinness (0.5 mm), small size (7×5 mm), very low total power consumption (15.88 mW), and high data rate transmissions (2.5 Gbps).

  13. In vivo silicon-based flexible radio frequency integrated circuits monolithically encapsulated with biocompatible liquid crystal polymers.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Geon-Tae; Im, Donggu; Lee, Sung Eun; Lee, Jooseok; Koo, Min; Park, So Young; Kim, Seungjun; Yang, Kyounghoon; Kim, Sung June; Lee, Kwyro; Lee, Keon Jae

    2013-05-28

    Biointegrated electronics have been investigated for various healthcare applications which can introduce biomedical systems into the human body. Silicon-based semiconductors perform significant roles of nerve stimulation, signal analysis, and wireless communication in implantable electronics. However, the current large-scale integration (LSI) chips have limitations in in vivo devices due to their rigid and bulky properties. This paper describes in vivo ultrathin silicon-based liquid crystal polymer (LCP) monolithically encapsulated flexible radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs) for medical wireless communication. The mechanical stability of the LCP encapsulation is supported by finite element analysis simulation. In vivo electrical reliability and bioaffinity of the LCP monoencapsulated RFIC devices are confirmed in rats. In vitro accelerated soak tests are performed with Arrhenius method to estimate the lifetime of LCP monoencapsulated RFICs in a live body. The work could provide an approach to flexible LSI in biointegrated electronics such as an artificial retina and wireless body sensor networks.

  14. Novel DOCK clique driven 3D similarity database search tools for molecule shape matching and beyond: adding flexibility to the search for ligand kin.

    PubMed

    Good, Andrew C

    2007-10-01

    With readily available CPU power and copious disk storage, it is now possible to undertake rapid comparison of 3D properties derived from explicit ligand overlay experiments. With this in mind, shape software tools originally devised in the 1990s are revisited, modified and applied to the problem of ligand database shape comparison. The utility of Connolly surface data is highlighted using the program MAKESITE, which leverages surface normal data to a create ligand shape cast. This cast is applied directly within DOCK, allowing the program to be used unmodified as a shape searching tool. In addition, DOCK has undergone multiple modifications to create a dedicated ligand shape comparison tool KIN. Scoring has been altered to incorporate the original incarnation of Gaussian function derived shape description based on STO-3G atomic electron density. In addition, a tabu-like search refinement has been added to increase search speed by removing redundant starting orientations produced during clique matching. The ability to use exclusion regions, again based on Gaussian shape overlap, has also been integrated into the scoring function. The use of both DOCK with MAKESITE and KIN in database screening mode is illustrated using a published ligand shape virtual screening template. The advantages of using a clique-driven search paradigm are highlighted, including shape optimization within a pharmacophore constrained framework, and easy incorporation of additional scoring function modifications. The potential for further development of such methods is also discussed.

  15. Importance of polypyrrole in constructing 3D hierarchical carbon nanotube@MnO2 perfect core-shell nanostructures for high-performance flexible supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jinyuan; Zhao, Hao; Mu, Xuemei; Chen, Jiayi; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Yaling; He, Yongmin; Zhang, Zhenxing; Pan, Xiaojun; Xie, Erqing

    2015-09-21

    This study reports the preparation of 3D hierarchical carbon nanotube (CNT) @MnO2 core-shell nanostructures under the assistance of polypyrrole (PPy). The as-prepared CNT@PPy@MnO2 core-shell structures show a perfect coating of MnO2 on each CNT and, more importantly, a robust bush-like pseudocapacitive shell to effectively increase the specific surface area and enhance the ion accessibility. As expected, a high specific capacity of 490-530 F g(-1) has been achieved from CNT@PPy@MnO2 single electrodes. And about 98.5% of the capacity is retained after 1000 charge/discharge cycles at a current density of 5 A g(-1). Furthermore, the assembled asymmetric CNT@PPy@MnO2//AC capacitors show the maximum energy density of 38.42 W h kg(-1) (2.24 mW h cm(-3)) at a power density of 100 W kg(-1) (5.83 mW cm(-3)), and they maintain 59.52% of the initial value at 10,000 W kg(-1) (0.583 W cm(-3)). In addition, the assembled devices show high cycling stabilities (89.7% after 2000 cycles for asymmetric and 87.2% for symmetric), and a high bending stability (64.74% after 200 bending tests). This ability to obtain high energy densities at high power rates while maintaining high cycling stability demonstrates that this well-designed structure could be a promising electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors.

  16. An in Vivo 3D Computed Tomographic Analysis of Femoral Tunnel Geometry and Aperture Morphology Between Rigid and Flexible Systems in Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using the Transportal Technique.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Gyoon; Chang, Min Ho; Lim, Hong Chul; Bae, Ji Hoon; Lee, Seung Yup; Ahn, Jin Hwan; Wang, Joon Ho

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare femoral tunnel length, femoral graft-bending angle, posterior wall breakage, and femoral aperture morphologic characteristics between rigid and flexible systems after double-bundle (DB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using the transportal (TP) technique. We evaluated 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) results for 54 patients who underwent DB ACL reconstruction using the TP technique with either a flexible system (n = 27) or a rigid system (n = 27). The femoral tunnel length, femoral graft-bending angle, posterior wall breakage, femoral tunnel aperture height to width (H:W) ratio, aperture axis angle, and femoral tunnel position were assessed using OsiriX Imaging Software and Geomagic Qualify 2012 (Geomagic, Cary, NC). The mean anteromedial (AM) femoral tunnel length of the flexible group was significantly longer than that of the rigid group (P = .009). The mean femoral graft-bending angles in the flexible group were significantly less acute than those in the rigid group (AM, P < .001; posterolateral [PL], P = .003]. Posterior wall breakage was observed in both groups (P = 1.00). The mean H:W ratios in the rigid group were significantly larger (more elliptical) than those of the flexible group (AM, P < .001; PL, P = .006). The mean aperture axis angle of the PL femoral tunnel in the rigid group was more parallel to the femoral shaft axis than that in the flexible group (P < .001). There were no significant differences in femoral tunnel position between the 2 groups. The AM femoral tunnel length and the AM/PL femoral graft-bending angle of the flexible system were significantly longer and less acute than those of the rigid system. However, the aperture morphologic characteristics of the AM/PL femoral tunnel and the aperture axis angle of the PL femoral tunnel in the rigid system were significantly more elliptical and closer to parallel to the femoral shaft axis than those of the flexible system. Level

  17. Flexible Printed Circuits with Integral Molded Connectors. A Manufacturing Methods and Technology Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-12

    Flexible Printed Wiring", increased industry use of FPW and FCC Alexander A. Bosna and Jeffrey D. with the developments of reliable Emmel...FLEXIBLE PRINTED WIRING Alexander A. Bosna and Jeffrey D. Emmel Westinghouse Electric Corporation Defense and Electronics Systems Center Baltimore...34 U.S. welding. Mr. Bosna holds several patent Army Missile Command, Contract No. and disclosure awards involving metals DAAK40-79-C-0212. joining. He

  18. Large-Scale Self-Assembly of 3D Flower-like Hierarchical Ni/Co-LDHs Microspheres for High-Performance Flexible Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Li, T; Li, G H; Li, L H; Liu, L; Xu, Y; Ding, H Y; Zhang, T

    2016-02-03

    In this study, a facile and inexpensive and self-assembled strategy to massively fabricate Ni/Co layered double hydroxides (LDHs) is developed under mild reaction conditions (55 °C). The resulting composite material displays a special three-dimensional hierarchical microsphere structure with well-defined flower-like configuration. The fabrication mechanism can be ascribed to stepwise and regular reaction process of nanoparticles and nanosheets gradually growing to nanopetals and then assembling into flower-like microspheres, based on the systematically investigation of various reaction factors including the Ni:Co feeding ratio, the reaction time and the initial pH-value. Because of its large surface, ultrathin feature and synergetic results of this Ni/Co LDHs nanosheets (20 nm), these Ni/Co-LDHs microspheres deliver an excellent capacitance value about 2228 F·g(-1) (1 A·g(-1)). An all-solid-state flexible asymmetric supercapacitor is designed and assembled by exploiting this Ni/Co-LDHs as the positive materials, which exhibits energy density of 165.51 Wh·kg(1-) at 1.53 KW·kg(1-). It may have vast potential significance in personal wearable equipment. Moreover, this monolithic design provides a promising approach for large scale fabrication of other LDHs materials.

  19. Development of Radiation-Tolerant, Low Mass, High Bandwidth Flexible Printed Circuit Cables for Particle Detection Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, Neil

    2016-03-01

    Design options for meter long flexible printed circuit cables required for low mass ultra-high speed signal transmission in the high radiation environment at the High Luminosity run of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are described. Two dielectric materials were considered in this study, Kapton and a Kapton/Teflon mixture. The design geometry is a differential embedded microstrip with nominal 100 Ω impedance. Minimal mass and maximal radiation hardness are pre-eminent considerations. The long flexible printed circuit cables are characterized in bit error rate tests (BERT), attenuation versus frequency, mechanical response to stress and temperature change, and RLC decomposition. These tests are performed before and after irradiation with 1 MeV neutrons to 2x1016/cm 2 and 800 MeV protons to 2x1016 1 MeV-neq/cm2. A 1.0 m Kapton cable, with bandwidth of 6.22 gigabits per second, 0.03% of a radiation length, and no radiation induced mechanical or electrical degradation is obtained.

  20. Flexible proton 3D MR spectroscopic imaging of the prostate with low-power adiabatic pulses for volume selection and spiral readout.

    PubMed

    Steinseifer, Isabell K; Philips, Bart W J; Gagoski, Borjan; Weiland, Elisabeth; Scheenen, Tom W J; Heerschap, Arend

    2017-03-01

    Cartesian k-space sampling in three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) of the prostate limits the selection of voxel size and acquisition time. Therefore, large prostates are often scanned at reduced spatial resolutions to stay within clinically acceptable measurement times. Here we present a semilocalized adiabatic selective refocusing (sLASER) sequence with gradient-modulated offset-independent adiabatic (GOIA) refocusing pulses and spiral k-space acquisition (GOIA-sLASER-Spiral) for fast prostate MRSI with enhanced resolution and extended matrix sizes. MR was performed at 3 tesla with an endorectal receive coil. GOIA-sLASER-Spiral at an echo time (TE) of 90 ms was compared to a point-resolved spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) with weighted, elliptical phase encoding at an TE of 145 ms using simulations and measurements of phantoms and patients (n = 9). GOIA-sLASER-Spiral acquisition allows prostate MR spectra to be obtained in ∼5 min with a quality comparable to those acquired with a common Cartesian PRESS protocol in ∼9 min, or at an enhanced spatial resolution showing more precise tissue allocation of metabolites. Extended field of views (FOVs) and matrix sizes for large prostates are possible without compromising spatial resolution or measurement time. The flexibility of spiral sampling enables prostate MRSI with a wide range of resolutions and FOVs without undesirable increases in acquisition times, as in Cartesian encoding. This approach is suitable for routine clinical exams of prostate metabolites. Magn Reson Med 77:928-935, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. Striatal dopamine ramping may indicate flexible reinforcement learning with forgetting in the cortico-basal ganglia circuits.

    PubMed

    Morita, Kenji; Kato, Ayaka

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that the midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons, receiving inputs from the cortico-basal ganglia (CBG) circuits and the brainstem, compute reward prediction error (RPE), the difference between reward obtained or expected to be obtained and reward that had been expected to be obtained. These reward expectations are suggested to be stored in the CBG synapses and updated according to RPE through synaptic plasticity, which is induced by released DA. These together constitute the "DA=RPE" hypothesis, which describes the mutual interaction between DA and the CBG circuits and serves as the primary working hypothesis in studying reward learning and value-based decision-making. However, recent work has revealed a new type of DA signal that appears not to represent RPE. Specifically, it has been found in a reward-associated maze task that striatal DA concentration primarily shows a gradual increase toward the goal. We explored whether such ramping DA could be explained by extending the "DA=RPE" hypothesis by taking into account biological properties of the CBG circuits. In particular, we examined effects of possible time-dependent decay of DA-dependent plastic changes of synaptic strengths by incorporating decay of learned values into the RPE-based reinforcement learning model and simulating reward learning tasks. We then found that incorporation of such a decay dramatically changes the model's behavior, causing gradual ramping of RPE. Moreover, we further incorporated magnitude-dependence of the rate of decay, which could potentially be in accord with some past observations, and found that near-sigmoidal ramping of RPE, resembling the observed DA ramping, could then occur. Given that synaptic decay can be useful for flexibly reversing and updating the learned reward associations, especially in case the baseline DA is low and encoding of negative RPE by DA is limited, the observed DA ramping would be indicative of the operation of such flexible reward learning.

  2. Well-Ordered Oxygen-Deficient CoMoO4 and Fe2O3 Nanoplate Arrays on 3D Graphene Foam: Toward Flexible Asymmetric Supercapacitors with Enhanced Capacitive Properties.

    PubMed

    Chi, Kai; Zhang, Zheye; Lv, Qiying; Xie, Chuyi; Xiao, Jian; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Shuai

    2017-02-22

    In this work, we report the development of well-ordered hydrogenated CoMoO4 (H-CoMoO4) and hydrogenated Fe2O3 (H-Fe2O3) nanoplate arrays on 3D graphene foam (GF) and explore their practice application as binder-free electrodes in assembling flexible all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) devices. Our results show that the monolithic 3D porous GF prepared by solution casting method using Ni foam template possesses large surface area, superior electrical conductivity, and sufficient surface functional groups, which not only facilitate in situ growth of CoMoO4 and Fe2O3 nanoplates but also contribute the double-layer capacitance of the resultant supercapacitor. The well-ordered pseudocapacitive metal oxide nanoplate arrays standing up on 3D GF scaffold can provide efficient space and shorten the length for electrolyte diffusion from the outer to the inner region of the electrode material for Faradaic energy storage. Furthermore, one of our major findings is that the introduction of oxygen vacancies in CoMoO4 and Fe2O3 nanoplates by hydrogenation treatment can increase their electronic conductivity as well as improve their donor density and surface properties, which gives rise to a substantially improved electrochemical performance. Benefiting from the synergistic contributions of different components in the nanohybrid electrode, the resultant flexible ASC device with GF/H-CoMoO4 as the positive electrode and GF/H-Fe2O3 as the negative electrode achieves a wide operation voltage of 1.5 V and a maximum volumetric specific capacitance of 3.6 F cm(-3), which is two times larger than that of the Ni/GF/CoMoO4//Ni/GF/Fe2O3 device (1.8 F cm(-3)), and the rate capability is up to 70% as the current density increases from 2 to 200 mA cm(-3). Moreover, the Ni/GF/H-CoMoO4//Ni/GF/H-Fe2O3 device also exhibits a high energy density of 1.13 mWh cm(-3) and a high power density of 150 mW cm(-3), good mechanical flexibility with the decrease in capacitance of less than 4% after

  3. Laser-Assisted Reduction of Highly Conductive Circuits Based on Copper Nitrate for Flexible Printed Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Shi; Zhang, Shigang; Zhou, Weiping; Ma, Delong; Ma, Ying; Joshi, Pooran; Hu, Anming

    2017-10-01

    Stretchable electronic sensing devices are defining the path toward wearable electronics. High-performance flexible strain sensors attached on clothing or human skin are required for potential applications in the entertainment, health monitoring, and medical care sectors. In this work, conducting copper electrodes were fabricated on polydimethylsiloxane as sensitive stretchable microsensors by integrating laser direct writing and transfer printing approaches. The copper electrode was reduced from copper salt using laser writing rather than the general approach of printing with pre-synthesized copper or copper oxide nanoparticles. An electrical resistivity of 96 μΩ cm was achieved on 40-μm-thick Cu electrodes on flexible substrates. The motion sensing functionality successfully demonstrated a high sensitivity and mechanical robustness. This in situ fabrication method leads to a path toward electronic devices on flexible substrates.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  5. High-resolution Mapping of In Vivo Gastrointestinal Slow Wave Activity Using Flexible Printed Circuit Board Electrodes: Methodology and Validation

    PubMed Central

    DU, PENG; O'GRADY, G.; EGBUJI, J. U.; LAMMERS, W. J.; BUDGETT, D.; NIELSEN, P.; WINDSOR, J. A.; PULLAN, A. J.; CHENG, L. K.

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution, multi-electrode mapping is providing valuable new insights into the origin, propagation, and abnormalities of gastrointestinal (GI) slow wave activity. Construction of high-resolution mapping arrays has previously been a costly and time-consuming endeavor, and existing arrays are not well suited for human research as they cannot be reliably and repeatedly sterilized. The design and fabrication of a new flexible printed circuit board (PCB) multi-electrode array that is suitable for GI mapping is presented, together with its in vivo validation in a porcine model. A modified methodology for characterizing slow waves and forming spatiotemporal activation maps showing slow waves propagation is also demonstrated. The validation study found that flexible PCB electrode arrays are able to reliably record gastric slow wave activity with signal quality near that achieved by traditional epoxy resin-embedded silver electrode arrays. Flexible PCB electrode arrays provide a clinically viable alternative to previously published devices for the high-resolution mapping of GI slow wave activity. PCBs may be mass-produced at low cost, and are easily sterilized and potentially disposable, making them ideally suited to intra-operative human use. PMID:19224368

  6. High-resolution mapping of in vivo gastrointestinal slow wave activity using flexible printed circuit board electrodes: methodology and validation.

    PubMed

    Du, Peng; O'Grady, G; Egbuji, J U; Lammers, W J; Budgett, D; Nielsen, P; Windsor, J A; Pullan, A J; Cheng, L K

    2009-04-01

    High-resolution, multi-electrode mapping is providing valuable new insights into the origin, propagation, and abnormalities of gastrointestinal (GI) slow wave activity. Construction of high-resolution mapping arrays has previously been a costly and time-consuming endeavor, and existing arrays are not well suited for human research as they cannot be reliably and repeatedly sterilized. The design and fabrication of a new flexible printed circuit board (PCB) multi-electrode array that is suitable for GI mapping is presented, together with its in vivo validation in a porcine model. A modified methodology for characterizing slow waves and forming spatiotemporal activation maps showing slow waves propagation is also demonstrated. The validation study found that flexible PCB electrode arrays are able to reliably record gastric slow wave activity with signal quality near that achieved by traditional epoxy resin-embedded silver electrode arrays. Flexible PCB electrode arrays provide a clinically viable alternative to previously published devices for the high-resolution mapping of GI slow wave activity. PCBs may be mass-produced at low cost, and are easily sterilized and potentially disposable, making them ideally suited to intra-operative human use.

  7. Process design kit and circuits at a 2 µm technology node for flexible wearable electronics applications (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Miranda, Miguel; Petritz, Andreas; Gold, Herbert; Stadlober, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    In this work we present our most advanced technology node of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) manufactured with a channel length as short as 2 μm by contact photolithography and a self-alignment process directly on a plastic substrate. Our process design kit (PDK) is described with P-type transistors, capacitors and 3 metal layers for connections of complex circuits. The OTFTs are composed of a double dielectric layer with a photopatternable ultra thin polymer (PNDPE) and alumina, with a thickness on the order of 100 nm. The organic semiconductor is either Pentacene or DNTT, which have a stable average mobility up to 0.1 cm2/Vs. Finally, a polymer (e.g.: Parylene-C) is used as a passivation layer. We describe also our design rules for the placement of standard circuit cells. A "plastic wafer" is fabricated containing 49 dies. Each die of 1 cm2 has between 25 to 50 devices, proving larger scale integration in such a small space, unique in organic technologies. Finally, we present the design (by simulations using a Spice model for OTFTs) and the test of analog and digital basic circuits: amplifiers with DC gains of about 20 dB, comparators, inverters and logic gates working in the frequency range of 1-10 kHz. These standard circuit cells could be used for signal conditioning and integrated as active matrices for flexible sensors from 3rd party institutions, thus opening our fab to new ideas and sophisticated pre-industrial low cost applications for the emerging fields of biomedical devices and wearable electronics for virtual/augmented reality.

  8. A Comprehensive Surface Mount Technology Solution for Integrated Circuits onto Flexible Screen Printed Electrical Interconnects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-19

    Surface of screen-printed structures, laser intensity of surface structure (a), contour lines of surface structure (b... cladding onto a thinned IC [14]. Analogously to classical flip chip bonding onto organic printed circuit boards, underfilling and encapsulation play an...Nevertheless, the pad size and the pad pitch are kept constant to be 530 µm x 530 µm and 600 µm, respectively. Moreover, the width of the interconnects is also

  9. Sorting of large-diameter semiconducting carbon nanotube and printed flexible driving circuit for organic light emitting diode (OLED)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenya; Zhao, Jianwen; Qian, Long; Han, Xianying; Wu, Liangzhuan; Wu, Weichen; Song, Minshun; Zhou, Lu; Su, Wenming; Wang, Chao; Nie, Shuhong; Cui, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    A novel approach was developed to sort a large-diameter semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (sc-SWCNT) based on copolyfluorene derivative with high yield. High purity sc-SWCNTs inks were obtained by wrapping arc-discharge SWCNTs with poly[2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-alt-4,7-bis(thiophen-2-yl)benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole] (PFO-DBT) aided by sonication and centrifugation in tetrahydrofuran (THF). The sorted sc-SWCNT inks and nanosilver inks were used to print top-gated thin-film transistors (TFTs) on flexible substrates with an aerosol jet printer. The printed TFTs demonstrated low operating voltage, small hysteresis, high on-state current (up to 10-3 A), high mobility and on-off ratio. An organic light emitting diode (OLED) driving circuit was constructed based on the printed TFTs, which exhibited high on-off ratio up to 104 and output current up to 3.5 × 10-4 A at Vscan = -4.5 V and Vdd = 0.8 V. A single OLED was switched on with the driving circuit, showing the potential as backplanes for active matrix OLED applications.A novel approach was developed to sort a large-diameter semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (sc-SWCNT) based on copolyfluorene derivative with high yield. High purity sc-SWCNTs inks were obtained by wrapping arc-discharge SWCNTs with poly[2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-alt-4,7-bis(thiophen-2-yl)benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole] (PFO-DBT) aided by sonication and centrifugation in tetrahydrofuran (THF). The sorted sc-SWCNT inks and nanosilver inks were used to print top-gated thin-film transistors (TFTs) on flexible substrates with an aerosol jet printer. The printed TFTs demonstrated low operating voltage, small hysteresis, high on-state current (up to 10-3 A), high mobility and on-off ratio. An organic light emitting diode (OLED) driving circuit was constructed based on the printed TFTs, which exhibited high on-off ratio up to 104 and output current up to 3.5 × 10-4 A at Vscan = -4.5 V and Vdd = 0.8 V. A single OLED was switched on with the driving

  10. 3D carotid plaque MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Dennis L.

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS There has been significant progress made in 3D carotid plaque magnetic resonance imaging techniques in recent years. 3D plaque imaging clearly represents the future in clinical use. With effective flow suppression techniques, choices of different contrast weighting acquisitions, and time-efficient imaging approaches, 3D plaque imaging offers flexible imaging plane and view angle analysis, large coverage, multi-vascular beds capability, and even can be used in fast screening. PMID:26610656

  11. A 3d-3d appetizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Du; Ye, Ke

    2016-11-01

    We test the 3d-3d correspondence for theories that are labeled by Lens spaces. We find a full agreement between the index of the 3d N=2 "Lens space theory" T [ L( p, 1)] and the partition function of complex Chern-Simons theory on L( p, 1). In particular, for p = 1, we show how the familiar S 3 partition function of Chern-Simons theory arises from the index of a free theory. For large p, we find that the index of T[ L( p, 1)] becomes a constant independent of p. In addition, we study T[ L( p, 1)] on the squashed three-sphere S b 3 . This enables us to see clearly, at the level of partition function, to what extent G ℂ complex Chern-Simons theory can be thought of as two copies of Chern-Simons theory with compact gauge group G.

