Santee, G.E. Jr.; Chang, F.H.; Mortensen, G.A.; Brockett, G.F.; Gross, M.B.; Belytschko, T.B.
1982-11-01
This report, the third in a series of reports for RP-1065, describes the final step in the stepwise approach for developing the three-dimensional, nonlinear, fluid-structure interaction methodology to assess the hydroloads on a large PWR during the subcooled portions of a hypothetical LOCA. The final step in the methodology implements enhancements and special modifications to the STEALTH 3D computer program and the WHAMSE 3D computer program. After describing the enhancements, the individual and the coupled computer programs are assessed by comparing calculational results with either analytical solutions or with experimental data. The coupled 3D STEALTH/WHAMSE computer program is then applied to the simulation of HDR Test V31.1 to further assess the program and to investigate the role that fluid-structure interaction plays in the hydrodynamic loading of reactor internals during subcooled blowdown.
Borazjani, Iman; Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2008-08-10
The sharp-interface CURVIB approach of Ge and Sotiropoulos [L. Ge, F. Sotiropoulos, A Numerical Method for Solving the 3D Unsteady Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations in Curvilinear Domains with Complex Immersed Boundaries, Journal of Computational Physics 225 (2007) 1782-1809] is extended to simulate fluid structure interaction (FSI) problems involving complex 3D rigid bodies undergoing large structural displacements. The FSI solver adopts the partitioned FSI solution approach and both loose and strong coupling strategies are implemented. The interfaces between immersed bodies and the fluid are discretized with a Lagrangian grid and tracked with an explicit front-tracking approach. An efficient ray-tracing algorithm is developed to quickly identify the relationship between the background grid and the moving bodies. Numerical experiments are carried out for two FSI problems: vortex induced vibration of elastically mounted cylinders and flow through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve at physiologic conditions. For both cases the computed results are in excellent agreement with benchmark simulations and experimental measurements. The numerical experiments suggest that both the properties of the structure (mass, geometry) and the local flow conditions can play an important role in determining the stability of the FSI algorithm. Under certain conditions unconditionally unstable iteration schemes result even when strong coupling FSI is employed. For such cases, however, combining the strong-coupling iteration with under-relaxation in conjunction with the Aitken's acceleration technique is shown to effectively resolve the stability problems. A theoretical analysis is presented to explain the findings of the numerical experiments. It is shown that the ratio of the added mass to the mass of the structure as well as the sign of the local time rate of change of the force or moment imparted on the structure by the fluid determine the stability and convergence of the FSI
Borazjani, Iman; Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2010-01-01
The sharp-interface CURVIB approach of Ge and Sotiropoulos [L. Ge, F. Sotiropoulos, A Numerical Method for Solving the 3D Unsteady Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations in Curvilinear Domains with Complex Immersed Boundaries, Journal of Computational Physics 225 (2007) 1782–1809] is extended to simulate fluid structure interaction (FSI) problems involving complex 3D rigid bodies undergoing large structural displacements. The FSI solver adopts the partitioned FSI solution approach and both loose and strong coupling strategies are implemented. The interfaces between immersed bodies and the fluid are discretized with a Lagrangian grid and tracked with an explicit front-tracking approach. An efficient ray-tracing algorithm is developed to quickly identify the relationship between the background grid and the moving bodies. Numerical experiments are carried out for two FSI problems: vortex induced vibration of elastically mounted cylinders and flow through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve at physiologic conditions. For both cases the computed results are in excellent agreement with benchmark simulations and experimental measurements. The numerical experiments suggest that both the properties of the structure (mass, geometry) and the local flow conditions can play an important role in determining the stability of the FSI algorithm. Under certain conditions unconditionally unstable iteration schemes result even when strong coupling FSI is employed. For such cases, however, combining the strong-coupling iteration with under-relaxation in conjunction with the Aitken’s acceleration technique is shown to effectively resolve the stability problems. A theoretical analysis is presented to explain the findings of the numerical experiments. It is shown that the ratio of the added mass to the mass of the structure as well as the sign of the local time rate of change of the force or moment imparted on the structure by the fluid determine the stability and convergence of the
Computational 3D fluid-structure interaction for the aortic valve
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Haoxiang; Chen, Ye; Sun, Wei
2015-11-01
Three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction (FSI) involving large deformations of flexible bodies is common in biological systems. A typical example is the heart valves. Accurate and efficient numerical approaches for modeling such systems are still lacking. In this work, we report a successful case of combining an immersed-boundary flow solver with a nonlinear finite-element solid-dynamics solver, both in-house programs, specifically for three-dimensional simulations. Based on the Cartesian grid, the viscous incompressible flow solver can handle boundaries of large displacements with simple mesh generation. The solid-dynamics solver has separate subroutines for analyzing general three-dimensional bodies and thin-walled structures composed of frames, membranes, and plates. Both geometric nonlinearity associated with large displacements and material nonlinearity associated with large strains are incorporated in the solver. The FSI is achieved through a strong coupling and partitioned approach. We have performed several benchmarking cases to validate the FSI solver. Application to the native aortic valve will be demonstrated. Supported by the NSF grant (CBET-1066962).
Tian, Fang-Bao; Dai, Hu; Luo, Haoxiang; Doyle, James F; Rousseau, Bernard
2014-02-01
Three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction (FSI) involving large deformations of flexible bodies is common in biological systems, but accurate and efficient numerical approaches for modeling such systems are still scarce. In this work, we report a successful case of combining an existing immersed-boundary flow solver with a nonlinear finite-element solid-mechanics solver specifically for three-dimensional FSI simulations. This method represents a significant enhancement from the similar methods that are previously available. Based on the Cartesian grid, the viscous incompressible flow solver can handle boundaries of large displacements with simple mesh generation. The solid-mechanics solver has separate subroutines for analyzing general three-dimensional bodies and thin-walled structures composed of frames, membranes, and plates. Both geometric nonlinearity associated with large displacements and material nonlinearity associated with large strains are incorporated in the solver. The FSI is achieved through a strong coupling and partitioned approach. We perform several validation cases, and the results may be used to expand the currently limited database of FSI benchmark study. Finally, we demonstrate the versatility of the present method by applying it to the aerodynamics of elastic wings of insects and the flow-induced vocal fold vibration. PMID:24415796
Quaini, A.; Canic, S.; Glowinski, R.; Igo, S.; Hartley, C.J.; Zoghbi, W.; Little, S.
2011-01-01
This work presents a validation of a fluid-structure interaction computational model simulating the flow conditions in an in vitro mock heart chamber modeling mitral valve regurgitation during the ejection phase during which the trans-valvular pressure drop and valve displacement are not as large. The mock heart chamber was developed to study the use of 2D and 3D color Doppler techniques in imaging the clinically relevant complex intra-cardiac flow events associated with mitral regurgitation. Computational models are expected to play an important role in supporting, refining, and reinforcing the emerging 3D echocardiographic applications. We have developed a 3D computational fluid-structure interaction algorithm based on a semi-implicit, monolithic method, combined with an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach to capture the fluid domain motion. The mock regurgitant mitral valve corresponding to an elastic plate with a geometric orifice, was modeled using 3D elasticity, while the blood flow was modeled using the 3D Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible, viscous fluid. The two are coupled via the kinematic and dynamic conditions describing the two-way coupling. The pressure, the flow rate, and orifice plate displacement were measured and compared with numerical simulation results. In-line flow meter was used to measure the flow, pressure transducers were used to measure the pressure, and a Doppler method developed by one of the authors was used to measure the axial displacement of the orifice plate. The maximum recorded difference between experiment and numerical simulation for the flow rate was 4%, the pressure 3.6%, and for the orifice displacement 15%, showing excellent agreement between the two. PMID:22138194
Quaini, A; Canic, S; Glowinski, R; Igo, S; Hartley, C J; Zoghbi, W; Little, S
2012-01-10
This work presents a validation of a fluid-structure interaction computational model simulating the flow conditions in an in vitro mock heart chamber modeling mitral valve regurgitation during the ejection phase during which the trans-valvular pressure drop and valve displacement are not as large. The mock heart chamber was developed to study the use of 2D and 3D color Doppler techniques in imaging the clinically relevant complex intra-cardiac flow events associated with mitral regurgitation. Computational models are expected to play an important role in supporting, refining, and reinforcing the emerging 3D echocardiographic applications. We have developed a 3D computational fluid-structure interaction algorithm based on a semi-implicit, monolithic method, combined with an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach to capture the fluid domain motion. The mock regurgitant mitral valve corresponding to an elastic plate with a geometric orifice, was modeled using 3D elasticity, while the blood flow was modeled using the 3D Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible, viscous fluid. The two are coupled via the kinematic and dynamic conditions describing the two-way coupling. The pressure, the flow rate, and orifice plate displacement were measured and compared with numerical simulation results. In-line flow meter was used to measure the flow, pressure transducers were used to measure the pressure, and a Doppler method developed by one of the authors was used to measure the axial displacement of the orifice plate. The maximum recorded difference between experiment and numerical simulation for the flow rate was 4%, the pressure 3.6%, and for the orifice displacement 15%, showing excellent agreement between the two. PMID:22138194
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhi-Qian; Liu, G. R.; Khoo, Boo Cheong
2013-02-01
A three-dimensional immersed smoothed finite element method (3D IS-FEM) using four-node tetrahedral element is proposed to solve 3D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems. The 3D IS-FEM is able to determine accurately the physical deformation of the nonlinear solids placed within the incompressible viscous fluid governed by Navier-Stokes equations. The method employs the semi-implicit characteristic-based split scheme to solve the fluid flows and smoothed finite element methods to calculate the transient dynamics responses of the nonlinear solids based on explicit time integration. To impose the FSI conditions, a novel, effective and sufficiently general technique via simple linear interpolation is presented based on Lagrangian fictitious fluid meshes coinciding with the moving and deforming solid meshes. In the comparisons to the referenced works including experiments, it is clear that the proposed 3D IS-FEM ensures stability of the scheme with the second order spatial convergence property; and the IS-FEM is fairly independent of a wide range of mesh size ratio.
Toma, Milan; Jensen, Morten Ø; Einstein, Daniel R; Yoganathan, Ajit P; Cochran, Richard P; Kunzelman, Karyn S
2016-04-01
Numerical models of native heart valves are being used to study valve biomechanics to aid design and development of repair procedures and replacement devices. These models have evolved from simple two-dimensional approximations to complex three-dimensional, fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) systems. Such simulations are useful for predicting the mechanical and hemodynamic loading on implanted valve devices. A current challenge for improving the accuracy of these predictions is choosing and implementing modeling boundary conditions. In order to address this challenge, we are utilizing an advanced in vitro system to validate FSI conditions for the mitral valve system. Explanted ovine mitral valves were mounted in an in vitro setup, and structural data for the mitral valve was acquired with [Formula: see text]CT. Experimental data from the in vitro ovine mitral valve system were used to validate the computational model. As the valve closes, the hemodynamic data, high speed leaflet dynamics, and force vectors from the in vitro system were compared to the results of the FSI simulation computational model. The total force of 2.6 N per papillary muscle is matched by the computational model. In vitro and in vivo force measurements enable validating and adjusting material parameters to improve the accuracy of computational models. The simulations can then be used to answer questions that are otherwise not possible to investigate experimentally. This work is important to maximize the validity of computational models of not just the mitral valve, but any biomechanical aspect using computational simulation in designing medical devices. PMID:26183963
Not Available
1984-10-01
STEALTH is a family of computer codes that can be used to calculate a variety of physical processes in which the dynamic behavior of a continuum is involved. The version of STEALTH described in this volume is designed for calculations of fluid-structure interaction. This version of the program consists of a hydrodynamic version of STEALTH which has been coupled to a finite-element code, WHAMSE. STEALTH computes the transient response of the fluid continuum, while WHAMSE computes the transient response of shell and beam structures under external fluid loadings. The coupling between STEALTH and WHAMSE is performed during each cycle or step of a calculation. Separate calculations of fluid response and structure response are avoided, thereby giving a more accurate model of the dynamic coupling between fluid and structure. This volume provides the theoretical background, the finite-difference equations, the finite-element equations, a discussion of several sample problems, a listing of the input decks for the sample problems, a programmer's manual and a description of the input records for the STEALTH/WHAMSE computer program.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qiang; Yu, Guichang; Liu, Shulian; Zheng, Shuiying
2012-09-01
Journal bearings are important parts to keep the high dynamic performance of rotor machinery. Some methods have already been proposed to analysis the flow field of journal bearings, and in most of these methods simplified physical model and classic Reynolds equation are always applied. While the application of the general computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-fluid structure interaction (FSI) techniques is more beneficial for analysis of the fluid field in a journal bearing when more detailed solutions are needed. This paper deals with the quasi-coupling calculation of transient fluid dynamics of oil film in journal bearings and rotor dynamics with CFD-FSI techniques. The fluid dynamics of oil film is calculated by applying the so-called "dynamic mesh" technique. A new mesh movement approach is presented while the dynamic mesh models provided by FLUENT are not suitable for the transient oil flow in journal bearings. The proposed mesh movement approach is based on the structured mesh. When the journal moves, the movement distance of every grid in the flow field of bearing can be calculated, and then the update of the volume mesh can be handled automatically by user defined function (UDF). The journal displacement at each time step is obtained by solving the moving equations of the rotor-bearing system under the known oil film force condition. A case study is carried out to calculate the locus of the journal center and pressure distribution of the journal in order to prove the feasibility of this method. The calculating results indicate that the proposed method can predict the transient flow field of a journal bearing in a rotor-bearing system where more realistic models are involved. The presented calculation method provides a basis for studying the nonlinear dynamic behavior of a general rotor-bearing system.
Yang, Chun; Tang, Dalin; Atluri, Satya
2011-01-01
Previously, we introduced a computational procedure based on three-dimensional meshless generalized finite difference (MGFD) method and serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data to quantify patient-specific carotid atherosclerotic plaque growth functions and simulate plaque progression. Structure-only models were used in our previous report. In this paper, fluid-stricture interaction (FSI) was added to improve on prediction accuracy. One participating patient was scanned three times (T1, T2, and T3, at intervals of about 18 months) to obtain plaque progression data. Blood flow was assumed to laminar, Newtonian, viscous and incompressible. The Navier-Stokes equations with arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation were used as the governing equations. Plaque material was assumed to be uniform, homogeneous, isotropic, linear, and nearly incompressible. The linear elastic model was used. The 3D FSI plaque model was discretized and solved using a meshless generalized finite difference (GFD) method. Growth functions with a) morphology alone; b) morphology and plaque wall stress (PWS); morphology and flow shear stress (FSS), and d) morphology, PWS and FSS were introduced to predict future plaque growth based on previous time point data. Starting from the T2 plaque geometry, plaque progression was simulated by solving the FSI model and adjusting plaque geometry using plaque growth functions iteratively until T3 is reached. Numerically simulated plaque progression agreed very well with the target T3 plaque geometry with errors ranging from 8.62%, 7.22%, 5.77% and 4.39%, with the growth function including morphology, plaque wall stress and flow shear stress terms giving the best predictions. Adding flow shear stress term to the growth function improved the prediction error from 7.22% to 4.39%, a 40% improvement. We believe this is the first time 3D plaque progression FSI simulation based on multi-year patient-tracking data was reported. Serial MRI-based progression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunter, Kendall; Zhang, Yanhang; Lanning, Craig
2005-11-01
Insight into the progression of pulmonary hypertension may be obtained from thorough study of vascular flow during reactivity testing, an invasive diagnostic procedure which can dramatically alter vascular hemodynamics. Diagnostic imaging methods, however, are limited in their ability to provide extensive data. Here we present detailed flow and wall deformation results from simulations of pulmonary arteries undergoing this procedure. Patient-specific 3-D geometric reconstructions of the first four branches of the pulmonary vasculature were obtained clinically and meshed for use with computational software. Transient simulations in normal and reactive states were obtained from four such models were completed with patient-specific velocity inlet conditions and flow impedance exit conditions. A microstructurally based orthotropic hyperelastic model that simulates pulmonary artery mechanics under normotensive and hypoxic hypertensive conditions treated wall constitutive changes due to pressure reactivity and arterial remodeling. Pressure gradients, velocity fields, arterial deformation, and complete topography of shear stress were obtained. These models provide richer detail of hemodynamics than can be obtained from current imaging techniques, and should allow maximum characterization of vascular function in the clinical situation.
Acoustics of Fluid-Structure Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Howe, M. S.
1998-08-01
Acoustics of Fluid-Structure Interactions addresses an increasingly important branch of fluid mechanics--the absorption of noise and vibration by fluid flow. This subject, which offers numerous challenges to conventional areas of acoustics, is of growing concern in places where the environment is adversely affected by sound. Howe presents useful background material on fluid mechanics and the elementary concepts of classical acoustics and structural vibrations. Using examples, many of which include complete worked solutions, he vividly illustrates the theoretical concepts involved. He provides the basis for all calculations necessary for the determination of sound generation by aircraft, ships, general ventilation and combustion systems, as well as musical instruments. Both a graduate textbook and a reference for researchers, Acoustics of Fluid-Structure Interactions is an important synthesis of information in this field. It will also aid engineers in the theory and practice of noise control.
Shock-driven fluid-structure interaction for civil design
Wood, Stephen L; Deiterding, Ralf
2011-11-01
The multiphysics fluid-structure interaction simulation of shock-loaded structures requires the dynamic coupling of a shock-capturing flow solver to a solid mechanics solver for large deformations. The Virtual Test Facility combines a Cartesian embedded boundary approach with dynamic mesh adaptation in a generic software framework of flow solvers using hydrodynamic finite volume upwind schemes that are coupled to various explicit finite element solid dynamics solvers (Deiterding et al., 2006). This paper gives a brief overview of the computational approach and presents first simulations that utilize the general purpose solid dynamics code DYNA3D for complex 3D structures of interest in civil engineering. Results from simulations of a reinforced column, highway bridge, multistory building, and nuclear reactor building are presented.
Fluid/structure interactions. Internal flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weaver, D. S.
1991-05-01
Flow-induced vibrations are found wherever structures are exposed to high velocity fluid flows. Internal flows are usually characterized by the close proximity of solid boundaries. There are surfaces against which separated flows may reattach, or from which pressure disturbances may be reflected resulting in acoustic resonance. When the fluid is a liquid, the close proximity of solid boundaries to a vibrating component can produce very high added mass effects. This paper presents three different experimental studies of flow-induced vibration problems associated with internal flows. The emphasis was on experimental techniques developed for understanding excitation mechanisms. In difficult flow-induced vibration problems, a useful experimental technique is flow visualization using a large scale model and strobe light triggered by the phenomenon being observed. This should be supported by point measurements of velocity and frequency spectra. When the flow excitation is associated with acoustic resonance, the sound can be fed back to enhance or eliminate the instability. This is potentially a very useful tool for studying and controlling fluid-structure interaction problems. Some flow-induced vibration problems involve a number of different excitation mechanisms and care must be taken to ensure that the mechanisms are properly identified. Artificially imposing structural vibrations or acoustic fields may induce flow structures not naturally present in the system.
Fluid-Structure Interactions with Flexible and Rigid Bodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daily, David Jesse
Fluid structure interactions occur to some extent in nearly every type of fluid flow. Understanding how structures interact with fluids and visa-versa is of vital importance in many engineering applications. The purpose of this research is to explore how fluids interact with flexible and rigid structures. A computational model was used to model the fluid structure interactions of vibrating synthetic vocal folds. The model simulated the coupling of the fluid and solid domains using a fluid-structure interface boundary condition. The fluid domain used a slightly compressible flow solver to allow for the possibility of acoustic coupling with the subglottal geometry and vibration of the vocal fold model. As the subglottis lengthened, the frequency of vibration decreased until a new acoustic mode could form in the subglottis. Synthetic aperture particle image velocimetry (SAPIV) is a three-dimensional particle tracking technique. SAPIV was used to image the jet of air that emerges from vibrating human vocal folds (glottal jet) during phonation. The three-dimensional reconstruction of the glottal jet found faint evidence of flow characteristics seen in previous research, such as axis-switching, but did not have sufficient resolution to detect small features. SAPIV was further applied to reconstruct the smaller flow characteristics of the glottal jet of vibrating synthetic vocal folds. Two- and four-layer synthetic vocal fold models were used to determine how the glottal jet from the synthetic models compared to the glottal jet from excised human vocal folds. The two- and four-layer models clearly exhibited axis-switching which has been seen in other 3D analyses of the glottal jet. Cavitation in a quiescent fluid can break a rigid structure such as a glass bottle. A new cavitation number was derived to include acceleration and pressure head at cavitation onset. A cavitation stick was used to validate the cavitation number by filling it with different depths and hitting
Solving Fluid Structure Interaction Problems with an Immersed Boundary Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barad, Michael F.; Brehm, Christoph; Kiris, Cetin C.
2016-01-01
An immersed boundary method for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations can be used for moving boundary problems as well as fully coupled fluid-structure interaction is presented. The underlying Cartesian immersed boundary method of the Launch Ascent and Vehicle Aerodynamics (LAVA) framework, based on the locally stabilized immersed boundary method previously presented by the authors, is extended to account for unsteady boundary motion and coupled to linear and geometrically nonlinear structural finite element solvers. The approach is validated for moving boundary problems with prescribed body motion and fully coupled fluid structure interaction problems. Keywords: Immersed Boundary Method, Higher-Order Finite Difference Method, Fluid Structure Interaction.
Supersonic Parachute Aerodynamic Testing and Fluid Structure Interaction Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lingard, J. S.; Underwood, J. C.; Darley, M. G.; Marraffa, L.; Ferracina, L.
2014-06-01
The ESA Supersonic Parachute program expands the knowledge of parachute inflation and flying characteristics in supersonic flows using wind tunnel testing and fluid structure interaction to develop new inflation algorithms and aerodynamic databases.
Interactive 3D Mars Visualization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Powell, Mark W.
2012-01-01
The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.
Fluid-structure Interaction Simulations of Deformable Soft Tissue
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borazjani, Iman
2011-11-01
Soft tissue interacts with the surrounding fluid environment in many biological and biomedical applications. Simulating such an interaction is quite challenging due to the large non-linear deformations of tissue, flow pulsatility, transition to turbulence, and non-linear fluid-structure interaction. We have extended our previous three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction (FSI) framework for rigid bodies (Borazjani, Ge, and Sotiropoulos, Journal of Computational Physics, 2008) to deformable soft tissue by coupling our incompressible Navier-Stokes solver for fluids with a non-linear large deformation finite element method for soft tissue. We use Fung-type constitutive law for the soft tissue that can capture the stress-strain behavior of the tissue. The FSI solver adopts a strongly-coupled partitioned approach that is stabilized with under-relaxation and Aitken acceleration technique. We validate our solvers against the experimental data for tissue valves and elastic tubes. We show the capabilities of our solver by simulating the fluid-structure interaction of tissue valves implanted in the aortic positions and elastic collapsible tubes. This work was partly supported by the Center for Computational Research at the University at Buffalo.
Adaptivity and smart algorithms for fluid-structure interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oden, J. Tinsley
1990-01-01
This paper reviews new approaches in CFD which have the potential for significantly increasing current capabilities of modeling complex flow phenomena and of treating difficult problems in fluid-structure interaction. These approaches are based on the notions of adaptive methods and smart algorithms, which use instantaneous measures of the quality and other features of the numerical flowfields as a basis for making changes in the structure of the computational grid and of algorithms designed to function on the grid. The application of these new techniques to several problem classes are addressed, including problems with moving boundaries, fluid-structure interaction in high-speed turbine flows, flow in domains with receding boundaries, and related problems.
Code System for Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis.
2001-05-30
Version 00 PELE-IC is a two-dimensional semi-implicit Eulerian hydrodynamics program for the solution of incompressible flow coupled to flexible structures. The code was developed to calculate fluid-structure interactions and bubble dynamics of a pressure-suppression system following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The fluid, structure, and coupling algorithms have been verified by calculation of benchmark problems and air and steam blowdown experiments. The code is written for both plane and cylindrical coordinates. The coupling algorithm is generalmore » enough to handle a wide variety of structural shapes. The concepts of void fractions and interface orientation are used to track the movement of free surfaces, allowing great versatility in following fluid-gas interfaces both for bubble definition and water surface motion without the use of marker particles.« less
Influence of Young's moduli in 3D fluid-structure coupled models of the human cochlea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Böhnke, Frank; Semmelbauer, Sebastian; Marquardt, Torsten
2015-12-01
The acoustic wave propagation in the human cochlea was studied using a tapered box-model with linear assumptions respective to all mechanical parameters. The discretisation and evaluation is conducted by a commercial finite element package (ANSYS). The main difference to former models of the cochlea was the representation of the basilar membrane by a 3D elastic solid. The Young's moduli of this solid were modified to study their influence on the travelling wave. The lymph in the scala vestibuli and scala tympani was represented by a viscous and nearly incompressible fluid finite element approach. Our results show the maximum displacement for f = 2kHz at half of the length of the cochlea in accordance with former experiments. For low frequencies f <200 Hz nearly zero phase shifts were found, whereas for f =1 kHz it reaches values up to -12 cycles depending on the degree of orthotropy.
Simulating Pediatric Ventricular Assist Device Operation Using Fluid Structure Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Long, Chris; Bazilevs, Yuri; Marsden, Alison
2012-11-01
Ventricular Assist Devices (VADs) provide mechanical circulatory support to patients in heart failure. They are primarily used to extend life until cardiac transplant, but also show promise as a ``bridge-to-recovery'' device in pediatric patients. Commercially available pediatric pumps are pulsatile displacement pumps, with two distinct chambers for air and blood separated by a thin, flexible membrane. The air chamber pneumatically drives the membrane, which drives blood through the other chamber via displacement. The primary risk factor associated with these devices is stroke or embolism due to thrombogenesis in the blood chamber, occurring in as many as 40% of patients. Our goal is to perform simulations that accurately model the hemodynamics of the device, as well as the non-linear membrane buckling. We apply a finite-element based fluid solver, with an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) framework to account for mesh motion. Isogeometric Analysis with a Kirchhoff-Love shell formulation is used on the membrane, and two distinct fluid subdomains are used for the air and blood chambers. The Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) problem is solved simultaneously, using a Matrix Free method to model the interactions at the fluid-structure boundary. Methods and results are presented.
A self-excited flapper from fluid-structure interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Curet, Oscar M.; Breuer, Kenneth S.
2010-11-01
The flexible nature of lifting and propulsive surfaces is a common characteristic of aquatic and aerial locomotion in animals. These surfaces may not only move actively, but also passively or with a combination of both. What is the nature of this passive movement? What is the role of this passive motion on force generation, efficiency and muscle control? Here, we present results using a simple wing model with two degrees of freedom designed to study passive flapping, and fluid-structure interaction. The wing is composed of a flat plate with a hinged trailing flap. The wing is cantilevered to the main body to enable a flapping motion with a well-defined natural frequency. We test the wing model in a wind tunnel. At low speed the wing is stationary. Above a critical velocity the trailing wing section starts to oscillate, generating an oscillating lift force on the wing. This oscillating lift force results on a self-excited flapping motion of the wing. We measure the kinematics and the forces generated by the wing as a function of flow velocity and stiffness of the cantilever. Comparisons with aeroelasticity theory will be presented as well as details of the fluid-structure interactions.
Fluid Structure Interaction Simulations of Pediatric Ventricular Assist Device Operation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Long, Chris; Marsden, Alison; Bazilevs, Yuri
2011-11-01
Pediatric ventricular assist devices (PVADs) are used for mechanical circulatory support in children with failing hearts. They can be used to allow the heart to heal naturally or to extend the life of the patient until transplant. A PVAD has two chambers, blood and air, separated by a flexible membrane. The air chamber is pressurized, which drives the membrane and pumps the blood. The primary risk associated with these devices is stroke or embolism from thrombogenesis. Simulation of these devices is difficult due to a complex coupling of two fluid domains and a thin membrane, requiring fluid-structure interaction modeling. The goal of this work is to accurately simulate the hemodynamics of a PVAD. We perform FSI simulations using an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) finite element framework to account for large motions of the membrane and the fluid domains. The air, blood, and membrane are meshed as distinct subdomains, and a method for non-matched discretizations at the fluid-structure interface is presented. The use of isogeometric analysis to model the membrane mechanics is also discussed, and the results of simulations are presented.
Finite element solution of transient fluid-structure interaction problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Everstine, Gordon C.; Cheng, Raymond S.; Hambric, Stephen A.
1991-01-01
A finite element approach using NASTRAN is developed for solving time-dependent fluid-structure interaction problems, with emphasis on the transient scattering of acoustic waves from submerged elastic structures. Finite elements are used for modeling both structure and fluid domains to facilitate the graphical display of the wave motion through both media. For the liquid, the use of velocity potential as the fundamental unknown results in a symmetric matrix equation. The approach is illustrated for the problem of transient scattering from a submerged elastic spherical shell subjected to an incident tone burst. The use of an analogy between the equations of elasticity and the wave equation of acoustics, a necessary ingredient to the procedure, is summarized.
Development of a Fluid Structures Interaction Test Technique for Fabrics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zilliac, Gregory G.; Heineck, James T.; Schairer, Edward T.; Mosher, Robert N.; Garbeff, Theodore Joseph
2012-01-01
Application of fluid structures interaction (FSI) computational techniques to configurations of interest to the entry, descent and landing (EDL) community is limited by two factors - limited characterization of the material properties for fabrics of interest and insufficient experimental data to validate the FSI codes. Recently ILC Dover Inc. performed standard tests to characterize the static stress-strain response of four candidate fabrics for use in EDL applications. The objective of the tests described here is to address the need for a FSI dataset for CFD validation purposes. To reach this objective, the structural response of fabrics was measured in a very simple aerodynamic environment with well controlled boundary conditions. Two test series were undertaken. The first series covered a range of tunnel conditions and the second focused on conditions that resulted in fabric panel buckling.
Discrete Data Transfer Technique for Fluid-Structure Interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Samareh, Jamshid A.
2007-01-01
This paper presents a general three-dimensional algorithm for data transfer between dissimilar meshes. The algorithm is suitable for applications of fluid-structure interaction and other high-fidelity multidisciplinary analysis and optimization. Because the algorithm is independent of the mesh topology, we can treat structured and unstructured meshes in the same manner. The algorithm is fast and accurate for transfer of scalar or vector fields between dissimilar surface meshes. The algorithm is also applicable for the integration of a scalar field (e.g., coefficients of pressure) on one mesh and injection of the resulting vectors (e.g., force vectors) onto another mesh. The author has implemented the algorithm in a C++ computer code. This paper contains a complete formulation of the algorithm with a few selected results.
Fluid-structure interaction of reticulated porous wings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strong, Elizabeth; Jawed, Mohammad; Reis, Pedro
Insects of the orders Neuroptera and Hymenoptera locomote via flapping flight with reticulated wings that have porous structures that confers them with remarkable lightweight characteristics. Yet these porous wings still perform as contiguous plates to provide the necessary aerodynamic lift and drag required for flight. Even though the fluid flow past the bulk of these insects may be in high Reynolds conditions, viscosity can dominate over inertia in the flow through the porous sub-features. Further considering the flexibility of these reticulated wings yields a highly nonlinear fluid-structure interaction problem. We perform a series of dynamically-scaled precision model experiments to gain physical insight into this system. Our experiments are complemented with computer simulations that combine the Discrete Elastic Rods method and a model for the fluid loading that takes into account the `leakiness' through the porous structure. Our results are anticipated to find applications in micro-air vehicle aerodynamics.
Fluid Structure Interaction of Parachutes in Supersonic Planetary Entry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sengupta, Anita
2011-01-01
A research program to provide physical insight into disk-gap-band parachute operation in the supersonic regime on Mars was conducted. The program included supersonic wind tunnel tests, computational fluid dynamics and fluid structure interaction simulations. Specifically, the nature and cause of the "area oscillation" phenomenon were investigated to determine the scale, aerodynamic, and aero-elastic dependence of the supersonic parachute collapse and re-inflation event. A variety of non-intrusive, temporally resolved, and high resolution diagnostic techniques were used to interrogate the flow and generate validation datasets. The results of flow visualization, particle image velocimetry, load measurements, and photogrammetric reconstruction will be presented. Implications to parachute design, use, and verification will also be discussed.
Fluid structure interaction in electrohydraulic servovalve: a finite element approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hiremath, Somashekhar S.; Singaperumal, M.
2010-01-01
Electrohydraulic servovalves (EHSV) promise unique application opportunities and high performance, unmatched by other drive technologies. Typical applications include aerospace, robotic manipulators, motion simulators, injection molding, CNC machines and material testing machines. EHSV available are either a flapper/nozzle type or a jet pipe type. In the present paper an attempt has been made to study the dynamics of jet pipe EHSV with built-in mechanical feedback using Finite Element Method (FEM). In jet pipe EHSV, the dynamics of spool greatly depends on pressure recovery and hence the fluid flow at spool ends. The effect of pressure recovery on spool dynamics is studied using FEM by creating the fluid-structure-interaction. The mechanical parts were created using general purpose finite elements like shell, beam, and solid elements while fluid cavities were created using hydrostatic fluid elements. The analysis was carried out using the commercially available FE code ABAQUS. The jet pipe and spool dynamics are presented in the paper.
Fluid structure interaction in electrohydraulic servovalve: a finite element approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hiremath, Somashekhar S.; Singaperumal, M.
2009-12-01
Electrohydraulic servovalves (EHSV) promise unique application opportunities and high performance, unmatched by other drive technologies. Typical applications include aerospace, robotic manipulators, motion simulators, injection molding, CNC machines and material testing machines. EHSV available are either a flapper/nozzle type or a jet pipe type. In the present paper an attempt has been made to study the dynamics of jet pipe EHSV with built-in mechanical feedback using Finite Element Method (FEM). In jet pipe EHSV, the dynamics of spool greatly depends on pressure recovery and hence the fluid flow at spool ends. The effect of pressure recovery on spool dynamics is studied using FEM by creating the fluid-structure-interaction. The mechanical parts were created using general purpose finite elements like shell, beam, and solid elements while fluid cavities were created using hydrostatic fluid elements. The analysis was carried out using the commercially available FE code ABAQUS. The jet pipe and spool dynamics are presented in the paper.
Optimal Force Generation with Fluid-Structure Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Diing-wen
Typical computational and experimental methods are unsuitable for studying large scale optimization problems involving complex fluid structure interactions, primarily due to their time-consuming nature. A novel experimental approach is proposed here that provides a high-fidelity and efficient alternative to discover optimal parameters arising from the passive interaction between structural elasticity and fluid dynamic forces. This approach utilizes motors, force transducers, and active controllers to emulate the effects of elasticity, eliminating the physical need to replace structural components in the experiment. A clustering genetic algorithm is then used to tune the structural parameters to achieve desired optimality conditions, resulting in approximated global optimal regions within the search bound. A prototype fluid-structure interaction experiment inspired by the lift generation of flapping wing insects is presented to highlight the capabilities of this approach. The experiment aims to maximize the average lift on a sinusoidally translating plate, by optimizing the damping ratio and natural frequency of the plate's elastic pitching dynamics. Reynolds number, chord length, and stroke length are varied between optimizations to explore their relationships to the optimal structural parameters. The results reveal that only limited ranges of stroke lengths are conducive to lift generation; there also exists consistent trends between optimal stroke length, natural frequency, and damping ratio. The measured lift, pitching angle, and torque on the plate for optimal scenarios exhibit the same frequency as the translation frequency, and the phase angles of the optimal structural parameters at this frequency are found to be independent of the stroke length. This critical phase can be then characterized by a linear function of the chord length and Reynolds number. Particle image velocimetry measurements are acquired for the kinematics generated with optimal and
Computational modeling of fluid structural interaction in arterial stenosis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bali, Leila; Boukedjane, Mouloud; Bahi, Lakhdar
2013-12-01
Atherosclerosis affects the arterial blood vessels causing stenosis because of which the artery hardens resulting in loss of elasticity in the affected region. In this paper, we present: an approach to model the fluid-structure interaction through such an atherosclerosis affected region of the artery, The blood is assumed as an incompressible Newtonian viscous fluid, and the vessel wall was treated as a thick-walled, incompressible and isotropic material with uniform mechanical properties. The numerical simulation has been studied in the context of The Navier-Stokes equations for an interaction with an elastic solid. The study of fluid flow and wall motion was initially carried out separately, Discretized forms of the transformed wall and flow equations, which are coupled through the boundary conditions at their interface, are obtained by control volume method and simultaneously to study the effects of wall deformability, solutions are obtained for both rigid and elastic walls. The results indicate that deformability of the wall causes an increase in the time average of pressure drop, but a decrease in the maximum wall shear stress. Displacement and stress distributions in the wall are presented.
Reduced order modeling of fluid/structure interaction.
Barone, Matthew Franklin; Kalashnikova, Irina; Segalman, Daniel Joseph; Brake, Matthew Robert
2009-11-01
This report describes work performed from October 2007 through September 2009 under the Sandia Laboratory Directed Research and Development project titled 'Reduced Order Modeling of Fluid/Structure Interaction.' This project addresses fundamental aspects of techniques for construction of predictive Reduced Order Models (ROMs). A ROM is defined as a model, derived from a sequence of high-fidelity simulations, that preserves the essential physics and predictive capability of the original simulations but at a much lower computational cost. Techniques are developed for construction of provably stable linear Galerkin projection ROMs for compressible fluid flow, including a method for enforcing boundary conditions that preserves numerical stability. A convergence proof and error estimates are given for this class of ROM, and the method is demonstrated on a series of model problems. A reduced order method, based on the method of quadratic components, for solving the von Karman nonlinear plate equations is developed and tested. This method is applied to the problem of nonlinear limit cycle oscillations encountered when the plate interacts with an adjacent supersonic flow. A stability-preserving method for coupling the linear fluid ROM with the structural dynamics model for the elastic plate is constructed and tested. Methods for constructing efficient ROMs for nonlinear fluid equations are developed and tested on a one-dimensional convection-diffusion-reaction equation. These methods are combined with a symmetrization approach to construct a ROM technique for application to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations.
Fluid-structure interactions in compressible cavity flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagner, Justin L.; Casper, Katya M.; Beresh, Steven J.; Hunter, Patrick S.; Spillers, Russell W.; Henfling, John F.; Mayes, Randall L.
2015-06-01
Experiments were performed to understand the complex fluid-structure interactions that occur during aircraft internal store carriage. A cylindrical store was installed in a rectangular cavity having a length-to-depth ratio of 3.33 and a length-to-width ratio of 1. The Mach number ranged from 0.6 to 2.5 and the incoming boundary layer was turbulent. Fast-response pressure measurements provided aeroacoustic loading in the cavity, while triaxial accelerometers provided simultaneous store response. Despite occupying only 6% of the cavity volume, the store significantly altered the cavity acoustics. The store responded to the cavity flow at its natural structural frequencies, and it exhibited a directionally dependent response to cavity resonance. Specifically, cavity tones excited the store in the streamwise and wall-normal directions consistently, whereas a spanwise response was observed only occasionally. The streamwise and wall-normal responses were attributed to the longitudinal pressure waves and shear layer vortices known to occur during cavity resonance. Although the spanwise response to cavity tones was limited, broadband pressure fluctuations resulted in significant spanwise accelerations at store natural frequencies. The largest vibrations occurred when a cavity tone matched a structural natural frequency, although energy was transferred more efficiently to natural frequencies having predominantly streamwise and wall-normal motions.
Fluid-Structure Interactions and Microparticle Transport in Pulmonary Alveoli
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghadiali, Samir
2005-11-01
The transport of micron-size particles in the lung has important implications for both respiratory disorders and drug delivery systems. During breathing, the expansion of pulmonary alveoli produces sub-ambient pressures that draw airflow into the lung. The fate of inhaled microparticles during breathing will depend on both particle properties and the complex transient flow fields generated by alveolar wall motion. In this study, fluid-structure interaction (FSI) models are used to evaluate the effects of breathing rates, particle size, tissue viscoelasticity and surface tension forces on microparticle transport. In addition to fluid and solid dynamic equations, these models solve a particle equation of motion that includes both Brownian diffusion and gravitational terms. Our results indicate that Brownian diffusion is the dominant mechanism of transport for particles smaller than one micron and that the elastic properties of alveolar tissues can significantly affect particle deposition. Particles larger than 0.5 microns also experience significant gravitational sedimentation, while convection forces become increasingly dominant for larger particles and faster breathing rates. These results may be useful in designing improved drug delivery systems and in establishing new threshold levels for exposure to viral agents. Supported by the NSF and Parker B. Francis Foundation.
Bicuspid aortic valve hemodynamics: a fluid-structure interaction study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chandra, Santanu; Seaman, Clara; Sucosky, Philippe
2011-11-01
The bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a congenital defect in which the aortic valve forms with two leaflets instead of three. While calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) also develops in the normal tricuspid aortic valve (TAV), its progression in the BAV is more rapid. Although studies have suggested a mechano-potential root for the disease, the native BAV hemodynamics remains largely unknown. This study aimed at characterizing BAV hemodynamics and quantifying the degree of wall-shear stress (WSS) abnormality on BAV leaflets. Fluid-structure interaction models validated with particle-image velocimetry were designed to predict the flow and leaflet dynamics in idealized TAV and BAV anatomies. Valvular function was quantified in terms of the effective orifice area. The regional leaflet WSS was characterized in terms of oscillatory shear index, temporal shear magnitude and temporal shear gradient. The predictions indicate the intrinsic degree of stenosis of the BAV anatomy, reveal drastic differences in shear stress magnitude and pulsatility on BAV and TAV leaflets and confirm the side- and site-specificity of the leaflet WSS. Given the ability of abnormal fluid shear stress to trigger valvular inflammation, these results support the existence of a mechano-etiology of CAVD in the BAV.
Immersed boundary methods for simulating fluid-structure interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Yang, Xiaolei
2014-02-01
Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems commonly encountered in engineering and biological applications involve geometrically complex flexible or rigid bodies undergoing large deformations. Immersed boundary (IB) methods have emerged as a powerful simulation tool for tackling such flows due to their inherent ability to handle arbitrarily complex bodies without the need for expensive and cumbersome dynamic re-meshing strategies. Depending on the approach such methods adopt to satisfy boundary conditions on solid surfaces they can be broadly classified as diffused and sharp interface methods. In this review, we present an overview of the fundamentals of both classes of methods with emphasis on solution algorithms for simulating FSI problems. We summarize and juxtapose different IB approaches for imposing boundary conditions, efficient iterative algorithms for solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in the presence of dynamic immersed boundaries, and strong and loose coupling FSI strategies. We also present recent results from the application of such methods to study a wide range of problems, including vortex-induced vibrations, aquatic swimming, insect flying, human walking and renewable energy. Limitations of such methods and the need for future research to mitigate them are also discussed.
Simulation and modeling techniques for parachute fluid-structure interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stein, Keith Robert
This thesis is on advanced flow simulation and modeling techniques for fluid-structure interactions (FSI) encountered in parachute systems. The main fluid dynamics solver is based on the Deforming-Spatial-Domain/Stabilized Space-Time (DSD/SST) finite element formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations of incompressible flows. The DSD/SST formulation, which was introduced earlier for flow computations involving moving boundaries and interfaces, gives us the capability to handle parachute structural deformations. The structural dynamics solver is based on a total Lagrangian finite element formulation of the equilibrium equations for a "tension structure" composed of membranes, cables, and concentrated masses. The fluid and structure are coupled iteratively within a nonlinear iteration loop, with multiple nonlinear iterations improving the convergence of the coupled system. Unstructured mesh generation and mesh moving techniques for handling of parachute deformations are developed and/or adapted to address the challenges posed by the coupled problem. The FSI methodology was originally implemented on the Thinking Machines CM-5 supercomputer and is now actively used on the CRAY T3E-1200. Applications to a variety of round and cross parachutes used by the US Army are presented, and different stages of the parachute operations, including inflation and terminal descent, are modeled.
Fluid-structure interaction of solid rocket motor inhibitors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roach, R. L.; Gramoll, K.; Weaver, M.; Flandro, G. A.
1992-07-01
The deformation of solid rocket motor inhibitor material due to loads imposed by the gas flow is studied in this effort. The flow field is computed around an infinitely stiff inhibitor using a Navier-Stokes solution procedure which provides the stress distributions on the inhibitor. These stresses are then fed into a structural finite element analysis code, ANSYS to determine the deflection based on these stresses and a realistic stiffness. The deformed shape is fed back into the Navier-Stokes solution procedure and a new grid and stress distribution are obtained. The process continues until the inhibitor deflection becomes fixed or periodic. While this is a somewhat crude approach, the availability of the two codes without modifications provide a tempting way to take a first look at a fluid-structure interaction problem and to help in the design of truly coupled approach. The geometry used is typical of those found in large solid rocket boosters of the type used on the Space Shuttle system and the Titan III series.
Fluid-structure interactions in compressible cavity flows
Wagner, Justin L.; Casper, Katya Marie; Beresh, Steven J.; Hunter, Patrick S.; Spillers, Russell Wayne; Henfling, John F.; Mayes, Randall L.
2015-06-08
Experiments were performed to understand the complex fluid-structure interactions that occur during aircraft internal store carriage. A cylindrical store was installed in a rectangular cavity having a length-to-depth ratio of 3.33 and a length-to-width ratio of 1. The Mach number ranged from 0.6 to 2.5 and the incoming boundary layer was turbulent. Fast-response pressure measurements provided aeroacoustic loading in the cavity, while triaxial accelerometers provided simultaneous store response. Despite occupying only 6% of the cavity volume, the store significantly altered the cavity acoustics. The store responded to the cavity flow at its natural structural frequencies, and it exhibited a directionally dependent response to cavity resonance. Specifically, cavity tones excited the store in the streamwise and wall-normal directions consistently, whereas a spanwise response was observed only occasionally. Also, the streamwise and wall-normal responses were attributed to the longitudinal pressure waves and shear layer vortices known to occur during cavity resonance. Although the spanwise response to cavity tones was limited, broadband pressure fluctuations resulted in significant spanwise accelerations at store natural frequencies. As a result, the largest vibrations occurred when a cavity tone matched a structural natural frequency, although energy was transferred more efficiently to natural frequencies having predominantly streamwise and wall-normal motions.
Fluid-structure interactions in compressible cavity flows
Wagner, Justin L.; Casper, Katya Marie; Beresh, Steven J.; Hunter, Patrick S.; Spillers, Russell Wayne; Henfling, John F.; Mayes, Randall L.
2015-06-08
Experiments were performed to understand the complex fluid-structure interactions that occur during aircraft internal store carriage. A cylindrical store was installed in a rectangular cavity having a length-to-depth ratio of 3.33 and a length-to-width ratio of 1. The Mach number ranged from 0.6 to 2.5 and the incoming boundary layer was turbulent. Fast-response pressure measurements provided aeroacoustic loading in the cavity, while triaxial accelerometers provided simultaneous store response. Despite occupying only 6% of the cavity volume, the store significantly altered the cavity acoustics. The store responded to the cavity flow at its natural structural frequencies, and it exhibited a directionallymore » dependent response to cavity resonance. Specifically, cavity tones excited the store in the streamwise and wall-normal directions consistently, whereas a spanwise response was observed only occasionally. Also, the streamwise and wall-normal responses were attributed to the longitudinal pressure waves and shear layer vortices known to occur during cavity resonance. Although the spanwise response to cavity tones was limited, broadband pressure fluctuations resulted in significant spanwise accelerations at store natural frequencies. As a result, the largest vibrations occurred when a cavity tone matched a structural natural frequency, although energy was transferred more efficiently to natural frequencies having predominantly streamwise and wall-normal motions.« less
A mixed time integration method for large scale acoustic fluid-structure interaction
Christon, M.A.; Wineman, S.J.; Goudreau, G.L.; Foch, J.D.
1994-07-18
The transient, coupled, interaction of sound with structures is a process in which an acoustic fluid surrounding an elastic body contributes to the effective inertia and elasticity of the body. Conversely, the presence of an elastic body in an acoustic medium influences the behavior of propagating disturbances. This paper details the application of a mixed explicit-implicit time integration algorithm to the fully coupled acoustic fluidstructure interaction problem. Based upon a dispersion analysis of the semi-discrete wave equation a second-order, explicit scheme for solving the wave equation is developed. The combination of a highly vectorized, explicit, acoustic fluid solver with an implicit structural code for linear elastodynamics has resulted in a simulation tool, PING, for acoustic fluid-structure interaction. PING`s execution rates range from 1{mu}s/Element/{delta}t for rigid scattering to 10{mu}s/Element/{delta}t for fully coupled problems. Several examples of PING`s application to 3-D problems serve in part to validate the code, and also to demonstrate the capability to treat complex geometry, acoustic fluid-structure problems which require high resolution meshes.
Techniques for interactive 3-D scientific visualization
Glinert, E.P. . Dept. of Computer Science); Blattner, M.M. Hospital and Tumor Inst., Houston, TX . Dept. of Biomathematics California Univ., Davis, CA . Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA ); Becker, B.G. . Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National La
1990-09-24
Interest in interactive 3-D graphics has exploded of late, fueled by (a) the allure of using scientific visualization to go where no-one has gone before'' and (b) by the development of new input devices which overcome some of the limitations imposed in the past by technology, yet which may be ill-suited to the kinds of interaction required by researchers active in scientific visualization. To resolve this tension, we propose a flat 5-D'' environment in which 2-D graphics are augmented by exploiting multiple human sensory modalities using cheap, conventional hardware readily available with personal computers and workstations. We discuss how interactions basic to 3-D scientific visualization, like searching a solution space and comparing two such spaces, are effectively carried out in our environment. Finally, we describe 3DMOVE, an experimental microworld we have implemented to test out some of our ideas. 40 refs., 4 figs.
Crack interaction with 3-D dislocation loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Huajian
CRACKS in a solid often interact with other crystal defects such as dislocation loops. The interaction effects are of 3-D character yet their analytical treatment has been mostly limited to the 2-D regime due to mathematical complications. This paper shows that distribution of the stress intensity factors along a crack front due to arbitrary dislocation loops may be expressed as simple line integrals along the loop contours. The method of analysis is based on the 3-D Bueckner-Rice weight function theory for elastic crack analysis. Our results have significantly simplified the calculations for 3-D dislocation loops produced in the plastic processes at the crack front due to highly concentrated crack tip stress fields. Examples for crack-tip 3-D loops and 2-D straight dislocations emerging from the crack tip are given to demonstrate applications of the derived formulae. The results are consistent with some previous analytical solutions existing in the literature. As further applications we also analyse straight dislocations that are parallel or perpendicular to the crack plane but are not parallel to the crack front.
Volume rendering for interactive 3D segmentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toennies, Klaus D.; Derz, Claus
1997-05-01
Combined emission/absorption and reflection/transmission volume rendering is able to display poorly segmented structures from 3D medical image sequences. Visual cues such as shading and color let the user distinguish structures in the 3D display that are incompletely extracted by threshold segmentation. In order to be truly helpful, analyzed information needs to be quantified and transferred back into the data. We extend our previously presented scheme for such display be establishing a communication between visual analysis and the display process. The main tool is a selective 3D picking device. For being useful on a rather rough segmentation, the device itself and the display offer facilities for object selection. Selective intersection planes let the user discard information prior to choosing a tissue of interest. Subsequently, a picking is carried out on the 2D display by casting a ray into the volume. The picking device is made pre-selective using already existing segmentation information. Thus, objects can be picked that are visible behind semi-transparent surfaces of other structures. Information generated by a later connected- component analysis can then be integrated into the data. Data examination is continued on an improved display letting the user actively participate in the analysis process. Results of this display-and-interaction scheme proved to be very effective. The viewer's ability to extract relevant information form a complex scene is combined with the computer's ability to quantify this information. The approach introduces 3D computer graphics methods into user- guided image analysis creating an analysis-synthesis cycle for interactive 3D segmentation.
Java 3D Interactive Visualization for Astrophysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chae, K.; Edirisinghe, D.; Lingerfelt, E. J.; Guidry, M. W.
2003-05-01
We are developing a series of interactive 3D visualization tools that employ the Java 3D API. We have applied this approach initially to a simple 3-dimensional galaxy collision model (restricted 3-body approximation), with quite satisfactory results. Running either as an applet under Web browser control, or as a Java standalone application, this program permits real-time zooming, panning, and 3-dimensional rotation of the galaxy collision simulation under user mouse and keyboard control. We shall also discuss applications of this technology to 3-dimensional visualization for other problems of astrophysical interest such as neutron star mergers and the time evolution of element/energy production networks in X-ray bursts. *Managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.
Fluid-structure interaction modeling of wind turbines: simulating the full machine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Ming-Chen; Bazilevs, Yuri
2012-12-01
In this paper we present our aerodynamics and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) computational techniques that enable dynamic, fully coupled, 3D FSI simulation of wind turbines at full scale, and in the presence of the nacelle and tower (i.e., simulation of the "full machine"). For the interaction of wind and flexible blades we employ a nonmatching interface discretization approach, where the aerodynamics is computed using a low-order finite-element-based ALE-VMS technique, while the rotor blades are modeled as thin composite shells discretized using NURBS-based isogeometric analysis (IGA). We find that coupling FEM and IGA in this manner gives a good combination of efficiency, accuracy, and flexibility of the computational procedures for wind turbine FSI. The interaction between the rotor and tower is handled using a non-overlapping sliding-interface approach, where both moving- and stationary-domain formulations of aerodynamics are employed. At the fluid-structure and sliding interfaces, the kinematic and traction continuity is enforced weakly, which is a key ingredient of the proposed numerical methodology. We present several simulations of a three-blade 5~MW wind turbine, with and without the tower. We find that, in the case of no tower, the presence of the sliding interface has no effect on the prediction of aerodynamic loads on the rotor. From this we conclude that weak enforcement of the kinematics gives just as accurate results as the strong enforcement, and thus enables the simulation of rotor-tower interaction (as well as other applications involving mechanical components in relative motion). We also find that the blade passing the tower produces a 10-12 % drop (per blade) in the aerodynamic torque. We feel this finding may be important when it comes to the fatigue-life analysis and prediction for wind turbine blades.
Glnemo2: Interactive Visualization 3D Program
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lambert, Jean-Charles
2011-10-01
Glnemo2 is an interactive 3D visualization program developed in C++ using the OpenGL library and Nokia QT 4.X API. It displays in 3D the particles positions of the different components of an nbody snapshot. It quickly gives a lot of information about the data (shape, density area, formation of structures such as spirals, bars, or peanuts). It allows for in/out zooms, rotations, changes of scale, translations, selection of different groups of particles and plots in different blending colors. It can color particles according to their density or temperature, play with the density threshold, trace orbits, display different time steps, take automatic screenshots to make movies, select particles using the mouse, and fly over a simulation using a given camera path. All these features are accessible from a very intuitive graphic user interface. Glnemo2 supports a wide range of input file formats (Nemo, Gadget 1 and 2, phiGrape, Ramses, list of files, realtime gyrfalcON simulation) which are automatically detected at loading time without user intervention. Glnemo2 uses a plugin mechanism to load the data, so that it is easy to add a new file reader. It's powered by a 3D engine which uses the latest OpenGL technology, such as shaders (glsl), vertex buffer object, frame buffer object, and takes in account the power of the graphic card used in order to accelerate the rendering. With a fast GPU, millions of particles can be rendered in real time. Glnemo2 runs on Linux, Windows (using minGW compiler), and MaxOSX, thanks to the QT4API.
Felippa, Carlos A.; Sprague, Michael A.; Ross, Michael R.; Park, K. C.
2008-11-01
This paper is a sequel on the topic of localized Lagrange multipliers (LLM) for applications of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) between finite-element models of an acoustic fluid and an elastic structure. The prequel paper formulated the spatial-discretization methods, the LLM interface treatment, the time-marching partitioned analysis procedures, and the application to 1D benchmark problems. Here, we expand on formulation aspects required for successful application to more realistic 2D and 3D problems. Additional topics include duality relations at the fluid-structure interface, partitioned vibration analysis, reduced-order modeling, handling of curved interface surfaces, and comparison of LLM with other coupling methods. Emphasis is given to non-matching fluid-structure meshes. We present benchmark examples that illustrate the benefits and drawbacks of competing interface treatments. Realistic application problems involving the seismic response of two existing dams are considered. These include 2D modal analyses of the Koyna gravity dam, transient-response analyses of that dam with and without reduced-order modeling, incorporation of nonlinear cavitation effects, and the 3D transient-response analysis of the Morrow Point arch dam.
Kelly, Sinead; O'Rourke, Malachy
2012-04-01
This article describes the use of fluid, solid and fluid-structure interaction simulations on three patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm geometries. All simulations were carried out using OpenFOAM, which uses the finite volume method to solve both fluid and solid equations. Initially a fluid-only simulation was carried out on a single patient-based geometry and results from this simulation were compared with experimental results. There was good qualitative and quantitative agreement between the experimental and numerical results, suggesting that OpenFOAM is capable of predicting the main features of unsteady flow through a complex patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm geometry. The intraluminal thrombus and arterial wall were then included, and solid stress and fluid-structure interaction simulations were performed on this, and two other patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm geometries. It was found that the solid stress simulations resulted in an under-estimation of the maximum stress by up to 5.9% when compared with the fluid-structure interaction simulations. In the fluid-structure interaction simulations, flow induced pressure within the aneurysm was found to be up to 4.8% higher than the value of peak systolic pressure imposed in the solid stress simulations, which is likely to be the cause of the variation in the stress results. In comparing the results from the initial fluid-only simulation with results from the fluid-structure interaction simulation on the same patient, it was found that wall shear stress values varied by up to 35% between the two simulation methods. It was concluded that solid stress simulations are adequate to predict the maximum stress in an aneurysm wall, while fluid-structure interaction simulations should be performed if accurate prediction of the fluid wall shear stress is necessary. Therefore, the decision to perform fluid-structure interaction simulations should be based on the particular variables of interest in a given
Three Dimensional Viscous Finite Element Formulation For Acoustic Fluid Structure Interaction
Cheng, Lei; White, Robert D.; Grosh, Karl
2010-01-01
A three dimensional viscous finite element model is presented in this paper for the analysis of the acoustic fluid structure interaction systems including, but not limited to, the cochlear-based transducers. The model consists of a three dimensional viscous acoustic fluid medium interacting with a two dimensional flat structure domain. The fluid field is governed by the linearized Navier-Stokes equation with the fluid displacements and the pressure chosen as independent variables. The mixed displacement/pressure based formulation is used in the fluid field in order to alleviate the locking in the nearly incompressible fluid. The structure is modeled as a Mindlin plate with or without residual stress. The Hinton-Huang’s 9-noded Lagrangian plate element is chosen in order to be compatible with 27/4 u/p fluid elements. The results from the full 3d FEM model are in good agreement with experimental results and other FEM results including Beltman’s thin film viscoacoustic element [2] and two and half dimensional inviscid elements [21]. Although it is computationally expensive, it provides a benchmark solution for other numerical models or approximations to compare to besides experiments and it is capable of modeling any irregular geometries and material properties while other numerical models may not be applicable. PMID:20174602
Fluid-structure interaction in axially symmetric models of abdominal aortic aneurysms.
Fraser, K H; Li, M-X; Lee, W T; Easson, W J; Hoskins, P R
2009-02-01
Abdominal aortic aneurysm disease progression is probably influenced by tissue stresses and blood flow conditions and so accurate estimation of these will increase understanding of the disease and may lead to improved clinical practice. In this work the blood flow and tissue stresses in axially symmetric aneurysms are calculated using a complete fluid-structure interaction as a benchmark for calculating the error introduced by simpler calculations: rigid walled for the blood flow, homogeneous pressure for the tissue stress, as well as one-way-coupled interactions. The error in the peak von Mises stress in a homogeneous pressure calculation compared with a fluid-structure interaction calculation was less than 3.5 per cent for aneurysm diameters up to 7 cm. The error in the mean wall shear stress, in a rigid-walled calculation compared with a fluid-structure interaction calculation, varied from 30 per cent to 60 per cent with increasing aneurysm diameter. These results suggest that incorporation of the fluid-structure interaction is unnecessary for purely mechanical modelling, with the aim of evaluating the current rupture probability. However, for more complex biological modelling, perhaps with the aim of predicting the progress of the disease, where accurate estimation of the wall shear stress is essential, some form of fluid-structure interaction is necessary. PMID:19278197
3D Models of Stellar Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohamed, S.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Booth, R.; Maercker, M.; Ramstedt, S.; Vlemmings, W.; Harries, T.; Mackey, J.; Langer, N.; Corradi, R.
2014-04-01
Symbiotic binaries consist of a cool, evolved mass-losing giant and an accreting compact companion. As symbiotic nebulae show similar morphologies to those in planetary nebulae (so much so that it is often difficult to distinguish between the two), they are ideal laboratories for understanding the role a binary companion plays in shaping the circumstellar envelopes in these evolved systems. We will present 3D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) models of interacting binaries, e.g. R Aquarii and Mira, and discuss the formation of spiral outflows, arcs, shells and equatorial density enhancements.We will also discuss the implications of the former for planetary nebulae, e.g. the Egg Nebula and Cat's Eye, and the latter for the formation of bipolar geometries, e.g. M2-9. We also investigate accretion and angular momentum evolution in symbiotic binaries which may be important to understand the formation of jets and more episodic mass-loss features we see in circumstellar envelopes and the orbital characteristics of binary central stars of planetary nebulae.
Generalized fictitious methods for fluid-structure interactions: Analysis and simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Yue; Baek, Hyoungsu; Karniadakis, George Em
2013-07-01
We present a new fictitious pressure method for fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems in incompressible flow by generalizing the fictitious mass and damping methods we published previously in [1]. The fictitious pressure method involves modification of the fluid solver whereas the fictitious mass and damping methods modify the structure solver. We analyze all fictitious methods for simplified problems and obtain explicit expressions for the optimal reduction factor (convergence rate index) at the FSI interface [2]. This analysis also demonstrates an apparent similarity of fictitious methods to the FSI approach based on Robin boundary conditions, which have been found to be very effective in FSI problems. We implement all methods, including the semi-implicit Robin based coupling method, in the context of spectral element discretization, which is more sensitive to temporal instabilities than low-order methods. However, the methods we present here are simple and general, and hence applicable to FSI based on any other spatial discretization. In numerical tests, we verify the selection of optimal values for the fictitious parameters for simplified problems and for vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) even at zero mass ratio ("for-ever-resonance"). We also develop an empirical a posteriori analysis for complex geometries and apply it to 3D patient-specific flexible brain arteries with aneurysms for very large deformations. We demonstrate that the fictitious pressure method enhances stability and convergence, and is comparable or better in most cases to the Robin approach or the other fictitious methods.
A Coupled Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis of Solid Rocket Motor with Flexible Inhibitors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff
2014-01-01
A capability to couple NASA production CFD code, Loci/CHEM, with CFDRC's structural finite element code, CoBi, has been developed. This paper summarizes the efforts in applying the installed coupling software to demonstrate/investigate fluid-structure interaction (FSI) between pressure wave and flexible inhibitor inside reusable solid rocket motor (RSRM). First a unified governing equation for both fluid and structure is presented, then an Eulerian-Lagrangian framework is described to satisfy the interfacial continuity requirements. The features of fluid solver, Loci/CHEM and structural solver, CoBi, are discussed before the coupling methodology of the solvers is described. The simulation uses production level CFD LES turbulence model with a grid resolution of 80 million cells. The flexible inhibitor is modeled with full 3D shell elements. Verifications against analytical solutions of structural model under steady uniform pressure condition and under dynamic condition of modal analysis show excellent agreements in terms of displacement distribution and eigen modal frequencies. The preliminary coupled result shows that due to acoustic coupling, the dynamics of one of the more flexible inhibitors shift from its first modal frequency to the first acoustic frequency of the solid rocket motor.
Neidlin, Michael; Sonntag, Simon J; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Kaufmann, Tim A S
2016-04-01
Neurological complications often occur during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Hypoperfusion of brain tissue due to diminished cerebral autoregulation (CA) and thromboembolism from atherosclerotic plaque reduce the cerebral oxygen supply and increase the risk of perioperative stroke. To improve the outcome of cardiac surgeries, patient-specific computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models can be used to investigate the blood flow during CPB. In this study, we establish a computational model of CPB which includes cerebral autoregulation and movement of aortic walls on the basis of in vivo measurements. First, the Baroreflex mechanism, which plays a leading role in CA, is represented with a 0-D control circuit and coupled to the 3-D domain with differential equations as boundary conditions. Additionally a two-way coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model with CA is set up. The wall shear stress (WSS) distribution is computed for the whole FSI domain and a comparison to rigid wall CFD is made. Constant flow and pulsatile flow CPB is considered. Rigid wall CFD delivers higher wall shear stress values than FSI simulations, especially during pulsatile perfusion. The flow rates through the supraaortic vessels are almost not affected, if considered as percentages of total cannula output. The developed multiphysic multiscale framework allows deeper insights into the underlying mechanisms during CPB on a patient-specific basis. PMID:26908181
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Chien-Jung; White, Susan M.; Huang, Shao-Ching; Mallya, Sanjay; Eldredge, Jeff D.
