Science.gov

Sample records for 3d free-space optical

  1. Optical communication in free space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilfert, Otakar; Henniger, Hennes; Kolka, Zdenek

    2008-12-01

    The success of free-space optical links operating indoors or in the atmosphere or deep space shows a good perspective of the technology. There is no doubt that free-space technology is ready for wide practical application. Optical links have several advantages in comparison with radio links, namely high transmission rates and high security. Advance in systems for the detection and tracking of moving objects allowed the development of mobile optical wireless links. This paper is focused on satellite and mobile optical links. Included are basic characteristics of such links and current results of international research projects.

  2. Free-space coherent optical communication with orbital angular, momentum multiplexing/demultiplexing using a hybrid 3D photonic integrated circuit.

    PubMed

    Guan, Binbin; Scott, Ryan P; Qin, Chuan; Fontaine, Nicolas K; Su, Tiehui; Ferrari, Carlo; Cappuzzo, Mark; Klemens, Fred; Keller, Bob; Earnshaw, Mark; Yoo, S J B

    2014-01-13

    We demonstrate free-space space-division-multiplexing (SDM) with 15 orbital angular momentum (OAM) states using a three-dimensional (3D) photonic integrated circuit (PIC). The hybrid device consists of a silica planar lightwave circuit (PLC) coupled to a 3D waveguide circuit to multiplex/demultiplex OAM states. The low excess loss hybrid device is used in individual and two simultaneous OAM states multiplexing and demultiplexing link experiments with a 20 Gb/s, 1.67 b/s/Hz quadrature phase shift keyed (QPSK) signal, which shows error-free performance for 379,960 tested bits for all OAM states.

  3. Asymmetry of free-space optical links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucouvalas, Anthony C.

    1995-12-01

    The concept of asymmetry in free space optical links is discussed. Simple equations describing the minimum carrier sense distance, the minimum and maximum distance of reliable link, and maximum interference distance are derived. Examples from the recently drafted IRDA specification for IR links are given. A solution is presented to the parity variation problem by controlling the field of view of such transceivers.

  4. A portable free space optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Yong; Lu, Xingguang; Yang, Jinglin; Chen, Jing; Hao, Zhonggang

    2005-08-01

    A portable protocol independent free space optical communication terminal was developed, which enables customer to quickly deploy optical bandwidth services for applications such as fiber extension, wild field point to point communication and wireless backhaul while avoiding costly and time-consuming fiber installation. By using specially designed optical components and optical-mechanical structure, the system is very compact and effective, can establish optical link within a few minutes, with total weight 4kg, size 160 x 360 x 155 mm, effective transmitting/receiving aperture 40mm, data rate 100Mbps, maximum communication distance 1500m. The system and experiments are presented in the paper.

  5. Global optical free-space smart interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilfoyle, Peter S.; Hessenbruch, John M.; Zeise, Frederick F.

    1993-07-01

    High fan-in/fan-out, low power (1 fJ per gate), high performance computing (HPC) modules are being developed that integrate global (multidimensional) free space `smart' optical interconnects with GaAs DANE technology. This new architecture implements N4 global free space optical interconnects coupled with 2-D arrays of N-bit Boolean multiplications by DeMorgan's theorem on wide word fan-ins. `Smart' interconnects provide a high speed inter- module alternative without the power requirements and cross-talk limitations of GaAs circuitry. Selected algorithms such as 64-bit addition can operate at lower power and higher speeds using global technology and GaAs logic. Thus, faster processing can be fully realized which allows for a reduction in pipeline delays.

  6. Extraction of the 3D Free Space from Building Models for Indoor Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diakité, A. A.; Zlatanova, S.

    2016-10-01

    For several decades, indoor navigation has been exclusively investigated in a 2D perspective, based on floor plans, projection and other 2D representations of buildings. Nevertheless, 3D representations are closer to our reality and offer a more intuitive description of the space configuration. Thanks to recent advances in 3D modelling, 3D navigation is timidly but increasingly gaining in interest through the indoor applications. But, because the structure of indoor environment is often more complex than outdoor, very simplified models are used and obstacles are not considered for indoor navigation leading to limited possibilities in complex buildings. In this paper we consider the entire configuration of the indoor environment in 3D and introduce a method to extract from it the actual navigable space as a network of connected 3D spaces (volumes). We describe how to construct such 3D free spaces from semantically rich and furnished IFC models. The approach combines the geometric, the topological and the semantic information available in a 3D model to isolate the free space from the rest of the components. Furthermore, the extraction of such navigable spaces in building models lacking of semantic information is also considered. A data structure named combinatorial maps is used to support the operations required by the process while preserving the topological and semantic information of the input models.