  12. Bilingualism trains specific brain circuits involved in flexible rule selection and application.

    PubMed

    Stocco, Andrea; Prat, Chantel S

    2014-10-01

    Bilingual individuals have been shown to outperform monolinguals on a variety of tasks that measure non-linguistic executive functioning, suggesting that some facets of the bilingual experience give rise to generalized improvements in cognitive performance. The current study investigated the hypothesis that such advantage in executive functioning arises from the need to flexibly select and apply rules when speaking multiple languages. Such flexible behavior may strengthen the functioning of the fronto-striatal loops that direct signals to the prefrontal cortex. To test this hypothesis, we compared behavioral and brain data from proficient bilinguals and monolinguals who performed a Rapid Instructed Task Learning paradigm, which requires behaving according to ever-changing rules. Consistent with our hypothesis, bilinguals were faster than monolinguals when executing novel rules, and this improvement was associated with greater modulation of activity in the basal ganglia. The implications of these findings for language and executive function research are discussed herein. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Flexible and stretchable nanowire-coated fibers for optoelectronic probing of spinal cord circuits

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chi; Park, Seongjun; Richner, Thomas J.; Derry, Alexander; Brown, Imogen; Hou, Chong; Rao, Siyuan; Kang, Jeewoo; Moritz, Chet T.; Fink, Yoel; Anikeeva, Polina

    2017-01-01

    Studies of neural pathways that contribute to loss and recovery of function following paralyzing spinal cord injury require devices for modulating and recording electrophysiological activity in specific neurons. These devices must be sufficiently flexible to match the low elastic modulus of neural tissue and to withstand repeated strains experienced by the spinal cord during normal movement. We report flexible, stretchable probes consisting of thermally drawn polymer fibers coated with micrometer-thick conductive meshes of silver nanowires. These hybrid probes maintain low optical transmission losses in the visible range and impedance suitable for extracellular recording under strains exceeding those occurring in mammalian spinal cords. Evaluation in freely moving mice confirms the ability of these probes to record endogenous electrophysiological activity in the spinal cord. Simultaneous stimulation and recording is demonstrated in transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin 2, where optical excitation evokes electromyographic activity and hindlimb movement correlated to local field potentials measured in the spinal cord. PMID:28435858

  14. Few-layer molybdenum disulfide transistors and circuits for high-speed flexible electronics

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Rui; Jiang, Shan; Chen, Yu; Liu, Yuan; Weiss, Nathan; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Wu, Hao; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional layered materials, such as molybdenum disulfide, are emerging as an exciting material system for future electronics due to their unique electronic properties and atomically thin geometry. Here we report a systematic investigation of MoS2 transistors with optimized contact and device geometry, to achieve self-aligned devices with performance including an intrinsic gain over 30, an intrinsic cut-off frequency fT up to 42 GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency fMAX up to 50 GHz, exceeding the reported values for MoS2 transistors to date (fT ~ 0.9 GHz, fMAX ~ 1 GHz). Our results show that logic inverters or radio frequency amplifiers can be formed by integrating multiple MoS2 transistors on quartz or flexible substrates with voltage gain in the gigahertz regime. This study demonstrates the potential of two-dimensional layered semiconductors for high-speed flexible electronics. PMID:25295573

  15. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; ...

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  16. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  17. Cu-PDC-bpa solid coordination frameworks (PDC=2,5-pyrindinedicarboxylate; bpa=1,2-DI(4-pyridil)ethane)): 2D and 3D structural flexibility producing a 3-c herringbone array next to ideal

    SciTech Connect

    Llano-Tomé, Francisco; Bazán, Begoña; Urtiaga, Miren-Karmele; Barandika, Gotzone; Antonia Señarís-Rodríguez, M.; and others

    2015-10-15

    Combination of polycarboxylate anions and dipyridyl ligands is an effective strategy to produce solid coordination frameworks (SCF) which are crystalline materials based on connections between metal ions through organic ligands. In this context, this work is focused on two novel Cu{sup II}-based SCFs exhibiting PDC (2,5-pyridinedicarboxylate) and bpa (1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethane), being the first structures reported in literature containing both ligands. Chemical formula are [Cu{sub 2}[(PDC){sub 2}(bpa)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·3H{sub 2}O·DMF (1), and [Cu{sub 2}(PDC){sub 2}(bpa)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·7H{sub 2}O (2), where DMF is dimethylformamide. Compounds 1 and 2 have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, differential thermal analysis (DTA) and dielectric measurements. The crystallographic analysis revealed that compounds 1 and 2 can be described as herringbone-type layers formed by helicoidal Cu-PDC-Cu chains connected through bpa ligands. Solvent molecules are crystallized between the layers, providing the inter-layer connections through hydrogen bonds. Differences between both compounds are attributable to the flexibility of bpa (in 2D) as well as to the 3D packing of the layers which is solvent dependent. This fact results in the fact that compound 2 is the most regular 3-c herringbone array reported so far. The structural dynamism of these networks is responsible for the crystalline to-amorphous to-crystalline (CAC) transformation from compound 1 to compound 2. Crystallochemical features for both compounds have also been studied and compared to similar 3-connected herringbone-arrays. - Graphical abstract: Cu-PDC-bpa 3-c herringbone arrays. - Highlights: • The most ideal herringbone array reported so far is a Cu-PDC-bpa SCF. • Conformational freedom of bpa results in 2D and 3D flexibility of the SCFs. • The flexibility of the SCFs is related to a phase transformation. • Dielectric

  18. Flexible Low-power SiGe HBT Amplifier Circuits for Fast Single-shot Spin Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, Troy; Lilly, Michael; Curry, Matthew; Carr, Stephen; Carroll, Malcolm

    Fast, low-power quantum state readout is one of many challenges facing quantum information processing. Single electron transistors (SETs) are potentially fast, sensitive detectors for performing spin readout of electrons bound to Si:P donors. From a circuit perspective, however, their output impedance and nonlinear conductance are ill suited to drive the parasitic capacitance of coaxial conductors used in cryogenic environments, necessitating a cryogenic amplification stage. We will introduce two new amplifier topologies that provide excellent gain versus power tradeoffs using silicon-germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). The AC HBT allows in-situ adjustment of power dissipation during an experiment and can provide gain in the millikelvin temperature regime while dissipating less than 500 nW. The AC Current Amplifier maximizes gain at nearly 800 A/A. We will also show results of using these amplifiers with SETs at 4 K. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000. Flexible Low-power SiGe HBT Amplifier Circuits for Fast Single-shot Spin Readout.

  19. High performance printed N and P-type OTFTs enabling digital and analog complementary circuits on flexible plastic substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, S.; Abdinia, S.; Benwadih, M.; Bablet, J.; Chartier, I.; Gwoziecki, R.; Cantatore, E.; van Roermund, A. H. M.; Maddiona, L.; Tramontana, F.; Maiellaro, G.; Mariucci, L.; Rapisarda, M.; Palmisano, G.; Coppard, R.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a printed organic complementary technology on flexible plastic substrate with high performance N and P-type Organic Thin Film Transistors (OTFTs), based on small-molecule organic semiconductors in solution. Challenges related to the integration of both OTFT types in a common complementary flow are addressed, showing the importance of surface treatments. Stability on single devices and on an elementary complementary digital circuit (ring oscillator) is studied, demonstrating that a robust and reliable flow with high electrical performances can be established for printed organic devices. These devices are used to manufacture several analog and digital building blocks. The design is carried out using a model specifically developed for this technology, and taking into account the parametric variability. High-frequency measurements of printed envelope detectors show improved speed performance, resulting from the high mobility of the OTFTs. In addition, a compact dynamic flip-flop and a low-offset comparator are demonstrated, thanks to availability of both n-type and p-type OTFTs in the technology. Measurement results are in good agreement with the simulations. The circuits presented establish a complete library of building blocks for the realization of a printed RFID tag.

  20. Sorting of large-diameter semiconducting carbon nanotube and printed flexible driving circuit for organic light emitting diode (OLED).

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenya; Zhao, Jianwen; Qian, Long; Han, Xianying; Wu, Liangzhuan; Wu, Weichen; Song, Minshun; Zhou, Lu; Su, Wenming; Wang, Chao; Nie, Shuhong; Cui, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    A novel approach was developed to sort a large-diameter semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (sc-SWCNT) based on copolyfluorene derivative with high yield. High purity sc-SWCNTs inks were obtained by wrapping arc-discharge SWCNTs with poly[2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-alt-4,7-bis(thiophen-2-yl)benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole] (PFO-DBT) aided by sonication and centrifugation in tetrahydrofuran (THF). The sorted sc-SWCNT inks and nanosilver inks were used to print top-gated thin-film transistors (TFTs) on flexible substrates with an aerosol jet printer. The printed TFTs demonstrated low operating voltage, small hysteresis, high on-state current (up to 10(-3) A), high mobility and on-off ratio. An organic light emitting diode (OLED) driving circuit was constructed based on the printed TFTs, which exhibited high on-off ratio up to 10(4) and output current up to 3.5 × 10(-4) A at V(scan) = -4.5 V and Vdd = 0.8 V. A single OLED was switched on with the driving circuit, showing the potential as backplanes for active matrix OLED applications.

  1. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  2. Few-layer molybdenum disulfide transistors and circuits for high-speed flexible electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Rui; Jiang, Shan; Chen, Yu; Liu, Yuan; Weiss, Nathan; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Wu, Hao; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2014-10-01

    Two-dimensional layered materials, such as molybdenum disulfide, are emerging as an exciting material system for future electronics due to their unique electronic properties and atomically thin geometry. Here we report a systematic investigation of MoS2 transistors with optimized contact and device geometry, to achieve self-aligned devices with performance including an intrinsic gain over 30, an intrinsic cut-off frequency fT up to 42 GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency fMAX up to 50 GHz, exceeding the reported values for MoS2 transistors to date (fT~0.9 GHz, fMAX~1 GHz). Our results show that logic inverters or radio frequency amplifiers can be formed by integrating multiple MoS2 transistors on quartz or flexible substrates with voltage gain in the gigahertz regime. This study demonstrates the potential of two-dimensional layered semiconductors for high-speed flexible electronics.

  3. Few-layer molybdenum disulfide transistors and circuits for high-speed flexible electronics.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Rui; Jiang, Shan; Chen, Yu; Liu, Yuan; Weiss, Nathan; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Wu, Hao; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2014-10-08

    Two-dimensional layered materials, such as molybdenum disulfide, are emerging as an exciting material system for future electronics due to their unique electronic properties and atomically thin geometry. Here we report a systematic investigation of MoS2 transistors with optimized contact and device geometry, to achieve self-aligned devices with performance including an intrinsic gain over 30, an intrinsic cut-off frequency fT up to 42 GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency fMAX up to 50 GHz, exceeding the reported values for MoS2 transistors to date (fT~0.9 GHz, fMAX~1 GHz). Our results show that logic inverters or radio frequency amplifiers can be formed by integrating multiple MoS2 transistors on quartz or flexible substrates with voltage gain in the gigahertz regime. This study demonstrates the potential of two-dimensional layered semiconductors for high-speed flexible electronics.

  4. D3-D power supply, design, and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerem, A.

    1995-02-01

    An overview of the D3-D power supply system with information details concerning the configuration, power ratings, acquisition costs, and cost scaling relevant to the design of ITER and other tokamaks is presented. The power supplies for the D3-D tokamak were installed and commissioned during the late 1970's and the beginning of the 1980's. Several upgrades have been implemented during the last two years to solve increasing reliability problems encountered as the equipment aged, to provide enhanced operational flexibilities, and to enable operation at the higher power levels needed to provide experimental data relevant to the ITER and TPX design activities. These upgrades ranged from redesign of the power supply control systems to the replacement of vacuum circuit breakers which had become unreliable in service. A new interlock and protection system has also been implemented using the latest programmable logic controllers (PLC) and computer technology. These upgrades have been highly successful and are described to provide insight to many issues in the specification of high power converters. Power supply models used in the design of the D3-D Plasma Control System are also described along with model verification test data. These models are being used in the development of a new advanced plasma control system for the D3-D tokamak. Recent operational experience and results are presented.

  5. Refined 3d-3d correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alday, Luis F.; Genolini, Pietro Benetti; Bullimore, Mathew; van Loon, Mark

    2017-04-01

    We explore aspects of the correspondence between Seifert 3-manifolds and 3d N = 2 supersymmetric theories with a distinguished abelian flavour symmetry. We give a prescription for computing the squashed three-sphere partition functions of such 3d N = 2 theories constructed from boundary conditions and interfaces in a 4d N = 2∗ theory, mirroring the construction of Seifert manifold invariants via Dehn surgery. This is extended to include links in the Seifert manifold by the insertion of supersymmetric Wilson-'t Hooft loops in the 4d N = 2∗ theory. In the presence of a mass parameter cfor the distinguished flavour symmetry, we recover aspects of refined Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group, and in particular construct an analytic continuation of the S-matrix of refined Chern-Simons theory.

  6. A 3d-3d appetizer

    DOE PAGES

    Pei, Du; Ye, Ke

    2016-11-02

    Here, we test the 3d-3d correspondence for theories that are labeled by Lens spaces. We find a full agreement between the index of the 3d N=2 “Lens space theory” T [L(p, 1)] and the partition function of complex Chern-Simons theory on L(p, 1). In particular, for p = 1, we show how the familiar S3 partition function of Chern-Simons theory arises from the index of a free theory. For large p, we find that the index of T[L(p, 1)] becomes a constant independent of p. In addition, we study T[L(p, 1)] on the squashed three-sphere Sb3. This enables us tomore » see clearly, at the level of partition function, to what extent GC complex Chern-Simons theory can be thought of as two copies of Chern-Simons theory with compact gauge group G.« less

  7. A 3d-3d appetizer

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Du; Ye, Ke

    2016-11-02

    Here, we test the 3d-3d correspondence for theories that are labeled by Lens spaces. We find a full agreement between the index of the 3d N=2 “Lens space theory” T [L(p, 1)] and the partition function of complex Chern-Simons theory on L(p, 1). In particular, for p = 1, we show how the familiar S3 partition function of Chern-Simons theory arises from the index of a free theory. For large p, we find that the index of T[L(p, 1)] becomes a constant independent of p. In addition, we study T[L(p, 1)] on the squashed three-sphere Sb3. This enables us to see clearly, at the level of partition function, to what extent GC complex Chern-Simons theory can be thought of as two copies of Chern-Simons theory with compact gauge group G.

  8. New coordination polymers from 1D chain, 2D layer to 3D framework constructed from 1,2-phenylenediacetic acid and 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane flexible ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Xin Lingyun; Liu Guangzhen; Wang Liya

    2011-06-15

    The hydrothermal reactions of Cd, Zn, or Cu(II) acetate salts with H{sub 2}PHDA and BPP flexible ligands afford three new coordination polymers, including [Cd(PHDA)(BPP)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}(1), [Zn(PHDA)(BPP)]{sub n}(2), and [Cu{sub 2}(PHDA){sub 2}(BPP)]{sub n}(3) (H{sub 2}PHDA=1,2-phenylenediacetic acid, BPP=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane). The single-crystal X-ray diffractions reveal that all three complexes feature various metal carboxylate subunits extended further by the BPP ligands to form a diverse range of structures, displaying a remarked structural sensitivity to metal(II) cation. Complex 1 containing PHDA-bridged binuclear cadmium generates 1D double-stranded chain, complex 2 results in 2D{yields}2D interpenetrated (4,4) grids, and complex 3 displays a 3D self-penetrated framework with 4{sup 8}6{sup 6}8 rob topology. In addition, fluorescent analyses show that both 1 and 2 exhibit intense blue-violet photoluminescence in the solid state. - Graphical Abstract: We show diverse supramolecular frameworks based on the same ligands (PHDA and BPP) and different metal acetate salts including 1D double-stranded chain, 2D {yields} 2D twofold interpenetrated layer, and 3D self-penetration networks. Highlights: > Three metal(II = 2 /* ROMAN ) coordination polymers were synthesized using H{sub 2}PHDA and BPP. > The diversity of structures show a remarked sensitivity to metal(II) center. > Complexes show the enhancement of fluorescence compared to that of free ligand.

  9. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  10. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  11. Diamond in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-08-20

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called Diamond Jenness was taken after NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time. 3D glasses are necessary.

  12. New coordination polymers from 1D chain, 2D layer to 3D framework constructed from 1,2-phenylenediacetic acid and 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane flexible ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Ling-Yun; Liu, Guang-Zhen; Wang, Li-Ya

    2011-06-01

    The hydrothermal reactions of Cd, Zn, or Cu(II) acetate salts with H 2PHDA and BPP flexible ligands afford three new coordination polymers, including [Cd(PHDA)(BPP)(H 2O)] n(1), [Zn(PHDA)(BPP)] n(2), and [Cu 2(PHDA) 2(BPP)] n(3) (H 2PHDA=1,2-phenylenediacetic acid, BPP=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane). The single-crystal X-ray diffractions reveal that all three complexes feature various metal carboxylate subunits extended further by the BPP ligands to form a diverse range of structures, displaying a remarked structural sensitivity to metal(II) cation. Complex 1 containing PHDA-bridged binuclear cadmium generates 1D double-stranded chain, complex 2 results in 2D→2D interpenetrated (4,4) grids, and complex 3 displays a 3D self-penetrated framework with 4 86 68 rob topology. In addition, fluorescent analyses show that both 1 and 2 exhibit intense blue-violet photoluminescence in the solid state.

  13. Temporal and spectral analysis of laser induced plasma in the ablation process of flexible printed circuit board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryoo, Hoon C.; Kim, Seok; Hahn, Jae W.

    2008-02-01

    Flexible printed circuit board (FPCB), consisting of copper sheets laminated onto non conductive film substrates with multiple structures, are core elements in electronics with their flexibility and capability of high density 3 dimensional wiring characteristics. In laser applied FPCB processing, a better understanding of the ablation mechanism leads to precision control of the depth processing especially by monitoring of the material transition layer. For this purpose, here we investigate the temporal and spectral behavior of the plasma plum generated on the single sided structure of FPCB using the technique of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Using KrF excimer laser, the characteristic spectral emission lines of C II swan band at the wavelength of 516.5 nm and neutral copper at the wavelength range from 510 nm to 522 nm are acquired under ambient pressure in the ablation process of polyimide film and copper coated layer respectively. From a time delay from 50 ns to 4.05 μs from the beginning of the laser pulse, the temporal profiles of the spectral intensity are obtained in steps of 200 ns, which have a tendency of exponential decrease on both C II and neutral copper. In particular, we concentrate our attention on the temporal intensity behavior of the Bremsstrahlung continuum emission that decides the proper set of detection time window, by which the monitoring sensitivity of LIBS is determined. Finally, using the information of the temporal analysis for each molecular, atomic, and continuum emission, the transition layer between polyimide and copper film is distinguished by their characteristic peak information.

  14. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  15. Tuning the threshold voltage of carbon nanotube transistors by n-type molecular doping for robust and flexible complementary circuits

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huiliang; Wei, Peng; Li, Yaoxuan; Han, Jeff; Lee, Hye Ryoung; Naab, Benjamin D.; Liu, Nan; Wang, Chenggong; Adijanto, Eric; Tee, Benjamin C.-K.; Morishita, Satoshi; Li, Qiaochu; Gao, Yongli; Cui, Yi; Bao, Zhenan

    2014-01-01

    Tuning the threshold voltage of a transistor is crucial for realizing robust digital circuits. For silicon transistors, the threshold voltage can be accurately controlled by doping. However, it remains challenging to tune the threshold voltage of single-wall nanotube (SWNT) thin-film transistors. Here, we report a facile method to controllably n-dope SWNTs using 1H-benzoimidazole derivatives processed via either solution coating or vacuum deposition. The threshold voltages of our polythiophene-sorted SWNT thin-film transistors can be tuned accurately and continuously over a wide range. Photoelectron spectroscopy measurements confirmed that the SWNT Fermi level shifted to the conduction band edge with increasing doping concentration. Using this doping approach, we proceeded to fabricate SWNT complementary inverters by inkjet printing of the dopants. We observed an unprecedented noise margin of 28 V at VDD = 80 V (70% of 1/2VDD) and a gain of 85. Additionally, robust SWNT complementary metal−oxide−semiconductor inverter (noise margin 72% of 1/2VDD) and logic gates with rail-to-rail output voltage swing and subnanowatt power consumption were fabricated onto a highly flexible substrate. PMID:24639537

  16. Flexible hybrid circuit fully inkjet-printed: Surface mount devices assembled by silver nanoparticles-based inkjet ink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrese, J.; Vescio, G.; Xuriguera, E.; Medina-Rodriguez, B.; Cornet, A.; Cirera, A.

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, inkjet-printed devices such as transistors are still unstable in air and have poor performances. Moreover, the present electronics applications require a high degree of reliability and quality of their properties. In order to accomplish these application requirements, hybrid electronics is fulfilled by combining the advantages of the printing technologies with the surface-mount technology. In this work, silver nanoparticle-based inkjet ink (AgNP ink) is used as a novel approach to connect surface-mount devices (SMDs) onto inkjet-printed pads, conducted by inkjet printing technology. Excellent quality AgNP ink-junctions are ensured with high resolution picoliter drop jetting at low temperature (˜150 °C). Electrical, mechanical, and morphological characterizations are carried out to assess the performance of the AgNP ink junction. Moreover, AgNP ink is compared with common benchmark materials (i.e., silver epoxy and solder). Electrical contact resistance characterization shows a similar performance between the AgNP ink and the usual ones. Mechanical characterization shows comparable shear strength for AgNP ink and silver epoxy, and both present higher adhesion than solder. Morphological inspections by field-emission scanning electron microscopy confirm a high quality interface of the silver nanoparticle interconnection. Finally, a flexible hybrid circuit on paper controlled by an Arduino board is manufactured, demonstrating the viability and scalability of the AgNP ink assembling technique.

  17. 3D Plasmon Ruler

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    In this animation of a 3D plasmon ruler, the plasmonic assembly acts as a transducer to deliver optical information about the structural dynamics of an attached protein. (courtesy of Paul Alivisatos group)

  18. Prominent Rocks - 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-13

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image from NASA Mars Pathfinder. Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.

  19. 3D Laser System

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-16

    NASA Glenn's Icing Research Tunnel 3D Laser System used for digitizing ice shapes created in the wind tunnel. The ice shapes are later utilized for characterization, analysis, and software development.

  20. AE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, Donald A

    2016-06-20

    AE3D solves for the shear Alfven eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies in a torodal magnetic fusion confinement device. The configuration can be either 2D (e.g. tokamak, reversed field pinch) or 3D (e.g. stellarator, helical reversed field pinch, tokamak with ripple). The equations solved are based on a reduced MHD model and sound wave coupling effects are not currently included.

  1. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  2. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  3. 3D Stretchable Arch Ribbon Array Fabricated via Grayscale Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yu; Shu, Yi; Shavezipur, Mohammad; Wang, Xuefeng; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Yang, Yi; Zhao, Haiming; Deng, Ningqin; Maboudian, Roya; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2016-06-01

    Microstructures with flexible and stretchable properties display tremendous potential applications including integrated systems, wearable devices and bio-sensor electronics. Hence, it is essential to develop an effective method for fabricating curvilinear and flexural microstructures. Despite significant advances in 2D stretchable inorganic structures, large scale fabrication of unique 3D microstructures at a low cost remains challenging. Here, we demonstrate that the 3D microstructures can be achieved by grayscale lithography to produce a curved photoresist (PR) template, where the PR acts as sacrificial layer to form wavelike arched structures. Using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process at low temperature, the curved PR topography can be transferred to the silicon dioxide layer. Subsequently, plasma etching can be used to fabricate the arched stripe arrays. The wavelike silicon dioxide arch microstructure exhibits Young modulus and fracture strength of 52 GPa and 300 MPa, respectively. The model of stress distribution inside the microstructure was also established, which compares well with the experimental results. This approach of fabricating a wavelike arch structure may become a promising route to produce a variety of stretchable sensors, actuators and circuits, thus providing unique opportunities for emerging classes of robust 3D integrated systems.