2014-11-01
Obstructive sleep apnea(OSA) is a medical condition characterized by repetitive partial or complete occlusion of the airway during sleep. The soft tissues in the airway of OSA patients are prone to collapse under the low pressure loads incurred during breathing. The numerical simulation with patient-specific upper airway model can provide assistance for diagnosis and treatment assessment. The eventual goal of this research is the development of numerical tool for air-tissue interactions in the upper airway of patients with OSA. This tool is expected to capture collapse of the airway in respiratory flow conditions, as well as the effects of various treatment protocols. Here, we present our ongoing progress toward this goal. A sharp-interface embedded boundary method is used on Cartesian grids for resolving the air-tissue interface in the complex patient-specific airway geometries. For the structure simulation, a cut-cell FEM is used. Non-linear Green strains are used for properly resolving the large tissue displacements in the soft palate structures. The fluid and structure solvers are strongly coupled. Preliminary results will be shown, including flow simulation inside the 3D rigid upper airway of patients with OSA, and several validation problem for the fluid-structure coupling.
GPU-accelerated model for fast, three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction computations.
Nita, Cosmin; Itu, Lucian; Mihalef, Viorel; Sharma, Puneet; Rapaka, Saikiran
2015-08-01
In this paper we introduce a methodology for performing one-way Fluid-Structure interaction (FSI), i.e. where the motion of the wall boundaries is imposed. We use a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) accelerated Lattice-Boltzmann Method (LBM) implementation and present an efficient workflow for embedding the moving geometry, given as a set of polygonal meshes, in the LBM computation. The proposed method is first validated in a synthetic experiment: a vessel which is periodically expanding and contracting. Next, the evaluation focuses on the 3D Peristaltic flow problem: a fluid flows inside a flexible tube, where a periodic wave-like deformation produces a fluid motion along the centerline of the tube. Different geometry configurations are used and results are compared against previously published solutions. The efficient approach leads to an average execution time of approx. one hour per computation, whereas 50% of it is required for the geometry update operations. Finally, we also analyse the effect of changing the Reynolds number on the flow streamlines: the flow regime is significantly affected by the Reynolds number. PMID:26736424
Numerical simulation of the fluid-structure interaction between air blast waves and soil structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Umar, S.; Risby, M. S.; Albert, A. Luthfi; Norazman, M.; Ariffin, I.; Alias, Y. Muhamad
2014-03-01
Normally, an explosion threat on free field especially from high explosives is very dangerous due to the ground shocks generated that have high impulsive load. Nowadays, explosion threats do not only occur in the battlefield, but also in industries and urban areas. In industries such as oil and gas, explosion threats may occur on logistic transportation, maintenance, production, and distribution pipeline that are located underground to supply crude oil. Therefore, the appropriate blast resistances are a priority requirement that can be obtained through an assessment on the structural response, material strength and impact pattern of material due to ground shock. A highly impulsive load from ground shocks is a dynamic load due to its loading time which is faster than ground response time. Of late, almost all blast studies consider and analyze the ground shock in the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) because of its influence on the propagation and interaction of ground shock. Furthermore, analysis in the FSI integrates action of ground shock and reaction of ground on calculations of velocity, pressure and force. Therefore, this integration of the FSI has the capability to deliver the ground shock analysis on simulation to be closer to experimental investigation results. In this study, the FSI was implemented on AUTODYN computer code by using Euler-Godunov and the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE). Euler-Godunov has the capability to deliver a structural computation on a 3D analysis, while ALE delivers an arbitrary calculation that is appropriate for a FSI analysis. In addition, ALE scheme delivers fine approach on little deformation analysis with an arbitrary motion, while the Euler-Godunov scheme delivers fine approach on a large deformation analysis. An integrated scheme based on Euler-Godunov and the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian allows us to analyze the blast propagation waves and structural interaction simultaneously.
Fluid-Structure interaction modeling in deformable porous arteries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakerzadeh, Rana; Zunino, Paolo
2015-11-01
A computational framework is developed to study the coupling of blood flow in arteries interacting with a poroelastic arterial wall featuring possibly large deformations. Blood is modeled as an incompressible, viscous, Newtonian fluid using the Navier-Stokes equations and the arterial wall consists of a thick material which is modeled as a Biot system that describes the mechanical behavior of a homogeneous and isotropic elastic skeleton, and connecting pores filled with fluid. Discretization via finite element method leads to the system of nonlinear equations and a Newton-Raphson scheme is adopted to solve the resulting nonlinear system through consistent linearization. Moreover, interface conditions are imposed on the discrete level via mortar finite elements or Nitsche's coupling. The discrete linearized coupled FSI system is solved by means of a splitting strategy, which allows solving the Navier-Stokes and Biot equations separately. The numerical results investigate the effects of proroelastic parameters on the pressure wave propagation in arteries, filtration of incompressible fluids through the porous media, and the structure displacement. The fellowship support from the Computational Modeling & Simulation PhD program at University of Pittsburgh for Rana Zakerzadeh is gratefully acknowledged.
Interactive 3d Landscapes on Line
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fanini, B.; Calori, L.; Ferdani, D.; Pescarin, S.
2011-09-01
The paper describes challenges identified while developing browser embedded 3D landscape rendering applications, our current approach and work-flow and how recent development in browser technologies could affect. All the data, even if processed by optimization and decimation tools, result in very huge databases that require paging, streaming and Level-of-Detail techniques to be implemented to allow remote web based real time fruition. Our approach has been to select an open source scene-graph based visual simulation library with sufficient performance and flexibility and adapt it to the web by providing a browser plug-in. Within the current Montegrotto VR Project, content produced with new pipelines has been integrated. The whole Montegrotto Town has been generated procedurally by CityEngine. We used this procedural approach, based on algorithms and procedures because it is particularly functional to create extensive and credible urban reconstructions. To create the archaeological sites we used optimized mesh acquired with laser scanning and photogrammetry techniques whereas to realize the 3D reconstructions of the main historical buildings we adopted computer-graphic software like blender and 3ds Max. At the final stage, semi-automatic tools have been developed and used up to prepare and clusterise 3D models and scene graph routes for web publishing. Vegetation generators have also been used with the goal of populating the virtual scene to enhance the user perceived realism during the navigation experience. After the description of 3D modelling and optimization techniques, the paper will focus and discuss its results and expectations.
Deiterding, Ralf; Wood, Stephen L
2013-01-01
We pursue a level set approach to couple an Eulerian shock-capturing fluid solver with space-time refinement to an explicit solid dynamics solver for large deformations and fracture. The coupling algorithms considering recursively finer fluid time steps as well as overlapping solver updates are discussed in detail. Our ideas are implemented in the AMROC adaptive fluid solver framework and are used for effective fluid-structure coupling to the general purpose solid dynamics code DYNA3D. Beside simulations verifying the coupled fluid-structure solver and assessing its parallel scalability, the detailed structural analysis of a reinforced concrete column under blast loading and the simulation of a prototypical blast explosion in a realistic multistory building are presented.
Immersed smoothed finite element method for fluid-structure interaction simulation of aortic valves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Jianyao; Liu, G. R.; Narmoneva, Daria A.; Hinton, Robert B.; Zhang, Zhi-Qian
2012-12-01
This paper presents a novel numerical method for simulating the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems when blood flows over aortic valves. The method uses the immersed boundary/element method and the smoothed finite element method and hence it is termed as IS-FEM. The IS-FEM is a partitioned approach and does not need a body-fitted mesh for FSI simulations. It consists of three main modules: the fluid solver, the solid solver and the FSI force solver. In this work, the blood is modeled as incompressible viscous flow and solved using the characteristic-based-split scheme with FEM for spacial discretization. The leaflets of the aortic valve are modeled as Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic materials and solved using smoothed finite element method (or S-FEM). The FSI force is calculated on the Lagrangian fictitious fluid mesh that is identical to the moving solid mesh. The octree search and neighbor-to-neighbor schemes are used to detect efficiently the FSI pairs of fluid and solid cells. As an example, a 3D idealized model of aortic valve is modeled, and the opening process of the valve is simulated using the proposed IS-FEM. Numerical results indicate that the IS-FEM can serve as an efficient tool in the study of aortic valve dynamics to reveal the details of stresses in the aortic valves, the flow velocities in the blood, and the shear forces on the interfaces. This tool can also be applied to animal models studying disease processes and may ultimately translate to a new adaptive methods working with magnetic resonance images, leading to improvements on diagnostic and prognostic paradigms, as well as surgical planning, in the care of patients.
Advanced computational techniques for incompressible/compressible fluid-structure interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Vinod
2005-07-01
Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) problems are of great importance to many fields of engineering and pose tremendous challenges to numerical analyst. This thesis addresses some of the hurdles faced for both 2D and 3D real life time-dependent FSI problems with particular emphasis on parachute systems. The techniques developed here would help improve the design of parachutes and are of direct relevance to several other FSI problems. The fluid system is solved using the Deforming-Spatial-Domain/Stabilized Space-Time (DSD/SST) finite element formulation for the Navier-Stokes equations of incompressible and compressible flows. The structural dynamics solver is based on a total Lagrangian finite element formulation. Newton-Raphson method is employed to linearize the otherwise nonlinear system resulting from the fluid and structure formulations. The fluid and structural systems are solved in decoupled fashion at each nonlinear iteration. While rigorous coupling methods are desirable for FSI simulations, the decoupled solution techniques provide sufficient convergence in the time-dependent problems considered here. In this thesis, common problems in the FSI simulations of parachutes are discussed and possible remedies for a few of them are presented. Further, the effects of the porosity model on the aerodynamic forces of round parachutes are analyzed. Techniques for solving compressible FSI problems are also discussed. Subsequently, a better stabilization technique is proposed to efficiently capture and accurately predict the shocks in supersonic flows. The numerical examples simulated here require high performance computing. Therefore, numerical tools using distributed memory supercomputers with message passing interface (MPI) libraries were developed.
Coupled Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis of Solid Rocket Motor with Flexible Inhibitors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff; Harris, Robert E.
2014-01-01
Flexible inhibitors are generally used in solid rocket motors (SRMs) as a means to control the burning of propellant. Vortices generated by the flow of propellant around the flexible inhibitors have been identified as a driving source of instabilities that can lead to thrust oscillations in launch vehicles. Potential coupling between the SRM thrust oscillations and structural vibration modes is an important risk factor in launch vehicle design. As a means to predict and better understand these phenomena, a multidisciplinary simulation capability that couples the NASA production CFD code, Loci/CHEM, with CFDRC's structural finite element code, CoBi, has been developed. This capability is crucial to the development of NASA's new space launch system (SLS). This paper summarizes the efforts in applying the coupled software to demonstrate and investigate fluid-structure interaction (FSI) phenomena between pressure waves and flexible inhibitors inside reusable solid rocket motors (RSRMs). The features of the fluid and structural solvers are described in detail, and the coupling methodology and interfacial continuity requirements are then presented in a general Eulerian-Lagrangian framework. The simulations presented herein utilize production level CFD with hybrid RANS/LES turbulence modeling and grid resolution in excess of 80 million cells. The fluid domain in the SRM is discretized using a general mixed polyhedral unstructured mesh, while full 3D shell elements are utilized in the structural domain for the flexible inhibitors. Verifications against analytical solutions for a structural model under a steady uniform pressure condition and under dynamic modal analysis show excellent agreement in terms of displacement distribution and eigenmode frequencies. The preliminary coupled results indicate that due to acoustic coupling, the dynamics of one of the more flexible inhibitors shift from its first modal frequency to the first acoustic frequency of the solid rocket motor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cerroni, D.; Fancellu, L.; Manservisi, S.; Menghini, F.
2016-06-01
In this work we propose to study the behavior of a solid elastic object that interacts with a multiphase flow. Fluid structure interaction and multiphase problems are of great interest in engineering and science because of many potential applications. The study of this interaction by coupling a fluid structure interaction (FSI) solver with a multiphase problem could open a large range of possibilities in the investigation of realistic problems. We use a FSI solver based on a monolithic approach, while the two-phase interface advection and reconstruction is computed in the framework of a Volume of Fluid method which is one of the more popular algorithms for two-phase flow problems. The coupling between the FSI and VOF algorithm is efficiently handled with the use of MEDMEM libraries implemented in the computational platform Salome. The numerical results of a dam break problem over a deformable solid are reported in order to show the robustness and stability of this numerical approach.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dargush, G. F.; Banerjee, P. K.; Shi, Y.
1992-01-01
As part of the continuing effort at NASA LeRC to improve both the durability and reliability of hot section Earth-to-orbit engine components, significant enhancements must be made in existing finite element and finite difference methods, and advanced techniques, such as the boundary element method (BEM), must be explored. The BEM was chosen as the basic analysis tool because the critical variables (temperature, flux, displacement, and traction) can be very precisely determined with a boundary-based discretization scheme. Additionally, model preparation is considerably simplified compared to the more familiar domain-based methods. Furthermore, the hyperbolic character of high speed flow is captured through the use of an analytical fundamental solution, eliminating the dependence of the solution on the discretization pattern. The price that must be paid in order to realize these advantages is that any BEM formulation requires a considerable amount of analytical work, which is typically absent in the other numerical methods. All of the research accomplishments of a multi-year program aimed toward the development of a boundary element formulation for the study of hot fluid-structure interaction in Earth-to-orbit engine hot section components are detailed. Most of the effort was directed toward the examination of fluid flow, since BEM's for fluids are at a much less developed state. However, significant strides were made, not only in the analysis of thermoviscous fluids, but also in the solution of the fluid-structure interaction problem.
Close interactions of 3-D vortex tubes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melander, Mogens V.
1989-01-01
The motivation for studying close vortex interactions is briefly discussed in the light of turbulence and coherent structures. Particular attention is given to the interaction known as reconnection. Two reconnection mechanisms are discussed. One is annihilation of vorticity by cross-diffusion, the other is an inviscid head-tail formation. At intermediate Reynolds numbers both mechanisms are operating.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Čanić, Sunčica; Mikelić, Andro; Tambača, Josip
2005-12-01
We derive a closed system of effective equations describing a time-dependent flow of a viscous incompressible Newtonian fluid through a long and narrow elastic tube. The 3D axially symmetric incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are used to model the flow. Two models are used to describe the tube wall: the linear membrane shell model and the linearly elastic membrane and the curved, linearly elastic Koiter shell model. We study the behavior of the coupled fluid-structure interaction problem in the limit when the ratio between the radius and the length of the tube, ɛ, tends to zero. We obtain the reduced equations that are of Biot type with memory. An interesting feature of the reduced equations is that the memory term explicitly captures the viscoelastic nature of the coupled problem. Our model provides significant improvement over the standard 1D approximations of the fluid-structure interaction problem, all of which assume an ad hoc closure assumption for the velocity profile. We performed experimental validation of the reduced model using a mock circulatory flow loop assembled at the Cardiovascular Research Laboratory at the Texas Heart Institute. Experimental results show excellent agreement with the numerically calculated solution. Major applications include blood flow through large human arteries. To cite this article: S. Čanić et al., C. R. Mecanique 333 (2005).
Fluid-Structure Interaction Modeling of High-Aspect Ratio Nuclear Fuel Plates Using COMSOL
Curtis, Franklin G; Ekici, Kivanc; Freels, James D
2013-01-01
The High Flux Isotope Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Lab is in the research stage of converting its fuel from high-enriched uranium to low-enriched uranium. Due to different physical properties of the new fuel and changes to the internal fuel plate design, the current safety basis must be re-evaluated through rigorous computational analyses. One of the areas being explored is the fluid-structure interaction phenomenon due to the interaction of thin fuel plates (50 mils thickness) and the cooling fluid (water). Detailed computational fluid dynamics and fluid-structure interaction simulations have only recently become feasible due to improved numerical algorithms and advancements in computing technology. For many reasons including the already built-in fluid-structure interaction module, COMSOL has been chosen for this complex problem. COMSOL's ability to solve multiphysics problems using a fully-coupled and implicit solution algorithm is crucial in obtaining a stable and accurate solution. Our initial findings show that COMSOL can accurately model such problems due to its ability to closely couple the fluid dynamics and the structural dynamics problems.
A semi-implicit level set method for multiphase flows and fluid-structure interaction problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cottet, Georges-Henri; Maitre, Emmanuel
2016-06-01
In this paper we present a novel semi-implicit time-discretization of the level set method introduced in [8] for fluid-structure interaction problems. The idea stems from a linear stability analysis derived on a simplified one-dimensional problem. The semi-implicit scheme relies on a simple filter operating as a pre-processing on the level set function. It applies to multiphase flows driven by surface tension as well as to fluid-structure interaction problems. The semi-implicit scheme avoids the stability constraints that explicit scheme need to satisfy and reduces significantly the computational cost. It is validated through comparisons with the original explicit scheme and refinement studies on two-dimensional benchmarks.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tezduyar, Tayfun E.
1998-01-01
This is a final report as far as our work at University of Minnesota is concerned. The report describes our research progress and accomplishments in development of high performance computing methods and tools for 3D finite element computation of aerodynamic characteristics and fluid-structure interactions (FSI) arising in airdrop systems, namely ram-air parachutes and round parachutes. This class of simulations involves complex geometries, flexible structural components, deforming fluid domains, and unsteady flow patterns. The key components of our simulation toolkit are a stabilized finite element flow solver, a nonlinear structural dynamics solver, an automatic mesh moving scheme, and an interface between the fluid and structural solvers; all of these have been developed within a parallel message-passing paradigm.
Active noise control - Piezoceramic actuators in fluid/structure interaction models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Banks, H. T.; Fang, W.; Smith, R. C.
1991-01-01
A model for a 2-D acoustic cavity with a flexible boundary (a beam) controlled via piezoceramic patches producing bending moments in the beam is considered. The associated control problem for this fluid/structure interaction system to reduce the acoustic pressure in the cavity involves unbounded control inputs. Approximation methods in the context of an LQR state space formulation are discussed, and numerical results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach in computing feedback controls for noise reduction.
Analytical and experimental study on the fluid structure interaction during air blast loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Erheng; Wright, Jefferson; Shukla, Arun
2011-12-01
A new fluid-structure interaction model that considers high gas compressibility is developed using the Rankine-Hugoniot relations. The impulse conservation between the gas and structure is utilized to determine the reflected pressure profile from the known incident pressure profile. The physical parameters of the gas such as the shock front velocity, gas density, local sound velocity, and gas particle velocity as well as the impulse transmitted onto the structure are also evaluated. A series of one-dimensional shock loading experiments on free standing monolithic aluminum plates were conducted using a shock tube to validate the proposed model. The momentum was evaluated using high speed digital imagery. The experimental peak reflected pressure, the reflected pressure profile, and the momentum transmitted onto the plate were compared with the predicted results. The comparisons show that the gas's compressibility significantly affects the fluid structure interaction behavior, and the new model can predict more accurate results than existing models. The effect of factors, such as the areal density of a plate and the peak incident pressure on momentum transfer are also discussed using the present model. Moreover, the maximum achievable momentum and the fluid structure interaction time are defined and calculated.
Ghaemi, Roza Vaez; Vahidi, Bahman; Sabour, Mohammad Hossein; Haghighipour, Nooshin; Alihemmati, Zakieh
2016-03-01
Although effects of biochemical modulation of stem cells have been widely investigated, only recent advances have been made in the identification of mechanical conditioning on cell signaling pathways. Experimental investigations quantifying the micromechanical environment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are challenging while computational approaches can predict their behavior due to in vitro stimulations. This study introduces a 3D cell-specific finite element model simulating large deformations of MSCs. Here emphasizing cell mechanical modulation which represents the most challenging multiphysics phenomena in sub-cellular level, we focused on an approach attempting to elicit unique responses of a cell under fluid flow. Fluorescent staining of MSCs was performed in order to visualize the MSC morphology and develop a geometrically accurate model of it based on a confocal 3D image. We developed a 3D model of a cell fixed in a microchannel under fluid flow and then solved the numerical model by fluid-structure interactions method. By imposing flow characteristics representative of vigorous in vitro conditions, the model predicts that the employed external flow induces significant localized effective stress in the nucleo-cytoplasmic interface and average cell deformation of about 40%. Moreover, it can be concluded that a lower strain level is made in the cell by the oscillatory flow as compared with steady flow, while same ranges of effective stress are recorded inside the cell in both conditions. The deeper understanding provided by this study is beneficial for better design of single cell in vitro studies. PMID:26333040
A 3D interactive optical manipulation platform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glückstad, Jesper; Rodrigo, Peter J.; Nielson, Ivan P.
2005-12-01
Three-dimensional light structures can be created by modulating the spatial phase and polarization properties of the laser light. A particularly promising technique is the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method invented and patented at Riso National Laboratory. Based on the combination of programmable spatial light modulator devices and an advanced graphical user-interface the GPC method enables real-time, interactive and arbitrary control over the dynamics and geometry of synthesized light patterns. Recent experiments have shown that GPC-driven micro-manipulation provides a unique technology platform for fully user-guided assembly of a plurality of particles in a plane, control of particle stacking along the beam axis, manipulation of multiple hollow beads, and the organization of living cells into three-dimensional colloidal structures. These demonstrations illustrate that GPC-driven micro-manipulation can be utilized not only for the improved synthesis of functional microstructures but also for non-contact and parallel actuation crucial for sophisticated opto- and micro-fluidic based lab-on-a-chip systems.
Experimental and numerical study on a laminar fluid-structure interaction reference test case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomes, J. Pereira; Yigit, S.; Lienhart, H.; Schäfer, M.
2011-01-01
With the rapid development of numerical codes for fluid-structure interaction computations, the demand for validation test cases increases. In this paper we present a comparison between numerical and experimental results for such a fluid-structure interaction reference test case. The investigated structural model consists of an aluminum front cylinder with an attached thin metal plate and a rear mass at the trailing edge. All the structure is free to rotate around the axle mounted in the center of the front cylinder. The model's geometry and mechanical properties are chosen in such a way as to attain a self-exciting periodical swiveling movement when exposed to a uniform laminar flow. Reproducibility of the coupled fluid-structure motion is the key criterion for the selection of the model in order to permit an accurate reconstruction of the results in the time-phase space. The Reynolds number of the tests varies up to 270 and within that range the structure undergoes large deformations and shows a strong nonlinear behavior. It also presents two different self-excitation mechanisms depending on the flow velocity. Hence, challenging tasks arise for both the numerical solution algorithm and the experimental measurements. To account for the two different excitation mechanisms observed on increasing the speed of the flow, results for two different velocities are considered: the first at 1.07 m/s (Re=140) and the second at 1.45 m/s (Re=195). The comparisons presented in this paper are carried out on the basis of the time trace of the front body angle, trailing edge coordinates, structure deformation and the time-phase resolved flow velocity field. They reveal very good agreement in some of the fluid-structure interaction modes whereas in others deficiencies are observed that need to be analyzed in more detail.
Computational modeling of RNA 3D structures and interactions.
Dawson, Wayne K; Bujnicki, Janusz M
2016-04-01
RNA molecules have key functions in cellular processes beyond being carriers of protein-coding information. These functions are often dependent on the ability to form complex three-dimensional (3D) structures. However, experimental determination of RNA 3D structures is difficult, which has prompted the development of computational methods for structure prediction from sequence. Recent progress in 3D structure modeling of RNA and emerging approaches for predicting RNA interactions with ions, ligands and proteins have been stimulated by successes in protein 3D structure modeling. PMID:26689764
A vorticity based approach to handle the fluid-structure interaction problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farahbakhsh, Iman; Ghassemi, Hassan; Sabetghadam, Fereidoun
2016-02-01
A vorticity based approach for the numerical solution of the fluid-structure interaction problems is introduced in which the fluid and structure(s) can be viewed as a continuum. Retrieving the vorticity field and recalculating a solenoidal velocity field, specially at the fluid-structure interface, are the kernel of the proposed algorithm. In the suggested method, a variety of constitutive equations as a function of left Cauchy-Green deformation tensor can be applied for modeling the structure domain. A nonlinear Mooney-Rivlin and Saint Venant-Kirchhoff model are expressed in terms of the left Cauchy-Green deformation tensor and the presented method is able to model the behavior of a visco-hyperelastic structure in the incompressible flow. Some numerical experiments, with considering the neo-Hookean model for structure domain, are executed and the results are validated via the available results from literature.
Development of an integrated BEM approach for hot fluid structure interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dargush, G. F.; Banerjee, P. K.; Shi, Y.
1991-01-01
The development of a comprehensive fluid-structure interaction capability within a boundary element computer code is described. This new capability is implemented in a completely general manner, so that quite arbitrary geometry, material properties and boundary conditions may be specified. Thus, a single analysis code can be used to run structures-only problems, fluids-only problems, or the combined fluid-structure problem. In all three cases, steady or transient conditions can be selected, with or without thermal effects. Nonlinear analyses can be solved via direct iteration or by employing a modified Newton-Raphson approach. A number of detailed numerical examples are included at the end of these two sections to validate the formulations and to emphasize both the accuracy and generality of the computer code. A brief review of the recent applicable boundary element literature is included for completeness. The fluid-structure interaction facility is discussed. Once again, several examples are provided to highlight this unique capability. A collection of potential boundary element applications that have been uncovered as a result of work related to the present grant is given. For most of those problems, satisfactory analysis techniques do not currently exist.
A Finite Element Procedure for Calculating Fluid-Structure Interaction Using MSC/NASTRAN
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chargin, Mladen; Gartmeier, Otto
1990-01-01
This report is intended to serve two purposes. The first is to present a survey of the theoretical background of the dynamic interaction between a non-viscid, compressible fluid and an elastic structure is presented. Section one presents a short survey of the application of the finite element method (FEM) to the area of fluid-structure-interaction (FSI). Section two describes the mathematical foundation of the structure and fluid with special emphasis on the fluid. The main steps in establishing the finite element (FE) equations for the fluid structure coupling are discussed in section three. The second purpose is to demonstrate the application of MSC/NASTRAN to the solution of FSI problems. Some specific topics, such as fluid structure analogy, acoustic absorption, and acoustic contribution analysis are described in section four. Section five deals with the organization of the acoustic procedure flowchart. Section six includes the most important information that a user needs for applying the acoustic procedure to practical FSI problems. Beginning with some rules concerning the FE modeling of the coupled system, the NASTRAN USER DECKs for the different steps are described. The goal of section seven is to demonstrate the use of the acoustic procedure with some examples. This demonstration includes an analytic verification of selected FE results. The analytical description considers only some aspects of FSI and is not intended to be mathematically complete. Finally, section 8 presents an application of the acoustic procedure to vehicle interior acoustic analysis with selected results.
A Parallel Monolithic Approach for Fluid-Structure Interaction in a Cerebral Aneurysm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahin, Mehmet; Eken, Ali
2014-11-01
A parallel fully-coupled approach has been developed for the fluid-structure interaction problem in a cerebral artery with aneurysm. An Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation based on the side-centered unstructured finite volume method is employed for the governing incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and the classical Galerkin finite element formulation is used to discretize the constitutive law for the Saint Venant-Kirchhoff material in a Lagrangian frame for the solid domain. The time integration method for the structure domain is based on the energy conserving mid-point method while the second-order backward difference is used within the fluid domain. The resulting large-scale algebraic linear equations are solved using a one-level restricted additive Schwarz preconditioner with a block-incomplete factorization within each partitioned sub-domains. The parallel implementation of the present fully coupled unstructured fluid-structure solver is based on the PETSc library. The proposed numerical algorithm is initially validated for several classical benchmark problems and then applied to a more complicated problem involving unsteady pulsatile blood flow in a cerebral artery with aneurysm as a realistic fluid-structure interaction problem encountered in biomechanics. The authors acknowledge financial support from Turkish National Scientific and Technical Research Council through Project Number 112M107.
Development of an integrated BEM approach for hot fluid structure interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dargush, G. F.; Banerjee, P. K.
1989-01-01
The progress made toward the development of a boundary element formulation for the study of hot fluid-structure interaction in Earth-to-Orbit engine hot section components is reported. The convective viscous integral formulation was derived and implemented in the general purpose computer program GP-BEST. The new convective kernel functions, in turn, necessitated the development of refined integration techniques. As a result, however, since the physics of the problem is embedded in these kernels, boundary element solutions can now be obtained at very high Reynolds number. Flow around obstacles can be solved approximately with an efficient linearized boundary-only analysis or, more exactly, by including all of the nonlinearities present in the neighborhood of the obstacle. The other major accomplishment was the development of a comprehensive fluid-structure interaction capability within GP-BEST. This new facility is implemented in a completely general manner, so that quite arbitrary geometry, material properties and boundary conditions may be specified. Thus, a single analysis code (GP-BEST) can be used to run structures-only problems, fluids-only problems, or the combined fluid-structure problem. In all three cases, steady or transient conditions can be selected, with or without thermal effects. Nonlinear analyses can be solved via direct iteration or by employing a modified Newton-Raphson approach.
Constructing 3D interaction maps from 1D epigenomes
Zhu, Yun; Chen, Zhao; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Mengchi; Medovoy, David; Whitaker, John W.; Ding, Bo; Li, Nan; Zheng, Lina; Wang, Wei
2016-01-01
The human genome is tightly packaged into chromatin whose functional output depends on both one-dimensional (1D) local chromatin states and three-dimensional (3D) genome organization. Currently, chromatin modifications and 3D genome organization are measured by distinct assays. An emerging question is whether it is possible to deduce 3D interactions by integrative analysis of 1D epigenomic data and associate 3D contacts to functionality of the interacting loci. Here we present EpiTensor, an algorithm to identify 3D spatial associations within topologically associating domains (TADs) from 1D maps of histone modifications, chromatin accessibility and RNA-seq. We demonstrate that active promoter–promoter, promoter–enhancer and enhancer–enhancer associations identified by EpiTensor are highly concordant with those detected by Hi-C, ChIA-PET and eQTL analyses at 200 bp resolution. Moreover, EpiTensor has identified a set of interaction hotspots, characterized by higher chromatin and transcriptional activity as well as enriched TF and ncRNA binding across diverse cell types, which may be critical for stabilizing the local 3D interactions. PMID:26960733
S3D: An interactive surface grid generation tool
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luh, Raymond Ching-Chung; Pierce, Lawrence E.; Yip, David
1992-01-01
S3D, an interactive software tool for surface grid generation, is described. S3D provides the means with which a geometry definition based either on a discretized curve set or a rectangular set can be quickly processed towards the generation of a surface grid for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications. This is made possible as a result of implementing commonly encountered surface gridding tasks in an environment with a highly efficient and user friendly graphical interface. Some of the more advanced features of S3D include surface-surface intersections, optimized surface domain decomposition and recomposition, and automated propagation of edge distributions to surrounding grids.
NASA VERVE: Interactive 3D Visualization Within Eclipse
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cohen, Tamar; Allan, Mark B.
2014-01-01
At NASA, we develop myriad Eclipse RCP applications to provide situational awareness for remote systems. The Intelligent Robotics Group at NASA Ames Research Center has developed VERVE - a high-performance, robot user interface that provides scientists, robot operators, and mission planners with powerful, interactive 3D displays of remote environments.VERVE includes a 3D Eclipse view with an embedded Java Ardor3D scenario, including SWT and mouse controls which interact with the Ardor3D camera and objects in the scene. VERVE also includes Eclipse views for exploring and editing objects in the Ardor3D scene graph, and a HUD (Heads Up Display) framework allows Growl-style notifications and other textual information to be overlayed onto the 3D scene. We use VERVE to listen to telemetry from robots and display the robots and associated scientific data along the terrain they are exploring; VERVE can be used for any interactive 3D display of data.VERVE is now open source. VERVE derives from the prior Viz system, which was developed for Mars Polar Lander (2001) and used for the Mars Exploration Rover (2003) and the Phoenix Lander (2008). It has been used for ongoing research with IRG's K10 and KRex rovers in various locations. VERVE was used on the International Space Station during two experiments in 2013 - Surface Telerobotics, in which astronauts controlled robots on Earth from the ISS, and SPHERES, where astronauts control a free flying robot on board the ISS.We will show in detail how to code with VERVE, how to interact between SWT controls to the Ardor3D scenario, and share example code.
Frequency modelling and solution of fluid-structure interaction in complex pipelines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yuanzhi; Johnston, D. Nigel; Jiao, Zongxia; Plummer, Andrew R.
2014-05-01
Complex pipelines may have various structural supports and boundary conditions, as well as branches. To analyse the vibrational characteristics of piping systems, frequency modelling and solution methods considering complex constraints are developed here. A fourteen-equation model and Transfer Matrix Method (TMM) are employed to describe Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) in liquid-filled pipes. A general solution for the multi-branch pipe is proposed in this paper, offering a methodology to predict frequency responses of the complex piping system. Some branched pipe systems are built for the purpose of validation, indicating good agreement with calculated results.
Variable transfer methods for fluid-structure interaction computations with staggered solvers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaassen, J. M.; Klapka, I.; Leonard, B.; Hirsch, C.
2009-09-01
This paper intends to study methods that have been tested to transfer variables from one skin mesh to another (the two meshes being nonconform) in order to compute fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems with staggered solvers. The methods are a contact elements method developed by Stam, and different radial basis functions methods. The structure code is OOFELIE® developed at Open-Engineering (Belgium) and the fluid code is FINETM/Hexa developed at Numeca International (Belgium). The paper presents the performances of the methods on a simple variable transfer, and testcases that have been performed with the solver developed by the two companies.
Kemp, I; Dellimore, K; Rodriguez, R; Scheffer, C; Blaine, D; Weich, H; Doubell, A
2013-09-01
Experiments performed on a 19 mm diameter bioprosthetic valve were used to successfully validate the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulation of an aortic valve at 72 bpm. The FSI simulation was initialized via a novel approach utilizing a Doppler sonogram of the experimentally tested valve. Using this approach very close quantitative agreement (≤12.5%) between the numerical predictions and experimental values for several key valve performance parameters, including the peak systolic transvalvular pressure gradient, rapid valve opening time and rapid valve closing time, was obtained. The predicted valve leaflet kinematics during opening and closing were also in good agreement with the experimental measurements. PMID:23907849
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Siyuan; Luo, Haoxiang; Novaleski, Carolyn; Rousseau, Bernard
2014-11-01
A subject-specific computational model has been developed to simulate flow-induced vocal fold vibration for evoked rabbit phonation. A freshly excised larynx was scanned using micro magnetic resonance imaging. Images were segmented to identify the vocal fold tissue and lumen surface. The 3D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model was then constructed with experimentally measured flow parameters as input. The tissue deformation is assumed to be finite, and a previously developed FSI solver is used to simulate the coupled flow and nonlinear tissue mechanics. In addition, a one-dimensional flow model based on heuristic estimate of the flow separation point is used as an efficient tool to guide the full 3D simulation. This low-order model is motivated by presence of uncertainties in the tissue properties and boundary conditions, and it has proven to be very useful in our study. Similarities and differences in the vibration characteristics of the vocal fold predicted by these two models will be discussed.
Bhattacharyya, S K; Premkumar, R
2003-12-01
In a domain method of solution of exterior scalar wave equation, the radiation condition needs to be imposed on a truncation boundary of the modeling domain. The Bayliss, Gunzberger, and Turkel (BGT) boundary dampers, which require a circular cylindrical and spherical truncation boundaries in two-(2D) and three-(3D)-dimensional problems, respectively, have been particularly successful in the analysis of scattering and radiation problems. However, for an elongated body, elliptical (2D) or spheroidal (3D) truncation boundaries have potential to reduce the size of modeling domain and hence computational effort. For harmonic problems, such extensions of the first- and second-order BGT dampers are available in the literature. In this paper, BGT dampers in both elliptical and spheroidal coordinate systems have been developed for transient problems involving acoustic radiation as well as fluid-structure interaction and implemented in the context of finite-element method based upon unsymmetric pressure-displacement formulation. Applications to elongated radiators and shells are reported using several numerical examples with excellent comparisons. It is demonstrated that significant computational economy can be achieved for elongated bodies with the use of these dampers. PMID:14714787
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharyya, S. K.; Premkumar, R.
2003-12-01
In a domain method of solution of exterior scalar wave equation, the radiation condition needs to be imposed on a truncation boundary of the modeling domain. The Bayliss, Gunzberger, and Turkel (BGT) boundary dampers, which require a circular cylindrical and spherical truncation boundaries in two-(2D) and three-(3D)-dimensional problems, respectively, have been particularly successful in the analysis of scattering and radiation problems. However, for an elongated body, elliptical (2D) or spheroidal (3D) truncation boundaries have potential to reduce the size of modeling domain and hence computational effort. For harmonic problems, such extensions of the first- and second-order BGT dampers are available in the literature. In this paper, BGT dampers in both elliptical and spheroidal coordinate systems have been developed for transient problems involving acoustic radiation as well as fluid-structure interaction and implemented in the context of finite-element method based upon unsymmetric pressure-displacement formulation. Applications to elongated radiators and shells are reported using several numerical examples with excellent comparisons. It is demonstrated that significant computational economy can be achieved for elongated bodies with the use of these dampers.
Design of a 3D Navigation Technique Supporting VR Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boudoin, Pierre; Otmane, Samir; Mallem, Malik
2008-06-01
Multimodality is a powerful paradigm to increase the realness and the easiness of the interaction in Virtual Environments (VEs). In particular, the search for new metaphors and techniques for 3D interaction adapted to the navigation task is an important stage for the realization of future 3D interaction systems that support multimodality, in order to increase efficiency and usability. In this paper we propose a new multimodal 3D interaction model called Fly Over. This model is especially devoted to the navigation task. We present a qualitative comparison between Fly Over and a classical navigation technique called gaze-directed steering. The results from preliminary evaluation on the IBISC semi-immersive Virtual Reality/Augmented Realty EVR@ platform show that Fly Over is a user friendly and efficient navigation technique.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avalos, George; Triggiani, Roberto
A 2-d or 3-d fluid-structure interaction model in its linear form is considered, for which semigroup well-posedness (with explicit generator) was recently established in [G. Avalos, R. Triggiani, The coupled PDE-system arising in fluid-structure interaction. Part I: Explicit semigroup generator and its spectral properties, in: Fluids and Waves, in: Contemp. Math., vol. 440, Amer. Math. Soc., 2007, pp. 15-55; G. Avalos, R. Triggiani, The coupled PDE-system arising in fluid-structure interaction. Part II: Uniform stabilization with boundary dissipation at the interface, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst., in press]. This is a system which couples at the interface the linear version of the Navier-Stokes equations with the equations of linear elasticity (wave-like). In this paper, we establish a backward uniqueness theorem for such a parabolic-hyperbolic coupled PDE system. If { is the (contraction) s.c. semigroup describing its evolution on the finite energy space H, then ey=0 for some T>0 and y∈H, implies y=0. This property has implications in establishing unique continuation and controllability properties, as in the case of thermoelastic equations [M. Eller, I. Lasiecka, R. Triggiani, Simultaneous exact/approximate boundary controllability of thermoelastic plates with variable coefficient, in: Marcel Dekker Lect. Notes Pure Appl. Math., vol. 216, February 2001, pp. 109-230, invited paper for the special volume entitled Shape Optimization and Optimal Designs, J. Cagnol, J.P. Zolesio (Eds). (Preliminary version is in invited paper in: A.V. Balakrishnan (Ed.), Semigroup of Operators and Applications, Birkhäuser, 2000, pp. 335-351.); M. Eller, I. Lasiecka, R. Triggiani, Simultaneous exact/approximate boundary controllability of thermoelastic plates with variable thermal coefficient and moment control, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 251 (2000) 452-478; M. Eller, I. Lasiecka, R. Triggiani, Simultaneous exact/approximate boundary controllability of thermoelastic plates with variable
A Monolithic Algorithm for High Reynolds Number Fluid-Structure Interaction Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lieberknecht, Erika; Sheldon, Jason; Pitt, Jonathan
2013-11-01
Simulations of fluid-structure interaction problems with high Reynolds number flows are typically approached with partitioned algorithms that leverage the robustness of traditional finite volume method based CFD techniques for flows of this nature. However, such partitioned algorithms are subject to many sub-iterations per simulation time-step, which substantially increases the computational cost when a tightly coupled solution is desired. To address this issue, we present a finite element method based monolithic algorithm for fluid-structure interaction problems with high Reynolds number flow. The use of a monolithic algorithm will potentially reduce the computational cost during each time-step, but requires that all of the governing equations be simultaneously cast in a single Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) frame of reference and subjected to the same discretization strategy. The formulation for the fluid solution is stabilized by implementing a Streamline Upwind Galerkin (SUPG) method, and a projection method for equal order interpolation of all of the solution unknowns; numerical and programming details are discussed. Preliminary convergence studies and numerical investigations are presented, to demonstrate the algorithm's robustness and performance. The authors acknowledge support for this project from the Applied Research Laboratory Eric Walker Graduate Fellowship Program.
An enhanced Immersed Structural Potential Method for fluid-structure interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gil, A. J.; Arranz Carreño, A.; Bonet, J.; Hassan, O.
2013-10-01
Within the group of immersed boundary methods employed for the numerical simulation of fluid-structure interaction problems, the Immersed Structural Potential Method (ISPM) was recently introduced (Gil et al., 2010) [1] in order to overcome some of the shortcomings of existing immersed methodologies. In the ISPM, an incompressible immersed solid is modelled as a deviatoric strain energy functional whose spatial gradient defines a fluid-structure interaction force field in the Navier-Stokes equations used to resolve the underlying incompressible Newtonian viscous fluid. In this paper, two enhancements of the methodology are presented. First, the introduction of a new family of spline-based kernel functions for the transfer of information between both physics. In contrast to classical IBM kernels, these new kernels are shown not to introduce spurious oscillations in the solution. Second, the use of tensorised Gaussian quadrature rules that allow for accurate and efficient numerical integration of the immersed structural potential. A series of numerical examples will be presented in order to demonstrate the capabilities of the enhanced methodology and to draw some key comparisons against other existing immersed methodologies in terms of accuracy, preservation of the incompressibility constraint and computational speed.
Wang, C.Y.; Zeuch, W.R.
1982-01-01
This paper describes an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method for analyzing fluid-structure interactions in fast-reactor containment with complex internal structures. The fluid transient can be calculated either implicitly or explicitly, using a finite-difference mesh with vertices that may be moved with the fluid (Lagrangian), held fixed (Eulerian), or moved in any other prescribed manner (hybrid Lagrangian Eulerian). The structural response is computed explicitly by two nonlinear, elastic-plastic finite-element modules formulated in corotational coordinates. Interaction between fluid and structure is accounted for by enforcing the interface boundary conditions. The method has convincing advantages in treating complicated phenomena such as flow through perforated structures, large material distortions, flow around corners and irregularities, and highly contorted fluid boundaries. Several sample problems are given to illustrate the effectiveness of this arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sances, Dillon J.; Gangadharan, Sathya N.; Sudermann, James E.; Marsell, Brandon
2010-01-01
Liquid sloshing within spacecraft propellant tanks causes rapid energy dissipation at resonant modes, which can result in attitude destabilization of the vehicle. Identifying resonant slosh modes currently requires experimental testing and mechanical pendulum analogs to characterize the slosh dynamics. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques have recently been validated as an effective tool for simulating fuel slosh within free-surface propellant tanks. Propellant tanks often incorporate an internal flexible diaphragm to separate ullage and propellant which increases modeling complexity. A coupled fluid-structure CFD model is required to capture the damping effects of a flexible diaphragm on the propellant. ANSYS multidisciplinary engineering software employs a coupled solver for analyzing two-way Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) cases such as the diaphragm propellant tank system. Slosh models generated by ANSYS software are validated by experimental lateral slosh test results. Accurate data correlation would produce an innovative technique for modeling fuel slosh within diaphragm tanks and provide an accurate and efficient tool for identifying resonant modes and the slosh dynamic response.
Development of an integrated BEM approach for hot fluid structure interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dargush, Gary F.; Banerjee, Prasanta K.; Honkala, Keith A.
1991-01-01
The development of a boundary element formulation for the study of hot fluid-structure interaction in earth-to-orbit engine hot section components is described. The initial primary thrust of the program to date was directed quite naturally toward the examination of fluid flow, since boundary element methods for fluids are at a much less developed state. This required the development of integral formulations for both the solid and fluid, and some preliminary infrastructural enhancements to a boundary element code to permit coupling of the fluid-structure problem. Boundary element formulations are implemented in two dimensions for both the solid and the fluid. The solid is modeled as an uncoupled thermoelastic medium under plane strain conditions, while several formulations are investigated for the fluid. For example, both vorticity and primitive variable approaches are implemented for viscous, incompressible flow, and a compressible version is developed. All of the above boundary element implementations are incorporated in a general purpose two-dimensional code. Thus, problems involving intricate geometry, multiple generic modeling regions, and arbitrary boundary conditions are all supported.
Fluid-Structure Interaction Study on a Pre-Buckled Deformable Flat Ribbon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fovargue, Lauren; Shams, Ehsan; Watterson, Amy; Corson, Dave; Filardo, Benjamin; Zimmerman, Daniel; Shan, Bob; Oberai, Assad
2015-11-01
A Fluid-Structure Interaction study is conducted for the flow over a deformable flat ribbon. This mechanism, which is called ribbon frond, maybe used as a device for pumping water and/or harvesting energy in rivers. We use a lower dimensional mathematical model, which represents the ribbon as a pre-buckled structure. The surface forces from the fluid flow, dictate the deformation of the ribbon, and the ribbon in turn imposes boundary conditions for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The mesh motion is handled using an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) scheme and the fluid-structure coupling is handled by iterating over the staggered governing equations for the structure, the fluid and the mesh. Simulations are conducted at three different free stream velocities. The results, including the frequency of oscillations, show agreement with experimental data. The vortical structures near the surface of the ribbon and its deformation are highly correlated. It is observed that the ribbon motion exhibits deviation from a harmonic motion, especially at lower free stream velocities. The behavior of the ribbon is compared to swimming animals, such as eels, in order to better understand its performance. The authors acknowledge support from ONR SBIR Phase II, contract No. N0001412C0604 and USDA, NIFA SBIR Phase I, contract No. 2013-33610-20836 and NYSERDA PON 2569, contract No. 30364.
Interactive 3D visualisation of ECMWF ensemble weather forecasts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rautenhaus, Marc; Grams, Christian M.; Schäfler, Andreas; Westermann, Rüdiger
2013-04-01
We investigate the feasibility of interactive 3D visualisation of ensemble weather predictions in a way suited for weather forecasting during aircraft-based atmospheric field campaigns. The study builds upon our previous work on web-based, 2D visualisation of numerical weather prediction data for the purpose of research flight planning (Rautenhaus et al., Geosci. Model Dev., 5, 55-71, 2012). Now we explore how interactive 3D visualisation of ensemble forecasts can be used to quickly identify atmospheric features relevant to a flight and to assess their uncertainty. We use data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Ensemble Prediction System (EPS) and present techniques to interactively visualise the forecasts on a commodity desktop PC with a state-of-the-art graphics card. Major objectives of this study are: (1) help the user transition from the ``familiar'' 2D views (horizontal maps and vertical cross-sections) to 3D visualisation by putting interactive 2D views into a 3D context and enriching them with 3D elements, at the same time (2) maintain a high degree of quantitativeness in the visualisation to facilitate easy interpretation; (3) exploitation of the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) for maximum interactivity; (4) investigation of how visualisation can be performed directly from datasets on ECMWF hybrid model levels; (5) development of a basic forecasting tool that provides synchronized navigation through forecast base and lead times, as well as through the ensemble dimension and (6) interactive computation and visualisation of ensemble-based quantities. A prototype of our tool was used for weather forecasting during the aircraft-based T-NAWDEX-Falcon field campaign, which took place in October 2012 at the German Aerospace Centre's (DLR) Oberpfaffenhofen base. We reconstruct the forecast of a warm conveyor belt situation that occurred during the campaign and discuss challenges and opportunities posed by employing three
The Effectiveness of the Perfectly Matched Layer in Fluid-Structure Interaction Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lucy; Yang, Jubiao
2015-11-01
It is well recognized that spurious reflections on computational domain boundaries can have contamination of the flow field when solving fluid and/or wave equations. The effects are even more pronounced in fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems, since the solid responses may be distorted due to the contaminated flow field. In this work, we implemented the perfectly matched layer (PML) technique and applied it in our fully-coupled immersed finite element method (IFEM), where Navier-Stokes equations are solved in the fluid domain with finite element method. With PML included as an absorbing layer it successfully absorbs outgoing waves from the interior of the computational domain and therefore keeps them from reflecting back from the computational boundary. Validation cases are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the PML in pure computational fluid dynamics cases, and then followed by FSI problems.
Development of an integrated BEM approach for hot fluid structure interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dargush, Gary F.; Banerjee, Prasanta K.; Honkala, Keith A.
1988-01-01
In the present work, the boundary element method (BEM) is chosen as the basic analysis tool, principally because the definition of temperature, flux, displacement and traction are very precise on a boundary-based discretization scheme. One fundamental difficulty is, of course, that a BEM formulation requires a considerable amount of analytical work, which is not needed in the other numerical methods. Progress made toward the development of a boundary element formulation for the study of hot fluid-structure interaction in Earth-to-Orbit engine hot section components is reported. The primary thrust of the program to date has been directed quite naturally toward the examination of fluid flow, since boundary element methods for fluids are at a much less developed state.
Nonlinear fluid/structure interaction relating a rupture-disc pressure-relief device. [LMFBR
Hsieh, B.J.; Kot, C.A.; Shin, Y.W.; Youngdahl, C.K.
1983-01-01
Rupture disc assemblies are used in piping network systems as a pressure-relief device. The reverse-buckling type is chosen for application in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. This assembly is used successfully in systems in which the fluid is highly compressible, such as air; the opening up of the disc by the knife setup is complete. However, this is not true for a liquid system; it had been observed experimentally that the disc may open up only partially or not at all. Therefore, to realistically understand and represent a rupture disc assembly in a liquid environment, the fluid-structure interactions between the liquid medium and the disc assembly must be considered. The methods for analyzing the fluid and the disc and the mechanism interconnecting them are presented. The fluid is allowed to cavitate through a column-cavitation model and the disc is allowed to become plastically deformed through the classic Von Mises' yield criteria, when necessary.
Ferman, M.A.
1994-12-31
A collection of some highlights of the Author`s experiences with nonlinear dynamics in analyses and tests of Panels and Membranes encountered over the past 40 years is given. The primary focus is placed on a major block of his work since the early 70`s, involving work with fluid-structure interaction with Panels and Membranes, and with efforts in Acoustic Fatigue of Panels. While the Author had encountered nonlinear problems throughout Ins career involving flutter, vibration in general, and dynamic thrust instability; it was the more recent work with panels and membranes that greatly expanded his experience. This was triggered by the advent of highly maneuverable aircraft, powered by large powerful, noisy engines, and new materials in the mid 70`s. The significance of nonlinearity for these applications is most obvious from the results shown here-it simply cannot be ignored for optimal, safe design.
An immersed-shell method for modelling fluid-structure interactions.
Viré, A; Xiang, J; Pain, C C
2015-02-28
The paper presents a novel method for numerically modelling fluid-structure interactions. The method consists of solving the fluid-dynamics equations on an extended domain, where the computational mesh covers both fluid and solid structures. The fluid and solid velocities are relaxed to one another through a penalty force. The latter acts on a thin shell surrounding the solid structures. Additionally, the shell is represented on the extended domain by a non-zero shell-concentration field, which is obtained by conservatively mapping the shell mesh onto the extended mesh. The paper outlines the theory underpinning this novel method, referred to as the immersed-shell approach. It also shows how the coupling between a fluid- and a structural-dynamics solver is achieved. At this stage, results are shown for cases of fundamental interest. PMID:25583857
Development of an integrated BEM approach for hot fluid structure interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dargush, Gary F.; Banerjee, Prasanta K.; Dunn, Michael G.
1988-01-01
Significant progress was made toward the goal of developing a general purpose boundary element method for hot fluid-structure interaction. For the solid phase, a boundary-only formulation was developed and implemented for uncoupled transient thermoelasticity in two dimensions. The elimination of volume discretization not only drastically reduces required modeling effort, but also permits unconstrained variation of the through-the-thickness temperature distribution. Meanwhile, for the fluids, fundamental solutions were derived for transient incompressible and compressible flow in the absence of the convective terms. Boundary element formulations were developed and described. For the incompressible case, the necessary kernal functions, under transient and steady-state conditions, were derived and fully implemented into a general purpose, multi-region boundary element code. Several examples were examined to study the suitability and convergence characteristics of the various algorithms.
Optimization and analysis of centrifugal pump considering fluid-structure interaction.
Zhang, Yu; Hu, Sanbao; Zhang, Yunqing; Chen, Liping
2014-01-01
This paper presents the optimization of vibrations of centrifugal pump considering fluid-structure interaction (FSI). A set of centrifugal pumps with various blade shapes were studied using FSI method, in order to investigate the transient vibration performance. The Kriging model, based on the results of the FSI simulations, was established to approximate the relationship between the geometrical parameters of pump impeller and the root mean square (RMS) values of the displacement response at the pump bearing block. Hence, multi-island genetic algorithm (MIGA) has been implemented to minimize the RMS value of the impeller displacement. A prototype of centrifugal pump has been manufactured and an experimental validation of the optimization results has been carried out. The comparison among results of Kriging surrogate model, FSI simulation, and experimental test showed a good consistency of the three approaches. Finally, the transient mechanical behavior of pump impeller has been investigated using FSI method based on the optimized geometry parameters of pump impeller. PMID:25197690
Strongly coupled partitioned approach for fluid structure interaction in free surface flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Facci, Andrea Luigi; Ubertini, Stefano
2016-06-01
In this paper we describe and validate a methodology for the numerical simulation of the fluid structure interaction in free surface flows. Specifically, this study concentrates on the vertical impact of a rigid body on the water surface, (i.e. on the hull slamming problem). The fluid flow is modeled through the volume of fluid methodology, and the structure dynamics is described by the Newton's second law. An iterative algorithm guarantees the tight coupling between the fluid and solid solvers, allowing the simulations of lightweight (i.e. buoyant) structures. The methodology is validated comparing numerical results to experimental data on the free fall of different rigid wedges. The correspondence between numerical results and independent experimental findings from literature evidences the reliability and the accuracy of the proposed approach.
Optimization and Analysis of Centrifugal Pump considering Fluid-Structure Interaction
Hu, Sanbao
2014-01-01
This paper presents the optimization of vibrations of centrifugal pump considering fluid-structure interaction (FSI). A set of centrifugal pumps with various blade shapes were studied using FSI method, in order to investigate the transient vibration performance. The Kriging model, based on the results of the FSI simulations, was established to approximate the relationship between the geometrical parameters of pump impeller and the root mean square (RMS) values of the displacement response at the pump bearing block. Hence, multi-island genetic algorithm (MIGA) has been implemented to minimize the RMS value of the impeller displacement. A prototype of centrifugal pump has been manufactured and an experimental validation of the optimization results has been carried out. The comparison among results of Kriging surrogate model, FSI simulation, and experimental test showed a good consistency of the three approaches. Finally, the transient mechanical behavior of pump impeller has been investigated using FSI method based on the optimized geometry parameters of pump impeller. PMID:25197690
A Phase-Field Method for Simulating Fluid-Structure Interactions in Multi-Phase Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Xiaoning; Karniadakis, George
2015-11-01
We investigate two-phase flow instabilities by numerical simulations of fluid structure interactions in two-phase flow. The first case is a flexible pipe conveying two fluids, which exhibits self-sustained oscillations at high Reynolds number and tension related parameter. Well-defined two-phase flow patterns, i.e., slug flow and bubbly flow, are observed. The second case is external two-phase cross flow past a circular cylinder, which induces a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability due to density stratification. We solve the Navier-Stokes equation coupled with the Cahn-Hilliard equation and the structure equation in an arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) framework. For the fluid solver, a spectral/hp element method is employed for spatial discretization and backward differentiation for time discretization. For the structure solver, a Galerkin method is used in Lagrangian coordinates for spatial discretization and the Newmark- β scheme for time discretization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korobenko, Artem
During the last several decades engineers and scientists put significant effort into developing reliable and efficient wind turbines. As a wind power production demands grow, the wind energy research and development need to be enhanced with high-precision methods and tools. These include time-dependent, full-scale, complex-geometry advanced computational simulations at large-scale. Those, computational analysis of wind turbines, including fluid-structure interaction simulations (FSI) at full scale is important for accurate and reliable modeling, as well as blade failure prediction and design optimization. In current dissertation the FSI framework is applied to most challenging class of problems, such as large scale horizontal axis wind turbines and vertical axis wind turbines. The governing equations for aerodynamics and structural mechanics together with coupled formulation are explained in details. The simulations are performed for different wind turbine designs, operational conditions and validated against field-test and wind tunnel experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bazilevs, Yuri; Hsu, M.-C.; Benson, D. J.; Sankaran, S.; Marsden, A. L.
2009-12-01
The Fontan procedure is a surgery that is performed on single-ventricle heart patients, and, due to the wide range of anatomies and variations among patients, lends itself nicely to study by advanced numerical methods. We focus on a patient-specific Fontan configuration, and perform a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis of hemodynamics and vessel wall motion. To enable physiologically realistic simulations, a simple approach to constructing a variable-thickness blood vessel wall description is proposed. Rest and exercise conditions are simulated and rigid versus flexible vessel wall simulation results are compared. We conclude that flexible wall modeling plays an important role in predicting quantities of hemodynamic interest in the Fontan connection. To the best of our knowledge, this paper presents the first three-dimensional patient-specific fully coupled FSI analysis of a total cavopulmonary connection that also includes large portions of the pulmonary circulation.
Fluid-structure interaction analysis of the left coronary artery with variable angulation.
Dong, Jingliang; Sun, Zhonghua; Inthavong, Kiao; Tu, Jiyuan
2015-01-01
The aim of this study is to elucidate the correlation between coronary artery branch angulation, local mechanical and haemodynamic forces at the vicinity of bifurcation. Using a coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) modelling approach, five idealized left coronary artery models with various angles ranging from 70° to 110° were developed to investigate the influence of branch angulations. In addition, one CT image-based model was reconstructed to further demonstrate the medical application potential of the proposed FSI coupling method. The results show that the angulation strongly alters its mechanical stress distribution, and the instantaneous wall shear stress distributions are substantially moderated by the arterial wall compliance. As high tensile stress is hypothesized to cause stenosis, the left circumflex side bifurcation shoulder is indicated to induce atherosclerotic changes with a high tendency for wide-angled models. PMID:24897936
Fluid-Structure Interaction for Coolant Flow in Research-type Nuclear Reactors
Curtis, Franklin G; Ekici, Kivanc; Freels, James D
2011-01-01
The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is scheduled to undergo a conversion of the fuel used and this proposed change requires an extensive analysis of the flow through the reactor core. The core consists of 540 very thin and long fuel plates through which the coolant (water) flows at a very high rate. Therefore, the design and the flow conditions make the plates prone to dynamic and static deflections, which may result in flow blockage and structural failure which in turn may cause core damage. To investigate the coolant flow between fuel plates and associated structural deflections, the Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) module in COMSOL will be used. Flow induced flutter and static deflections will be examined. To verify the FSI module, a test case of a cylinder in crossflow, with vortex induced vibrations was performed and validated.
Methods for simulation-based analysis of fluid-structure interaction.
Barone, Matthew Franklin; Payne, Jeffrey L.
2005-10-01
Methods for analysis of fluid-structure interaction using high fidelity simulations are critically reviewed. First, a literature review of modern numerical techniques for simulation of aeroelastic phenomena is presented. The review focuses on methods contained within the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) framework for coupling computational fluid dynamics codes to computational structural mechanics codes. The review treats mesh movement algorithms, the role of the geometric conservation law, time advancement schemes, wetted surface interface strategies, and some representative applications. The complexity and computational expense of coupled Navier-Stokes/structural dynamics simulations points to the need for reduced order modeling to facilitate parametric analysis. The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD)/Galerkin projection approach for building a reduced order model (ROM) is presented, along with ideas for extension of the methodology to allow construction of ROMs based on data generated from ALE simulations.
Embedded Interface with Discontinuous Lagrange Multipliers for Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomes, H. C.; Pimenta, P. M.
2015-03-01
This work addresses some issues in the embedded interface method for the conjoined interface between fluid and structure domains in two-dimensional Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) coupled problems. Our approach uses Lagrange multipliers to enforce the kinematic condition along the interface between the non-matching overlapping meshes of the structural and fluid fields in an alternative to the usual Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) approaches. The main idea of our work is to discretize the embedded interface independently of the fluid and solid mesh, using discontinuous interpolating functions. The purpose of this is to avoid numerical instabilities and to simplify the implementation. In order to illustrate the method's applicability, steady and unsteady simulations of incompressible viscous flow with a moving interface as well as FSI problems involving large structural displacements were performed.
Harnessing fluid-structure interactions to design self-regulating acoustic metamaterials
Casadei, Filippo; Bertoldi, Katia
2014-01-21
The design of phononic crystals and acoustic metamaterials with tunable and adaptive wave properties remains one of the outstanding challenges for the development of next generation acoustic devices. We report on the numerical and experimental demonstration of a locally resonant acoustic metamaterial with dispersion characteristics, which autonomously adapt in response to changes of an incident aerodynamic flow. The metamaterial consists of a slender beam featuring a periodic array or airfoil-shaped masses supported by a linear and torsional springs. The resonance characteristics of the airfoils lead to strong attenuation at frequencies defined by the properties of the airfoils and the speed on the incident fluid. The proposed concept expands the ability of existing acoustic bandgap materials to autonomously adapt their dispersion properties through fluid-structure interactions, and has the potential to dramatically impact a variety of applications, such as robotics, civil infrastructures, and defense systems.
3D RNA and Functional Interactions from Evolutionary Couplings.
Weinreb, Caleb; Riesselman, Adam J; Ingraham, John B; Gross, Torsten; Sander, Chris; Marks, Debora S
2016-05-01
Non-coding RNAs are ubiquitous, but the discovery of new RNA gene sequences far outpaces the research on the structure and functional interactions of these RNA gene sequences. We mine the evolutionary sequence record to derive precise information about the function and structure of RNAs and RNA-protein complexes. As in protein structure prediction, we use maximum entropy global probability models of sequence co-variation to infer evolutionarily constrained nucleotide-nucleotide interactions within RNA molecules and nucleotide-amino acid interactions in RNA-protein complexes. The predicted contacts allow all-atom blinded 3D structure prediction at good accuracy for several known RNA structures and RNA-protein complexes. For unknown structures, we predict contacts in 160 non-coding RNA families. Beyond 3D structure prediction, evolutionary couplings help identify important functional interactions-e.g., at switch points in riboswitches and at a complex nucleation site in HIV. Aided by increasing sequence accumulation, evolutionary coupling analysis can accelerate the discovery of functional interactions and 3D structures involving RNA. PMID:27087444
Convergence acceleration for partitioned simulations of the fluid-structure interaction in arteries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radtke, Lars; Larena-Avellaneda, Axel; Debus, Eike Sebastian; Düster, Alexander
2016-06-01
We present a partitioned approach to fluid-structure interaction problems arising in analyses of blood flow in arteries. Several strategies to accelerate the convergence of the fixed-point iteration resulting from the coupling of the fluid and the structural sub-problem are investigated. The Aitken relaxation and variants of the interface quasi-Newton -least-squares method are applied to different test cases. A hybrid variant of two well-known variants of the interface quasi-Newton-least-squares method is found to perform best. The test cases cover the typical boundary value problem faced when simulating the fluid-structure interaction in arteries, including a strong added mass effect and a wet surface which accounts for a large part of the overall surface of each sub-problem. A rubber-like Neo Hookean material model and a soft-tissue-like Holzapfel-Gasser-Ogden material model are used to describe the artery wall and are compared in terms of stability and computational expenses. To avoid any kind of locking, high-order finite elements are used to discretize the structural sub-problem. The finite volume method is employed to discretize the fluid sub-problem. We investigate the influence of mass-proportional damping and the material model chosen for the artery on the performance and stability of the acceleration strategies as well as on the simulation results. To show the applicability of the partitioned approach to clinical relevant studies, the hemodynamics in a pathologically deformed artery are investigated, taking the findings of the test case simulations into account.
Fluid/Structure Interaction Studies of Aircraft Using High Fidelity Equations on Parallel Computers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guruswamy, Guru; VanDalsem, William (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
Abstract Aeroelasticity which involves strong coupling of fluids, structures and controls is an important element in designing an aircraft. Computational aeroelasticity using low fidelity methods such as the linear aerodynamic flow equations coupled with the modal structural equations are well advanced. Though these low fidelity approaches are computationally less intensive, they are not adequate for the analysis of modern aircraft such as High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) and Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) which can experience complex flow/structure interactions. HSCT can experience vortex induced aeroelastic oscillations whereas AST can experience transonic buffet associated structural oscillations. Both aircraft may experience a dip in the flutter speed at the transonic regime. For accurate aeroelastic computations at these complex fluid/structure interaction situations, high fidelity equations such as the Navier-Stokes for fluids and the finite-elements for structures are needed. Computations using these high fidelity equations require large computational resources both in memory and speed. Current conventional super computers have reached their limitations both in memory and speed. As a result, parallel computers have evolved to overcome the limitations of conventional computers. This paper will address the transition that is taking place in computational aeroelasticity from conventional computers to parallel computers. The paper will address special techniques needed to take advantage of the architecture of new parallel computers. Results will be illustrated from computations made on iPSC/860 and IBM SP2 computer by using ENSAERO code that directly couples the Euler/Navier-Stokes flow equations with high resolution finite-element structural equations.