  4. 3D Stretchable Arch Ribbon Array Fabricated via Grayscale Lithography

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yu; Shu, Yi; Shavezipur, Mohammad; Wang, Xuefeng; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Yang, Yi; Zhao, Haiming; Deng, Ningqin; Maboudian, Roya; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Microstructures with flexible and stretchable properties display tremendous potential applications including integrated systems, wearable devices and bio-sensor electronics. Hence, it is essential to develop an effective method for fabricating curvilinear and flexural microstructures. Despite significant advances in 2D stretchable inorganic structures, large scale fabrication of unique 3D microstructures at a low cost remains challenging. Here, we demonstrate that the 3D microstructures can be achieved by grayscale lithography to produce a curved photoresist (PR) template, where the PR acts as sacrificial layer to form wavelike arched structures. Using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process at low temperature, the curved PR topography can be transferred to the silicon dioxide layer. Subsequently, plasma etching can be used to fabricate the arched stripe arrays. The wavelike silicon dioxide arch microstructure exhibits Young modulus and fracture strength of 52 GPa and 300 MPa, respectively. The model of stress distribution inside the microstructure was also established, which compares well with the experimental results. This approach of fabricating a wavelike arch structure may become a promising route to produce a variety of stretchable sensors, actuators and circuits, thus providing unique opportunities for emerging classes of robust 3D integrated systems. PMID:27345766

  5. Low-cost TO-CAN package combined with flexible and hard printed circuit boards for 25-Gb/s optical subassembly modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jou, Jau-Ji; Shih, Tien-Tsorng; Wu, Cheng-Ying; Su, Zhe-Xian

    2017-02-01

    A low-cost transistor outline-CAN (TO-CAN) package, which is combined with flexible printed circuit board (PCB) and hard PCB, has been developed for a 25-Gb/s optical subassembly module. On the flexible PCB, the transmission line structure used top ground microstrip line, and the wider transmission bandwidth can be obtained. Using ground pads and ground notch technologies, the impedance of connection between flexible PCB and hard PCB was designed to match with the impedances of signal traces of the flexible and hard PCBs. In the TO-CAN package, a TO-46 header was used, and the header needs to closely connect with the flexible PCB. The bandwidth of TO-46 package combined with flexible and hard PCBs can achieve above 23 GHz. The clear 25-Gb/s transmission eye diagram was also measured, and the rise time, fall time, and Q-factor of the eye diagram are 13.78, 13.56 ps, and 8.76, respectively. The TO-46 package combined with flexible and hard PCBs has been verified to be suitable for application in 25-Gb/s optical subassembly modules.

  6. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.

  7. Cu-PDC-bpa solid coordination frameworks (PDC=2,5-pyrindinedicarboxylate; bpa=1,2-DI(4-pyridil)ethane)): 2D and 3D structural flexibility producing a 3-c herringbone array next to ideal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llano-Tomé, Francisco; Bazán, Begoña; Urtiaga, Miren-Karmele; Barandika, Gotzone; Antonia Señarís-Rodríguez, M.; Sánchez-Andújar, Manuel; Arriortua, María-Isabel

    2015-10-01

    Combination of polycarboxylate anions and dipyridyl ligands is an effective strategy to produce solid coordination frameworks (SCF) which are crystalline materials based on connections between metal ions through organic ligands. In this context, this work is focused on two novel CuII-based SCFs exhibiting PDC (2,5-pyridinedicarboxylate) and bpa (1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethane), being the first structures reported in literature containing both ligands. Chemical formula are [Cu2[(PDC)2(bpa)(H2O)2]·3H2O·DMF (1), and [Cu2(PDC)2(bpa)(H2O)2]·7H2O (2), where DMF is dimethylformamide. Compounds 1 and 2 have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, differential thermal analysis (DTA) and dielectric measurements. The crystallographic analysis revealed that compounds 1 and 2 can be described as herringbone-type layers formed by helicoidal Cu-PDC-Cu chains connected through bpa ligands. Solvent molecules are crystallized between the layers, providing the inter-layer connections through hydrogen bonds. Differences between both compounds are attributable to the flexibility of bpa (in 2D) as well as to the 3D packing of the layers which is solvent dependent. This fact results in the fact that compound 2 is the most regular 3-c herringbone array reported so far. The structural dynamism of these networks is responsible for the crystalline to-amorphous to-crystalline (CAC) transformation from compound 1 to compound 2. Crystallochemical features for both compounds have also been studied and compared to similar 3-connected herringbone-arrays.

  8. DYNAMIC 3D QSAR TECHNIQUES: APPLICATIONS IN TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two dynamic techniques recently developed to account for conformational flexibility of chemicals in 3D QSARs are presented. In addition to the impact of conformational flexibility of chemicals in 3D QSAR models, the applicability of various molecular descriptors is discussed. The...

  9. DYNAMIC 3D QSAR TECHNIQUES: APPLICATIONS IN TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two dynamic techniques recently developed to account for conformational flexibility of chemicals in 3D QSARs are presented. In addition to the impact of conformational flexibility of chemicals in 3D QSAR models, the applicability of various molecular descriptors is discussed. The...

  10. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  11. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.

    2009-05-01

    This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

  12. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    DOE PAGES

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; ...

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  13. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  14. Venus in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaut, Jeffrey J.

    1993-01-01

    Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.

  15. 3D photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Roumeliotis, Michael; Chaudhary, Govind; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2010-06-01

    Our group has concentrated on development of a 3D photoacoustic imaging system for biomedical imaging research. The technology employs a sparse parallel detection scheme and specialized reconstruction software to obtain 3D optical images using a single laser pulse. With the technology we have been able to capture 3D movies of translating point targets and rotating line targets. The current limitation of our 3D photoacoustic imaging approach is its inability ability to reconstruct complex objects in the field of view. This is primarily due to the relatively small number of projections used to reconstruct objects. However, in many photoacoustic imaging situations, only a few objects may be present in the field of view and these objects may have very high contrast compared to background. That is, the objects have sparse properties. Therefore, our work had two objectives: (i) to utilize mathematical tools to evaluate 3D photoacoustic imaging performance, and (ii) to test image reconstruction algorithms that prefer sparseness in the reconstructed images. Our approach was to utilize singular value decomposition techniques to study the imaging operator of the system and evaluate the complexity of objects that could potentially be reconstructed. We also compared the performance of two image reconstruction algorithms (algebraic reconstruction and l1-norm techniques) at reconstructing objects of increasing sparseness. We observed that for a 15-element detection scheme, the number of measureable singular vectors representative of the imaging operator was consistent with the demonstrated ability to reconstruct point and line targets in the field of view. We also observed that the l1-norm reconstruction technique, which is known to prefer sparseness in reconstructed images, was superior to the algebraic reconstruction technique. Based on these findings, we concluded (i) that singular value decomposition of the imaging operator provides valuable insight into the capabilities of

  16. High transmission 3D printed flex-PCB-based ion funnel.

    PubMed

    Tridas, Eric Miguel; Allemang, Christopher; Mast, Fabian; Anthony, J Mark; Schlaf, Rudiger

    2015-07-01

    In this study a novel fabrication method for a radio frequency (RF) ion funnel is presented. RF ion funnels are important devices for focusing ion clouds at low vacuum conditions for mass spectrometry or deposition-related applications. Typically, ion funnels are constructed of stainless steel plate ring electrodes with a decreasing diameter where RF and direct current potentials are applied to the electrodes to focus the ion cloud. The presented novel design is based on a flexible circuit board that serves both as the signal distribution circuit and as the electrodes of the ion funnel. The flexible circuit board is rolled into a 3D printed scaffold to create a funnel shape with ring electrodes formed by the copper electrodes of the flexible circuit board. The design is characterized in direct comparison with a conventional steel-plate electrode design. The discussed results show that the new funnel has similar performance to the conventionally designed funnel despite much lower manufacturing costs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. 3-D Grab!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, M. G.; Schofield, I. S.

    2012-12-01

    Modern technologies in imaging greatly extend the potential to present visual information. With recently developed software tools, the perception of the third dimension can not only dramatically enhance presentation, but also allow spatial data to be better encoded. 3-D images can be taken for many subjects with only one camera, carefully moved to generate a stereo pair. Color anaglyph viewing now can be very effective using computer screens, and active filter technologies can enhance visual effects with ever-decreasing cost. We will present various novel results of 3-D imaging, including those from the auroral observations of the new twinned Athabasca University Geophysical Observatories.; Single camera stereo image for viewing with red/cyan glasses.

  18. Unoriented 3d TFTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Lakshya

    2017-05-01

    This paper generalizes two facts about oriented 3d TFTs to the unoriented case. On one hand, it is known that oriented 3d TFTs having a topological boundary condition admit a state-sum construction known as the Turaev-Viro construction. This is related to the string-net construction of fermionic phases of matter. We show how Turaev-Viro construction can be generalized to unoriented 3d TFTs. On the other hand, it is known that the "fermionic" versions of oriented TFTs, known as Spin-TFTs, can be constructed in terms of "shadow" TFTs which are ordinary oriented TFTs with an anomalous ℤ 2 1-form symmetry. We generalize this correspondence to Pin+-TFTs by showing that they can be constructed in terms of ordinary unoriented TFTs with anomalous ℤ 2 1-form symmetry having a mixed anomaly with time-reversal symmetry. The corresponding Pin+-TFT does not have any anomaly for time-reversal symmetry however and hence it can be unambiguously defined on a non-orientable manifold. In case a Pin+-TFT admits a topological boundary condition, one can combine the above two statements to obtain a Turaev-Viro-like construction of Pin+-TFTs. As an application of these ideas, we construct a large class of Pin+-SPT phases.

  19. Flexible Simulation E-Learning Environment for Studying Digital Circuits and Possibilities for It Deployment as Semantic Web Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radoyska, P.; Ivanova, T.; Spasova, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present a partially realized project for building a distributed learning environment for studying digital circuits Test and Diagnostics at TU-Sofia. We describe the main requirements for this environment, substantiate the developer platform choice, and present our simulation and circuit parameter calculation tools.…

  20. Flexible Simulation E-Learning Environment for Studying Digital Circuits and Possibilities for It Deployment as Semantic Web Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radoyska, P.; Ivanova, T.; Spasova, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present a partially realized project for building a distributed learning environment for studying digital circuits Test and Diagnostics at TU-Sofia. We describe the main requirements for this environment, substantiate the developer platform choice, and present our simulation and circuit parameter calculation tools.…

  1. Highly flexible self-powered sensors based on printed circuit board technology for human motion detection and gesture recognition.

    PubMed

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Ho, Hsi-Chun

    2016-03-04

    In this paper, we demonstrate a new integration of printed circuit board (PCB) technology-based self-powered sensors (PSSs) and direct-write, near-field electrospinning (NFES) with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) micro/nano fibers (MNFs) as source materials. Integration with PCB technology is highly desirable for affordable mass production. In addition, we systematically investigate the effects of electrodes with intervals in the range of 0.15 mm to 0.40 mm on the resultant PSS output voltage and current. The results show that at a strain of 0.5% and 5 Hz, a PSS with a gap interval 0.15 mm produces a maximum output voltage of 3 V and a maximum output current of 220 nA. Under the same dimensional constraints, the MNFs are massively connected in series (via accumulation of continuous MNFs across the gaps ) and in parallel (via accumulation of parallel MNFs on the same gap) simultaneously. Finally, encapsulation in a flexible polymer with different interval electrodes demonstrated that electrical superposition can be realized by connecting MNFs collectively and effectively in serial/parallel patterns to achieve a high current and high voltage output, respectively. Further improvement in PSSs based on the effect of cooperativity was experimentally realized by rolling-up the device into a cylindrical shape, resulting in a 130% increase in power output due to the cooperative effect. We assembled the piezoelectric MNF sensors on gloves, bandages and stockings to fabricate devices that can detect different types of human motion, including finger motion and various flexing and extensions of an ankle. The firmly glued PSSs were tested on the glove and ankle respectively to detect and harvest the various movements and the output voltage was recorded as ∼1.5 V under jumping movement (one PSS) and ∼4.5 V for the clenched fist with five fingers bent concurrently (five PSSs). This research shows that piezoelectric MNFs not only have a huge impact on harvesting various external

  2. Highly flexible self-powered sensors based on printed circuit board technology for human motion detection and gesture recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Ho, Hsi-Chun

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a new integration of printed circuit board (PCB) technology-based self-powered sensors (PSSs) and direct-write, near-field electrospinning (NFES) with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) micro/nano fibers (MNFs) as source materials. Integration with PCB technology is highly desirable for affordable mass production. In addition, we systematically investigate the effects of electrodes with intervals in the range of 0.15 mm to 0.40 mm on the resultant PSS output voltage and current. The results show that at a strain of 0.5% and 5 Hz, a PSS with a gap interval 0.15 mm produces a maximum output voltage of 3 V and a maximum output current of 220 nA. Under the same dimensional constraints, the MNFs are massively connected in series (via accumulation of continuous MNFs across the gaps ) and in parallel (via accumulation of parallel MNFs on the same gap) simultaneously. Finally, encapsulation in a flexible polymer with different interval electrodes demonstrated that electrical superposition can be realized by connecting MNFs collectively and effectively in serial/parallel patterns to achieve a high current and high voltage output, respectively. Further improvement in PSSs based on the effect of cooperativity was experimentally realized by rolling-up the device into a cylindrical shape, resulting in a 130% increase in power output due to the cooperative effect. We assembled the piezoelectric MNF sensors on gloves, bandages and stockings to fabricate devices that can detect different types of human motion, including finger motion and various flexing and extensions of an ankle. The firmly glued PSSs were tested on the glove and ankle respectively to detect and harvest the various movements and the output voltage was recorded as ∼1.5 V under jumping movement (one PSS) and ∼4.5 V for the clenched fist with five fingers bent concurrently (five PSSs). This research shows that piezoelectric MNFs not only have a huge impact on harvesting various external

  3. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  4. Twin Peaks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The two hills in the distance, approximately one to two kilometers away, have been dubbed the 'Twin Peaks' and are of great interest to Pathfinder scientists as objects of future study. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The white areas on the left hill, called the 'Ski Run' by scientists, may have been formed by hydrologic processes.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  5. 3D and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Y. C.

    1995-05-01

    This conference on physiology and function covers a wide range of subjects, including the vasculature and blood flow, the flow of gas, water, and blood in the lung, the neurological structure and function, the modeling, and the motion and mechanics of organs. Many technologies are discussed. I believe that the list would include a robotic photographer, to hold the optical equipment in a precisely controlled way to obtain the images for the user. Why are 3D images needed? They are to achieve certain objectives through measurements of some objects. For example, in order to improve performance in sports or beauty of a person, we measure the form, dimensions, appearance, and movements.

  6. Martian terrain - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An area of rocky terrain near the landing site of the Sagan Memorial Station can be seen in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  7. Martian terrain - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An area of rocky terrain near the landing site of the Sagan Memorial Station can be seen in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  8. 3D field harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1991-03-30

    We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the 3D field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.

  9. Threshold Voltage Instability in A-Si:H TFTS and the Implications for Flexible Displays and Circuits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    in MOSFETs , experiments in our lab have localized the degradation of a-Si:H to the gate dielectric/a-Si:H channel interface [Shringarpure, et al...the Flexible Display Center is a bottom gate inverted staggered structure fabricated with a low temperature (180°C) process compatible with flexible...substrates, e.g., stainless steel and heat stabilized polyethylene naphthalate [O’Rourke, et al., 2008]. The gate dielectric is silicon nitride

  10. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  11. Pluto in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-23

    Global stereo mapping of Pluto surface is now possible, as images taken from multiple directions are downlinked from NASA New Horizons spacecraft. Stereo images will eventually provide an accurate topographic map of most of the hemisphere of Pluto seen by New Horizons during the July 14 flyby, which will be key to understanding Pluto's geological history. This example, which requires red/blue stereo glasses for viewing, shows a region 180 miles (300 kilometers) across, centered near longitude 130 E, latitude 20 N (the red square in the global context image). North is to the upper left. The image shows an ancient, heavily cratered region of Pluto, dotted with low hills and cut by deep fractures, which indicate extension of Pluto's crust. Analysis of these stereo images shows that the steep fracture in the upper left of the image is about 1 mile (1.6 kilometers) deep, and the craters in the lower right part of the image are up to 1.3 miles (2.1 km) deep. Smallest visible details are about 0.4 miles (0.6 kilometers) across. You will need 3D glasses to view this image showing an ancient, heavily cratered region of Pluto. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20032

  12. Intraoral 3D scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühmstedt, Peter; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Munkelt, Christoph; Heinze, Matthias; Palme, Martin; Schmidt, Ingo; Hintersehr, Josef; Notni, Gunther

    2007-09-01

    Here a new set-up of a 3D-scanning system for CAD/CAM in dental industry is proposed. The system is designed for direct scanning of the dental preparations within the mouth. The measuring process is based on phase correlation technique in combination with fast fringe projection in a stereo arrangement. The novelty in the approach is characterized by the following features: A phase correlation between the phase values of the images of two cameras is used for the co-ordinate calculation. This works contrary to the usage of only phase values (phasogrammetry) or classical triangulation (phase values and camera image co-ordinate values) for the determination of the co-ordinates. The main advantage of the method is that the absolute value of the phase at each point does not directly determine the coordinate. Thus errors in the determination of the co-ordinates are prevented. Furthermore, using the epipolar geometry of the stereo-like arrangement the phase unwrapping problem of fringe analysis can be solved. The endoscope like measurement system contains one projection and two camera channels for illumination and observation of the object, respectively. The new system has a measurement field of nearly 25mm × 15mm. The user can measure two or three teeth at one time. So the system can by used for scanning of single tooth up to bridges preparations. In the paper the first realization of the intraoral scanner is described.

  13. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  14. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  15. 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of 3D printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. 3D printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of 3D printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics. PMID:28952542

  16. 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng

    2017-07-13

    Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of 3D printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. 3D printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of 3D printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics.

  17. 3D design activities at Fermilab: Opportunities for physics

    SciTech Connect

    Yarema, Raymond; Deptuch, Grezgorz; Hoff, Jim; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Zimmerman, Tom; Demarteau, Marcel; Liptona, Ron; Christian, Dave; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    Fermilab began exploring the technologies for vertically integrated circuits (also commonly known as 3D circuits) in 2006. These technologies include through silicon vias (TSV), circuit thinning, and bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonds. Since then, the interest within the High Energy Physics community has grown considerably. This paper will present an overview of the activities at Fermilab over the last 3 years which have helped spark this interest.

  18. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, William G.; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S.; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  19. MRCK_3D contact detonation algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Rougier, Esteban; Munjiza, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale Combined Finite-Discrete Element Methods (FEM-DEM) and Discrete Element Methods (DEM) simulations involving contact of a large number of separate bod ies need an efficient, robust and flexible contact detection algorithm. In this work the MRCK-3D search algorithm is outlined and its main CPU perfonnances are evaluated. One of the most important aspects of this newly developed search algorithm is that it is applicable to systems consisting of many bodies of different shapes and sizes.

  20. Magnetic Properties of 3D Printed Toroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollig, Lindsey; Otto, Austin; Hilpisch, Peter; Mowry, Greg; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Renewable Energy; Alternatives Lab (REAL) Team

    Transformers are ubiquitous in electronics today. Although toroidal geometries perform most efficiently, transformers are traditionally made with rectangular cross-sections due to the lower manufacturing costs. Additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) can easily achieve toroidal geometries by building up a part through a series of 2D layers. To get strong magnetic properties in a 3D printed transformer, a composite filament is used containing Fe dispersed in a polymer matrix. How the resulting 3D printed toroid responds to a magnetic field depends on two structural factors of the printed 2D layers: fill factor (planar density) and fill pattern. In this work, we investigate how the fill factor and fill pattern affect the magnetic properties of 3D printed toroids. The magnetic properties of the printed toroids are measured by a custom circuit that produces a hysteresis loop for each toroid. Toroids with various fill factors and fill patterns are compared to determine how these two factors can affect the magnetic field the toroid can produce. These 3D printed toroids can be used for numerous applications in order to increase the efficiency of transformers by making it possible for manufacturers to make a toroidal geometry.

  1. 3D printed electromagnetic transmission and electronic structures fabricated on a single platform using advanced process integration techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deffenbaugh, Paul Issac

    3D printing has garnered immense attention from many fields including in-office rapid prototyping of mechanical parts, outer-space satellite replication, garage functional firearm manufacture, and NASA rocket engine component fabrication. 3D printing allows increased design flexibility in the fabrication of electronics, microwave circuits and wireless antennas and has reached a level of maturity which allows functional parts to be printed. Much more work is necessary in order to perfect the processes of 3D printed electronics especially in the area of automation. Chapter 1 shows several finished prototypes of 3D printed electronics as well as newly developed techniques in fabrication. Little is known about the RF and microwave properties and applications of the standard materials which have been developed for 3D printing. Measurement of a wide variety of materials over a broad spectrum of frequencies up to 10 GHz using a variety of well-established measurement methods is performed throughout chapter 2. Several types of high frequency RF transmission lines are fabricated and valuable model-matched data is gathered and provided in chapter 3 for future designers' use. Of particular note is a fully 3D printed stripline which was automatically fabricated in one process on one machine. Some core advantages of 3D printing RF/microwave components include rapid manufacturing of complex, dimensionally sensitive circuits (such as antennas and filters which are often iteratively tuned) and the ability to create new devices that cannot be made using standard fabrication techniques. Chapter 4 describes an exemplary fully 3D printed curved inverted-F antenna.

  2. 3-D capaciflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A capacitive type proximity sensor having improved range and sensitivity between a surface of arbitrary shape and an intruding object in the vicinity of the surface having one or more outer conductors on the surface which serve as capacitive sensing elements shaped to conform to the underlying surface of a machine. Each sensing element is backed by a reflector driven at the same voltage and in phase with the corresponding capacitive sensing element. Each reflector, in turn, serves to reflect the electric field lines of the capacitive sensing element away from the surface of the machine on which the sensor is mounted so as to enhance the component constituted by the capacitance between the sensing element and an intruding object as a fraction of the total capacitance between the sensing element and ground. Each sensing element and corresponding reflecting element are electrically driven in phase, and the capacitance between the sensing elements individually and the sensed object is determined using circuitry known to the art. The reflector may be shaped to shield the sensor and to shape its field of view, in effect providing an electrostatic lensing effect. Sensors and reflectors may be fabricated using a variety of known techniques such as vapor deposition, sputtering, painting, plating, or deformation of flexible films, to provide conformal coverage of surfaces of arbitrary shape.

  3. Laser printing of 3D metallic interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniam, Iyoel; Mathews, Scott A.; Charipar, Nicholas A.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Piqué, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The use of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) techniques for the printing of functional materials has been demonstrated for numerous applications. The printing gives rise to patterns, which can be used to fabricate planar interconnects. More recently, various groups have demonstrated electrical interconnects from laser-printed 3D structures. The laser printing of these interconnects takes place through aggregation of voxels of either molten metal or of pastes containing dispersed metallic particles. However, the generated 3D structures do not posses the same metallic conductivity as a bulk metal interconnect of the same cross-section and length as those formed by wire bonding or tab welding. An alternative is to laser transfer entire 3D structures using a technique known as lase-and-place. Lase-and-place is a LIFT process whereby whole components and parts can be transferred from a donor substrate onto a desired location with one single laser pulse. This paper will describe the use of LIFT to laser print freestanding, solid metal foils or beams precisely over the contact pads of discrete devices to interconnect them into fully functional circuits. Furthermore, this paper will also show how the same laser can be used to bend or fold the bulk metal foils prior to transfer, thus forming compliant 3D structures able to provide strain relief for the circuits under flexing or during motion from thermal mismatch. These interconnect "ridges" can span wide gaps (on the order of a millimeter) and accommodate height differences of tens of microns between adjacent devices. Examples of these laser printed 3D metallic bridges and their role in the development of next generation electronics by additive manufacturing will be presented.