Convergence acceleration for partitioned simulations of the fluid-structure interaction in arteries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radtke, Lars; Larena-Avellaneda, Axel; Debus, Eike Sebastian; Düster, Alexander
2016-02-01
We present a partitioned approach to fluid-structure interaction problems arising in analyses of blood flow in arteries. Several strategies to accelerate the convergence of the fixed-point iteration resulting from the coupling of the fluid and the structural sub-problem are investigated. The Aitken relaxation and variants of the interface quasi-Newton -least-squares method are applied to different test cases. A hybrid variant of two well-known variants of the interface quasi-Newton-least-squares method is found to perform best. The test cases cover the typical boundary value problem faced when simulating the fluid-structure interaction in arteries, including a strong added mass effect and a wet surface which accounts for a large part of the overall surface of each sub-problem. A rubber-like Neo Hookean material model and a soft-tissue-like Holzapfel-Gasser-Ogden material model are used to describe the artery wall and are compared in terms of stability and computational expenses. To avoid any kind of locking, high-order finite elements are used to discretize the structural sub-problem. The finite volume method is employed to discretize the fluid sub-problem. We investigate the influence of mass-proportional damping and the material model chosen for the artery on the performance and stability of the acceleration strategies as well as on the simulation results. To show the applicability of the partitioned approach to clinical relevant studies, the hemodynamics in a pathologically deformed artery are investigated, taking the findings of the test case simulations into account.
Numerical simulations of fluid-structure interactions in single-reed mouthpieces.
da Silva, Andrey Ricardo; Scavone, Gary P; van Walstijn, Maarten
2007-09-01
Most single-reed woodwind instrument models rely on a quasistationary approximation to describe the relationship between the volume flow and the pressure difference across the reed channel. Semiempirical models based on the quasistationary approximation are very useful in explaining the fundamental characteristics of this family of instruments such as self-sustained oscillations and threshold of blowing pressure. However, they fail at explaining more complex phenomena associated with the fluid-structure interaction during dynamic flow regimes, such as the transient and steady-state behavior of the system as a function of the mouthpiece geometry. Previous studies have discussed the accuracy of the quasistationary approximation but the amount of literature on the subject is sparse, mainly due to the difficulties involved in the measurement of dynamic flows in channels with an oscillating reed. In this paper, a numerical technique based on the lattice Boltzmann method and a finite difference scheme is proposed in order to investigate the characteristics of fully coupled fluid-structure interaction in single-reed mouthpieces with different channel configurations. Results obtained for a stationary simulation with a static reed agree very well with those predicted by the literature based on the quasistationary approximation. However, simulations carried out for a dynamic regime with an oscillating reed show that the phenomenon associated with flow detachment and reattachment diverges considerably from the theoretical assumptions. Furthermore, in the case of long reed channels, the results obtained for the vena contracta factor are in significant disagreement with those predicted by theory. For short channels, the assumption of constant vena contracta was found to be valid for only 40% of the duty cycle. PMID:17927439
Aziz, M S Abdul; Abdullah, M Z; Khor, C Y
2014-01-01
An efficient simulation technique was proposed to examine the thermal-fluid structure interaction in the effects of solder temperature on pin through-hole during wave soldering. This study investigated the capillary flow behavior as well as the displacement, temperature distribution, and von Mises stress of a pin passed through a solder material. A single pin through-hole connector mounted on a printed circuit board (PCB) was simulated using a 3D model solved by FLUENT. The ABAQUS solver was employed to analyze the pin structure at solder temperatures of 456.15 K (183(°)C) < T < 643.15 K (370(°)C). Both solvers were coupled by the real time coupling software and mesh-based parallel code coupling interface during analysis. In addition, an experiment was conducted to measure the temperature difference (ΔT) between the top and the bottom of the pin. Analysis results showed that an increase in temperature increased the structural displacement and the von Mises stress. Filling time exhibited a quadratic relationship to the increment of temperature. The deformation of pin showed a linear correlation to the temperature. The ΔT obtained from the simulation and the experimental method were validated. This study elucidates and clearly illustrates wave soldering for engineers in the PCB assembly industry. PMID:25225638
Abdul Aziz, M. S.; Abdullah, M. Z.; Khor, C. Y.
2014-01-01
An efficient simulation technique was proposed to examine the thermal-fluid structure interaction in the effects of solder temperature on pin through-hole during wave soldering. This study investigated the capillary flow behavior as well as the displacement, temperature distribution, and von Mises stress of a pin passed through a solder material. A single pin through-hole connector mounted on a printed circuit board (PCB) was simulated using a 3D model solved by FLUENT. The ABAQUS solver was employed to analyze the pin structure at solder temperatures of 456.15 K (183°C) < T < 643.15 K (370°C). Both solvers were coupled by the real time coupling software and mesh-based parallel code coupling interface during analysis. In addition, an experiment was conducted to measure the temperature difference (ΔT) between the top and the bottom of the pin. Analysis results showed that an increase in temperature increased the structural displacement and the von Mises stress. Filling time exhibited a quadratic relationship to the increment of temperature. The deformation of pin showed a linear correlation to the temperature. The ΔT obtained from the simulation and the experimental method were validated. This study elucidates and clearly illustrates wave soldering for engineers in the PCB assembly industry. PMID:25225638
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baek, Hyoungsu; Karniadakis, George Em
2012-01-01
We develop, analyze and validate a new method for simulating fluid-structure interactions (FSIs), which is based on fictitious mass and fictitious damping in the structure equation. We employ a partitioned method for the fluid and structure motions in conjunction with sub-iteration and Aitken relaxation. In particular, the use of such fictitious parameters requires sub-iterations in order to reduce the induced error in addition to the local temporal truncation error. To this end, proper levels of tolerance for terminating the sub-iteration procedure have been obtained in order to recover the formal order of temporal accuracy. For the coupled FSI problem, these fictitious terms have a significant effect, leading to better convergence rate and hence substantially smaller number of sub-iterations. Through analysis we identify the proper range of these parameters, which we then verify by corresponding numerical tests. We implement the method in the context of spectral element discretization, which is more sensitive than low-order methods to numerical instabilities arising in the explicit FSI coupling. However, the method we present here is simple and general and hence applicable to FSI based on any other discretization. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method in applications involving 2D vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) and in 3D flexible arteries with structural density close to blood density. We also present 3D results for a patient-specific aneurysmal flow under pulsatile flow conditions examining, in particular, the sensitivity of the results on different values of the fictitious parameters.
Gesture Interaction Browser-Based 3D Molecular Viewer.
Virag, Ioan; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara; Crişan-Vida, Mihaela
2016-01-01
The paper presents an open source system that allows the user to interact with a 3D molecular viewer using associated hand gestures for rotating, scaling and panning the rendered model. The novelty of this approach is that the entire application is browser-based and doesn't require installation of third party plug-ins or additional software components in order to visualize the supported chemical file formats. This kind of solution is suitable for instruction of users in less IT oriented environments, like medicine or chemistry. For rendering various molecular geometries our team used GLmol (a molecular viewer written in JavaScript). The interaction with the 3D models is made with Leap Motion controller that allows real-time tracking of the user's hand gestures. The first results confirmed that the resulting application leads to a better way of understanding various types of translational bioinformatics related problems in both biomedical research and education. PMID:27350455
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sonntag, Simon J.; Kaufmann, Tim A. S.; Büsen, Martin R.; Laumen, Marco; Linde, Torsten; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich
2013-04-01
Heart disease is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Due to a shortage in donor organs artificial hearts can be a bridge to transplantation or even serve as a destination therapy for patients with terminal heart insufficiency. A pusher plate driven pulsatile membrane pump, the Total Artificial Heart (TAH) ReinHeart, is currently under development at the Institute of Applied Medical Engineering of RWTH Aachen University.This paper presents the methodology of a fully coupled three-dimensional time-dependent Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) simulation of the TAH using a commercial partitioned block-Gauss-Seidel coupling package. Partitioned coupling of the incompressible fluid with the slender flexible membrane as well as a high fluid/structure density ratio of about unity led inherently to a deterioration of the stability (‘artificial added mass instability’). The objective was to conduct a stable simulation with high accuracy of the pumping process. In order to achieve stability, a combined resistance and pressure outlet boundary condition as well as the interface artificial compressibility method was applied. An analysis of the contact algorithm and turbulence condition is presented. Independence tests are performed for the structural and the fluid mesh, the time step size and the number of pulse cycles. Because of the large deformation of the fluid domain, a variable mesh stiffness depending on certain mesh properties was specified for the fluid elements. Adaptive remeshing was avoided. Different approaches for the mesh stiffness function are compared with respect to convergence, preservation of mesh topology and mesh quality. The resulting mesh aspect ratios, mesh expansion factors and mesh orthogonalities are evaluated in detail. The membrane motion and flow distribution of the coupled simulations are compared with a top-view recording and stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements, respectively, of the actual pump.
Fluid Structure Interaction in a Cold Flow Test and Transient CFD Analysis of Out-of-Round Nozzles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ruf, Joseph; Brown, Andrew; McDaniels, David; Wang, Ten-See
2010-01-01
This viewgraph presentation describes two nozzle fluid flow interactions. They include: 1) Cold flow nozzle tests with fluid-structure interaction at nozzle separated flow; and 2) CFD analysis for nozzle flow and side loads of nozzle extensions with various out-of-round cases.
Met.3D - a new open-source tool for interactive 3D visualization of ensemble weather forecasts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rautenhaus, Marc; Kern, Michael; Schäfler, Andreas; Westermann, Rüdiger
2015-04-01
We introduce Met.3D, a new open-source tool for the interactive 3D visualization of numerical ensemble weather predictions. The tool has been developed to support weather forecasting during aircraft-based atmospheric field campaigns, however, is applicable to further forecasting, research and teaching activities. Our work approaches challenging topics related to the visual analysis of numerical atmospheric model output -- 3D visualisation, ensemble visualization, and how both can be used in a meaningful way suited to weather forecasting. Met.3D builds a bridge from proven 2D visualization methods commonly used in meteorology to 3D visualization by combining both visualization types in a 3D context. It implements methods that address the issue of spatial perception in the 3D view as well as approaches to using the ensemble in order to assess forecast uncertainty. Interactivity is key to the Met.3D approach. The tool uses modern graphics hardware technology to achieve interactive visualization of present-day numerical weather prediction datasets on standard consumer hardware. Met.3D supports forecast data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts and operates directly on ECMWF hybrid sigma-pressure level grids. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the software --illustrated with short video examples--, and give information on its availability.
Nonlinear fluid-structure interaction in a flexible shelter under blast loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chun, Sangeon
Recently, numerous flexible structures have been employed in various fields of industry. Loading conditions sustained by these flexible structures are often not described well enough for engineering analyses even though these conditions are important. Here, a flexible tent with an interior Collective Protection System, which is subjected to an explosion, is analyzed. The tent protects personnel from biological and chemical agents with a pressurized liner inside the tent as an environmental barrier. Field tests showed unexpected damage to the liner, and most of the damage occurred on tent's leeward side. To solve this problem, various tests and analyses have been performed, involving material characteristics of the liner, canvas, and zip seals, modeling of the blast loading over the tent and inside the tent, and structural response of the tent to the blast loading as collaborative research works with others. It was found that the blast loading and the structural response can not be analyzed separately due to the interaction between the flexible structure and the dynamic pressure loading. In this dissertation, the dynamic loadings imposed on both the interior and the exterior sides of the tent structure due to the airblasts and the resulting dynamic responses were studied. First, the blast loadings were obtained by a newly proposed theoretical method of analytical/empirical models which was developed into a FORTRAN program. Then, a numerical method of an iterative Fluid-Structure Interaction using Computational Fluid Dynamics and Computational Structural Dynamics was employed to simulate the blast wave propagation inside and outside the flexible structure and to calculate the dynamic loads on it. All the results were compared with the field test data conducted by the Air Force Research Laboratory. The experimental pressure data were gathered from pressure gauges attached to the tent surfaces at different locations. The comparison showed that the proposed methods can
Analyse et caracterisation d'interactions fluide-structure instationnaires en grands deplacements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cori, Jean-Francois
Flapping wings for flying and oscillating fins for swimming stand out as the most complex yet efficient propulsion methods found in nature. Understanding the phenomena involved is a great challenge generating significant interests, especially in the growing field of Micro Air Vehicles. The thrust and lift are induced by oscillating foils thanks to a complex phenomenon of unsteady fluid-structure interaction (FSI). The aim of the dissertation is to develop an efficient CFD framework for simulating the FSI process involved in the propulsion or the power extraction of an oscillating flexible airfoil in a viscous incompressible flow. The numerical method relies on direct implicit monolithic formulation using high-order implicit time integrators. We use an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formulation of the equations designed to satisfy the Geometric Conservation Law (GCL) and to guarantee that the high order temporal accuracy of the time integrators observed on fixed meshes is preserved on ALE deforming meshes. Hyperelastic structural Saint-Venant Kirchhoff model, viscous incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for the flow, Newton's law for the point mass and equilibrium equations at the interface form one large monolithic system. The fully implicit FSI approach uses coincidents nodes on the fluid-structure interface, so that loads, velocities and displacements are evaluated at the same location and at the same time. The problem is solved in an implicit manner using a Newton-Raphson pseudo-solid finite element approach. High-order implicit Runge-Kutta time integrators are implemented (up to 5th order) to improve the accuracy and reduce the computational cost. In this context of stiff interaction problems, the highly stable fully implicit one-step approach is an original alternative to traditional multistep or explicit one-step finite element approaches. The methodology has been verified with three different test-cases. Thorough time-step refinement studies for a
Validation of a 2-D semi-coupled numerical model for fluid-structure-seabed interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Jianhong; Jeng, Dongsheng; Wang, Ren; Zhu, Changqi
2013-10-01
A 2-D semi-coupled model PORO-WSSI 2D (also be referred as FSSI-CAS 2D) for the Fluid-Structure-Seabed Interaction (FSSI) has been developed by employing RANS equations for wave motion in fluid domain, VARANS equations for porous flow in porous structures; and taking the dynamic Biot's equations (known as "u - p" approximation) for soil as the governing equations. The finite difference two-step projection method and the forward time difference method are adopted to solve the RANS, VARANS equations; and the finite element method is adopted to solve the "u - p" approximation. A data exchange port is developed to couple the RANS, VARANS equations and the dynamic Biot's equations together. The analytical solution proposed by Hsu and Jeng (1994) and some experiments conducted in wave flume or geotechnical centrifuge in which various waves involved are used to validate the developed semi-coupled numerical model. The sandy bed involved in these experiments is poro-elastic or poro-elastoplastic. The inclusion of the interaction between fluid, marine structures and poro-elastoplastic seabed foundation is a special point and highlight in this paper, which is essentially different with other previous coupled models The excellent agreement between the numerical results and the experiment data indicates that the developed coupled model is highly reliablefor the FSSI problem.
Fluid-structure interaction in abdominal aortic aneurysms: Structural and geometrical considerations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mesri, Yaser; Niazmand, Hamid; Deyranlou, Amin; Sadeghi, Mahmood Reza
2015-08-01
Rupture of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is the result of the relatively complex interaction of blood hemodynamics and material behavior of arterial walls. In the present study, the cumulative effects of physiological parameters such as the directional growth, arterial wall properties (isotropy and anisotropy), iliac bifurcation and arterial wall thickness on prediction of wall stress in fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis of five idealized AAA models have been investigated. In particular, the numerical model considers the heterogeneity of arterial wall and the iliac bifurcation, which allows the study of the geometric asymmetry due to the growth of the aneurysm into different directions. Results demonstrate that the blood pulsatile nature is responsible for emerging a time-dependent recirculation zone inside the aneurysm, which directly affects the stress distribution in aneurismal wall. Therefore, aneurysm deviation from the arterial axis, especially, in the lateral direction increases the wall stress in a relatively nonlinear fashion. Among the models analyzed in this investigation, the anisotropic material model that considers the wall thickness variations, greatly affects the wall stress values, while the stress distributions are less affected as compared to the uniform wall thickness models. In this regard, it is confirmed that wall stress predictions are more influenced by the appropriate structural model than the geometrical considerations such as the level of asymmetry and its curvature, growth direction and its extent.
Kanyanta, V; Ivankovic, A; Karac, A
2009-08-01
Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) numerical models are now widely used in predicting blood flow transients. This is because of the importance of the interaction between the flowing blood and the deforming arterial wall to blood flow behaviour. Unfortunately, most of these FSI models lack rigorous validation and, thus, cannot guarantee the accuracy of their predictions. This paper presents the comprehensive validation of a two-way coupled FSI numerical model, developed to predict flow transients in compliant conduits such as arteries. The model is validated using analytical solutions and experiments conducted on polyurethane mock artery. Flow parameters such as pressure and axial stress (and precursor) wave speeds, wall deformations and oscillating frequency, fluid velocity and Poisson coupling effects, were used as the basis of this validation. Results show very good comparison between numerical predictions, analytical solutions and experimental data. The agreement between the three approaches is generally over 95%. The model also shows accurate prediction of Poisson coupling effects in unsteady flows through flexible pipes, which up to this stage have only being predicted analytically. Therefore, this numerical model can accurately predict flow transients in compliant vessels such as arteries. PMID:19482285
A Multi-Phase Based Fluid-Structure-Microfluidic interaction sensor for Aerodynamic Shear Stress
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hughes, Christopher; Dutta, Diganta; Bashirzadeh, Yashar; Ahmed, Kareem; Qian, Shizhi
2014-11-01
A novel innovative microfluidic shear stress sensor is developed for measuring shear stress through multi-phase fluid-structure-microfluidic interaction. The device is composed of a microfluidic cavity filled with an electrolyte liquid. Inside the cavity, two electrodes make electrochemical velocimetry measurements of the induced convection. The cavity is sealed with a flexible superhydrophobic membrane. The membrane will dynamically stretch and flex as a result of direct shear cross-flow interaction with the seal structure, forming instability wave modes and inducing fluid motion within the microfluidic cavity. The shear stress on the membrane is measured by sensing the induced convection generated by membrane deflections. The advantages of the sensor over current MEMS based shear stress sensor technology are: a simplified design with no moving parts, optimum relationship between size and sensitivity, no gaps such as those created by micromachining sensors in MEMS processes. We present the findings of a feasibility study of the proposed sensor including wind-tunnel tests, microPIV measurements, electrochemical velocimetry, and simulation data results. The study investigates the sensor in the supersonic and subsonic flow regimes. Supported by a NASA SBIR phase 1 contract.
Developing a cyber-physical fluid dynamics facility for fluid-structure interaction studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mackowski, Andrew W.; Williamson, Charles H. K.
2011-07-01
In fluid-structure interaction studies, such as vortex-induced vibration, one needs to select essential parameters for the system, such as mass, spring stiffness, and damping. Normally, these parameters are set physically by the mechanical arrangement. However, our approach utilizes a combination of a physical system, comprises a fluid and a mechanical actuator, and a cyber system, taking the form of a computer-based force-feedback controller. This arrangement allows us to impose mass-spring-damping parameters in virtual space and in up to six degrees of freedom. [A similar concept, in one degree of freedom, was pioneered by a group at MIT (see Hover et al., 1998), in studies of vortex-induced vibration of cables.] Although the use of a cyber-physical system has clear advantages over using a purely physical experiment, there are serious challenges to overcome in the design of the governing control system. Our controller, based on a discretization of Newton's laws, makes it straightforward to add and modify any kind of nonlinear, time-varying, or directional force: it is virtually specified but imposed on a physical object. We implement this idea in both a first-generation and a second-generation facility. In this paper, we present preliminary applications of this approach in flow-structure interactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajabzadeh Oghaz, Hamidreza; Damiano, Robert; Meng, Hui
2015-11-01
Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are pathological outpouchings of cerebral vessels, the progression of which are mediated by complex interactions between the blood flow and vasculature. Image-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used for decades to investigate IA hemodynamics. However, the commonly adopted simplifying assumptions in CFD (e.g. rigid wall) compromise the simulation accuracy and mask the complex physics involved in IA progression and eventual rupture. Several groups have considered the wall compliance by using fluid-structure interaction (FSI) modeling. However, FSI simulation is highly sensitive to numerical assumptions (e.g. linear-elastic wall material, Newtonian fluid, initial vessel configuration, and constant pressure outlet), the effects of which are poorly understood. In this study, a comprehensive investigation of the sensitivity of FSI simulations in patient-specific IAs is investigated using a multi-stage approach with a varying level of complexity. We start with simulations incorporating several common simplifications: rigid wall, Newtonian fluid, and constant pressure at the outlets, and then we stepwise remove these simplifications until the most comprehensive FSI simulations. Hemodynamic parameters such as wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index are assessed and compared at each stage to better understand the sensitivity of in FSI simulations for IA to model assumptions. Supported by the National Institutes of Health (1R01 NS 091075-01).
Numerical simulation of fluid-structure interaction with the volume penalization method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engels, Thomas; Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Schneider, Kai; Sesterhenn, Jörn
2015-01-01
We present a novel scheme for the numerical simulation of fluid-structure interaction problems. It extends the volume penalization method, a member of the family of immersed boundary methods, to take into account flexible obstacles. We show how the introduction of a smoothing layer, physically interpreted as surface roughness, allows for arbitrary motion of the deformable obstacle. The approach is carefully validated and good agreement with various results in the literature is found. A simple one-dimensional solid model is derived, capable of modeling arbitrarily large deformations and imposed motion at the leading edge, as it is required for the simulation of simplified models for insect flight. The model error is shown to be small, while the one-dimensional character of the model features a reasonably easy implementation. The coupled fluid-solid interaction solver is shown not to introduce artificial energy in the numerical coupling, and validated using a widely used benchmark. We conclude with the application of our method to models for insect flight and study the propulsive efficiency of one and two wing sections.
Modeling fluid structure interaction with shape memory alloy actuated morphing aerostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oehler, Stephen D.; Hartl, Darren J.; Turner, Travis L.; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.
2012-04-01
The development of efficient and accurate analysis techniques for morphing aerostructures incorporating shape memory alloys (SMAs) continues to garner attention. These active materials have a high actuation energy density, making them an ideal replacement for conventional actuation mechanisms in morphing structures. However, SMA components are often exposed to the same highly variable environments experienced by the aeroelastic assemblies into which they are incorporated. This is motivating design engineers to consider modeling fluidstructure interaction for prescribing dynamic, solution-dependent boundary conditions. This work presents a computational study of a particular morphing aerostructure with embedded, thermally actuating SMA ribbons and demonstrates the effective use of fluid-structure interaction modeling. A cosimulation analysis is utilized to determine the surface deflections and stress distributions of an example aerostructure with embedded SMA ribbons using the Abaqus Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software suite, combined with an Abaqus Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) processor. The global FEA solver utilizes a robust user-defined material subroutine which contains an accurate three-dimensional SMA constitutive model. Variations in the ambient fluid environment are computed using the CFD solver, and fluid pressure is mapped into surface distributed loads. Results from the analysis are qualitatively validated with independently obtained data from representative flow tests previously conducted on a physical prototype of the same aerostructure.
Two way fluid structure interaction analysis of a valveless micropump by CFD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cǎlimǎnescu, Ioan; Dumitrache, Constantin L.; Grigorescu, Lucian
2015-02-01
In the microfluid control system, a valve-less micropump is a necessary component. It has the ability to pump a wide variety of fluids automatically and accurately on a micro scale. The dynamic characteristics of a valve-less micropump influence the performance of the microfluid control system. Consequently, it is of great importance to be able to accurately predict the dynamic characteristics of micropumps for appropriate design and usage of the microfluid control system. In this paper, we describe a corrugated diaphragm valveless micropump approached from the Computational Fluid Dynamics point of view in which the Fluid Structure Interaction is based on the Two Way principle, meaning that the diaphragm is moving and the fluid (water like fluid) is sucked from the inlet and pushed back to the outlet using the nozzle effect. The technical solution of micropumps without valves is a very clever idea to replace the custom valves with nozzles, with the same effect but virtually without any components beside the inlet and the outlet nozzles. The paperwork is demonstrating via a complex simulation involving the structural-fluid interaction the nozzle effects and the functioning of this kind of micropumps.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saeed, R. A.; Galybin, A. N.; Popov, V.
2013-01-01
This paper discusses condition monitoring and fault diagnosis in Francis turbine based on integration of numerical modelling with several different artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. In this study, a numerical approach for fluid-structure (turbine runner) analysis is presented. The results of numerical analysis provide frequency response functions (FRFs) data sets along x-, y- and z-directions under different operating load and different position and size of faults in the structure. To extract features and reduce the dimensionality of the obtained FRF data, the principal component analysis (PCA) has been applied. Subsequently, the extracted features are formulated and fed into multiple artificial neural networks (ANN) and multiple adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) in order to identify the size and position of the damage in the runner and estimate the turbine operating conditions. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of this approach and provide satisfactory accuracy even when the input data are corrupted with certain level of noise.
Novel interactive virtual showcase based on 3D multitouch technology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Tao; Liu, Yue; Lu, You; Wang, Yongtian
2009-11-01
A new interactive virtual showcase is proposed in this paper. With the help of virtual reality technology, the user of the proposed system can watch the virtual objects floating in the air from all four sides and interact with the virtual objects by touching the four surfaces of the virtual showcase. Unlike traditional multitouch system, this system cannot only realize multi-touch on a plane to implement 2D translation, 2D scaling, and 2D rotation of the objects; it can also realize the 3D interaction of the virtual objects by recognizing and analyzing the multi-touch that can be simultaneously captured from the four planes. Experimental results show the potential of the proposed system to be applied in the exhibition of historical relics and other precious goods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tricerri, Paolo; Dedè, Luca; Deparis, Simone; Quarteroni, Alfio; Robertson, Anne M.; Sequeira, Adélia
2015-03-01
This paper considers numerical simulations of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems in hemodynamics for idealized geometries of healthy cerebral arteries modeled by both nonlinear isotropic and anisotropic material constitutive laws. In particular, it focuses on an anisotropic model initially proposed for cerebral arteries to characterize the activation of collagen fibers at finite strains. In the current work, this constitutive model is implemented for the first time in the context of an FSI formulation. In this framework, we investigate the influence of the material model on the numerical results and, in the case of the anisotropic laws, the importance of the collagen fibers on the overall mechanical behavior of the tissue. With this aim, we compare our numerical results by analyzing fluid dynamic indicators, vessel wall displacement, Von Mises stress, and deformations of the collagen fibers. Specifically, for an anisotropic model with collagen fiber recruitment at finite strains, we highlight the progressive activation and deactivation processes of the fibrous component of the tissue throughout the wall thickness during the cardiac cycle. The inclusion of collagen recruitment is found to have a substantial impact on the intramural stress, which will in turn impact the biological response of the intramural cells. Hence, the methodology presented here will be particularly useful for studies of mechanobiological processes in the healthy and diseased vascular wall.
Nonlinear fluid/structure interaction relating a rupture-disc pressure-relief device
Hsieh, B.J.; Kot, C.A.; Shin, Y.W.; Youngdahi, C.K.
1983-01-01
Rupture disc assemblies are used in piping network systems as pressure-relief devices. The reverse-buckling type discs are chosen for application in heat transport systems of liquid metal fast breeder reactors. When the pressure on the disc is of sufficient magnitude and duration, the disc develops large displacement, is consequently torn open by a cutting-knife setup and thus relieves the excess pressure. Such disc assemblies are used very successfully in systems in which the fluid is highly compressible, e.g., air; the opening of the disc by the knife setup is complete. However, this is not true for a liquid system; in this case it has been observed experimentally that the disc may open up only partially or not at all. Therefore, to understand and realistically represent a rupture disc assembly in a liquid environment, the fluid-structure interactions between the liquid medium and the disc assembly must be considered. In this paper, methods for analyzing the fluid and the disc and the mechanism interconnecting them are presented. When necessary the fluid is allowed to cavitate through a column separation model and the disc can become plastically deformed using the classic Von Mises' yield criteria.
Determining an Effective Shear Modulus in Tubular Organs for Fluid-Structure Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chisena, Robert; Brasseur, James; Costanzo, Francesco; Gregersen, Hans; Zhao, Jingbo
2014-11-01
Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) is central to the mechanics of fluid-filled tubular organs such as the intestine and esophagus. The motions of fluid chyme are driven by a muscularis wall layer of circular and longitudinal muscle fibers. The coupled motions of the fluid and elastic solid phases result from a local balance between active and passive muscle stress components, fluid pressure, and fluid viscous stresses. Model predictions depend on the passive elastic response of the muscularis layer, which is typically parameterized with an average isotropic elastic modulus (EM), currently measured in vivo and in vitro with estimates for total hoop stress within a distension experiment. We have shown that this approach contains serious error due to the overwhelming influence of incompressibility on the hydrostatic component. We present a new approach in which an effective shear modulus, containing only deviatoric contributions, is measured to overcome this serious error. Using in vitro measurements from pig intestines, we compare our new approach to the current method, showing vastly different predictions. We will also report on our current analysis which aims to determine the influence of residual stress on the EM measurements and comment on it use in FSI simulations.
From video to computation of biological fluid-structure interaction problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dillard, Seth I.; Buchholz, James H. J.; Udaykumar, H. S.
2016-04-01
This work deals with the techniques necessary to obtain a purely Eulerian procedure to conduct CFD simulations of biological systems with moving boundary flow phenomena. Eulerian approaches obviate difficulties associated with mesh generation to describe or fit flow meshes to body surfaces. The challenges associated with constructing embedded boundary information, body motions and applying boundary conditions on the moving bodies for flow computation are addressed in the work. The overall approach is applied to the study of a fluid-structure interaction problem, i.e., the hydrodynamics of swimming of an American eel, where the motion of the eel is derived from video imaging. It is shown that some first-blush approaches do not work, and therefore, careful consideration of appropriate techniques to connect moving images to flow simulations is necessary and forms the main contribution of the paper. A combination of level set-based active contour segmentation with optical flow and image morphing is shown to enable the image-to-computation process.
Numerical simulation of fluid-structure interaction for axial flow blade based on weak coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, X. B.; Guo, P. C.; Luo, X. Q.
2012-11-01
Numerical simulation of three-dimensional flow in whole flow passage of axial flow hydraulic turbine was conducted based on the Reynolds-averaged N-S equations and the standard k-ε model. Stress analysis of axial flow blade were carried on by elasticity unsteady FEM. The fluid domain and solid domain were calculated by sequential iteration. Based on weak coupling technology, the fluid-structure interaction analysis of the axial flow blade was conducted. Instantaneous flow field characteristic and stress distribution on blade were analyzed. According to the comparing with the results of pure flow numerical simulation, the pressure difference between press side and suction side increases after considering the FSI, to a certain extent, which will worsen cavitations performance of the blade. Meanwhile, stress distribution on the blades do not change significantly, but the maximum stress value increases markedly, and the maximum displacement reduces slightly. The research demonstrates that the FSI not only changes the distribution of the flow field in blade area, but also have a greater impact on the stress of the blades.
Partitioned fluid-structure interaction scheme for bodies with high flexibility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fitzgerald, Timothy; Vanella, Marcos; Balaras, Elias; Balachandran, Balakumar
2013-11-01
There are many interesting problems involving fluid-structure interaction (FSI) systems such as flapping wings in micro-air-vehicles. In order to better understand these systems, high-fidelity simulation tools are needed to do the following: (i) fully capture the physics and (ii) provide a basis to construct low-fidelity models used in design. Here, a novel FSI strategy is introduced, through which a large scale fluids solver is combined with a solver for solids with high flexibility. The Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow are discretized by using standard central finite differences on a staggered mesh. The fluid domain is spatially decomposed through the use of the FLASH modeling framework. The solid body is discretized via geometrically exact Total Lagrangian finite elements. A novel hyperelastic material law that extends the engineering stress-strain law to finite deformations and arbitrary rotations is also implemented. The Lagrangian body is embedded in the Cartesian fluid grid by immersed boundary methods. The time marching predictor-corrector coupling procedure is based on the use of Adams methods for the fluid and the Generalized- α method for the body. We will present examples of flexible oscillating plates and a flapping Manduca Sexta wing.
Fluid structure interaction dynamic analysis of a mixed-flow waterjet pump
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, X. W.; Y Pan, Z.; Huang, D.; Shen, Z. H.
2013-12-01
In order to avoid resonance of a mixed-flow waterjet pump at run time and calculate the stress and deformation of the pump rotor in the flow field, a one-way fluid structure interaction method was applied to simulate the pump rotor using ANSYS CFX and ANSYS Workbench software. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of the pump rotor in the air and in the flow field were analyzed, and the stress and deformation of the impeller were obtained at different flow rates. The obtained numerical results indicated that the mode shapes were similar both in the air and in the flow field, but the pump rotor's natural frequency in the flow field was slightly smaller than that in the air; the difference of the pump rotor's natural frequency varied lightly at different flow rates, and all frequencies at different flow rates were higher than the safe frequency, the pump rotor under the effect of prestress rate did not occur resonance; The maximum stress was on the blade near the hub and the maximum deformation on the blade tip at different flow rates.
Birmingham, E; Grogan, J A; Niebur, G L; McNamara, L M; McHugh, P E
2013-04-01
Bone marrow found within the porous structure of trabecular bone provides a specialized environment for numerous cell types, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Studies have sought to characterize the mechanical environment imposed on MSCs, however, a particular challenge is that marrow displays the characteristics of a fluid, while surrounded by bone that is subject to deformation, and previous experimental and computational studies have been unable to fully capture the resulting complex mechanical environment. The objective of this study was to develop a fluid structure interaction (FSI) model of trabecular bone and marrow to predict the mechanical environment of MSCs in vivo and to examine how this environment changes during osteoporosis. An idealized repeating unit was used to compare FSI techniques to a computational fluid dynamics only approach. These techniques were used to determine the effect of lower bone mass and different marrow viscosities, representative of osteoporosis, on the shear stress generated within bone marrow. Results report that shear stresses generated within bone marrow under physiological loading conditions are within the range known to stimulate a mechanobiological response in MSCs in vitro. Additionally, lower bone mass leads to an increase in the shear stress generated within the marrow, while a decrease in bone marrow viscosity reduces this generated shear stress. PMID:23519534
Fluid-structure interaction analysis of deformation of sail of 30-foot yacht
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bak, Sera; Yoo, Jaehoon; Song, Chang Yong
2013-06-01
Most yacht sails are made of thin fabric, and they have a cambered shape to generate lift force; however, their shape can be easily deformed by wind pressure. Deformation of the sail shape changes the flow characteristics over the sail, which in turn further deforms the sail shape. Therefore, fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis is applied for the precise evaluation or optimization of the sail design. In this study, fluid flow analyses are performed for the main sail of a 30-foot yacht, and the results are applied to loading conditions for structural analyses. By applying the supporting forces from the rig, such as the mast and boom-end outhaul, as boundary conditions for structural analysis, the deformed sail shape is identified. Both the flow analyses and the structural analyses are iteratively carried out for the deformed sail shape. A comparison of the flow characteristics and surface pressures over the deformed sail shape with those over the initial shape shows that a considerable difference exists between the two and that FSI analysis is suitable for application to sail design.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Chien-Jung; Huang, Shao-Ching; White, Susan M.; Mallya, Sanjay M.; Eldredge, Jeff D.
2016-04-01
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a medical condition characterized by repetitive partial or complete occlusion of the airway during sleep. The soft tissues in the airway of OSA patients are prone to collapse under the low-pressure loads incurred during breathing. This paper describes efforts toward the development of a numerical tool for simulation of air-tissue interactions in the upper airway of patients with sleep apnea. A procedure by which patient-specific airway geometries are segmented and processed from dental cone-beam CT scans into signed distance fields is presented. A sharp-interface embedded boundary method based on the signed distance field is used on Cartesian grids for resolving the airflow in the airway geometries. For simulation of structure mechanics with large expected displacements, a cut-cell finite element method with nonlinear Green strains is used. The fluid and structure solvers are strongly coupled with a partitioned iterative algorithm. Preliminary results are shown for flow simulation inside the three-dimensional rigid upper airway of patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Two validation cases for the fluid-structure coupling problem are also presented.
Wang, Guorong; Zhong, Lin; He, Xia; Lei, Zhongqing; Hu, Gang; Li, Rong; Wang, Yunhai
2015-01-01
The influence of spring stiffness and valve quality on the motion behaviors of reciprocating plunger pump discharge valves was investigated by fluid structure interaction (FSI) simulation and experimental analysis. The mathematical model of the discharge valve motion of a 2000-fracturing pump was developed and the discrete differential equations were solved according to FSI and results obtained by ANDINA software. Results indicate that spring stiffness influences the maximum lift, the opening resistance and shut-off lag angle, as well as the fluid velocity of the clearance, the impact stress and the volume efficiency of the pump valve in relation to the valve quality. An optimal spring stiffness parameter of 14.6 N/mm was obtained, and the volumetric efficiency of the pumping valve increased by 4‰ in comparison to results obtained with the original spring stiffness of 10.09N/mm. The experimental results indicated that the mathematical model and FSI method could provide an effective approach for the subsequent improvement of valve reliability, volumetric efficiency and lifespan. PMID:26488290
Wang, Guorong; Zhong, Lin; He, Xia; Lei, Zhongqing; Hu, Gang; Li, Rong; Wang, Yunhai
2015-01-01
The influence of spring stiffness and valve quality on the motion behaviors of reciprocating plunger pump discharge valves was investigated by fluid structure interaction (FSI) simulation and experimental analysis. The mathematical model of the discharge valve motion of a 2000-fracturing pump was developed and the discrete differential equations were solved according to FSI and results obtained by ANDINA software. Results indicate that spring stiffness influences the maximum lift, the opening resistance and shut-off lag angle, as well as the fluid velocity of the clearance, the impact stress and the volume efficiency of the pump valve in relation to the valve quality. An optimal spring stiffness parameter of 14.6 N/mm was obtained, and the volumetric efficiency of the pumping valve increased by 4‰ in comparison to results obtained with the original spring stiffness of 10.09N/mm. The experimental results indicated that the mathematical model and FSI method could provide an effective approach for the subsequent improvement of valve reliability, volumetric efficiency and lifespan. PMID:26488290
Chen, Chao; Ma, Ming; Jin, Kai; Liu, Jefferson Zhe; Shen, Luming; Zheng, Quanshui; Xu, Zhiping
2011-10-01
We investigate here water flow passing a single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT), through analysis based on combined atomistic and continuum mechanics simulations. The relation between drag coefficient C(D) and Reynolds number Re is obtained for a wide range of flow speed u from 5 to 600 m/s. The results suggest that Stokes law for creep flow works well for small Reynolds numbers up to 0.1 (u ≈ 100 m/s), and indicates a linear dependence between drag force and flow velocity. Significant deviation is observed at elevated Re values, which is discussed by considering the interfacial slippage, reduction of viscosity due to friction-induced local heating, and flow-induced structural vibration. We find that interfacial slippage has a limited contribution to the reduction of the resistance, and excitations of low-frequency vibration modes in the carbon nanotube play an important role in energy transfer between water and carbon nanotubes, especially at high flow speeds where drastic enhancement of the carbon nanotube vibration is observed. The results reported here reveal nanoscale fluid-structure interacting mechanisms, and lay the ground for rational design of nanofluidics and nanoelectromechanical devices operating in a fluidic environment. PMID:22181268
A penalty-projection algorithm for a monolithic fluid-structure interaction solver
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cerroni, D.; Manservisi, S.
2016-05-01
In this paper we propose a new iterative penalty-projection algorithm for a monolithic fluid-structure interaction solver. Projection methods, that split the computation of the velocity from the pressure, are very popular in fluid dynamics since the boundary errors generated by the projection method are localized mainly near the boundary layers where the incorrect pressure boundary conditions are imposed. However, when solid regions are taken into account, the pressure projected field cannot satisfy fully coupled boundary constraints imposed on external solid surfaces such as stress-free conditions, and, due to the rigidity of the medium, the boundary errors propagate deeply in the interior. In order to reduce the projection errors we propose a one-step penalty-projection method in the fluid domain and an iterative penalty-projection method in the solid region. This technique decouples the pressure-velocity degrees of freedom and, as a consequence, the computational cost. In order to verify the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method we compare the results between this splitting velocity-pressure algorithm and the coupled one. These numerical results show stability and robustness of the proposed algorithm with a strong reduction of the computational effort.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwon, Y. W.; Violette, M. A.; McCrillis, R. D.; Didoszak, J. M.
2012-12-01
The objective of this study is to examine the Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) effect on transient dynamic response and failure of sandwich composite structures under impact loading. The primary sandwich composite used in this study consisted of a 6.35 mm balsa core and a multi-ply symmetrical plain weave 6 oz E-glass skin. Both clamped sandwich composite plates and beams were studied using a uniquely designed vertical drop-weight testing machine. There were three impact conditions on which these experiments focused. The first of these conditions was completely dry (or air surrounded) testing. The second condition was completely water submerged. The final condition was also a water submerged test with air support at the backside of the plates. The tests were conducted sequentially, progressing from a low to high drop height to determine the onset and spread of damage to the sandwich composite when impacted with the test machine. The study showed the FSI effect on sandwich composite structures is very critical such that impact force, strain response, and damage size are generally much greater with FSI under the same impact condition. As a result, damage initiates at much lower impact energy conditions with the effect of FSI. Neglecting to account for FSI effects on sandwich composite structures results in very non-conservative analysis and design. Additionally, it was observed that the damage location changed for sandwich composite beams with the effect of FSI.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seeley, Charles; Coutu, André; Monette, Christine; Nennemann, Bernd; Marmont, Hugues
2012-03-01
Hydroelectric power generation is an important non-fossil fuel power source to help meet the world’s energy needs. Fluid-structure interaction (FSI), in the form of mass loading and damping, governs the dynamic response of water turbines, such as Francis turbines. Although the effects of fluid mass loading are well documented, fluid damping is also a critical quantity that may limit vibration amplitudes during service, and therefore help to avoid premature failure of the turbines. However, fluid damping has received less attention in the literature. This paper presents an experimental investigation of damping due to FSI. Three hydrofoils were designed and built to investigate damping due to FSI. Piezoelectric actuation using macrofiber composites (MFCs) provided excitation to the hydrofoil test structure, independent of the flow conditions, to overcome the noisy environment. Natural frequency and damping estimates were experimentally obtained from sine sweep frequency response functions measured with a laser vibrometer through a window in the test section. The results indicate that, although the natural frequencies were not substantially affected by the flow, the damping ratios were observed to increase in a linear manner with respect to flow velocity.
Fluid-structure interaction in water-filled thin pipes of anisotropic composite materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
You, Jeong Ho; Inaba, K.
2013-01-01
The effects of elastic anisotropy in piping materials on fluid-structure interaction are studied for water-filled carbon-fiber reinforced thin plastic pipes. When an impact is introduced to water in a pipe, there are two waves traveling at different speeds. A primary wave corresponding to a breathing mode of pipe travels slowly and a precursor wave corresponding to a longitudinal mode of pipe travels fast. An anisotropic stress-strain relationship of piping materials has been taken into account to describe the propagation of primary and precursor waves in the carbon-fiber reinforced thin plastic pipes. The wave speeds and strains in the axial and hoop directions are calculated as a function of carbon-fiber winding angles and compared with the experimental data. As the winding angle increases, the primary wave speed increases due to the increased stiffness in the hoop direction, while the precursor wave speed decreases. The magnitudes of precursor waves are much smaller than those of primary waves so that the effect of precursor waves on the deformation of pipe is not significant. The primary wave generates the hoop strain accompanying the opposite-signed axial strain through the coupling compliance of pipe. The magnitude of hoop strain induced by the primary waves decreases with increasing the winding angle due to the increased hoop stiffness of pipe. The magnitude of axial strain is small at low and high winding angles where the coupling compliance is small.
Modelling of fluid-structure interaction with multiphase viscous flows using an immersed-body method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, P.; Xiang, J.; Fang, F.; Pavlidis, D.; Latham, J.-P.; Pain, C. C.
2016-09-01
An immersed-body method is developed here to model fluid-structure interaction for multiphase viscous flows. It does this by coupling a finite element multiphase fluid model and a combined finite-discrete element solid model. A coupling term containing the fluid stresses is introduced within a thin shell mesh surrounding the solid surface. The thin shell mesh acts as a numerical delta function in order to help apply the solid-fluid boundary conditions. When used with an advanced interface capturing method, the immersed-body method has the capability to solve problems with fluid-solid interfaces in the presence of multiphase fluid-fluid interfaces. Importantly, the solid-fluid coupling terms are treated implicitly to enable larger time steps to be used. This two-way coupling method has been validated by three numerical test cases: a free falling cylinder in a fluid at rest, elastic membrane and a collapsing column of water moving an initially stationary solid square. A fourth simulation example is of a water-air interface with a floating solid square being moved around by complex hydrodynamic flows including wave breaking. The results show that the immersed-body method is an effective approach for two-way solid-fluid coupling in multiphase viscous flows.
Fluid-structure Interaction of Rigid and Flexible Wings in Ground Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bleischwitz, Robert; de Kat, Roeland; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram
2015-11-01
Inspired by trawling bats, combining flexible membrane wings and the vicinity of the ground, an experimental wind tunnel study is conducted at Re = 56,000 to determine the fluid-structure-ground interaction of rectangular, perimeter reinforced low aspect ratio (AR = 2) membrane wings in free flight and ground effect conditions. The pitch angle is varied between 10° <= α <=25° . Flexible membrane wings are compared with rigid flat plates. Instantaneous lift and drag forces are simultaneously recorded with membrane and flow dynamics (Digital-Image-Correlation + Particle-Image-Velocimetry). The focus of this study involves coupling effects of membrane mode shapes (chordwise + spanwise) and flow structures changing with angle of attack and height over ground. A POD analysis of the flow, membrane vibrations and forces should help to identify aerodynamic beneficial vibration shapes and their impact on flow features such as leading edge and tip vortices. The knowledge is seen to be essential for efficient usage of MAVs with membrane wings in and out of ground effect. PhD student.
Cheng, Rui; Lai, Yong G.; Chandran, Krishnan B.
2005-01-01
The wall shear stress induced by the leaflet motion during the valve-closing phase has been implicated with thrombus initiation with prosthetic valves. Detailed flow dynamic analysis in the vicinity of the leaflets and the housing during the valve-closure phase is of interest in understanding this relationship. A three-dimensional unsteady flow analysis past bileaflet valve prosthesis in the mitral position is presented incorporating a fluid-structure interaction algorithm for leaflet motion during the valve-closing phase. Arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian method is employed for incorporating the leaflet motion. The forces exerted by the fluid on the leaflets are computed and applied to the leaflet equation of motion to predict the leaflet position. Relatively large velocities are computed in the valve clearance region between the valve housing and the leaflet edge with the resulting relatively large wall shear stresses at the leaflet edge during the impact-rebound duration. Negative pressure transients are computed on the surface of the leaflets on the atrial side of the valve, with larger magnitudes at the leaflet edge during the closing and rebound as well. Vortical flow development is observed on the inflow (atrial) side during the valve impact-rebound phase in a location central to the leaflet and away from the clearance region where cavitation bubbles have been visualized in previously reported experimental studies. PMID:15636108
Fluid-Structure Interaction Modeling of the Reefed Stages of the Orion Spacecraft Main Parachutes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boswell, Cody W.
Spacecraft parachutes are typically used in multiple stages, starting with a "reefed" stage where a cable along the parachute skirt constrains the diameter to be less than the diameter in the subsequent stage. After a certain period of time during the descent, the cable is cut and the parachute "disreefs" (i.e. expands) to the next stage. Computing the parachute shape at the reefed stage and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) modeling during the disreefing involve computational challenges beyond those we have in FSI modeling of fully-open spacecraft parachutes. These additional challenges are created by the increased geometric complexities and by the rapid changes in the parachute geometry. The computational challenges are further increased because of the added geometric porosity of the latest design, where the "windows" created by the removal of panels and the wider gaps created by the removal of sails compound the geometric and flow complexity. Orion spacecraft main parachutes will have three stages, with computation of the Stage 1 shape and FSI modeling of disreefing from Stage 1 to Stage 2 being the most challenging. We present the special modeling techniques we devised to address the computational challenges and the results from the computations carried out. We also present the methods we devised to calculate for a parachute gore the radius of curvature in the circumferential direction. The curvature values are intended for quick and simple engineering analysis in estimating the structural stresses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takizawa, Kenji; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.; Boben, Joseph; Kostov, Nikolay; Boswell, Cody; Buscher, Austin
2013-12-01
To increase aerodynamic performance, the geometric porosity of a ringsail spacecraft parachute canopy is sometimes increased, beyond the "rings" and "sails" with hundreds of "ring gaps" and "sail slits." This creates extra computational challenges for fluid-structure interaction (FSI) modeling of clusters of such parachutes, beyond those created by the lightness of the canopy structure, geometric complexities of hundreds of gaps and slits, and the contact between the parachutes of the cluster. In FSI computation of parachutes with such "modified geometric porosity," the flow through the "windows" created by the removal of the panels and the wider gaps created by the removal of the sails cannot be accurately modeled with the Homogenized Modeling of Geometric Porosity (HMGP), which was introduced to deal with the hundreds of gaps and slits. The flow needs to be actually resolved. All these computational challenges need to be addressed simultaneously in FSI modeling of clusters of spacecraft parachutes with modified geometric porosity. The core numerical technology is the Stabilized Space-Time FSI (SSTFSI) technique, and the contact between the parachutes is handled with the Surface-Edge-Node Contact Tracking (SENCT) technique. In the computations reported here, in addition to the SSTFSI and SENCT techniques and HMGP, we use the special techniques we have developed for removing the numerical spinning component of the parachute motion and for restoring the mesh integrity without a remesh. We present results for 2- and 3-parachute clusters with two different payload models.
Interactive initialization of 2D/3D rigid registration
Gong, Ren Hui; Güler, Özgür; Kürklüoglu, Mustafa; Lovejoy, John; Yaniv, Ziv
2013-12-15
Purpose: Registration is one of the key technical components in an image-guided navigation system. A large number of 2D/3D registration algorithms have been previously proposed, but have not been able to transition into clinical practice. The authors identify the primary reason for the lack of adoption with the prerequisite for a sufficiently accurate initial transformation, mean target registration error of about 10 mm or less. In this paper, the authors present two interactive initialization approaches that provide the desired accuracy for x-ray/MR and x-ray/CT registration in the operating room setting. Methods: The authors have developed two interactive registration methods based on visual alignment of a preoperative image, MR, or CT to intraoperative x-rays. In the first approach, the operator uses a gesture based interface to align a volume rendering of the preoperative image to multiple x-rays. The second approach uses a tracked tool available as part of a navigation system. Preoperatively, a virtual replica of the tool is positioned next to the anatomical structures visible in the volumetric data. Intraoperatively, the physical tool is positioned in a similar manner and subsequently used to align a volume rendering to the x-ray images using an augmented reality (AR) approach. Both methods were assessed using three publicly available reference data sets for 2D/3D registration evaluation. Results: In the authors' experiments, the authors show that for x-ray/MR registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mean target registration error (mTRE) of 9.3 ± 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 146.3 ± 73.0 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 7.2 ± 3.2 mm with interaction times of 44 ± 32 s. For x-ray/CT registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mTRE of 7.4 ± 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 132.1 ± 66.4 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 8.3 ± 5.0 mm with interaction times of 58 ± 52 s. Conclusions: Based on the
Correlative Microscopy for 3D Structural Analysis of Dynamic Interactions
Jun, Sangmi; Zhao, Gongpu; Ning, Jiying; Gibson, Gregory A.; Watkins, Simon C.; Zhang, Peijun
2013-01-01
Cryo-electron tomography (cryoET) allows 3D visualization of cellular structures at molecular resolution in a close-to-physiological state1. However, direct visualization of individual viral complexes in their host cellular environment with cryoET is challenging2, due to the infrequent and dynamic nature of viral entry, particularly in the case of HIV-1. While time-lapse live-cell imaging has yielded a great deal of information about many aspects of the life cycle of HIV-13-7, the resolution afforded by live-cell microscopy is limited (~ 200 nm). Our work was aimed at developing a correlation method that permits direct visualization of early events of HIV-1 infection by combining live-cell fluorescent light microscopy, cryo-fluorescent microscopy, and cryoET. In this manner, live-cell and cryo-fluorescent signals can be used to accurately guide the sampling in cryoET. Furthermore, structural information obtained from cryoET can be complemented with the dynamic functional data gained through live-cell imaging of fluorescent labeled target. In this video article, we provide detailed methods and protocols for structural investigation of HIV-1 and host-cell interactions using 3D correlative high-speed live-cell imaging and high-resolution cryoET structural analysis. HeLa cells infected with HIV-1 particles were characterized first by confocal live-cell microscopy, and the region containing the same viral particle was then analyzed by cryo-electron tomography for 3D structural details. The correlation between two sets of imaging data, optical imaging and electron imaging, was achieved using a home-built cryo-fluorescence light microscopy stage. The approach detailed here will be valuable, not only for study of virus-host cell interactions, but also for broader applications in cell biology, such as cell signaling, membrane receptor trafficking, and many other dynamic cellular processes. PMID:23852318
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jensen, Jens F.
This paper addresses some of the central questions currently related to 3-Dimensional Inhabited Virtual Worlds (3D-IVWs), their virtual interactions, and communication, drawing from the theory and methodology of sociology, interaction analysis, interpersonal communication, semiotics, cultural studies, and media studies. First, 3D-IVWs--seen as a…
Hardware-accelerated autostereogram rendering for interactive 3D visualization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petz, Christoph; Goldluecke, Bastian; Magnor, Marcus
2003-05-01
Single Image Random Dot Stereograms (SIRDS) are an attractive way of depicting three-dimensional objects using conventional display technology. Once trained in decoupling the eyes' convergence and focusing, autostereograms of this kind are able to convey the three-dimensional impression of a scene. We present in this work an algorithm that generates SIRDS at interactive frame rates on a conventional PC. The presented system allows rotating a 3D geometry model and observing the object from arbitrary positions in real-time. Subjective tests show that the perception of a moving or rotating 3D scene presents no problem: The gaze remains focused onto the object. In contrast to conventional SIRDS algorithms, we render multiple pixels in a single step using a texture-based approach, exploiting the parallel-processing architecture of modern graphics hardware. A vertex program determines the parallax for each vertex of the geometry model, and the graphics hardware's texture unit is used to render the dot pattern. No data has to be transferred between main memory and the graphics card for generating the autostereograms, leaving CPU capacity available for other tasks. Frame rates of 25 fps are attained at a resolution of 1024x512 pixels on a standard PC using a consumer-grade nVidia GeForce4 graphics card, demonstrating the real-time capability of the system.
FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION MODELS OF THE MITRAL VALVE: FUNCTION IN NORMAL AND PATHOLOGIC STATES
Kunzelman, K. S.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Cochran, R. P.
2007-08-29
Successful mitral valve repair is dependent upon a full understanding of normal and abnormal mitral valve anatomy and function. Computational analysis is one such method that can be applied to simulate mitral valve function in order to analyze the roles of individual components, and evaluate proposed surgical repair. We developed the first three-dimensional, finite element (FE) computer model of the mitral valve including leaflets and chordae tendineae, however, one critical aspect that has been missing until the last few years was the evaluation of fluid flow, as coupled to the function of the mitral valve structure. We present here our latest results for normal function and specific pathologic changes using a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model. Normal valve function was first assessed, followed by pathologic material changes in collagen fiber volume fraction, fiber stiffness, fiber splay, and isotropic stiffness. Leaflet and chordal stress and strain, and papillary muscle force was determined. In addition, transmitral flow, time to leaflet closure, and heart valve sound were assessed. Model predictions in the normal state agreed well with a wide range of available in-vivo and in-vitro data. Further, pathologic material changes that preserved the anisotropy of the valve leaflets were found to preserve valve function. By contrast, material changes that altered the anisotropy of the valve were found to profoundly alter valve function. The addition of blood flow and an experimentally driven microstructural description of mitral tissue represent significant advances in computational studies of the mitral valve, which allow further insight to be gained. This work is another building block in the foundation of a computational framework to aid in the refinement and development of a truly noninvasive diagnostic evaluation of the mitral valve. Ultimately, it represents the basis for simulation of surgical repair of pathologic valves in a clinical and educational
Immersed boundary-finite element model of fluid-structure interaction in the aortic root
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flamini, Vittoria; DeAnda, Abe; Griffith, Boyce E.
2016-04-01
It has long been recognized that aortic root elasticity helps to ensure efficient aortic valve closure, but our understanding of the functional importance of the elasticity and geometry of the aortic root continues to evolve as increasingly detailed in vivo imaging data become available. Herein, we describe a fluid-structure interaction model of the aortic root, including the aortic valve leaflets, the sinuses of Valsalva, the aortic annulus, and the sinotubular junction, that employs a version of Peskin's immersed boundary (IB) method with a finite element description of the structural elasticity. As in earlier work, we use a fiber-based model of the valve leaflets, but this study extends earlier IB models of the aortic root by employing an incompressible hyperelastic model of the mechanics of the sinuses and ascending aorta using a constitutive law fit to experimental data from human aortic root tissue. In vivo pressure loading is accounted for by a backward displacement method that determines the unloaded configuration of the root model. Our model yields realistic cardiac output at physiological pressures, with low transvalvular pressure differences during forward flow, minimal regurgitation during valve closure, and realistic pressure loads when the valve is closed during diastole. Further, results from high-resolution computations indicate that although the detailed leaflet and root kinematics show some grid sensitivity, our IB model of the aortic root nonetheless produces essentially grid-converged flow rates and pressures at practical grid spacings for the high Reynolds number flows of the aortic root. These results thereby clarify minimum grid resolutions required by such models when used as stand-alone models of the aortic valve as well as when used to provide models of the outflow valves in models of left-ventricular fluid dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, F. F.; Chen, T.; Wu, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.
2013-12-01
The internal flow evolution of the pump was induced with impeller movement. In various conditions, the peak load on centrifugal blade under the change of rotational speed or flow rate was also changed. It would cause an error when inertia load with a safety coefficient (that was difficult to ascertain) was applied in structure design. In order to accurately analyze the impeller stress under various conditions and improve the reliability of pump, based on a mixed flow pump model, the stress distribution characteristic was analyzed under different flow rates and rotational speeds. Based on a three-dimensional calculation model including impeller, guide blade, inlet and outlet, the three-dimension incompressible turbulence flow in the centrifugal pump was simulated by using the standard k-epsilon turbulence model. Based on the sequentially coupled simulation approach, a three-dimensional finite element model of impeller was established, and the fluid-structure interaction method of the blade load transfer was discussed. The blades pressure from flow simulation, together with inertia force acting on the blade, was used as the blade loading on solid surface. The Finite Element Method (FEM) was used to calculate the stress distribution of the blade respectively under inertia load, or fluid load, or combined load. The results showed that the blade stress changed with flow rate and rotational speed. In all cases, the maximum stress on the blade appeared on the pressure side near the hub, and the maximum static stress increased with the decreasing of the flow rate and the increasing of rotational speed. There was a big difference on the static stress when inertia load, fluid load and combined loads was applied respectively. In order to more accurately calculate the stress distribution, the structure analysis should be conducted due to combined loads. The results could provide basis for the stress analysis and structure optimization of pump.
Fluid-structure interaction for nonlinear response of shells conveying pulsatile flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tubaldi, Eleonora; Amabili, Marco; Païdoussis, Michael P.
2016-06-01
Circular cylindrical shells with flexible boundary conditions conveying pulsatile flow and subjected to pulsatile pressure are investigated. The equations of motion are obtained based on the nonlinear Novozhilov shell theory via Lagrangian approach. The flow is set in motion by a pulsatile pressure gradient. The fluid is modeled as a Newtonian pulsatile flow and it is formulated using a hybrid model that contains the unsteady effects obtained from the linear potential flow theory and the pulsatile viscous effects obtained from the unsteady time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. A numerical bifurcation analysis employs a refined reduced order model to investigate the dynamic behavior. The case of shells containing quiescent fluid subjected to the action of a pulsatile transmural pressure is also addressed. Geometrically nonlinear vibration response to pulsatile flow and transmural pressure are here presented via frequency-response curves and time histories. The vibrations involving both a driven mode and a companion mode, which appear due to the axial symmetry, are also investigated. This theoretical framework represents a pioneering study that could be of great interest for biomedical applications. In particular, in the future, a more refined model of the one here presented will possibly be applied to reproduce the dynamic behavior of vascular prostheses used for repairing and replacing damaged and diseased thoracic aorta in cases of aneurysm, dissection or coarctation. For this purpose, a pulsatile time-dependent blood flow model is here considered by applying physiological waveforms of velocity and pressure during the heart beating period. This study provides, for the first time in literature, a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction model with deep insights in the nonlinear vibrations of circular cylindrical shells subjected to pulsatile pressure and pulsatile flow.
Nonlinear multiple-discipline analysis of conjugate heat transfer and fluid-structure interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weaver, Michael A.
Single-discipline analysis approaches often utilize linearized descriptions of coupled system physics from other disciplines. When this level of approximation is inadequate for the purposes of the analysis, nonlinear governing equations for the separate physical disciplines must be introduced, thus producing a multiple-discipline analysis. The multiple-discipline approach can provide a deeper understanding of the underlying system physics, and can reveal deficiencies in systems designed by single-discipline means. An advantageous way to examine a nonlinear multiple-discipline system is the partitioned method, where each discipline subdomain is formulated and discretized separately, allowing separate modular solvers for each set of discretized equations. Avoiding ad hoc approaches, a unified approach is developed here and applied to analysis of conjugate heat transfer in an arc-heater wind tunnel nozzle, and fluid-structure interaction of a segmented solid rocket motor inhibitor. The specific systems examined represent actual hardware designed by single-discipline methods. The nonlinear effects present in the wind tunnel nozzle problem include separated, viscous fluid flow, forced-convection boiling, and flow-dependent heat transfer properties. Nonlinear effects present in the solid rocket motor inhibitor problem include large structural deformation, and separated, viscous fluid flow. Steady-state results obtained for the nozzle problem show distributions for wall temperature, fluid temperatures, and heat flux, as well as coolant flow field and recirculation patterns. These results indicate a design deficiency in the nozzle cooling system. For the inhibitor problem, steady and unsteady fields of stress, strain, and displacement are obtained for the structural components, accompanied by velocity and pressure fields for the surrounding gas flow. The large stress values present in the solid propellant suggest a possible mode for motor failure, and beckon examination of
An investigation of the fluid-structure interaction of piston/cylinder interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pelosi, Matteo
The piston/cylinder lubricating interface represents one of the most critical design elements of axial piston machines. Being a pure hydrodynamic bearing, the piston/cylinder interface fulfills simultaneously a bearing and sealing function under oscillating load conditions. Operating in an elastohydrodynamic lubrication regime, it also represents one of the main sources of power loss due to viscous friction and leakage flow. An accurate prediction of the time changing tribological interface characteristics in terms of fluid film thickness, dynamic pressure field, load carrying ability and energy dissipation is necessary to create more efficient interface designs. The aim of this work is to deepen the understanding of the main physical phenomena defining the piston/cylinder fluid film and to discover the impact of surface elastic deformations and heat transfer on the interface behavior. For this purpose, a unique fully coupled multi-body dynamics model has been developed to capture the complex fluid-structure interaction phenomena affecting the non-isothermal fluid film conditions. The model considers the squeeze film effect due to the piston micro-motion and the change in fluid film thickness due to the solid boundaries elastic deformations caused by the fluid film pressure and by the thermal strain. The model has been verified comparing the numerical results with measurements taken on special designed test pumps. The fluid film calculated dynamic pressure and temperature fields have been compared. Further validation has been accomplished comparing piston/cylinder axial viscous friction forces with measured data. The model has been used to study the piston/cylinder interface behavior of an existing axial piston unit operating at high load conditions. Numerical results are presented in this thesis.
Fluid{Structure Interaction Modeling of Modified-Porosity Parachutes and Parachute Clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boben, Joseph J.
To increase aerodynamic performance, the geometric porosity of a ringsail spacecraft parachute canopy is sometimes increased, beyond the "rings" and "sails" with hundreds of "ring gaps" and "sail slits." This creates extra computational challenges for fluid-structure interaction (FSI) modeling of clusters of such parachutes, beyond those created by the lightness of the canopy structure, geometric complexities of hundreds of gaps and slits, and the contact between the parachutes of the cluster. In FSI computation of parachutes with such "modified geometric porosity," the ow through the "windows" created by the removal of the panels and the wider gaps created by the removal of the sails cannot be accurately modeled with the Homogenized Modeling of Geometric Porosity (HMGP), which was introduced to deal with the hundreds of gaps and slits. The ow needs to be actually resolved. All these computational challenges need to be addressed simultaneously in FSI modeling of clusters of spacecraft parachutes with modified geometric porosity. The core numerical technology is the Stabilized Space-Time FSI (SSTFSI) technique, and the contact between the parachutes is handled with the Surface-Edge-Node Contact Tracking (SENCT) technique. In the computations reported here, in addition to the SSTFSI and SENCT techniques and HMGP, we use the special techniques we have developed for removing the numerical spinning component of the parachute motion and for restoring the mesh integrity without a remesh. We present results for 2- and 3-parachute clusters with two different payload models. We also present the FSI computations we carried out for a single, subscale modified-porosity parachute.
On the necessity of modelling fluid-structure interaction for stented coronary arteries.