  4. A comparison of gold versus silver electrode contacts for high-resolution gastric electrical mapping using flexible printed circuit board arrays.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, G; Paskaranandavadivel, N; Angeli, T R; Du, P; Windsor, J A; Cheng, L K; Pullan, A J

    2011-03-01

    Stomach contractions are initiated and coordinated by electrical events termed slow waves, and slow wave abnormalities contribute to gastric motility disorders. Recently, flexible printed circuit board (PCB) multi-electrode arrays were introduced, facilitating high-resolution mapping of slow wave activity in humans. However PCBs with gold contacts have shown a moderately inferior signal quality to previous custom-built silver-wire platforms, potentially limiting analyses. This study determined if using silver instead of gold contacts improved flexible PCB performance. In a salt-bath test, modestly higher stimulus amplitudes were recorded from silver PCBs (mean 312, s.d. 89 µV) than those from gold (mean 281, s.d. 85 µV) (p < 0.001); however, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was similar (p = 0.26). In eight in vivo experimental studies, involving gastric serosal recordings from five pigs, no silver versus gold differences were found in terms of slow wave amplitudes (mean 677 versus 682 µV; p = 0.91), SNR (mean 8.8 versus 8.8 dB; p = 0.94) or baseline drift (NRMS; mean 12.0 versus 12.1; p = 0.97). Under the prescribed conditions, flexible PCBs with silver or gold contacts provide comparable results in vivo, and contact material difference does not explain the performance difference between current-generation slow wave mapping platforms. Alternative explanations for this difference and the implications for electrode design are discussed.

  5. A comparison of gold vs silver electrode contacts for high-resolution gastric electrical mapping using flexible printed circuit board arrays

    PubMed Central

    O’Grady, G; Paskaranandavadivel, N; Angeli, T R; Du, P; Windsor, J A; Cheng, L K; Pullan, A J

    2014-01-01

    Stomach contractions are initiated and coordinated by electrical events termed slow waves, and slow wave abnormalities contribute to gastric motility disorders. Recently, flexible printed circuit board (PCB) multi-electrode arrays were introduced, facilitating high-resolution mapping of slow wave activity in humans. However PCBs with gold-contacts have shown a moderately inferior signal quality to previous custom-built silver-wire platforms, potentially limiting analyses. This study determined if using silver instead of gold contacts improved flexible PCB performance. In a salt-bath test, modestly higher stimulus amplitudes were recorded from silver PCBs (mean 312 s.d. 89 μV) than gold (mean 281 s.d. 85 μV) (p<0.001); however the signal to noise ratio (SNR) was similar (p=0.26). In eight in-vivo experimental studies, involving gastric serosal recordings from five pigs, no silver vs gold differences were found in terms of slow wave amplitudes (mean 677 vs 682 μV; p=0.91), SNR (mean 8.8 vs 8.8 dB; p=0.94) or baseline drift (NMRS; mean 12.0 vs 12.1; p=0.97). Under the prescribed conditions, flexible PCBs with silver or gold contacts provide comparable results in-vivo, and contact material difference does not explain the performance difference between current-generation slow wave mapping platforms. Alternative explanations for this difference and the implications for electrode design are discussed. PMID:21252419

  6. A novel 3D algorithm for VLSI floorplanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, D. Gracia N.; Rajaram, S.; Sudarasan, Athira

    2013-01-01

    3-D VLSI circuit is becoming a hot issue because of its potential of enhancing performance, while it is also facing challenges such as the increased complexity on floorplanning and placement in VLSI Physical design. Efficient 3-D floorplan representations are needed to handle the placement optimization in new circuit designs. We analyze and categorize some state-of-the-art 3-D representations, and propose a Ternary tree model for 3-D nonslicing floorplans, extending the B*tree from 2D.This paper proposes a novel optimization algorithm for packing of 3D rectangular blocks. The new techniques considered are Differential evolutionary algorithm (DE) is very fast in that it evaluates the feasibility of a Ternary tree representation. Experimental results based on MCNC benchmark with constraints show that our proposed Differential Evolutionary (DE) can quickly produce optimal solutions.

  7. Auto bias control and bias hold circuit for IQ-modulator in flexible optical QAM transmitter with Nyquist filtering.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Hiroto; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Yoshida, Mitsuteru; Kataoka, Tomoyoshi; Miyamoto, Yutaka

    2014-11-17

    An Auto Bias Control (ABC) technique for the IQ-modulator of a flexible optical QAM transmitter is described. This technique can support various optical QAM signal formats with Nyquist filtering and electronic dispersion pre-compensation. 16, 32 and 64-QAM signals (21 Gbaud) are successfully generated, and all bias voltages are held to their optimum value even when signal format is changed.

  8. 3D Imaging Millimeter Wave Circular Synthetic Aperture Radar

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Renyuan; Cao, Siyang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new millimeter wave 3D imaging radar is proposed. The user just needs to move the radar along a circular track, and high resolution 3D imaging can be generated. The proposed radar uses the movement of itself to synthesize a large aperture in both the azimuth and elevation directions. It can utilize inverse Radon transform to resolve 3D imaging. To improve the sensing result, the compressed sensing approach is further investigated. The simulation and experimental result further illustrated the design. Because a single transceiver circuit is needed, a light, affordable and high resolution 3D mmWave imaging radar is illustrated in the paper. PMID:28629140

  9. A flexible organic active matrix circuit fabricated using novel organic thin film transistors and organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Heredia, G.; González, L. A.; Alshareef, H. N.; Gnade, B. E.; Quevedo-López, M.

    2010-11-01

    We present an active matrix circuit fabricated on plastic (polyethylene naphthalene, PEN) and glass substrates using organic thin film transistors and organic capacitors to control organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The basic circuit is fabricated using two pentacene-based transistors and a capacitor using a novel aluminum oxide/parylene stack (Al2O3/parylene) as the dielectric for both the transistor and the capacitor. We report that our circuit can deliver up to 15 µA to each OLED pixel. To achieve 200 cd m-2 of brightness a 10 µA current is needed; therefore, our approach can initially deliver 1.5× the required current to drive a single pixel. In contrast to parylene-only devices, the Al2O3/parylene stack does not fail after stressing at a field of 1.7 MV cm-1 for >10 000 s, whereas 'parylene only' devices show breakdown at approximately 1000 s. Details of the integration scheme are presented.

  10. Superplot3d: an open source GUI tool for 3d trajectory visualisation and elementary processing.

    PubMed

    Whitehorn, Luke J; Hawkes, Frances M; Dublon, Ian An

    2013-09-30

    When acquiring simple three-dimensional (3d) trajectory data it is common to accumulate large coordinate data sets. In order to examine integrity and consistency of object tracking, it is often necessary to rapidly visualise these data. Ordinarily, to achieve this the user must either execute 3d plotting functions in a numerical computing environment or manually inspect data in two dimensions, plotting each individual axis.Superplot3d is an open source MATLAB script which takes tab delineated Cartesian data points in the form x, y, z and time and generates an instant visualization of the object's trajectory in free-rotational three dimensions. Whole trajectories may be instantly presented, allowing for rapid inspection. Executable from the MATLAB command line (or deployable as a compiled standalone application) superplot3d also provides simple GUI controls to obtain rudimentary trajectory information, allow specific visualization of trajectory sections and perform elementary processing.Superplot3d thus provides a framework for non-programmers and programmers alike, to recreate recently acquired 3d object trajectories in rotatable 3d space. It is intended, via the use of a preference driven menu to be flexible and work with output from multiple tracking software systems. Source code and accompanying GUIDE .fig files are provided for deployment and further development.

  11. AGGRESCAN3D (A3D): server for prediction of aggregation properties of protein structures.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Rafael; Jamroz, Michal; Szczasiuk, Agata; Pujols, Jordi; Kmiecik, Sebastian; Ventura, Salvador

    2015-07-01

    Protein aggregation underlies an increasing number of disorders and constitutes a major bottleneck in the development of therapeutic proteins. Our present understanding on the molecular determinants of protein aggregation has crystalized in a series of predictive algorithms to identify aggregation-prone sites. A majority of these methods rely only on sequence. Therefore, they find difficulties to predict the aggregation properties of folded globular proteins, where aggregation-prone sites are often not contiguous in sequence or buried inside the native structure. The AGGRESCAN3D (A3D) server overcomes these limitations by taking into account the protein structure and the experimental aggregation propensity scale from the well-established AGGRESCAN method. Using the A3D server, the identified aggregation-prone residues can be virtually mutated to design variants with increased solubility, or to test the impact of pathogenic mutations. Additionally, A3D server enables to take into account the dynamic fluctuations of protein structure in solution, which may influence aggregation propensity. This is possible in A3D Dynamic Mode that exploits the CABS-flex approach for the fast simulations of flexibility of globular proteins. The A3D server can be accessed at http://biocomp.chem.uw.edu.pl/A3D/. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. AGGRESCAN3D (A3D): server for prediction of aggregation properties of protein structures

    PubMed Central

    Zambrano, Rafael; Jamroz, Michal; Szczasiuk, Agata; Pujols, Jordi; Kmiecik, Sebastian; Ventura, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Protein aggregation underlies an increasing number of disorders and constitutes a major bottleneck in the development of therapeutic proteins. Our present understanding on the molecular determinants of protein aggregation has crystalized in a series of predictive algorithms to identify aggregation-prone sites. A majority of these methods rely only on sequence. Therefore, they find difficulties to predict the aggregation properties of folded globular proteins, where aggregation-prone sites are often not contiguous in sequence or buried inside the native structure. The AGGRESCAN3D (A3D) server overcomes these limitations by taking into account the protein structure and the experimental aggregation propensity scale from the well-established AGGRESCAN method. Using the A3D server, the identified aggregation-prone residues can be virtually mutated to design variants with increased solubility, or to test the impact of pathogenic mutations. Additionally, A3D server enables to take into account the dynamic fluctuations of protein structure in solution, which may influence aggregation propensity. This is possible in A3D Dynamic Mode that exploits the CABS-flex approach for the fast simulations of flexibility of globular proteins. The A3D server can be accessed at http://biocomp.chem.uw.edu.pl/A3D/. PMID:25883144

  13. Flexible integrated circuits and multifunctional electronics based on single atomic layers of MoS2 and graphene.

    PubMed

    Amani, Matin; Burke, Robert A; Proie, Robert M; Dubey, Madan

    2015-03-20

    Two-dimensional materials, such as graphene and its analogues, have been investigated by numerous researchers for high performance flexible and conformal electronic systems, because they offer the ultimate level of thickness scaling, atomically smooth surfaces and high crystalline quality. Here, we use layer-by-layer transfer of large area molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) to demonstrate electronics on flexible polyimide (PI) substrates. On the same PI substrate, we are able to simultaneously fabricate MoS2 based logic, non-volatile memory cells with graphene floating gates, photo-detectors and MoS2 transistors with tunable source and drain contacts. We are also able to demonstrate that these flexible heterostructure devices have very high electronic performance, comparable to four point measurements taken on SiO2 substrates, with on/off ratios >10(7) and field effect mobilities as high as 16.4 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Additionally, the heterojunctions show high optoelectronic sensitivity and were operated as photodetectors with responsivities over 30 A W(-1). Through local gating of the individual graphene/MoS2 contacts, we are able to tune the contact resistance over the range of 322-1210 Ω mm for each contact, by modulating the graphene work function. This leads to devices with tunable and multifunctional performance that can be implemented in a conformable platform.

  14. Flexible integrated circuits and multifunctional electronics based on single atomic layers of MoS2 and graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amani, Matin; Burke, Robert A.; Proie, Robert M.; Dubey, Madan

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional materials, such as graphene and its analogues, have been investigated by numerous researchers for high performance flexible and conformal electronic systems, because they offer the ultimate level of thickness scaling, atomically smooth surfaces and high crystalline quality. Here, we use layer-by-layer transfer of large area molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) to demonstrate electronics on flexible polyimide (PI) substrates. On the same PI substrate, we are able to simultaneously fabricate MoS2 based logic, non-volatile memory cells with graphene floating gates, photo-detectors and MoS2 transistors with tunable source and drain contacts. We are also able to demonstrate that these flexible heterostructure devices have very high electronic performance, comparable to four point measurements taken on SiO2 substrates, with on/off ratios >107 and field effect mobilities as high as 16.4 cm2 V-1 s-1. Additionally, the heterojunctions show high optoelectronic sensitivity and were operated as photodetectors with responsivities over 30 A W-1. Through local gating of the individual graphene/MoS2 contacts, we are able to tune the contact resistance over the range of 322-1210 Ω mm for each contact, by modulating the graphene work function. This leads to devices with tunable and multifunctional performance that can be implemented in a conformable platform.

  15. 3D Technology for intelligent trackers

    SciTech Connect

    Lipton, Ronald; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    At Super-LHC luminosity it is expected that the standard suite of level 1 triggers for CMS will saturate. Information from the tracker will be needed to reduce trigger rates to satisfy the level 1 bandwidth. Tracking trigger modules which correlate information from closely-spaced sensor layers to form an on-detector momentum filter are being developed by several groups. We report on a trigger module design which utilizes three dimensional integrated circuit technology incorporating chips which are connected both to the top and bottom sensor, providing the ability to filter information locally. A demonstration chip, the VICTR, has been submitted to the Chartered/Tezzaron two-tier 3D run coordinated by Fermilab. We report on the 3D design concept, the status of the VICTR chip and associated sensor integration utilizing oxide bonding.

  16. 3D IC for Future HEP Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, J.; Lipton, R.; Heintz, U.; Johnson, M.; Narain, M.; Badman, R.; Spiegel, L.; Triphati, M.; Deptuch, G.; Kenney, C.; Parker, S.; Ye, Z.; Siddons, D.

    2014-11-07

    Three dimensional integrated circuit technologies offer the possibility of fabricating large area arrays of sensors integrated with complex electronics with minimal dead area, which makes them ideally suited for applications at the LHC upgraded detectors and other future detectors. Here we describe ongoing R&D efforts to demonstrate functionality of components of such detectors. This also includes the study of integrated 3D electronics with active edge sensors to produce "active tiles" which can be tested and assembled into arrays of arbitrary size with high yield.

  17. MAP3D: a media processor approach for high-end 3D graphics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darsa, Lucia; Stadnicki, Steven; Basoglu, Chris

    1999-12-01

    Equator Technologies, Inc. has used a software-first approach to produce several programmable and advanced VLIW processor architectures that have the flexibility to run both traditional systems tasks and an array of media-rich applications. For example, Equator's MAP1000A is the world's fastest single-chip programmable signal and image processor targeted for digital consumer and office automation markets. The Equator MAP3D is a proposal for the architecture of the next generation of the Equator MAP family. The MAP3D is designed to achieve high-end 3D performance and a variety of customizable special effects by combining special graphics features with high performance floating-point and media processor architecture. As a programmable media processor, it offers the advantages of a completely configurable 3D pipeline--allowing developers to experiment with different algorithms and to tailor their pipeline to achieve the highest performance for a particular application. With the support of Equator's advanced C compiler and toolkit, MAP3D programs can be written in a high-level language. This allows the compiler to successfully find and exploit any parallelism in a programmer's code, thus decreasing the time to market of a given applications. The ability to run an operating system makes it possible to run concurrent applications in the MAP3D chip, such as video decoding while executing the 3D pipelines, so that integration of applications is easily achieved--using real-time decoded imagery for texturing 3D objects, for instance. This novel architecture enables an affordable, integrated solution for high performance 3D graphics.

  18. 3-D Packaging: A Technology Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strickland, Mark; Johnson, R. Wayne; Gerke, David

    2005-01-01

    Traditional electronics are assembled as a planar arrangement of components on a printed circuit board (PCB) or other type of substrate. These planar assemblies may then be plugged into a motherboard or card cage creating a volume of electronics. This architecture is common in many military and space electronic systems as well as large computer and telecommunications systems and industrial electronics. The individual PCB assemblies can be replaced if defective or for system upgrade. Some applications are constrained by the volume or the shape of the system and are not compatible with the motherboard or card cage architecture. Examples include missiles, camcorders, and digital cameras. In these systems, planar rigid-flex substrates are folded to create complex 3-D shapes. The flex circuit serves the role of motherboard, providing interconnection between the rigid boards. An example of a planar rigid - flex assembly prior to folding is shown. In both architectures, the interconnection is effectively 2-D.

  19. Feasibility Test of a Liquid Film Thickness Sensor on a Flexible Printed Circuit Board Using a Three-Electrode Conductance Method

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu Byung; Kim, Jong Rok; Park, Goon Cherl; Cho, Hyoung Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Liquid film thickness measurements under temperature-varying conditions in a two-phase flow are of great importance to refining our understanding of two-phase flows. In order to overcome the limitations of the conventional electrical means of measuring the thickness of a liquid film, this study proposes a three-electrode conductance method, with the device fabricated on a flexible printed circuit board (FPCB). The three-electrode conductance method offers the advantage of applicability under conditions with varying temperatures in principle, while the FPCB has the advantage of usability on curved surfaces and in relatively high-temperature conditions in comparison with sensors based on a printed circuit board (PCB). Two types of prototype sensors were fabricated on an FPCB and the feasibility of both was confirmed in a calibration test conducted at different temperatures. With the calibrated sensor, liquid film thickness measurements were conducted via a falling liquid film flow experiment, and the working performance was tested. PMID:28036000

  20. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  1. Spherical 3D isotropic wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis in spherical coordinates is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. Aims: The aim of this paper is to present a new formalism for a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet, i.e. one based on the SFB decomposition of a 3D field and accompany the formalism with a public code to perform wavelet transforms. Methods: We describe a new 3D isotropic spherical wavelet decomposition based on the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) described in Starck et al. (2006). We also present a new fast discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We test the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, apply a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and find we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. Results: We have described a new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, ideally suited to analyse and denoise future 3D spherical cosmological surveys, which uses a novel DSFBT. We illustrate its potential use for denoising using a toy model. All the algorithms presented in this paper are available for download as a public code called MRS3D at http://jstarck.free.fr/mrs3d.html

  2. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  3. Fabricating 3D figurines with personalized faces.

    PubMed

    Tena, J Rafael; Mahler, Moshe; Beeler, Thabo; Grosse, Max; Hengchin Yeh; Matthews, Iain

    2013-01-01

    We present a semi-automated system for fabricating figurines with faces that are personalised to the individual likeness of the customer. The efficacy of the system has been demonstrated by commercial deployments at Walt Disney World Resort and Star Wars Celebration VI in Orlando Florida. Although the system is semi automated, human intervention is limited to a few simple tasks to maintain the high throughput and consistent quality required for commercial application. In contrast to existing systems that fabricate custom heads that are assembled to pre-fabricated plastic bodies, our system seamlessly integrates 3D facial data with a predefined figurine body into a unique and continuous object that is fabricated as a single piece. The combination of state-of-the-art 3D capture, modelling, and printing that are the core of our system provide the flexibility to fabricate figurines whose complexity is only limited by the creativity of the designer.

  4. Printed Microinductors for Flexible Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Erik; Whitacre, Jay; Wesseling, Emily

    2005-01-01

    A method of fabricating planar, flexible microinductors that exhibit a relatively high quality factor (Q) between 1 and 10 MHz has been devised. These inductors are targeted for use in flexible, low-profile power-converter circuits. They could also be incorporated into electronic circuits integrated into flexible structures, including flexible antenna and solar-sail structures that are deployable.

  5. Perception of 3D spatial relations for 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Paul; Pizlo, Zygmunt; Hoffmann, Christoph; Popescu, Voicu S.

    2004-05-01

    We test perception of 3D spatial relations in 3D images rendered by a 3D display (Perspecta from Actuality Systems) and compare it to that of a high-resolution flat panel display. 3D images provide the observer with such depth cues as motion parallax and binocular disparity. Our 3D display is a device that renders a 3D image by displaying, in rapid succession, radial slices through the scene on a rotating screen. The image is contained in a glass globe and can be viewed from virtually any direction. In the psychophysical experiment several families of 3D objects are used as stimuli: primitive shapes (cylinders and cuboids), and complex objects (multi-story buildings, cars, and pieces of furniture). Each object has at least one plane of symmetry. On each trial an object or its "distorted" version is shown at an arbitrary orientation. The distortion is produced by stretching an object in a random direction by 40%. This distortion must eliminate the symmetry of an object. The subject's task is to decide whether or not the presented object is distorted under several viewing conditions (monocular/binocular, with/without motion parallax, and near/far). The subject's performance is measured by the discriminability d', which is a conventional dependent variable in signal detection experiments.

  6. LLNL-Earth3D

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  7. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  8. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  9. 3D Buckligami: Digital Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hecke, Martin; de Reus, Koen; Florijn, Bastiaan; Coulais, Corentin

    2014-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit collective buckling in 3D, and create these by a 3D printing/moulding technique. Our structures consist of cubic lattice of anisotropic unit cells, and we show that their mechanical properties are programmable via the orientation of these unit cells.

  10. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  11. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  12. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  13. 3D vision system assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Hyatt, Bryan; Chenault, David B.; Kingston, David; Geulen, Vanilynmae; Newell, Scott; Pettijohn, Brad

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of a 3D vision system consisting of a flat panel stereoscopic display and auto-converging stereo camera and an assessment of the system's use for robotic driving, manipulation, and surveillance operations. The 3D vision system was integrated onto a Talon Robot and Operator Control Unit (OCU) such that direct comparisons of the performance of a number of test subjects using 2D and 3D vision systems were possible. A number of representative scenarios were developed to determine which tasks benefited most from the added depth perception and to understand when the 3D vision system hindered understanding of the scene. Two tests were conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, MO with noncommissioned officers ranked Staff Sergeant and Sergeant First Class. The scenarios; the test planning, approach and protocols; the data analysis; and the resulting performance assessment of the 3D vision system are reported.

  14. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  15. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  16. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  17. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  18. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  19. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  20. Bioprinting of 3D hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, M M; Samitier, J; Sánchez, S

    2015-08-07

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has recently emerged as an extension of 3D material printing, by using biocompatible or cellular components to build structures in an additive, layer-by-layer methodology for encapsulation and culture of cells. These 3D systems allow for cell culture in a suspension for formation of highly organized tissue or controlled spatial orientation of cell environments. The in vitro 3D cellular environments simulate the complexity of an in vivo environment and natural extracellular matrices (ECM). This paper will focus on bioprinting utilizing hydrogels as 3D scaffolds. Hydrogels are advantageous for cell culture as they are highly permeable to cell culture media, nutrients, and waste products generated during metabolic cell processes. They have the ability to be fabricated in customized shapes with various material properties with dimensions at the micron scale. 3D hydrogels are a reliable method for biocompatible 3D printing and have applications in tissue engineering, drug screening, and organ on a chip models.

  1. 3D Scan Systems Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave Blank) 2. REPORT DATE 5 Feb 98 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D Scan Systems Integration REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED...2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-1 298-102 [ EDO QUALITY W3PECTEDI DLA-ARN Final Report for US Defense Logistics Agency on DDFG-T2/P3: 3D...SCAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION Contract Number SPO100-95-D-1014 Contractor Ohio University Delivery Order # 0001 Delivery Order Title 3D Scan Systems

  2. Low-temperature spray-deposited indium oxide for flexible thin-film transistors and integrated circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Petti, Luisa; Faber, Hendrik; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Münzenrieder, Niko; Cantarella, Giuseppe; Tröster, Gerhard; Patsalas, Panos A.

    2015-03-02

    Indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) films were deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis in ambient air and incorporated into bottom-gate coplanar and staggered thin-film transistors. As-fabricated devices exhibited electron-transporting characteristics with mobility values of 1 cm{sup 2}V{sup −1}s{sup −1} and 16 cm{sup 2}V{sup −1}s{sup −1} for coplanar and staggered architectures, respectively. Integration of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} transistors enabled realization of unipolar inverters with high gain (5.3 V/V) and low-voltage operation. The low temperature deposition (≤250 °C) of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} also allowed transistor fabrication on free-standing 50 μm-thick polyimide foils. The resulting flexible In{sub 2}O{sub 3} transistors exhibit good characteristics and remain fully functional even when bent to tensile radii of 4 mm.

  3. ASI/MET - 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-13

    The Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package ASI/MET is the mast and windsocks at the center of this stereo image from NASA Mars Pathfinder. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.

  4. 3D Models of Immunotherapy

    Cancer.gov

    This collaborative grant is developing 3D models of both mouse and human biology to investigate aspects of therapeutic vaccination in order to answer key questions relevant to human cancer immunotherapy.

  5. 3D polymer scaffold arrays.

    PubMed

    Simon, Carl G; Yang, Yanyin; Dorsey, Shauna M; Ramalingam, Murugan; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a combinatorial platform for fabricating tissue scaffold arrays that can be used for screening cell-material interactions. Traditional research involves preparing samples one at a time for characterization and testing. Combinatorial and high-throughput (CHT) methods lower the cost of research by reducing the amount of time and material required for experiments by combining many samples into miniaturized specimens. In order to help accelerate biomaterials research, many new CHT methods have been developed for screening cell-material interactions where materials are presented to cells as a 2D film or surface. However, biomaterials are frequently used to fabricate 3D scaffolds, cells exist in vivo in a 3D environment and cells cultured in a 3D environment in vitro typically behave more physiologically than those cultured on a 2D surface. Thus, we have developed a platform for fabricating tissue scaffold libraries where biomaterials can be presented to cells in a 3D format.

  6. Accepting the T3D

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.

    1994-10-01

    In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

  7. [Tridimensional (3D) endoscopic ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Varas Lorenzo, M J; Muñoz Agel, F; Abad Belando, R

    2007-01-01

    A review and update on 3D endoscopic ultrasonography is included regarding all of this technique s aspects, technical details, and current indications. Images from our own clinical experience are presented.

  8. Heterodyne 3D ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Chenghua; Xu, Lu; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Conventional three dimensional (3D) ghost imaging measures range of target based on pulse fight time measurement method. Due to the limit of data acquisition system sampling rate, range resolution of the conventional 3D ghost imaging is usually low. In order to take off the effect of sampling rate to range resolution of 3D ghost imaging, a heterodyne 3D ghost imaging (HGI) system is presented in this study. The source of HGI is a continuous wave laser instead of pulse laser. Temporal correlation and spatial correlation of light are both utilized to obtain the range image of target. Through theory analysis and numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that HGI can obtain high range resolution image with low sampling rate.

  9. Elastic wave modelling in 3D heterogeneous media: 3D grid method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianfeng, Zhang; Tielin, Liu

    2002-09-01

    We present a new numerical technique for elastic wave modelling in 3D heterogeneous media with surface topography, which is called the 3D grid method in this paper. This work is an extension of the 2D grid method that models P-SV wave propagation in 2D heterogeneous media. Similar to the finite-element method in the discretization of a numerical mesh, the proposed scheme is flexible in incorporating surface topography and curved interfaces; moreover it satisfies the free-surface boundary conditions of 3D topography naturally. The algorithm, developed from a parsimonious staggered-grid scheme, solves the problem using integral equilibrium around each node, instead of satisfying elastodynamic differential equations at each node as in the conventional finite-difference method. The computational cost and memory requirements for the proposed scheme are approximately the same as those used by the same order finite-difference method. In this paper, a mixed tetrahedral and parallelepiped grid method is presented; and the numerical dispersion and stability criteria on the tetrahedral grid method and parallelepiped grid method are discussed in detail. The proposed scheme is successfully tested against an analytical solution for the 3D Lamb problem and a solution of the boundary method for the diffraction of a hemispherical crater. Moreover, examples of surface-wave propagation in an elastic half-space with a semi-cylindrical trench on the surface and 3D plane-layered model are presented.

  10. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  11. The EISCAT_3D Science Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjulin, A.; Mann, I.; McCrea, I.; Aikio, A. T.

    2013-05-01

    projection in the high-latitude ionosphere. EISCAT_3D can also be used to study solar system properties. Thanks to the high power and great accuracy, mapping of objects like the Moon and asteroids is possible. With the high power and large antenna aperture, incoherent scatter radars can be extraordinarily good monitors of extraterrestrial dust and its interaction with the atmosphere. Although incoherent scatter radars, such as EISCAT_3D, are few in number, the power and versatility of their measurement technique mean that they can measure parameters which are not obtainable otherwise, and thus also be a cornerstone in the international efforts to measure and predict space weather effects. Finally, over the years the EISCAT radars have served as a testbed for new ideas in radar coding and data analysis. EISCAT_3D will be the first of a new generation of "software radars" whose advanced capabilities will be realised not by its hardware but by the flexibility and adaptability of the scheduling, beam-forming, signal processing and analysis software used to control the radar and process its data. Thus, new techniques will be developed into standard observing applications for implementation in the next generation of software radars.

  12. Flexible CMOS-Like Circuits Based on Printed P-Type and N-Type Carbon Nanotube Thin-Film Transistors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang; Zhao, Jianwen; Dou, Junyan; Tange, Masayoshi; Xu, Weiwei; Mo, Lixin; Xie, Jianjun; Xu, Wenya; Ma, Changqi; Okazaki, Toshiya; Cui, Zheng

    2016-09-01

    P-type and n-type top-gate carbon nanotube thin-film transistors (TFTs) can be selectively and simultaneously fabricated on the same polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by tuning the types of polymer-sorted semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (sc-SWCNT) inks, along with low temperature growth of HfO2 thin films as shared dielectric layers. Both the p-type and n-type TFTs show good electrical properties with on/off ratio of ≈10(5) , mobility of ≈15 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) , and small hysteresis. Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-like logic gates and circuits based on as-prepared p-type and n-type TFTs have been achieved. Flexible CMOS-like inverters exhibit large noise margin of 84% at low voltage (1/2 Vdd = 1.5 V) and maximum voltage gain of 30 at Vdd of 1.5 V and low power consumption of 0.1 μW. Both of the noise margin and voltage gain are one of the best values reported for flexible CMOS-like inverters at Vdd less than 2 V. The printed CMOS-like inverters work well at 10 kHz with 2% voltage loss and delay time of ≈15 μs. A 3-stage ring oscillator has also been demonstrated on PET substrates and the oscillation frequency of 3.3 kHz at Vdd of 1 V is achieved.

  13. Hidden circuits and argumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinonen, Risto; Kesonen, Mikko H. P.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2016-11-01

    Despite the relevance of DC circuits in everyday life and schools, they have been shown to cause numerous learning difficulties at various school levels. In the course of this article, we present a flexible method for teaching DC circuits at lower secondary level. The method is labelled as hidden circuits, and the essential idea underlying hidden circuits is in hiding the actual wiring of DC circuits, but to make their behaviour evident for pupils. Pupils are expected to find out the wiring of the circuit which should enhance their learning of DC circuits. We present two possible ways to utilise hidden circuits in a classroom. First, they can be used to test and enhance pupils’ conceptual understanding when pupils are expected to find out which one of the offered circuit diagram options corresponds to the actual circuit shown. This method aims to get pupils to evaluate the circuits holistically rather than locally, and as a part of that aim this method highlights any learning difficulties of pupils. Second, hidden circuits can be used to enhance pupils’ argumentation skills with the aid of argumentation sheet that illustrates the main elements of an argument. Based on the findings from our co-operating teachers and our own experiences, hidden circuits offer a flexible and motivating way to supplement teaching of DC circuits.

  14. A 3-d modular gripper design tool

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.G.; Brost, R.C.

    1997-02-01

    Modular fixturing kits are sets of components used for flexible, rapid construction of fixtures. A modular vise is a parallel-jaw vise, each jaw of which is a modular fixture plate with a regular grid of precisely positioned holes. To fixture a part, one places pins in some of the holes so that when the vise is closed, the part is reliably located and completely constrained. The modular vise concept can be adapted easily to the design of modular parallel-jaw grippers for robots. By attaching a grid-plate to each jaw of a parallel-jaw gripper, one gains the ability to easily construct high-quality grasps for a wide variety of parts from a standard set of hardware. Wallack and Canny developed an algorithm for planning planar grasp configurations for the modular vise. In this paper, the authors expand this work to produce a 3-d fixture/gripper design tool. They describe several analyses they have added to the planar algorithm, including a 3-d grasp quality metric based on force information, 3-d geometric loading analysis, and inter-gripper interference analysis. Finally, the authors describe two applications of their code. One of these is an internal application at Sandia, while the other shows a potential use of the code for designing part of an agile assembly line.

  15. LASTRAC.3d: Transition Prediction in 3D Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2004-01-01

    Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) is a general-purpose, physics-based transition prediction code released by NASA for laminar flow control studies and transition research. This paper describes the LASTRAC extension to general three-dimensional (3D) boundary layers such as finite swept wings, cones, or bodies at an angle of attack. The stability problem is formulated by using a body-fitted nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system constructed on the body surface. The nonorthogonal coordinate system offers a variety of marching paths and spanwise waveforms. In the extreme case of an infinite swept wing boundary layer, marching with a nonorthogonal coordinate produces identical solutions to those obtained with an orthogonal coordinate system using the earlier release of LASTRAC. Several methods to formulate the 3D parabolized stability equations (PSE) are discussed. A surface-marching procedure akin to that for 3D boundary layer equations may be used to solve the 3D parabolized disturbance equations. On the other hand, the local line-marching PSE method, formulated as an easy extension from its 2D counterpart and capable of handling the spanwise mean flow and disturbance variation, offers an alternative. A linear stability theory or parabolized stability equations based N-factor analysis carried out along the streamline direction with a fixed wavelength and downstream-varying spanwise direction constitutes an efficient engineering approach to study instability wave evolution in a 3D boundary layer. The surface-marching PSE method enables a consistent treatment of the disturbance evolution along both streamwise and spanwise directions but requires more stringent initial conditions. Both PSE methods and the traditional LST approach are implemented in the LASTRAC.3d code. Several test cases for tapered or finite swept wings and cones at an angle of attack are discussed.

  16. Real-time 3-d intracranial ultrasound with an endoscopic matrix array transducer.

    PubMed

    Light, Edward D; Mukundan, Srinivasan; Wolf, Patrick D; Smith, Stephen W

    2007-08-01

    A transducer originally designed for transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) was adapted for real-time volumetric endoscopic imaging of the brain. The transducer consists of a 36 x 36 array with an interelement spacing of 0.18 mm. There are 504 transmitting and 252 receive channels placed in a regular pattern in the array. The operating frequency is 4.5 MHz with a -6 dB bandwidth of 30%. The transducer is fabricated on a 10-layer flexible circuit from Microconnex (Snoqualmie, WA, USA). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical feasibility of real-time 3-D intracranial ultrasound with this device. The Volumetrics Medical Imaging (Durham, NC, USA) 3-D scanner was used to obtain images in a canine model. A transcalvarial acoustic window was created under general anesthesia in the animal laboratory by placing a 10-mm burr hole in the high parietal calvarium of a 50-kg canine subject. The burr-hole was placed in a left parasagittal location to avoid the sagittal sinus, and the transducer was placed against the intact dura mater for ultrasound imaging. Images of the lateral ventricles were produced, including real-time 3-D guidance of a needle puncture of one ventricle. In a second canine subject, contrast-enhanced 3-D Doppler color flow images were made of the cerebral vessels including the complete Circle of Willis. Clinical applications may include real-time 3-D guidance of cerebrospinal fluid extraction from the lateral ventricles and bedside evaluation of critically ill patients where computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging techniques are unavailable.

  17. 3-D threat image projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Yesna O.; Abraham, Douglas Q.; Agaian, Sos; Panetta, Karen

    2008-02-01

    Automated Explosive Detection Systems utilizing Computed Tomography perform a series X-ray scans of passenger bags being checked in at the airport, and produce various 2-D projection images and 3-D volumetric images of the bag. The determination as to whether the passenger bag contains an explosive and needs to be searched manually is performed through trained Transportation Security Administration screeners following an approved protocol. In order to keep the screeners vigilant with regards to screening quality, the Transportation Security Administration has mandated the use of Threat Image Projection on 2-D projection X-ray screening equipment used at all US airports. These algorithms insert visual artificial threats into images of the normal passenger bags in order to test the screeners with regards to their screening efficiency and their screening quality at determining threats. This technology for 2-D X-ray system is proven and is widespread amongst multiple manufacturers of X-ray projection systems. Until now, Threat Image Projection has been unsuccessful at being introduced into 3-D Automated Explosive Detection Systems for numerous reasons. The failure of these prior attempts are mainly due to imaging queues that the screeners pickup on, and therefore make it easy for the screeners to discern the presence of the threat image and thus defeating the intended purpose. This paper presents a novel approach for 3-D Threat Image Projection for 3-D Automated Explosive Detection Systems. The method presented here is a projection based approach where both the threat object and the bag remain in projection sinogram space. Novel approaches have been developed for projection based object segmentation, projection based streak reduction used for threat object isolation along with scan orientation independence and projection based streak generation for an overall realistic 3-D image. The algorithms are prototyped in MatLab and C++ and demonstrate non discernible 3-D threat

  18. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  19. Perceptual integration for qualitatively different 3-D cues in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Dövencioğlu, Dicle; Ban, Hiroshi; Schofield, Andrew J; Welchman, Andrew E

    2013-09-01

    The visual system's flexibility in estimating depth is remarkable: We readily perceive 3-D structure under diverse conditions from the seemingly random dots of a "magic eye" stereogram to the aesthetically beautiful, but obviously flat, canvasses of the Old Masters. Yet, 3-D perception is often enhanced when different cues specify the same depth. This perceptual process is understood as Bayesian inference that improves sensory estimates. Despite considerable behavioral support for this theory, insights into the cortical circuits involved are limited. Moreover, extant work tested quantitatively similar cues, reducing some of the challenges associated with integrating computationally and qualitatively different signals. Here we address this challenge by measuring fMRI responses to depth structures defined by shading, binocular disparity, and their combination. We quantified information about depth configurations (convex "bumps" vs. concave "dimples") in different visual cortical areas using pattern classification analysis. We found that fMRI responses in dorsal visual area V3B/KO were more discriminable when disparity and shading concurrently signaled depth, in line with the predictions of cue integration. Importantly, by relating fMRI and psychophysical tests of integration, we observed a close association between depth judgments and activity in this area. Finally, using a cross-cue transfer test, we found that fMRI responses evoked by one cue afford classification of responses evoked by the other. This reveals a generalized depth representation in dorsal visual cortex that combines qualitatively different information in line with 3-D perception.

  20. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  1. 3D printed long period gratings for optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Iezzi, Victor Lambin; Boisvert, Jean-Sébastien; Loranger, Sébastien; Kashyap, Raman

    2016-04-15

    We demonstrate a simple technique for implementing long period grating (LPG) structures by the use of a 3D printer. This Letter shows a way of manipulating the mode coupling within an optical fiber by applying stress through an external 3D printed periodic structure. Different LPG lengths and periods have been studied, as well as the effect of the applied stress on the coupling efficiency from the fundamental mode to cladding modes. The technique is very simple, highly flexible, affordable, and easy to implement without the need of altering the optical fiber. This Letter is part of a growing line of interest in the use of 3D printers for optical applications.

  2. Suitability for 3D Printed Parts for Laboratory Use

    SciTech Connect

    Zwicker, Andrew P.; Bloom, Josh; Albertson, Robert; Gershman, Sophia

    2014-08-01

    3D printing has become popular for a variety of users, from industrial to the home hobbyist, to scientists and engineers interested in producing their own laboratory equipment. In order to determine the suitability of 3D printed parts for our plasma physics laboratory, we measured the accuracy, strength, vacuum compatibility, and electrical properties of pieces printed in plastic. The flexibility of rapidly creating custom parts has led to the 3D printer becoming an invaluable resource in our laboratory and is equally suitable for producing equipment for advanced undergraduate laboratories.

  3. 3D Printing the Complete CubeSat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kief, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The 3D Printing the Complete CubeSat project is designed to advance the state-of-the-art in 3D printing for CubeSat applications. Printing in 3D has the potential to increase reliability, reduce design iteration time and provide greater design flexibility in the areas of radiation mitigation, communications, propulsion, and wiring, among others. This project is investigating the possibility of including propulsion systems into the design of printed CubeSat components. One such concept, an embedded micro pulsed plasma thruster (mPPT), could provide auxiliary reaction control propulsion for a spacecraft as a means to desaturate momentum wheels.

  4. 3D-model building of the jaw impression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Moumen T.; Yamany, Sameh M.; Hemayed, Elsayed E.; Farag, Aly A.

    1997-03-01

    A novel approach is proposed to obtain a record of the patient's occlusion using computer vision. Data acquisition is obtained using intra-oral video cameras. The technique utilizes shape from shading to extract 3D information from 2D views of the jaw, and a novel technique for 3D data registration using genetic algorithms. The resulting 3D model can be used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and implant purposes. The overall purpose of this research is to develop a model-based vision system for orthodontics to replace traditional approaches. This system will be flexible, accurate, and will reduce the cost of orthodontic treatments.

  5. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  6. ABS 3D printed solutions for cryogenic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolomé, E.; Bozzo, B.; Sevilla, P.; Martínez-Pasarell, O.; Puig, T.; Granados, X.

    2017-03-01

    3D printing has become a common, inexpensive and rapid prototyping technique, enabling the ad hoc fabrication of complex shapes. In this paper, we demonstrate that 3D printed objects in ABS can be used at cryogenic temperatures, offering flexible solutions in different fields. Firstly, a thermo-mechanical characterization of ABS 3D printed specimens at 77 K is reported, which allowed us to delimit the type of cryogenic uses where 3D printed pieces may be implemented. Secondly, we present three different examples where ABS 3D printed objects working at low temperatures have provided specific solutions: (i) SQUID inserts for angular magnetometry (low temperature material characterization field); (ii) a cage support for a metamaterial ;magnetic concentrator; (superconductivity application), and (iii) dedicated tools for cryopreservation in assisted reproductive techniques (medicine field).

  7. Interactive 3d Landscapes on Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanini, B.; Calori, L.; Ferdani, D.; Pescarin, S.

    2011-09-01

    The paper describes challenges identified while developing browser embedded 3D landscape rendering applications, our current approach and work-flow and how recent development in browser technologies could affect. All the data, even if processed by optimization and decimation tools, result in very huge databases that require paging, streaming and Level-of-Detail techniques to be implemented to allow remote web based real time fruition. Our approach has been to select an open source scene-graph based visual simulation library with sufficient performance and flexibility and adapt it to the web by providing a browser plug-in. Within the current Montegrotto VR Project, content produced with new pipelines has been integrated. The whole Montegrotto Town has been generated procedurally by CityEngine. We used this procedural approach, based on algorithms and procedures because it is particularly functional to create extensive and credible urban reconstructions. To create the archaeological sites we used optimized mesh acquired with laser scanning and photogrammetry techniques whereas to realize the 3D reconstructions of the main historical buildings we adopted computer-graphic software like blender and 3ds Max. At the final stage, semi-automatic tools have been developed and used up to prepare and clusterise 3D models and scene graph routes for web publishing. Vegetation generators have also been used with the goal of populating the virtual scene to enhance the user perceived realism during the navigation experience. After the description of 3D modelling and optimization techniques, the paper will focus and discuss its results and expectations.

  8. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the

  9. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K.; Johnson, Blake N.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and ‘living’ platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with

  10. Macrophage podosomes go 3D.

    PubMed

    Van Goethem, Emeline; Guiet, Romain; Balor, Stéphanie; Charrière, Guillaume M; Poincloux, Renaud; Labrousse, Arnaud; Maridonneau-Parini, Isabelle; Le Cabec, Véronique

    2011-01-01

    Macrophage tissue infiltration is a critical step in the immune response against microorganisms and is also associated with disease progression in chronic inflammation and cancer. Macrophages are constitutively equipped with specialized structures called podosomes dedicated to extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. We recently reported that these structures play a critical role in trans-matrix mesenchymal migration mode, a protease-dependent mechanism. Podosome molecular components and their ECM-degrading activity have been extensively studied in two dimensions (2D), but yet very little is known about their fate in three-dimensional (3D) environments. Therefore, localization of podosome markers and proteolytic activity were carefully examined in human macrophages performing mesenchymal migration. Using our gelled collagen I 3D matrix model to obligate human macrophages to perform mesenchymal migration, classical podosome markers including talin, paxillin, vinculin, gelsolin, cortactin were found to accumulate at the tip of F-actin-rich cell protrusions together with β1 integrin and CD44 but not β2 integrin. Macrophage proteolytic activity was observed at podosome-like protrusion sites using confocal fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. The formation of migration tunnels by macrophages inside the matrix was accomplished by degradation, engulfment and mechanic compaction of the matrix. In addition, videomicroscopy revealed that 3D F-actin-rich protrusions of migrating macrophages were as dynamic as their 2D counterparts. Overall, the specifications of 3D podosomes resembled those of 2D podosome rosettes rather than those of individual podosomes. This observation was further supported by the aspect of 3D podosomes in fibroblasts expressing Hck, a master regulator of podosome rosettes in macrophages. In conclusion, human macrophage podosomes go 3D and take the shape of spherical podosome rosettes when the cells perform mesenchymal migration. This work

  11. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  12. Petal, terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The metallic object at lower right is part of the lander's low-gain antenna. This image is part of a 3D 'monster

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  13. Petal, terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The metallic object at lower right is part of the lander's low-gain antenna. This image is part of a 3D 'monster

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  14. Process for 3D chip stacking

    DOEpatents

    Malba, Vincent

    1998-01-01

    A manufacturable process for fabricating electrical interconnects which extend from a top surface of an integrated circuit chip to a sidewall of the chip using laser pantography to pattern three dimensional interconnects. The electrical interconnects may be of an L-connect or L-shaped type. The process implements three dimensional (3D) stacking by moving the conventional bond or interface pads on a chip to the sidewall of the chip. Implementation of the process includes: 1) holding individual chips for batch processing, 2) depositing a dielectric passivation layer on the top and sidewalls of the chips, 3) opening vias in the dielectric, 4) forming the interconnects by laser pantography, and 5) removing the chips from the holding means. The process enables low cost manufacturing of chips with bond pads on the sidewalls, which enables stacking for increased performance, reduced space, and higher functional per unit volume.

  15. Process for 3D chip stacking

    DOEpatents

    Malba, V.

    1998-11-10

    A manufacturable process for fabricating electrical interconnects which extend from a top surface of an integrated circuit chip to a sidewall of the chip using laser pantography to pattern three dimensional interconnects. The electrical interconnects may be of an L-connect or L-shaped type. The process implements three dimensional (3D) stacking by moving the conventional bond or interface pads on a chip to the sidewall of the chip. Implementation of the process includes: (1) holding individual chips for batch processing, (2) depositing a dielectric passivation layer on the top and sidewalls of the chips, (3) opening vias in the dielectric, (4) forming the interconnects by laser pantography, and (5) removing the chips from the holding means. The process enables low cost manufacturing of chips with bond pads on the sidewalls, which enables stacking for increased performance, reduced space, and higher functional per unit volume. 3 figs.