Chiastra, Claudio; Migliavacca, Francesco; Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Malvè, Mauro
2014-06-01
Although stenting is the most commonly performed procedure for the treatment of coronary atherosclerotic lesions, in-stent restenosis (ISR) remains one of the most serious clinical complications. An important stimulus to ISR is the altered hemodynamics with abnormal shear stresses on endothelial cells generated by the stent presence. Computational fluid dynamics is a valid tool for studying the local hemodynamics of stented vessels, allowing the calculation of the wall shear stress (WSS), which is otherwise not directly possible to be measured in vivo. However, in these numerical simulations the arterial wall and the stent are considered rigid and fixed, an assumption that may influence the WSS and flow patterns. Therefore, the aim of this work is to perform fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analyses of a stented coronary artery in order to understand the effects of the wall compliance on the hemodynamic quantities. Two different materials are considered for the stent: cobalt-chromium (CoCr) and poly-l-lactide (PLLA). The results of the FSI and the corresponding rigid-wall models are compared, focusing in particular on the analysis of the WSS distribution. Results showed similar trends in terms of instantaneous and time-averaged WSS between compliant and rigid-wall cases. In particular, the difference of percentage area exposed to TAWSS lower than 0.4Pa between the CoCr FSI and the rigid-wall cases was about 1.5% while between the PLLA cases 1.0%. The results indicate that, for idealized models of a stented coronary artery, the rigid-wall assumption for fluid dynamic simulations appears adequate when the aim of the study is the analysis of near-wall quantities like WSS. PMID:24607760
Code verification for unsteady 3-D fluid-solid interaction problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Kintak Raymond; Étienne, Stéphane; Hay, Alexander; Pelletier, Dominique
2015-12-01
This paper describes a procedure to synthesize Manufactured Solutions for Code Verification of an important class of Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) problems whose behaviors can be modeled as rigid body vibrations in incompressible fluids. We refer this class of FSI problems as Fluid-Solid Interaction problems, which can be found in many practical engineering applications. The methodology can be utilized to develop Manufactured Solutions for both 2-D and 3-D cases. We demonstrate the procedure with our numerical code. We present details of the formulation and methodology. We also provide the reasonings behind our proposed approach. Results from grid and time step refinement studies confirm the verification of our solver and demonstrate the versatility of the simple synthesis procedure. In addition, the results also demonstrate that the modified decoupled approach to verify flow problems with high-order time-stepping schemes can be employed equally well to verify code for multi-physics problems (here, those of the Fluid-Solid Interaction) when the numerical discretization is based on the Method of Lines.
Interactive photogrammetric system for mapping 3D objects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knopp, Dave E.
1990-08-01
A new system, FOTO-G, has been developed for 3D photogrammetric applications. It is a production-oriented software system designed to work with highly unconventional photogrammetric image configurations which result when photographing 3D objects. A demonstration with imagery from an actual 3D-mapping project is reported.
Interactive 3D visualization speeds well, reservoir planning
Petzet, G.A.
1997-11-24
Texaco Exploration and Production has begun making expeditious analyses and drilling decisions that result from interactive, large screen visualization of seismic and other three dimensional data. A pumpkin shaped room or pod inside a 3,500 sq ft, state-of-the-art facility in Southwest Houston houses a supercomputer and projection equipment Texaco said will help its people sharply reduce 3D seismic project cycle time, boost production from existing fields, and find more reserves. Oil and gas related applications of the visualization center include reservoir engineering, plant walkthrough simulation for facilities/piping design, and new field exploration. The center houses a Silicon Graphics Onyx2 infinite reality supercomputer configured with 8 processors, 3 graphics pipelines, and 6 gigabytes of main memory.
Quantifying cellular interaction dynamics in 3-D fluorescence microscopy data
Klauschen, Frederick; Ishii, Masaru; Qi, Hai; Bajénoff, Marc; Egen, Jackson G.; Germain, Ronald N.; Meier-Schellersheim, Martin
2012-01-01
The wealth of information available from advanced fluorescence imaging techniques used to analyze biological processes with high spatial and temporal resolution calls for high-throughput image analysis methods. Here, we describe a fully automated approach to analyzing cellular interaction behavior in 3-D fluorescence microscopy images. As example application we present the analysis of drug-induced and S1P1-knock-out-related changes in bone-osteoclast interactions. Moreover, we apply our approach to images showing the spatial association of dendritic cells with the fibroblastic reticular cell network within lymph nodes and to microscopy data about T-B lymphocyte synapse formation. Such analyses that yield important information about the molecular mechanisms determining cellular interaction behavior would be very difficult to perform with approaches that rely on manual/semi-automated analyses. This protocol integrates adaptive threshold segmentation, object detection, adaptive color channel merging and neighborhood analysis and permits rapid, standardized, quantitative analysis and comparison of the relevant features in large data sets. PMID:19696749
Fluid-structure interaction in abdominal aortic aneurysms: effects of asymmetry and wall thickness
Scotti, Christine M; Shkolnik, Alexander D; Muluk, Satish C; Finol, Ender A
2005-01-01
Background Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a prevalent disease which is of significant concern because of the morbidity associated with the continuing expansion of the abdominal aorta and its ultimate rupture. The transient interaction between blood flow and the wall contributes to wall stress which, if it exceeds the failure strength of the dilated arterial wall, will lead to aneurysm rupture. Utilizing a computational approach, the biomechanical environment of virtual AAAs can be evaluated to study the affects of asymmetry and wall thickness on this stress, two parameters that contribute to increased risk of aneurysm rupture. Methods Ten virtual aneurysm models were created with five different asymmetry parameters ranging from β = 0.2 to 1.0 and either a uniform or variable wall thickness to study the flow and wall dynamics by means of fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analyses. The AAA wall was designed to have a (i) uniform 1.5 mm thickness or (ii) variable thickness ranging from 0.5 – 1.5 mm extruded normally from the boundary surface of the lumen. These models were meshed with linear hexahedral elements, imported into a commercial finite element code and analyzed under transient flow conditions. The method proposed was then compared with traditional computational solid stress techniques on the basis of peak wall stress predictions and cost of computational effort. Results The results provide quantitative predictions of flow patterns and wall mechanics as well as the effects of aneurysm asymmetry and wall thickness heterogeneity on the estimation of peak wall stress. These parameters affect the magnitude and distribution of Von Mises stresses; varying wall thickness increases the maximum Von Mises stress by 4 times its uniform thickness counterpart. A pre-peak systole retrograde flow was observed in the AAA sac for all models, which is due to the elastic energy stored in the compliant arterial wall and the expansion force of the artery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jang, Gang-Won; Chang, Se-Myong; Gim, Gyun-Ho
2013-07-01
An analysis of fluid-structure interaction is presented for incompressible and inviscid flow in a channel bounded by symmetric cantilever beams. Small deflections of the beams and no flows normal to the beams are assumed, thus allowing the governing equations to be defined using quasi-one-dimensional pressure and flow velocity distribution; pressure and velocity are assumed to be uniform across the cross section of the channel. The steady-state solution of the present problem is analytically derived by the linearization of the governing equations. The solution is shown to consist of infinite modes, which is verified by comparing with numerical solutions obtained by the finite element method. The nonlinear effect in the steady-state solution is modeled by numerical method to estimate the error due to linearization. However, only a few leading modes are physically significant owing to the effects of flow compressibility and viscosity. The analytic solutions of the fluid-structure interaction are also presented for dynamic problems assuming harmonic vibration. The steady-state and stationary initial conditions are used, and the equilibrium frequency is determined to minimize the residual error of Euler equation. The fluid-structure interaction is characterized by a phase difference and distortion of waveform shape in the time history of the boundary velocity.
Einstein, Daniel R.; Del Pin, Facundo; Jiao, Xiangmin; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Carson, James P.; Kunzelman, Karyn S.; Cochran, Richard P.; Guccione, Julius M.; Ratcliffe, Mark B.
2009-01-01
SUMMARY The remodeling that occurs after a posterolateral myocardial infarction can alter mitral valve function by creating conformational abnormalities in the mitral annulus and in the posteromedial papillary muscle, leading to mitral regurgitation (MR). It is generally assumed that this remodeling is caused by a volume load and is mediated by an increase in diastolic wall stress. Thus, mitral regurgitation can be both the cause and effect of an abnormal cardiac stress environment. Computational modeling of ischemic MR and its surgical correction is attractive because it enables an examination of whether a given intervention addresses the correction of regurgitation (fluid-flow) at the cost of abnormal tissue stress. This is significant because the negative effects of an increased wall stress due to the intervention will only be evident over time. However, a meaningful fluid-structure interaction model of the left heart is not trivial; it requires a careful characterization of the in-vivo cardiac geometry, tissue parameterization though inverse analysis, a robust coupled solver that handles collapsing Lagrangian interfaces, automatic grid-generation algorithms that are capable of accurately discretizing the cardiac geometry, innovations in image analysis, competent and efficient constitutive models and an understanding of the spatial organization of tissue microstructure. In this manuscript, we profile our work toward a comprehensive fluid-structure interaction model of the left heart by reviewing our early work, presenting our current work and laying out our future work in four broad categories: data collection, geometry, fluid-structure interaction and validation. PMID:20454531
Numerical simulation of fluid/structure interaction phenomena in viscous dominated flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tran, Hai Duong
2001-12-01
The accurate prediction of buffet boundaries is essential in modern military aircraft and suspension bridge design in order to avoid the potentially disastrous consequences of unsteady loads. The design of lightweight structures and thermal protection systems for supersonic and hypersonic vehicles depends on the accurate prediction of the aerothermal loads, the structural temperatures and their gradients, and the structural deformations and stresses. Despite their bounded nature, limit-cycle oscillations can exhibit important amplitudes which affect the fatigue life of aircraft structures. Therefore, the main objective of this thesis is to develop and design an integrated multidisciplinary computational methodology for the analyses of the coupled responses exhibited by these phenomena. To simulate fluid/structure interaction problems in turbulent flows, we formulate the k--epsilon turbulence model and Reichardt's wall law in ALE form for dynamic meshes. This law is used with the generalized boundary conditions on k and epsilon of Jaeger and Dhatt and allows a closer integration to the wall compared to standard logarithmic laws and boundary conditions on k and epsilon. In order to apply the methodology to buffeting problems dominated by vortex shedding, we validate our solution approach on the square cylinder benchmark problem. There, we stress the minimization of numerical dissipation induced by an upwinding scheme, and apply our methodology to the aeroelastic stability analysis of a sectional dynamic model of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge. Then, we extend the three field formulation of aeroelasticity to a four-field formulation of aerothermoelasticity for the analysis of aerodynamic heating on structures. With a k--epsilon model, the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are integrated up to a distance delta from the real wall. This gap creates a problem for the transmission of the structural temperature to the fluid system. To resolve this problem, we exchange the
Modelling of a hydraulic engine mount with fluid-structure interaction finite element analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shangguan, Wen-Bin; Lu, Zhen-Hua
2004-08-01
Hydraulic engine mount (HEM) is now widely used as a highly effective vibration isolator in automotive powertrain. A lumped parameter (LP) model is a traditional model for modelling the dynamic characteristics of HEM, in which the system parameters are usually obtained by experiments. In this paper, a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) finite element analysis (FEA) method and a non-linear FEA technology are used to determine the system parameters, and a fully coupled FSI model is developed for modelling the static and lower-frequency performance of an HEM. A FSI FEA technique is used to estimate the parameters of volumetric compliances, equivalent piston area, inertia and resistance of the fluid in the inertia track and the decoupler of an HEM. A non-linear FEA method is applied to determine the dynamic stiffness of rubber spring of the HEM. The system parameters predicated by FEA are compared favorably with experimental data and/or analytical solutions. A numerical simulation for an HEM with an inertia track and a free decoupler is performed based on the FSI model and the LP model along with the estimated system parameters, and again the simulation results are compared with experimental data. The calculated time histories of some variables in the model, such as the pressure in the upper chamber, the displacement of the free decoupler and the volume flow through the inertia track and the decoupler, under different excitations, elucidate the working mechanism of the HEM. The pressure distribution calculated with the FSI model in the chambers of the HEM validates the assumption that the pressure distribution in the upper and lower chamber is uniform in the LP model. The work conducted in the paper demonstrates that the methods for estimating the system parameters in the LP model and the FSI model for modelling HEM are effective, with which the dynamic characteristic analysis and design optimization of an HEM can be performed before its prototype development, and this
3D implicit PIC simulations of solar wind - moon interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deca, J.; Markidis, S.; Divin, A.; Lapenta, G.; Vapirev, A.
2012-04-01
We present three-dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations of an unmagnetized insulating Moon-sized body immersed in the solar wind. The simulations are performed using the implicit electromagnetic Particle-in-Cell code iPIC3D [Markidis, 2009]. Multiscale kinetic physics is resolved for all plasma components (heavy ions, protons and electrons) in the code, recently updated with a set of open boundary conditions designed for solar wind - body interaction studies. Particles are injected at the inflow side of the computational domain and absorbed at all others. A bow shock is not formed upstream of the body, but the obstacle generates faint dispersive waves propagating parallel to the magnetic field lines, in agreement with numerical simulations done in MHD approach. Polarization electric field is generated in the wake. In addition, plasma flows filling the wake tend to excite streaming instabilities, which lead to bipolar signatures in the parallel electric field. Our future work includes updating the physical model to include photoionization and re-emission at the object's surface.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Young-Cheol; Lee, D. H.; Chung, T. Y.; Ham, D. Y.; Kim, Y. B.
A torsional tuned damper is usually used in order to reduce the torsional vibration of the crank shaft system in marine diesel engines. The damper consists of leaf springs, fluid chambers, fluid channels, and intermediate masses. The leaf springs provide the stiffening force to the shaft system, and the fluid chambers and channels give the damping force. In this paper, FSI (fluid-structure interaction) analysis by using FEM is carried out for the calculation of the stiffness and damping coefficients of the designed damper. The numerical calculation result about the equivalent damping coefficients is compared to the value obtained from a simple damping simulation model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lingjie; Qian, Zuoqin; Deng, Jun; Yin, Yuting
2015-09-01
A numerical simulation and experimental study of heat transfer, fluid flow and fins mechanical property on plate-fin heat exchanger has been presented in this paper. The methods used in this study are experiment, CFD analysis, fluid-structure interaction and finite element method. An air-oil wind tunnel is established for this experiment. The temperature difference, pressure drop, streamlines are obtained in overall model, and the heat transfer coefficient, j/ f factor, temperature and stress distribution of plate-fin body are obtained in different fin thickness and fin offset. The prediction from the CFD simulation shows reasonably good agreement with the experimental results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Rosis, Alessandro
2014-03-01
In this paper, a numerical method for the modeling of shallow waters interacting with slender elastic structures is presented. The fluid domain is modeled through the lattice Boltzmann method, while the solid domain is idealized by corotational beam finite elements undergoing large displacements. Structure dynamics is predicted by using the time discontinuous Galerkin method and the fluid-structure interface conditions are handled by the Immersed Boundary method. An explicit coupling strategy to combine the adopted numerical methods is proposed and its effectiveness is tested by computing the error in terms of the energy that is artificially introduced at the fluid-solid interface.
Helical waves and non-linear dynamics of fluid/structure interactions in a tube row
Moon, F.C.; Thothadri, M.
1997-12-31
The goal of this study has been to investigate low-dimensional models for fluid-structure dynamics of flow across a row of cylindrical tubes. Four principle results of this experimental-theoretical study are discussed. (i) Experimental evidence has shown that the dynamic instability of the tube row is a subcritical Hopf bifurcation. (ii) The critical flow velocity decreases as the number of flexible cylinders increases. (iii) The linear model exhibits coupled helical wave solutions in the tube dynamics. (iv) A nonlinear model of the tube motions shows a complex subcritical Hopf bifurcation with a secondary bifurcation to a torus or quasi-periodic oscillation. In this analysis the tools of center manifolds, normal forms and numerical simulation are used.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chunbai; Mitra, Ambar K.
2016-01-01
Any boundary surface evolving in viscous fluid is driven with surface capillary currents. By step function defined for the fluid-structure interface, surface currents are found near a flat wall in a logarithmic form. The general flat-plate boundary layer is demonstrated through the interface kinematics. The dynamics analysis elucidates the relationship of the surface currents with the adhering region as well as the no-slip boundary condition. The wall skin friction coefficient, displacement thickness, and the logarithmic velocity-defect law of the smooth flat-plate boundary-layer flow are derived with the advent of the forced evolving boundary method. This fundamental theory has wide applications in applied science and engineering.
Iannaccone, Francesco; Degroote, Joris; Vierendeels, Jan; Segers, Patrick
2016-01-01
In recent years the role of FSI (fluid-structure interaction) simulations in the analysis of the fluid-mechanics of heart valves is becoming more and more important, being able to capture the interaction between the blood and both the surrounding biological tissues and the valve itself. When setting up an FSI simulation, several choices have to be made to select the most suitable approach for the case of interest: in particular, to simulate flexible leaflet cardiac valves, the type of discretization of the fluid domain is crucial, which can be described with an ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) or an Eulerian formulation. The majority of the reported 3D heart valve FSI simulations are performed with the Eulerian formulation, allowing for large deformations of the domains without compromising the quality of the fluid grid. Nevertheless, it is known that the ALE-FSI approach guarantees more accurate results at the interface between the solid and the fluid. The goal of this paper is to describe the same aortic valve model in the two cases, comparing the performances of an ALE-based FSI solution and an Eulerian-based FSI approach. After a first simplified 2D case, the aortic geometry was considered in a full 3D set-up. The model was kept as similar as possible in the two settings, to better compare the simulations’ outcomes. Although for the 2D case the differences were unsubstantial, in our experience the performance of a full 3D ALE-FSI simulation was significantly limited by the technical problems and requirements inherent to the ALE formulation, mainly related to the mesh motion and deformation of the fluid domain. As a secondary outcome of this work, it is important to point out that the choice of the solver also influenced the reliability of the final results. PMID:27128798
Bavo, Alessandra M; Rocatello, Giorgia; Iannaccone, Francesco; Degroote, Joris; Vierendeels, Jan; Segers, Patrick
2016-01-01
In recent years the role of FSI (fluid-structure interaction) simulations in the analysis of the fluid-mechanics of heart valves is becoming more and more important, being able to capture the interaction between the blood and both the surrounding biological tissues and the valve itself. When setting up an FSI simulation, several choices have to be made to select the most suitable approach for the case of interest: in particular, to simulate flexible leaflet cardiac valves, the type of discretization of the fluid domain is crucial, which can be described with an ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) or an Eulerian formulation. The majority of the reported 3D heart valve FSI simulations are performed with the Eulerian formulation, allowing for large deformations of the domains without compromising the quality of the fluid grid. Nevertheless, it is known that the ALE-FSI approach guarantees more accurate results at the interface between the solid and the fluid. The goal of this paper is to describe the same aortic valve model in the two cases, comparing the performances of an ALE-based FSI solution and an Eulerian-based FSI approach. After a first simplified 2D case, the aortic geometry was considered in a full 3D set-up. The model was kept as similar as possible in the two settings, to better compare the simulations' outcomes. Although for the 2D case the differences were unsubstantial, in our experience the performance of a full 3D ALE-FSI simulation was significantly limited by the technical problems and requirements inherent to the ALE formulation, mainly related to the mesh motion and deformation of the fluid domain. As a secondary outcome of this work, it is important to point out that the choice of the solver also influenced the reliability of the final results. PMID:27128798
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cerroni, D.; Manservisi, S.; Pozzetti, G.
2015-11-01
In this work we investigate the potentialities of multi-scale engineering techniques to approach complex problems related to biomedical and biological fields. In particular we study the interaction between blood and blood vessel focusing on the presence of an aneurysm. The study of each component of the cardiovascular system is very difficult due to the fact that the movement of the fluid and solid is determined by the rest of system through dynamical boundary conditions. The use of multi-scale techniques allows us to investigate the effect of the whole loop on the aneurysm dynamic. A three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction model for the aneurysm is developed and coupled to a mono-dimensional one for the remaining part of the cardiovascular system, where a point zero-dimensional model for the heart is provided. In this manner it is possible to achieve rigorous and quantitative investigations of the cardiovascular disease without loosing the system dynamic. In order to study this biomedical problem we use a monolithic fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model where the fluid and solid equations are solved together. The use of a monolithic solver allows us to handle the convergence issues caused by large deformations. By using this monolithic approach different solid and fluid regions are treated as a single continuum and the interface conditions are automatically taken into account. In this way the iterative process characteristic of the commonly used segregated approach, it is not needed any more.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pasquariello, Vito; Hammerl, Georg; Örley, Felix; Hickel, Stefan; Danowski, Caroline; Popp, Alexander; Wall, Wolfgang A.; Adams, Nikolaus A.
2016-02-01
We present a loosely coupled approach for the solution of fluid-structure interaction problems between a compressible flow and a deformable structure. The method is based on staggered Dirichlet-Neumann partitioning. The interface motion in the Eulerian frame is accounted for by a conservative cut-cell Immersed Boundary method. The present approach enables sub-cell resolution by considering individual cut-elements within a single fluid cell, which guarantees an accurate representation of the time-varying solid interface. The cut-cell procedure inevitably leads to non-matching interfaces, demanding for a special treatment. A Mortar method is chosen in order to obtain a conservative and consistent load transfer. We validate our method by investigating two-dimensional test cases comprising a shock-loaded rigid cylinder and a deformable panel. Moreover, the aeroelastic instability of a thin plate structure is studied with a focus on the prediction of flutter onset. Finally, we propose a three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction test case of a flexible inflated thin shell interacting with a shock wave involving large and complex structural deformations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frei, S.; Richter, T.; Wick, T.
2016-09-01
In this work, we develop numerical schemes for mechano-chemical fluid-structure interactions with long-term effects. We investigate a model of a growing solid interacting with an incompressible fluid. A typical example for such a situation is the formation and growth of plaque in blood vessels. This application includes two particular difficulties: First, growth may lead to very large deformations, up to full clogging of the fluid domain. We derive a simplified set of equations including a fluid-structure interaction system coupled to an ODE model for plaque growth in Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) coordinates and in Eulerian coordinates. The latter novel technique is capable of handling very large deformations up to contact. The second difficulty stems from the different time scales: while the dynamics of the fluid demand to resolve a scale of seconds, growth typically takes place in a range of months. We propose a temporal two-scale approach using local small-scale problems to compute an effective wall stress that will enter a long-scale problem. Our proposed techniques are substantiated with several numerical tests that include comparisons of the Eulerian and ALE approaches as well as convergence studies.
A stable second-order scheme for fluid-structure interaction with strong added-mass effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Jie; Jaiman, Rajeev K.; Gurugubelli, Pardha S.
2014-08-01
In this paper, we present a stable second-order time accurate scheme for solving fluid-structure interaction problems. The scheme uses so-called Combined Field with Explicit Interface (CFEI) advancing formulation based on the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach with finite element procedure. Although loosely-coupled partitioned schemes are often popular choices for simulating FSI problems, these schemes may suffer from inherent instability at low structure to fluid density ratios. We show that our second-order scheme is stable for any mass density ratio and hence is able to handle strong added-mass effects. Energy-based stability proof relies heavily on the connections among extrapolation formula, trapezoidal scheme for second-order equation, and backward difference method for first-order equation. Numerical accuracy and stability of the scheme is assessed with the aid of two-dimensional fluid-structure interaction problems of increasing complexity. We confirm second-order temporal accuracy by numerical experiments on an elastic semi-circular cylinder problem. We verify the accuracy of coupled solutions with respect to the benchmark solutions of a cylinder-elastic bar and the Navier-Stokes flow system. To study the stability of the proposed scheme for strong added-mass effects, we present new results using the combined field formulation for flexible flapping motion of a thin-membrane structure with low mass ratio and strong added-mass effects in a uniform axial flow. Using a systematic series of fluid-structure simulations, a detailed analysis of the coupled response as a function of mass ratio for the case of very low bending rigidity has been presented.
3D-CANVENT: An interactive mine ventilation simulator
Hardcastle, S.G.
1995-12-31
3D-CANVENT is a software package that integrates advanced computer aided design (ACAD) true 3D graphics with a mine ventilation simulator. The package runs as a Windows{trademark} application to access its printer drivers environment and does not need third party CAD software. It is composed of two primary modules: DMVENT and MINEDESIGNER. DMVENT is a traditional Fortran coded Hardy-Cross iterative ventilation network solver written in 1980 with thermodynamic capabilities. This module is relatively unchanged with the traditional data input options for branch type, specified or calculated resistances, fixed flows, and fixed or variable pressure fans. MINEDESIGNER is the graphics engine that optimizes the ventilation design process. It performs the front-end transformation of input data entered in the graphical interface into the correct format for the solver. At the back-end it reconverts the historically standard tabular data output from the solver into an easily viewed graphical format. ACAD features of MINEDESIGNER are used to generate a 3D wire-frame node and branch network of the mine`s ventilation system. The network can be displayed in up to 4 views orientated to XYZ planes or a 3D view. AU the views have zoom, pan, slice and rotate options. The graphical interface efficiently permits data entry and editing via a mouse with pick-and-point item selection. Branches can be found or added with {open_quotes}search{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}join{close_quotes} options. Visual interpretation is enhanced by the 16 colour options for branches and numerous graphical attributes. Network locations are readily identified by alpha-numeric names for branches, junctions and fans, and also the logical numbering of junctions. The program is also readily expandable for pollutant simulation and control/monitoring applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emamzadeh, Seyed Shahab; Ahmadi, Mohammad Taghi; Mohammadi, Soheil; Biglarkhani, Masoud
2015-07-01
In this paper, an investigation into the propagation of far field explosion waves in water and their effects on nearby structures are carried out. For the far field structure, the motion of the fluid surrounding the structure may be assumed small, allowing linearization of the governing fluid equations. A complete analysis of the problem must involve simultaneous solution of the dynamic response of the structure and the propagation of explosion wave in the surrounding fluid. In this study, a dynamic adaptive finite element procedure is proposed. Its application to the solution of a 2D fluid-structure interaction is investigated in the time domain. The research includes: a) calculation of the far-field scatter wave due to underwater explosion including solution of the time-depended acoustic wave equation, b) fluid-structure interaction analysis using coupled Euler-Lagrangian approach, and c) adaptive finite element procedures employing error estimates, and re-meshing. The temporal mesh adaptation is achieved by local regeneration of the grid using a time-dependent error indicator based on curvature of pressure function. As a result, the overall response is better predicted by a moving mesh than an equivalent uniform mesh. In addition, the cost of computation for large problems is reduced while the accuracy is improved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Dae-Kwan; Lee, Jun-Seong; Han, Jae-Hung
2009-07-01
The sweep-back effect of a flexible flapping wing is investigated through fluid-structure interaction analysis. The aeroelastic analysis is carried out by using an efficient fluid-structure interaction analysis tool, which is based on the modified strip theory and the flexible multibody dynamics. To investigate the sweep-back effect, the aeroelastic analysis is performed on various sweep-back wing models defined by sweep-chord ratio and sweep-span ratio, and then the sweep-back effect on the aerodynamic performance is discussed. The aeroelastic results of the sweep-back wing analysis clearly confirm that the sweep-back angle can help a flexible flapping wing to generate greater twisting motion, resulting in the aerodynamic improvement of thrust and input power for all flapping-axis angle regimes. The propulsive efficiency can also be increased by the sweep-back effect. The sweep angle of a flapping wing should be considered as an important design feature for artificial flexible flapping wings.
Childress, Emily M; Kleinstreuer, Clement
2014-03-01
Direct targeting of solid tumors with chemotherapeutic drugs and/or radioactive microspheres can be a treatment option which minimizes side-effects and reduces cost. Briefly, computational analysis generates particle release maps (PRMs) which visually link upstream particle injection regions in the main artery with associated exit branches, some connected to tumors. The overall goal is to compute patient-specific PRMs realistically, accurately, and cost-effectively, which determines the suitable radial placement of a micro-catheter for optimal particle injection. Focusing in this paper on new steps towards realism and accuracy, the impact of fluid-structure interaction on direct drug-targeting is evaluated, using a representative hepatic artery system with liver tumor as a test bed. Specifically, the effect of arterial wall motion was demonstrated by modeling a two-way fluid-structure interaction analysis with Lagrangian particle tracking in the bifurcating arterial system. Clearly, rapid computational evaluation of optimal catheter location for tumor-targeting in a clinical application is very important. Hence, rigid-wall cases were also compared to the flexible scenario to establish whether PRMs generated when based on simplifying assumptions could provide adequate guidance towards ideal catheter placement. It was found that the best rigid (i.e., time-averaged) geometry is the physiological one that occurs during the diastolic targeting interval. PMID:24048712
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Westervelt, Andrea; Erath, Byron
2013-11-01
Voiced speech is produced by fluid-structure interactions that drive vocal fold motion. Viscous flow features influence the pressure in the gap between the vocal folds (i.e. glottis), thereby altering vocal fold dynamics and the sound that is produced. During the closing phases of the phonatory cycle, vortices form as a result of flow separation as air passes through the divergent glottis. It is hypothesized that the reduced pressure within a vortex core will alter the pressure distribution along the vocal fold surface, thereby aiding in vocal fold closure. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of intraglottal vortices on the fluid-structure interactions of voiced speech by investigating how the dynamics of a flexible plate are influenced by a vortex ring passing tangentially over it. A flexible plate, which models the medial vocal fold surface, is placed in a water-filled tank and positioned parallel to the exit of a vortex generator. The physical parameters of plate stiffness and vortex circulation are scaled with physiological values. As vortices propagate over the plate, particle image velocimetry measurements are captured to analyze the energy exchange between the fluid and flexible plate. The investigations are performed over a range of vortex formation numbers, and lateral displacements of the plate from the centerline of the vortex trajectory. Observations show plate oscillations with displacements directly correlated with the vortex core location.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zheng-Shou; Kim, Wu-Joan
2012-03-01
This article presents a numerical investigation concerning the effect of two kinds of axially progressing internal flows (namely, upward and downward) on fluid-structure interaction (FSI) dynamics about a marine riser model which is subject to external shear current. The CAE technology behind the current research is a proposed FSI solution, which combines structural analysis software with CFD technology together. Efficiency validation for the CFD software was carried out first. It has been proved that the result from numerical simulations agrees well with the observation from relating model test cases in which the fluidity of internal flow is ignorable. After verifying the numerical code accuracy, simulations are conducted to study the vibration response that attributes to the internal progressive flow. It is found that the existence of internal flow does play an important role in determining the vibration mode (/dominant frequency) and the magnitude of instantaneous vibration amplitude. Since asymmetric curvature along the riser span emerges in the case of external shear current, the centrifugal and Coriolis accelerations owing to up- and downward internal progressive flows play different roles in determining the fluid-structure interaction response. The discrepancy between them becomes distinct, when the velocity ratio of internal flow against external shear current is relatively high.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Yang; Tu, Shan; Wang, Hongjuan
Two-way sequential fluid-structure interaction method was used to analyze and discuss the characteristics of unsteady fluid-structure interaction of the complex flow channel of a steam turbine ball type control valve. Research indicates that when the pressure ratio changes as a sine wave, its flow rate occurs a sine wave change, and the maximum flow rate value of 57.46kg•s-1 occurs in the minimum pressure ratio condition. The longitudinal force of the structure domain decreases with the reduction of the pressure ratio, and points to the opposite direction of the flow. The lateral force increases with the decrease of the pressure ratio, and points to the opposite direction of the flow. The maximum value of deformation and force of the structure domain changes consistently with the pressure ratio fluctuation. The maximum value of the structure domain stress is 28.67MPa, which is far less than the yield strength of the structure material, and the maximum deformation value is 3.25um.
A numerical method for confined unsteady flows related to fluid-structure interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belanger, Francois
1991-02-01
This thesis elaborates three aspects in the field of flow-induced vibrations associated with annular geometries. A method to find the unsteady fluid forces on a cylinder oscillating in annular turbulent flow is developed by considering the superposition of the turbulent fluctuating quantities on potential flow. The theory is compared with experiments. Then, the unsteady fluid forces acting on the vibrating cylinder walls of nonuniform annular configurations are computed by a method which performs the accurate time integration of the Navier-Stokes equations. It is the extension for unsteady flows of the method of artificial compressibility used for steady flows. A time-discretization of the momentum equation using a three-point-backward implicit scheme is introduced, and the addition of pseudo-time derivative terms to the semidiscretized equations, including artificial compressibility in the continuity equation, allows the use of time-marching solution techniques thereafter. Finally, the integration method used for the Navier-Stokes equations is combined with the equation governing the dynamical behavior of a structure in order to perform the fluid-structure stability analysis of this system in the time domain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takizawa, Kenji; Moorman, Creighton; Wright, Samuel; Christopher, Jason; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.
2009-10-01
The stabilized space-time fluid-structure interaction (SSTFSI) technique was applied to arterial FSI problems soon after its development by the Team for Advanced Flow Simulation and Modeling. The SSTFSI technique is based on the Deforming-Spatial-Domain/Stabilized Space-Time (DSD/SST) formulation and is supplemented with a number of special techniques developed for arterial FSI. The special techniques developed in the recent past include a recipe for pre-FSI computations that improve the convergence of the FSI computations, using an estimated zero-pressure arterial geometry, Sequentially Coupled Arterial FSI technique, using layers of refined fluid mechanics mesh near the arterial walls, and a special mapping technique for specifying the velocity profile at inflow boundaries with non-circular shape. In this paper we introduce some additional special techniques, related to the projection of fluid-structure interface stresses, calculation of the wall shear stress (WSS), and calculation of the oscillatory shear index. In the test computations reported here, we focus on WSS calculations in FSI modeling of a patient-specific middle cerebral artery segment with aneurysm. Two different structural mechanics meshes and three different fluid mechanics meshes are tested to investigate the influence of mesh refinement on the WSS calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Shuai; Xu, Jinglei; Mo, Jianwei; Gu, Rui; Pang, Lina
2015-07-01
Splitter plate plays an important role in a turbine-based combined-cycle (TBCC) exhaust system during the mode transition phase when turbojet engine and ramjet engine operate simultaneously. Dissimilar pressure distribution on both sides of the plate has a potential origin in the aeroelastic coupling, which is an interesting topic while few research works have devoted to that aspect. To better understand the aeroelastic behavior of the plate and the corresponding dynamic flow features, an integrated fluid-structure interaction simulation is conducted under one particular operation condition during mode transition phase in the TBCC exhaust system. A finite-volume-based CFD solver FLUENT is adopted to solve the unsteady Reynolds average Navier-Stokes equations. ABAQUS, a finite-element-method-based CSD solver, is employed to compute the plate elastic deformation. A two-way interaction between the fluid and the structure is accomplished by the mesh-based parallel-code coupling interface (MpCCI) in a loosely-coupled manner. The accuracy of the coupling procedure is validated for the flutter of a flat plate in supersonic flow. Then, features of steady flow field of the TBCC exhaust system are discussed, followed by the investigation of the aeroelastic phenomenon of the splitter plate and the evolution process of the flow field pattern. Finally, performances variation of the exhaust system is obtained and discussed. The results show that the plate vibrates with decaying amplitude and reaches a dynamic stable state eventually. The thrust, lift and pitch moment of the TBCC exhaust system are increased by 0.68%, 2.82% and 5.86%, respectively, compared with the corresponding values in steady state which does not take into account the fluid-structure interaction effects. The analysis reveals the importance of considering the fluid-structure interaction effects in designing the splitter plate in the TBCC exhaust system and demonstrates the availability of the present coupled
Fluid-structure-coupling algorithm. [BWR
McMaster, W.H.; Gong, E.Y.; Landram, C.S.; Quinones, D.F.
1980-01-01
A fluid-structure-interaction algorithm has been developed and incorporated into the two dimensional code PELE-IC. This code combines an Eulerian incompressible fluid algorithm with a Lagrangian finite element shell algorithm and incorporates the treatment of complex free surfaces. The fluid structure, and coupling algorithms have been verified by the calculation of solved problems from the literature and from air and steam blowdown experiments. The code has been used to calculate loads and structural response from air blowdown and the oscillatory condensation of steam bubbles in water suppression pools typical of boiling water reactors. The techniques developed here have been extended to three dimensions and implemented in the computer code PELE-3D.
Whole versus Part Presentations of the Interactive 3D Graphics Learning Objects
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Azmy, Nabil Gad; Ismaeel, Dina Ahmed
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study is to present an analysis of how the structure and design of the Interactive 3D Graphics Learning Objects can be effective and efficient in terms of Performance, Time on task, and Learning Efficiency. The study explored two treatments, namely whole versus Part Presentations of the Interactive 3D Graphics Learning Objects,…
Visualizing the process of interaction in a 3D environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaidya, Vivek; Suryanarayanan, Srikanth; Krishnan, Kajoli; Mullick, Rakesh
2007-03-01
As the imaging modalities used in medicine transition to increasingly three-dimensional data the question of how best to interact with and analyze this data becomes ever more pressing. Immersive virtual reality systems seem to hold promise in tackling this, but how individuals learn and interact in these environments is not fully understood. Here we will attempt to show some methods in which user interaction in a virtual reality environment can be visualized and how this can allow us to gain greater insight into the process of interaction/learning in these systems. Also explored is the possibility of using this method to improve understanding and management of ergonomic issues within an interface.
Effect of pre-strain and excess length on unsteady fluid-structure interactions of membrane airfoils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rojratsirikul, P.; Wang, Z.; Gursul, I.
2010-04-01
Aerodynamic characteristics of two-dimensional membrane airfoils were experimentally investigated in a wind tunnel. The effects of the membrane pre-strain and excess length on the unsteady aspects of the fluid-structure interaction were studied. The deformation of the membrane as a function of angle of attack and free-stream velocity was measured using a high-speed camera. These measurements were complemented by the measurements of unsteady velocity field with a high frame-rate Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system as well as smoke visualization. Membrane airfoils with excess length exhibit higher vibration modes, earlier roll-up of vortices, and smaller separated flow regions, whereas the membranes with pre-strain generally behave more similarly to a rigid airfoil. Measured frequencies of the membrane vibrations suggest a possible coupling with the wake instabilities at high incidences for all airfoils.
Paiedoussis, M.P. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)
1993-02-01
This lecture has a dual purpose: (1) to present, in outline, the research on a couple of interesting topics in fluid-structure interaction; and (2) to show that, although this research was undertaken with little or no practical application in mind, unexpected uses and applications materialized ten or twenty years subsequently. The two topics of research chosen are (a) stability of pipes conveying fluid, and (b) stability of cylinders in axial flow. The applications and uses range from a marine propulsion system, to research on emphysema, to understanding and modeling of flow-induced vibration and leakage-flow-induced instabilities in power-generating equipment, and to the dynamics of deep-water risers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Guojun; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Wendong
2015-04-01
The MEMS vector hydrophone developed by the North University of China has advantages of high Signal to Noise Ratio, ease of array integration, etc. However, the resonance frequency of the MEMS device in the liquid is different from that in the air due to the fluid-structure interaction (FSI). Based on the theory of Fluid-Solid Coupling, a generalized distributed mass attached on the micro-structure has been found, which results in the resonance frequency of the microstructure in the liquid being lower than that in the air. Then, an FSI simulation was conducted by ANSYS software. Finally, the hydrophone was measured by using a shaking table and a vector hydrophone calibration system respectively. Results show that, due to the FSI, the resonance frequency of the MEMS devices of the bionic vector hydrophone in the liquid declines approximately 30% compared to the case in the air.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fort, Charles; Fu, Christopher D.; Weichselbaum, Noah A.; Bardet, Philippe M.
2015-12-01
To deploy optical diagnostics such as particle image velocimetry or planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) in complex geometries, it is beneficial to use index-matched facilities. A binary mixture of para-cymene and cinnamaldehyde provides a viable option for matching the refractive index of acrylic, a common material for scaled models and test sections. This fluid is particularly appropriate for large-scale facilities and when a low-density and low-viscosity fluid is sought, such as in fluid-structure interaction studies. This binary solution has relatively low kinematic viscosity and density; its use enables the experimentalist to select operating temperature and to increase fluorescence signal in PLIF experiments. Measurements of spectral and temperature dependence of refractive index, density, and kinematic viscosity are reported. The effect of the binary mixture on solubility control of Rhodamine 6G is also characterized.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Matsuda, Hiroshi; Shindo, Yoshiaki
2006-01-01
The 3D computer graphics (3D-CG) animation using a virtual actor's speaking is very effective as an educational medium. But it takes a long time to produce a 3D-CG animation. To reduce the cost of producing 3D-CG educational contents and improve the capability of the education system, we have developed a new education system using Virtual Actor.…
On the coupling between fluid flow and mesh motion in the modelling of fluid structure interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dettmer, Wulf G.; Perić, Djordje
2008-12-01
Partitioned Newton type solution strategies for the strongly coupled system of equations arising in the computational modelling of fluid solid interaction require the evaluation of various coupling terms. An essential part of all ALE type solution strategies is the fluid mesh motion. In this paper, we investigate the effect of the terms which couple the fluid flow with the fluid mesh motion on the convergence behaviour of the overall solution procedure. We show that the computational efficiency of the simulation of many fluid solid interaction processes, including fluid flow through flexible pipes, can be increased significantly if some of these coupling terms are calculated exactly.
A fluid-structure interaction model with interior damping and delay in the structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peralta, Gilbert
2016-03-01
A coupled system of partial differential equations modeling the interaction of a fluid and a structure with delay in the feedback is studied. The model describes the dynamics of an elastic body immersed in a fluid that is contained in a vessel, whose boundary is made of a solid wall. The fluid component is modeled by the linearized Navier-Stokes equation, while the solid component is given by the wave equation neglecting transverse elastic force. Spectral properties and exponential or strong stability of the interaction model under appropriate conditions on the damping factor, delay factor and the delay parameter are established using a generalized Lax-Milgram method.
Interaction model for 3D cutting in maxillofacial surgery planning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neumann, Patrick; Siebert, Dirk; Schulz, Armin; Faulkner, Gabriele; Krauss, Manfred; Tolxdorff, Thomas
1999-05-01
Our main research work is the realization of a completely computer-based maxillofacial surgery planning system. An important step toward this goal is the availability of virtual tools for the surgeon to interactively define bone segments from skull and jaw bones. The easy-to-handle user interface employs visual and force-feedback devices to define subvolumes of a patient's volume dataset. The defined subvolumes together with their spatial arrangements lead to an operation plan. We have evaluated modern low-cost, force- feedback devices with regard to their ability to emulate the surgeon's working procedure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Guo-Zhen; Huang, Yi-Pai; Hu, Kuo-Jui
2012-06-01
We proposed a virtual 3D-touch system by bare finger, which can detect the 3-axis (x, y, z) information of finger. This system has multi-wavelength optical sensor array embedded on the backplane of TFT panel and sequentail devices on the border of TFT panel. We had developed reflecting mode which can be worked by bare finger for the 3D interaction. A 4-inch mobile 3D-LCD with this proposed system was successfully been demonstrated already.
An Interactive, 3D Fault Editor for VR Environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Aalsburg, J.; Yikilmaz, M. B.; Kreylos, O.; Kellogg, L. H.; Rundle, J. B.
2008-12-01
Digitial Fault Models (DFM) play a vital role in the study of earthquake dynamics, fault-earthquake interactions, and seismicity. DFMs serve as input for finite-element method (FEM) or other earthquake simulations such as Virtual California. Generally, digital fault models are generated by importing a digitized and georeferenced (2D) fault map and/or a hillshade image of the study area into a geographical information system (GIS) application, where individual fault lines are traced by the user. Data assimilation and creation of a DFM, or updating an existing DFM based on new observations, is a tedious and time-consuming process. In order to facilitate the creation process, we are developing an immersive virtual reality (VR) application to visualize and edit fault models. This program is designed to run in immersive environments such as a CAVE (walk-in VR environment), but also works in a wide range of other environments, including desktop systems and GeoWalls. It is being developed at the UC Davis W.M. Keck Center for Active Visualization in the Earth Sciences (KeckCAVES, http://www.keckcaves.org). Our program allows users to create new models or modify existing ones; for instance by repositioning individual fault-segments, by changing the dip angle, or by modifying (or assigning) the value of a property associated with a particular fault segment (i.e. slip rate). With the addition of high resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEM) , georeferenced active tectonic fault maps and earthquake hypocenters, the user can accurately add new segments to an existing model or create a fault model entirely from scratch. Interactively created or modified models can be written to XML files at any time; from there the data may easily be converted into various formats required by the analysis software or simulation. We believe that the ease of interaction provided by VR technology is ideally suited to the problem of creating and editing digital fault models. Our software provides
A topological framework for interactive queries on 3D models in the Web.
Figueiredo, Mauro; Rodrigues, José I; Silvestre, Ivo; Veiga-Pires, Cristina
2014-01-01
Several technologies exist to create 3D content for the web. With X3D, WebGL, and X3DOM, it is possible to visualize and interact with 3D models in a web browser. Frequently, three-dimensional objects are stored using the X3D file format for the web. However, there is no explicit topological information, which makes it difficult to design fast algorithms for applications that require adjacency and incidence data. This paper presents a new open source toolkit TopTri (Topological model for Triangle meshes) for Web3D servers that builds the topological model for triangular meshes of manifold or nonmanifold models. Web3D client applications using this toolkit make queries to the web server to get adjacent and incidence information of vertices, edges, and faces. This paper shows the application of the topological information to get minimal local points and iso-lines in a 3D mesh in a web browser. As an application, we present also the interactive identification of stalactites in a cave chamber in a 3D web browser. Several tests show that even for large triangular meshes with millions of triangles, the adjacency and incidence information is returned in real time making the presented toolkit appropriate for interactive Web3D applications. PMID:24977236
A Topological Framework for Interactive Queries on 3D Models in the Web
Figueiredo, Mauro; Rodrigues, José I.; Silvestre, Ivo; Veiga-Pires, Cristina
2014-01-01
Several technologies exist to create 3D content for the web. With X3D, WebGL, and X3DOM, it is possible to visualize and interact with 3D models in a web browser. Frequently, three-dimensional objects are stored using the X3D file format for the web. However, there is no explicit topological information, which makes it difficult to design fast algorithms for applications that require adjacency and incidence data. This paper presents a new open source toolkit TopTri (Topological model for Triangle meshes) for Web3D servers that builds the topological model for triangular meshes of manifold or nonmanifold models. Web3D client applications using this toolkit make queries to the web server to get adjacent and incidence information of vertices, edges, and faces. This paper shows the application of the topological information to get minimal local points and iso-lines in a 3D mesh in a web browser. As an application, we present also the interactive identification of stalactites in a cave chamber in a 3D web browser. Several tests show that even for large triangular meshes with millions of triangles, the adjacency and incidence information is returned in real time making the presented toolkit appropriate for interactive Web3D applications. PMID:24977236
Fluid-structure interaction of two bodies in an inviscid fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tchieu, A. A.; Crowdy, D.; Leonard, A.
2010-10-01
The interaction of two arbitrary bodies immersed in a two-dimensional inviscid fluid is investigated. Given the linear and angular velocities of the bodies, the solution of the potential flow problem with zero circulation around both bodies is reduced to the determination of a suitable Laurent series in a conformally mapped domain that satisfies the boundary conditions. The potential flow solution is then used to determine the force and moment acting on each body by using generalized Blasius formulas. The current formulation is applied to two examples. First, the case of two rigid circular cylinders interacting in an unbounded domain is investigated. The forces on two cylinders with prescribed motion (forced-forced) is determined and compared to previous results for validation purposes. We then study the response of a single "free" cylinder due to the prescribed motion of the other cylinder (forced-free). This forced-free situation is used to justify the hydrodynamic benefits of drafting in aquatic locomotion. In the case of two neutrally buoyant circular cylinders, the aft cylinder is capable of attaining a substantial propulsive force that is the same order of magnitude of its inertial forces. Additionally, the coupled interaction of two cylinders given an arbitrary initial condition (free-free) is studied to show the differences of perfect collisions with and without the presence of an inviscid fluid. For a certain range of collision parameters, the fluid acts to deflect the cylinder paths just enough before the collision to drastically affect the long time trajectories of the bodies. In the second example, the flapping of two plates is explored. It is seen that the interactions between each plate can cause a net force and torque at certain instants in time, but for idealized sinusoidal motions in irrotational potential flow, there is no net force and torque acting at the system center.
Numerical simulation of fluid-structure interactions with stabilized finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sváček, Petr
2016-03-01
This paper is interested to the interactions of the incompressible flow with a flexibly supported airfoil. The bending and the torsion modes are considered. The problem is mathematically described. The numerical method is based on the finite element method. A combination of the streamline-upwind/Petrov-Galerkin and pressure stabilizing/Petrov-Galerkin method is used for the stabilization of the finite element method. The numerical results for a three-dimensional problem of flow over an airfoil are shown.
Active and interactive floating image display using holographic 3D images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morii, Tsutomu; Sakamoto, Kunio
2006-08-01
We developed a prototype tabletop holographic display system. This system consists of the object recognition system and the spatial imaging system. In this paper, we describe the recognition system using an RFID tag and the 3D display system using a holographic technology. A 3D display system is useful technology for virtual reality, mixed reality and augmented reality. We have researched spatial imaging and interaction system. We have ever proposed 3D displays using the slit as a parallax barrier, the lenticular screen and the holographic optical elements(HOEs) for displaying active image 1,2,3. The purpose of this paper is to propose the interactive system using these 3D imaging technologies. In this paper, the authors describe the interactive tabletop 3D display system. The observer can view virtual images when the user puts the special object on the display table. The key technologies of this system are the object recognition system and the spatial imaging display.
GMOL: An Interactive Tool for 3D Genome Structure Visualization.
Nowotny, Jackson; Wells, Avery; Oluwadare, Oluwatosin; Xu, Lingfei; Cao, Renzhi; Trieu, Tuan; He, Chenfeng; Cheng, Jianlin
2016-01-01
It has been shown that genome spatial structures largely affect both genome activity and DNA function. Knowing this, many researchers are currently attempting to accurately model genome structures. Despite these increased efforts there still exists a shortage of tools dedicated to visualizing the genome. Creating a tool that can accurately visualize the genome can aid researchers by highlighting structural relationships that may not be obvious when examining the sequence information alone. Here we present a desktop application, known as GMOL, designed to effectively visualize genome structures so that researchers may better analyze genomic data. GMOL was developed based upon our multi-scale approach that allows a user to scale between six separate levels within the genome. With GMOL, a user can choose any unit at any scale and scale it up or down to visualize its structure and retrieve corresponding genome sequences. Users can also interactively manipulate and measure the whole genome structure and extract static images and machine-readable data files in PDB format from the multi-scale structure. By using GMOL researchers will be able to better understand and analyze genome structure models and the impact their structural relations have on genome activity and DNA function. PMID:26868282
A new multimodal interactive way of subjective scoring of 3D video quality of experience
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Taewan; Lee, Kwanghyun; Lee, Sanghoon; Bovik, Alan C.
2014-03-01
People that watch today's 3D visual programs, such as 3D cinema, 3D TV and 3D games, experience wide and dynamically varying ranges of 3D visual immersion and 3D quality of experience (QoE). It is necessary to be able to deploy reliable methodologies that measure each viewers subjective experience. We propose a new methodology that we call Multimodal Interactive Continuous Scoring of Quality (MICSQ). MICSQ is composed of a device interaction process between the 3D display and a separate device (PC, tablet, etc.) used as an assessment tool, and a human interaction process between the subject(s) and the device. The scoring process is multimodal, using aural and tactile cues to help engage and focus the subject(s) on their tasks. Moreover, the wireless device interaction process makes it possible for multiple subjects to assess 3D QoE simultaneously in a large space such as a movie theater, and at di®erent visual angles and distances.
Use of Colour and Interactive Animation in Learning 3D Vectors
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Iskander, Wejdan; Curtis, Sharon
2005-01-01
This study investigated the effects of two computer-implemented techniques (colour and interactive animation) on learning 3D vectors. The participants were 43 female Saudi Arabian high school students. They were pre-tested on 3D vectors using a paper questionnaire that consisted of calculation and visualization types of questions. The students…
Salimi, S; Park, S Simon; Freiheit, T
2011-09-01
The vibration characteristics of shell structures such as eyes have been shown to vary with intraocular pressure (IOP). Therefore, vibration characteristics of the eye have the potential to provide improved correlation to IOP over traditional IOP measurements. As background to examine an improved IOP correlation, this paper develops a finite element model of an eye subject to vibration. The eye is modeled as a shell structure filled with inviscid pressurized fluid in which there is no mean flow. This model solves a problem of a fluid with coupled structural interactions of a generally spherically shaped shell system. The model is verified by comparing its vibrational characteristics with an experimental modal analysis of an elastic spherical shell filled with water. The structural dynamic effects due to change in pressure of the fluid are examined. It is shown that the frequency response of this fluid-solid coupled system has a clear increase in natural frequency as the fluid pressure rises. The fluid and structure interaction is important for accurate prediction of system dynamics. This model is then extended to improve its accuracy in modeling the eye by including the effect of the lens to study corneal vibration. The effect of biomechanical parameters such as the thicknesses of different parts of the eye and eye dimensions in altering measured natural frequencies is investigated and compared to the influence of biomechanical parameters in Goldmann applanation tonometry models. The dynamic response of the eye is found to be less sensitive to biomechanical parameters than the applanation tonometry model. PMID:22010744
A case study of the fluid structure interaction of a Francis turbine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, C.; Staubli, T.; Baumann, R.; Casartelli, E.
2014-03-01
The Francis turbine runners of the Grimsel 2 pump storage power plant showed repeatedly cracks during the last decade. It is assumed that these cracks were caused by flow induced forces acting on blades and eventual resonant runner vibrations lead to high stresses in the blade root areas. The eigenfrequencies of the runner were simulated in water using acoustic elements and compared to experimental data. Unsteady blades pressure distribution determined by a transient CFD simulation of the turbine were coupled to a FEM simulation. The FEM simulation enabled analyzing the stresses in the runner and the eigenmodes of the runner vibrations. For a part-load operating point, transient CFD simulations of the entire turbine, including the spiral case, the runner and the draft tube were carried out. The most significant loads on the turbine runner resulted from the centrifugal forces and the fluid forces. Such forces effect temporally invariant runner blades loads, in contrast rotor stator interaction or draft tube instabilities induce pressure fluctuations which cause the temporally variable forces. The blades pressure distribution resulting from the flow simulation was coupled by unidirectional-harmonic FEM simulation. The dominant transient blade pressure distribution of the CFD simulation were Fourier transformed, and the static and harmonic portion assigned to the blade surfaces in the FEM model. The evaluation of the FEM simulation showed that the simulated part load operating point do not cause critical stress peaks in the crack zones. The pressure amplitudes and frequencies are very small and interact only locally with the runner blades. As the frequencies are far below the modal frequencies of the turbine runner, resonant vibrations obviously are not excited.
Real-time rendering method and performance evaluation of composable 3D lenses for interactive VR.
Borst, Christoph W; Tiesel, Jan-Phillip; Best, Christopher M
2010-01-01
We present and evaluate a new approach for real-time rendering of composable 3D lenses for polygonal scenes. Such lenses, usually called "volumetric lenses," are an extension of 2D Magic Lenses to 3D volumes in which effects are applied to scene elements. Although the composition of 2D lenses is well known, 3D composition was long considered infeasible due to both geometric and semantic complexity. Nonetheless, for a scene with multiple interactive 3D lenses, the problem of intersecting lenses must be considered. Intersecting 3D lenses in meaningful ways supports new interfaces such as hierarchical 3D windows, 3D lenses for managing and composing visualization options, or interactive shader development by direct manipulation of lenses providing component effects. Our 3D volumetric lens approach differs from other approaches and is one of the first to address efficient composition of multiple lenses. It is well-suited to head-tracked VR environments because it requires no view-dependent generation of major data structures, allowing caching and reuse of full or partial results. A Composite Shader Factory module composes shader programs for rendering composite visual styles and geometry of intersection regions. Geometry is handled by Boolean combinations of region tests in fragment shaders, which allows both convex and nonconvex CSG volumes for lens shape. Efficiency is further addressed by a Region Analyzer module and by broad-phase culling. Finally, we consider the handling of order effects for composed 3D lenses. PMID:20224135
Debris flow impact on mitigation barriers: a new method for particle-fluid-structure interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marchelli, Maddalena; Pirulli, Marina; Pudasaini, Shiva P.
2016-04-01
Channelized debris-flows are a type of mass movements that involve water-charged, predominantly coarse-grained inorganic and organic material flowing rapidly down steep confined pre-existing channels (Van Dine, 1985). Due to their rapid movements and destructive power, structural mitigation measures have become an integral part of counter measures against these phenomena, to mitigate and prevent damages resulting from debris-flow impact on urbanized areas. In particular, debris barriers and storage basins, with some form of debris-straining structures incorporated into the barrier constructed across the path of a debris-flow, have a dual role to play: (1) to stimulate deposition by presenting a physical obstruction against flow, and (2) to guarantee that during normal conditions stream water and bedload can pass through the structure; while, during and after an extreme event, the water that is in the flow and some of the fine-grained sediment can escape. A new method to investigate the dynamic interactions between the flowing mass and the debris barrier is presented, with particular emphasis on the effect of the barrier in controlling the water and sediment content of the escaping mass. This aspect is achieved by implementing a new mechanical model into an enhanced two-phase dynamical mass flow model (Pudasaini, 2012), in which solid particles mixture and viscous fluid are taken into account. The complex mechanical model is defined as a function of the energy lost during impact, the physical and geometrical properties of the debris barrier, separate but strongly interacting dynamics of boulder and fluid flows during the impact, particle concentration distribution, and the slope characteristics. The particle-filtering-process results in a large variation in the rheological properties of the fluid-dominated escaping mass, including the substantial reduction in the bulk density, and the inertial forces of the debris-flows. Consequently, the destructive power and run
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ross, Mike R.
This thesis presents a new coupling method for treating the interaction of an acoustic fluid with a flexible structure, with emphasis on handling spatially non-matching meshes. It is based on the Localized Lagrange Multiplier (LLM) method. A frame is introduced as a "mediator" or "information relay" device between the fluid and the structure at the interaction surface. The frame is discretized in terms of kinematic variables. A Lagrange multiplier field is introduced between the frame and the structure, and another one between the frame and the fluid. The function of the multiplier pair is weak enforcement of kinematic continuity. This configuration completely decouples the structure and fluid models, because each model communicates to the frame through node collocated multipliers and not directly to each other. In order to assure proper communication, energy formulations of the fluid and structure models are in terms of displacements and associated time derivatives. A novel transformation of the fluid displacement model into a fluid displacement potential model enforces the irrotational condition of the acoustic fluid. This transformation reduces the number of degrees of freedom in two and three-dimensions and is suitable for both vibration and transient analyses. The LLM method facilitates the construction of separate discretizations using different mesh generation programs, as well as use of customized time integration methods. To advance the solution in time, the LLM coupling method is combined with a partitioned solution procedure. The time-stepping computations are organized in a way that eliminates the traditional prediction step characteristic of staggered solution procedures. This is accomplished by solving for the interface variables: Lagrange multipliers and frame states, and then feeding this solution back to the coupled components. This sequence forestalls the well-known stability degradation caused by prediction, yet it retains the desirable
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chouly, F.; van Hirtum, A.; Lagrée, P.-Y.; Pelorson, X.; Payan, Y.
2008-02-01
This study deals with the numerical prediction and experimental description of the flow-induced deformation in a rapidly convergent divergent geometry which stands for a simplified tongue, in interaction with an expiratory airflow. An original in vitro experimental model is proposed, which allows measurement of the deformation of the artificial tongue, in condition of major initial airway obstruction. The experimental model accounts for asymmetries in geometry and tissue properties which are two major physiological upper airway characteristics. The numerical method for prediction of the fluid structure interaction is described. The theory of linear elasticity in small deformations has been chosen to compute the mechanical behaviour of the tongue. The main features of the flow are taken into account using a boundary layer theory. The overall numerical method entails finite element solving of the solid problem and finite differences solving of the fluid problem. First, the numerical method predicts the deformation of the tongue with an overall error of the order of 20%, which can be seen as a preliminary successful validation of the theory and simulations. Moreover, expiratory flow limitation is predicted in this configuration. As a result, both the physical and numerical models could be useful to understand this phenomenon reported in heavy snorers and apneic patients during sleep.
Wang, C.Y.
1993-06-01
This paper describes fluid-structure-interaction and structure response analyses of a reactor vessel subjected to loadings associated with postulated accidents, using the hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian code ALICE-II. This code has been improved recently to accommodate many features associated with innovative designs of reactor vessels. Calculational capabilities have been developed to treat water in the reactor cavity outside the vessel, internal shield structures and internal thin shells. The objective of the present analyses is to study the cover response and potential for missile generation in response to a fuel-coolant interaction in the core region. Three calculations were performed using the cover weight as a parameter. To study the effect of the cavity water, vessel response calculations for both wet- and dry-cavity designs are compared. Results indicate that for all cases studied and for the design parameters assumed, the calculated cover displacements are all smaller than the bolts` ultimate displacement and no missile generation of the closure head is predicted. Also, solutions reveal that the cavity water of the wet-cavity design plays an important role of restraining the downward displacement of the bottom head. Based on these studies, the analyses predict that the structure integrity is maintained throughout the postulated accident for the wet-cavity design.
Wang, C.Y.
1993-01-01
This paper describes fluid-structure-interaction and structure response analyses of a reactor vessel subjected to loadings associated with postulated accidents, using the hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian code ALICE-II. This code has been improved recently to accommodate many features associated with innovative designs of reactor vessels. Calculational capabilities have been developed to treat water in the reactor cavity outside the vessel, internal shield structures and internal thin shells. The objective of the present analyses is to study the cover response and potential for missile generation in response to a fuel-coolant interaction in the core region. Three calculations were performed using the cover weight as a parameter. To study the effect of the cavity water, vessel response calculations for both wet- and dry-cavity designs are compared. Results indicate that for all cases studied and for the design parameters assumed, the calculated cover displacements are all smaller than the bolts' ultimate displacement and no missile generation of the closure head is predicted. Also, solutions reveal that the cavity water of the wet-cavity design plays an important role of restraining the downward displacement of the bottom head. Based on these studies, the analyses predict that the structure integrity is maintained throughout the postulated accident for the wet-cavity design.
Bukač, Martina; Čanić, Sunčica
2013-04-01
Recent in vivo studies, utilizing ultrasound contour and speckle tracking methods, have identified significant longitudinal displacements of the intima-media complex, and viscoelastic arterial wall properties over a cardiac cycle. Existing computational models that use thin structure approximations of arterial walls have so far been limited to models that capture only radial wall displacements. The purpose of this work is to present a simple fluid-struture interaction (FSI) model and a stable, partitioned numerical scheme, which capture both longitudinal and radial displacements, as well as viscoelastic arterial wall properties. To test the computational model, longitudinal displacement of the common carotid artery and of the stenosed coronary arteries were compared with experimental data found in literature, showing excellent agreement. We found that, unlike radial displacement, longitudinal displacement in stenotic lesions is highly dependent on the stenotic geometry. We also showed that longitudinal displacement in atherosclerotic arteries is smaller than in healthy arteries, which is in line with the recent in vivo measurements that associate plaque burden with reduced total longitudinal wall displacement. This work presents a first step in understanding the role of longitudinal displacement in physiology and pathophysiology of arterial wall mechanics using computer simulations. PMID:23458302
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calderer, Antoni; Feist, Christ; Ruehl, Kelley; Guala, Michele; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2014-11-01
A series of experiments reproducing a floating wind turbine in operational sea conditions, conducted in the St. Anthony Falls Lab. wave facility, are employed to validate the capabilities of the recently developed FSI-Levelset-CURVIB method of Calderer, Kang and Sotiropoulos (JCP 2014) to accurately predict turbine-wave interactions. The numerical approach is based on solving the Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the level set method, which is capable of carrying out LES of two-phase flows (air and water) with complex floating structures and waves. The investigated floating turbine is a 1:100 Froude scaled version of the 13.2 MW prototype designed by Sandia National Lab; it is installed on a cylindrical barge style platform which is restricted to move with two degrees of freedom, heave and pitch in the vertical plane defined by the direction of the propagating 2D waves. The computed turbine kinematics as well as the free surface elevation results are compared with the experimental data for different free decay tests and wave conditions representative of the Maine and the Pacific North West coasts. The comparison shows promising results indicating the validity of the model for simulating operational floating turbines. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy (DE-EE0005482), the University of Minnesota IREE program, and the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.
Research on gaze-based interaction to 3D display system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwon, Yong-Moo; Jeon, Kyeong-Won; Kim, Sung-Kyu
2006-10-01
There have been reported several researches on gaze tracking techniques using monocular camera or stereo camera. The most popular used gaze estimation techniques are based on PCCR (Pupil Center & Cornea Reflection). These techniques are for gaze tracking for 2D screen or images. In this paper, we address the gaze-based 3D interaction to stereo image for 3D virtual space. To the best of our knowledge, our paper first addresses the 3D gaze interaction techniques to 3D display system. Our research goal is the estimation of both of gaze direction and gaze depth. Until now, the most researches are focused on only gaze direction for the application to 2D display system. It should be noted that both of gaze direction and gaze depth should be estimated for the gaze-based interaction in 3D virtual space. In this paper, we address the gaze-based 3D interaction techniques with glassless stereo display. The estimation of gaze direction and gaze depth from both eyes is a new important research topic for gaze-based 3D interaction. We present our approach for the estimation of gaze direction and gaze depth and show experimentation results.