  16. Personal perceptual and cognitive property for 3D recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matozaki, Takeshi; Tanisita, Akihiko

    1996-04-01

    3D closed circuit TV which produces stereoscopic vision by observing different images through each eye alternately, has been proposed. But, there are several problems, both physiological and psychological, for 3D image observation in many fields. From this prospective, we are learning personal visual characteristics for 3D recognition in the transition from 2D to 3D. We have separated the mechanism of 3D recognition into several categories, and formed some hypothesis about the personal features. These hypotheses are related to an observer's personal features, as follows: (1) consideration of the angle between the left and the right eye's line of vision and the adjustment of focus, (2) consideration of the angle of vision and the time required for fusion, (3) consideration of depth sense based on life experience, (4) consideration of 3D experience, and (5) consideration of 3D sense based on the observer's age. To establish these hypotheses, and we have analyzed the personal features of the time interval required for 3D recognition through some examinations to examinees. Examinees indicate their response for 3D recognition by pushing a button. Recently, we introduced a method for picking up the reaction of 3D recognition from examinees through their biological information, for example, analysis of pulse waves of the finger. We also bring a hypothesis, as a result of the analysis of pulse waves. (1) We can observe chaotic response when the examinee is recognizing a 2D image. (2) We can observe periodic response when the examinee is recognizing a 3D image. We are making nonlinear forecasts by getting correlation between the forecast and the biological phenomena. Deterministic nonlinear prediction are applied to the data, as a promising method of chaotic time series analysis in order to analyze the long term unpredictability, one of the fundamental characteristics of deterministic chaos.

  17. Natural 3D content on glasses-free light-field 3D cinema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogh, Tibor; Nagy, Zsolt; Kovács, Péter Tamás.; Adhikarla, Vamsi K.

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a complete framework for capturing, processing and displaying the free viewpoint video on a large scale immersive light-field display. We present a combined hardware-software solution to visualize free viewpoint 3D video on a cinema-sized screen. The new glasses-free 3D projection technology can support larger audience than the existing autostereoscopic displays. We introduce and describe our new display system including optical and mechanical design considerations, the capturing system and render cluster for producing the 3D content, and the various software modules driving the system. The indigenous display is first of its kind, equipped with front-projection light-field HoloVizio technology, controlling up to 63 MP. It has all the advantages of previous light-field displays and in addition, allows a more flexible arrangement with a larger screen size, matching cinema or meeting room geometries, yet simpler to set-up. The software system makes it possible to show 3D applications in real-time, besides the natural content captured from dense camera arrangements as well as from sparse cameras covering a wider baseline. Our software system on the GPU accelerated render cluster, can also visualize pre-recorded Multi-view Video plus Depth (MVD4) videos on this light-field glasses-free cinema system, interpolating and extrapolating missing views.

  18. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  19. Baghdad Sulcus in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-23

    This anaglyph from images captured by NASA Cassini spacecraft shows a dramatic, 3-D view of one of the deep fractures nicknamed tiger stripes on Saturn moon Enceladus which are located near the moon south pole, spray jets of water ice.

  20. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  1. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  2. Ganges Chasma in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-06-25

    Ganges Chasma is part of the Valles Marineris trough system that stretches nearly 5,000 kilometers 3,000 miles across the western equatorial region of Mars. This stereo anaglyph is from NASA Mars Global Surveyor. 3D glasses are necessary.

  3. Opportunity Stretches Out 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-02

    This is a three-dimensional stereo anaglyph of an image taken by the front hazard-identification camera onboard NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, showing the rover arm in its extended position. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  4. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  5. The World of 3-D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayshark, Robin K.

    1991-01-01

    Students explore three-dimensional properties by creating red and green wall decorations related to Christmas. Students examine why images seem to vibrate when red and green pieces are small and close together. Instructions to conduct the activity and construct 3-D glasses are given. (MDH)

  6. Rosetta Comet in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-21

    A 3D image shows what it would look like to fly over the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The image was generated by data collected by ESA Philae spacecraft during the decent to the spacecraft initial touchdown on the comet Nov. 12, 2014.

  7. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  8. Evaluating scatterometry 3D capabilities for EUV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Kritsun, Oleg; Dasari, Prasad; Volkman, Catherine; Wallow, Tom; Hu, Jiangtao

    2013-04-01

    Optical critical dimension (OCD) metrology using scatterometry has been demonstrated to be a viable solution for fast and non-destructive in-line process control and monitoring. As extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is more widely adopted to fabricate smaller and smaller patterns for electronic devices, scatterometry faces new challenges due to several reasons. For 14nm node and beyond, the feature size is nearly an order of magnitude smaller than the shortest wavelength used in scatterometry. In addition, thinner resist layer is used in EUVL compared with conventional lithography, which leads to reduced measurement sensitivity. Despite these difficulties, tolerance has reduced for smaller feature size. In this work we evaluate 3D capability of scatterometry for EUV process using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Three types of structures, contact holes, tip-to-tip, and tip-to-edge, are studied to test CD and end-gap metrology capabilities. The wafer is processed with focus and exposure matrix. Good correlations to CD-SEM results are achieved and good dynamic precision is obtained for all the key parameters. In addition, the fit to process provides an independent method to evaluate data quality from different metrology tools such as OCD and CDSEM. We demonstrate 3D capabilities of scatterometry OCD metrology for EUVL using spectroscopic ellipsometry, which provides valuable in-line metrology for CD and end-gap control in electronic circuit fabrications.

  9. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  10. Nonlinear dynamic response of a 'flexible-and-heavy' printed circuit board (PCB) to an impact load applied to its support contour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhir, E.; Vujosevic, M.; Reinikainen, T.

    2009-02-01

    Based on the developed simple and physically meaningful analytical ('mathematical') stress model, we evaluate some major parameters (amplitude, frequency, maximum acceleration, stresses and strains) of the response of a 'flexible-and-heavy' square simply supported printed circuit board (PCB) to an impact drop load applied to its support contour. The analysis is restricted to the first mode of vibrations and is carried out in application to the PCB design employed in an advanced accelerated test setup (test vehicle). This setup is aimed at the assessment of the performance, in accelerated test conditions on the board level, of packaging materials (and, first of all, BGA solder joint interconnections) subjected to dynamic (drop or shock) loading. It is anticipated that heavy masses could be mounted on the PCB to accelerate its dynamic response to an impact load. These masses are expected to be small in size, so that while changing the total mass of the board and generating significant inertia forces, they do not affect the board's flexural rigidity or its stiffness with respect to the in-plane loading. The PCB's contour is considered non-deformable, which is indeed the case in many practical situations. This circumstance, if the drop height and/or the induced inertia forces are significant, leads to elevated in-plane ('membrane') stresses in the PCB and, as a result of that, to the nonlinear response of the board to the impact load: the relationship between the magnitude of the load (determined by the initial impact velocity) and the induced PCB deflections becomes geometrically nonlinear, with a rigid cubic characteristic of the restoring force. The carried out numerical example, although reflects the characteristics of the PCB and loading conditions in an actual experimental setup, is merely an illustration of the general concept and is intended to demonstrate the abilities of the suggested method. Predictions based on this method agree well with the finite element

  11. High performance 3D printed electronics using electroless plated copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Jin Rong; Kim, Taeil; Park, Jae Sung; Wang, Jiacheng; Kim, Woo Soo

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents design and performance validation of 3D printed electronic components, 3D toroidal air-core inductors, fabricated by multi-material based Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) 3D printing technology and electroless copper plating. Designs of toroidal inductor is investigated with different core shapes and winding numbers; circular and half-circular cores with 10 and 13 turns of windings. Electroless plated copper thin film ensures 3D printed toroidal plastic structures to possess inductive behaviors. The inductance is demonstrated reliably with an applied source frequency from 100 kHz to 2 MHz as designs vary. An RL circuit is utilized to test the fabricated inductors' phase-leading characteristics with corresponding phase angle changes.

  12. Measuring the 3D motion space of the human ankle.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jinzhuang; Zhang, Yunchao; Zhao, Shuai; Wang, Hongrui

    2017-07-20

    The 3D motion space of the human ankle is an important area of study in medicine. The 3D motion space can provide significant information for establishing more reasonable rehabilitation procedures and standards of ankle injury care. This study aims to measure the 3D motion space of the human ankle and to use mathematical methods to quantify it. A motion capturing system was used to simultaneously capture the 3D coordinates of points marked on the foot, and convert these coordinate values into rotation angles through trigonometric functions and vectors. The mathematical expression of the ankle's motion space was obtained by screening, arranging, and fitting the converted data. The mathematical expression of the 3D motion space of the participants was obtained. We statistically analyzed the data and learned that, in terms of 3D motion space, the right foot is more flexible than the left foot and the female foot is more flexible than the male foot. The adduction and abduction rotation ranges are affected by the plantar flexion or dorsal flexure rotation angles. This relationship can be expressed mathematically, which is significant in the study of the ankle joint.

  13. A Dual-Layer Transducer Array for 3-D Rectilinear Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Jesse T.; Seo, Chi Hyung; Awad, Samer I.; Jeong, Jong S.

    2010-01-01

    2-D arrays for 3-D rectilinear imaging require very large element counts (16,000–65,000). The difficulties in fabricating and interconnecting 2-D arrays with a large number of elements (>5,000) have limited the development of suitable transducers for 3-D rectilinear imaging. In this paper, we propose an alternative solution to this problem by using a dual-layer transducer array design. This design consists of two perpendicular 1-D arrays for clinical 3-D imaging of targets near the transducer. These targets include the breast, carotid artery, and musculoskeletal system. This transducer design reduces the fabrication complexity and the channel count making 3-D rectilinear imaging more realizable. With this design, an effective N × N 2-D array can be developed using only N transmitters and N receivers. This benefit becomes very significant when N becomes greater than 128, for example. To demonstrate feasibility, we constructed a 4 × 4 cm prototype dual-layer array. The transmit array uses diced PZT-5H elements, and the receive array is a single sheet of undiced P[VDF-TrFE] copolymer. The receive elements are defined by the copper traces on the flexible interconnect circuit. The measured −6 dB fractional bandwidth was 80% with a center frequency of 4.8 MHz. At 5 MHz, the nearest neighbor crosstalk of the PZT array and PVDF array was −30.4 ± 3.1 dB and −28.8 ± 3.7 dB respectively. This dual-layer transducer was interfaced with an Ultrasonix Sonix RP system, and a synthetic aperture 3-D data set was acquired. We then performed off-line 3-D beamforming to obtain volumes of nylon wire targets. The theoretical lateral beamwidth was 0.52 mm compared to measured beamwidths of 0.65 mm and 0.67 mm in azimuth and elevation respectively. 3-D images of an 8 mm diameter anechoic cyst phantom were also acquired. PMID:19213647

  14. A dual-layer transducer array for 3-D rectilinear imaging.

    PubMed

    Yen, Jesse T; Seo, Chi Hyung; Awad, Samer I; Jeong, Jong S

    2009-01-01

    Very large element counts (16,000-65,000) are required for 2-D arrays for 3-D rectilinear imaging. The difficulties in fabricating and interconnecting 2-D arrays with a large number of elements (>5,000) have limited the development of suitable transducers for 3-D rectilinear imaging. In this paper, we propose an alternative solution to this problem by using a dual-layer transducer array design. This design consists of 2 perpendicular 1-D arrays for clinical 3-D imaging of targets near the transducer. These targets include the breast, carotid artery, and musculoskeletal system. This transducer design reduces the fabrication complexity and the channel count, making 3-D rectilinear imaging more realizable. With this design, an effective N x N 2-D array can be developed using only N transmitters and N receivers. This benefit becomes very significant when N becomes greater than 128, for example. To demonstrate feasibility, we constructed a 4 x 4 cm prototype dual-layer array. The transmit array uses diced PZT-5H elements, and the receive array is a single sheet of undiced P[VDF-TrFE] copolymer. The receive elements are defined by the copper traces on the flexible interconnect circuit. The measured -6 dB fractional bandwidth was 80% with a center frequency of 4.8 MHz. At 5 MHz, the nearest neighbor crosstalk of the PZT array and PVDF array was -30.4 +/- 3.1 dB and -28.8 +/- 3.7 dB, respectively. This dual-layer transducer was interfaced with an Ultrasonix Sonix RP system, and a synthetic aperture 3-D data set was acquired. We then performed offline 3-D beamforming to obtain volumes of nylon wire targets. The theoretical lateral beamwidth was 0.52 mm compared with measured beamwidths of 0.65 mm and 0.67 mm in azimuth and elevation, respectively. Then, 3-D images of an 8 mm diameter anechoic cyst phantom were also acquired.

  15. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  16. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  17. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  18. 3-D sprag ratcheting tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Michael O. (Inventor); Poland, Jr., James W. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A ratcheting device comprising a driver head assembly which includes at least two 3-D sprag elements positioned within a first groove within the driver head assembly such that at least one of the 3-D sprag elements may lockingly engage the driver head assembly and a mating hub assembly to allow for rotation of the hub assembly in one direction with respect to the driver head assembly. This arrangement allows the ratcheting tool to impart torque in either the clockwise or counterclockwise direction without having to first rotate the ratcheting tool in the direction opposite the direction in which the torque is applied. This arrangement also allows the ratcheting tool to impart torque in either the clockwise or counterclockwise direction while in the neutral position.

  19. Comparing swimsuits in 3D.

    PubMed

    van Geer, Erik; Molenbroek, Johan; Schreven, Sander; deVoogd-Claessen, Lenneke; Toussaint, Huib

    2012-01-01

    In competitive swimming, suits have become more important. These suits influence friction, pressure and wave drag. Friction drag is related to the surface properties whereas both pressure and wave drag are greatly influenced by body shape. To find a relationship between the body shape and the drag, the anthropometry of several world class female swimmers wearing different suits was accurately defined using a 3D scanner and traditional measuring methods. The 3D scans delivered more detailed information about the body shape. On the same day the swimmers did performance tests in the water with the tested suits. Afterwards the result of the performance tests and the differences found in body shape was analyzed to determine the deformation caused by a swimsuit and its effect on the swimming performance. Although the amount of data is limited because of the few test subjects, there is an indication that the deformation of the body influences the swimming performance.

  20. 3D-graphite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Belenkov, E. A. Ali-Pasha, V. A.

    2011-01-15

    The structure of clusters of some new carbon 3D-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that 3D-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.

  1. Multi-resolution optical 3D sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühmstedt, Peter; Heinze, Matthias; Schmidt, Ingo; Breitbarth, Martin; Notni, Gunther

    2007-06-01

    A new multi resolution self calibrating optical 3D measurement system using fringe projection technique named "kolibri FLEX multi" will be presented. It can be utilised to acquire the all around shape of small to medium objects, simultaneously. The basic measurement principle is the phasogrammetric approach /1,2,3/ in combination with the method of virtual landmarks for the merging of the 3D single views. The system consists in minimum of two fringe projection sensors. The sensors are mounted on a rotation stage illuminating the object from different directions. The measurement fields of the sensors can be chosen different, here as an example 40mm and 180mm in diameter. In the measurement the object can be scanned at the same time with these two resolutions. Using the method of virtual landmarks both point clouds are calculated within the same world coordinate system resulting in a common 3D-point cloud. The final point cloud includes the overview of the object with low point density (wide field) and a region with high point density (focussed view) at the same time. The advantage of the new method is the possibility to measure with different resolutions at the same object region without any mechanical changes in the system or data post processing. Typical parameters of the system are: the measurement time is 2min for 12 images and the measurement accuracy is below 3μm up to 10 μm. The flexibility makes the measurement system useful for a wide range of applications such as quality control, rapid prototyping, design and CAD/CAM which will be shown in the paper.

  2. 3D reconstruction of tensors and vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Defrise, Michel; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2005-02-17

    Here we have developed formulations for the reconstruction of 3D tensor fields from planar (Radon) and line-integral (X-ray) projections of 3D vector and tensor fields. Much of the motivation for this work is the potential application of MRI to perform diffusion tensor tomography. The goal is to develop a theory for the reconstruction of both Radon planar and X-ray or line-integral projections because of the flexibility of MRI to obtain both of these type of projections in 3D. The development presented here for the linear tensor tomography problem provides insight into the structure of the nonlinear MRI diffusion tensor inverse problem. A particular application of tensor imaging in MRI is the potential application of cardiac diffusion tensor tomography for determining in vivo cardiac fiber structure. One difficulty in the cardiac application is the motion of the heart. This presents a need for developing future theory for tensor tomography in a motion field. This means developing a better understanding of the MRI signal for diffusion processes in a deforming media. The techniques developed may allow the application of MRI tensor tomography for the study of structure of fiber tracts in the brain, atherosclerotic plaque, and spine in addition to fiber structure in the heart. However, the relations presented are also applicable to other fields in medical imaging such as diffraction tomography using ultrasound. The mathematics presented can also be extended to exponential Radon transform of tensor fields and to other geometric acquisitions such as cone beam tomography of tensor fields.

  3. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer the second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.

  4. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer the second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.

  5. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  6. 3D Printing technologies for drug delivery: a review.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Leena Kumari; Smyth, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    With the FDA approval of the first 3D printed tablet, Spritam®, there is now precedence set for the utilization of 3D printing for the preparation of drug delivery systems. The capabilities for dispensing low volumes with accuracy, precise spatial control and layer-by-layer assembly allow for the preparation of complex compositions and geometries. The high degree of flexibility and control with 3D printing enables the preparation of dosage forms with multiple active pharmaceutical ingredients with complex and tailored release profiles. A unique opportunity for this technology for the preparation of personalized doses to address individual patient needs. This review will highlight the 3D printing technologies being utilized for the fabrication of drug delivery systems, as well as the formulation and processing parameters for consideration. This article will also summarize the range of dosage forms that have been prepared using these technologies, specifically over the last 10 years.

  7. Construction of programmable interconnected 3D microfluidic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunziker, Patrick R.; Wolf, Marc P.; Wang, Xueya; Zhang, Bei; Marsch, Stephan; Salieb-Beugelaar, Georgette B.

    2015-02-01

    Microfluidic systems represent a key-enabling platform for novel diagnostic tools for use at the point-of-care in clinical contexts as well as for evolving single cell diagnostics. The design of 3D microfluidic systems is an active field of development, but construction of true interconnected 3D microfluidic networks is still a challenge, in particular when the goal is rapid prototyping, accurate design and flexibility. We report a novel approach for the construction of programmable 3D microfluidic systems consisting of modular 3D template casting of interconnected threads to allow user-programmable flow paths and examine its structural characteristics and its modular function. To overcome problems with thread template casting reported in the literature, low-surface-energy polymer threads were used, that allow solvent-free production. Connected circular channels with excellent roundness and low diameter variability were created. Variable channel termination allowed programming a flow path on-the-fly, thus rendering the resulting 3D microfluidic systems highly customizable even after production. Thus, construction of programmable/reprogrammable fully 3D microfluidic systems by template casting of a network of interconnecting threads is feasible, leads to high-quality and highly reproducible, complex 3D geometries.

  8. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  9. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  10. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  11. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  12. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  13. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  14. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie

    2015-01-09

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  15. 3-D Radiative Transfer Modeling of Structured Winds in Massive Hot Stars with Wind3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobel, A.; Toalá, J. A.; Blomme, R.

    2011-01-01

    We develop 3-D models of the structured winds of massive hot stars with the Wind3D radiative transfer (RT) code. We investigate the physical properties of large-scale structures observed in the wind of the B-type supergiant HD 64760 with detailed line profile fits to Discrete Absorption Components (DACs) and rotational modulations observed with IUE in Si IV λ1395. We develop parameterized input models for Wind3D with large-scale equatorial wind density- and velocity-structures, or so-called `Co-rotating Interaction Regions' (CIRs) and `Rotational Modulation Regions' (RMRs). The parameterized models offer important advantages for high-performance RT calculations over ab-initio hydrodynamic input models. The acceleration of the input model calculations permits us to simulate and investigate a wide variety of physical conditions in the extended winds of massive hot stars. The new modeling method is very flexible for constraining the dynamic and geometric wind properties of RMRs in HD 64760. We compute that the modulations are produced by a regular pattern of radial density enhancements that protrude almost linearly into the equatorial wind. We find that the modulations are caused by narrow `spoke-like' wind regions. We present a hydrodynamic model showing that the linearly shaped radial wind pattern can be caused by mechanical wave action at the base of the stellar wind from the blue supergiant.

  16. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  17. High-Performance Integrated Self-Package Flexible Li-O2 Battery Based on Stable Composite Anode and Flexible Gas Diffusion Layer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Yang; Xu, Ji-Jing; Bao, Di; Chang, Zhi-Wen; Liu, Da-Peng; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xin-Bo

    2017-07-01

    With the rising development of flexible and wearable electronics, corresponding flexible energy storage devices with high energy density are required to provide a sustainable energy supply. Theoretically, rechargeable flexible Li-O2 batteries can provide high specific energy density; however, there are only a few reports on the construction of flexible Li-O2 batteries. Conventional flexible Li-O2 batteries possess a loose battery structure, which prevents flexibility and stability. The low mechanical strength of the gas diffusion layer and anode also lead to a flexible Li-O2 battery with poor mechanical properties. All these attributes limit their practical applications. Herein, the authors develop an integrated flexible Li-O2 battery based on a high-fatigue-resistance anode and a novel flexible stretchable gas diffusion layer. Owing to the synergistic effect of the stable electrocatalytic activity and hierarchical 3D interconnected network structure of the free-standing cathode, the obtained flexible Li-O2 batteries exhibit superior electrochemical performance, including a high specific capacity, an excellent rate capability, and exceptional cycle stability. Furthermore, benefitting from the above advantages, the as-fabricated flexible batteries can realize excellent mechanical and electrochemical stability. Even after a thousand cycles of the bending process, the flexible Li-O2 battery can still possess a stable open-circuit voltage, a high specific capacity, and a durable cycle performance. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  19. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  20. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  1. 3D medical thermography device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Peyman

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.

  2. 3D acoustic atmospheric tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.

  3. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  4. 3D structured illumination microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, William M.; Goodwin, Paul C.

    2011-03-01

    Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy achieves double the lateral and axial resolution of wide-field microscopy, using conventional fluorescent dyes, proteins and sample preparation techniques. A three-dimensional interference-fringe pattern excites the fluorescence, filling in the "missing cone" of the wide field optical transfer function, thereby enabling axial (z) discrimination. The pattern acts as a spatial carrier frequency that mixes with the higher spatial frequency components of the image, which usually succumb to the diffraction limit. The fluorescence image encodes the high frequency content as a down-mixed, moiré-like pattern. A series of images is required, wherein the 3D pattern is shifted and rotated, providing down-mixed data for a system of linear equations. Super-resolution is obtained by solving these equations. The speed with which the image series can be obtained can be a problem for the microscopy of living cells. Challenges include pattern-switching speeds, optical efficiency, wavefront quality and fringe contrast, fringe pitch optimization, and polarization issues. We will review some recent developments in 3D-SIM hardware with the goal of super-resolved z-stacks of motile cells.

  5. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at lower left in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  6. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  7. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at lower left in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  8. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  9. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

    2004-09-01

    The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data

  10. Possible Applications of 3D Printing Technology on Textile Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korger, M.; Bergschneider, J.; Lutz, M.; Mahltig, B.; Finsterbusch, K.; Rabe, M.

    2016-07-01

    3D printing is a rapidly emerging additive manufacturing technology which can offer cost efficiency and flexibility in product development and production. In textile production 3D printing can also serve as an add-on process to apply 3D structures on textiles. In this study the low-cost fused deposition modeling (FDM) technique was applied using different thermoplastic printing materials available on the market with focus on flexible filaments such as thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) or Soft PLA. Since a good adhesion and stability of the 3D printed structures on textiles are essential, separation force and abrasion resistance tests were conducted with different kinds of printed woven fabrics demonstrating that a sufficient adhesion can be achieved. The main influencing factor can be attributed to the topography of the textile surface affected by the weave, roughness and hairiness offering formlocking connections followed by the wettability of the textile surface by the molten polymer, which depends on the textile surface energy and can be specifically controlled by washing (desizing), finishing or plasma treatment of the textile before the print. These basic adhesion mechanisms can also be considered crucial for 3D printing on knitwear.

  11. 3D quantitative phase imaging of neural networks using WDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taewoo; Liu, S. C.; Iyer, Raj; Gillette, Martha U.; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    White-light diffraction tomography (WDT) is a recently developed 3D imaging technique based on a quantitative phase imaging system called spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM). The technique has achieved a sub-micron resolution in all three directions with high sensitivity granted by the low-coherence of a white-light source. Demonstrations of the technique on single cell imaging have been presented previously; however, imaging on any larger sample, including a cluster of cells, has not been demonstrated using the technique. Neurons in an animal body form a highly complex and spatially organized 3D structure, which can be characterized by neuronal networks or circuits. Currently, the most common method of studying the 3D structure of neuron networks is by using a confocal fluorescence microscope, which requires fluorescence tagging with either transient membrane dyes or after fixation of the cells. Therefore, studies on neurons are often limited to samples that are chemically treated and/or dead. WDT presents a solution for imaging live neuron networks with a high spatial and temporal resolution, because it is a 3D imaging method that is label-free and non-invasive. Using this method, a mouse or rat hippocampal neuron culture and a mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron culture have been imaged in order to see the extension of processes between the cells in 3D. Furthermore, the tomogram is compared with a confocal fluorescence image in order to investigate the 3D structure at synapses.

  12. Laser embedding electronics on 3D printed objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirleis, Matthew A.; Simonson, Duane; Charipar, Nicholas A.; Kim, Heungsoo; Charipar, Kristin M.; Auyeung, Ray C. Y.; Mathews, Scott A.; Piqué, Alberto

    2014-03-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques such as 3D printing are able to generate reproductions of a part in free space without the use of molds; however, the objects produced lack electrical functionality from an applications perspective. At the same time, techniques such as inkjet and laser direct-write (LDW) can be used to print electronic components and connections onto already existing objects, but are not capable of generating a full object on their own. The approach missing to date is the combination of 3D printing processes with direct-write of electronic circuits. Among the numerous direct write techniques available, LDW offers unique advantages and capabilities given its compatibility with a wide range of materials, surface chemistries and surface morphologies. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has developed various LDW processes ranging from the non-phase transformative direct printing of complex suspensions or inks to lase-and-place for embedding entire semiconductor devices. These processes have been demonstrated in digital manufacturing of a wide variety of microelectronic elements ranging from circuit components such as electrical interconnects and passives to antennas, sensors, actuators and power sources. At NRL we are investigating the combination of LDW with 3D printing to demonstrate the digital fabrication of functional parts, such as 3D circuits. Merging these techniques will make possible the development of a new generation of structures capable of detecting, processing, communicating and interacting with their surroundings in ways never imagined before. This paper shows the latest results achieved at NRL in this area, describing the various approaches developed for generating 3D printed electronics with LDW.

  13. Shape: A 3D Modeling Tool for Astrophysics.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Wolfgang; Koning, Nicholas; Wenger, Stephan; Morisset, Christophe; Magnor, Marcus

    2011-04-01

    We present a flexible interactive 3D morpho-kinematical modeling application for astrophysics. Compared to other systems, our application reduces the restrictions on the physical assumptions, data type, and amount that is required for a reconstruction of an object's morphology. It is one of the first publicly available tools to apply interactive graphics to astrophysical modeling. The tool allows astrophysicists to provide a priori knowledge about the object by interactively defining 3D structural elements. By direct comparison of model prediction with observational data, model parameters can then be automatically optimized to fit the observation. The tool has already been successfully used in a number of astrophysical research projects.

  14. Filament-length-controlled elasticity in 3D fiber networks.

    PubMed

    Broedersz, C P; Sheinman, M; Mackintosh, F C

    2012-02-17

    We present a model for disordered 3D fiber networks to study their linear and nonlinear elasticity. In contrast to previous 2D models, these 3D networks with binary crosslinks are underconstrained with respect to fiber stretching elasticity, suggesting that bending may dominate their response. We find that such networks exhibit a bending-dominated elastic regime controlled by fiber length, as well as a crossover to a stretch-dominated regime for long fibers. Finally, by extending the model to the nonlinear regime, we show that these networks become intrinsically nonlinear with a vanishing linear response regime in the limit of flexible or long filaments.

  15. 3D Printed Micro Free-Flow Electrophoresis Device.

    PubMed

    Anciaux, Sarah K; Geiger, Matthew; Bowser, Michael T

    2016-08-02

    The cost, time, and restrictions on creative flexibility associated with current fabrication methods present significant challenges in the development and application of microfluidic devices. Additive manufacturing, also referred to as three-dimensional (3D) printing, provides many advantages over existing methods. With 3D printing, devices can be made in a cost-effective manner with the ability to rapidly prototype new designs. We have fabricated a micro free-flow electrophoresis (μFFE) device using a low-cost, consumer-grade 3D printer. Test prints were performed to determine the minimum feature sizes that could be reproducibly produced using 3D printing fabrication. Microfluidic ridges could be fabricated with dimensions as small as 20 μm high × 640 μm wide. Minimum valley dimensions were 30 μm wide × 130 μm wide. An acetone vapor bath was used to smooth acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) surfaces and facilitate bonding of fully enclosed channels. The surfaces of the 3D-printed features were profiled and compared to a similar device fabricated in a glass substrate. Stable stream profiles were obtained in a 3D-printed μFFE device. Separations of fluorescent dyes in the 3D-printed device and its glass counterpart were comparable. A μFFE separation of myoglobin and cytochrome c was also demonstrated on a 3D-printed device. Limits of detection for rhodamine 110 were determined to be 2 and 0.3 nM for the 3D-printed and glass devices, respectively.

  16. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    ScienceCinema

    Love, Lonnie

    2016-11-02

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  17. Quasi 3D dispersion experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakucz, P.

    2003-04-01

    This paper studies the problem of tracer dispersion in a coloured fluid flowing through a two-phase 3D rough channel-system in a 40 cm*40 cm plexi-container filled by homogen glass fractions and colourless fluid. The unstable interface between the driving coloured fluid and the colourless fluid develops viscous fingers with a fractal structure at high capillary number. Five two-dimensional fractal fronts have been observed at the same time using four cameras along the vertical side-walls and using one camera located above the plexi-container. In possession of five fronts the spatial concentration contours are determined using statistical models. The concentration contours are self-affine fractal curves with a fractal dimension D=2.19. This result is valid for disperison at high Péclet numbers.

  18. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  19. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  20. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  1. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-06

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.

  2. Discrete elements for 3D microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Krisna C.; Thompson, Bryant; Malmstadt, Noah

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic systems are rapidly becoming commonplace tools for high-precision materials synthesis, biochemical sample preparation, and biophysical analysis. Typically, microfluidic systems are constructed in monolithic form by means of microfabrication and, increasingly, by additive techniques. These methods restrict the design and assembly of truly complex systems by placing unnecessary emphasis on complete functional integration of operational elements in a planar environment. Here, we present a solution based on discrete elements that liberates designers to build large-scale microfluidic systems in three dimensions that are modular, diverse, and predictable by simple network analysis techniques. We develop a sample library of standardized components and connectors manufactured using stereolithography. We predict and validate the flow characteristics of these individual components to design and construct a tunable concentration gradient generator with a scalable number of parallel outputs. We show that these systems are rapidly reconfigurable by constructing three variations of a device for generating monodisperse microdroplets in two distinct size regimes and in a high-throughput mode by simple replacement of emulsifier subcircuits. Finally, we demonstrate the capability for active process monitoring by constructing an optical sensing element for detecting water droplets in a fluorocarbon stream and quantifying their size and frequency. By moving away from large-scale integration toward standardized discrete elements, we demonstrate the potential to reduce the practice of designing and assembling complex 3D microfluidic circuits to a methodology comparable to that found in the electronics industry. PMID:25246553

  3. Discrete elements for 3D microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Krisna C; Thompson, Bryant; Malmstadt, Noah

    2014-10-21

    Microfluidic systems are rapidly becoming commonplace tools for high-precision materials synthesis, biochemical sample preparation, and biophysical analysis. Typically, microfluidic systems are constructed in monolithic form by means of microfabrication and, increasingly, by additive techniques. These methods restrict the design and assembly of truly complex systems by placing unnecessary emphasis on complete functional integration of operational elements in a planar environment. Here, we present a solution based on discrete elements that liberates designers to build large-scale microfluidic systems in three dimensions that are modular, diverse, and predictable by simple network analysis techniques. We develop a sample library of standardized components and connectors manufactured using stereolithography. We predict and validate the flow characteristics of these individual components to design and construct a tunable concentration gradient generator with a scalable number of parallel outputs. We show that these systems are rapidly reconfigurable by constructing three variations of a device for generating monodisperse microdroplets in two distinct size regimes and in a high-throughput mode by simple replacement of emulsifier subcircuits. Finally, we demonstrate the capability for active process monitoring by constructing an optical sensing element for detecting water droplets in a fluorocarbon stream and quantifying their size and frequency. By moving away from large-scale integration toward standardized discrete elements, we demonstrate the potential to reduce the practice of designing and assembling complex 3D microfluidic circuits to a methodology comparable to that found in the electronics industry.

  4. Capillary Origami Inspired Fabrication of Complex 3D Hydrogel Constructs.

    PubMed

    Li, Moxiao; Yang, Qingzhen; Liu, Hao; Qiu, Mushu; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogels have found broad applications in various engineering and biomedical fields, where the shape and size of hydrogels can profoundly influence their functions. Although numerous methods have been developed to tailor 3D hydrogel structures, it is still challenging to fabricate complex 3D hydrogel constructs. Inspired by the capillary origami phenomenon where surface tension of a droplet on an elastic membrane can induce spontaneous folding of the membrane into 3D structures along with droplet evaporation, a facile strategy is established for the fabrication of complex 3D hydrogel constructs with programmable shapes and sizes by crosslinking hydrogels during the folding process. A mathematical model is further proposed to predict the temporal structure evolution of the folded 3D hydrogel constructs. Using this model, precise control is achieved over the 3D shapes (e.g., pyramid, pentahedron, and cube) and sizes (ranging from hundreds of micrometers to millimeters) through tuning membrane shape, dimensionless parameter of the process (elastocapillary number Ce ), and evaporation time. This work would be favorable to multiple areas, such as flexible electronics, tissue regeneration, and drug delivery.

  5. 3D visualization for research and teaching in geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manea, Marina; Constantin Manea, Vlad

    2010-05-01

    Today, we are provided with an abundance of visual images from a variety of sources. In doing research, data visualization represents an important part, and sophisticated models require special tools that should enhance the comprehension of modeling results. Also, helping our students gain visualization skills is an important way to foster greater comprehension when studying geosciences. For these reasons we build a 3D stereo-visualization system, or a GeoWall, that permits to explore in depth 3D modeling results and provide for students an attractive way for data visualization. In this study, we present the architecture of such low cost system, and how is used. The system consists of three main parts: a DLP-3D capable display, a high performance workstation and several pairs of wireless liquid crystal shutter eyewear. The system is capable of 3D stereo visualization of Google Earth and/or 3D numeric modeling results. Also, any 2D image or movie can be instantly viewed in 3D stereo. Such flexible-easy-to-use visualization system proved to be an essential research and teaching tool.

  6. Evaluation of viewing experiences induced by curved 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Sungchul; Park, Min-Chul; Yano, Sumio

    2015-05-01

    As advanced display technology has been developed, much attention has been given to flexible panels. On top of that, with the momentum of the 3D era, stereoscopic 3D technique has been combined with the curved displays. However, despite the increased needs for 3D function in the curved displays, comparisons between curved and flat panel displays with 3D views have rarely been tested. Most of the previous studies have investigated their basic ergonomic aspects such as viewing posture and distance with only 2D views. It has generally been known that curved displays are more effective in enhancing involvement in specific content stories because field of views and distance from the eyes of viewers to both edges of the screen are more natural in curved displays than in flat panel ones. For flat panel displays, ocular torsions may occur when viewers try to move their eyes from the center to the edges of the screen to continuously capture rapidly moving 3D objects. This is due in part to differences in viewing distances from the center of the screen to eyes of viewers and from the edges of the screen to the eyes. Thus, this study compared S3D viewing experiences induced by a curved display with those of a flat panel display by evaluating significant subjective and objective measures.

  7. A 3-d modular gripper design tool

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.G.; Brost, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    Modular fixturing kits are precisely machined sets of components used for flexible, short-turnaround construction of fixtures for a variety of manufacturing purposes. A modular vise is a parallel-jaw vise, where each jaw is a modular fixture plate with a regular grid of precisely positioned holes. A modular vise can be used to locate and hold parts for machining, assembly, and inspection tasks. To fixture a part, one places pins in some of the holes so that when the vise is closed, the part is reliably located and completely constrained. The modular vise concept can be adapted easily to the design of modular parallel-jaw grippers for robots. By attaching a grid plate to each jaw of a parallel-jaw gripper, the authors gain the ability to easily construct high-quality grasps for a wide variety of parts from a standard set of hardware. Wallack and Canny developed a previous algorithm for planning planar grasp configurations for the modular vise. In this paper, the authors expand this work to produce a 3-d fixture/gripper design tool. They describe several analyses added to the planar algorithm to improve its utility, including a three-dimensional grasp quality metric based on geometric and force information, three-dimensional geometric loading analysis, and inter-gripper interference analysis to determine the compatibility of multiple grasps for handing the part from one gripper to another. Finally, the authors describe two applications which combine the utility of modular vise-style grasping with inter-gripper interference: The first is the design of a flexible part-handling subsystem for a part cleaning workcell under development at Sandia National Laboratories; the second is the automatic design of grippers that support the assembly of multiple products on a single assembly line.

  8. 3D printed microfluidic mixer for point-of-care diagnosis of anemia.

    PubMed

    Plevniak, Kimberly; Campbell, Matthew; Mei He

    2016-08-01

    3D printing has been an emerging fabrication tool in prototyping and manufacturing. We demonstrated a 3D microfluidic simulation guided computer design and 3D printer prototyping for quick turnaround development of microfluidic 3D mixers, which allows fast self-mixing of reagents with blood through capillary force. Combined with smartphone, the point-of-care diagnosis of anemia from finger-prick blood has been successfully implemented and showed consistent results with clinical measurements. Capable of 3D fabrication flexibility and smartphone compatibility, this work presents a novel diagnostic strategy for advancing personalized medicine and mobile healthcare.

  9. Applications of 2D to 3D conversion for educational purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koido, Yoshihisa; Morikawa, Hiroyuki; Shiraishi, Saki; Takeuchi, Soya; Maruyama, Wataru; Nakagori, Toshio; Hirakata, Masataka; Shinkai, Hirohisa; Kawai, Takashi

    2013-03-01

    There are three main approaches creating stereoscopic S3D content: stereo filming using two cameras, stereo rendering of 3D computer graphics, and 2D to S3D conversion by adding binocular information to 2D material images. Although manual "off-line" conversion can control the amount of parallax flexibly, 2D material images are converted according to monocular information in most cases, and the flexibility of 2D to S3D conversion has not been exploited. If the depth is expressed flexibly, comprehensions and interests from converted S3D contents are anticipated to be differed from those from 2D. Therefore, in this study we created new S3D content for education by applying 2D to S3D conversion. For surgical education, we created S3D surgical operation content under a surgeon using a partial 2D to S3D conversion technique which was expected to concentrate viewers' attention on significant areas. And for art education, we converted Ukiyoe prints; traditional Japanese artworks made from a woodcut. The conversion of this content, which has little depth information, into S3D, is expected to produce different cognitive processes from those evoked by 2D content, e.g., the excitation of interest, and the understanding of spatial information. In addition, the effects of the representation of these contents were investigated.

  10. Perceptual integration for qualitatively different 3D cues in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Dövencioğlu, Dicle; Ban, Hiroshi; Schofield, Andrew J; Welchman, Andrew E

    2013-01-01

    The visual system’s flexibility in estimating depth is remarkable: we readily perceive three-dimensional (3D) structure under diverse conditions from the seemingly random dots of a ‘magic eye’ stereogram to the aesthetically beautiful, but obviously flat, canvasses of the Old Masters. Yet, 3D perception is often enhanced when different cues specify the same depth. This perceptual process is understood as Bayesian inference that improves sensory estimates. Despite considerable behavioral support for this theory, insights into the cortical circuits involved are limited. Moreover, extant work tested quantitatively similar cues, reducing some of the challenges associated with integrating computationally and qualitatively different signals. Here we address this challenge by measuring functional MRI responses to depth structures defined by shading, binocular disparity and their combination. We quantified information about depth configurations (convex ‘bumps’ vs. concave ‘dimples’) in different visual cortical areas using pattern-classification analysis. We found that fMRI responses in dorsal visual area V3B/KO were more discriminable when disparity and shading concurrently signaled depth, in line with the predictions of cue integration. Importantly, by relating fMRI and psychophysical tests of integration, we observed a close association between depth judgments and activity in this area. Finally, using a cross-cue transfer test, we found that fMRI responses evoked by one cue afford classification of responses evoked by the other. This reveals a generalized depth representation in dorsal visual cortex that combines qualitatively different information in line with 3D perception. PMID:23647559

  11. 3D ultrafast laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2013-03-01

    Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.

  12. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  13. 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Maria

    The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.

  14. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  15. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  16. Toward mobile 3D visualization for structural biologists.

    PubMed

    Tanramluk, Duangrudee; Akavipat, Ruj; Charoensawan, Varodom

    2013-12-01

    Technological advances in crystallography have led to the ever-rapidly increasing number of biomolecular structures deposited in public repertoires. This undoubtedly shifts the bottleneck of structural biology research from obtaining high-quality structures to data analysis and interpretation. The recently available glasses-free autostereoscopic laptop offers an unprecedented opportunity to visualize and study 3D structures using a much more affordable, and for the first time, portable device. Together with a gamepad re-programmed for 3D structure controlling, we describe how the gaming technologies can deliver the output 3D images for high-quality viewing, comparable to that of a passive stereoscopic system, and can give the user more control and flexibility than the conventional controlling setup using only a mouse and a keyboard.

  17. Evaluation of hybrid polymers for high-precision manufacturing of 3D optical interconnects by two-photon absorption lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleunitz, A.; Klein, J. J.; Krupp, A.; Stender, B.; Houbertz, R.; Gruetzner, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fabrication of optical interconnects has been widely investigated for the generation of optical circuit boards. Twophoton absorption (TPA) lithography (or high-precision 3D printing) as an innovative production method for direct manufacture of individual 3D photonic structures gains more and more attention when optical polymers are employed. In this regard, we have evaluated novel ORMOCER-based hybrid polymers tailored for the manufacture of optical waveguides by means of high-precision 3D printing. In order to facilitate future industrial implementation, the processability was evaluated and the optical performance of embedded waveguides was assessed. The results illustrate that hybrid polymers are not only viable consumables for industrial manufacture of polymeric micro-optics using generic processes such as UV molding. They also are potential candidates to fabricate optical waveguide systems down to the chip level where TPA-based emerging manufacturing techniques are engaged. Hence, it is shown that hybrid polymers continue to meet the increasing expectations of dynamically growing markets of micro-optics and optical interconnects due to the flexibility of the employed polymer material concept.

  18. Topological Quantum Information in a 3D Neutral Atom Array

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-02

    laser cooling in a 3D large spacing lattice, developing flexible state manipulation techniques, and demonstrating long atomic coherence times...demonstrated the execution of single qubit gates on any arbitrary sequence of individual lattice sites in a 5×5×5 array. This entailed improving laser ... lasers , the development of which is in progress. Theoretical optimization of entangling operations in the presence of experimental noise is critical

  19. Development of a computer controlled 3-d braiding machine

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Jianhua; Li Jialu

    1994-12-31

    This paper deals with development of a large size, multiuse, controlled 3-D cartesian grid braiding machine, its function and application. The 180 column and 120 tracks, the flexible and low power consuming driving system, the error detector systems and the computer controlling system are the major parts of the machine. The machine can produce wide variety of size. shape and pattern of fabrics and can also produce several fabrics at a time.

  20. Laser printed interconnects for flexible electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pique, Alberto; Beniam, Iyoel; Mathews, Scott; Charipar, Nicholas

    Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) can be used to generate microscale 3D structures for interconnect applications non-lithographically. The laser printing of these interconnects takes place through aggregation of voxels of either molten metal or dispersed metallic nanoparticles. However, the resulting 3D structures do not achieve the bulk conductivity of metal interconnects of the same cross-section and length as those formed by wire bonding or tab welding. It is possible, however, to laser transfer entire structures using a LIFT technique known as lase-and-place. Lase-and-place allows whole components and parts to be transferred from a donor substrate onto a desired location with one single laser pulse. This talk will present the use of LIFT to laser print freestanding solid metal interconnects to connect individual devices into functional circuits. Furthermore, the same laser can bend or fold the thin metal foils prior to transfer, thus forming compliant 3D structures able to provide strain relief due to flexing or thermal mismatch. Examples of these laser printed 3D metallic bridges and their role in the development of next generation flexible electronics by additive manufacturing will be presented. This work was funded by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) through the Naval Research Laboratory Basic Research Program.

  1. Polymer-Enriched 3D Graphene Foams for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun Kit; Xiong, Gordon Minru; Zhu, Minmin; Özyilmaz, Barbaros; Castro Neto, Antonio Helio; Tan, Nguan Soon; Choong, Cleo

    2015-04-22

    Graphene foams (GFs) are versatile nanoplatforms for biomedical applications because of their excellent physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. However, the brittleness and inflexibility of pristine GF (pGF) are some of the important factors restricting their widespread application. Here, a chemical-vapor-deposition-assisted method was used to synthesize 3D GFs, which were subsequently spin-coated with polymer to produce polymer-enriched 3D GFs with high conductivity and flexibility. Compared to pGF, both poly(vinylidene fluoride)-enriched GF (PVDF/GF) and polycaprolactone-enriched GF (PCL/GF) scaffolds showed improved flexibility and handleability. Despite the presence of the polymers, the polymer-enriched 3D GF scaffolds retained high levels of electrical conductivity because of the presence of microcracks that allowed for the flow of electrons through the material. In addition, polymer enrichment of GF led to an enhancement in the formation of calcium phosphate (Ca-P) compounds when the scaffolds were exposed to simulated body fluid. Between the two polymers tested, PCL enrichment of GF resulted in a higher in vitro mineralization nucleation rate because the oxygen-containing functional group of PCL had a higher affinity for Ca-P deposition and formation compared to the polar carbon-fluorine (C-F) bond in PVDF. Taken together, our current findings are a stepping stone toward future applications of polymer-enriched 3D GFs in the treatment of bone defects as well as other biomedical applications.

  2. 3-D Cavern Enlargement Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    EHGARTNER, BRIAN L.; SOBOLIK, STEVEN R.

    2002-03-01

    Three-dimensional finite element analyses simulate the mechanical response of enlarging existing caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The caverns are located in Gulf Coast salt domes and are enlarged by leaching during oil drawdowns as fresh water is injected to displace the crude oil from the caverns. The current criteria adopted by the SPR limits cavern usage to 5 drawdowns (leaches). As a base case, 5 leaches were modeled over a 25 year period to roughly double the volume of a 19 cavern field. Thirteen additional leaches where then simulated until caverns approached coalescence. The cavern field approximated the geometries and geologic properties found at the West Hackberry site. This enabled comparisons are data collected over nearly 20 years to analysis predictions. The analyses closely predicted the measured surface subsidence and cavern closure rates as inferred from historic well head pressures. This provided the necessary assurance that the model displacements, strains, and stresses are accurate. However, the cavern field has not yet experienced the large scale drawdowns being simulated. Should they occur in the future, code predictions should be validated with actual field behavior at that time. The simulations were performed using JAS3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasi-static solids. The results examine the impacts of leaching and cavern workovers, where internal cavern pressures are reduced, on surface subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The results suggest that the current limit of 5 oil drawdowns may be extended with some mitigative action required on the wells and later on to surface structure due to subsidence strains. The predicted stress state in the salt shows damage to start occurring after 15 drawdowns with significant failure occurring at the 16th drawdown, well beyond the current limit of 5 drawdowns.