Interaction Design and Usability of Learning Spaces in 3D Multi-user Virtual Worlds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minocha, Shailey; Reeves, Ahmad John
Three-dimensional virtual worlds are multimedia, simulated environments, often managed over the Web, which users can 'inhabit' and interact via their own graphical, self-representations known as 'avatars'. 3D virtual worlds are being used in many applications: education/training, gaming, social networking, marketing and commerce. Second Life is the most widely used 3D virtual world in education. However, problems associated with usability, navigation and way finding in 3D virtual worlds may impact on student learning and engagement. Based on empirical investigations of learning spaces in Second Life, this paper presents design guidelines to improve the usability and ease of navigation in 3D spaces. Methods of data collection include semi-structured interviews with Second Life students, educators and designers. The findings have revealed that design principles from the fields of urban planning, Human- Computer Interaction, Web usability, geography and psychology can influence the design of spaces in 3D multi-user virtual environments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Chi-Seung; Cho, Jin-Rae; Kim, Wha-Soo; Noh, Byeong-Jae; Kim, Myung-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Myung
2013-03-01
In the present paper, the sloshing resistance performance of a huge-size LNG carrier's insulation system is evaluated by the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis. To do this, the global-local analysis which is based on the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method is adopted to accurately calculate the structural behavior induced by internal LNG sloshing of a KC-1 type LNG carrier insulation system. During the global analysis, the sloshing flow and hydrodynamic pressure of internal LNG are analyzed by postulating the flexible insulation system as a rigid body. In addition, during the local analysis, the local hydroelastic response of the LNG carrier insulation system is computed by solving the local hydroelastic model where the entire and flexible insulation system is adopted and the numerical analysis results of the global analysis such as initial and boundary conditions are implemented into the local finite element model. The proposed novel analysis techniques can potentially be used to evaluate the structural integrity of LNG carrier insulation systems.
Kelly, S C; O'Rourke, M J
2010-01-01
This work reports on the implementation and validation of a two-system, single-analysis, fluid-structure interaction (FSI) technique that uses the finite volume (FV) method for performing simulations on abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) geometries. This FSI technique, which was implemented in OpenFOAM, included fluid and solid mesh motion and incorporated a non-linear material model to represent AAA tissue. Fully implicit coupling was implemented, ensuring that both the fluid and solid domains reached convergence within each time step. The fluid and solid parts of the FSI code were validated independently through comparison with experimental data, before performing a complete FSI simulation on an idealized AAA geometry. Results from the FSI simulation showed that a vortex formed at the proximal end of the aneurysm during systolic acceleration, and moved towards the distal end of the aneurysm during diastole. Wall shear stress (WSS) values were found to peak at both the proximal and distal ends of the aneurysm and remain low along the centre of the aneurysm. The maximum von Mises stress in the aneurysm wall was found to be 408kPa, and this occurred at the proximal end of the aneurysm, while the maximum displacement of 2.31 mm occurred in the centre of the aneurysm. These results were found to be consistent with results from other FSI studies in the literature. PMID:20923114
Syed, Hasson; Unnikrishnan, Vinu U; Olcmen, Semih
2016-02-01
Elevated intracranial pressure is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in severe head injuries. Wall shear stresses in the artery can be affected by increased intracranial pressures and may lead to the formation of cerebral aneurysms. Earlier research on cerebral arteries and aneurysms involves using constant mean intracranial pressure values. Recent advancements in intracranial pressure monitoring techniques have led to measurement of the intracranial pressure waveform. By incorporating a time-varying intracranial pressure waveform in place of constant intracranial pressures in the analysis of cerebral arteries helps in understanding their effects on arterial deformation and wall shear stress. To date, such a robust computational study on the effect of increasing intracranial pressures on the cerebral arterial wall has not been attempted to the best of our knowledge. In this work, fully coupled fluid-structure interaction simulations are carried out to investigate the effect of the variation in intracranial pressure waveforms on the cerebral arterial wall. Three different time-varying intracranial pressure waveforms and three constant intracranial pressure profiles acting on the cerebral arterial wall are analyzed and compared with specified inlet velocity and outlet pressure conditions. It has been found that the arterial wall experiences deformation depending on the time-varying intracranial pressure waveforms, while the wall shear stress changes at peak systole for all the intracranial pressure profiles. PMID:26701867
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Jubiao; Krane, Michael; Zhang, Lucy
2013-11-01
Vocal fold vibrations and the glottal jet are successfully simulated using the modified Immersed Finite Element method (mIFEM), a fully coupled dynamics approach to model fluid-structure interactions. A self-sustained and steady vocal fold vibration is captured given a constant pressure input at the glottal entrance. The flow rates at different axial locations in the glottis are calculated, showing small variations among them due to the vocal fold motion and deformation. To further facilitate the understanding of the phonation process, two control volume analyses, specifically with Bernoulli's equation and Newton's 2nd law, are carried out for the glottal flow based on the simulation results. A generalized Bernoulli's equation is derived to interpret the correlations between the velocity and pressure temporally and spatially along the center line which is a streamline using a half-space model with symmetry boundary condition. A specialized Newton's 2nd law equation is developed and divided into terms to help understand the driving mechanism of the glottal flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xing; Zhu, Xiaojue
2012-11-01
We present an improved immersed boundary method for the simulation of fluid structure interaction (FSI) of a slender body. Our numerical method is based on the one proposed by Wang and Zhang (J. Comput. Phys. 30:3479-3499, 2011). Although an accurate prediction of total force can be achieved by using this method, unphysical spatial oscillation is observed in the force distribution. This oscillation is detrimental to the prediction of structure response in FSI. In this work, several modifications are made to improve this method. Firstly, the implicit forcing is replaced by an explicit forcing. Secondly, a more consistent way of computing each component of the forcing on a staggered mesh is proposed. Thirdly, for a slender body of zero thickness, the discrete delta-function with a ``negative-tail'' is adopted for the interpolation at the endpoints. Numerical simulations are performed to test the efficacy of the modifications. It is found that the measures taken successfully reduce the oscillation and the results obtained agree well with those from the literatures. This work was supported by NSFC 10872201.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Gary Han; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya
2015-11-01
In this work, a reduced-order model (ROM) is constructed to study fluid-structure interaction of thin shell structures conveying fluid. The method of snapshot Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) is used to construct the reduced-order bases based on a series of CFD results, which then are improved using a QR-factorization technique to satisfy the various boundary conditions in physiological flow problems. In the process, two sets of POD modes are extracted: those due to the shell wall's motion and those due to the pulsatile flow. The Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC) technique is used for selecting the final POD modes used in the reduced-order model. The structure model is solved by Galerkin's method and the FSI coupling is done by adapting a coupled momentum method. The results show that the dynamic behavior of thin shells conveying fluid is closely related to the distribution of the shell's Gaussian curvature, the existence of imperfections and the physiological flow conditions. This method can effectively construct a computationally efficient FSI model, which allows us to examine a wide range of parameters which exist in real-life physiological problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le, Trung Bao; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2013-07-01
We develop a novel large-scale kinematic model for animating the left ventricle (LV) wall and use this model to drive the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) between the ensuing blood flow and a mechanical heart valve prosthesis implanted in the aortic position of an anatomic LV/aorta configuration. The kinematic model is of lumped type and employs a cell-based, FitzHugh-Nagumo framework to simulate the motion of the LV wall in response to an excitation wavefront propagating along the heart wall. The emerging large-scale LV wall motion exhibits complex contractile mechanisms that include contraction (twist) and expansion (untwist). The kinematic model is shown to yield global LV motion parameters that are well within the physiologic range throughout the cardiac cycle. The FSI between the leaflets of the mechanical heart valve and the blood flow driven by the dynamic LV wall motion and mitral inflow is simulated using the curvilinear immersed boundary (CURVIB) method (Ge and Sotiropoulos, 2007; Borazjani et al., 2008) [1,2] implemented in conjunction with a domain decomposition approach. The computed results show that the simulated flow patterns are in good qualitative agreement with in vivo observations. The simulations also reveal complex kinematics of the valve leaflets, thus, underscoring the need for patient-specific simulations of heart valve prosthesis and other cardiac devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kratzke, Jonas; Rengier, Fabian; Weis, Christian; Beller, Carsten J.; Heuveline, Vincent
2016-04-01
Initiation and development of cardiovascular diseases can be highly correlated to specific biomechanical parameters. To examine and assess biomechanical parameters, numerical simulation of cardiovascular dynamics has the potential to complement and enhance medical measurement and imaging techniques. As such, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have shown to be suitable to evaluate blood velocity and pressure in scenarios, where vessel wall deformation plays a minor role. However, there is a need for further validation studies and the inclusion of vessel wall elasticity for morphologies being subject to large displacement. In this work, we consider a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model including the full elasticity equation to take the deformability of aortic wall soft tissue into account. We present a numerical framework, in which either a CFD study can be performed for less deformable aortic segments or an FSI simulation for regions of large displacement such as the aortic root and arch. Both of the methods are validated by means of an aortic phantom experiment. The computational results are in good agreement with 2D phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) velocity measurements as well as catheter-based pressure measurements. The FSI simulation shows a characteristic vessel compliance effect on the flow field induced by the elasticity of the vessel wall, which the CFD model is not capable of. The in vitro validated FSI simulation framework can enable the computation of complementary biomechanical parameters such as the stress distribution within the vessel wall.
Le, Trung Bao; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2012-01-01
We develop a novel large-scale kinematic model for animating the left ventricle (LV) wall and use this model to drive the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) between the ensuing blood flow and a mechanical heart valve prosthesis implanted in the aortic position of an anatomic LV/aorta configuration. The kinematic model is of lumped type and employs a cell-based, FitzHugh-Nagumo framework to simulate the motion of the LV wall in response to an excitation wavefront propagating along the heart wall. The emerging large-scale LV wall motion exhibits complex contractile mechanisms that include contraction (twist) and expansion (untwist). The kinematic model is shown to yield global LV motion parameters that are well within the physiologic range throughout the cardiac cycle. The FSI between the leaflets of the mechanical heart valve and the blood flow driven by the dynamic LV wall motion and mitral inflow is simulated using the curvilinear immersed boundary (CURVIB) method [1, 2] implemented in conjunction with a domain decomposition approach. The computed results show that the simulated flow patterns are in good qualitative agreement with in vivo observations. The simulations also reveal complex kinematics of the valve leaflets, thus, underscoring the need for patient-specific simulations of heart valve prosthesis and other cardiac devices. PMID:23729841
Wong, Kelvin K. L.; Thavornpattanapong, Pongpat; Cheung, Sherman C. P.; Tu, Jiyuan
2013-01-01
Added-mass instability is known to be an important issue in the partitioned approach for fluid-structure interaction (FSI) solvers. Despite the implementation of the implicit approach, convergence of solution can be difficult to achieve. Relaxation may be applied to improve this implicitness of the partitioned algorithm, but this commonly leads to a significant increase in computational time. This is because the critical relaxation factor that allows stability of the coupling tends to be impractically small. In this study, a mathematical analysis for optimizing numerical performance based on different time integration schemes that pertain to both the fluid and solid accelerations is presented. The aim is to determine the most efficient configuration for the FSI architecture. Both theoretical and numerical results suggest that the choice of time integration schemes has a significant influence on the stability of FSI coupling. This concludes that, in addition to material and its geometric properties, the choice of time integration schemes is important in determining the stability of the numerical computation. A proper selection of the associated parameters can improve performance considerably by influencing the condition of coupling stability. PMID:24222785
Montanino, A; Fortunato, A; Angelillo, M
2016-07-01
In this paper, we study the fluid-structure interaction in a weakened basilar artery. The aim is to study how the wall shear stress changes in space and time because of the weakening, because spatial and temporal changes are thought to be possible causes of aneurysm and vascular deseases. The arterial wall, in its natural configuration, is modeled as a hyperelastic cylinder, inhomogeneous along its axis, in order to simulate the axis-symmetric weakening. The fluid is studied exploiting a recent approach for quasi-one-dimensional flows in slowly varying ducts, which allows to write the averaged equations of mass and energy balance on the basis of the velocity profile in a straight duct. The unknowns are the wall pressure, the average velocity, and the wall radial displacement. The problem is solved in two parts: first, the stationary non-linear coupled problem is solved, and an intermediate configuration is obtained. Then, we study the variation of the basic unknowns about the intermediate configuration, considering time dependence over the cardiac cycles. The results suggest that, with a 10% reduction of the main elastic modulus, the shear stress in the weakened zone changes its sign and doubles the maximum stress value detected in the healthy zone. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26446301
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Xiuzhen; Yu, Chi; Wang, Yuefang; Liu, Yingxi
2007-08-01
In this paper, the authors present airflow field characteristics of human upper airway and soft palate movement attitude during breathing. On the basis of the data taken from the spiral computerized tomography images of a healthy person and a patient with Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS), three-dimensional models of upper airway cavity and soft palate are reconstructed by the method of surface rendering. Numerical simulation is performed for airflow in the upper airway and displacement of soft palate by fluid-structure interaction analysis. The reconstructed three-dimensional models precisely preserve the original configuration of upper airways and soft palate. The results of the pressure and velocity distributions in the airflow field are quantitatively determined, and the displacement of soft palate is presented. Pressure gradients of airway are lower for the healthy person and the airflow distribution is quite uniform in the case of free breathing. However, the OSAHS patient remarkably escalates both the pressure and velocity in the upper airway, and causes higher displacement of the soft palate. The present study is useful in revealing pathogenesis and quantitative mutual relationship between configuration and function of the upper airway as well as in diagnosing diseases related to anatomical structure and function of the upper airway.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lixiang; Wang, Wenquan; Guo, Yakun
Large eddy simulation is used to explore flow features and energy exchange physics between turbulent flow and structure vibration in the near-wall region with fluid-structure interaction (FSI). The statistical turbulence characteristics in the near-wall region of a vibrating wall, such as the skin frictional coefficient, velocity, pressure, vortices, and the coherent structures have been studied for an aerofoil blade passage of a true three-dimensional hydroturbine. The results show that (i) FSI greatly strengthens the turbulence in the inner region of y+ < 25; and (ii) the energy exchange mechanism between the flow and the vibration depends strongly on the vibration-induced vorticity in the inner region. The structural vibration provokes a frequent action between the low- and high-speed streaks to balance the energy deficit caused by the vibration. The velocity profile in the inner layer near the vibrating wall has a significant distinctness, and the viscosity effect of the fluid in the inner region decreases due to the vibration. The flow features in the inner layer are altered by a suitable wall vibration.
The role of 3-D interactive visualization in blind surveys of H I in galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Punzo, D.; van der Hulst, J. M.; Roerdink, J. B. T. M.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Ramatsoku, M.; Verheijen, M. A. W.
2015-09-01
Upcoming H I surveys will deliver large datasets, and automated processing using the full 3-D information (two positional dimensions and one spectral dimension) to find and characterize H I objects is imperative. In this context, visualization is an essential tool for enabling qualitative and quantitative human control on an automated source finding and analysis pipeline. We discuss how Visual Analytics, the combination of automated data processing and human reasoning, creativity and intuition, supported by interactive visualization, enables flexible and fast interaction with the 3-D data, helping the astronomer to deal with the analysis of complex sources. 3-D visualization, coupled to modeling, provides additional capabilities helping the discovery and analysis of subtle structures in the 3-D domain. The requirements for a fully interactive visualization tool are: coupled 1-D/2-D/3-D visualization, quantitative and comparative capabilities, combined with supervised semi-automated analysis. Moreover, the source code must have the following characteristics for enabling collaborative work: open, modular, well documented, and well maintained. We review four state of-the-art, 3-D visualization packages assessing their capabilities and feasibility for use in the case of 3-D astronomical data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banks, J. W.; Henshaw, W. D.; Kapila, A. K.; Schwendeman, D. W.
2016-01-01
We describe an added-mass partitioned (AMP) algorithm for solving fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems involving inviscid compressible fluids interacting with nonlinear solids that undergo large rotations and displacements. The computational approach is a mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian scheme that makes use of deforming composite grids (DCG) to treat large changes in the geometry in an accurate, flexible, and robust manner. The current work extends the AMP algorithm developed in Banks et al. [1] for linearly elasticity to the case of nonlinear solids. To ensure stability for the case of light solids, the new AMP algorithm embeds an approximate solution of a nonlinear fluid-solid Riemann (FSR) problem into the interface treatment. The solution to the FSR problem is derived and shown to be of a similar form to that derived for linear solids: the state on the interface being fundamentally an impedance-weighted average of the fluid and solid states. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the AMP algorithm is stable even for light solids when added-mass effects are large. The accuracy and stability of the AMP scheme is verified by comparison to an exact solution using the method of analytical solutions and to a semi-analytical solution that is obtained for a rotating solid disk immersed in a fluid. The scheme is applied to the simulation of a planar shock impacting a light elliptical-shaped solid, and comparisons are made between solutions of the FSI problem for a neo-Hookean solid, a linearly elastic solid, and a rigid solid. The ability of the approach to handle large deformations is demonstrated for a problem of a high-speed flow past a light, thin, and flexible solid beam.
GIANT: pattern analysis of molecular interactions in 3D structures of protein–small ligand complexes
2014-01-01
Background Interpretation of binding modes of protein–small ligand complexes from 3D structure data is essential for understanding selective ligand recognition by proteins. It is often performed by visual inspection and sometimes largely depends on a priori knowledge about typical interactions such as hydrogen bonds and π-π stacking. Because it can introduce some biases due to scientists’ subjective perspectives, more objective viewpoints considering a wide range of interactions are required. Description In this paper, we present a web server for analyzing protein–small ligand interactions on the basis of patterns of atomic contacts, or “interaction patterns” obtained from the statistical analyses of 3D structures of protein–ligand complexes in our previous study. This server can guide visual inspection by providing information about interaction patterns for each atomic contact in 3D structures. Users can visually investigate what atomic contacts in user-specified 3D structures of protein–small ligand complexes are statistically overrepresented. This server consists of two main components: “Complex Analyzer”, and “Pattern Viewer”. The former provides a 3D structure viewer with annotations of interacting amino acid residues, ligand atoms, and interacting pairs of these. In the annotations of interacting pairs, assignment to an interaction pattern of each contact and statistical preferences of the patterns are presented. The “Pattern Viewer” provides details of each interaction pattern. Users can see visual representations of probability density functions of interactions, and a list of protein–ligand complexes showing similar interactions. Conclusions Users can interactively analyze protein–small ligand binding modes with statistically determined interaction patterns rather than relying on a priori knowledge of the users, by using our new web server named GIANT that is freely available at http://giant.hgc.jp/. PMID:24423161
A 3D-Video-Based Computerized Analysis of Social and Sexual Interactions in Rats
Matsumoto, Jumpei; Urakawa, Susumu; Takamura, Yusaku; Malcher-Lopes, Renato; Hori, Etsuro; Tomaz, Carlos; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao
2013-01-01
A large number of studies have analyzed social and sexual interactions between rodents in relation to neural activity. Computerized video analysis has been successfully used to detect numerous behaviors quickly and objectively; however, to date only 2D video recording has been used, which cannot determine the 3D locations of animals and encounters difficulties in tracking animals when they are overlapping, e.g., when mounting. To overcome these limitations, we developed a novel 3D video analysis system for examining social and sexual interactions in rats. A 3D image was reconstructed by integrating images captured by multiple depth cameras at different viewpoints. The 3D positions of body parts of the rats were then estimated by fitting skeleton models of the rats to the 3D images using a physics-based fitting algorithm, and various behaviors were recognized based on the spatio-temporal patterns of the 3D movements of the body parts. Comparisons between the data collected by the 3D system and those by visual inspection indicated that this system could precisely estimate the 3D positions of body parts for 2 rats during social and sexual interactions with few manual interventions, and could compute the traces of the 2 animals even during mounting. We then analyzed the effects of AM-251 (a cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist) on male rat sexual behavior, and found that AM-251 decreased movements and trunk height before sexual behavior, but increased the duration of head-head contact during sexual behavior. These results demonstrate that the use of this 3D system in behavioral studies could open the door to new approaches for investigating the neuroscience of social and sexual behavior. PMID:24205238
A 3D-video-based computerized analysis of social and sexual interactions in rats.
Matsumoto, Jumpei; Urakawa, Susumu; Takamura, Yusaku; Malcher-Lopes, Renato; Hori, Etsuro; Tomaz, Carlos; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao
2013-01-01
A large number of studies have analyzed social and sexual interactions between rodents in relation to neural activity. Computerized video analysis has been successfully used to detect numerous behaviors quickly and objectively; however, to date only 2D video recording has been used, which cannot determine the 3D locations of animals and encounters difficulties in tracking animals when they are overlapping, e.g., when mounting. To overcome these limitations, we developed a novel 3D video analysis system for examining social and sexual interactions in rats. A 3D image was reconstructed by integrating images captured by multiple depth cameras at different viewpoints. The 3D positions of body parts of the rats were then estimated by fitting skeleton models of the rats to the 3D images using a physics-based fitting algorithm, and various behaviors were recognized based on the spatio-temporal patterns of the 3D movements of the body parts. Comparisons between the data collected by the 3D system and those by visual inspection indicated that this system could precisely estimate the 3D positions of body parts for 2 rats during social and sexual interactions with few manual interventions, and could compute the traces of the 2 animals even during mounting. We then analyzed the effects of AM-251 (a cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist) on male rat sexual behavior, and found that AM-251 decreased movements and trunk height before sexual behavior, but increased the duration of head-head contact during sexual behavior. These results demonstrate that the use of this 3D system in behavioral studies could open the door to new approaches for investigating the neuroscience of social and sexual behavior. PMID:24205238
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Ruijun
Two typical unsteady fluid-structure interaction problems have been investigated in the present study. One of them was about actively plunged flexible hydrofoil; the other was about gravity-driven falling plates in water. Real-time velocity field and dynamic response on the moving objects were measured to study these unsteady and highly nonlinear problems. For a long time, scientists have believed that bird and insect flight benefits greatly from the flexibility and morphing facility of their wings via flapping motion. A significant advantage flexible wing models have over quasi-steady rigid wing models is a much higher lift generation capability. Both experimental and computational studies have shown that the leading and trailing edge vortexes (LEV and TEV) play a major role in the efficient generation of such unconventionally high lift force. In this study, two NACA0012 miniature hydrofoils, one flexible and the other rigid, were actively plunged at various frequencies in a viscous glycerol-water solution to study the influence of flexibility. Two-dimensional, phase-locked particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were conducted to investigate the temporal and spacial development of LEVs and TEVs. Simultaneous measurements of lift and thrust forces were recorded to reveal the relationship between hydrodynamic force and the evolution of the surrounding flow field. Results from the flexible hydrofoil were compared to those from the rigid one in order to quantitatively analyze the effects of flexibility. The second problem focused on fluid-structure interaction of gravity driven falling plates. Falling leaves and paper cards in air has drawn plenty of research interest in the past decades to investigate the interaction between the fluid flow and the falling object. In this research, time-resolved PIV were employed to experimentally visualize the flow field evolution around the gravity-driven falling plates. The plates were made of different materials with
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Baoyuan
The objective of this research is to develop an efficient and accurate methodology to resolve flow non-linearity of fluid-structural interaction. To achieve this purpose, a numerical strategy to apply the detached-eddy simulation (DES) with a fully coupled fluid-structural interaction model is established for the first time. The following novel numerical algorithms are also created: a general sub-domain boundary mapping procedure for parallel computation to reduce wall clock simulation time, an efficient and low diffusion E-CUSP (LDE) scheme used as a Riemann solver to resolve discontinuities with minimal numerical dissipation, and an implicit high order accuracy weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme to capture shock waves. The Detached-Eddy Simulation is based on the model proposed by Spalart in 1997. Near solid walls within wall boundary layers, the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are solved. Outside of the wall boundary layers, the 3D filtered compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved based on large eddy simulation(LES). The Spalart-Allmaras one equation turbulence model is solved to provide the Reynolds stresses in the RANS region and the subgrid scale stresses in the LES region. An improved 5th order finite differencing weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme with an optimized epsilon value is employed for the inviscid fluxes. The new LDE scheme used with the WENO scheme is able to capture crisp shock profiles and exact contact surfaces. A set of fully conservative 4th order finite central differencing schemes are used for the viscous terms. The 3D Navier-Stokes equations are discretized based on a conservative finite differencing scheme. The unfactored line Gauss-Seidel relaxation iteration is employed for time marching. A general sub-domain boundary mapping procedure is developed for arbitrary topology multi-block structured grids with grid points matched on sub-domain boundaries. Extensive numerical experiments
Banerjee, Shashwat S; Paul, Debjani; Bhansali, Sujit G; Aher, Naval D; Jalota-Badhwar, Archana; Khandare, Jayant
2012-06-11
A transferrin-conjugated PEG-Fe(3) O(4) nanostructured matrix is developed to explore cellular responses in terms of enhanced cell adhesion, specific interactions between ligands in the matrix and molecular receptors on the cell membrane, comparison of cell shapes on 2D and 3D surfaces, and effect of polymer architecture on cell adhesion. Integration of such advanced synthetic nanomaterials into a functionalized 3D matrix to control cell behavior on surfaces will have implications in nanomedicine. PMID:22434693
Web-Based 3D and Haptic Interactive Environments for e-Learning, Simulation, and Training
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamza-Lup, Felix G.; Sopin, Ivan
Knowledge creation occurs in the process of social interaction. As our service-based society is evolving into a knowledge-based society, there is an acute need for more effective collaboration and knowledge-sharing systems to be used by geographically scattered people. We present the use of 3D components and standards, such as Web3D, in combination with the haptic paradigm, for e-Learning and simulation.
3D versus 2D domain wall interaction in ideal and rough nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pivano, A.; Dolocan, Voicu O.
2015-11-01
The interaction between transverse magnetic domain walls (TDWs) in planar (2D) and cylindrical (3D) nanowires is examined using micromagnetic simulations. We show that in perfect and surface deformed wires the free TDWs behave differently, as the 3D TDWs combine into metastable states with average lifetimes of 300 ns depending on roughness, while the 2D TDWs do not due to 2D shape anisotropy. When the 2D and 3D TDWs are pinned at artificial constrictions, they behave similarly as they interact mainly through the dipolar field. This magnetostatic interaction is well described by the point charge model with multipole expansion. In surface deformed wires with artificial constrictions, the interaction becomes more complex as the depinning field decreases and dynamical pinning can lead to local resonances. This can strongly influence the control of TDWs in DW-based devices.
3D hydrodynamic interactions lead to divergences in 2D diffusion.
Bleibel, Johannes; Domínguez, Alvaro; Oettel, Martin
2015-05-20
We investigate the influence of 3D hydrodynamic interactions on confined colloidal suspensions, where only the colloids are restricted to one or two dimensions. In the absence of static interactions among the colloids, i.e., an ideal gas of colloidal particles with a finite hydrodynamic radius, we find a divergent collective diffusion coefficient. The origin of the divergence is traced back to the dimensional mismatch of 3D hydrodynamic interactions and the colloidal particles moving only in 1D or 2D. Our results from theory are confirmed by Stokesian dynamics simulations and supported by light scattering observational data for particles at a fluid interface. PMID:25923320
3D hydrodynamic interactions lead to divergences in 2D diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bleibel, Johannes; Domínguez, Alvaro; Oettel, Martin
2015-05-01
We investigate the influence of 3D hydrodynamic interactions on confined colloidal suspensions, where only the colloids are restricted to one or two dimensions. In the absence of static interactions among the colloids, i.e., an ideal gas of colloidal particles with a finite hydrodynamic radius, we find a divergent collective diffusion coefficient. The origin of the divergence is traced back to the dimensional mismatch of 3D hydrodynamic interactions and the colloidal particles moving only in 1D or 2D. Our results from theory are confirmed by Stokesian dynamics simulations and supported by light scattering observational data for particles at a fluid interface.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilmanov, Anvar; Le, Trung Bao; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2015-11-01
We present a new numerical methodology for simulating fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems involving thin flexible bodies in an incompressible fluid. The FSI algorithm uses the Dirichlet-Neumann partitioning technique. The curvilinear immersed boundary method (CURVIB) is coupled with a rotation-free finite element (FE) model for thin shells enabling the efficient simulation of FSI problems with arbitrarily large deformation. Turbulent flow problems are handled using large-eddy simulation with the dynamic Smagorinsky model in conjunction with a wall model to reconstruct boundary conditions near immersed boundaries. The CURVIB and FE solvers are coupled together on the flexible solid-fluid interfaces where the structural nodal positions, displacements, velocities and loads are calculated and exchanged between the two solvers. Loose and strong coupling FSI schemes are employed enhanced by the Aitken acceleration technique to ensure robust coupling and fast convergence especially for low mass ratio problems. The coupled CURVIB-FE-FSI method is validated by applying it to simulate two FSI problems involving thin flexible structures: 1) vortex-induced vibrations of a cantilever mounted in the wake of a square cylinder at different mass ratios and at low Reynolds number; and 2) the more challenging high Reynolds number problem involving the oscillation of an inverted elastic flag. For both cases the computed results are in excellent agreement with previous numerical simulations and/or experiential measurements. Grid convergence tests/studies are carried out for both the cantilever and inverted flag problems, which show that the CURVIB-FE-FSI method provides their convergence. Finally, the capability of the new methodology in simulations of complex cardiovascular flows is demonstrated by applying it to simulate the FSI of a tri-leaflet, prosthetic heart valve in an anatomic aorta and under physiologic pulsatile conditions.
Molony, David S; Callanan, Anthony; Kavanagh, Eamon G; Walsh, Michael T; McGloughlin, Tim M
2009-01-01
Background Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are local dilatations of the infrarenal aorta. If left untreated they may rupture and lead to death. One form of treatment is the minimally invasive insertion of a stent-graft into the aneurysm. Despite this effective treatment aneurysms may occasionally continue to expand and this may eventually result in post-operative rupture of the aneurysm. Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) is a particularly useful tool for investigating aneurysm biomechanics as both the wall stresses and fluid forces can be examined. Methods Pre-op, Post-op and Follow-up models were reconstructed from CT scans of a single patient and FSI simulations were performed on each model. The FSI approach involved coupling Abaqus and Fluent via a third-party software - MpCCI. Aneurysm wall stress and compliance were investigated as well as the drag force acting on the stent-graft. Results Aneurysm wall stress was reduced from 0.38 MPa before surgery to a value of 0.03 MPa after insertion of the stent-graft. Higher stresses were seen in the aneurysm neck and iliac legs post-operatively. The compliance of the aneurysm was also reduced post-operatively. The peak Post-op axial drag force was found to be 4.85 N. This increased to 6.37 N in the Follow-up model. Conclusion In a patient-specific case peak aneurysm wall stress was reduced by 92%. Such a reduction in aneurysm wall stress may lead to shrinkage of the aneurysm over time. Hence, post-operative stress patterns may help in determining the likelihood of aneurysm shrinkage post EVAR. Post-operative remodelling of the aneurysm may lead to increased drag forces. PMID:19807909
Building on realism and magic for designing 3D interaction techniques.
Kulik, A
2009-01-01
Imagination-based interaction can complement reality-based interaction in the design of 3D user interfaces. This hybrid approach could lead to interface design guidelines that promote higher-level consistency, and thus usability, for a large range of diverse interfaces. PMID:24806776
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gillespie, D.; La Pensée, A.; Cooper, M.
2013-07-01
Three dimensional (3D) laser scanning is an important documentation technique for cultural heritage. This technology has been adopted from the engineering and aeronautical industry and is an invaluable tool for the documentation of objects within museum collections (La Pensée, 2008). The datasets created via close range laser scanning are extremely accurate and the created 3D dataset allows for a more detailed analysis in comparison to other documentation technologies such as photography. The dataset can be used for a range of different applications including: documentation; archiving; surface monitoring; replication; gallery interactives; educational sessions; conservation and visualization. However, the novel nature of a 3D dataset is presenting a rather unique challenge with respect to its sharing and dissemination. This is in part due to the need for specialised 3D software and a supported graphics card to display high resolution 3D models. This can be detrimental to one of the main goals of cultural institutions, which is to share knowledge and enable activities such as research, education and entertainment. This has limited the presentation of 3D models of cultural heritage objects to mainly either images or videos. Yet with recent developments in computer graphics, increased internet speed and emerging technologies such as Adobe's Stage 3D (Adobe, 2013) and WebGL (Khronos, 2013), it is now possible to share a dataset directly within a webpage. This allows website visitors to interact with the 3D dataset allowing them to explore every angle of the object, gaining an insight into its shape and nature. This can be very important considering that it is difficult to offer the same level of understanding of the object through the use of traditional mediums such as photographs and videos. Yet this presents a range of problems: this is a very novel experience and very few people have engaged with 3D objects outside of 3D software packages or games. This paper
Interactive and Stereoscopic Hybrid 3D Viewer of Radar Data with Gesture Recognition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goenetxea, Jon; Moreno, Aitor; Unzueta, Luis; Galdós, Andoni; Segura, Álvaro
This work presents an interactive and stereoscopic 3D viewer of weather information coming from a Doppler radar. The hybrid system shows a GIS model of the regional zone where the radar is located and the corresponding reconstructed 3D volume weather data. To enhance the immersiveness of the navigation, stereoscopic visualization has been added to the viewer, using a polarized glasses based system. The user can interact with the 3D virtual world using a Nintendo Wiimote for navigating through it and a Nintendo Wii Nunchuk for giving commands by means of hand gestures. We also present a dynamic gesture recognition procedure that measures the temporal advance of the performed gesture postures. Experimental results show how dynamic gestures are effectively recognized so that a more natural interaction and immersive navigation in the virtual world is achieved.
Web Based Interactive Anaglyph Stereo Visualization of 3D Model of Geoscience Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, J.
2014-12-01
The objectives of this study were to create interactive online tool for generating and viewing the anaglyph 3D stereo image on a Web browser via Internet. To achieve this, we designed and developed the prototype system. Three-dimensional visualization is well known and becoming popular in recent years to understand the target object and the related physical phenomena. Geoscience data have the complex data model, which combines large extents with rich small scale visual details. So, the real-time visualization of 3D geoscience data model on the Internet is a challenging work. In this paper, we show the result of creating which can be viewed in 3D anaglyph of geoscience data in any web browser which supports WebGL. We developed an anaglyph image viewing prototype system, and some representative results are displayed by anaglyph 3D stereo image generated in red-cyan colour from pairs of air-photo/digital elevation model and geological map/digital elevation model respectively. The best viewing is achieved by using suitable 3D red-cyan glasses, although alternatively red-blue or red-green spectacles can be also used. The middle mouse wheel can be used to zoom in/out the anaglyph image on a Web browser. Application of anaglyph 3D stereo image is a very important and easy way to understand the underground geologic system and active tectonic geomorphology. The integrated strata with fine three-dimensional topography and geologic map data can help to characterise the mineral potential area and the active tectonic abnormal characteristics. To conclude, it can be stated that anaglyph 3D stereo image provides a simple and feasible method to improve the relief effect of geoscience data such as geomorphology and geology. We believe that with further development, the anaglyph 3D stereo imaging system could as a complement to 3D geologic modeling, constitute a useful tool for better understanding of the underground geology and the active tectonic
The Impact of Interactivity on Comprehending 2D and 3D Visualizations of Movement Data.
Amini, Fereshteh; Rufiange, Sebastien; Hossain, Zahid; Ventura, Quentin; Irani, Pourang; McGuffin, Michael J
2015-01-01
GPS, RFID, and other technologies have made it increasingly common to track the positions of people and objects over time as they move through two-dimensional spaces. Visualizing such spatio-temporal movement data is challenging because each person or object involves three variables (two spatial variables as a function of the time variable), and simply plotting the data on a 2D geographic map can result in overplotting and occlusion that hides details. This also makes it difficult to understand correlations between space and time. Software such as GeoTime can display such data with a three-dimensional visualization, where the 3rd dimension is used for time. This allows for the disambiguation of spatially overlapping trajectories, and in theory, should make the data clearer. However, previous experimental comparisons of 2D and 3D visualizations have so far found little advantage in 3D visualizations, possibly due to the increased complexity of navigating and understanding a 3D view. We present a new controlled experimental comparison of 2D and 3D visualizations, involving commonly performed tasks that have not been tested before, and find advantages in 3D visualizations for more complex tasks. In particular, we tease out the effects of various basic interactions and find that the 2D view relies significantly on "scrubbing" the timeline, whereas the 3D view relies mainly on 3D camera navigation. Our work helps to improve understanding of 2D and 3D visualizations of spatio-temporal data, particularly with respect to interactivity. PMID:26357026
Interactive Cosmetic Makeup of a 3D Point-Based Face Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jeong-Sik; Choi, Soo-Mi
We present an interactive system for cosmetic makeup of a point-based face model acquired by 3D scanners. We first enhance the texture of a face model in 3D space using low-pass Gaussian filtering, median filtering, and histogram equalization. The user is provided with a stereoscopic display and haptic feedback, and can perform simulated makeup tasks including the application of foundation, color makeup, and lip gloss. Fast rendering is achieved by processing surfels using the GPU, and we use a BSP tree data structure and a dynamic local refinement of the facial surface to provide interactive haptics. We have implemented a prototype system and evaluated its performance.
Representing 3D virtual objects: interaction between visuo-spatial ability and type of exploration.
Meijer, Frank; van den Broek, Egon L
2010-03-17
We investigated individual differences in interactively exploring 3D virtual objects. 36 participants explored 24 simple and 24 difficult objects (composed of respectively three and five Biederman geons) actively, passively, or not at all. Both their 3D mental representation of the objects and visuo-spatial ability was assessed. Results show that, regardless of the object's complexity, people with a low VSA benefit from active exploration of objects, where people with a middle or high VSA do not. These findings extend and refine earlier research on interactively learning visuo-spatial information and underline the importance to take individual differences into account. PMID:20116394
Interplay of 3 d-5 d interactions in high-TC osmium-based double perovskites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, A. E.; Calder, S.; Morrow, R.; Woodward, P. M.; Yan, J. Q.; Winn, B.; Lumsden, M. D.; Christianson, A. D.
2015-03-01
In 3d-5d systems the strongly magnetic 3d orbitals and extended 5d orbitals with enhanced spin-orbit coupling lead to a range of high TC magnetic states and novel behavior not present in systems consisting solely of 3d or 5d ions. The two distinct octahedral sites in double perovskites A2 BB 'O6 allow an ordered 3d-5d structure to form, providing a variety of systems to be investigated. Unravelling the interactions controlling these systems, however, is an open challenge. The highest known TC in such a system, 725K, is found in insulator Sr2CrOsO6. This questions the theory for high-TCs in systems such as TC=400K Sr2FeReO6 which relies on half-metallic behavior. To unravel the nature of the interactions in 3d-5d systems, we have studied the series of compounds Sr2 X OsO6. We have utilized elastic and inelastic neutron scattering to probe the spin states in the systems, and therefore test predictions that the magnetic interactions are controlled by a frustrated AFM Heisenberg model. By studying the series, we are able to relate changes in the spin wave spectrum to dramatic changes in the magnetic order from TN = 95 K antiferromagnetism to TC = 725 K ferrimagnetism.
MACKEY, T.C.
2006-03-14
M&D Professional Services, Inc. (M&D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DSV Integrity Project-DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses)''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14. The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The overall seismic analysis of the DSTs is being performed with the general-purpose finite element code ANSYS'. The global model used for the seismic analysis of the DSTs includes the DST structure, the contained waste, and the surrounding soil. The seismic analysis of the DSTs must address the fluid-structure interaction behavior and sloshing response of the primary tank and contained liquid. ANSYS has demonstrated capabilities for structural analysis, but has more limited capabilities for fluid-structure interaction analysis. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the capabilities and investigate the limitations of the finite element code MSC.Dytranz for performing a dynamic fluid-structure interaction analysis of the primary tank and contained waste. To this end, the Dytran solutions are benchmarked against theoretical solutions appearing in BNL 1995, when such theoretical solutions exist. When theoretical solutions were not available, comparisons were made to theoretical solutions to similar problems, and to the results from ANSYS simulations. Both rigid tank and flexible tank configurations were analyzed with Dytran. The response parameters of interest that are evaluated in this study are the total hydrodynamic reaction forces, the impulsive and convective mode frequencies, the waste pressures, and slosh heights
Subjective evaluation of user experience in interactive 3D visualization in a medical context
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tourancheau, Sylvain; Sjöström, Mårten; Olsson, Roger; Persson, Anders; Ericson, Thomas; Rudling, Johan; Norén, Bengt
2012-02-01
New display technologies enable the usage of 3D-visualization in a medical context. Even though user performance seems to be enhanced with respect to 2D thanks to the addition of recreated depth cues, human factors, and more particularly visual comfort and visual fatigue can still be a bridle to the widespread use of these systems. This study aimed at evaluating and comparing two different 3D visualization systems (a market stereoscopic display, and a state-of-the-art multi-view display) in terms of quality of experience (QoE), in the context of interactive medical visualization. An adapted methodology was designed in order to subjectively evaluate the experience of users. 14 medical doctors and 15 medical students took part in the experiment. After solving different tasks using the 3D reconstruction of a phantom object, they were asked to judge their quality of the experience, according to specific features. They were also asked to give their opinion about the influence of 3D-systems on their work conditions. Results suggest that medical doctors are opened to 3D-visualization techniques and are confident concerning their beneficial influence on their work. However, visual comfort and visual fatigue are still an issue of 3D-displays. Results obtained with the multi-view display suggest that the use of continuous horizontal parallax might be the future response to these current limitations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Periverzov, Frol; Ilieş, Horea T.
2012-09-01
Interaction with 3D information is one of the fundamental and most familiar tasks in virtually all areas of engineering and science. Several recent technological advances pave the way for developing hand gesture recognition capabilities available to all, which will lead to more intuitive and efficient 3D user interfaces (3DUI). These developments can unlock new levels of expression and productivity in all activities concerned with the creation and manipulation of virtual 3D shapes and, specifically, in engineering design. Building fully automated systems for tracking and interpreting hand gestures requires robust and efficient 3D imaging techniques as well as potent shape classifiers. We survey and explore current and emerging 3D imaging technologies, and focus, in particular, on those that can be used to build interfaces between the users' hands and the machine. The purpose of this paper is to categorize and highlight the relevant differences between these existing 3D imaging approaches in terms of the nature of the information provided, output data format, as well as the specific conditions under which these approaches yield reliable data. Furthermore we explore the impact of each of these approaches on the computational cost and reliability of the required image processing algorithms. Finally we highlight the main challenges and opportunities in developing natural user interfaces based on hand gestures, and conclude with some promising directions for future research. [Figure not available: see fulltext.
Qian Chen
2008-08-18
The generation, motion, and interaction of dislocations play key roles during the plastic deformation process of crystalline solids. 3D Dislocation Dynamics has been employed as a mesoscale simulation algorithm to investigate the collective and cooperative behavior of dislocations. Most current research on 3D Dislocation Dynamics is based on the solutions available in the framework of classical isotropic elasticity. However, due to some degree of elastic anisotropy in almost all crystalline solids, it is very necessary to extend 3D Dislocation Dynamics into anisotropic elasticity. In this study, first, the details of efficient and accurate incorporation of the fully anisotropic elasticity into 3D discrete Dislocation Dynamics by numerically evaluating the derivatives of Green's functions are described. Then the intrinsic properties of perfect dislocations, including their stability, their core properties and disassociation characteristics, in newly discovered rare earth-based intermetallics and in conventional intermetallics are investigated, within the framework of fully anisotropic elasticity supplemented with the atomistic information obtained from the ab initio calculations. Moreover, the evolution and interaction of dislocations in these intermetallics as well as the role of solute segregation are presented by utilizing fully anisotropic 3D dislocation dynamics. The results from this work clearly indicate the role and the importance of elastic anisotropy on the evolution of dislocation microstructures, the overall ductility and the hardening behavior in these systems.
Employing WebGL to develop interactive stereoscopic 3D content for use in biomedical visualization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnston, Semay; Renambot, Luc; Sauter, Daniel
2013-03-01
Web Graphics Library (WebGL), the forthcoming web standard for rendering native 3D graphics in a browser, represents an important addition to the biomedical visualization toolset. It is projected to become a mainstream method of delivering 3D online content due to shrinking support for third-party plug-ins. Additionally, it provides a virtual reality (VR) experience to web users accommodated by the growing availability of stereoscopic displays (3D TV, desktop, and mobile). WebGL's value in biomedical visualization has been demonstrated by applications for interactive anatomical models, chemical and molecular visualization, and web-based volume rendering. However, a lack of instructional literature specific to the field prevents many from utilizing this technology. This project defines a WebGL design methodology for a target audience of biomedical artists with a basic understanding of web languages and 3D graphics. The methodology was informed by the development of an interactive web application depicting the anatomy and various pathologies of the human eye. The application supports several modes of stereoscopic displays for a better understanding of 3D anatomical structures.
Role of Interaction in Enhancing the Epistemic Utility of 3D Mathematical Visualizations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liang, Hai-Ning; Sedig, Kamran
2010-01-01
Many epistemic activities, such as spatial reasoning, sense-making, problem solving, and learning, are information-based. In the context of epistemic activities involving mathematical information, learners often use interactive 3D mathematical visualizations (MVs). However, performing such activities is not always easy. Although it is generally…
3D nitrogen-doped graphene/β-cyclodextrin: host-guest interactions for electrochemical sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Jilun; Leng, Xuanye; Xiao, Yao; Hu, Chengguo; Fu, Lei
2015-07-01
Host-guest interactions, especially those between cyclodextrins (CDs, including α-, β- and γ-CD) and various guest molecules, exhibit a very high supramolecular recognition ability. Thus, they have received considerable attention in different fields. These specific interactions between host and guest molecules are promising for biosensing and clinical detection. However, there is a lack of an ideal electrode substrate for CDs to increase their performance in electrochemical sensing. Herein, we propose a new 3D nitrogen-doped graphene (3D-NG) based electrochemical sensor, taking advantage of the superior sensitivity of host-guest interactions. Our 3D-NG was fabricated by a template-directed chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method, and it showed a large specific surface area, a high capacity for biomolecules and a high electron transfer efficiency. Thus, for the first time, we took 3D-NG as an electrode substrate for β-CD to establish a new type of biosensor. Using dopamine (DA) and acetaminophen (APAP) as representative guest molecules, our 3D-NG/β-CD biosensor shows extremely high sensitivities (5468.6 μA mM-1 cm-2 and 2419.2 μA mM-1 cm-2, respectively), which are significantly higher than those reported in most previous studies. The stable adsorption of β-CD on 3D-NG indicates potential applications in clinical detection and medical testing.Host-guest interactions, especially those between cyclodextrins (CDs, including α-, β- and γ-CD) and various guest molecules, exhibit a very high supramolecular recognition ability. Thus, they have received considerable attention in different fields. These specific interactions between host and guest molecules are promising for biosensing and clinical detection. However, there is a lack of an ideal electrode substrate for CDs to increase their performance in electrochemical sensing. Herein, we propose a new 3D nitrogen-doped graphene (3D-NG) based electrochemical sensor, taking advantage of the superior sensitivity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Macneal, R. H.; Citerley, R.; Chargin, M.
1980-01-01
A method of fluid-structure coupling which provides symmetrical matrix equations of standard form solved by existing finite element computer programs is presented. The method postulates that the uncoupled vibration modes of the fluid or the structure be calculated before the coupled analysis. A numerical solution of vibration modes in an axisymmetric container demonstrated that a static approximation to higher order fluid modes can improve the accuracy of dynamic response computations using modal methods.
Effect of 3D fractal dimension on contact area and asperity interactions in elastoplastic contact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jourani, Abdeljalil
2016-05-01
Few models are devoted to investigate the effect of 3D fractal dimension Ds on contact area and asperity interactions. These models used statistical approaches or two-dimensional deterministic simulations without considering the asperity interactions and elastic-plastic transition regime. In this study, a complete 3D deterministic model is adopted to simulate the contact between fractal surfaces which are generated using a modified two-variable Weierstrass-Mandelbrot function. This model incorporates the asperity interactions and considers the different deformation modes of surface asperities which range from entirely elastic through elastic-plastic to entirely plastic contact. The simulations reveal that the elastoplastic model is more appropriate to calculate the contact area ratio and pressure field. It is also shown that the influence of the asperity interactions cannot be neglected, especially at lower fractal dimension Ds and higher load.
Using a wireless motion controller for 3D medical image catheter interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vitanovski, Dime; Hahn, Dieter; Daum, Volker; Hornegger, Joachim
2009-02-01
State-of-the-art morphological imaging techniques usually provide high resolution 3D images with a huge number of slices. In clinical practice, however, 2D slice-based examinations are still the method of choice even for these large amounts of data. Providing intuitive interaction methods for specific 3D medical visualization applications is therefore a critical feature for clinical imaging applications. For the domain of catheter navigation and surgery planning, it is crucial to assist the physician with appropriate visualization techniques, such as 3D segmentation maps, fly-through cameras or virtual interaction approaches. There has been an ongoing development and improvement for controllers that help to interact with 3D environments in the domain of computer games. These controllers are based on both motion and infrared sensors and are typically used to detect 3D position and orientation. We have investigated how a state-of-the-art wireless motion sensor controller (Wiimote), developed by Nintendo, can be used for catheter navigation and planning purposes. By default the Wiimote controller only measure rough acceleration over a range of +/- 3g with 10% sensitivity and orientation. Therefore, a pose estimation algorithm was developed for computing accurate position and orientation in 3D space regarding 4 Infrared LEDs. Current results show that for the translation it is possible to obtain a mean error of (0.38cm, 0.41cm, 4.94cm) and for the rotation (0.16, 0.28) respectively. Within this paper we introduce a clinical prototype that allows steering of a virtual fly-through camera attached to the catheter tip by the Wii controller on basis of a segmented vessel tree.
GM3D: interactive three-dimensional gravity and magnetic modeling program (GM3D. REV1 user's guide)
Maurer, J.; Atwood, J.W.
1980-10-01
GM3D has been developed for computering the gravity or magnetic anomaly due to a three-dimensional body, and for plotting the resulting contour map. A complex body may be constructed from several right-rectilinear vertical-sided prisms. The program allows the input and editing of the prism data which are then used to calculate the anomaly map for plotting. Plotting is done on either a Tekronix 4014 graphics terminal, a Statos electrostatic plotter, or a CalComp pen plotter. A terminal plot is also available which can be printed on any terminal and on a line printer. The program is written in FORTRAN IV code and operates on a PRIME 400 computer system. Adaptation of the program to other systems is relatively straightforward.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Hui; Hussain, Fazle
1991-10-01
To understand the topology and dynamics of coherent structures (CS), the interactions of CS with fine-scale turbulence, and the effects of CS on entrainment, mixing and combustion, experimental tools are needed that can measure velocity (preferably vorticity) vector fields in both 3D space and time. While traditional measurement techniques are not able to serve this purpose, holographic particle velocimetry (HPV) appears to be promising. In a demonstration experiment, the instantaneous 3D velocity vector fields in some simple vortical flows have been obtained using the HPV technique. In this preliminary report, the principles of the HPV technique are illustrated and the key issues in its implementation are discussed.
Messier, Erik; Wilcox, Jascha; Dawson-Elli, Alexander; Diaz, Gabriel; Linte, Cristian A
2016-01-01
To inspire young students (grades 6-12) to become medical practitioners and biomedical engineers, it is necessary to expose them to key concepts of the field in a way that is both exciting and informative. Recent advances in medical image acquisition, manipulation, processing, visualization, and display have revolutionized the approach in which the human body and internal anatomy can be seen and studied. It is now possible to collect 3D, 4D, and 5D medical images of patient specific data, and display that data to the end user using consumer level 3D stereoscopic display technology. Despite such advancements, traditional 2D modes of content presentation such as textbooks and slides are still the standard didactic equipment used to teach young students anatomy. More sophisticated methods of display can help to elucidate the complex 3D relationships between structures that are so often missed when viewing only 2D media, and can instill in students an appreciation for the interconnection between medicine and technology. Here we describe the design, implementation, and preliminary evaluation of a 3D virtual anatomy puzzle dedicated to helping users learn the anatomy of various organs and systems by manipulating 3D virtual data. The puzzle currently comprises several components of the human anatomy and can be easily extended to include additional organs and systems. The 3D virtual anatomy puzzle game was implemented and piloted using three display paradigms - a traditional 2D monitor, a 3D TV with active shutter glass, and the DK2 version Oculus Rift, as well as two different user interaction devices - a space mouse and traditional keyboard controls. PMID:27046584
An Interactive Virtual 3D Tool for Scientific Exploration of Planetary Surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Traxler, Christoph; Hesina, Gerd; Gupta, Sanjeev; Paar, Gerhard
2014-05-01
In this paper we present an interactive 3D visualization tool for scientific analysis and planning of planetary missions. At the moment scientists have to look at individual camera images separately. There is no tool to combine them in three dimensions and look at them seamlessly as a geologist would do (by walking backwards and forwards resulting in different scales). For this reason a virtual 3D reconstruction of the terrain that can be interactively explored is necessary. Such a reconstruction has to consider multiple scales ranging from orbital image data to close-up surface image data from rover cameras. The 3D viewer allows seamless zooming between these various scales, giving scientists the possibility to relate small surface features (e.g. rock outcrops) to larger geological contexts. For a reliable geologic assessment a realistic surface rendering is important. Therefore the material properties of the rock surfaces will be considered for real-time rendering. This is achieved by an appropriate Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) estimated from the image data. The BRDF is implemented to run on the Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) to enable realistic real-time rendering, which allows a naturalistic perception for scientific analysis. Another important aspect for realism is the consideration of natural lighting conditions, which means skylight to illuminate the reconstructed scene. In our case we provide skylights from Mars and Earth, which allows switching between these two modes of illumination. This gives geologists the opportunity to perceive rock outcrops from Mars as they would appear on Earth facilitating scientific assessment. Besides viewing the virtual reconstruction on multiple scales, scientists can also perform various measurements, i.e. geo-coordinates of a selected point or distance between two surface points. Rover or other models can be placed into the scene and snapped onto certain location of the terrain. These are
Self-Discovery of Structural Geology Concepts using Interactive 3D Visualization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Billen, M. I.; Saunders, J.
2010-12-01
Mastering structural geology concepts that depend on understanding three-dimensional (3D) geometries and imagining relationships among unseen subsurface structures are fundamental skills for geologists. Traditionally these skills are developed first, through use of 2D drawings of 3D structures that can be difficult to decipher or 3D physical block models that show only a limited set of relationships on the surfaces of the blocks, followed by application and testing of concepts in field settings. We hypothesize that this learning process can be improved by providing repeated opportunities to evaluate and explore synthetic 3D structures using interactive 3D visualization software. We present laboratory modules designed for undergraduate structural geology curriculum using a self-discovery approach to teach concepts such as: the Rule of V’s, structure separation versus fault slip, and the more general dependence of structural exposure on surface topography. The laboratory modules are structured to allow students to discover and articulate each concept from observations of synthetic data both on traditional maps and using the volume visualization software 3DVisualizer. Modules lead students through exploration of data (e.g., a dipping layered structure exposed in ridge-valley topography or obliquely offset across a fault) by allowing them to interactively view (rotate, pan, zoom) the exposure of structures on topographic surfaces and to toggle on/off the full 3D structure as a transparent colored volume. This tool allows student to easily visually understand the relationships between, for example a dipping structure and its exposure on valley walls, as well as how the structure extends beneath the surface. Using this method gives students more opportunities to build a mental library of previously-seen relationships from which to draw-on when applying concepts in the field setting. These laboratory modules, the data and software are freely available from KeckCAVES.
Virtual touch 3D interactive system for autostereoscopic display with embedded optical sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yi-Pai; Wang, Guo-Zhen; Ma, Ming-Ching; Tung, Shang-Yu; Huang, Shu-Yi; Tseng, Hung-Wei; Kuo, Chung-Hong; Li, Chun-Huai
2011-06-01
The traidational 3D interactive sysetm which uses CCD camera to capture image is difficult to operate on near range for mobile applications.Therefore, 3D interactive display with embedded optical sensor was proposed. Based on optical sensor based system, we proposed four different methods to support differenct functions. T mark algorithm can obtain 5- axis information (x, y, z,θ, and φ)of LED no matter where LED was vertical or inclined to panel and whatever it rotated. Sequential mark algorithm and color filter based algorithm can support mulit-user. Finally, bare finger touch system with sequential illuminator can achieve to interact with auto-stereoscopic images by bare finger. Furthermore, the proposed methods were verified on a 4-inch panel with embedded optical sensors.
LATIS3D: The Goal Standard for Laser-Tissue-Interaction Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
London, R. A.; Makarewicz, A. M.; Kim, B. M.; Gentile, N. A.; Yang, T. Y. B.
2000-03-01
The goal of this LDRD project has been to create LATIS3D-the world's premier computer program for laser-tissue interaction modeling. The development was based on recent experience with the 2D LATIS code and the ASCI code, KULL. With LATIS3D, important applications in laser medical therapy were researched including dynamical calculations of tissue emulsification and ablation, photothermal therapy, and photon transport for photodynamic therapy. This project also enhanced LLNL's core competency in laser-matter interactions and high-energy-density physics by pushing simulation codes into new parameter regimes and by attracting external expertise. This will benefit both existing LLNL programs such as ICF and SBSS and emerging programs in medical technology and other laser applications. The purpose of this project was to develop and apply a computer program for laser-tissue interaction modeling to aid in the development of new instruments and procedures in laser medicine.
CFL3D Contribution to the AIAA Supersonic Shock Boundary Layer Interaction Workshop
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Christopher L.
2010-01-01
This paper documents the CFL3D contribution to the AIAA Supersonic Shock Boundary Layer Interaction Workshop, held in Orlando, Florida in January 2010. CFL3D is a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code. Four shock boundary layer interaction cases are computed using a one-equation turbulence model widely used for other aerodynamic problems of interest. Two of the cases have experimental data available at the workshop, and two of the cases do not. The effect of grid, flux scheme, and thin-layer approximation are investigated. Comparisons are made to the available experimental data. All four cases exhibit strong three-dimensional behavior in and near the interaction regions, resulting from influences of the tunnel side-walls.
Interactive 3D medical data cutting using closed curve with arbitrary shape.
Ning, Hai; Yang, Rongqian; Ma, Amin; Wu, Xiaoming
2015-03-01
Interactive 3D cutting is widely used as a flexible manual segmentation tool to extract medical data on regions of interest. A novel method for clipping 3D medical data is proposed to reveal the interior of volumetric data. The 3D cutting method retains or clips away selected voxels projected inside an arbitrary-shaped closed curve which is clipping geometry constructed by interactive tool to make cutting operation more flexible. Transformation between the world and screen coordinate frames is studied to project voxels of medical data onto the screen frame and avoid computing intersection of clipping geometry and volumetric data in 3D space. For facilitating the decision on whether the voxels should be retained, voxels through coordinate transformation are all projected onto a binary mask image on screen frame which the closed curve is also projected onto to conveniently obtain the voxels of intersection. The paper pays special attention to optimization algorithm of cutting process. The optimization algorithm that mixes octree with quad-tree decomposition is introduced to reduce computation complexity, save computation time, and match real time. The paper presents results obtained from raw and segmented medical volume datasets and the process time of cutting operation. PMID:25456145
Functional metabolic interactions of human neuron-astrocyte 3D in vitro networks.
Simão, Daniel; Terrasso, Ana P; Teixeira, Ana P; Brito, Catarina; Sonnewald, Ursula; Alves, Paula M
2016-01-01
The generation of human neural tissue-like 3D structures holds great promise for disease modeling, drug discovery and regenerative medicine strategies. Promoting the establishment of complex cell-cell interactions, 3D culture systems enable the development of human cell-based models with increased physiological relevance, over monolayer cultures. Here, we demonstrate the establishment of neuronal and astrocytic metabolic signatures and shuttles in a human 3D neural cell model, namely the glutamine-glutamate-GABA shuttle. This was indicated by labeling of neuronal GABA following incubation with the glia-specific substrate [2-(13)C]acetate, which decreased by methionine sulfoximine-induced inhibition of the glial enzyme glutamine synthetase. Cell metabolic specialization was further demonstrated by higher pyruvate carboxylase-derived labeling in glutamine than in glutamate, indicating its activity in astrocytes and not in neurons. Exposure to the neurotoxin acrylamide resulted in intracellular accumulation of glutamate and decreased GABA synthesis. These results suggest an acrylamide-induced impairment of neuronal synaptic vesicle trafficking and imbalanced glutamine-glutamate-GABA cycle, due to loss of cell-cell contacts at synaptic sites. This work demonstrates, for the first time to our knowledge, that neural differentiation of human cells in a 3D setting recapitulates neuronal-astrocytic metabolic interactions, highlighting the relevance of these models for toxicology and better understanding the crosstalk between human neural cells. PMID:27619889
Interactive initialization for 2D/3D intra-operative registration using the Microsoft Kinect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Ren Hui; Güler, Özgur; Yaniv, Ziv
2013-03-01
All 2D/3D anatomy based rigid registration algorithms are iterative, requiring an initial estimate of the 3D data pose. Current initialization methods have limited applicability in the operating room setting, due to the constraints imposed by this environment or due to insufficient accuracy. In this work we use the Microsoft Kinect device to allow the surgeon to interactively initialize the registration process. A Kinect sensor is used to simulate the mouse-based operations in a conventional manual initialization approach, obviating the need for physical contact with an input device. Different gestures from both arms are detected from the sensor in order to set or switch the required working contexts. 3D hand motion provides the six degree-of-freedom controls for manipulating the pre-operative data in the 3D space. We evaluated our method for both X-ray/CT and X-ray/MR initialization using three publicly available reference data sets. Results show that, with initial target registration errors of 117:7 +/- 28:9 mm a user is able to achieve final errors of 5:9 +/- 2:6 mm within 158 +/- 65 sec using the Kinect-based approach, compared to 4:8+/-2:0 mm and 88+/-60 sec when using the mouse for interaction. Based on these results we conclude that this method is sufficiently accurate for initialization of X-ray/CT and X-ray/MR registration in the OR.
Adhikarla, Vamsi Kiran; Sodnik, Jaka; Szolgay, Peter; Jakus, Grega
2015-01-01
This paper reports on the design and evaluation of direct 3D gesture interaction with a full horizontal parallax light field display. A light field display defines a visual scene using directional light beams emitted from multiple light sources as if they are emitted from scene points. Each scene point is rendered individually resulting in more realistic and accurate 3D visualization compared to other 3D displaying technologies. We propose an interaction setup combining the visualization of objects within the Field Of View (FOV) of a light field display and their selection through freehand gesture tracked by the Leap Motion Controller. The accuracy and usefulness of the proposed interaction setup was also evaluated in a user study with test subjects. The results of the study revealed high user preference for free hand interaction with light field display as well as relatively low cognitive demand of this technique. Further, our results also revealed some limitations and adjustments of the proposed setup to be addressed in future work. PMID:25875189
Adhikarla, Vamsi Kiran; Sodnik, Jaka; Szolgay, Peter; Jakus, Grega
2015-01-01
This paper reports on the design and evaluation of direct 3D gesture interaction with a full horizontal parallax light field display. A light field display defines a visual scene using directional light beams emitted from multiple light sources as if they are emitted from scene points. Each scene point is rendered individually resulting in more realistic and accurate 3D visualization compared to other 3D displaying technologies. We propose an interaction setup combining the visualization of objects within the Field Of View (FOV) of a light field display and their selection through freehand gesture tracked by the Leap Motion Controller. The accuracy and usefulness of the proposed interaction setup was also evaluated in a user study with test subjects. The results of the study revealed high user preference for free hand interaction with light field display as well as relatively low cognitive demand of this technique. Further, our results also revealed some limitations and adjustments of the proposed setup to be addressed in future work. PMID:25875189
Oh, Heeseok; Lee, Sanghoon; Bovik, Alan Conrad
2016-02-01
The human visual system perceives 3D depth following sensing via its binocular optical system, a series of massively parallel processing units, and a feedback system that controls the mechanical dynamics of eye movements and the crystalline lens. The process of accommodation (focusing of the crystalline lens) and binocular vergence is controlled simultaneously and symbiotically via cross-coupled communication between the two critical depth computation modalities. The output responses of these two subsystems, which are induced by oculomotor control, are used in the computation of a clear and stable cyclopean 3D image from the input stimuli. These subsystems operate in smooth synchronicity when one is viewing the natural world; however, conflicting responses can occur when viewing stereoscopic 3D (S3D) content on fixed displays, causing physiological discomfort. If such occurrences could be predicted, then they might also be avoided (by modifying the acquisition process) or ameliorated (by changing the relative scene depth). Toward this end, we have developed a dynamic accommodation and vergence interaction (DAVI) model that successfully predicts visual discomfort on S3D images. The DAVI model is based on the phasic and reflex responses of the fast fusional vergence mechanism. Quantitative models of accommodation and vergence mismatches are used to conduct visual discomfort prediction. Other 3D perceptual elements are included in the proposed method, including sharpness limits imposed by the depth of focus and fusion limits implied by Panum's fusional area. The DAVI predictor is created by training a support vector machine on features derived from the proposed model and on recorded subjective assessment results. The experimental results are shown to produce accurate predictions of experienced visual discomfort. PMID:26672036
LATIS3D: The Gold Standard for Laser-Tissue-Interaction Modeling
London, R.A.; Makarewicz, A.M.; Kim, B.M.; Gentile, N.A.; Yang, Y.B.; Brlik, M.; Vincent, L.
2000-02-29
The goal of this LDRD project has been to create LATIS3D--the world's premier computer program for laser-tissue interaction modeling. The development was based on recent experience with the 2D LATIS code and the ASCI code, KULL. With LATIS3D, important applications in laser medical therapy were researched including dynamical calculations of tissue emulsification and ablation, photothermal therapy, and photon transport for photodynamic therapy. This project also enhanced LLNL's core competency in laser-matter interactions and high-energy-density physics by pushing simulation codes into new parameter regimes and by attracting external expertise. This will benefit both existing LLNL programs such as ICF and SBSS and emerging programs in medical technology and other laser applications.
Planet-Disk Interaction on the GPU: The FARGO3D code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masset, F. S.; Benítez-Llambay, P.
2015-10-01
We present the new code FARGO3D. It is a finite difference code that solves the equations of hydrodynamics or magnetohydrodynamics on a Cartesian, cylindrical or spherical mesh. It features orbital advection, conserves mass and (angular) momentum to machine accuracy. Special emphasis is put on the description of planet disk tidal interactions. It is parallelized with MPI, and it can run indistinctly on CPUs or GPUs, without the need to program in a GPU oriented language.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rieger, Elisabeth; Dupret-Bories, Agnès; Salou, Laetitia; Metz-Boutigue, Marie-Helene; Layrolle, Pierre; Debry, Christian; Lavalle, Philippe; Engin Vrana, Nihal
2015-05-01
Porous titanium implants are widely employed in the orthopaedics field to ensure good bone fixation. Recently, the use of porous titanium implants has also been investigated in artificial larynx development in a clinical setting. Such uses necessitate a better understanding of the interaction of soft tissues with porous titanium structures. Moreover, surface treatments of titanium have been generally evaluated in planar structures, while the porous titanium implants have complex 3 dimensional (3D) architectures. In this study, the determining factors for soft tissue integration of 3D porous titanium implants were investigated as a function of surface treatments via quantification of the interaction of serum proteins and cells with single titanium microbeads (300-500 μm in diameter). Samples were either acid etched or nanostructured by anodization. When the samples are used in 3D configuration (porous titanium discs of 2 mm thickness) in vivo (in subcutis of rats for 2 weeks), a better integration was observed for both anodized and acid etched samples compared to the non-treated implants. If the implants were also pre-treated with rat serum before implantation, the integration was further facilitated. In order to understand the underlying reasons for this effect, human fibroblast cell culture tests under several conditions (directly on beads, beads in suspension, beads encapsulated in gelatin hydrogels) were conducted to mimic the different interactions of cells with Ti implants in vivo. Physical characterization showed that surface treatments increased hydrophilicity, protein adsorption and roughness. Surface treatments also resulted in improved adsorption of serum albumin which in turn facilitated the adsorption of other proteins such as apolipoprotein as quantified by protein sequencing. The cellular response to the beads showed considerable difference with respect to the cell culture configuration. When the titanium microbeads were entrapped in cell
3D interactive augmented reality-enhanced digital learning systems for mobile devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Kai-Ten; Tseng, Po-Hsuan; Chiu, Pei-Shuan; Yang, Jia-Lin; Chiu, Chun-Jie
2013-03-01
With enhanced processing capability of mobile platforms, augmented reality (AR) has been considered a promising technology for achieving enhanced user experiences (UX). Augmented reality is to impose virtual information, e.g., videos and images, onto a live-view digital display. UX on real-world environment via the display can be e ectively enhanced with the adoption of interactive AR technology. Enhancement on UX can be bene cial for digital learning systems. There are existing research works based on AR targeting for the design of e-learning systems. However, none of these work focuses on providing three-dimensional (3-D) object modeling for en- hanced UX based on interactive AR techniques. In this paper, the 3-D interactive augmented reality-enhanced learning (IARL) systems will be proposed to provide enhanced UX for digital learning. The proposed IARL systems consist of two major components, including the markerless pattern recognition (MPR) for 3-D models and velocity-based object tracking (VOT) algorithms. Realistic implementation of proposed IARL system is conducted on Android-based mobile platforms. UX on digital learning can be greatly improved with the adoption of proposed IARL systems.
3D modeling of ultrasonic wave interaction with disbonds and weak bonds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leckey, C.; Hinders, M.
2012-05-01
Ultrasonic techniques, such as the use of guided waves, can be ideal for finding damage in the plate and pipe-like structures used in aerospace applications. However, the interaction of waves with real flaw types and geometries can lead to experimental signals that are difficult to interpret. 3-dimensional (3D) elastic wave simulations can be a powerful tool in understanding the complicated wave scattering involved in flaw detection and for optimizing experimental techniques. We have developed and implemented parallel 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (3D EFIT) code to investigate Lamb wave scattering from realistic flaws. This paper discusses simulation results for an aluminum-aluminum diffusion disbond and an aluminum-epoxy disbond and compares results from the disbond case to the common artificial flaw type of a flat-bottom hole. The paper also discusses the potential for extending the 3D EFIT equations to incorporate physics-based weak bond models for simulating wave scattering from weak adhesive bonds.
Evaluation of quality of experience in interactive 3D visualization: methodology and results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tourancheau, Sylvain; Sjöström, Mårten; Olsson, Roger; Persson, Anders; Ericson, Thomas
2012-03-01
Human factors are of high importance in 3D visualization, but subjective evaluation of 3D displays is not easy because of a high variability among users. This study aimed to evaluate and compare two different 3D visualization systems (a market stereoscopic display, and a state-of-the-art multi-view display) in terms of user performance and quality of experience (QoE), in the context of interactive visualization. An adapted methodology has been designed in order to focus on 3D differences and to reduce the influence of all other factors. Thirty-six subjects took part in an experiment during which they were asked to judge the quality of their experience, according to specific features. Results showed that a scene understanding and precision was significantly better on the multi-view display. Concerning the quality of experience, visual comfort was judged significantly better on the multi-view display and visual fatigue was reported by 52% of the subjects on the stereoscopic display. This study has permitted to identify some factors influencing QoE such as prior experience and stereopsis threshold.
3D interactive model of lumbar spinal structures of anesthetic interest.
Prats-Galino, Alberto; Reina, Miguel A; Mavar Haramija, Marija; Puigdellivol-Sánchez, Anna; Juanes Méndez, Juan A; De Andrés, José A
2015-03-01
A 3D model of lumbar structures of anesthetic interest was reconstructed from human magnetic resonance (MR) images and embedded in a Portable Document Format (PDF) file, which can be opened by freely available software and used offline. The MR images were analyzed using a specific 3D software platform for biomedical data. Models generated from manually delimited volumes of interest and selected MR images were exported to Virtual Reality Modeling Language format and were presented in a PDF document containing JavaScript-based functions. The 3D file and the corresponding instructions and license files can be downloaded freely at http://diposit.ub.edu/dspace/handle/2445/44844?locale=en. The 3D PDF interactive file includes reconstructions of the L3-L5 vertebrae, intervertebral disks, ligaments, epidural and foraminal fat, dural sac and nerve root cuffs, sensory and motor nerve roots of the cauda equina, and anesthetic approaches (epidural medial, spinal paramedial, and selective nerve root paths); it also includes a predefined sequential educational presentation. Zoom, 360° rotation, selective visualization, and transparency graduation of each structure and clipping functions are available. Familiarization requires no specialized informatics knowledge. The ease with which the document can be used could make it valuable for anatomical and anesthetic teaching and demonstration of patient information. PMID:25352014
3D Modeling of Ultrasonic Wave Interaction with Disbonds and Weak Bonds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leckey, C.; Hinders, M.
2011-01-01
Ultrasonic techniques, such as the use of guided waves, can be ideal for finding damage in the plate and pipe-like structures used in aerospace applications. However, the interaction of waves with real flaw types and geometries can lead to experimental signals that are difficult to interpret. 3-dimensional (3D) elastic wave simulations can be a powerful tool in understanding the complicated wave scattering involved in flaw detection and for optimizing experimental techniques. We have developed and implemented parallel 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (3D EFIT) code to investigate Lamb wave scattering from realistic flaws. This paper discusses simulation results for an aluminum-aluminum diffusion disbond and an aluminum-epoxy disbond and compares results from the disbond case to the common artificial flaw type of a flat-bottom hole. The paper also discusses the potential for extending the 3D EFIT equations to incorporate physics-based weak bond models for simulating wave scattering from weak adhesive bonds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elmekawy, Ahmed M. Nagib M.
When turbulent flow generates unsteady differential pressure over an aircraft's structure, this may generate buffeting, a random oscillation of the structure. The buffet phenomenon is observed on a wide range of fighter aircraft, especially fighters with twin-tail. More research is needed to better understand the physics behind the vortical flow over a delta wing and the subsequent tail buffet. This dissertation reports the modeling and simulation of a steady-state one-way fluid-structure interaction for the tail buffet problem observed on a F/A-18 fighter. The time-averaged computational results are compared to available experimental data. Next, computations are extended to simulate an unsteady two-way fluid-structure interaction problem of the tail buffet of a F/A-18 fighter. For the modeling herein, a commercial software ANSYS version 14.0, is employed. For the fluid domain, the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (URANS) equations with different turbulent models are utilized. The first turbulence model selected is the modified Spalart-Allmaras model (SARRC) with a strain-vorticity based production and curvature treatment. The second turbulence model selected is the Non-linear Eddy Viscosity Model (NLEVM) based on the Wilcox k--o model. This model uses the formulation of an explicit algebraic Reynolds stress model. The structural simulation is conducted by a finite element analysis model with shell elements. Both SARRC and NLEVM turbulence models are in ANSYS software. The experimental data used for validation were conducted on a simplified geometry: a 0.3 Mach number flow past a 76-deg delta wing pitched to 30-deg. Two vertical tails were placed downstream of the delta wing. The present work is the first ever study of the tail buffet problem of the F/A-18 fighter with two-way fluid-structure interaction using the two advanced turbulence models. The steady-state, time-averaged, one-way fluid-structure interaction case of the present investigation indicates
Isoparametric 3-D Finite Element Mesh Generation Using Interactive Computer Graphics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kayrak, C.; Ozsoy, T.
1985-01-01
An isoparametric 3-D finite element mesh generator was developed with direct interface to an interactive geometric modeler program called POLYGON. POLYGON defines the model geometry in terms of boundaries and mesh regions for the mesh generator. The mesh generator controls the mesh flow through the 2-dimensional spans of regions by using the topological data and defines the connectivity between regions. The program is menu driven and the user has a control of element density and biasing through the spans and can also apply boundary conditions, loads interactively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becker, P.; Idelsohn, S. R.; Oñate, E.
2015-06-01
This paper describes a strategy to solve multi-fluid and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems using Lagrangian particles combined with a fixed finite element (FE) mesh. Our approach is an extension of the fluid-only PFEM-2 (Idelsohn et al., Eng Comput 30(2):2-2, 2013; Idelsohn et al., J Numer Methods Fluids, 2014) which uses explicit integration over the streamlines to improve accuracy. As a result, the convective term does not appear in the set of equations solved on the fixed mesh. Enrichments in the pressure field are used to improve the description of the interface between phases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Ming-Chen; Kamensky, David; Xu, Fei; Kiendl, Josef; Wang, Chenglong; Wu, Michael C. H.; Mineroff, Joshua; Reali, Alessandro; Bazilevs, Yuri; Sacks, Michael S.
2015-06-01
This paper builds on a recently developed immersogeometric fluid-structure interaction (FSI) methodology for bioprosthetic heart valve (BHV) modeling and simulation. It enhances the proposed framework in the areas of geometry design and constitutive modeling. With these enhancements, BHV FSI simulations may be performed with greater levels of automation, robustness and physical realism. In addition, the paper presents a comparison between FSI analysis and standalone structural dynamics simulation driven by prescribed transvalvular pressure, the latter being a more common modeling choice for this class of problems. The FSI computation achieved better physiological realism in predicting the valve leaflet deformation than its standalone structural dynamics counterpart.
Barker, Andrew T. Cai Xiaochuan
2010-02-01
We introduce and study numerically a scalable parallel finite element solver for the simulation of blood flow in compliant arteries. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are used to model the fluid and coupled to an incompressible linear elastic model for the blood vessel walls. Our method features an unstructured dynamic mesh capable of modeling complicated geometries, an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian framework that allows for large displacements of the moving fluid domain, monolithic coupling between the fluid and structure equations, and fully implicit time discretization. Simulations based on blood vessel geometries derived from patient-specific clinical data are performed on large supercomputers using scalable Newton-Krylov algorithms preconditioned with an overlapping restricted additive Schwarz method that preconditions the entire fluid-structure system together. The algorithm is shown to be robust and scalable for a variety of physical parameters, scaling to hundreds of processors and millions of unknowns.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nickerson, Cheryl A.; Richter, Emily G.; Ott, C. Mark
2006-01-01
Representative, reproducible and high-throughput models of human cells and tissues are critical for a meaningful evaluation of host-pathogen interactions and are an essential component of the research developmental pipeline. The most informative infection models - animals, organ explants and human trials - are not suited for extensive evaluation of pathogenesis mechanisms and screening of candidate drugs. At the other extreme, more cost effective and accessible infection models such as conventional cell culture and static co-culture may not capture physiological and three-dimensional aspects of tissue biology that are important in assessing pathogenesis, and effectiveness and cytotoxicity of therapeutics. Our lab has used innovative bioengineering technology to establish biologically meaningful 3-D models of human tissues that recapitulate many aspects of the differentiated structure and function of the parental tissue in vivo, and we have applied these models to study infectious disease. We have established a variety of different 3-D models that are currently being used in infection studies - including small intestine, colon, lung, placenta, bladder, periodontal ligament, and neuronal models. Published work from our lab has shown that our 3-D models respond to infection with bacterial and viral pathogens in ways that reflect the infection process in vivo. By virtue of their physiological relevance, 3-D cell cultures may also hold significant potential as models to provide insight into the neuropathogenesis of HIV infection. Furthermore, the experimental flexibility, reproducibility, cost-efficiency, and high throughput platform afforded by these 3-D models may have important implications for the design and development of drugs with which to effectively treat neurological complications of HIV infection.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ang, P. B.; Nayak, A.; Yan, J.; Elgamal, A.
2006-12-01
This visualization project involves the study of the Humboldt Bay Middle Channel Bridge, a Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research (PEER) testbed site, subjected to an earthquake simulated by the Department of Structural Engineering, UCSD. The numerical simulation and data generation was carried out using the OpenSees finite element analysis platform, and GiD was employed for the mesh generation in preprocessing. In collaboration with the Scripps Visualization Center, the data was transformed into a virtual 3D world that a viewer could rotate around, zoom into, pan about, step through each timestep or examine in true stereo. The data consists of the static mesh of the bridge-foundation-ground elements, material indices for each type of element, the displacement amount of each element nodes over time, and the shear stress levels for each ground element over time. The Coin3D C++ Open Inventor API was used to parse the data and to render the bridge system in full 3D at 1130 individual time steps to show how the bridge structure and the surrounding soil elements interact during the full course of an earthquake. The results can be viewed interactively while using the program, saved as images and processed into animated movies, in resolutions as high as High Definition (1920x1080), or in stereo modes such as red-blue anaglyph.
Techniques for Assessing 3-D Cell-Matrix Mechanical Interactions In Vitro and In Vivo
Miron-Mendoza, Miguel; Koppaka, Vindhya; Zhou, Chengxin; Petroll, W. Matthew
2013-01-01
Cellular interactions with extracellular matrices (ECM) through the application of mechanical forces mediate numerous biological processes including developmental morphogenesis, wound healing and cancer metastasis. They also play a key role in the cellular repopulation and/or remodeling of engineered tissues and organs. While 2-D studies can provide important insights into many aspects of cellular mechanobiology, cells reside within 3-D ECMs in vivo, and matrix structure and dimensionality have been shown to impact cell morphology, protein organization and mechanical behavior. Global measurements of cell-induced compaction of 3-D collagen matrices can provide important insights into the regulation of overall cell contractility by various cytokines and signaling pathways. However, to understand how the mechanics of cell spreading, migration, contraction and matrix remodeling are regulated at the molecular level, these processes must also be studied in individual cells. Here we review the evolution and application of techniques for imaging and assessing local cell-matrix mechanical interactions in 3-D culture models, tissue explants and living animals. PMID:23819988
Techniques for assessing 3-D cell-matrix mechanical interactions in vitro and in vivo.
Miron-Mendoza, Miguel; Koppaka, Vindhya; Zhou, Chengxin; Petroll, W Matthew
2013-10-01
Cellular interactions with extracellular matrices (ECM) through the application of mechanical forces mediate numerous biological processes including developmental morphogenesis, wound healing and cancer metastasis. They also play a key role in the cellular repopulation and/or remodeling of engineered tissues and organs. While 2-D studies can provide important insights into many aspects of cellular mechanobiology, cells reside within 3-D ECMs in vivo, and matrix structure and dimensionality have been shown to impact cell morphology, protein organization and mechanical behavior. Global measurements of cell-induced compaction of 3-D collagen matrices can provide important insights into the regulation of overall cell contractility by various cytokines and signaling pathways. However, to understand how the mechanics of cell spreading, migration, contraction and matrix remodeling are regulated at the molecular level, these processes must also be studied in individual cells. Here we review the evolution and application of techniques for imaging and assessing local cell-matrix mechanical interactions in 3-D culture models, tissue explants and living animals. PMID:23819988
Seamless 3D interaction for virtual tables, projection planes, and CAVEs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Encarnacao, L. M.; Bimber, Oliver; Schmalstieg, Dieter; Barton, Robert J., III
2000-08-01
The Virtual Table presents stereoscopic graphics to a user in a workbench-like setting. This device shares with other large- screen display technologies (such as data walls and surround- screen projection systems) the lack of human-centered unencumbered user interfaces and 3D interaction technologies. Such shortcomings present severe limitations to the application of virtual reality (VR) technology to time- critical applications as well as employment scenarios that involve heterogeneous groups of end-users without high levels of computer familiarity and expertise. Traditionally such employment scenarios are common in planning-related application areas such as mission rehearsal and command and control. For these applications, a high grade of flexibility with respect to the system requirements (display and I/O devices) as well as to the ability to seamlessly and intuitively switch between different interaction modalities and interaction are sought. Conventional VR techniques may be insufficient to meet this challenge. This paper presents novel approaches for human-centered interfaces to Virtual Environments focusing on the Virtual Table visual input device. It introduces new paradigms for 3D interaction in virtual environments (VE) for a variety of application areas based on pen-and-clipboard, mirror-in-hand, and magic-lens metaphors, and introduces new concepts for combining VR and augmented reality (AR) techniques. It finally describes approaches toward hybrid and distributed multi-user interaction environments and concludes by hypothesizing on possible use cases for defense applications.
Lundgren, Deborah H.; Eng, Jimmy; Wright, Michael E.; Han, David K.
2006-01-01
Comprehensive understanding of biological systems requires efficient and systematic assimilation of high-throughput datasets in the context of the existing knowledge base. A major limitation in the field of proteomics is the lack of an appropriate software platform that can synthesize a large number of experimental datasets in the context of the existing knowledge base. Here, we describe a software platform, termed PROTEOME-3D, that utilizes three essential features for systematic analysis of proteomics data: creation of a scalable, queryable, customized database for identified proteins from published literature; graphical tools for displaying proteome landscapes and trends from multiple large-scale experiments; and interactive data analysis that facilitates identification of crucial networks and pathways. Thus, PROTEOME-3D offers a standardized platform to analyze high-throughput experimental datasets for the identification of crucial players in co-regulated pathways and cellular processes. PMID:12960178
Lundgren, Deborah H; Eng, Jimmy; Wright, Michael E; Han, David K
2003-11-01
Comprehensive understanding of biological systems requires efficient and systematic assimilation of high-throughput datasets in the context of the existing knowledge base. A major limitation in the field of proteomics is the lack of an appropriate software platform that can synthesize a large number of experimental datasets in the context of the existing knowledge base. Here, we describe a software platform, termed PROTEOME-3D, that utilizes three essential features for systematic analysis of proteomics data: creation of a scalable, queryable, customized database for identified proteins from published literature; graphical tools for displaying proteome landscapes and trends from multiple large-scale experiments; and interactive data analysis that facilitates identification of crucial networks and pathways. Thus, PROTEOME-3D offers a standardized platform to analyze high-throughput experimental datasets for the identification of crucial players in co-regulated pathways and cellular processes. PMID:12960178
Leclère, C; Avril, M; Viaux-Savelon, S; Bodeau, N; Achard, C; Missonnier, S; Keren, M; Feldman, R; Chetouani, M; Cohen, D
2016-01-01
Studying early interaction is essential for understanding development and psychopathology. Automatic computational methods offer the possibility to analyse social signals and behaviours of several partners simultaneously and dynamically. Here, 20 dyads of mothers and their 13-36-month-old infants were videotaped during mother-infant interaction including 10 extremely high-risk and 10 low-risk dyads using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) sensors. From 2D+3D data and 3D space reconstruction, we extracted individual parameters (quantity of movement and motion activity ratio for each partner) and dyadic parameters related to the dynamics of partners heads distance (contribution to heads distance), to the focus of mutual engagement (percentage of time spent face to face or oriented to the task) and to the dynamics of motion activity (synchrony ratio, overlap ratio, pause ratio). Features are compared with blind global rating of the interaction using the coding interactive behavior (CIB). We found that individual and dyadic parameters of 2D+3D motion features perfectly correlates with rated CIB maternal and dyadic composite scores. Support Vector Machine classification using all 2D-3D motion features classified 100% of the dyads in their group meaning that motion behaviours are sufficient to distinguish high-risk from low-risk dyads. The proposed method may present a promising, low-cost methodology that can uniquely use artificial technology to detect meaningful features of human interactions and may have several implications for studying dyadic behaviours in psychiatry. Combining both global rating scales and computerized methods may enable a continuum of time scale from a summary of entire interactions to second-by-second dynamics. PMID:27219342
Triplet superconductivity in 3D Dirac semi-metal due to exchange interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenstein, Baruch; Shapiro, B. Ya; Li, Dingping; Shapiro, I.
2015-01-01
Conventional phonon-electron interaction induces either triplet or one of two (degenerate) singlet pairing states in time reversal and inversion invariant 3D Dirac semi-metal. Investigation of the order parameters and energies of these states at zero temperature in a wide range of values of chemical potential μ, the effective electron-electron coupling constant λ and Debye energy TD demonstrates that when the exchange interaction is neglected the singlet always prevails, however, in significant portions of the (μ, λ, TD) parameter space the energy difference is very small. This means that interactions that are small, but discriminate between the spin singlet and the spin triplet, are important in order to determine the nature of the superconducting order there. The best candidate for such an interaction in the materials under consideration is the exchange (the Stoner term) characterized by constant λex. We show that at values of λex, much smaller than ones creating Stoner instability to ferromagnetism λex ˜ 1, the triplet pairing becomes energetically favored over the singlet ones. The 3D quantum critical point at μ = 0 is considered in detail. This can be realized experimentally in optically trapped cold atom systems.
Triplet superconductivity in 3D Dirac semi-metal due to exchange interaction.
Rosenstein, Baruch; Shapiro, B Ya; Li, Dingping; Shapiro, I
2015-01-21
Conventional phonon-electron interaction induces either triplet or one of two (degenerate) singlet pairing states in time reversal and inversion invariant 3D Dirac semi-metal. Investigation of the order parameters and energies of these states at zero temperature in a wide range of values of chemical potential μ, the effective electron-electron coupling constant λ and Debye energy TD demonstrates that when the exchange interaction is neglected the singlet always prevails, however, in significant portions of the (μ, λ, TD) parameter space the energy difference is very small. This means that interactions that are small, but discriminate between the spin singlet and the spin triplet, are important in order to determine the nature of the superconducting order there. The best candidate for such an interaction in the materials under consideration is the exchange (the Stoner term) characterized by constant λex. We show that at values of λex, much smaller than ones creating Stoner instability to ferromagnetism λex ∼ 1, the triplet pairing becomes energetically favored over the singlet ones. The 3D quantum critical point at μ = 0 is considered in detail. This can be realized experimentally in optically trapped cold atom systems. PMID:25501668
Time-lapse 3D electrical resistivity tomography to monitor soil-plant interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boaga, Jacopo; Rossi, Matteo; Cassiani, Giorgio; Putti, Mario
2013-04-01
In this work we present the application of time-lapse non-invasive 3D micro- electrical tomography (ERT) to monitor soil-plant interactions in the root zone in the framework of the FP7 Project CLIMB (Climate Induced Changes on the Hydrology of Mediterranean Basins). The goal of the study is to gain a better understanding of the soil-vegetation interactions by the use of non-invasive techniques. We designed, built and installed a 3D electrical tomography apparatus for the monitoring of the root zone of a single apple tree in an orchard located in the Trentino region, Northern Italy. The micro-ERT apparatus consists of 48 buried electrodes on 4 instrumented micro boreholes plus 24 mini-electrodes on the surface spaced 0.1 m on a square grid. We collected repeated ERT and TDR soil moisture measurements for one year and performed two different controlled irrigation tests: one during a very dry Summer and one during a very wet and highly dynamic plant growing Spring period. We also ran laboratory analyses on soil specimens, in order to evaluate the electrical response at different saturation steps. The results demonstrate that 3D micro-ERT is capable of characterizing subsoil conditions and monitoring root zone activities, especially in terms of root zone suction regions. In particular, we note that in very dry conditions, 3D micro ERT can image water plumes in the shallow subsoil produced by a drip irrigation system. In the very dynamic growing season, under abundant irrigation, micro 3D ERT can detect the main suction zones caused by the tree root activity. Even though the quantitative use of this technique for moisture content balance suffers from well-known inversion difficulties, even the pure imaging of the active root zone is a valuable contribution. However the integration of the measurements in a fully coupled hydrogeophysical inversion is the way forward for a better understanding of subsoil interactions between biomass, hydrosphere and atmosphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kundu, Asish K.; Hardy, Vincent; Caignaert, Vincent; Raveau, Bernard
2015-12-01
A new family of oxides in which 3d-3d and 3d-4f interactions are of comparable strength has been synthesized and characterized both from structural and physical viewpoints. These compounds of formulation Ba2LnFeO5 (Ln = Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb) are isotypic to the perovskite derivative Ba2YFeO5. They exhibit an original structure consisting of isolated FeO4 tetrahedra linked via LnO6 (or YO6) octahedra. Magnetic and calorimetric measurements show that all these compounds exhibit a unique, antiferromagnetic transition involving both the 3d and 4f ions. The antiferromagnetic properties of the Ln = Y phase (non-magnetic Y3+) and of the Ln = Eu (non-magnetic ground state multiplet of Eu3+) are ascribed to super-super exchange Fe-O-O-Fe interactions, leading to the lowest T N (5.5 K for Y and 4.6 K for Eu). The introduction of a magnetic lanthanide, i.e. Ln = Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, in the octahedral sites, leads to larger T N values (up to 9.8 K for Ln = Yb). It is found that several mechanisms must be taken into account to explain the complex evolution of the magnetic properties along the Ba2LnFeO5 series. In particular, the super-exchange Ln-O-Fe, as well as the on-site Ln3+ magnetocrystalline anisotropy, are suggested to play crucial roles. This Ba2LnFeO5 series offers a rare opportunity to investigate experimentally a situation where the 3d-3d and 3d-4f interactions co-operate on an equal footing to trigger a unique long-range magnetic ordering in insulating oxides.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Woojin; Lee, Injae; Choi, Haecheon
2015-11-01
We present a weak coupling approach for the fluid-structure interaction using a discrete-forcing immersed boundary method. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and the motion of a solid body are based on the Eulerian and Lagrangian coordinates, respectively. A semi-implicit Euler method is applied to the governing equation of a solid body for obtaining provisional position and velocity of a solid body prior to implicitly solving each governing equation. Then, both equations are implicitly solved to obtain a sufficiently large computational time step size. The present weak-coupling approach shows a second-order temporal accuracy and stable solutions for the problems with a low density ratio (fluid to solid) without requiring an iterative method. With the present method, we simulate several fluid-structure interaction problems including the flows around a freely vibrating circular cylinder, a flexible beam attached to a circular cylinder, a flapping flag, a flexible plate, and an elastic vocal fold. The results obtained agree well with those from previous studies. All the simulations are conducted at maximum CFL numbers of 1.0-1.5. Supported by NRF-2012M2A8A4055647 and NRF-2014M3C1B1033848.
Open source 3D visualization and interaction dedicated to hydrological models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richard, Julien; Giangola-Murzyn, Agathe; Gires, Auguste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel
2014-05-01
Climate change and surface urbanization strongly modify the hydrological cycle in urban areas, increasing the consequences of extreme events such as floods or draughts. These issues lead to the development of the Multi-Hydro model at the Ecole des Ponts ParisTech (A. Giangola-Murzyn et al., 2012). This fully distributed model allows to compute the hydrological response of urban and peri-urban areas. Unfortunately such models are seldom user friendly. Indeed generating the inputs before launching a new simulation is usually a tricky tasks, and understanding and interpreting the outputs remains specialist tasks not accessible to the wider public. The MH-AssimTool was developed to overcome these issues. To enable an easier and improved understanding of the model outputs, we decided to convert the raw output data (grids file in ascii format) to a 3D display. Some commercial paying models provide a 3D visualization. Because of the cost of their licenses, this kind of tools may not be accessible to the most concerned stakeholders. So, we are developing a new tool based on C++ for the computation, Qt for the graphic user interface, QGIS for the geographical side and OpenGL for the 3D display. All these languages and libraries are open source and multi-platform. We will discuss some preprocessing issues for the data conversion from 2.5D to 3D. Indeed, the GIS data, is considered as a 2.5D (e.i. 2D polygon + one height) and the its transform to 3D display implies a lot of algorithms. For example,to visualize in 3D one building, it is needed to have for each point the coordinates and the elevation according to the topography. Furthermore one have to create new points to represent the walls. Finally the interactions between the model and stakeholders through this new interface and how this helps converting a research tool into a an efficient operational decision tool will be discussed. This ongoing research on the improvement of the visualization methods is supported by the
3D Modeling of Forbidden Line Emission in the Binary Wind Interaction Region of Eta Carinae
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Madura, Thomas; Gull, T. R.; Owocki, S.; Okazaki, A. T.; Russell, C. M. P.
2010-01-01
We present recent work using three-dimensional (3D) Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations to model the high ([Fe III], [Ar III], [Ne III] and [S III]) and low ([Fe II], [Ni II]) ionization forbidden emission lines observed in Eta Carinae using the HST/STIS. These structures are interpreted as the time-averaged, outer extensions of the primary wind and the wind-wind interaction region directly excited by the FUV of the hot companion star of this massive binary system. We discuss how analyzing the results of the 3D SPH simulations and synthetic slit spectra and comparing them to the spectra obtained with the HST/STIS helps us determine the absolute orientation of the binary orbit and helps remove the degeneracy inherent to models based solely on the observed RXTE X-ray light curve. A key point of this work is that spatially resolved observations like those with HST/STIS and comparison to 3D models are necessary to determine the alignment or misalignment of the orbital angular momentum axis with the Homunculus, or correspondingly, the alignment of the orbital plane with the Homunculus skirt.
A 3D printed nano bone matrix for characterization of breast cancer cell and osteoblast interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Wei; Castro, Nathan J.; Cui, Haitao; Zhou, Xuan; Boualam, Benchaa; McGrane, Robert; Glazer, Robert I.; Zhang, Lijie Grace
2016-08-01
Bone metastasis is one of the most prevalent complications of late-stage breast cancer, in which the native bone matrix components, including osteoblasts, are intimately involved in tumor progression. The development of a successful in vitro model would greatly facilitate understanding the underlying mechanism of breast cancer bone invasion as well as provide a tool for effective discovery of novel therapeutic strategies. In the current study, we fabricated a series of in vitro bone matrices composed of a polyethylene glycol hydrogel and nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite of varying concentrations to mimic the native bone microenvironment for the investigation of breast cancer bone metastasis. A stereolithography-based three-dimensional (3D) printer was used to fabricate the bone matrices with precisely controlled architecture. The interaction between breast cancer cells and osteoblasts was investigated in the optimized bone matrix. Using a Transwell® system to separate the two cell lines, breast cancer cells inhibited osteoblast proliferation, while osteoblasts stimulated breast cancer cell growth, whereas, both cell lines increased IL-8 secretion. Breast cancer cells co-cultured with osteoblasts within the 3D bone matrix formed multi-cellular spheroids in comparison to two-dimensional monolayers. These findings validate the use of our 3D printed bone matrices as an in vitro metastasis model, and highlights their potential for investigating breast cancer bone metastasis.
Web GIS in practice V: 3-D interactive and real-time mapping in Second Life.
Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Burden, David
2007-01-01
This paper describes technologies from Daden Limited for geographically mapping and accessing live news stories/feeds, as well as other real-time, real-world data feeds (e.g., Google Earth KML feeds and GeoRSS feeds) in the 3-D virtual world of Second Life, by plotting and updating the corresponding Earth location points on a globe or some other suitable form (in-world), and further linking those points to relevant information and resources. This approach enables users to visualise, interact with, and even walk or fly through, the plotted data in 3-D. Users can also do the reverse: put pins on a map in the virtual world, and then view the data points on the Web in Google Maps or Google Earth. The technologies presented thus serve as a bridge between mirror worlds like Google Earth and virtual worlds like Second Life. We explore the geo-data display potential of virtual worlds and their likely convergence with mirror worlds in the context of the future 3-D Internet or Metaverse, and reflect on the potential of such technologies and their future possibilities, e.g. their use to develop emergency/public health virtual situation rooms to effectively manage emergencies and disasters in real time. The paper also covers some of the issues associated with these technologies, namely user interface accessibility and individual privacy. PMID:18042275
Web GIS in practice V: 3-D interactive and real-time mapping in Second Life
Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Burden, David
2007-01-01
This paper describes technologies from Daden Limited for geographically mapping and accessing live news stories/feeds, as well as other real-time, real-world data feeds (e.g., Google Earth KML feeds and GeoRSS feeds) in the 3-D virtual world of Second Life, by plotting and updating the corresponding Earth location points on a globe or some other suitable form (in-world), and further linking those points to relevant information and resources. This approach enables users to visualise, interact with, and even walk or fly through, the plotted data in 3-D. Users can also do the reverse: put pins on a map in the virtual world, and then view the data points on the Web in Google Maps or Google Earth. The technologies presented thus serve as a bridge between mirror worlds like Google Earth and virtual worlds like Second Life. We explore the geo-data display potential of virtual worlds and their likely convergence with mirror worlds in the context of the future 3-D Internet or Metaverse, and reflect on the potential of such technologies and their future possibilities, e.g. their use to develop emergency/public health virtual situation rooms to effectively manage emergencies and disasters in real time. The paper also covers some of the issues associated with these technologies, namely user interface accessibility and individual privacy. PMID:18042275
Formalizing the potential of stereoscopic 3D user experience in interactive entertainment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schild, Jonas; Masuch, Maic
2015-03-01
The use of stereoscopic 3D vision affects how interactive entertainment has to be developed as well as how it is experienced by the audience. The large amount of possibly impacting factors and variety as well as a certain subtlety of measured effects on user experience make it difficult to grasp the overall potential of using S3D vision. In a comprehensive approach, we (a) present a development framework which summarizes possible variables in display technology, content creation and human factors, and (b) list a scheme of S3D user experience effects concerning initial fascination, emotions, performance, and behavior as well as negative feelings of discomfort and complexity. As a major contribution we propose a qualitative formalization which derives dependencies between development factors and user effects. The argumentation is based on several previously published user studies. We further show how to apply this formula to identify possible opportunities and threats in content creation as well as how to pursue future steps for a possible quantification.
A brain-computer interface method combined with eye tracking for 3D interaction.
Lee, Eui Chul; Woo, Jin Cheol; Kim, Jong Hwa; Whang, Mincheol; Park, Kang Ryoung
2010-07-15
With the recent increase in the number of three-dimensional (3D) applications, the need for interfaces to these applications has increased. Although the eye tracking method has been widely used as an interaction interface for hand-disabled persons, this approach cannot be used for depth directional navigation. To solve this problem, we propose a new brain computer interface (BCI) method in which the BCI and eye tracking are combined to analyze depth navigation, including selection and two-dimensional (2D) gaze direction, respectively. The proposed method is novel in the following five ways compared to previous works. First, a device to measure both the gaze direction and an electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern is proposed with the sensors needed to measure the EEG attached to a head-mounted eye tracking device. Second, the reliability of the BCI interface is verified by demonstrating that there is no difference between the real and the imaginary movements for the same work in terms of the EEG power spectrum. Third, depth control for the 3D interaction interface is implemented by an imaginary arm reaching movement. Fourth, a selection method is implemented by an imaginary hand grabbing movement. Finally, for the independent operation of gazing and the BCI, a mode selection method is proposed that measures a user's concentration by analyzing the pupil accommodation speed, which is not affected by the operation of gazing and the BCI. According to experimental results, we confirmed the feasibility of the proposed 3D interaction method using eye tracking and a BCI. PMID:20580646
Utilizing 3d-4f magnetic interaction to slow the magnetic relaxation of heterometallic complexes.
Li, Xiao-Lei; Min, Fan-Yong; Wang, Chao; Lin, Shuang-Yan; Liu, Zhiliang; Tang, Jinkui
2015-05-01
The synthesis, structural characterization, and magnetic properties of four related heterometallic complexes with formulas [Dy(III)2Co(II)(C7H5O2)8]·6H2O (1), [Dy(III)2Ni(II)(C7H5O2)8]·(C7H6O2)2 (2), Tb(III)2Co(II)(C7H5O2)8 (3), and Dy(III)2Cd(II)(C7H5O2)8 (4) were reported. Each of complexes has a perfectly linear arrangement of the metal ions with two terminal Ln(III) (Ln(III) = Dy(III), Tb(III)) ions and one central M(II) (M(II) = Co(II), Ni(II), Cd(II)) ion. It was found that 1-3 displayed obvious magnetic interactions between the spin carriers according to the direct current (dc) susceptibility measurements. Alternating current (ac) magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that complexes 1-4 all exhibit single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior, while the replacement of the diamagnetic Cd(II) by paramagnetic ions leads to a significant slowing of the relaxation thanks to the magnetic interactions between 3d and 4f ions, resulting in higher relaxation barrier for complexes 1 and 2. Moreover, both Dy2Co and Dy2Ni compounds exhibit dual relaxation pathways that may originate from the single ion behavior of individual Dy(III) ions and the coupling between Dy(III) and Co(II)/Ni(II) ions, respectively, which can be taken as the feature of 3d-4f SMMs. The Ueff for 1 of 127 K is a relatively high value among the reported 3d-4f SMMs. The results demonstrate that the magnetic coupling between 3d and 4f ions is crucial to optimize SMM parameters. The synthetic approach illustrated in this work represents an efficient route to design nd-4f based SMMs via incorporating suitable paramagnetic 3d and even 4d and 5d ions into the d-f system. PMID:25906391
Imaging SPR combined with stereoscopic 3D tracking to study barnacle cyprid-surface interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maleshlijski, S.; Sendra, G. H.; Aldred, N.; Clare, A. S.; Liedberg, B.; Grunze, M.; Ederth, T.; Rosenhahn, A.
2016-01-01
Barnacle larvae (cyprids) explore surfaces to identify suitable settlement sites. This process is selective, and cyprids respond to numerous surface cues. To better understand the settlement process, it is desirable to simultaneously monitor both the surface exploration behavior and any close interactions with the surface. Stereoscopic 3D tracking of the cyprids provides quantitative access to surface exploration and pre-settlement rituals. Imaging surface plasmon resonance (SPR) reveals any interactions with the surfaces, such as surface inspection during bipedal walking and deposition of temporary adhesives. We report on a combination of both techniques to bring together information on swimming behavior in the vicinity of the interface and physical interactions of the cyprid with the surface. The technical requirements are described, and we applied the setup to cyprids of Balanus amphitrite. Initial data shows the applicability of the combined instrument to correlate exploration and touchdown events on surfaces with different chemical termination.
Comparison of User Performance with Interactive and Static 3d Visualization - Pilot Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herman, L.; Stachoň, Z.
2016-06-01
Interactive 3D visualizations of spatial data are currently available and popular through various applications such as Google Earth, ArcScene, etc. Several scientific studies have focused on user performance with 3D visualization, but static perspective views are used as stimuli in most of the studies. The main objective of this paper is to try to identify potential differences in user performance with static perspective views and interactive visualizations. This research is an exploratory study. An experiment was designed as a between-subject study and a customized testing tool based on open web technologies was used for the experiment. The testing set consists of an initial questionnaire, a training task and four experimental tasks. Selection of the highest point and determination of visibility from the top of a mountain were used as the experimental tasks. Speed and accuracy of each task performance of participants were recorded. The movement and actions in the virtual environment were also recorded within the interactive variant. The results show that participants deal with the tasks faster when using static visualization. The average error rate was also higher in the static variant. The findings from this pilot study will be used for further testing, especially for formulating of hypotheses and designing of subsequent experiments.
Interactive Visualization of 3-D Mantle Convection Extended Through AJAX Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McLane, J. C.; Czech, W.; Yuen, D.; Greensky, J.; Knox, M. R.
2008-12-01
We have designed a new software system for real-time interactive visualization of results taken directly from large-scale simulations of 3-D mantle convection and other large-scale simulations. This approach allows for intense visualization sessions for a couple of hours as opposed to storing massive amounts of data in a storage system. Our data sets consist of 3-D data for volume rendering with over 10 million unknowns at each timestep. Large scale visualization on a display wall holding around 13 million pixels has already been accomplished with extension to hand-held devices, such as the OQO and Nokia N800 and recently the iPHONE. We are developing web-based software in Java to extend the use of this system across long distances. The software is aimed at creating an interactive and functional application capable of running on multiple browsers by taking advantage of two AJAX-enabled web frameworks: Echo2 and Google Web Toolkit. The software runs in two modes allowing for a user to control an interactive session or observe a session controlled by another user. Modular build of the system allows for components to be swapped out for new components so that other forms of visualization could be accommodated such as Molecular Dynamics in mineral physics or 2-D data sets from lithospheric regional models.
Interactive Retro-Deformation of Terrain for Reconstructing 3D Fault Displacements.
Westerteiger, R; Compton, T; Bernadin, T; Cowgill, E; Gwinner, K; Hamann, B; Gerndt, A; Hagen, H
2012-12-01
Planetary topography is the result of complex interactions between geological processes, of which faulting is a prominent component. Surface-rupturing earthquakes cut and move landforms which develop across active faults, producing characteristic surface displacements across the fault. Geometric models of faults and their associated surface displacements are commonly applied to reconstruct these offsets to enable interpretation of the observed topography. However, current 2D techniques are limited in their capability to convey both the three-dimensional kinematics of faulting and the incremental sequence of events required by a given reconstruction. Here we present a real-time system for interactive retro-deformation of faulted topography to enable reconstruction of fault displacement within a high-resolution (sub 1m/pixel) 3D terrain visualization. We employ geometry shaders on the GPU to intersect the surface mesh with fault-segments interactively specified by the user and transform the resulting surface blocks in realtime according to a kinematic model of fault motion. Our method facilitates a human-in-the-loop approach to reconstruction of fault displacements by providing instant visual feedback while exploring the parameter space. Thus, scientists can evaluate the validity of traditional point-to-point reconstructions by visually examining a smooth interpolation of the displacement in 3D. We show the efficacy of our approach by using it to reconstruct segments of the San Andreas fault, California as well as a graben structure in the Noctis Labyrinthus region on Mars. PMID:26357128
Gras, Christophe; Smith, Nikaïa; Sengmanivong, Lucie; Gandini, Mariana; Kubelka, Claire Fernandes; Herbeuval, Jean-Philippe
2013-01-31
The apoptotic ligand TNF-related apoptosis ligand (TRAIL) is expressed on the membrane of immune cells during HIV infection. The intracellular stockade of TRAIL in human primary CD4(+) T cells is not known. Here we investigated whether primary CD4(+) T cells expressed TRAIL in their intracellular compartment and whether TRAIL is relocalized on the plasma membrane under HIV activation. We found that TRAIL protein was stocked in intracellular compartment in non activated CD4(+) T cells and that the total level of TRAIL protein was not increased under HIV-1 stimulation. However, TRAIL was massively relocalized on plasma membrane when cells were cultured with HIV. Using three dimensional (3D) microscopy we localized TRAIL protein in human T cells and developed a new method to visualize plasma membrane without the need of a membrane marker. This method used the 3D interactive surface plot and bright light acquired images. PMID:23085529
Interaction of coherent confined optical modes in neighboring 3D cylindrical ZnO microcavities
Gruzintsev, A. N. Volkov, V. T.; Knyazev, M. A.; Yakimov, E. E.
2006-11-15
Luminescent properties of pairs of neighboring variously spaced 3D cylindrical ZnO microcavities 1.8 {mu}m in diameter, produced by electron-beam lithography and reactive ion etching, are studied. Narrow luminescence peaks in the ZnO exciton spectral region, related to single-mode lasing, were observed. The energy of exchange interaction of coupled modes of two microcavities was calculated as a function of the intercavity distance. Broadening of the line of stimulated UV luminescence associated with coupled photonic modes of two microcavities was observed as the intercavity distance decreased.
Orbital and anisotropy effects on the itinerant exchange interaction in 3D Dirac semimetals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ulloa, Sergio; Mastrogiuseppe, Diego; Sandler, Nancy
Dirac semimetals are new materials that can be considered analogues of graphene in three dimensions. Their band structure exhibits robust Dirac points that are protected by crystalline symmetry, and strong spin-orbit interaction. These unusual properties suggest that magnetic impurities may reveal exotic behavior with potential technological importance. In metallic hosts, magnetic impurities interact through the electron gas via the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction that depends strongly on the band structure of the material. We report on the RKKY interaction in 3D Dirac semimetals, such as Na3Bi and Cd3As2. We discuss asymptotic expressions for the interaction corresponding to settings with magnetic impurities at different distances and relative angle with respect to high symmetry directions on the lattice. We show that the Fermi velocity anisotropy produces a strong renormalization of the magnitude of the interaction, and a correction to the frequency of oscillation in real space. Hybridization of the impurities to different conduction electron orbitals results in interesting anisotropic interactions which can generate spiral spin structures in doped samples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yuqi; Cai, Xiao-Chuan
2014-02-01
Due to the rapid advancement of supercomputing hardware, there is a growing interest in parallel algorithms for modeling the full three-dimensional interaction between the blood flow and the arterial wall. In [4], Barker and Cai developed a parallel framework for solving fluid-structure interaction problems in two dimensions. In this paper, we extend the idea to three dimensions. We introduce and study a parallel scalable domain decomposition method for solving nonlinear monolithically coupled systems arising from the discretization of the coupled system in an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian framework with a fully implicit stabilized finite element method. The investigation focuses on the robustness and parallel scalability of the Newton-Krylov algorithm preconditioned with an overlapping additive Schwarz method. We validate the proposed approach and report the parallel performance for some patient-specific pulmonary artery problems. The algorithm is shown to be scalable with a large number of processors and for problems with millions of unknowns.
Image informatics for studying signal transduction in cells interacting with 3D matrices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tzeranis, Dimitrios S.; Guo, Jin; Chen, Chengpin; Yannas, Ioannis V.; Wei, Xunbin; So, Peter T. C.
2014-03-01
Cells sense and respond to chemical stimuli on their environment via signal transduction pathways, complex networks of proteins whose interactions transmit chemical information. This work describes an implementation of image informatics, imaging-based methodologies for studying signal transduction networks. The methodology developed focuses on studying signal transduction networks in cells that interact with 3D matrices. It utilizes shRNA-based knock down of network components, 3D high-content imaging of cells inside the matrix by spectral multi-photon microscopy, and single-cell quantification using features that describe both cell morphology and cell-matrix adhesion pattern. The methodology is applied in a pilot study of TGFβ signaling via the SMAD pathway in fibroblasts cultured inside porous collagen-GAG scaffolds, biomaterials similar to the ones used clinically to induce skin regeneration. Preliminary results suggest that knocking down all rSMAD components affects fibroblast response to TGFβ1 and TGFβ3 isoforms in different ways, and suggest a potential role for SMAD1 and SMAD5 in regulating TGFβ isoform response. These preliminary results need to be verified with proteomic results that can provide solid evidence about the particular role of individual components of the SMAD pathway.
Interactive Motion Planning for Steerable Needles in 3D Environments with Obstacles
Patil, Sachin; Alterovitz, Ron
2011-01-01
Bevel-tip steerable needles for minimally invasive medical procedures can be used to reach clinical targets that are behind sensitive or impenetrable areas and are inaccessible to straight, rigid needles. We present a fast algorithm that can compute motion plans for steerable needles to reach targets in complex, 3D environments with obstacles at interactive rates. The fast computation makes this method suitable for online control of the steerable needle based on 3D imaging feedback and allows physicians to interactively edit the planning environment in real-time by adding obstacle definitions as they are discovered or become relevant. We achieve this fast performance by using a Rapidly Exploring Random Tree (RRT) combined with a reachability-guided sampling heuristic to alleviate the sensitivity of the RRT planner to the choice of the distance metric. We also relax the constraint of constant-curvature needle trajectories by relying on duty-cycling to realize bounded-curvature needle trajectories. These characteristics enable us to achieve orders of magnitude speed-up compared to previous approaches; we compute steerable needle motion plans in under 1 second for challenging environments containing complex, polyhedral obstacles and narrow passages. PMID:22294214
A virtual interface for interactions with 3D models of the human body.
De Paolis, Lucio T; Pulimeno, Marco; Aloisio, Giovanni
2009-01-01
The developed system is the first prototype of a virtual interface designed to avoid contact with the computer so that the surgeon is able to visualize 3D models of the patient's organs more effectively during surgical procedure or to use this in the pre-operative planning. The doctor will be able to rotate, to translate and to zoom in on 3D models of the patient's organs simply by moving his finger in free space; in addition, it is possible to choose to visualize all of the organs or only some of them. All of the interactions with the models happen in real-time using the virtual interface which appears as a touch-screen suspended in free space in a position chosen by the user when the application is started up. Finger movements are detected by means of an optical tracking system and are used to simulate touch with the interface and to interact by pressing the buttons present on the virtual screen. PMID:19377116
3D Modeling of the Massive Binary Wind Interaction Region in Eta Carinae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madura, Thomas; Gull, T.; Owocki, S.; Okazaki, A.; Russell, C.
2009-01-01
We present recent work on the theoretical modeling of low excitation ([Fe II]) and high excitation ([Fe III]) wind lines observed in Eta Carinae using the HST/STIS. The spatially resolved structures seen in these lines are interpreted as the time-averaged, outer extensions of the wind from the primary star and the wind-wind interaction region of the massive binary system. For most of the orbit, the wind-wind interface can be approximated as a cone with a half-opening angle of 65° whose axis of rotation is aligned with the major axis of the binary orbit and appears to lie in the plane of the Homunculus disk. However, because the orbit is highly elliptical, this approximation breaks down at periastron and so full 3D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations become necessary. By analyzing the results of these 3D SPH simulations of the binary interactions and comparing them to the spectra obtained with the HST/STIS we place further constraints on the orientation of the binary orbit, and hope to eventually determine how/where UV light is escaping in the system, to search for any direct signatures of the companion star, and to ultimately establish a mass ratio for the system.
Growth of the developing mouse heart: an interactive qualitative and quantitative 3D atlas.
de Boer, Bouke A; van den Berg, Gert; de Boer, Piet A J; Moorman, Antoon F M; Ruijter, Jan M
2012-08-15
Analysis of experiments aimed at understanding the genetic mechanisms of differentiation and growth of the heart, calls for detailed insights into cardiac growth and proliferation rate of myocytes and their precursors. Such insights in mouse heart development are currently lacking. We quantitatively assessed the 3D patterns of proliferation in the forming mouse heart and in the adjacent splanchnic mesoderm, from the onset of heart formation till the developed heart at late gestation. These results are presented in an interactive portable document format (Suppl. PDF) to facilitate communication and understanding. We show that the mouse splanchnic mesoderm is highly proliferative, and that the proliferation rate drops upon recruitment of cells into the cardiac lineage. Concomitantly, the proliferation rate locally increases at the sites of chamber formation, generating a regionalized proliferation pattern. Quantitative analysis shows a gradual decrease in proliferation rate of the ventricular walls with progression of development, and a base-to-top decline in proliferation rate in the trabecules. Our data offers clear insights into the growth and morphogenesis of the mouse heart and shows that in early development the phases of tube formation and chamber formation overlap. The resulting interactive quantitative 3D atlas of cardiac growth and morphogenesis provides a resource for interpretation of mechanistic studies. PMID:22617458
RKKY interaction in P-N junction based on surface states of 3D topological insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shuhui; Yang, Wen; Chang, Kai
The RKKY interaction mediated by conduction electrons supplies a mechanism to realize the long-range coupling of localized spins which is desired for the spin devices. Here, we examine the controllability of RKKY interaction in P-N junction (PNJ) based on surface states of 3D topological insulator (3DTI). In this study, through quantum way but not usual classical analogy to light propagation, the intuitive picture for electron waves across the interface of PNJ is obtained, e.g., Klein tunneling, negative refraction and focusing. Moreover, we perform the numerical calculations for all kinds of RKKY interaction including the Heisenberg, Ising, and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya terms. We find the focusing of surface states leads to the local augmentation of RKKY interaction. Most importantly, a dimension transition occurs, i.e., the decay rate of RKKY interaction from the deserved 1/R 2 to 1/ R . In addition, the quadratic gate-dependence of RKKY interaction is also beneficial to the application of 3DTI PNJ in the fields of spintronics and quantum computation. This work was supported by the MOST (Grant No. 2015CB921503, and No. 2014CB848700) and NSFC (Grant No. 11434010, No. 11274036, No. 11322542, and No. 11504018).
Quantum Criticality of Topological Phase Transitions in 3D Interacting Electronic Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moon, Eun Gook; Yang, Bohm-Jung; Isobe, Hiroki; Nagaosa, Naoto
2014-03-01
We investigate the quantum criticality of topological phase transitions in three dimensional (3D) interacting electronic systems lacking either the time-reversal symmetry or the inversion symmetry. The minimal model, Weyl fermions with anisotropic dispersion relation, is suggested as the quantum critical theory based on the zerochirality condition. The interplay between the fermions and the long range Coulomb interaction is investigated by the standard renormalization group (RG) approach. We find that the quantum fluctuations of the anisotropic Weyl fermions induce the anisotropic partial screening of the Coulomb interaction, which eventually makes the Coulomb interaction irrelevant. It is in sharp contrast to the quantum criticality of conventional semi-metallic phases such as graphene where physical quantities receive logarithmic corrections from the marginal Coulomb interaction. Thus, the critical point is described by the non-interacting fermion theory allowing the complete theoretical understanding of the problem. The renormalized Coulomb potential shows the anisotropic power law. Its physical consequence is further illustrated by the screening problem of a charged impurity due to anisotropic Weyl fermions.
Jupiter Magnetotail Interaction with a Variable Solar Wind: A 3D MHD Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ranquist, D. A.; Bagenal, F.; Delamere, P. A.; Ma, X.
2015-12-01
Jupiter's magnetosphere is the largest object within the heliosphere. Voyager 2 detected its influence at Saturn's orbit, 4.3 AU away. It takes considerable time, therefore, for the solar wind to propagate such lengths down the tail. This propagation time is much greater than typical periods between changes in direction of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We expect these variable magnetic fields to create a jumbled structure in Jupiter's magnetotail, resulting in magnetic reconnection and other magnetic processes. We simulate the global interaction of the solar wind with Jupiter's magnetosphere using a 3D magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code. Delamere & Bagenal (2010) argue that the interaction is largely viscous, so we simulate the jovian magnetosphere as a region where the momentum equation has an added loss term. We also use in situ data gathered by the Ulysses spacecraft near Jupiter's orbit for solar wind input. Here, we report on the simulated dynamics in Jupiter's tail region.
3D Plasma Clusters: Analysis of dynamical evolution and individual particle interaction
Antonova, T.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.; Annaratone, B. M.
2008-09-07
3D plasma clusters (up to 100 particles) have been built inside small (32 mm{sup 3}) plasma volume in gravity. It has been estimated that the external confinement has a negligible influence on the processes inside the clusters. At such conditions the analysis of dynamical evolution and individual particle interactions have shown that the binary interaction among particles in addition to the repelling Coulomb force exhibits also an attractive part. The tendency of the systems to approach the state with minimum energy by rearranging particles inside has been detected. The measured 63 particles' cluster vibrations are in close agreement with vibrations of a drop with surface tension. This indicates that even a 63 particle cluster already exhibits properties normally associated with the cooperative regime.
3-D Hybrid Simulation of Interaction Between Solar Wind Discontinuity and Magnetosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pang, Y.; Lin, Y.; Deng, X.; Wang, X.
2008-12-01
Previous simulations and observations indicate that interaction of interplanetary directional tangential discontinuities (TD), across which only the direction of magnetic field changes,with the bow shock may initiate magnetic reconnection as the TD is transmitted into the magnetosheath. We employ a 3-D electromagnetic, hybrid simulation to study such interaction between the TD and the bow shock-magnetosheath-magnetopause system, while the hybrid model treats the ions kinetically via particle-in-cell methods and the electrons as a massless fluid. We present results corresponding to different orientations of the initial IMF, TDs with various thicknesses ranging from 10 to 30 ion skin depths, and polarizations of magnetic field and senses of field rotation across the TD. Our results indicate that the reconnection rate and structure can be influenced by the width and the structure of the TD. The kinetic structure and evolution of FTEs produced by the magnetosheath reconnection, as they propagate to the magnetopause, will be studied.
The 3-D CFD modeling of gas turbine combustor-integral bleed flow interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, D. Y.; Reynolds, R. S.
1993-01-01
An advanced 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was developed to analyze the flow interaction between a gas turbine combustor and an integral bleed plenum. In this model, the elliptic governing equations of continuity, momentum and the k-e turbulence model were solved on a boundary-fitted, curvilinear, orthogonal grid system. The model was first validated against test data from public literature and then applied to a gas turbine combustor with integral bleed. The model predictions agreed well with data from combustor rig testing. The model predictions also indicated strong flow interaction between the combustor and the integral bleed. Integral bleed flow distribution was found to have a great effect on the pressure distribution around the gas turbine combustor.
Gao, Yi; Kikinis, Ron; Bouix, Sylvain; Shenton, Martha; Tannenbaum, Allen
2012-08-01
Extracting anatomical and functional significant structures renders one of the important tasks for both the theoretical study of the medical image analysis, and the clinical and practical community. In the past, much work has been dedicated only to the algorithmic development. Nevertheless, for clinical end users, a well designed algorithm with an interactive software is necessary for an algorithm to be utilized in their daily work. Furthermore, the software would better be open sourced in order to be used and validated by not only the authors but also the entire community. Therefore, the contribution of the present work is twofolds: first, we propose a new robust statistics based conformal metric and the conformal area driven multiple active contour framework, to simultaneously extract multiple targets from MR and CT medical imagery in 3D. Second, an open source graphically interactive 3D segmentation tool based on the aforementioned contour evolution is implemented and is publicly available for end users on multiple platforms. In using this software for the segmentation task, the process is initiated by the user drawn strokes (seeds) in the target region in the image. Then, the local robust statistics are used to describe the object features, and such features are learned adaptively from the seeds under a non-parametric estimation scheme. Subsequently, several active contours evolve simultaneously with their interactions being motivated by the principles of action and reaction-this not only guarantees mutual exclusiveness among the contours, but also no longer relies upon the assumption that the multiple objects fill the entire image domain, which was tacitly or explicitly assumed in many previous works. In doing so, the contours interact and converge to equilibrium at the desired positions of the desired multiple objects. Furthermore, with the aim of not only validating the algorithm and the software, but also demonstrating how the tool is to be used, we provide
Color and size interactions in a real 3D object similarity task.
Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya
2004-08-31
In the natural world, objects are characterized by a variety of attributes, including color and shape. The contributions of these two attributes to object recognition are typically studied independently of each other, yet they are likely to interact in natural tasks. Here we examine whether color and size (a component of shape) interact in a real three-dimensional (3D) object similarity task, using solid domelike objects whose distinct apparent surface colors are independently controlled via spatially restricted illumination from a data projector hidden to the observer. The novel experimental setup preserves natural cues to 3D shape from shading, binocular disparity, motion parallax, and surface texture cues, while also providing the flexibility and ease of computer control. Observers performed three distinct tasks: two unimodal discrimination tasks, and an object similarity task. Depending on the task, the observer was instructed to select the indicated alternative object which was "bigger than," "the same color as," or "most similar to" the designated reference object, all of which varied in both size and color between trials. For both unimodal discrimination tasks, discrimination thresholds for the tested attribute (e.g., color) were increased by differences in the secondary attribute (e.g., size), although this effect was more robust in the color task. For the unimodal size-discrimination task, the strongest effects of the secondary attribute (color) occurred as a perceptual bias, which we call the "saturation-size effect": Objects with more saturated colors appear larger than objects with less saturated colors. In the object similarity task, discrimination thresholds for color or size differences were significantly larger than in the unimodal discrimination tasks. We conclude that color and size interact in determining object similarity, and are effectively analyzed on a coarser scale, due to noise in the similarity estimates of the individual attributes
3D geological model developed to analyse the aquifer - sewer network interaction in Bucharest city
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serpescu, I.; Radu, E.; Gogu, R. G.; Priceputu, A.; Boukhemacha, M. A.; Bica, I.; Gaitanaru, D.
2012-04-01
Due to the fact that several important Bucharest city sewer segments drain the groundwater and provide high input flow-rates for the existing waste-water treatment plant, their rehabilitation is necessary. A hydrogeological model, currently under development, will permit to compute the groundwater-sewer network interaction allowing the simulation of distinct design solutions to prevent city disturbances. For groundwater modelling the geological model represents the fundament of understanding the aquifers system behaviour. In this respect a 3D accurate and detailed geological model, covering a region of about 75 km2 has been developed to identify its contact with the major collecting sewer conduit. The shallow aquifer stratum of quaternary formations called Colentina is made of gravels and sands. This unconfined aquifer can be found mainly in the Bucharest city region at depths up to 20 m. A clayey-marl layer is located between Colentina and a lower confined aquifer called Mostistea. This second one is located at depths between 25 m and 70 m and is made of fine and medium sands with gravel intercalations. It overlays on a very thick sequence (40 m to 150 m) of marl and clay layers with slim sandy intercalations. The geological model has been developed on the basis of a large number of geological and geotechnical boreholes. A set of 400 boreholes with depths between 5m to 200 m showing a detailed geological and lithological description stored in a geospatial database have been used. The geological analysis has been performed using a software platform that integrates the spatial database and a set of tools and methodologies developed in a GIS environment with the aim of facilitating the development of 3D geological models for sedimentary media. Taking into account the first 50 m in depth, 25 geological profiles have been interpreted on the basis of chronostratigraphycal, lithological, and sedimentological criteria to delineate the geological formations and assess
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barbero, Basilio Ramos; Pedrosa, Carlos Melgosa; Mate, Esteban Garcia
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study is to determine which 3D viewers should be used for the display of interactive graphic engineering documents, so that the visualization and manipulation of 3D models provide useful support to students of industrial engineering (mechanical, organizational, electronic engineering, etc). The technical features of 26 3D…
Towards a gestural 3D interaction for tangible and three-dimensional GIS visualizations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Agadakos, Ioannis; Pattakos, Nikolas; Maragakis, Michail
2014-05-01
The last decade has been characterized by a significant increase of spatially dependent applications that require storage, visualization, analysis and exploration of geographic information. GIS analysis of spatiotemporal geographic data is operated by highly trained personnel under an abundance of software and tools, lacking interoperability and friendly user interaction. Towards this end, new forms of querying and interaction are emerging, including gestural interfaces. Three-dimensional GIS representations refer to either tangible surfaces or projected representations. Making a 3D tangible geographic representation touch-sensitive may be a convenient solution, but such an approach raises the cost significantly and complicates the hardware and processing required to combine touch-sensitive material (for pinpointing points) with deformable material (for displaying elevations). In this study, a novel interaction scheme upon a three dimensional visualization of GIS data is proposed. While gesture user interfaces are not yet fully acceptable due to inconsistencies and complexity, a non-tangible GIS system where 3D visualizations are projected, calls for interactions that are based on three-dimensional, non-contact and gestural procedures. Towards these objectives, we use the Microsoft Kinect II system which includes a time of flight camera, allowing for a robust and real time depth map generation, along with the capturing and translation of a variety of predefined gestures from different simultaneous users. By incorporating these features into our system architecture, we attempt to create a natural way for users to operate on GIS data. Apart from the conventional pan and zoom features, the key functions addressed for the 3-D user interface is the ability to pinpoint particular points, lines and areas of interest, such as destinations, waypoints, landmarks, closed areas, etc. The first results shown, concern a projected GIS representation where the user selects points
Skin-friction measurements in a 3-D, supersonic shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wideman, Jeffrey Kenneth
An experimental study has been conducted in a three-dimensional, supersonic shockwave/boundary-layer interaction (3-D SW/BLI) with the intent of providing accurate experimental data for turbulence modeling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code validation. The experiment was performed in the High Reynolds Channel 1 (HRCI) wind tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The test was conducted at a Mach number of M(sub infinity) = 2.89 and at a Reynolds number of Re = 15 x 106/m. The model consisted of a sting-supported cylinder aligned with the tunnel axis and a 20 deg half-angle conical flare offset 1.27 cm from the cylinder centerline. The generated shock system was verified to be steady by schlieren visualization. The highlight of the study was the acquisition of 3-D skin-friction data by a laser interferometric skin friction (LISF) meter. Surface pressure measurements were obtained in 15 deg intervals around the cylinder and flare. Additional measurements included surface oil flow and laser light sheet illumination which were used to document the flow topology. Skin-friction measurements are proving to be a very challenging test of a CFD code predictive capability. However, at the present time there is a very limited amount of accurate skin-friction data in complex flows such as in 3-D SW/BLI. The LISF technique is advantageous as compared to other skin-friction measurement techniques for application in complex flows like the present since it is non-intrusive and is capable of performing measurements in flows with large shear and pressure gradients where the reliability of other techniques is questionable. Thus, the prevent skin-friction data will prove valuable to turbulence modeling and CFD code validation efforts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kilb, D.; Reif, C.; Peach, C.; Keen, C. S.; Smith, B.; Mellors, R. J.