  3. America's National Parks 3d (4)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-04-11

    article title:  America's National Parks Viewed in 3D by NASA's MISR (Anaglyph 4)   ... four new anaglyphs that showcase 33 of our nation's national parks, monuments, historical sites and recreation areas in glorious 3D.   ...

  4. America's National Parks 3d (3)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-12-30

    article title:  America's National Parks Viewed in 3D by NASA's MISR (Anaglyph 3)   ... four new anaglyphs that showcase 33 of our nation's national parks, monuments, historical sites and recreation areas in glorious 3D.   ...

  5. America's National Parks 3d (2)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-12-30

    article title:  America's National Parks Viewed in 3D by NASA's MISR (Anaglyph 2)   ... four new anaglyphs that showcase 33 of our nation's national parks, monuments, historical sites and recreation areas in glorious 3D.   ...

  6. America's National Parks 3d (1)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-12-30

    article title:  America's National Parks Viewed in 3D by NASA's MISR (Anaglyph 1)   ... four new anaglyphs that showcase 33 of our nation's national parks, monuments, historical sites and recreation areas in glorious 3D.   ...

  7. 3D ultrasound in fetal spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Schramm, T; Gloning, K-P; Minderer, S; Tutschek, B

    2008-12-01

    3D ultrasound can be used to study the fetal spine, but skeletal mode can be inconclusive for the diagnosis of fetal spina bifida. We illustrate a diagnostic approach using 2D and 3D ultrasound and indicate possible pitfalls.

  8. An interactive multiview 3D display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Zhang, Mei; Dong, Hui

    2013-03-01

    The progresses in 3D display systems and user interaction technologies will help more effective 3D visualization of 3D information. They yield a realistic representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them. In this paper, we describe an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system with capability of real-time user interaction. Design principle of this autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system is presented, together with the details of its hardware/software architecture. A prototype is built and tested based upon multi-projectors and horizontal optical anisotropic display structure. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of this novel 3D display and user interaction system.

  9. [3D emulation of epicardium dynamic mapping].

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Yang, Cui-Wei; Fang, Zu-Xiang

    2005-03-01

    In order to realize epicardium dynamic mapping of the whole atria, 3-D graphics are drawn with OpenGL. Some source codes are introduced in the paper to explain how to produce, read, and manipulate 3-D model data.

  10. FlexyDos3D: a deformable anthropomorphic 3D radiation dosimeter: radiation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deene, Y.; Skyt, P. S.; Hil, R.; Booth, J. T.

    2015-02-01

    Three dimensional radiation dosimetry has received growing interest with the implementation of highly conformal radiotherapy treatments. The radiotherapy community faces new challenges with the commissioning of image guided and image gated radiotherapy treatments (IGRT) and deformable image registration software. A new three dimensional anthropomorphically shaped flexible dosimeter, further called ‘FlexyDos3D’, has been constructed and a new fast optical scanning method has been implemented that enables scanning of irregular shaped dosimeters. The FlexyDos3D phantom can be actuated and deformed during the actual treatment. FlexyDos3D offers the additional advantage that it is easy to fabricate, is non-toxic and can be molded in an arbitrary shape with high geometrical precision. The dosimeter formulation has been optimized in terms of dose sensitivity. The influence of the casting material and oxygen concentration has also been investigated. The radiophysical properties of this new dosimeter are discussed including stability, spatial integrity, temperature dependence of the dosimeter during radiation, readout and storage, dose rate dependence and tissue equivalence. The first authors Y De Deene and P S Skyt made an equivalent contribution to the experimental work presented in this paper.

  11. Multi-Layer E-Textile Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunne, Lucy E.; Bibeau, Kaila; Mulligan, Lucie; Frith, Ashton; Simon, Cory

    2012-01-01

    Stitched e-textile circuits facilitate wearable, flexible, comfortable wearable technology. However, while stitched methods of e-textile circuits are common, multi-layer circuit creation remains a challenge. Here, we present methods of stitched multi-layer circuit creation using accessible tools and techniques.

  12. Multi-Layer E-Textile Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunne, Lucy E.; Bibeau, Kaila; Mulligan, Lucie; Frith, Ashton; Simon, Cory

    2012-01-01

    Stitched e-textile circuits facilitate wearable, flexible, comfortable wearable technology. However, while stitched methods of e-textile circuits are common, multi-layer circuit creation remains a challenge. Here, we present methods of stitched multi-layer circuit creation using accessible tools and techniques.

  13. 3-D Extensions for Trustworthy Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    modifications to the floor planning stage of the 3-D design flow that are necessary to support our design approach. We strongly recommend that the 3-D EDA ...and we outline problems, challenges, attacks, solutions, and topics for future research. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...Requirements for automated 3-D IC design tools for the physical layout of components. Since fully automated Electronic Design Automation ( EDA ) for 3-D

  14. True 3d Images and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; wang@hzgeospace., zheng.

    2012-07-01

    A true 3D image is a geo-referenced image. Besides having its radiometric information, it also has true 3Dground coordinates XYZ for every pixels of it. For a true 3D image, especially a true 3D oblique image, it has true 3D coordinates not only for building roofs and/or open grounds, but also for all other visible objects on the ground, such as visible building walls/windows and even trees. The true 3D image breaks the 2D barrier of the traditional orthophotos by introducing the third dimension (elevation) into the image. From a true 3D image, for example, people will not only be able to read a building's location (XY), but also its height (Z). true 3D images will fundamentally change, if not revolutionize, the way people display, look, extract, use, and represent the geospatial information from imagery. In many areas, true 3D images can make profound impacts on the ways of how geospatial information is represented, how true 3D ground modeling is performed, and how the real world scenes are presented. This paper first gives a definition and description of a true 3D image and followed by a brief review of what key advancements of geospatial technologies have made the creation of true 3D images possible. Next, the paper introduces what a true 3D image is made of. Then, the paper discusses some possible contributions and impacts the true 3D images can make to geospatial information fields. At the end, the paper presents a list of the benefits of having and using true 3D images and the applications of true 3D images in a couple of 3D city modeling projects.

  15. Microfabricating 3D Structures by Laser Origami

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-09

    10.1117/2.1201111.003952 Microfabricating 3D structures by laser origami Alberto Piqué, Scott Mathews, Andrew Birnbaum, and Nicholas Charipar A new...folding known as origami allows the transformation of flat patterns into 3D shapes. A similar approach can be used to generate 3D structures com...materials Figure 1. (A–C) Schematic illustrating the steps in the laser origami process and (D) a resulting folded out-of-plane 3D structure. that can

  16. Laser Based 3D Volumetric Display System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Literature, Costa Mesa, CA July 1983. 3. "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System", Rodney Don Williams, Felix Garcia, Jr., Texas...8217 .- NUMBERS LASER BASED 3D VOLUMETRIC DISPLAY SYSTEM PR: CD13 0. AUTHOR(S) PE: N/AWIU: DN303151 P. Soltan, J. Trias, W. Robinson, W. Dahlke 7...laser generated 3D volumetric images on a rotating double helix, (where the 3D displays are computer controlled for group viewing with the naked eye

  17. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  18. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  19. Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.

    2012-07-01

    It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.

  20. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  1. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  2. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  3. Beowulf 3D: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Rob

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.

  4. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  5. Controllable liquid crystal gratings for an adaptive 2D/3D auto-stereoscopic display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. A.; Jin, T.; He, L. C.; Chu, Z. H.; Guo, T. L.; Zhou, X. T.; Lin, Z. X.

    2017-02-01

    2D/3D switchable, viewpoint controllable and 2D/3D localizable auto-stereoscopic displays based on controllable liquid crystal gratings are proposed in this work. Using the dual-layer staggered structure on the top substrate and bottom substrate as driven electrodes within a liquid crystal cell, the ratio between transmitting region and shielding region can be selectively controlled by the corresponding driving circuit, which indicates that 2D/3D switch and 3D video sources with different disparity images can reveal in the same auto-stereoscopic display system. Furthermore, the controlled region in the liquid crystal gratings presents 3D model while other regions maintain 2D model in the same auto-stereoscopic display by the corresponding driving circuit. This work demonstrates that the controllable liquid crystal gratings have potential applications in the field of auto-stereoscopic display.

  6. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  7. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning, and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. For the first time, Fermilab has organized a 3D MPW run, to which more than 25 different designs have been submitted by the consortium.

  8. Highly-stretchable 3D-architected Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yanhui; Wang, Qiming

    2016-09-01

    Soft materials featuring both 3D free-form architectures and high stretchability are highly desirable for a number of engineering applications ranging from cushion modulators, soft robots to stretchable electronics; however, both the manufacturing and fundamental mechanics are largely elusive. Here, we overcome the manufacturing difficulties and report a class of mechanical metamaterials that not only features 3D free-form lattice architectures but also poses ultrahigh reversible stretchability (strain > 414%), 4 times higher than that of the existing counterparts with the similar complexity of 3D architectures. The microarchitected metamaterials, made of highly stretchable elastomers, are realized through an additive manufacturing technique, projection microstereolithography, and its postprocessing. With the fabricated metamaterials, we reveal their exotic mechanical behaviors: Under large-strain tension, their moduli follow a linear scaling relationship with their densities regardless of architecture types, in sharp contrast to the architecture-dependent modulus power-law of the existing engineering materials; under large-strain compression, they present tunable negative-stiffness that enables ultrahigh energy absorption efficiencies. To harness their extraordinary stretchability and microstructures, we demonstrate that the metamaterials open a number of application avenues in lightweight and flexible structure connectors, ultraefficient dampers, 3D meshed rehabilitation structures and stretchable electronics with designed 3D anisotropic conductivity.

  9. 3D Printing by Multiphase Silicone/Water Capillary Inks.

    PubMed

    Roh, Sangchul; Parekh, Dishit P; Bharti, Bhuvnesh; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Velev, Orlin D

    2017-08-01

    3D printing of polymers is accomplished easily with thermoplastics as the extruded hot melt solidifies rapidly during the printing process. Printing with liquid polymer precursors is more challenging due to their longer curing times. One curable liquid polymer of specific interest is polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). This study demonstrates a new efficient technique for 3D printing with PDMS by using a capillary suspension ink containing PDMS in the form of both precured microbeads and uncured liquid precursor, dispersed in water as continuous medium. The PDMS microbeads are held together in thixotropic granular paste by capillary attraction induced by the liquid precursor. These capillary suspensions possess high storage moduli and yield stresses that are needed for direct ink writing. They could be 3D printed and cured both in air and under water. The resulting PDMS structures are remarkably elastic, flexible, and extensible. As the ink is made of porous, biocompatible silicone that can be printed directly inside aqueous medium, it can be used in 3D printed biomedical products, or in applications such as direct printing of bioscaffolds on live tissue. This study demonstrates a number of examples using the high softness, elasticity, and resilience of these 3D printed structures. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Highly-stretchable 3D-architected Mechanical Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanhui; Wang, Qiming

    2016-01-01

    Soft materials featuring both 3D free-form architectures and high stretchability are highly desirable for a number of engineering applications ranging from cushion modulators, soft robots to stretchable electronics; however, both the manufacturing and fundamental mechanics are largely elusive. Here, we overcome the manufacturing difficulties and report a class of mechanical metamaterials that not only features 3D free-form lattice architectures but also poses ultrahigh reversible stretchability (strain > 414%), 4 times higher than that of the existing counterparts with the similar complexity of 3D architectures. The microarchitected metamaterials, made of highly stretchable elastomers, are realized through an additive manufacturing technique, projection microstereolithography, and its postprocessing. With the fabricated metamaterials, we reveal their exotic mechanical behaviors: Under large-strain tension, their moduli follow a linear scaling relationship with their densities regardless of architecture types, in sharp contrast to the architecture-dependent modulus power-law of the existing engineering materials; under large-strain compression, they present tunable negative-stiffness that enables ultrahigh energy absorption efficiencies. To harness their extraordinary stretchability and microstructures, we demonstrate that the metamaterials open a number of application avenues in lightweight and flexible structure connectors, ultraefficient dampers, 3D meshed rehabilitation structures and stretchable electronics with designed 3D anisotropic conductivity. PMID:27667638

  11. 3D printing of nano- and micro-structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, Mouli; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing or 3D printing techniques are being vigorously investigated as a replacement to the traditional and conventional methods in fabrication to bring forth cost and time effective approaches. Introduction of 3D printing has led to printing micro and nanoscale structures including tissues and organelles, bioelectric sensors and devices, artificial bones and transplants, microfluidic devices, batteries and various other biomaterials. Various microfabrication processes have been developed to fabricate micro components and assemblies at lab scale. 3D Fabrication processes that can accommodate the functional and geometrical requirements to realize complicated structures are becoming feasible through advances in additive manufacturing. This advancement could lead to simpler development mechanisms of novel components and devices exhibiting complex features. For instance, development of microstructure electrodes that can penetrate the epidermis of the skin to collect the bio potential signal may prove very effective than the electrodes that measure signal from the skin's surface. The micro and nanostructures will have to possess extraordinary material and mechanical properties for its dexterity in the applications. A substantial amount of research being pursued on stretchable and flexible devices based on PDMA, textiles, and organic electronics. Despite the numerous advantages these substrates and techniques could solely offer, 3D printing enables a multi-dimensional approach towards finer and complex applications. This review emphasizes the use of 3D printing to fabricate micro and nanostructures for that can be applied for human healthcare.

  12. Highly-stretchable 3D-architected Mechanical Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanhui; Wang, Qiming

    2016-09-26

    Soft materials featuring both 3D free-form architectures and high stretchability are highly desirable for a number of engineering applications ranging from cushion modulators, soft robots to stretchable electronics; however, both the manufacturing and fundamental mechanics are largely elusive. Here, we overcome the manufacturing difficulties and report a class of mechanical metamaterials that not only features 3D free-form lattice architectures but also poses ultrahigh reversible stretchability (strain > 414%), 4 times higher than that of the existing counterparts with the similar complexity of 3D architectures. The microarchitected metamaterials, made of highly stretchable elastomers, are realized through an additive manufacturing technique, projection microstereolithography, and its postprocessing. With the fabricated metamaterials, we reveal their exotic mechanical behaviors: Under large-strain tension, their moduli follow a linear scaling relationship with their densities regardless of architecture types, in sharp contrast to the architecture-dependent modulus power-law of the existing engineering materials; under large-strain compression, they present tunable negative-stiffness that enables ultrahigh energy absorption efficiencies. To harness their extraordinary stretchability and microstructures, we demonstrate that the metamaterials open a number of application avenues in lightweight and flexible structure connectors, ultraefficient dampers, 3D meshed rehabilitation structures and stretchable electronics with designed 3D anisotropic conductivity.

  13. Majority logic gate for 3D magnetic computing.

    PubMed

    Eichwald, Irina; Breitkreutz, Stephan; Ziemys, Grazvydas; Csaba, György; Porod, Wolfgang; Becherer, Markus

    2014-08-22

    For decades now, microelectronic circuits have been exclusively built from transistors. An alternative way is to use nano-scaled magnets for the realization of digital circuits. This technology, known as nanomagnetic logic (NML), may offer significant improvements in terms of power consumption and integration densities. Further advantages of NML are: non-volatility, radiation hardness, and operation at room temperature. Recent research focuses on the three-dimensional (3D) integration of nanomagnets. Here we show, for the first time, a 3D programmable magnetic logic gate. Its computing operation is based on physically field-interacting nanometer-scaled magnets arranged in a 3D manner. The magnets possess a bistable magnetization state representing the Boolean logic states '0' and '1.' Magneto-optical and magnetic force microscopy measurements prove the correct operation of the gate over many computing cycles. Furthermore, micromagnetic simulations confirm the correct functionality of the gate even for a size in the nanometer-domain. The presented device demonstrates the potential of NML for three-dimensional digital computing, enabling the highest integration densities.

  14. High-Q 3D coaxial resonators for cavity QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Taekwan; Owens, John C.; Naik, Ravi; Lachapelle, Aman; Ma, Ruichao; Simon, Jonathan; Schuster, David I.

    Three-dimensional microwave resonators provide an alternative approach to transmission-line resonators used in most current circuit QED experiments. Their large mode volume greatly reduces the surface dielectric losses that limits the coherence of superconducting circuits, and the well-isolated and controlled cavity modes further suppress coupling to the environment. In this work, we focus on unibody 3D coaxial cavities which are only evanescently coupled and free from losses due to metal-metal interfaces, allowing us to reach extremely high quality-factors. We achieve quality-factor of up to 170 million using 4N6 Aluminum at superconducting temperatures, corresponding to an energy ringdown time of ~4ms. We extend our methods to other materials including Niobium, NbTi, and copper coated with Tin-Lead solder. These cavities can be further explored to study their properties under magnetic field or upon coupling to superconducting Josephson junction qubits, e.g. 3D transmon qubits. Such 3D cavity QED system can be used for quantum information applications, or quantum simulation in coupled cavity arrays.

  15. 3D scanning and 3D printing as innovative technologies for fabricating personalized topical drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Det-Amornrat, Usanee; Wang, Jie; Basit, Abdul W; Gaisford, Simon

    2016-07-28

    Acne is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease with high prevalence. In this work, the potential of 3D printing to produce flexible personalised-shape anti-acne drug (salicylic acid) loaded devices was demonstrated by two different 3D printing (3DP) technologies: Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) and stereolithography (SLA). 3D scanning technology was used to obtain a 3D model of a nose adapted to the morphology of an individual. In FDM 3DP, commercially produced Flex EcoPLA™ (FPLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) filaments were loaded with salicylic acid by hot melt extrusion (HME) (theoretical drug loading - 2% w/w) and used as feedstock material for 3D printing. Drug loading in the FPLA-salicylic acid and PCL-salicylic acid 3D printed patches was 0.4% w/w and 1.2% w/w respectively, indicating significant thermal degradation of drug during HME and 3D printing. Diffusion testing in Franz cells using a synthetic membrane revealed that the drug loaded printed samples released <187μg/cm(2) within 3h. FPLA-salicylic acid filament was successfully printed as a nose-shape mask by FDM 3DP, but the PCL-salicylic acid filament was not. In the SLA printing process, the drug was dissolved in different mixtures of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) that were solidified by the action of a laser beam. SLA printing led to 3D printed devices (nose-shape) with higher resolution and higher drug loading (1.9% w/w) than FDM, with no drug degradation. The results of drug diffusion tests revealed that drug diffusion was faster than with the FDM devices, 229 and 291μg/cm(2) within 3h for the two formulations evaluated. In this study, SLA printing was the more appropriate 3D printing technology to manufacture anti-acne devices with salicylic acid. The combination of 3D scanning and 3D printing has the potential to offer solutions to produce personalised drug loaded devices, adapted in shape and size to individual patients.

  16. 3D effects on energetic particle confinement and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spong, Don

    2010-11-01

    Understanding the confinement and stability of energetic particle (EP) populations in 3D magnetic configurations is crucial to the future of all toroidal devices. Tokamaks will have weak symmetry-breaking effects from discrete coils, heterogeneous distributions of ferritic materials and non-symmetric (ELM/RWM) control coils, while stellarators and helical RFP states have dominant 3D features by design. Significant EP issues for 3D systems include: modifications of the plasma equilibrium and potential amplification of field errors, asymmetry enhanced EP losses and their impact both on wall heat loads and the confined EP distribution, 3D modifications to the Alfvén gap and mode structure, and the stability properties of EP-destabilized Alfvén modes. 3D equilibria that resolve localized TBM (test blanket module) asymmetries have now been developed for DIII-D and ITER. Such symmetry breaking leads to enhanced EP losses and focused wall deposition. 3D effects also modify the Alfvén spectrum by increasing the number of possibilities for mode coupling and introducing new gap structures, including the helical and mirror gaps, fine scale ripple-induced gaps and continuum crossing gaps. Improved methods have recently been developed for evaluating these modes and their stability, taking into account the large number of coupled modes and finite orbit width effects. Successful Alfvén mode identifications have been made for a range of stellarators, including W7-AS, LHD, HSX and TJ-II. A comprehensive understanding of energetic particle physics with 3D effects is a necessary prerequisite for wall protection, plasma control and flexibility and for new diagnostic development possibilities in future ignited systems.

  17. Adaptive kernel regression for freehand 3D ultrasound reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshalalfah, Abdel-Latif; Daoud, Mohammad I.; Al-Najar, Mahasen

    2017-03-01

    Freehand three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging enables low-cost and flexible 3D scanning of arbitrary-shaped organs, where the operator can freely move a two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound probe to acquire a sequence of tracked cross-sectional images of the anatomy. Often, the acquired 2D ultrasound images are irregularly and sparsely distributed in the 3D space. Several 3D reconstruction algorithms have been proposed to synthesize 3D ultrasound volumes based on the acquired 2D images. A challenging task during the reconstruction process is to preserve the texture patterns in the synthesized volume and ensure that all gaps in the volume are correctly filled. This paper presents an adaptive kernel regression algorithm that can effectively reconstruct high-quality freehand 3D ultrasound volumes. The algorithm employs a kernel regression model that enables nonparametric interpolation of the voxel gray-level values. The kernel size of the regression model is adaptively adjusted based on the characteristics of the voxel that is being interpolated. In particular, when the algorithm is employed to interpolate a voxel located in a region with dense ultrasound data samples, the size of the kernel is reduced to preserve the texture patterns. On the other hand, the size of the kernel is increased in areas that include large gaps to enable effective gap filling. The performance of the proposed algorithm was compared with seven previous interpolation approaches by synthesizing freehand 3D ultrasound volumes of a benign breast tumor. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the other interpolation approaches.

  18. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  19. Mini 3D for shallow gas reconnaissance

    SciTech Connect

    Vallieres, T. des; Enns, D.; Kuehn, H.; Parron, D.; Lafet, Y.; Van Hulle, D.

    1996-12-31

    The Mini 3D project was undertaken by TOTAL and ELF with the support of CEPM (Comite d`Etudes Petrolieres et Marines) to define an economical method of obtaining 3D seismic HR data for shallow gas assessment. An experimental 3D survey was carried out with classical site survey techniques in the North Sea. From these data 19 simulations, were produced to compare different acquisition geometries ranging from dual, 600 m long cables to a single receiver. Results show that short offset, low fold and very simple streamer positioning are sufficient to give a reliable 3D image of gas charged bodies. The 3D data allow a much more accurate risk delineation than 2D HR data. Moreover on financial grounds Mini-3D is comparable in cost to a classical HR 2D survey. In view of these results, such HR 3D should now be the standard for shallow gas surveying.

  20. Complex crustal structures: their 3D grav/mag modelling and 3D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götze, Hans-Jürgen; Schmidt, Sabine; Menzel, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Our new techniques for modelling and visualization are user-friendly because they are highly interactive, ideally real-time and topology conserving and can be used for both flat and spherical models in 3D. These are important requirements for joint inversion for gravity and magnetic modelling of fields and their derivatives, constrained by seismic and structural input from independent data sources. A borehole tool for magnetic and gravity modelling will also be introduced. We are already close to satisfying the demand of treating several geophysical methods in a single model for subsurface evaluation purposes and aim now for fulfilling most of the constraints: consistency of modelling results and measurements and geological plausibility as well. For 3D modelling, polyhedrons built by triangles are used. All elements of the gravity and magnetic tensors can be included. In the modelling interface, after geometry changes the effect on the model is quickly updated because only the changed triangles have to be recalculated. Because of the triangular model structure, our approach can handle complex structures very well and flexible (e.g. overhangs of salt domes or plumes). For regional models, the use of spherical geometries and calculations is necessary and available. 3D visualization is performed with a 3D-printer (Ultimaker 2) and gives new insights into even rather complicated Earth subsurface structures. Inversion can either be run over the whole model, but typically it is used in smaller parts of the model, helping to solve local problems and/or proving/disproving local hypotheses. The basic principles behind this interactive approach are high performance optimized algorithms (CMA-ES: Covariance-matrix-adoption-evolution-strategy). The efficiency of the algorithm is rather good in terms of stable convergence due to topological model validity. Potential field modelling is always influenced by edge effects. To avoid this, a simple but very robust method has been