2003-12-01
Within the last year scientists and educators at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), the Birch Aquarium at Scripps and San Diego State University have collaborated with education specialists to develop 3D interactive graphic teaching modules for use in the classroom and in teacher workshops at the SIO Visualization center (http://siovizcenter.ucsd.edu). The unique aspect of the SIO Visualization center is that the center is designed around a 120 degree curved Panoram floor-to-ceiling screen (8'6" by 28'4") that immerses viewers in a virtual environment. The center is powered by an SGI 3400 Onyx computer that is more powerful, by an order of magnitude in both speed and memory, than typical base systems currently used for education and outreach presentations. This technology allows us to display multiple 3D data layers (e.g., seismicity, high resolution topography, seismic reflectivity, draped interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images, etc.) simultaneously, render them in 3D stereo, and take a virtual flight through the data as dictated on the spot by the user. This system can also render snapshots, images and movies that are too big for other systems, and then export smaller size end-products to more commonly used computer systems. Since early 2002, we have explored various ways to provide informal education and outreach focusing on current research presented directly by the researchers doing the work. The Center currently provides a centerpiece for instruction on southern California seismology for K-12 students and teachers for various Scripps education endeavors. Future plans are in place to use the Visualization Center at Scripps for extended K-12 and college educational programs. In particular, we will be identifying K-12 curriculum needs, assisting with teacher education, developing assessments of our programs and products, producing web-accessible teaching modules and facilitating the development of appropriate teaching tools to be
Fold interaction and wavelength selection in 3D models of multilayer detachment folding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernandez, Naiara; Kaus, Boris J. P.
2014-09-01
Many fold-and-thrust belts are dominated by folding and exhibit a fairly regular fold-spacing. Yet, in map-view, the aspect ratio of doubly-plunging anticlines varies considerably from very elongated, and sometimes slightly curved, cylindrical folds to nearly circular, dome-like structures. In addition, the fold spacing often varies significantly around an average value. So far, it remains unclear whether these features are consistent with a folding instability. Therefore, we here study the dynamics of multilayer detachment folding, process by which shortening can be accommodated in thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belts. We start by analysing the physics of this process by using both a semi-analytical thick plate theory and numerical simulations. Results show that several different folding modes occur, about half of which are affected by gravity and have a wavelength that depends on the background deformation rate. Non-dimensional expressions are derived that predict the dominant wavelength and growth rate of each of these folding modes and mechanical phase diagrams are presented that illustrate the applicability of each of the modes. Next, we perform 3D simulations and compare the results with those of 2D models and analytical theory. Both 2D and 3D numerical simulations have wavelengths that are in good agreement with the analytical predictions. In the high-resolution 3D simulations the lateral growth of folds is studied, in particular with respect to fold segment interactions and evolution of fold width-length aspect ratio. The numerical simulations show a number of similarities with the Fars region of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt including a large range of fold aspect ratio and a normally distributed fold wavelength around a dominant one.
First-principles calculations of the interaction between hydrogen and 3d alloying atom in nickel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wenguan; Qian, Yuan; Zhang, Dongxun; Liu, Wei; Han, Han
2015-10-01
Knowledge of the behavior of hydrogen (H) in Ni-based alloy is essential for the prediction of Tritium behavior in Molten Salt Reactor. First-principles calculations were performed to investigate the interaction between H and 3d transition metal (TM) alloying atom in Ni-based alloy. H prefers the octahedral interstitial site to the tetrahedral interstitial site energetically. Most of the 3d TM elements (except Zn) attract H. The attraction to H in the Ni-TM-H system can be mainly attributed to the differences in electronegativity. With the large electronegativity, H and Ni gain electrons from the other TM elements, resulting in the enhanced Ni-H bonds which are the source of the attraction to H in the Ni-TM-H system. The obviously covalent-like Cr-H and Co-H bindings are also beneficial to the attraction to H. On the other hand, the repulsion to H in the Ni-Zn-H system is due to the stable electronic configuration of Zn. We mainly utilize the results calculated in 32-atom supercell which corresponds to the case of a relatively high concentration of hydrogen. Our results are in good agreement with the experimental ones.
The development of laser-plasma interaction program LAP3D on thousands of processors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Xiaoyan; Hao, Liang; Liu, Zhanjun; Zheng, Chunyang; Li, Bin; Guo, Hong
2015-08-01
Modeling laser-plasma interaction (LPI) processes in real-size experiments scale is recognized as a challenging task. For explorering the influence of various instabilities in LPI processes, a three-dimensional laser and plasma code (LAP3D) has been developed, which includes filamentation, stimulated Brillouin backscattering (SBS), stimulated Raman backscattering (SRS), non-local heat transport and plasmas flow computation modules. In this program, a second-order upwind scheme is applied to solve the plasma equations which are represented by an Euler fluid model. Operator splitting method is used for solving the equations of the light wave propagation, where the Fast Fourier translation (FFT) is applied to compute the diffraction operator and the coordinate translations is used to solve the acoustic wave equation. The coupled terms of the different physics processes are computed by the second-order interpolations algorithm. In order to simulate the LPI processes in massively parallel computers well, several parallel techniques are used, such as the coupled parallel algorithm of FFT and fluid numerical computation, the load balance algorithm, and the data transfer algorithm. Now the phenomena of filamentation, SBS and SRS have been studied in low-density plasma successfully with LAP3D. Scalability of the program is demonstrated with a parallel efficiency above 50% on about ten thousand of processors.
The development of laser-plasma interaction program LAP3D on thousands of processors
Hu, Xiaoyan Hao, Liang; Liu, Zhanjun; Zheng, Chunyang; Li, Bin Guo, Hong
2015-08-15
Modeling laser-plasma interaction (LPI) processes in real-size experiments scale is recognized as a challenging task. For explorering the influence of various instabilities in LPI processes, a three-dimensional laser and plasma code (LAP3D) has been developed, which includes filamentation, stimulated Brillouin backscattering (SBS), stimulated Raman backscattering (SRS), non-local heat transport and plasmas flow computation modules. In this program, a second-order upwind scheme is applied to solve the plasma equations which are represented by an Euler fluid model. Operator splitting method is used for solving the equations of the light wave propagation, where the Fast Fourier translation (FFT) is applied to compute the diffraction operator and the coordinate translations is used to solve the acoustic wave equation. The coupled terms of the different physics processes are computed by the second-order interpolations algorithm. In order to simulate the LPI processes in massively parallel computers well, several parallel techniques are used, such as the coupled parallel algorithm of FFT and fluid numerical computation, the load balance algorithm, and the data transfer algorithm. Now the phenomena of filamentation, SBS and SRS have been studied in low-density plasma successfully with LAP3D. Scalability of the program is demonstrated with a parallel efficiency above 50% on about ten thousand of processors.
Development of the Pulmonary Vein and the Systemic Venous Sinus: An Interactive 3D Overview
van den Berg, Gert; Moorman, Antoon F. M.
2011-01-01
Knowledge of the normal formation of the heart is crucial for the understanding of cardiac pathologies and congenital malformations. The understanding of early cardiac development, however, is complicated because it is inseparably associated with other developmental processes such as embryonic folding, formation of the coelomic cavity, and vascular development. Because of this, it is necessary to integrate morphological and experimental analyses. Morphological insights, however, are limited by the difficulty in communication of complex 3D-processes. Most controversies, in consequence, result from differences in interpretation, rather than observation. An example of such a continuing debate is the development of the pulmonary vein and the systemic venous sinus, or “sinus venosus”. To facilitate understanding, we present a 3D study of the developing venous pole in the chicken embryo, showing our results in a novel interactive fashion, which permits the reader to form an independent opinion. We clarify how the pulmonary vein separates from a greater vascular plexus within the splanchnic mesoderm. The systemic venous sinus, in contrast, develops at the junction between the splanchnic and somatic mesoderm. We discuss our model with respect to normal formation of the heart, congenital cardiac malformations, and the phylogeny of the venous tributaries. PMID:21779373
3D Global Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of the Solar Wind/Earth's Magnetosphere Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yalim, M. S.; Poedts, S.
2014-09-01
In this paper, we present results of real-time 3D global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the solar wind interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere using time-varying data from the NASA Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite during a few big magnetic storm events of the previous and current solar cycles, namely the 06 April 2000, 20 November 2003 and 05 April 2010 storms. We introduce a numerical magnetic storm index and compare the geo-effectiveness of these events in terms of this storm index which is a measure for the resulting global perturbation of the Earth's magnetic field. Steady simulations show that the upstream solar wind plasma parameters enter the low-β switch-on regime for some time intervals during a magnetic storm causing a complex dimpled bow shock structure. We also investigate the traces of such bow shock structures during time-dependent simulations of the events. We utilize a 3D, implicit, parallel, unstructured grid, compressible finite volume ideal MHD solver with an anisotropic grid adaptation technique for the computer simulations.
Helbig, Carolin; Bilke, Lars; Bauer, Hans-Stefan; Böttinger, Michael; Kolditz, Olaf
2015-01-01
Background To achieve more realistic simulations, meteorologists develop and use models with increasing spatial and temporal resolution. The analyzing, comparing, and visualizing of resulting simulations becomes more and more challenging due to the growing amounts and multifaceted character of the data. Various data sources, numerous variables and multiple simulations lead to a complex database. Although a variety of software exists suited for the visualization of meteorological data, none of them fulfills all of the typical domain-specific requirements: support for quasi-standard data formats and different grid types, standard visualization techniques for scalar and vector data, visualization of the context (e.g., topography) and other static data, support for multiple presentation devices used in modern sciences (e.g., virtual reality), a user-friendly interface, and suitability for cooperative work. Methods and Results Instead of attempting to develop yet another new visualization system to fulfill all possible needs in this application domain, our approach is to provide a flexible workflow that combines different existing state-of-the-art visualization software components in order to hide the complexity of 3D data visualization tools from the end user. To complete the workflow and to enable the domain scientists to interactively visualize their data without advanced skills in 3D visualization systems, we developed a lightweight custom visualization application (MEVA - multifaceted environmental data visualization application) that supports the most relevant visualization and interaction techniques and can be easily deployed. Specifically, our workflow combines a variety of different data abstraction methods provided by a state-of-the-art 3D visualization application with the interaction and presentation features of a computer-games engine. Our customized application includes solutions for the analysis of multirun data, specifically with respect to data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crosta, G.; Imposimato, S.; Roddeman, D.; Frattini, P.
2012-04-01
-plastic continuum and water as nearly incompressible. In particular we modeled the Vajont rockslide both in 2D and 3D considering the landslide water interaction. More simulations have been performed to validate the model against 2D and 3D tank experiments considering different slope geometries and water depth.
Exchange Interaction Makes Superconductivity in 3D Dirac Semi-metal Triplet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenstein, B.; Shapiro, B. Ya.; Li, Dingping; Shapiro, I.
2015-04-01
Conventional electron-phonon coupling induces either odd (triplet) or even (singlet) pairing states in a time reversal and inversion invariant Dirac semi-metal. In a certain range of the chemical potential and parameters characterizing the pairing attraction (effective electron-electron coupling constant and the Debye energy ) the energy of the singlet although always lower, prevails by a very slim margin over the triplet. This means that interactions that are small but discriminate between the spin singlet and the spin triplet determine the nature of the superconducting order there. It is shown that in materials close enough to the Dirac point ( ) a moderate exchange constant (below Stoner instability to ferromagnetism) stabilizes the odd pairing superconducting state. The 3D quantum critical point at of transition to the triplet superconductivity governs the physics of the superconductor.
Using Interactive 3D PDF for Exploring Complex Biomedical Data: Experiences and Solutions.
Newe, Axel; Becker, Linda
2016-01-01
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the most commonly used file format for the exchange of electronic documents. A lesser-known feature of PDF is the possibility to embed three-dimensional models and to display these models interactively with a qualified reader. This technology is well suited to present, to explore and to communicate complex biomedical data. This applies in particular for data which would suffer from a loss of information if it was reduced to a static two-dimensional projection. In this article, we present applications of 3D PDF for selected scholarly and clinical use cases in the biomedical domain. Furthermore, we present a sophisticated tool for the generation of respective PDF documents. PMID:27577484
Web-based interactive 2D/3D medical image processing and visualization software.
Mahmoudi, Seyyed Ehsan; Akhondi-Asl, Alireza; Rahmani, Roohollah; Faghih-Roohi, Shahrooz; Taimouri, Vahid; Sabouri, Ahmad; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid
2010-05-01
There are many medical image processing software tools available for research and diagnosis purposes. However, most of these tools are available only as local applications. This limits the accessibility of the software to a specific machine, and thus the data and processing power of that application are not available to other workstations. Further, there are operating system and processing power limitations which prevent such applications from running on every type of workstation. By developing web-based tools, it is possible for users to access the medical image processing functionalities wherever the internet is available. In this paper, we introduce a pure web-based, interactive, extendable, 2D and 3D medical image processing and visualization application that requires no client installation. Our software uses a four-layered design consisting of an algorithm layer, web-user-interface layer, server communication layer, and wrapper layer. To compete with extendibility of the current local medical image processing software, each layer is highly independent of other layers. A wide range of medical image preprocessing, registration, and segmentation methods are implemented using open source libraries. Desktop-like user interaction is provided by using AJAX technology in the web-user-interface. For the visualization functionality of the software, the VRML standard is used to provide 3D features over the web. Integration of these technologies has allowed implementation of our purely web-based software with high functionality without requiring powerful computational resources in the client side. The user-interface is designed such that the users can select appropriate parameters for practical research and clinical studies. PMID:20022133
A Multi-Compartment 3-D Finite Element Model of Rectocele and Its Interaction with Cystocele
Luo, Jiajia; Chen, Luyun; Fenner, Dee E.; Ashton-Miller, James A.; DeLancey, John O. L.
2015-01-01
We developed a subject-specific 3-D finite element model to understand the mechanics underlying formation of female pelvic organ prolapse, specifically a rectocele and its interaction with a cystocele. The model was created from MRI 3-D geometry of a healthy 45 year-old multiparous woman. It included anterior and posterior vaginal walls, levator ani muscle, cardinal and uterosacral ligaments, anterior and posterior arcus tendineus fascia pelvis, arcus tendineus levator ani, perineal body, perineal membrane and anal sphincter. Material properties were mostly from the literature. Tissue impairment was modeled as decreased tissue stiffness based on previous clinical studies. Model equations were solved using Abaqus v 6.11. The sensitivity of anterior and posterior vaginal wall geometry was calculated for different combinations tissue impairments under increasing intraabdominal pressure. Prolapse size was reported as POP-Q point at point Bp for rectocele and point Ba for cystocele. Results show that a rectocele resulted from impairments of the levator ani and posterior compartment support. For 20% levator and 85% posterior support impairments, simulated rectocele size (at POP-Q point: Bp) increased 0.29 mm/cm H2O without apical impairment and 0.36 mm/cm H2O with 60% apical impairment, as intraabdominal pressures increased from 0 to 150 cm H2O. Apical support impairment could result in the development of either a cystocele or rectocele. Simulated repair of posterior compartment support decreased rectocele but increased a preexisting cystocele. We conclude that development of rectocele and cystocele depend on the presence of anterior, posterior, levator and/or or apical support impairments, as well as the interaction of the prolapse with the opposing compartment. PMID:25757664
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwane, R.; Zia, Y.
2005-02-01
The present paper validates results from numerical simulations for side load generation in rocket nozzles against related data from analytical models that are presently used for rocket engine nozzle design activities. Key words: Nozzle stability; nozzle ovalization; flow structure interaction.
Cell interaction study method using novel 3D silica nanoneedle gradient arrays
Rajput, Deepak; Crowder, Spencer; Hofmeister, Lucas; Costa, Lino; Sung, Hak-Joon; Hofmeister, William
2012-01-01
Understanding cellular interactions with culture substrate features is important to advance cell biology and regenerative medicine. When surface topographical features are considerably larger in vertical dimension and are spaced at least one cell dimension apart, the features act as 3D physical barriers that can guide cell adhesion, thereby altering cell behavior. In the present study, we investigated competitive interactions of cells with neighboring cells and matrix using a novel nanoneedle gradient array. A gradient array of nanoholes was patterned at the surface of fused silica by single-pulse femtosecond laser machining. A negative replica of the pattern was extracted by nanoimprinting with a thin film of polymer. Silica was deposited on top of the polymer replica to form silica nanoneedles. NIH 3T3 fibroblasts were cultured on silica nanoneedles and their behavior was studied and compared with those cultured on a flat silica surface. The presence of silica nanoneedles was found to enhance the adhesion of fibroblasts while maintaining cell viability. The anisotropy in the arrangement of silica nanoneedles was found to affect the morphology and spreading of fibroblasts. Additionally, variations in nanoneedle spacing regulated cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions, effectively preventing cell aggregation in areas of tightly-packed nanoneedles. This proof-of-concept study provides a reproducible means for controlling competitive cell adhesion events and offers a novel system whose properties can be manipulated to intimately control cell behavior. PMID:23006558
van de Kamp, Thomas; dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Vagovič, Patrik; Baumbach, Tilo; Riedel, Alexander
2014-01-01
Digital surface mesh models based on segmented datasets have become an integral part of studies on animal anatomy and functional morphology; usually, they are published as static images, movies or as interactive PDF files. We demonstrate the use of animated 3D models embedded in PDF documents, which combine the advantages of both movie and interactivity, based on the example of preserved Trigonopterus weevils. The method is particularly suitable to simulate joints with largely deterministic movements due to precise form closure. We illustrate the function of an individual screw-and-nut type hip joint and proceed to the complex movements of the entire insect attaining a defence position. This posture is achieved by a specific cascade of movements: Head and legs interlock mutually and with specific features of thorax and the first abdominal ventrite, presumably to increase the mechanical stability of the beetle and to maintain the defence position with minimal muscle activity. The deterministic interaction of accurately fitting body parts follows a defined sequence, which resembles a piece of engineering. PMID:25029366
A 3D character animation engine for multimodal interaction on mobile devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sandali, Enrico; Lavagetto, Fabio; Pisano, Paolo
2005-03-01
Talking virtual characters are graphical simulations of real or imaginary persons that enable natural and pleasant multimodal interaction with the user, by means of voice, eye gaze, facial expression and gestures. This paper presents an implementation of a 3D virtual character animation and rendering engine, compliant with the MPEG-4 standard, running on Symbian-based SmartPhones. Real-time animation of virtual characters on mobile devices represents a challenging task, since many limitations must be taken into account with respect to processing power, graphics capabilities, disk space and execution memory size. The proposed optimization techniques allow to overcome these issues, guaranteeing a smooth and synchronous animation of facial expressions and lip movements on mobile phones such as Sony-Ericsson's P800 and Nokia's 6600. The animation engine is specifically targeted to the development of new "Over The Air" services, based on embodied conversational agents, with applications in entertainment (interactive story tellers), navigation aid (virtual guides to web sites and mobile services), news casting (virtual newscasters) and education (interactive virtual teachers).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veiga, Nicolás; Macho, Israel; Gómez, Kerman; González, Gabriel; Kremer, Carlos; Torres, Julia
2015-10-01
Among myo-inositol phosphates, the most abundant in nature is the myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, InsP6. Although it is known to be vital to cell functioning, the biochemical research into its metabolism needs chemical and structural analysis of all the protonation, complexation and precipitation processes that it undergoes in the biological media. In view of its high negative charge at physiological level, our group has been leading a thorough research into the InsP6 chemical and structural behavior in the presence of the alkali and alkaline earth metal ions essential for life. The aim of this article is to extend these studies, dealing with the chemical and structural features of the InsP6 interaction with biologically relevant 3d transition metal ions (Fe(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)), in a non-interacting medium and under simulated physiological conditions. The metal-complex stability constants were determined by potentiometry, showing under ligand-excess conditions the formation of mononuclear species in different protonation states. Under metal ion excess, polymetallic species were detected for Fe(II), Fe(III), Zn(II) and Cu(II). Additionally, the 31P NMR and UV-vis spectroscopic studies provided interesting structural aspects of the strong metal ion-InsP6 interaction.
van de Kamp, Thomas; dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Vagovič, Patrik; Baumbach, Tilo; Riedel, Alexander
2014-01-01
Digital surface mesh models based on segmented datasets have become an integral part of studies on animal anatomy and functional morphology; usually, they are published as static images, movies or as interactive PDF files. We demonstrate the use of animated 3D models embedded in PDF documents, which combine the advantages of both movie and interactivity, based on the example of preserved Trigonopterus weevils. The method is particularly suitable to simulate joints with largely deterministic movements due to precise form closure. We illustrate the function of an individual screw-and-nut type hip joint and proceed to the complex movements of the entire insect attaining a defence position. This posture is achieved by a specific cascade of movements: Head and legs interlock mutually and with specific features of thorax and the first abdominal ventrite, presumably to increase the mechanical stability of the beetle and to maintain the defence position with minimal muscle activity. The deterministic interaction of accurately fitting body parts follows a defined sequence, which resembles a piece of engineering. PMID:25029366
CAST: Effective and Efficient User Interaction for Context-Aware Selection in 3D Particle Clouds.
Yu, Lingyun; Efstathiou, Konstantinos; Isenberg, Petra; Isenberg, Tobias
2016-01-01
We present a family of three interactive Context-Aware Selection Techniques (CAST) for the analysis of large 3D particle datasets. For these datasets, spatial selection is an essential prerequisite to many other analysis tasks. Traditionally, such interactive target selection has been particularly challenging when the data subsets of interest were implicitly defined in the form of complicated structures of thousands of particles. Our new techniques SpaceCast, TraceCast, and PointCast improve usability and speed of spatial selection in point clouds through novel context-aware algorithms. They are able to infer a user's subtle selection intention from gestural input, can deal with complex situations such as partially occluded point clusters or multiple cluster layers, and can all be fine-tuned after the selection interaction has been completed. Together, they provide an effective and efficient tool set for the fast exploratory analysis of large datasets. In addition to presenting Cast, we report on a formal user study that compares our new techniques not only to each other but also to existing state-of-the-art selection methods. Our results show that Cast family members are virtually always faster than existing methods without tradeoffs in accuracy. In addition, qualitative feedback shows that PointCast and TraceCast were strongly favored by our participants for intuitiveness and efficiency. PMID:26390474
Interactive Visualization and Monitoring of Large-Scale 3-D Mantle Convection Runs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damon, M.; Yuen, D.; Kameyama, M.; Knox, M.; Porter, D.; Sevre, E. O.; Woodward, P.
2007-12-01
With the imminent arrival of petascale computing in the United States by 2011, new strategies for visualizing and monitoring high-resolution numerical simulations on massively parallel computers are needed to overcome the extreme data and resource requirements. We have employed a visualization system consisting of 14 powerful Dell workstations, each with a multi-terabyte disk, connected via a high-speed network with a bandwidth on the order of a few gigabits per second to a locally situated massively parallel system with approximately 2,000 processing elements. This system has been constructed at the Laboratory of Computational Sciences and Engineering at the University of Minnesota. Near real-time interactive analysis of 3-D mantle convection using around 10 million grid points has been carried out using a client-server application capable of streaming gigabytes of simulated data to a remote Powerwall with 13 million pixels. Concurrently, we have constructed a web-portal that allows a user to monitor the same run at home or in a hotel room, using a laptop. In our case, interactive computing takes on the meaning of performing such runs for a limited duration of time, say 1 to 2 hours. This calls for a balance between grid resolution and the number of processing elements required to provide the level of interactivity needed to achieve one to a few frames per second. Our mode of operation represents a new paradigm in numerical modeling that supports a trend toward both real-time visualization and monitoring of high-resolution models and a consequent reduction in storage of raw output data, since the interactive periods are by definition short. Using this interactive strategy periodically we can facilitate long heroic runs extending over a few days.
Global Structure of Idealized Stream Interaction Regions Using 3D MHD Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pahud, D. M.; Hughes, W. J.; Merkin, V. G.
2014-12-01
The global structure of the heliosphere during solar cycles (SC) 23 and 24 differed significantly in many ways, for example in terms of global magnetic field strength, velocity structure and the observed properties of Stream Interaction Region (SIR) and associated shocks. The differences considered in this study focus primarily on the effects of the three-dimensional (3D) structure of SIRs. During the minimum of SC 24, equatorial coronal holes were prevalent as sources of low-latitude high-speed solar wind. In contrast, the canonical depiction of SC 23's minimum wind configuration is of a band of slow wind undulating about the heliographic equator. Using the heliospheric adaptation of the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model (LFM-helio), we have run simulations for two idealized global solar wind conditions. The first simulation approximates the classical tilted dipole, with fast solar wind at high latitudes and a band of slow wind tilted with respect to the heliographic equator, and the second consists of global slow solar wind with equatorial circular sources of high-speed streams. The evolution of the SIRs from 0.1 AU to 2.0 AU is characterized using the amplitude and location of the maximum compressions of the plasma and the magnetic field as well as the largest deflection of solar wind flow. The relation between plasma and magnetic field compressions differs between the two cases considered. The SIRs produced by the equatorial coronal holes have similar maximum densities to those of the tilted dipole case, but the magnetic field magnitude is larger and the plasma is hotter. This suggests that evolution depends on the 3D structure of the SIR and its effects on the competitive roles of the growth of the structure, driven by compression from dynamic pressure, and and relaxation from the plasma flow and magnetic field deflections occurring in the region. Magnetic field threading SIRs and tracing plasma parcels are examined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pathak, Ashish; Raessi, Mehdi
2016-04-01
We present a three-dimensional (3D) and fully Eulerian approach to capturing the interaction between two fluids and moving rigid structures by using the fictitious domain and volume-of-fluid (VOF) methods. The solid bodies can have arbitrarily complex geometry and can pierce the fluid-fluid interface, forming contact lines. The three-phase interfaces are resolved and reconstructed by using a VOF-based methodology. Then, a consistent scheme is employed for transporting mass and momentum, allowing for simulations of three-phase flows of large density ratios. The Eulerian approach significantly simplifies numerical resolution of the kinematics of rigid bodies of complex geometry and with six degrees of freedom. The fluid-structure interaction (FSI) is computed using the fictitious domain method. The methodology was developed in a message passing interface (MPI) parallel framework accelerated with graphics processing units (GPUs). The computationally intensive solution of the pressure Poisson equation is ported to GPUs, while the remaining calculations are performed on CPUs. The performance and accuracy of the methodology are assessed using an array of test cases, focusing individually on the flow solver and the FSI in surface-piercing configurations. Finally, an application of the proposed methodology in simulations of the ocean wave energy converters is presented.
Novel 3D Approach to Flare Modeling via Interactive IDL Widget Tools
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nita, G. M.; Fleishman, G. D.; Gary, D. E.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kontar, E. P.
2011-12-01
Currently, and soon-to-be, available sophisticated 3D models of particle acceleration and transport in solar flares require a new level of user-friendly visualization and analysis tools allowing quick and easy adjustment of the model parameters and computation of realistic radiation patterns (images, spectra, polarization, etc). We report the current state of the art of these tools in development, already proved to be highly efficient for the direct flare modeling. We present an interactive IDL widget application intended to provide a flexible tool that allows the user to generate spatially resolved radio and X-ray spectra. The object-based architecture of this application provides full interaction with imported 3D magnetic field models (e.g., from an extrapolation) that may be embedded in a global coronal model. Various tools provided allow users to explore the magnetic connectivity of the model by generating magnetic field lines originating in user-specified volume positions. Such lines may serve as reference lines for creating magnetic flux tubes, which are further populated with user-defined analytical thermal/non thermal particle distribution models. By default, the application integrates IDL callable DLL and Shared libraries containing fast GS emission codes developed in FORTRAN and C++ and soft and hard X-ray codes developed in IDL. However, the interactive interface allows interchanging these default libraries with any user-defined IDL or external callable codes designed to solve the radiation transfer equation in the same or other wavelength ranges of interest. To illustrate the tool capacity and generality, we present a step-by-step real-time computation of microwave and X-ray images from realistic magnetic structures obtained from a magnetic field extrapolation preceding a real event, and compare them with the actual imaging data obtained by NORH and RHESSI instruments. We discuss further anticipated developments of the tools needed to accommodate
3D kinetic simulations of the global interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amaya, Jorge; Maneva, Yana; Deca, Jan; Lapenta, Giovanni
2015-04-01
We performed three dimensional simulations of the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere, using the self-consistent fully kinetic code iPic3D. The main objective of our simulations is to link the global interaction phenomena to the local turbulence and reconnection processes in the magnetosphere. Other numerical approaches have been used before to study this problem, including MHD, hybrid and Vlasov codes. However, only particle-in-cell codes offer the possibility to study the kinetic effects of the diffusion regions of the Earth environment that drive the energy transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere. Previous attempts to perform such kinds of simulations were limited to unphysical thermal velocities of the ion and electron species, small simulation boxes or cell sizes that do not capture the local kinetic effects at the magnetopause. Using the implicit moment Particle-in-Cell approach we performed simulations that can capture these small scale effects and, at the same time, allow to study large scale phenomena such as the bow shock and the development of the magnetotail. We expect that these results will be used to maximize the impact of future space missions, such as THOR, MMS and BepiColombo, by improving our understanding of the planetary environment, from the conditions observed in the solar wind to the turbulence and reconnection processes downstream of the bow shock.
The plasma interaction of Enceladus: 3D hybrid simulations and comparison with Cassini MAG data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kriegel, H.; Simon, S.; Müller, J.; Motschmann, U.; Saur, J.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Dougherty, M. K.
2009-12-01
We study the interaction of Saturn's small, icy moon Enceladus and its plume with the corotating magnetospheric plasma by means of a 3D hybrid simulation model, which treats the ions as individual particles and the electrons as a massless, charge-neutralizing fluid. We analyze systematically how Enceladus' internal conductivity and plasma absorption at the surface as well as charge exchange and pick-up in the plume contribute to the overall structure of the interaction region. Furthermore, we provide a comparison of our simulation results to data obtained by the Cassini magnetometer instrument. The major findings of this study are: (1) the magnetic field diffuses through the solid body of Enceladus almost unaffected, whereas plasma absorption gives rise to a symmetric depletion wake downstream of the moon; (2) due to the small gyroradii of the newly generated plume ions, the pick-up tail possesses a 2D structure; (3) the magnetic field lines drape around the plume, which triggers an Alfvén wing system that dominates the structure of Enceladus' plasma environment. Inside the plume itself, a magnetic cavity is formed; (4) besides the reproduction of the key features of the observed magnetic field signatures, evidence for variability in the locations of the active jets and in the total gas content of the plume are shown.
Competitive interaction of monovalent cations with DNA from 3D-RISM.
Giambaşu, George M; Gebala, Magdalena K; Panteva, Maria T; Luchko, Tyler; Case, David A; York, Darrin M
2015-09-30
The composition of the ion atmosphere surrounding nucleic acids affects their folding, condensation and binding to other molecules. It is thus of fundamental importance to gain predictive insight into the formation of the ion atmosphere and thermodynamic consequences when varying ionic conditions. An early step toward this goal is to benchmark computational models against quantitative experimental measurements. Herein, we test the ability of the three dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) to reproduce preferential interaction parameters determined from ion counting (IC) experiments for mixed alkali chlorides and dsDNA. Calculations agree well with experiment with slight deviations for salt concentrations >200 mM and capture the observed trend where the extent of cation accumulation around the DNA varies inversely with its ionic size. Ion distributions indicate that the smaller, more competitive cations accumulate to a greater extent near the phosphoryl groups, penetrating deeper into the grooves. In accord with experiment, calculated IC profiles do not vary with sequence, although the predicted ion distributions in the grooves are sequence and ion size dependent. Calculations on other nucleic acid conformations predict that the variation in linear charge density has a minor effect on the extent of cation competition. PMID:26304542
3D magnetospheric parallel hybrid multi-grid method applied to planet-plasma interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leclercq, L.; Modolo, R.; Leblanc, F.; Hess, S.; Mancini, M.
2016-03-01
We present a new method to exploit multiple refinement levels within a 3D parallel hybrid model, developed to study planet-plasma interactions. This model is based on the hybrid formalism: ions are kinetically treated whereas electrons are considered as a inertia-less fluid. Generally, ions are represented by numerical particles whose size equals the volume of the cells. Particles that leave a coarse grid subsequently entering a refined region are split into particles whose volume corresponds to the volume of the refined cells. The number of refined particles created from a coarse particle depends on the grid refinement rate. In order to conserve velocity distribution functions and to avoid calculations of average velocities, particles are not coalesced. Moreover, to ensure the constancy of particles' shape function sizes, the hybrid method is adapted to allow refined particles to move within a coarse region. Another innovation of this approach is the method developed to compute grid moments at interfaces between two refinement levels. Indeed, the hybrid method is adapted to accurately account for the special grid structure at the interfaces, avoiding any overlapping grid considerations. Some fundamental test runs were performed to validate our approach (e.g. quiet plasma flow, Alfven wave propagation). Lastly, we also show a planetary application of the model, simulating the interaction between Jupiter's moon Ganymede and the Jovian plasma.
Competitive interaction of monovalent cations with DNA from 3D-RISM
Giambaşu, George M.; Gebala, Magdalena K.; Panteva, Maria T.; Luchko, Tyler; Case, David A.; York, Darrin M.
2015-01-01
The composition of the ion atmosphere surrounding nucleic acids affects their folding, condensation and binding to other molecules. It is thus of fundamental importance to gain predictive insight into the formation of the ion atmosphere and thermodynamic consequences when varying ionic conditions. An early step toward this goal is to benchmark computational models against quantitative experimental measurements. Herein, we test the ability of the three dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) to reproduce preferential interaction parameters determined from ion counting (IC) experiments for mixed alkali chlorides and dsDNA. Calculations agree well with experiment with slight deviations for salt concentrations >200 mM and capture the observed trend where the extent of cation accumulation around the DNA varies inversely with its ionic size. Ion distributions indicate that the smaller, more competitive cations accumulate to a greater extent near the phosphoryl groups, penetrating deeper into the grooves. In accord with experiment, calculated IC profiles do not vary with sequence, although the predicted ion distributions in the grooves are sequence and ion size dependent. Calculations on other nucleic acid conformations predict that the variation in linear charge density has a minor effect on the extent of cation competition. PMID:26304542
Chemical Structure-Biological Activity Models for Pharmacophores’ 3D-Interactions
Putz, Mihai V.; Duda-Seiman, Corina; Duda-Seiman, Daniel; Putz, Ana-Maria; Alexandrescu, Iulia; Mernea, Maria; Avram, Speranta
2016-01-01
Within medicinal chemistry nowadays, the so-called pharmaco-dynamics seeks for qualitative (for understanding) and quantitative (for predicting) mechanisms/models by which given chemical structure or series of congeners actively act on biological sites either by focused interaction/therapy or by diffuse/hazardous influence. To this aim, the present review exposes three of the fertile directions in approaching the biological activity by chemical structural causes: the special computing trace of the algebraic structure-activity relationship (SPECTRAL-SAR) offering the full analytical counterpart for multi-variate computational regression, the minimal topological difference (MTD) as the revived precursor for comparative molecular field analyses (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA); all of these methods and algorithms were presented, discussed and exemplified on relevant chemical medicinal systems as proton pump inhibitors belonging to the 4-indolyl,2-guanidinothiazole class of derivatives blocking the acid secretion from parietal cells in the stomach, the 1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)-methyl]-6-(phenylthio)thymine congeners’ (HEPT ligands) antiviral activity against Human Immunodeficiency Virus of first type (HIV-1) and new pharmacophores in treating severe genetic disorders (like depression and psychosis), respectively, all involving 3D pharmacophore interactions. PMID:27399692
Chemical Structure-Biological Activity Models for Pharmacophores' 3D-Interactions.
Putz, Mihai V; Duda-Seiman, Corina; Duda-Seiman, Daniel; Putz, Ana-Maria; Alexandrescu, Iulia; Mernea, Maria; Avram, Speranta
2016-01-01
Within medicinal chemistry nowadays, the so-called pharmaco-dynamics seeks for qualitative (for understanding) and quantitative (for predicting) mechanisms/models by which given chemical structure or series of congeners actively act on biological sites either by focused interaction/therapy or by diffuse/hazardous influence. To this aim, the present review exposes three of the fertile directions in approaching the biological activity by chemical structural causes: the special computing trace of the algebraic structure-activity relationship (SPECTRAL-SAR) offering the full analytical counterpart for multi-variate computational regression, the minimal topological difference (MTD) as the revived precursor for comparative molecular field analyses (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA); all of these methods and algorithms were presented, discussed and exemplified on relevant chemical medicinal systems as proton pump inhibitors belonging to the 4-indolyl,2-guanidinothiazole class of derivatives blocking the acid secretion from parietal cells in the stomach, the 1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)-methyl]-6-(phenylthio)thymine congeners' (HEPT ligands) antiviral activity against Human Immunodeficiency Virus of first type (HIV-1) and new pharmacophores in treating severe genetic disorders (like depression and psychosis), respectively, all involving 3D pharmacophore interactions. PMID:27399692
Earthscape, a Multi-Purpose Interactive 3d Globe Viewer for Hybrid Data Visualization and Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarthou, A.; Mas, S.; Jacquin, M.; Moreno, N.; Salamon, A.
2015-08-01
The hybrid visualization and interaction tool EarthScape is presented here. The software is able to display simultaneously LiDAR point clouds, draped videos with moving footprint, volume scientific data (using volume rendering, isosurface and slice plane), raster data such as still satellite images, vector data and 3D models such as buildings or vehicles. The application runs on touch screen devices such as tablets. The software is based on open source libraries, such as OpenSceneGraph, osgEarth and OpenCV, and shader programming is used to implement volume rendering of scientific data. The next goal of EarthScape is to perform data analysis using ENVI Services Engine, a cloud data analysis solution. EarthScape is also designed to be a client of Jagwire which provides multisource geo-referenced video fluxes. When all these components will be included, EarthScape will be a multi-purpose platform that will provide at the same time data analysis, hybrid visualization and complex interactions. The software is available on demand for free at france@exelisvis.com.
Trelease, R B
1996-01-01
Advances in computer visualization and user interface technologies have enabled development of "virtual reality" programs that allow users to perceive and to interact with objects in artificial three-dimensional environments. Such technologies were used to create an image database and program for studying the human skull, a specimen that has become increasingly expensive and scarce. Stereoscopic image pairs of a museum-quality skull were digitized from multiple views. For each view, the stereo pairs were interlaced into a single, field-sequential stereoscopic picture using an image processing program. The resulting interlaced image files are organized in an interactive multimedia program. At run-time, gray-scale 3-D images are displayed on a large-screen computer monitor and observed through liquid-crystal shutter goggles. Users can then control the program and change views with a mouse and cursor to point-and-click on screen-level control words ("buttons"). For each view of the skull, an ID control button can be used to overlay pointers and captions for important structures. Pointing and clicking on "hidden buttons" overlying certain structures triggers digitized audio spoken word descriptions or mini lectures. PMID:8793223
3D Loops Evolutions (Twists And Expansions) And Magnetic Fields Interactions Studied With SOHO/EIT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Portier-Fozzani, Fabrice
1999-10-01
I will present some results from my PHD/Thesis. With SOHO/EIT, 3D Technics such as stereovision and "vision by shape" were developped to study coronal structures evolution. To discribe loops morphology, we adapted with M. Aschwanden a torus fit which include twist evolution. On a quick magnetic flux emergence (August 5th 1997), the twist were decreasing while the loop expand. During a long time evolution (July - August 1996), flaring activities were well correlated with sudden decrease in the twist. These 2 results correspond to the evolution expected with the Parker's formula (1977). Magnetic field lines interactions were also analyzed. From multi-wavelengths observations, we had studied some morphological and topological changes which can be interpreted as interactions between open and closed field lines (ie between Coronal Holes and Active Region Loops). Then, relationship between CME/Flares formation and our different instabilities studied were analyzed in the aim to find, in the futur, good criteria concerning space weather.
MACKEY, T.C.
2006-03-14
M&D Professional Services, Inc. (M&D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DSV Integrity Project-DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses)''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14. The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The overall seismic analysis of the DSTs is being performed with the general-purpose finite element code ANSYS. The overall model used for the seismic analysis of the DSTs includes the DST structure, the contained waste, and the surrounding soil. The seismic analysis of the DSTs must address the fluid-structure interaction behavior and sloshing response of the primary tank and contained liquid. ANSYS has demonstrated capabilities for structural analysis, but the capabilities and limitations of ANSYS to perform fluid-structure interaction are less well understood. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the capabilities and investigate the limitations of ANSYS for performing a fluid-structure interaction analysis of the primary tank and contained waste. To this end, the ANSYS solutions are benchmarked against theoretical solutions appearing in BNL 1995, when such theoretical solutions exist. When theoretical solutions were not available, comparisons were made to theoretical solutions of similar problems and to the results from Dytran simulations. The capabilities and limitations of the finite element code Dytran for performing a fluid-structure interaction analysis of the primary tank and contained waste were explored in a parallel investigation (Abatt 2006). In conjunction with the results of the global ANSYS analysis
Tctex-1, a Novel Interaction Partner of Rab3D, Is Required for Osteoclastic Bone Resorption ▿
Pavlos, Nathan J.; Cheng, Tak Sum; Qin, An; Ng, Pei Ying; Feng, Hao-Tian; Ang, Estabelle S. M.; Carrello, Amerigo; Sung, Ching-Hwa; Jahn, Reinhard; Zheng, Ming-Hao; Xu, Jiake
2011-01-01
Vesicular transport along microtubules must be strictly regulated to sustain the unique structural and functional polarization of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. However, the molecular mechanisms bridging these vesicle-microtubule interactions remain largely obscure. Rab3D, a member of the Rab3 subfamily (Rab3A/B/C/D) of small exocytotic GTPases, represents a core component of the osteoclastic vesicle transport machinery. Here, we identify a new Rab3D-interacting partner, Tctex-1, a light chain of the cytoplasmic dynein microtubule motor complex, by a yeast two-hybrid screen. We demonstrate that Tctex-1 binds specifically to Rab3D in a GTP-dependent manner and co-occupies Rab3D-bearing vesicles in bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Tctex-1 and Rab3D intimately associate with the dynein motor complex and microtubules in osteoclasts. Finally, targeted disruption of Tctex-1 by RNA interference significantly impairs bone resorption capacity and mislocalizes Rab3D vesicles in osteoclasts, attesting to the notion that components of the Rab3D-trafficking pathway contribute to the maintenance of osteoclastic resorptive function. PMID:21262767
Saturn's magnetosphere interaction with Titan for T5 encounter: 3D hybrid modeling. First results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simpson, D. G.; Lipatov, A. S.; Sittler, E. C.; Hartle, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.
2011-12-01
Wave-particle interactions play a very important role in the plasma dynamics near Titan: mass loading, excitation of low-frequency waves and formation of the particle velocity distribution function (e.g. ring/shell-like distributions, etc.) The kinetic approach is important for estimating collision processes; e.g., charge exchange. In this report we discuss results of 3D hybrid modeling of the interaction between Saturn's magnetosphere and Titan's atmosphere/ionosphere. The modeling is based on recent analysis of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) and the Cassini Ion, and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements during the T5 flyby through Titan's ram-side and polar ionosphere [1,2]. Magnetic field data was used from the MAG instrument [3]. In our model the background ions (O+, H+), all pickup ions, and ionospheric ions are considered as a particles, whereas the electrons are described as a fluid. Inhomogeneous photoionization (in the dayside ionosphere), electron-impact ionization, and charge exchange are included in our model. The temperature of the background electrons and pickup electrons was also incorporated into the generalized Ohm's law. We also take into account collisions between ions and neutrals. In our hybrid simulations we use Chamberlain profiles for the exosphere's components. The moon is considered as a weakly conducting body. Special attention will be paid to comparing the modeling results with a single-fluid multi-species 3D MHD model [4], which included complex chemistry but does not produce finite gyroradius and kinetic effects. References [1] Sittler, E.C., et al., Energy Deposition Processes in Titan's Atmosphere and Its Induced Magnetosphere. In: Titan from Cassini-Huygens, Brown, R.H., Lebreton, J.P., Waite, J.H., Eds., Springer, (Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London, New York), pp. 393-455. [2] Agren, K., et al., On magnetosphere electron impact ionization and dynamics in Titan's ram-side and polar ionosphere -- a Cassini case study, Ann
3D Fluid-Structure Modeling of a Monofin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monier, L.; Razafimahery, F.; Rakotomanana, L.
2010-10-01
The purpose of this paper is to develop a numerical modelisation for the behaviour of a monofin. We have developped a fluid struture model simulating the movement of a fin in a swimming pool. We first present the geometry and the equations and then proceed to different numerical experiments in order to validate the model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guruswamy, Guru P.
1994-01-01
Strong interactions can occur between the flow about an aerospace vehicle and its structural components resulting in several important aeroelastic phenomena. These aeroelastic phenomena can significantly influence the performance of the vehicle. At present, closed-form solutions are available for aeroelastic computations when flows are in either the linear subsonic or supersonic range. However, for aeroelasticity involving complex nonlinear flows with shock waves, vortices, flow separations, and aerodynamic heating, computational methods are still under development. These complex aeroelastic interactions can be dangerous and limit the performance of aircraft. Examples of these detrimental effects are aircraft with highly swept wings experiencing vortex-induced aeroelastic oscillations, transonic regime at which the flutter speed is low, aerothermoelastic loads that play a critical role in the design of high-speed vehicles, and flow separations that often lead to buffeting with undesirable structural oscillations. The simulation of these complex aeroelastic phenomena requires an integrated analysis of fluids and structures. This report presents a summary of the development, applications, and procedures to use the multidisciplinary computer code ENSAERO. This code is based on the Euler/Navier-Stokes flow equations and modal/finite-element structural equations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Jifeng; Dabiri, John O.
2007-11-01
This paper presents an approach to quantify the unsteady fluid forces, moments and mass transport generated by swimming animals, based on measurements of the surrounding flow field. These goals are accomplished within a framework that is independent of the vorticity field, making it unnecessary to directly resolve boundary layers on the animal, body vortex interactions, or interactions among vortex lines in the wake. Instead, the method identifies Lagrangian coherent structures in the flow, whose dynamics in flows with compact vorticity are shown to be well approximated by potential flow concepts, especially the Kirchhoff and deformation potentials from deformable body theory. Examples of the application of these methods are given for pectoral fin locomotion of the bluegill sunfish and undulatory swimming of jellyfish, and the methods are validated by analysis of a canonical starting vortex ring flow. The transition to a Lagrangian approach toward animal swimming measurements suggests the possibility of implementing recently developed particle tracking (vis-à-vis DPIV) techniques for fully three-dimensional measurements of animal swimming.
Stoichiometry of lipid interactions with transmembrane proteins--Deduced from the 3D structures.
Páli, Tibor; Bashtovyy, Denys; Marsh, Derek
2006-05-01
The stoichiometry of the first shell of lipids interacting with a transmembrane protein is defined operationally by the population of spin-labeled lipid chains whose motion is restricted directly by the protein. Interaction stoichiometries have been determined experimentally for a wide range of alpha-helical integral membrane proteins by using spin-label ESR spectroscopy. Here, we determine the spatially defined number of first-shell lipids at the hydrophobic perimeter of integral membrane proteins whose 3D structure has been determined by X-ray crystallography and lipid-protein interactions characterized by spin-labeling. Molecular modeling is used to build a single shell of lipids surrounding transmembrane structures derived from the PDB. Constrained energy optimization of the protein-lipid assemblies is performed by molecular mechanics. For relatively small proteins (up to 7-12 transmembrane helices), the geometrical first shell corresponds to that defined experimentally by perturbation of the lipid-chain dynamics. For larger, multi-subunit alpha-helical proteins, the lipids perturbed directly by the protein may either exceed or be less in number than those that can be accommodated at the intramembranous perimeter. In these latter cases, the motionally restricted spin-labeled lipids can be augmented by intercalation, or can correspond to a specific subpopulation at the protein interface, respectively. For monomeric beta-barrel proteins, the geometrical lipid stoichiometry corresponds to that determined from lipid mobility for a 22-stranded barrel, but fewer lipids are motionally restricted than can be accommodated around an eight-stranded barrel. Deviations from the geometrical first shell, in the beta-barrel case, are for the smaller protein with a highly curved barrel. PMID:16641489
Zhang, Yachao; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Hong
2013-12-12
The 3d-4f exchange interaction plays an important role in many lanthanide based molecular magnetic materials such as single-molecule magnets and magnetic refrigerants. In this work, we study the 3d-4f magnetic exchange interactions in a series of Cu(II)-Gd(III) (3d(9)-4f(7)) dinuclear complexes based on the numerical atomic basis-norm-conserving pseudopotential method and density functional theory plus the Hubbard U correction approach (DFT+U). We obtain improved description of the 4f electrons by including the semicore 5s5p states in the valence part of the Gd-pseudopotential. The Hubbard U correction is employed to treat the strongly correlated Cu-3d and Gd-4f electrons, which significantly improve the agreement of the predicted exchange constants, J, with experiment, indicating the importance of accurate description of the local Coulomb correlation. The high efficiency of the DFT+U approach enables us to perform calculations with molecular crystals, which in general improve the agreement between theory and experiment, achieving a mean absolute error smaller than 2 cm(-1). In addition, through analyzing the physical effects of U, we identify two magnetic exchange pathways. One is ferromagnetic and involves an interaction between the Cu-3d, O-2p (bridge ligand), and the majority-spin Gd-5d orbitals. The other one is antiferromagnetic and involves Cu-3d, O-2p, and the empty minority-spin Gd-4f orbitals, which is suppressed by the planar Cu-O-O-Gd structure. This study demonstrates the accuracy of the DFT+U method for evaluating the 3d-4f exchange interactions, provides a better understanding of the exchange mechanism in the Cu(II)-Gd(III) complexes, and paves the way for exploiting the magnetic properties of the 3d-4f compounds containing lanthanides other than Gd. PMID:24274078
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thompson, W. E.
The behavior of fluids, gas, and mechanical components in turbomachinery is investigated. The prediction of aerodynamically induced vibrations in turbomachinery blading is described, and the measurement of aerodynamic work during fan flutter and the calculation of the vibration of an elastically mounted cylinder from experimental forced oscillation data are discussed. Attention is given to tangential vibration of integral turbine blades due to partial admission and to the effects of an annular fluid on the critical speed of a rotating shaft. The analysis of rotordynamic coefficients for convergent-tapered annular seals is examined and results of studies of fluid forces on a whirling centrifugal impeller in a vaneless diffuser are reported. Finally, the potential interaction between a centrifugal impeller and a vaned diffuser and the excitation of compressor/duct are examined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dietl, Tomasz
The magnitude of ferromagnetic coupling driven by inter-band (Bloembergen-Rowland - BR) and intra-band (Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yoshida - RKKY) spin polarization is evaluated within kp theory for topological semimetals Hg1-xMnxTe and Hg1-xMnxSe as well as for 3D Dirac semimetal (Cd1-xMnx)3As2. In these systems Mn2+ ions do not introduce any carriers. Since, however, both conduction and valence bands are built from anion p-type wave functions, hybridization of Mn d levels with neighboring anion p states leads to spin-dependent p - d coupling of both electrons and holes to localized Mn spins, resulting in sizable inter-band spin polarization and, thus in large BR interactions. We demonstrate that this ferromagnetic coupling, together with antiferromagnetic superexchange, elucidate a specific dependence of spin-glass freezing temperature on x, determined experimentally for these systems. Furthermore, by employing a multi-orbital tight-binding method, we find that superexchange becomes ferromagnetic when Mn is replaced by Cr or V. Since Cr should act as an isoelectronic impurity in HgTe, this opens a road for realization of ferromagnetic topological insulators based on (Hg,Cr)Te.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghazanfarian, Jafar; Saghatchi, Roozbeh; Gorji-Bandpy, Mofid
2015-12-01
This paper studies the two-dimensional (2D) water-entry and exit of a rotating circular cylinder using the Sub-Particle Scale (SPS) turbulence model of a Lagrangian particle-based Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method. The full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations along with the continuity have been solved as the governing equations of the problem. The accuracy of the numerical code is verified using the case of water-entry and exit of a nonrotating circular cylinder. The numerical simulations of water-entry and exit of the rotating circular cylinder are performed at Froude numbers of 2, 5, 8, and specific gravities of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.75, rotating at the dimensionless rates of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75. The effect of governing parameters and vortex shedding behind the cylinder on the trajectory curves, velocity components in the flow field, and the deformation of free surface for both cases have been investigated in detail. It is seen that the rotation has a great effect on the curvature of the trajectory path and velocity components in water-entry and exit cases due to the interaction of imposed lift and drag forces with the inertia force.
Plunkett, Pat; Hu, Jonathan; Siefert, Christopher; Atzberger, Paul J.
2014-08-07
We develop stochastic mixed finite element methods for spatially adaptive simulations of fluid–structure interactions when subject to thermal fluctuations. To account for thermal fluctuations, we introduce a discrete fluctuation–dissipation balance condition to develop compatible stochastic driving fields for our discretization. We also perform analysis that shows our condition is sufficient to ensure results consistent with statistical mechanics. We show the Gibbs–Boltzmann distribution is invariant under the stochastic dynamics of the semi-discretization. To generate efficiently the required stochastic driving fields, we develop a Gibbs sampler based on iterative methods and multigrid to generate fields with O(N) computational complexity. Our stochastic methods provide an alternative to uniform discretizations on periodic domains that rely on Fast Fourier Transforms. To demonstrate in practice our stochastic computational methods, we investigate within channel geometries having internal obstacles and no-slip walls how the mobility/diffusivity of particles depends on location. Furthermore, our methods extend the applicability of fluctuating hydrodynamic approaches by allowing for spatially adaptive resolution of the mechanics and for domains that have complex geometries relevant in many applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kees, C. E.; Farthing, M.; Dimakopoulos, A.; DeLataillade, T.
2015-12-01
Performance analysis and optimization of coastal and navigation structures is becoming feasible due to recent improvements in numerical methods for multiphase flows and the steady increase in capacity and availability of high performance computing resources. Now that the concept of fully three-dimensional air/water flow modelling for real world engineering analysis is achieving acceptance by the wider engineering community, it is critical to expand careful comparative studies on verification,validation, benchmarking, and uncertainty quantification for the variety of competing numerical methods that are continuing to evolve. Furthermore, uncertainty still remains about the relevance of secondary processes such as surface tension, air compressibility, air entrainment, and solid phase (structure) modelling so that questions about continuum mechanical theory and mathematical analysis of multiphase flow are still required. Two of the most popular and practical numerical approaches for large-scale engineering analysis are the Volume-Of-Fluid (VOF) and Level Set (LS) approaches. In this work we will present a publically available verification and validation test set for air-water-structure interaction problems as well as computational and physical model results including a hybrid VOF-LS method, traditional VOF methods, and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) results. The test set repository and test problem formats will also be presented in order to facilitate future comparative studies and reproduction of scientific results.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kastoudi, Denise
2011-01-01
The gaming and interactional nature of the virtual environment of Second Life offers opportunities for language learning beyond the traditional pedagogy. This study case examined the potential of 3D virtual quest games to enhance vocabulary acquisition through interaction, negotiation of meaning and noticing. Four adult students of English at…
Winzen, A; Roidl, B; Schröder, W
2015-10-01
The increasing interest in the development of small flying air vehicles has given rise to a strong need to thoroughly understand low-speed aerodynamics. The barn owl is a well-known example of a biological system that possesses a high level of adaptation to its habitat and as such can inspire future small-scale air vehicle design. The combination of the owl-specific wing geometry and plumage adaptations with the flexibility of the wing structure yields a highly complex flow field, still enabling the owl to perform stable and at the same time silent low-speed gliding flight. To investigate the effects leading to such a characteristic flight, time-resolved stereoscopic particle-image velocimetry (TR-SPIV) measurements are performed on a prepared natural owl wing in a range of angles of attack 0° ≤ α ≤ 6° and Reynolds numbers 40,000 ≤ Re(c) ≤ 120,000 based on the chord length at a position located at 30% of the halfspan from the owl's body. The flow field does not show any flow separation on the suction side, whereas flow separation is found on the pressure side for all investigated cases. The flow field on the pressure side is characterized by large-scale vortices which interact with the flexible wing structure. The good agreement of the shedding frequency of the pressure side vortices with the frequency of the trailing-edge deflection indicates that the structural deformation is induced by the flow field on the pressure side. Additionally, the reduction of the time-averaged mean wing curvature at high Reynolds numbers indicates a passive lift-control mechanism that provides constant lift in the entire flight envelope of the owl. PMID:26372422
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grujicic, M.; Bell, W. C.; Pandurangan, B.; Glomski, P. S.
2011-08-01
To combat the problem of traumatic brain injury (TBI), a signature injury of the current military conflicts, there is an urgent need to design head protection systems with superior blast/ballistic impact mitigation capabilities. Toward that end, the blast impact mitigation performance of an advanced combat helmet (ACH) head protection system equipped with polyurea suspension pads and subjected to two different blast peak pressure loadings has been investigated computationally. A fairly detailed (Lagrangian) finite-element model of a helmet/skull/brain assembly is first constructed and placed into an Eulerian air domain through which a single planar blast wave propagates. A combined Eulerian/Lagrangian transient nonlinear dynamics computational fluid/solid interaction analysis is next conducted in order to assess the extent of reduction in intra-cranial shock-wave ingress (responsible for TBI). This was done by comparing temporal evolutions of intra-cranial normal and shear stresses for the cases of an unprotected head and the helmet-protected head and by correlating these quantities with the three most common types of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), i.e., axonal damage, contusion, and subdural hemorrhage. The results obtained show that the ACH provides some level of protection against all investigated types of mTBI and that the level of protection increases somewhat with an increase in blast peak pressure. In order to rationalize the aforementioned findings, a shockwave propagation/reflection analysis is carried out for the unprotected head and helmet-protected head cases. The analysis qualitatively corroborated the results pertaining to the blast-mitigation efficacy of an ACH, but also suggested that there are additional shockwave energy dissipation phenomena which play an important role in the mechanical response of the unprotected/protected head to blast impact.
Bordner, J.; Saied, F.
1996-12-31
GLab3D is an enhancement of an interactive environment (MGLab) for experimenting with iterative solvers and multigrid algorithms. It is implemented in MATLAB. The new version has built-in 3D elliptic pde`s and several iterative methods and preconditioners that were not available in the original version. A sparse direct solver option has also been included. The multigrid solvers have also been extended to 3D. The discretization and pde domains are restricted to standard finite differences on the unit square/cube. The power of this software studies in the fact that no programming is needed to solve, for example, the convection-diffusion equation in 3D with TFQMR and a customized V-cycle preconditioner, for a variety of problem sizes and mesh Reynolds, numbers. In addition to the graphical user interface, some sample drivers are included to show how experiments can be composed using the underlying suite of problems and solvers.
A Software System for Filling Complex Holes in 3D Meshes by Flexible Interacting Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamazaki, Daisuke; Savchenko, Vladimir
3D meshes generated by acquisition devices such as laser range scanners often contain holes due to occlusion, etc. In practice, these holes are extremely geometrically and topologically complex. We propose a heuristic hole filling technique using particle systems to fill complex holes with arbitrary topology in 3D meshes. Our approach includes the following steps: hole identification, base surface creation, particle distribution, triangulation, and mesh refinement. We demonstrate the functionality of the proposed surface retouching system on synthetic and real data.
Newe, Axel; Becker, Linda; Schenk, Andrea
2014-01-01
Background & Objectives The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the de-facto standard for the exchange of electronic documents. It is platform-independent, suitable for the exchange of medical data, and allows for the embedding of three-dimensional (3D) surface mesh models. In this article, we present the first clinical routine application of interactive 3D surface mesh models which have been integrated into PDF files for the presentation and the exchange of Computer Assisted Surgery Planning (CASP) results in liver surgery. We aimed to prove the feasibility of applying 3D PDF in medical reporting and investigated the user experience with this new technology. Methods We developed an interactive 3D PDF report document format and implemented a software tool to create these reports automatically. After more than 1000 liver CASP cases that have been reported in clinical routine using our 3D PDF report, an international user survey was carried out online to evaluate the user experience. Results Our solution enables the user to interactively explore the anatomical configuration and to have different analyses and various resection proposals displayed within a 3D PDF document covering only a single page that acts more like a software application than like a typical PDF file (“PDF App”). The new 3D PDF report offers many advantages over the previous solutions. According to the results of the online survey, the users have assessed the pragmatic quality (functionality, usability, perspicuity, efficiency) as well as the hedonic quality (attractiveness, novelty) very positively. Conclusion The usage of 3D PDF for reporting and sharing CASP results is feasible and well accepted by the target audience. Using interactive PDF with embedded 3D models is an enabler for presenting and exchanging complex medical information in an easy and platform-independent way. Medical staff as well as patients can benefit from the possibilities provided by 3D PDF. Our results open the door for a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orchini, A.; Mazzino, A.; Guerrero, J.; Festa, R.; Boragno, C.
2013-09-01
Linear stability analysis of an elastically anchored flat plate in a uniform flow is investigated both analytically and numerically. The analytical formulation explicitly takes into account the effect of the wake on the plate by means of Theodorsen's theory. Three different parameters non-trivially rule the observed dynamics: mass density ratio between plate and fluid, spring elastic constant, and distance between the plate center of mass and the spring anchor point on the plate. We found relationships between these parameters which rule the transition between stable equilibrium and fluttering. The shape of the resulting marginal curve has been successfully verified by high Reynolds number numerical simulations. Finally, the limiting case corresponding to a simply supported rigid rod is also analyzed and the resulting flapping instability traced back to a simple resonance condition. Our findings are of interest in applications related to energy harvesting by fluid-structure interaction, a problem that has recently attracted a great deal of attention. The main aim in that context is to identify the optimal physical/geometrical system configuration leading to large sustained motion, which is the source of energy one aims to extract.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sommer, David; Peterson, Sean D.
2012-11-01
Voiced speech is a complex process that involves coupled interactions between expelled air and the vocal fold structure. Numerical simulations of this process are difficult due to the unsteady nature of the flow and boundary conditions, while experimental investigations are generally limited in the structural modeling. To bridge this gap, an experimental platform is investigated that couples a mechanical flow facility featuring instrumented and actuated walls, with a numerical structure solver. Specifically, a proof-of-concept experimental apparatus consisting of a flat plate oriented normal to a uniform jet is developed. The plate is instrumented with pressure sensors, which record the pressure distribution caused by the impinging jet. A real-time controller reads the pressure distribution and computes the integrated force on the plate. The resulting force is applied to a numerical structure model comprising a spring-mass-damper system, in which the dynamical parameters can be adjusted in software. The axial position and velocity of the plate are updated in real time based upon the numerical dynamics solution. In the future, this experimental facility will be extended to model two degrees of freedom asymmetric vocal fold motion with full fluid coupling. Pressure sensors distributed across the solid interface, as opposed to direct force sensors, will help explicate the effect of fluid-structure coupling on tissue loading and flow properties, thus allowing for more detailed validation and improvement of computational models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ju, Yaping; Liu, Hui; Yao, Ziyun; Xing, Peng; Zhang, Chuhua
2015-11-01
Up to present, there have been no studies concerning the application of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis to the lifetime estimation of multi-stage centrifugal compressors under dangerous unsteady aerodynamic excitations. In this paper, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of a three-stage natural gas pipeline centrifugal compressor are performed under near-choke and near-surge conditions, and the unsteady aerodynamic pressure acting on impeller blades are obtained. Then computational structural dynamics (CSD) analysis is conducted through a one-way coupling FSI model to predict alternating stresses in impeller blades. Finally, the compressor lifetime is estimated using the nominal stress approach. The FSI results show that the impellers of latter stages suffer larger fluctuation stresses but smaller mean stresses than those at preceding stages under near-choke and near-surge conditions. The most dangerous position in the compressor is found to be located near the leading edge of the last-stage impeller blade. Compressor lifetime estimation shows that the investigated compressor can run up to 102.7 h under the near-choke condition and 200.2 h under the near-surge condition. This study is expected to provide a scientific guidance for the operation safety of natural gas pipeline centrifugal compressors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhe; Leduc, Julien; Nunez-Ramirez, Jorge; Combescure, Alain; Marongiu, Jean-Christophe
2015-04-01
We propose a non-intrusive numerical coupling method for transient fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems simulated by means of different discretization methods: smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and finite element (FE) methods for the fluid and the solid sub-domains, respectively. As a partitioned coupling method, the present algorithm can ensure a zero interface energy during the whole period of numerical simulation, even in the presence of large interface motion. In other words, the time integrations of the two sub-domains (second order Runge-Kutta scheme for fluid and Newmark integrator for solid) are synchronized. Thanks to this energy-conserving feature, one can preserve the minimal order of accuracy in time and the numerical stability of the FSI simulations, which are validated with a 1D and a 2D trivial numerical test cases. Additionally, some other 2D FSI simulations involving large interface motion have also been carried out with the proposed SPH-FE coupling method. Finally, an example of aquaplaning problem is given in order to show the feasibility of such coupling method in multi-dimensional applications with complicated structural geometries.
Wu, Wei; Pott, Desiree; Mazza, Beniamino; Sironi, Tommaso; Dordoni, Elena; Chiastra, Claudio; Petrini, Lorenza; Pennati, Giancarlo; Dubini, Gabriele; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Sonntag, Simon; Kuetting, Maximilian; Migliavacca, Francesco
2016-02-01
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) represents an established recent technology in a high risk patient base. To better understand TAVR performance, a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model of a self-expandable transcatheter aortic valve was proposed. After an in vitro durability experiment was done to test the valve, the FSI model was built to reproduce the experimental test. Lastly, the FSI model was used to simulate the virtual implant and performance in a patient-specific case. Results showed that the leaflet opening area during the cycle was similar to that of the in vitro test and the difference of the maximum leaflet opening between the two methodologies was of 0.42%. Furthermore, the FSI simulation quantified the pressure and velocity fields. The computed strain amplitudes in the stent frame showed that this distribution in the patient-specific case is highly affected by the aortic root anatomy, suggesting that the in vitro tests that follow standards might not be representative of the real behavior of the percutaneous valve. The patient-specific case also compared in vivo literature data on fast opening and closing characteristics of the aortic valve during systolic ejection. FSI simulations represent useful tools in determining design errors or optimization potentials before the fabrication of aortic valve prototypes and the performance of tests. PMID:26294009
A Workstation for Interactive Display and Quantitative Analysis of 3-D and 4-D Biomedical Images
Robb, R.A.; Heffeman, P.B.; Camp, J.J.; Hanson, D.P.
1986-01-01
The capability to extract objective and quantitatively accurate information from 3-D radiographic biomedical images has not kept pace with the capabilities to produce the images themselves. This is rather an ironic paradox, since on the one hand the new 3-D and 4-D imaging capabilities promise significant potential for providing greater specificity and sensitivity (i.e., precise objective discrimination and accurate quantitative measurement of body tissue characteristics and function) in clinical diagnostic and basic investigative imaging procedures than ever possible before, but on the other hand, the momentous advances in computer and associated electronic imaging technology which have made these 3-D imaging capabilities possible have not been concomitantly developed for full exploitation of these capabilities. Therefore, we have developed a powerful new microcomputer-based system which permits detailed investigations and evaluation of 3-D and 4-D (dynamic 3-D) biomedical images. The system comprises a special workstation to which all the information in a large 3-D image data base is accessible for rapid display, manipulation, and measurement. The system provides important capabilities for simultaneously representing and analyzing both structural and functional data and their relationships in various organs of the body. This paper provides a detailed description of this system, as well as some of the rationale, background, theoretical concepts, and practical considerations related to system implementation. ImagesFigure 5Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16
Art-Science-Technology collaboration through immersive, interactive 3D visualization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kellogg, L. H.
2014-12-01
At the W. M. Keck Center for Active Visualization in Earth Sciences (KeckCAVES), a group of geoscientists and computer scientists collaborate to develop and use of interactive, immersive, 3D visualization technology to view, manipulate, and interpret data for scientific research. The visual impact of immersion in a CAVE environment can be extremely compelling, and from the outset KeckCAVES scientists have collaborated with artists to bring this technology to creative works, including theater and dance performance, installations, and gamification. The first full-fledged collaboration designed and produced a performance called "Collapse: Suddenly falling down", choreographed by Della Davidson, which investigated the human and cultural response to natural and man-made disasters. Scientific data (lidar scans of disaster sites, such as landslides and mine collapses) were fully integrated into the performance by the Sideshow Physical Theatre. This presentation will discuss both the technological and creative characteristics of, and lessons learned from the collaboration. Many parallels between the artistic and scientific process emerged. We observed that both artists and scientists set out to investigate a topic, solve a problem, or answer a question. Refining that question or problem is an essential part of both the creative and scientific workflow. Both artists and scientists seek understanding (in this case understanding of natural disasters). Differences also emerged; the group noted that the scientists sought clarity (including but not limited to quantitative measurements) as a means to understanding, while the artists embraced ambiguity, also as a means to understanding. Subsequent art-science-technology collaborations have responded to evolving technology for visualization and include gamification as a means to explore data, and use of augmented reality for informal learning in museum settings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S.; Singh, Reetu; Bhethanabotla, Venkat R.
2010-11-01
Biosensors typically operate in liquid media for detection of biomarkers and suffer from fouling resulting from nonspecific binding of protein molecules to the device surface. In the current work, using a coupled field finite element fluid-structure interaction simulation, we have identified that fluid motion induced by high intensity sound waves, such as those propagating in these sensors, can lead to the efficient removal of the nonspecifically bound proteins thereby eliminating sensor fouling. We present a computational analysis of the acoustic-streaming phenomenon induced biofouling elimination by surface acoustic-waves (SAWs) propagating on a lithium niobate piezoelectric crystal. The transient solutions generated from the developed coupled field fluid solid interaction model are utilized to predict trends in acoustic-streaming induced forces for varying design parameters such as voltage intensity, device frequency, fluid viscosity, and density. We utilize these model predictions to compute the various interaction forces involved and thereby identify the possible mechanisms for removal of nonspecifically-bound proteins. For the range of sensor operating conditions simulated, our study indicates that the SAW motion acts as a body force to overcome the adhesive forces of the fouling proteins to the device surface whereas the acoustic-streaming induced hydrodynamic forces prevent their reattachment. The streaming velocity fields computed using the finite element models in conjunction with the proposed particle removal mechanism were used to identify the optimum conditions that lead to improved removal efficiency. We show that it is possible to tune operational parameters such as device frequency and input voltage to achieve effective elimination of biofouling proteins in typical biosensing media. Our simulation results agree well with previously reported experimental observations. The findings of this work have significant implications in designing reusable
Haspel, N.; Ricklin, D.; Geisbrecht, B.V.; Kavraki, L.E.; Lambris, J.D.
2008-11-13
The C3-inhibitory domain of Staphylococcus aureus extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein (Efb-C) defines a novel three-helix bundle motif that regulates complement activation. Previous crystallographic studies of Efb-C bound to its cognate subdomain of human C3 (C3d) identified Arg-131 and Asn-138 of Efb-C as key residues for its activity. In order to characterize more completely the physical and chemical driving forces behind this important interaction, we employed in this study a combination of structural, biophysical, and computational methods to analyze the interaction of C3d with Efb-C and the single-point mutants R131A and N138A. Our results show that while these mutations do not drastically affect the structure of the Efb-C/C3d recognition complex, they have significant adverse effects on both the thermodynamic and kinetic profiles of the resulting complexes. We also characterized other key interactions along the Efb-C/C3d binding interface and found an intricate network of salt bridges and hydrogen bonds that anchor Efb-C to C3d, resulting in its potent complement inhibitory properties.
Haspel, Nurit; Ricklin, Daniel; Geisbrecht, Brian V.; Kavraki, Lydia E.; Lambris, John D.
2008-01-01
The C3–inhibitory domain of Staphylococcus aureus extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein (Efb-C) defines a novel three-helix bundle motif that regulates complement activation. Previous crystallographic studies of Efb-C bound to its cognate subdomain of human C3 (C3d) identified Arg-131 and Asn-138 of Efb-C as key residues for its activity. In order to characterize more completely the physical and chemical driving forces behind this important interaction, we employed in this study a combination of structural, biophysical, and computational methods to analyze the interaction of C3d with Efb-C and the single-point mutants R131A and N138A. Our results show that while these mutations do not drastically affect the structure of the Efb-C/C3d recognition complex, they have significant adverse effects on both the thermodynamic and kinetic profiles of the resulting complexes. We also characterized other key interactions along the Efb-C/C3d binding interface and found an intricate network of salt bridges and hydrogen bonds that anchor Efb-C to C3d, resulting in its potent complement inhibitory properties. PMID:18687868
New insights on 3-D plates interaction near Taiwan from tomography and tectonic implications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lallemand, Serge; Font, Yvonne; Bijwaard, Harmen; Kao, Honn
2001-07-01
Recent tomographic results are used to trace the South China Sea and Philippine Sea subducting slabs, south and northeast of Taiwan along the Manila and Ryukyu trenches, respectively. In particular, the 3-D plates interaction beneath Taiwan is discussed based on a close-up view of the tomographic sections together with earthquake hypocenters distribution. Our study indicates that: (1) the east-dipping South China Sea slab can be followed to the north, up to the latitude of Hualien, (2) the Eurasian plate subducts beneath most part of the Taiwan island down to the 670 km-depth discontinuity, (3) the north-dipping Philippine Sea slab can be followed slightly west of the longitude of Hualien. Both plates thus interact beneath northern Taiwan where the arc-continent collision is paroxysmal. (4) Slab detachment is envisaged at the northern edge of the subducted Eurasian plate beneath the Coastal Range of Taiwan, which may facilitate the northwestward motion of the Philippine Sea plate with respect to Eurasia. Slabs geometries obtained from tomographic sections allow us to reconstruct the Late Neogene plate kinematics and dynamics in this region. Our main conclusions are: (1) The size of the original South China Sea was about twice its present size. (2) The subducted part of the West Philippine Basin i.e. the largest oceanic basin of the Philippine Sea Plate, extends only 400 km north of the Ryukyu Trench. (3) Slab detachment might have occurred 3-5 my ago beneath the central and northern Ryukyu Arc along a weak zone that is aligned with the Gagua Ridge: an ancient plate boundary. (4) The Ryukyu Trench has propagated westward from 126°E of longitude (southeast of Miyako Island) to the locus of the present arc-continent collision, along a major lithospheric tear that cut through the continent-ocean boundary first, and then through the continental lithosphere. As a consequence, the southern Ryukyu margin developed progressively from east to west as a subduction zone
Moment coupling in the interaction of atoms and their ions with a 3d-electron shell
Kosarim, A. V.; Smirnov, B. M.; Capitelli, M.; Laricchiuta, A.
2011-09-15
The moment coupling of an interacting ion and an atom with a 3d-electron shell is analyzed for the ground state of identical atoms and ions where resonant charge exchange proceeds with transition of a 4s-electron. The interaction of the ion charge with the atom quadrupole moment is important for this system along with the exchange interactions and spin-orbit interactions inside an isolated atom and an ion. The quadrupole moment for 3d-atoms in the ground states is evaluated. The hierarchy of interactions in a molecular ion is analyzed depending on ion-atom distances and is compared with the standard Hund scheme. The resonant charge exchange proceeds effectively at separations corresponding to an intermediate case between cases 'a' and 'c' of the Hund coupling scheme.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Razaghi, Reza
2014-08-01
Coronary artery disease is the common form of cardiovascular diseases and known to be the main reason of deaths in the world. Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) simulations can be employed to assess the interactions of artery/plaque and blood to provide a more precise anticipation for rupture of arterial tissue layers and plaque tissues inside an atherosclerotic artery. To date, the arterial tissue in computational FSI simulations has been considered as a one-layer structure. However, a single layer assumption might have deeply bounded the results and, consequently, more computational simulation is needed by considering the arterial tissue as a three-layer structure. In this study, a three-dimensional computational FSI model of an atherosclerotic artery with a three-layer structure and different plaque types was established to perform a more accurate arterial wall/plaque tissue vulnerability assessment. The hyperelastic material coefficients of arterial layers were calculated and implemented in the computational model. The fully coupled fluid and structure models were solved using the explicit dynamics finite element code LS-DYNA. The results revealed the significant role of plaque types in the normal and shear stresses induced within the arterial tissue layers. The highest von Mises and shear stresses were observed on the stiffest calcified plaque with 3.59 and 3.27 MPa, while the lowest von Mises and shear stresses were seen on the hypocellular plaque with 1.15 and 0.63 MPa, respectively. Regardless of plaque types, the media and adventitia layers were played protective roles by displaying less stress on their wall, whilst the intima layer was at a high risk of rupture. The findings of this study have implications not only for determining the most vulnerable arterial layer/plaque tissue inside an atherosclerotic coronary artery but also for balloon-angioplasty, stenting, and bypass surgeries.
Vaughan, T J; Mullen, C A; Verbruggen, S W; McNamara, L M
2015-08-01
Load-induced fluid flow acts as an important biophysical signal for bone cell mechanotransduction in vivo, where the mechanical environment is thought to be monitored by integrin and primary cilia mechanoreceptors on the cell body. However, precisely how integrin- and primary cilia-based mechanosensors interact with the surrounding fluid flow stimulus and ultimately contribute to the biochemical response of bone cells within either the in vitro or in vivo environment remains poorly understood. In this study, we developed fluid-structure interaction models to characterise the deformation of integrin- and primary cilia-based mechanosensors in bone cells under fluid flow stimulation. Under in vitro fluid flow stimulation, these models predicted that integrin attachments on the cell-substrate interface were highly stimulated ε(eq) > 200,000 με, while the presence of a primary cilium on the cell also resulted in significant strain amplifications, arising at the ciliary base. As such, these mechanosensors likely play a role in mediating bone mechanotransduction in vitro. Under in vivo fluid flow stimulation, integrin attachments along the canalicular wall were highly stimulated and likely play a role in mediating cellular responses in vivo. The role of the primary cilium as a flow sensor in vivo depended upon its configuration within the lacunar cavity. Specifically, our results showed that a short free-standing primary cilium could not effectively fulfil a flow sensing role in vivo. However, a primary cilium that discretely attaches the lacunar wall can be highly stimulated, due to hydrodynamic pressure in the lacunocanalicular system and, as such, could play a role in mediating bone mechanotransduction in vivo. PMID:25399300
2014-01-01
Background Atherosclerotic plaque progression and rupture are believed to be associated with mechanical stress conditions. In this paper, patient-specific in vivo intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) coronary plaque image data were used to construct computational models with fluid-structure interaction (FSI) and cyclic bending to investigate correlations between plaque wall thickness and both flow shear stress and plaque wall stress conditions. Methods IVUS data were acquired from 10 patients after voluntary informed consent. The X-ray angiogram was obtained prior to the pullback of the IVUS catheter to determine the location of the coronary artery stenosis, vessel curvature and cardiac motion. Cyclic bending was specified in the model representing the effect by heart contraction. 3D anisotropic FSI models were constructed and solved to obtain flow shear stress (FSS) and plaque wall stress (PWS) values. FSS and PWS values were obtained for statistical analysis. Correlations with p < 0.05 were deemed significant. Results Nine out of the 10 patients showed positive correlation between wall thickness and flow shear stress. The mean Pearson correlation r-value was 0.278 ± 0.181. Similarly, 9 out of the 10 patients showed negative correlation between wall thickness and plaque wall stress. The mean Pearson correlation r-value was -0.530 ± 0.210. Conclusion Our results showed that plaque vessel wall thickness correlated positively with FSS and negatively with PWS. The patient-specific IVUS-based modeling approach has the potential to be used to investigate and identify possible mechanisms governing plaque progression and rupture and assist in diagnosis and intervention procedures. This represents a new direction of research. Further investigations using more patient follow-up data are warranted. PMID:24669780
Wang, Liang; Zheng, Jie; Maehara, Akiko; Yang, Chun; Billiar, Kristen L.; Wu, Zheyang; Bach, Richard; Muccigrosso, David; Mintz, Gary S.; Tang, Dalin
2015-01-01
Plaque vulnerability, defined as the likelihood that a plaque would rupture, is difficult to quantify due to lack of in vivo plaque rupture data. Morphological and stress-based plaque vulnerability indices were introduced as alternatives to obtain quantitative vulnerability assessment. Correlations between these indices and key plaque features were investigated. In vivo intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) data were acquired from 14 patients and IVUS-based 3D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) coronary plaque models with cyclic bending were constructed to obtain plaque wall stress/strain and flow shear stress for analysis. For the 617 slices from the 14 patients, lipid percentage, min cap thickness, critical plaque wall stress (CPWS), strain (CPWSn) and flow shear stress (CFSS) were recorded, and cap index, lipid index and morphological index were assigned to each slice using methods consistent with American Heart Association (AHA) plaque classification schemes. A stress index was introduced based on CPWS. Linear Mixed-Effects (LME) models were used to analyze the correlations between the mechanical and morphological indices and key morphological factors associated with plaque rupture. Our results indicated that for all 617 slices, CPWS correlated with min cap thickness, cap index, morphological index with r = -0.6414, 0.7852, and 0.7411 respectively (p<0.0001). The correlation between CPWS and lipid percentage, lipid index were weaker (r = 0.2445, r = 0.2338, p<0.0001). Stress index correlated with cap index, lipid index, morphological index positively with r = 0.8185, 0.3067, and 0.7715, respectively, all with p<0.0001. For all 617 slices, the stress index has 66.77% agreement with morphological index. Morphological and stress indices may serve as quantitative plaque vulnerability assessment supported by their strong correlations with morphological features associated with plaque rupture. Differences between the two indices may lead to better plaque assessment schemes
Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Tony Koonce
2014-09-01
Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a prototype for using 3D modeling and simulation engine to improve risk analysis and evaluate reactor structures and components for a given scenario. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.
Hwang, Jin-Woo; Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, In-Young; Song, In-Ho; Lee, Yong-Hee; Kim, SunI
2003-05-01
As an alternative method to optical endoscopy, visual quality and interactivity are crucial for virtual endoscopy. One solution is to use the 3D texture map based volume rendering method that offers high rendering speed without reducing visual quality. However, it is difficult to apply the method to virtual endoscopy. First, 3D texture mapping requires a high-end graphic workstation. Second, texture memory limits reduce the frame-rate. Third, lack of shading reduces visual quality significantly. As 3D texture mapping has become available on personal computers recently, we developed an interactive navigation system using 3D texture mapping on a personal computer. We divided the volume data into small cubes and tested whether the cubes had meaningful data. Only the cubes that passed the test were loaded into the texture memory and rendered. With the amount of data to be rendered minimized, rendering speed increased remarkably. We also improved visual quality by implementing full Phong shading based on the iso-surface shading method without sacrificing interactivity. With the developed navigation system, 256 x 256 x 256 sized brain MRA data was interactively explored with good image quality. PMID:12725966
Jovian's plasma torus interaction with Europa: 3D hybrid kinetic simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lipatov, A. S.; Cooper, J. F.; Paterson, W. R.
2009-12-01
surface of the moon. References [1] Cassidy, T.A., R.E. Johnson, M.A. McGrath, M.C. Wong, J.F. Cooper, The spatial morphology of Europa's near-surface O2 atmosphere, Icarus, 191, 755-764, 2007. [2] Shematovich, V.I., R.E. Johnson, J.F. Cooper, M.C. Wong, Surface-bounded atmosphere of Europa, Icarus, 173, 480-498, 2005. [3] Lipatov, A.S. and M.R. Combi, Effects of kinetic processes in shaping Io's global plasma environment: A 3D hybrid model, Icarus, 180, 412-427, 2006. [4] Kabin, K., et al., On Europa's magnetospheric interaction: A MHD simulation of the E4 Flyby, JGR, 104, 19983-19992, 1999. [5] Paterson, W.R. et al., Galileo plasma observations at Europa: Ion energy spectra and moments, JGR, 104, 22779-22791, 1999.
Fully Kinetic 3D Simulations of the Interaction of the Solar Wind with Mercury
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amaya, J.; Deca, J.; Lembege, B.; Lapenta, G.
2015-12-01
The planet Mercury has been studied by the space mission Mariner 10, in the 1970's, and by the MESSENGER mission launched in 2004. Interest in the first planet of the Solar System has now been renewed by the launch in 2017 of the BepiColombo mission. MESSENGER and BepiColombo give access to information about the local conditions of the magnetosphere of Mercury. This data must be evaluated in the context of the global interaction between the solar wind and the planet's magnetosphere. Global scale simulations of the planet's environment are necessary to fully understand the data gathered from in-situ measurements. We use three-dimensional simulations to support the scientific goals of the two missions. In contrast with the results based on MHD (Kabin et al., 2000) and hybrid codes (Kallio et Janhumen, 2003; Travnicek et al., 2007, 2010; Richer et al., 2012), the present work is based on the implicit moment Particle-in-Cell (PiC) method, which allows to use large time and space steps, while granting access to the dynamics of the smaller electron scales in the plasma. The purpose of these preliminary PIC simulations is to retrieve the top-level features of Mercury's magnetosphere and its frontiers. We compare the results obtained with the implicit moment PiC method against 3D hybrid simulations. We perform simulations of the global plasma environment of Mercury using the solar wind conditions measured by MESSENGER. We show that complex flows form around the planet, including the development of Kelvin-Helmoltz instabilities at the flanks. We evaluate the dynamics of the shock, magnetosheath, magnetopause, the reconnection areas, the formation of plasma sheet and magnetotail, and the variation of ion/electron plasma flows when crossing these frontiers. The simulations also give access to detailed information about the particle dynamics and their velocity distribution at locations that can be used for comparison with data from MESSENGER and later on with the forthcoming
Web-Based Interactive 3D Visualization as a Tool for Improved Anatomy Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Petersson, Helge; Sinkvist, David; Wang, Chunliang; Smedby, Orjan
2009-01-01
Despite a long tradition, conventional anatomy education based on dissection is declining. This study tested a new virtual reality (VR) technique for anatomy learning based on virtual contrast injection. The aim was to assess whether students value this new three-dimensional (3D) visualization method as a learning tool and what value they gain…
The rat prefrontostriatal system analyzed in 3D: evidence for multiple interacting functional units.
Mailly, Philippe; Aliane, Verena; Groenewegen, Henk J; Haber, Suzanne N; Deniau, Jean-Michel
2013-03-27
Previous studies in monkeys disclosed a specific arrangement of corticostriatal projections. Prefrontal and premotor areas form dense projection fields surrounded by diffuse terminal areas extending outside the densely innervated region and overlapping with projections from other areas. In this study, the mode of prefrontostriatal innervation was analyzed in rats using a 3D approach. Following injections of tracers in defined cortical areas, 3D maps from individual cases were elaborated and combined into a global 3D map allowing us to define putative overlaps between projection territories. In addition to providing a detailed 3D mapping of the topographic representation of prefrontal cortical areas in the rat striatum, the results stress important similarities between the rodent and primate prefrontostriatal projections. They share the dual pattern of focal and diffuse corticostriatal projections. Moreover, besides segregated projections consistent with parallel processing, the interweaving of projection territories establishes specific patterns of overlaps spatially organized along the dorsoventral, mediolateral, and anteroposterior striatal axis. In particular, the extensive striatal projection fields from the prelimbic and anterior cingulate areas, which partly overlap the terminal fields from medial, orbital, and lateral prefrontal cortical areas, provide putative domains of convergence for integration between reward, cognitive, and motor processes. PMID:23536085
3D Modelling of Magnetized Star-planet Interactions: Cometary-type Tails and In-spiraling Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsakos, T.; Uribe, A.; Konigl, A.
2015-01-01
Close-in exoplanets interact with their host stars not only gravitationally but also through magnetized plasma outflows. Here, we identify the different types of such interactions based on the physical parameters that characterize the system. We perform 3D magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD ) numerical simulations to model the evolution of a variety of possible star-planet configurations, incorporating realistic stellar and planetary outflows. We explore a wide range of parameters and analyze the flow structures and magnetic topologies that develop.
Winzen, A; Roidl, B; Schröder, W
2016-04-01
Low-speed aerodynamics has gained increasing interest due to its relevance for the design process of small flying air vehicles. These small aircraft operate at similar aerodynamic conditions as, e.g. birds which therefore can serve as role models of how to overcome the well-known problems of low Reynolds number flight. The flight of the barn owl is characterized by a very low flight velocity in conjunction with a low noise emission and a high level of maneuverability at stable flight conditions. To investigate the complex three-dimensional flow field and the corresponding local structural deformation in combination with their influence on the resulting aerodynamic forces, time-resolved stereoscopic particle-image velocimetry and force and moment measurements are performed on a prepared natural barn owl wing. Several spanwise positions are measured via PIV in a range of angles of attack [Formula: see text] 6° and Reynolds numbers 40 000 [Formula: see text] 120 000 based on the chord length. Additionally, the resulting forces and moments are recorded for -10° ≤ α ≤ 15° at the same Reynolds numbers. Depending on the spanwise position, the angle of attack, and the Reynolds number, the flow field on the wing's pressure side is characterized by either a region of flow separation, causing large-scale vortical structures which lead to a time-dependent deflection of the flexible wing structure or wing regions showing no instantaneous deflection but a reduction of the time-averaged mean wing curvature. Based on the force measurements the three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction is assumed to considerably impact the aerodynamic forces acting on the wing leading to a strong mechanical loading of the interface between the wing and body. These time-depending loads which result from the flexibility of the wing should be taken into consideration for the design of future small flying air vehicles using flexible wing structures. PMID:27033298
Samyn, Margaret M; Dholakia, Ronak; Wang, Hongfeng; Co-Vu, Jennifer; Yan, Ke; Widlansky, Michael E; LaDisa, John F; Simpson, Pippa; Alemzadeh, Ramin
2015-04-01
We hypothesized that pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes have cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) detectable differences in thoracic aortic wall properties and hemodynamics leading to significant local differences in indices of wall shear stress, when compared with age-matched control subjects without diabetes. Pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes were recruited from Children's Hospital of Wisconsin and compared with controls. All underwent morning CMR scanning, 4-limb blood pressure, brachial artery reactivity testing, and venipuncture. Patient-specific computational fluid dynamics modeling with fluid-structure interaction, based on CMR data, determined regional time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI). Twenty type 1 diabetic subjects, median age 15.8 years (11.6-18.4) and 8 controls 15.4 years (10.3-18.2) were similar except for higher glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and triglycerides for type 1 diabetic subjects. Lower flow-mediated dilation was seen for those with type 1 diabetes (6.5) versus controls (7.8), p = 0.036. For type 1 diabetic subjects, the aorta had more regions with high TAWSS when compared to controls. OSI maps appeared similar. Flow-mediated dilation positively correlated with age at diabetes diagnosis (r = 0.468, p = 0.038) and hemoglobin A1c (r = 0.472, p = 0.036), but did not correlate with aortic distensibility, TAWSS, or OSI. TAWSS did not correlate with any clinical parameter for either group. CMR shows regional differences in aortic wall properties for young diabetic patients. Some local differences in wall shear stress indices were also observed, but a longitudinal study is now warranted. PMID:25577225
Tao, Xiaojuan; Gao, Peiyi; Jing, Lina; Lin, Yan; Sui, Binbin
2015-01-01
Background Hemodynamics play an important role in the development and progression of carotid atherosclerosis, and may be important in the assessment of plaque vulnerability. The aim of this study was to develop a system to assess the hemodynamics of carotid atherosclerotic plaques using subject-specific fluid-structure interaction (FSI) models based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material/Methods Models of carotid bifurcations (n=86 with plaques from 52 patients, n=14 normal carotids from 12 participants) were obtained at the Department of Radiology, Beijing Tian Tan Hospital between 2010 and 2013. The maximum von Mises stress, minimum pressure, and flow velocity values were assessed at the most stenotic site in patients, or at the carotid bifurcations in healthy volunteers. Results of one-way FSI were compared with fully-coupled FSI for the plaques of 19 randomly selected models. Results The maximum von Mises stress and the minimum pressure and velocity were significantly increased in the stenosis group compared with controls based on one-way FSI (all P<0.05). The maximum von Mises stress and the minimum pressure were significantly higher and the velocity was significantly lower based on fully coupled FSI compared with on-way FSI (all P<0.05). Although there were differences in numerical values, both methods were equivalent. The maximum von Mises stress of vulnerable plaques was significantly higher than stable plaques (P<0.001). The maximum von Mises stress of the group with fibrous cap defect was significantly higher than the group without fibrous cap defect (P=0.001). Conclusions The hemodynamics of atherosclerotic plaques can be assessed noninvasively using subject-specific models of FSI based on MRI. PMID:26510514
Mavar-Haramija, Marija; Prats-Galino, Alberto; Méndez, Juan A Juanes; Puigdelívoll-Sánchez, Anna; de Notaris, Matteo
2015-10-01
A three-dimensional (3D) model of the skull base was reconstructed from the pre- and post-dissection head CT images and embedded in a Portable Document Format (PDF) file, which can be opened by freely available software and used offline. The CT images were segmented using a specific 3D software platform for biomedical data, and the resulting 3D geometrical models of anatomical structures were used for dual purpose: to simulate the extended endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approaches and to perform the quantitative analysis of the procedures. The analysis consisted of bone removal quantification and the calculation of quantitative parameters (surgical freedom and exposure area) of each procedure. The results are presented in three PDF documents containing JavaScript-based functions. The 3D-PDF files include reconstructions of the nasal structures (nasal septum, vomer, middle turbinates), the bony structures of the anterior skull base and maxillofacial region and partial reconstructions of the optic nerve, the hypoglossal and vidian canals and the internal carotid arteries. Alongside the anatomical model, axial, sagittal and coronal CT images are shown. Interactive 3D presentations were created to explain the surgery and the associated quantification methods step-by-step. The resulting 3D-PDF files allow the user to interact with the model through easily available software, free of charge and in an intuitive manner. The files are available for offline use on a personal computer and no previous specialized knowledge in informatics is required. The documents can be downloaded at http://hdl.handle.net/2445/55224 . PMID:26306875
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pletinckx, D.
2011-09-01
The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yikilmaz, M.; Harwood, C. L.; Hsi, S.; Kellogg, L. H.; Kreylos, O.; McDermott, J.; Pellett, B.; Schladow, G.; Segale, H. M.; Yalowitz, S.
2013-12-01
Three-dimensional (3D) visualization is a powerful research tool that has been used to investigate complex scientific problems in various fields. It allows researchers to explore and understand processes and features that are not directly observable and help with building of new models. It has been shown that 3D visualization creates a more engaging environment for public audiences. Interactive 3D visualization can allow individuals to explore scientific concepts on their own. We present an NSF funded project developed in collaboration with UC Davis KeckCAVES, UC Davis Tahoe Environmental Research Center, ECHO Lake Aquarium & Science Center, and Lawrence Hall of Science. The Great Lakes of the World (GLOW) project aims to build interactive 3D visualization of some of the major lakes and reservoirs of the world to enhance public awareness and increase understanding and stewardship of freshwater lake ecosystems, habitats, and earth science processes. The project includes a collection of publicly available satellite imagery and digital elevation models at various resolutions for the 20 major lakes of the world as well as the bathymetry data for the 12 lakes. It also includes the vector based 'Global Lakes and Wetlands Database (GLWD)' by the World Wildlife Foundation (WWF) and the Center for Environmental System Research University of Kassel, Germany and the CIA World DataBank II data sets to show wetlands and water reservoirs at global scale. We use a custom virtual globe (Crusta) developed at the UC Davis KeckCAVES. Crusta is designed to specifically allow for visualization and mapping of features in very high spatial resolution (< 1m) and large extent (1000's of km2) raster imagery and topographic data. In addition to imagery, a set of pins, labels and billboards are used to provide textual information about these lakes. Users can interactively learn about the lake and watershed processes as well as geologic processes (e.g. faulting, landslide, glacial, volcanic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wen, Guoyong; Marshak, Alexander; Cahalan, Robert F.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Kleidman, Richard G.
2007-01-01
3D aerosol-cloud interaction is examined by analyzing two images containing cumulus clouds in biomass burning regions in Brazil. The research consists of two parts. The first part focuses on identifying 3D clo ud impacts on the reflectance of pixel selected for the MODIS aerosol retrieval based purely on observations. The second part of the resea rch combines the observations with radiative transfer computations to identify key parameters in 3D aerosol-cloud interaction. We found that 3D cloud-induced enhancement depends on optical properties of nearb y clouds as well as wavelength. The enhancement is too large to be ig nored. Associated biased error in 1D aerosol optical thickness retrie val ranges from 50% to 140% depending on wavelength and optical prope rties of nearby clouds as well as aerosol optical thickness. We caution the community to be prudent when applying 1D approximations in comp uting solar radiation in dear regions adjacent to clouds or when usin g traditional retrieved aerosol optical thickness in aerosol indirect effect research.
Full-color interactive holographic projection system for large 3D scene reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leister, Norbert; Schwerdtner, Armin; Fütterer, Gerald; Buschbeck, Steffen; Olaya, Jean-Christophe; Flon, Stanislas
2008-02-01
Dependence on sub-micron pixel pitch and super-computing have prohibited practical solutions for large size holographic displays until recently. SeeReal Technologies has developed a new approach to holographic displays significantly reducing these requirements. This concept is applicable to large "direct view" holographic displays as well as to projection designs. Principles, advantages and selected solutions for holographic projection systems will be explained. Based on results from practical prototypes, advantageous new features, as large size full-color real-time holographic 3D scenes generated at high frame rates on micro displays with state of the art resolution will be presented.
A statistical model of ChIA-PET data for accurate detection of chromatin 3D interactions
Paulsen, Jonas; Rødland, Einar A.; Holden, Lars; Holden, Marit; Hovig, Eivind
2014-01-01
Identification of three-dimensional (3D) interactions between regulatory elements across the genome is crucial to unravel the complex regulatory machinery that orchestrates proliferation and differentiation of cells. ChIA-PET is a novel method to identify such interactions, where physical contacts between regions bound by a specific protein are quantified using next-generation sequencing. However, determining the significance of the observed interaction frequencies in such datasets is challenging, and few methods have been proposed. Despite the fact that regions that are close in linear genomic distance have a much higher tendency to interact by chance, no methods to date are capable of taking such dependency into account. Here, we propose a statistical model taking into account the genomic distance relationship, as well as the general propensity of anchors to be involved in contacts overall. Using both real and simulated data, we show that the previously proposed statistical test, based on Fisher's exact test, leads to invalid results when data are dependent on genomic distance. We also evaluate our method on previously validated cell-line specific and constitutive 3D interactions, and show that relevant interactions are significant, while avoiding over-estimating the significance of short nearby interactions. PMID:25114054
Ruh, Dominic; Tränkle, Benjamin; Rohrbach, Alexander
2011-10-24
Multi-dimensional, correlated particle tracking is a key technology to reveal dynamic processes in living and synthetic soft matter systems. In this paper we present a new method for tracking micron-sized beads in parallel and in all three dimensions - faster and more precise than existing techniques. Using an acousto-optic deflector and two quadrant-photo-diodes, we can track numerous optically trapped beads at up to tens of kHz with a precision of a few nanometers by back-focal plane interferometry. By time-multiplexing the laser focus, we can calibrate individually all traps and all tracking signals in a few seconds and in 3D. We show 3D histograms and calibration constants for nine beads in a quadratic arrangement, although trapping and tracking is easily possible for more beads also in arbitrary 2D arrangements. As an application, we investigate the hydrodynamic coupling and diffusion anomalies of spheres trapped in a 3 × 3 arrangement. PMID:22109012
Low-cost real-time 3D PC distributed-interactive-simulation (DIS) application for C4I
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gonthier, David L.; Veron, Harry
1998-04-01
A 3D Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) application was developed and demonstrated in a PC environment. The application is capable of running in the stealth mode or as a player which includes battlefield simulations, such as ModSAF. PCs can be clustered together, but not necessarily collocated, to run a simulation or training exercise on their own. A 3D perspective view of the battlefield is displayed that includes terrain, trees, buildings and other objects supported by the DIS application. Screen update rates of 15 to 20 frames per second have been achieved with fully lit and textured scenes thus providing high quality and fast graphics. A complete PC system can be configured for under $2,500. The software runs under Windows95 and WindowsNT. It is written in C++ and uses a commercial API called RenderWare for 3D rendering. The software uses Microsoft Foundation classes and Microsoft DirectPlay for joystick input. The RenderWare libraries enhance the performance through optimization for MMX and the Pentium Pro processor. The RenderWare and the Righteous 3D graphics board from Orchid Technologies with an advertised rendering rate of up to 2 million texture mapped triangles per second. A low-cost PC DIS simulator that can partake in a real-time collaborative simulation with other platforms is thus achieved.
Hard and soft probe medium interactions in a 3D hydro+micro approach at RHIC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bass, S. A.; Renk, T.; Ruppert, J.; Nonaka, C.
2007-08-01
We utilize a 3D hybrid hydro+micro model for a comprehensive and consistent description of soft and hard particle production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC. In the soft sector we focus on the dynamics of (multi-) strange baryons, where a clear strangeness dependence of their collision rates and freeze-out is observed. In the hard sector we study the radiative energy loss of hard partons in a soft medium in the multiple soft scattering approximation. While the nuclear suppression factor RAA does not reflect the high quality of the medium description (except in a reduced systematic uncertainty in extracting the quenching power of the medium), the hydrodynamical model also allows us to study different centralities and in particular the angular variation of RAA with respect to the reaction plane, allowing for a controlled variation of the in-medium path length.
Reina, Miguel A; Lirk, Philipp; Puigdellívol-Sánchez, Anna; Mavar, Marija; Prats-Galino, Alberto
2016-03-01
The ligamentum flavum (LF) forms the anatomic basis for the loss-of-resistance technique essential to the performance of epidural anesthesia. However, the LF presents considerable interindividual variability, including the possibility of midline gaps, which may influence the performance of epidural anesthesia. We devise a method to reconstruct the anatomy of the digitally LF based on magnetic resonance images to clarify the exact limits and edges of LF and its different thickness, depending on the area examined, while avoiding destructive methods, as well as the dissection processes. Anatomic cadaveric cross sections enabled us to visually check the definition of the edges along the entire LF and compare them using 3D image reconstruction methods. Reconstruction was performed in images obtained from 7 patients. Images from 1 patient were used as a basis for the 3D spinal anatomy tool. In parallel, axial cuts, 2 to 3 cm thick, were performed in lumbar spines of 4 frozen cadavers. This technique allowed us to identify the entire ligament and its exact limits, while avoiding alterations resulting from cutting processes or from preparation methods. The LF extended between the laminas of adjacent vertebrae at all vertebral levels of the patients examined, but midline gaps are regularly encountered. These anatomical variants were reproduced in a 3D portable document format. The major anatomical features of the LF were reproduced in the 3D model. Details of its structure and variations of thickness in successive sagittal and axial slides could be visualized. Gaps within LF previously studied in cadavers have been identified in our interactive 3D model, which may help to understand their nature, as well as possible implications for epidural techniques. PMID:26891398
Herroon, Mackenzie Katheryn; Diedrich, Jonathan Driscoll; Podgorski, Izabela
2016-01-01
Adipocytes are a major component of the bone marrow that can critically affect metastatic progression in bone. Understanding how the marrow fat cells influence growth, behavior, and survival of tumor cells requires utilization of in vitro cell systems that can closely mimic the physiological microenvironment. Herein, we present two new three-dimensional (3D) culture approaches to study adipocyte–tumor cell interactions in vitro. The first is a transwell-based system composed of the marrow-derived adipocytes in 3D collagen I gels and reconstituted basement membrane-overlayed prostate tumor cell spheroids. Tumor cells cultured under these 3D conditions are continuously exposed to adipocyte-derived factors, and their response can be evaluated by morphological and immunohistochemical analyses. We show via immunofluorescence analysis of metabolism-associated proteins that under 3D conditions tumor cells have significantly different metabolic response to adipocytes than tumor cells grown in 2D culture. We also demonstrate that this model allows for incorporation of other cell types, such as bone marrow macrophages, and utilization of dye-quenched collagen substrates for examination of proteolysis-driven responses to adipocyte- and macrophage-derived factors. Our second 3D culture system is designed to study tumor cell invasion toward the adipocytes and the consequent interaction between the two cell types. In this model, marrow adipocytes are separated from the fluorescently labeled tumor cells by a layer of collagen I. At designated time points, adipocytes are stained with BODIPY and confocal z-stacks are taken through the depth of the entire culture to determine the distance traveled between the two cell types over time. We demonstrate that this system can be utilized to study effects of candidate factors on tumor invasion toward the adipocytes. We also show that immunohistochemical analyses can be performed to evaluate the impact of direct interaction of prostate
Sign Language for K-8 Mathematics by 3D Interactive Animation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Adamo-Villani, Nicoletta; Doublestein, John; Martin, Zachary
2005-01-01
We present a new highly interactive computer animation tool to increase the mathematical skills of deaf children. We aim at increasing the effectiveness of (hearing) parents in teaching arithmetic to their deaf children, and the opportunity of deaf children to learn arithmetic via interactive media. Using state-of-the-art computer animation…
Toma, Milan; Jensen, Morten Ø.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Yoganathan, Ajit P.; Cochran, Richard P.; Kunzelman, Karyn S.
2015-07-17
Numerical models of native heart valves are being used to study valve biomechanics to aid design and development of repair procedures and replacement devices. These models have evolved from simple two-dimensional approximations to complex three-dimensional, fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) systems. Such simulations are useful for predicting the mechanical and hemodynamic loading on implanted valve devices. A current challenge for improving the accuracy of these predictions is choosing and implementing modeling boundary conditions. In order to address this challenge, we are utilizing an advanced in-vitro system to validate FSI conditions for the mitral valve system. Explanted ovine mitral valves were mounted in an in vitro setup, and structural data for the mitral valve was acquired with *CT. Experimental data from the in-vitro ovine mitral valve system were used to validate the computational model. As the valve closes, the hemodynamic data, high speed lea et dynamics, and force vectors from the in-vitro system were compared to the results of the FSI simulation computational model. The total force of 2.6 N per papillary muscle is matched by the computational model. In vitro and in vivo force measurements are important in validating and adjusting material parameters in computational models. The simulations can then be used to answer questions that are otherwise not possible to investigate experimentally. This work is important to maximize the validity of computational models of not just the mitral valve, but any biomechanical aspect using computational simulation in designing medical devices.
Super-resolution 3D tomography of interactions and competition in the nuclear pore complex.
Ma, Jiong; Goryaynov, Alexander; Yang, Weidong
2016-03-01
A selective barrier formed by intrinsically disordered Phe-Gly (FG) nucleoporins (Nups) allows transport receptor (TR)-facilitated translocation of signal-dependent cargos through the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) of eukaryotic cells. However, the configuration of the FG-Nup barrier and its interactions with multiple TRs in native NPCs remain obscure. Here, we mapped the interaction sites of various TRs or FG segments within the FG-Nup barrier by using high-speed super-resolution microscopy and used these sites to reconstruct the three-dimensional tomography of the native barrier in the NPC. We found that each TR possesses a unique interaction zone within the FG-Nup barrier and that two major TRs, importin β1 and Crm1, outcompete other TRs in binding FG Nups. Moreover, TRs may alter the tomography of the FG-Nup barrier and affect one another's pathways under circumstances of heavy competition. PMID:26878241
WebTOP: A 3D Interactive System for Teaching and Learning Optics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mzoughi, Taha; Herring, S. Davis; Foley, John T.; Morris, Matthew J.; Gilbert, Peter J.
2007-01-01
WebTOP is a three-dimensional, Web-based, interactive computer graphics system that helps instructors teach and students learn about waves and optics. Current subject areas include waves, geometrical optics, reflection and refraction, polarization, interference, diffraction, lasers, and scattering. Some of the topics covered are suited for…
Cart3D Analysis of Plume and Shock Interaction Effects on Sonic Boom
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Castner, Raymond
2015-01-01
A plume and shock interaction study was developed to collect data and perform CFD on a configuration where a nozzle plume passed through the shock generated from the wing or tail of a supersonic vehicle. The wing or tail was simulated with a wedge-shaped shock generator. Three configurations were analyzed consisting of two strut mounted wedges and one propulsion pod with an aft deck from a low boom vehicle concept. Research efforts at NASA were intended to enable future supersonic flight over land in the United States. Two of these efforts provided data for regulatory change and enabled design of low boom aircraft. Research has determined that sonic boom is a function of aircraft lift and volume distribution. Through careful tailoring of these variables, the sonic boom of concept vehicles has been reduced. One aspect of vehicle tailoring involved how the aircraft engine exhaust interacted with aft surfaces on a supersonic aircraft, such as the tail and wing trailing edges. In this work, results from Euler CFD simulations are compared to experimental data collected on sub-scale components in a wind tunnel. Three configurations are studied to simulate the nozzle plume interaction with representative wing and tail surfaces. Results demonstrate how the plume and tail shock structure moves with increasing nozzle pressure ratio. The CFD captures the main features of the plume and shock interaction. Differences are observed in the plume and deck shock structure that warrant further research and investigation.
The formation of the Tyrrhenian Basin by 3-D interaction among faulting and magmatism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ranero, C. R.; Sallares, V.; Grevemeyer, I.; Zitellini, N.; Vendrell, M. G.; Prada, M.; Moeller, S.; de Franco, R.
2012-12-01
The Tyrrhenian basin has been formed by extension of overriding continental lithosphere driven by roll back of the Ionian slab across the mantle. The basin is not actively extending but the tectonic structure provides information of the processes that controlled rifting and formation of conjugate margins. The basin opened from west to east, with rifting stopping after progressively larger stretching factors from north to south. The northern region stopped opening at extension factors about 1.8. Towards the south extension continued until full crustal separation that produced first intense magmatism that subsequently was followed by mantle exhumation. The final structure displays two conjugate margins with structures that evolved from symmetric to asymmetric as extension rates increase and a complex tectonic structure in between. The basin provides a natural laboratory to investigate a full rift system with variable amounts of extension. We present observations from a two-ship wide-angle (WAS) and multichannel reflection seismic (MCS) experiment that took place in spring 2010. The experiment took place on two legs: The first leg with Spanish R/V Sarmiento de Gamboa and Italian R/V Urania collected five WAS profiles striking E-W across the entire basin recorded on ocean bottom seismic stations and land stations with a 4800 c.i. G-II gun array as source. The second leg with R/V Sarmiento de Gamboa collected 16 MCS profiles (about 1500 km) using a 3.75 km-long streamer and a 3100 c.i. G-II gun array as source. MCS profiles were shot coincident with WAS profiles. WAS - MCS transects were located in regions with different amount of extension the study the full structure including the two conjugate margins. Additional MCS lines were shot concentrated in the region where mantle exhumation has taken place. The seismic information is placed in a 3D context with the integration of the multibeam bathymetry that covers the entire basin. We present the interpretation of the
Real-Time Climate Simulations in the Interactive 3D Game Universe Sandbox ²
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldenson, N. L.
2014-12-01
Exploration in an open-ended computer game is an engaging way to explore climate and climate change. Everyone can explore physical models with real-time visualization in the educational simulator Universe Sandbox ² (universesandbox.com/2), which includes basic climate simulations on planets. I have implemented a time-dependent, one-dimensional meridional heat transport energy balance model to run and be adjustable in real time in the midst of a larger simulated system. Universe Sandbox ² is based on the original game - at its core a gravity simulator - with other new physically-based content for stellar evolution, and handling collisions between bodies. Existing users are mostly science enthusiasts in informal settings. We believe that this is the first climate simulation to be implemented in a professionally developed computer game with modern 3D graphical output in real time. The type of simple climate model we've adopted helps us depict the seasonal cycle and the more drastic changes that come from changing the orbit or other external forcings. Users can alter the climate as the simulation is running by altering the star(s) in the simulation, dragging to change orbits and obliquity, adjusting the climate simulation parameters directly or changing other properties like CO2 concentration that affect the model parameters in representative ways. Ongoing visuals of the expansion and contraction of sea ice and snow-cover respond to the temperature calculations, and make it accessible to explore a variety of scenarios and intuitive to understand the output. Variables like temperature can also be graphed in real time. We balance computational constraints with the ability to capture the physical phenomena we wish to visualize, giving everyone access to a simple open-ended meridional energy balance climate simulation to explore and experiment with. The software lends itself to labs at a variety of levels about climate concepts including seasons, the Greenhouse effect
Transonic Rotor/Stator Interaction Using a 3-D Linearised Unsteady Viscous Flow Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sbardella, L.; Imregun, M.
The paper first summarizes the forced response problem in turbomachinery and reviews various numerical methods for the simulation of unsteady flows. A particular technique, based on the linearisation of the unsteady Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations on three-dimensional mixed-element grids of tetrahedra, hexahedra and wedges, is described in some detail. The methodology was applied to a NGV/rotor interaction benchmark case for which detailed steady and unsteady flow measurements are available. The steady-state flow, calculated using a non-linear viscous representation, was described in detail with emphasis on features such as separation, horseshoe and passage vortices, tip leakage and shock structure since these are likely to influence the unsteady flow. The sources of unsteadiness on the rotor passage were evaluated from the steady-state solution at the NGV outlet. The disturbances were split into vortical, entropic and potential waves, the Fourier components of which were considered separately. The summation of the vortical and entropic waves was used as a rotor inlet boundary condition in order to assess the wake/rotor unsteady interaction. Similarly, potential waves were used to study the potential/rotor interaction. The results obtained from these two types of unsteady interactions were superimposed and compared with experimental data. Good qualitative and, in most cases, quantitative agreement was obtained, a finding which suggests that the unsteady flowfield generated by the relative blade motion can be considered to be a quasi-linear phenomenon for the particular HP turbine studied. Finally, the mechanisms of wake/rotor and potential/rotor interactions were studied in some detail and it was concluded that the former was strong in the crown of the blade while the latter was dominant in the leading edge region.
Xiao, Jin; Klein, Marlise I; Falsetta, Megan L; Lu, Bingwen; Delahunty, Claire M; Yates, John R; Heydorn, Arne; Koo, Hyun
2012-01-01
Virulent biofilms are responsible for a range of infections, including oral diseases. All biofilms harbor a microbial-derived extracellular-matrix. The exopolysaccharides (EPS) formed on tooth-pellicle and bacterial surfaces provide binding sites for microorganisms; eventually the accumulated EPS enmeshes microbial cells. The metabolic activity of the bacteria within this matrix leads to acidification of the milieu. We explored the mechanisms through which the Streptococcus mutans-produced EPS-matrix modulates the three-dimensional (3D) architecture and the population shifts during morphogenesis of biofilms on a saliva-coated-apatitic surface using a mixed-bacterial species system. Concomitantly, we examined whether the matrix influences the development of pH-microenvironments within intact-biofilms using a novel 3D in situ pH-mapping technique. Data reveal that the production of the EPS-matrix helps to create spatial heterogeneities by forming an intricate network of exopolysaccharide-enmeshed bacterial-islets (microcolonies) through localized cell-to-matrix interactions. This complex 3D architecture creates compartmentalized acidic and EPS-rich microenvironments throughout the biofilm, which triggers the dominance of pathogenic S. mutans within a mixed-species system. The establishment of a 3D-matrix and EPS-enmeshed microcolonies were largely mediated by the S. mutans gtfB/gtfC genes, expression of which was enhanced in the presence of Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus oralis. Acidic pockets were found only in the interiors of bacterial-islets that are protected by EPS, which impedes rapid neutralization by buffer (pH 7.0). As a result, regions of low pH (<5.5) were detected at specific locations along the surface of attachment. Resistance to chlorhexidine was enhanced in cells within EPS-microcolony complexes compared to those outside such structures within the biofilm. Our results illustrate the critical interaction between matrix architecture and p
Xiao, Jin; Klein, Marlise I.; Falsetta, Megan L.; Lu, Bingwen; Delahunty, Claire M.; Yates, John R.; Heydorn, Arne; Koo, Hyun
2012-01-01
Virulent biofilms are responsible for a range of infections, including oral diseases. All biofilms harbor a microbial-derived extracellular-matrix. The exopolysaccharides (EPS) formed on tooth-pellicle and bacterial surfaces provide binding sites for microorganisms; eventually the accumulated EPS enmeshes microbial cells. The metabolic activity of the bacteria within this matrix leads to acidification of the milieu. We explored the mechanisms through which the Streptococcus mutans-produced EPS-matrix modulates the three-dimensional (3D) architecture and the population shifts during morphogenesis of biofilms on a saliva-coated-apatitic surface using a mixed-bacterial species system. Concomitantly, we examined whether the matrix influences the development of pH-microenvironments within intact-biofilms using a novel 3D in situ pH-mapping technique. Data reveal that the production of the EPS-matrix helps to create spatial heterogeneities by forming an intricate network of exopolysaccharide-enmeshed bacterial-islets (microcolonies) through localized cell-to-matrix interactions. This complex 3D architecture creates compartmentalized acidic and EPS-rich microenvironments throughout the biofilm, which triggers the dominance of pathogenic S. mutans within a mixed-species system. The establishment of a 3D-matrix and EPS-enmeshed microcolonies were largely mediated by the S. mutans gtfB/gtfC genes, expression of which was enhanced in the presence of Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus oralis. Acidic pockets were found only in the interiors of bacterial-islets that are protected by EPS, which impedes rapid neutralization by buffer (pH 7.0). As a result, regions of low pH (<5.5) were detected at specific locations along the surface of attachment. Resistance to chlorhexidine was enhanced in cells within EPS-microcolony complexes compared to those outside such structures within the biofilm. Our results illustrate the critical interaction between matrix architecture and p
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meulien Ohlmann, Odile
2013-02-01
Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?
Thomas, Mathew; Marshall, Matthew J.; Miller, Erin A.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Carson, James P.
2014-08-26
Understanding the interactions of structured communities known as “biofilms” and other complex matrixes is possible through the X-ray micro tomography imaging of the biofilms. Feature detection and image processing for this type of data focuses on efficiently identifying and segmenting biofilms and bacteria in the datasets. The datasets are very large and often require manual interventions due to low contrast between objects and high noise levels. Thus new software is required for the effectual interpretation and analysis of the data. This work specifies the evolution and application of the ability to analyze and visualize high resolution X-ray micro tomography datasets.
Crossover from 2D to 3D in a Weakly Interacting Fermi Gas
Dyke, P.; Kuhnle, E. D.; Hu, H.; Mark, M.; Hoinka, S.; Lingham, M.; Hannaford, P.; Vale, C. J.; Whitlock, S.
2011-03-11
We have studied the transition from two to three dimensions in a low temperature weakly interacting {sup 6}Li Fermi gas. Below a critical atom number N{sub 2D} only the lowest transverse vibrational state of a highly anisotropic oblate trapping potential is occupied and the gas is two dimensional. Above N{sub 2D} the Fermi gas enters the quasi-2D regime where shell structure associated with the filling of individual transverse oscillator states is apparent. This dimensional crossover is demonstrated through measurements of the cloud size and aspect ratio versus atom number.
a Web-Based Interactive Tool for Multi-Resolution 3d Models of a Maya Archaeological Site
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agugiaro, G.; Remondino, F.; Girardi, G.; von Schwerin, J.; Richards-Rissetto, H.; De Amicis, R.
2011-09-01
Continuous technological advances in surveying, computing and digital-content delivery are strongly contributing to a change in the way Cultural Heritage is "perceived": new tools and methodologies for documentation, reconstruction and research are being created to assist not only scholars, but also to reach more potential users (e.g. students and tourists) willing to access more detailed information about art history and archaeology. 3D computer-simulated models, sometimes set in virtual landscapes, offer for example the chance to explore possible hypothetical reconstructions, while on-line GIS resources can help interactive analyses of relationships and change over space and time. While for some research purposes a traditional 2D approach may suffice, this is not the case for more complex analyses concerning spatial and temporal features of architecture, like for example the relationship of architecture and landscape, visibility studies etc. The project aims therefore at creating a tool, called "QueryArch3D" tool, which enables the web-based visualisation and queries of an interactive, multi-resolution 3D model in the framework of Cultural Heritage. More specifically, a complete Maya archaeological site, located in Copan (Honduras), has been chosen as case study to test and demonstrate the platform's capabilities. Much of the site has been surveyed and modelled at different levels of detail (LoD) and the geometric model has been semantically segmented and integrated with attribute data gathered from several external data sources. The paper describes the characteristics of the research work, along with its implementation issues and the initial results of the developed prototype.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayer, L. A.; Calder, B.; Schmidt, J. S.
2003-12-01
Historically, archaeological investigations use sidescan sonar and marine magnetometers as initial search tools. Targets are then examined through direct observation by divers, video, or photographs. Magnetometers can demonstrate the presence, absence, and relative susceptibility of ferrous objects but provide little indication of the nature of the target. Sidescan sonar can present a clear image of the overall nature of a target and its surrounding environment, but the sidescan image is often distorted and contains little information about the true 3-D shape of the object. Optical techniques allow precise identification of objects but suffer from very limited range, even in the best of situations. Modern high-resolution multibeam sonar offers an opportunity to cover a relatively large area from a safe distance above the target, while resolving the true three-dimensional (3-D) shape of the object with centimeter-level resolution. The combination of 3-D mapping and interactive 3-D visualization techniques provides a powerful new means to explore underwater artifacts. A clear demonstration of the applicability of high-resolution multibeam sonar to wreck and artifact investigations occurred when the Naval Historical Center (NHC), the Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping (CCOM) at the University of New Hampshire, and Reson Inc., collaborated to explore the state of preservation and impact on the surrounding environment of a series of wrecks located off the coast of Normandy, France, adjacent to the American landing sectors The survey augmented previously collected magnetometer and high-resolution sidescan sonar data using a Reson 8125 high-resolution focused multibeam sonar with 240, 0.5° (at nadir) beams distributed over a 120° swath. The team investigated 21 areas in water depths ranging from about three -to 30 meters (m); some areas contained individual targets such as landing craft, barges, a destroyer, troop carrier, etc., while others contained multiple smaller
Toward a 3D model of human brain development for studying gene/environment interactions
2013-01-01
This project aims to establish and characterize an in vitro model of the developing human brain for the purpose of testing drugs and chemicals. To accurately assess risk, a model needs to recapitulate the complex interactions between different types of glial cells and neurons in a three-dimensional platform. Moreover, human cells are preferred over cells from rodents to eliminate cross-species differences in sensitivity to chemicals. Previously, we established conditions to culture rat primary cells as three-dimensional aggregates, which will be humanized and evaluated here with induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The use of iPSCs allows us to address gene/environment interactions as well as the potential of chemicals to interfere with epigenetic mechanisms. Additionally, iPSCs afford us the opportunity to study the effect of chemicals during very early stages of brain development. It is well recognized that assays for testing toxicity in the developing brain must consider differences in sensitivity and susceptibility that arise depending on the time of exposure. This model will reflect critical developmental processes such as proliferation, differentiation, lineage specification, migration, axonal growth, dendritic arborization and synaptogenesis, which will probably display differences in sensitivity to different types of chemicals. Functional endpoints will evaluate the complex cell-to-cell interactions that are affected in neurodevelopment through chemical perturbation, and the efficacy of drug intervention to prevent or reverse phenotypes. The model described is designed to assess developmental neurotoxicity effects on unique processes occurring during human brain development by leveraging human iPSCs from diverse genetic backgrounds, which can be differentiated into different cell types of the central nervous system. Our goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of the personalized model using iPSCs derived from individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders
Skin-Friction Measurements in a 3-D, Supersonic Shock-Wave/Boundary-Layer Interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wideman, J. K.; Brown, J. L.; Miles, J. B.; Ozcan, O.
1994-01-01
The experimental documentation of a three-dimensional shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction in a nominal Mach 3 cylinder, aligned with the free-stream flow, and 20 deg. half-angle conical flare offset 1.27 cm from the cylinder centerline. Surface oil flow, laser light sheet illumination, and schlieren were used to document the flow topology. The data includes surface-pressure and skin-friction measurements. A laser interferometric skin friction data. Included in the skin-friction data are measurements within separated regions and three-dimensional measurements in highly-swept regions. The skin-friction data will be particularly valuable in turbulence modeling and computational fluid dynamics validation.
Tyre/road interaction noise—A 3D viscoelastic multilayer model of a tyre belt
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Boy, D. J.; Dowling, A. P.
2009-05-01
Vehicle noise is an increasing local environmental problem. For cars, above a steady speed of 40 km/h the noise produced by the interaction of the tyres with the road surface is the dominant noise source. In order to be able to predict this noise, the vibration characteristics of a stationary tyre must be determined. A multilayer viscoelastic cylindrical representation of the tyre belt, located between the sidewalls of the tyre and excluding the tread, is provided which yields the displacement and velocity response of the tyre belt when excited in the radial or tangential directions for a wide range of excitation frequencies, using only data from the design process. This model includes a representation of an air cavity and sidewalls and the response of the tyre belt is determined in both the frequency-wavenumber and time-spatial domains. The model can then be used to determine the noise of a tyre rolling on a rough road.
A Coriolis Demonstration Using a 3-D Interactive Computer Model of a Physical Demonstration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Urbano, L.; Houghton, J.
2005-12-01
The coriolis effect can be a difficult concept, particularly for large classes where the effectiveness of physical demonstrations is limited by visibility. We developed a fully interactive computer visualization aimed at introductory undergraduate and pre-college students based on the physical demonstration of a marble rolling across a turntable. The marble's velocity, turntable angular velocity and direction, and friction between the marble and the surface can be controlled to allow significant instructional flexibility. Pre and post-demonstration surveys indicate that the coriolis model helped students better understand the concept. This program is written in the free, open-source Python programming language, specifically with the VPython module, which makes three-dimensional, physically-based, real-time visualizations efficiently programmable for geoscience demonstrations by non-professional programmers.
3D hybrid simulations of the interaction of a magnetic cloud with a bow shock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turc, L.; Fontaine, D.; Savoini, P.; Modolo, R.
2015-08-01
In this paper, we investigate the interaction of a magnetic cloud (MC) with a planetary bow shock using hybrid simulations. It is the first time to our knowledge that this interaction is studied using kinetic simulations which include self-consistently both the ion foreshock and the shock wave dynamics. We show that when the shock is in a quasi-perpendicular configuration, the MC's magnetic structure in the magnetosheath remains similar to that in the solar wind, whereas it is strongly altered downstream of a quasi-parallel shock. The latter can result in a reversal of the magnetic field north-south component in some parts of the magnetosheath. We also investigate how the MC affects in turn the outer parts of the planetary environment, i.e., from the foreshock to the magnetopause. We find the following: (i) The decrease of the Alfvén Mach number at the MC's arrival causes an attenuation of the foreshock region because of the weakening of the bow shock. (ii) The foreshock moves along the bow shock's surface, following the rotation of the MC's magnetic field. (iii) Owing to the low plasma beta, asymmetric flows arise inside the magnetosheath, due to the magnetic tension force which accelerates the particles in some parts of the magnetosheath and slows them down in others. (iv) The quasi-parallel region forms a depression in the shock's surface. Other deformations of the magnetopause and the bow shock are also highlighted. All these effects can contribute to significantly modify the solar wind/magnetosphere coupling during MC events.
3D magnetic interactions of stars with their close-in planets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strugarek, Antoine; Brun, Allan Sacha; Matt, Sean; Réville, Victor
2015-08-01
Close-in planets generally orbit in a sub-alfv ´enic stellar wind, where the perturbations they excite in the corona are able to travel upwind to the stellar surface and potentially induce observable phenomena. The effective connection between the planet and its host takes the form of two Aflv ´en wings. Depending on the topology of the planetary and stellar magnetic fields, the rotation profile of the corona, and the orbital parameters, it is possible that none, one, or the two Aflv ´en wings connect together the star and the planet.We explore the formation and sustainment of Alfv ´en wings in global three dimensional simulations under the magneto-hydrodynamic formalism with the PLUTO code. We model the stellar wind of a typical cool star in which a close-in orbiting planet is introduced as a boundary condition. By varying the magnetic topologies of the planetary and stellar magnetic fields, we explore the variety of Alfv ´en wings that can develop and quantify the Poynting flux flowing through those wings. We thus provide estimates of the amount of magnetic energy these magnetic interactions can channel to the lower corona. We also quantify the phase and latitude offsets that can be expected between the planetary subpoint on the stellar surface and the actual location where energy is deposited. We summarize the typical situations (in terms of magnetic topology, stellar type, and orbital parameters) where the star-planet magnetic interaction could trigger observable flares. We conclude by extending our results to the cases of more complex, non-axisymmetric topologies of the observed magnetic fields for a few particular stars.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arribas, Victor; Casas, Lluís; Estop, Eugènia; Labrador, Manuel
2014-01-01
Crystallography and X-ray diffraction techniques are essential topics in geosciences and other solid-state sciences. Their fundamentals, which include point symmetry groups, are taught in the corresponding university courses. In-depth meaningful learning of symmetry concepts is difficult and requires capacity for abstraction and spatial vision. Traditionally, wooden crystallographic models are used as support material. In this paper, we describe a new interactive tool, freely available, inspired in such models. Thirty-two PDF files containing embedded 3D models have been created. Each file illustrates a point symmetry group and can be used to teach/learn essential symmetry concepts and the International Hermann-Mauguin notation of point symmetry groups. Most interactive computer-aided tools devoted to symmetry deal with molecular symmetry and disregard crystal symmetry so we have developed a tool that fills the existing gap.
Kallinderis, Yannis; Vitsas, Panagiotis A.; Menounou, Penelope
2012-07-15
A low-order flow/acoustics interaction method for the prediction of sound propagation and diffraction in unsteady subsonic compressible flow using adaptive 3-D hybrid grids is investigated. The total field is decomposed into the flow field described by the Euler equations, and the acoustics part described by the Nonlinear Perturbation Equations. The method is shown capable of predicting monopole sound propagation, while employment of acoustics-guided adapted grid refinement improves the accuracy of capturing the acoustic field. Interaction of sound with solid boundaries is also examined in terms of reflection, and diffraction. Sound propagation through an unsteady flow field is examined using static and dynamic flow/acoustics coupling demonstrating the importance of the latter.
Jovian's plasma torus interaction with Europa. E12 pass: 3D hybrid kinetic