  7. Systems and methods for free space optical communication

    DOEpatents

    Harper, Warren W [Benton City, WA; Aker, Pamela M [Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2011-05-10

    Free space optical communication methods and systems, according to various aspects are described. The methods and systems are characterized by transmission of data through free space with a digitized optical signal acquired using wavelength modulation, and by discrimination between bit states in the digitized optical signal using a spectroscopic absorption feature of a chemical substance.

  8. Polyhedral integrated and free space optical interconnection

    DOEpatents

    Erteza, I.A.

    1998-01-06

    An optical communication system uses holographic optical elements to provide guided wave and non-guided communication, resulting in high bandwidth, high connectivity optical communications. Holograms within holographic optical elements route optical signals between elements and between nodes connected to elements. Angular and wavelength multiplexing allow the elements to provide high connectivity. The combination of guided and non-guided communication allows compact polyhedral system geometries. Guided wave communications provided by multiplexed substrate-mode holographic optical elements eases system alignment. 7 figs.

  9. Polyhedral integrated and free space optical interconnection

    DOEpatents

    Erteza, Ireena A.

    1998-01-01

    An optical communication system uses holographic optical elements to provide guided wave and non-guided communication, resulting in high bandwidth, high connectivity optical communications. Holograms within holographic optical elements route optical signals between elements and between nodes connected to elements. Angular and wavelength multiplexing allow the elements to provide high connectivity. The combination of guided and non-guided communication allows compact polyhedral system geometries. Guided wave communications provided by multiplexed substrate-mode holographic optical elements eases system alignment.

  10. Three-dimensional planar-integrated optics: a comparative view with free-space optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, El-Hang; Song, Seok Ho

    2000-04-01

    This paper reports on the viability, effectiveness, versatility, and the utility of the concept of the planar integrated optical interconnection scheme with respect to the concept of the free-space interconnection scheme in realizing multiple integration of various micro/nano- photonic devices and components for applications in optical interconnection, optical circuits, optical switching, optical communication and information processing. Several planar optics schemes to detect parallel optical packet addresses in WDM switching networks, to perform a space- variant processing such as fractional correlation, and to construct multistage interconnection networks, have been successfully demonstrated in the 3D glass blocks. Using a gradient-index (GRIN) substrate as a signal propagation medium in the planar optics is a unique advantage, when compared to the free-space optics. We have demonstrated the GRIN-substrate concept by using six 1/4-pitch GRIN rod lenses and a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). The GRIN planar optics can be further extended to the use of 2D array of VCSEL microlasers and modulators in making massively parallel interconnects. A critical comparison between the planar integrated optics scheme and the free- space integrated scheme is given in terms of physics, engineering and technological concept.

  11. Free Space Optical Communications Utilizing MEMS Adaptive Optics Correction

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C A; Kartz, M W; Flath, L M; Wilks, S C; Young, R A; Johnson, G W; Ruggiero, A J

    2002-07-09

    Free space optical communications (FSO) are beginning to provide attractive alternatives to fiber-based solutions in many situations. Currently, a handful of companies provide fiberless alternatives specifically aimed at corporate intranet and sporting event video applications. These solutions are geared toward solving the ''last mile'' connectivity issues. There exists a potential need to extend this pathlength to distances much greater than a 1 km, particularly for government and military applications. For cases of long distance optical propagation, atmospheric turbulence will ultimately limit the maximum achievable data rate. In this paper, we propose a method to improve signal quality through the use of adaptive optics. In particular, we show work in progress toward a high-speed, small footprint Adaptive Optics system for horizontal and slant path laser communications. Such a system relies heavily on recent progress in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) deformable mirrors, as well as improved communication and computational components.

  12. Free space optical communications: coming of age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotts, Larry B.; Stadler, Brian; Lee, Gary

    2008-04-01

    Information superiority, where for the military or business, is the decisive advantage of the 21st Century. While business enjoys the information advantage of robust, high-bandwidth fiber optic connectivity that heavily leverages installed commercial infrastructure and service providers, mobile military forces need the wireless equivalent to leverage that advantage. In other words, an ability to deploy anywhere on the globe and maintain a robust, reliable communications and connectivity infrastructure, equivalent to that enjoyed by a CONUS commercial user, will provide US forces with information superiority. Assured high-data-rate connectivity to the tactical user is the biggest gap in developing and truly exploiting the potential of the information superiority weapon. Though information superiority is much discussed and its potential is well understood, a robust communications network available to the lowest military echelons is not yet an integral part of the force structure, although high data rate RF communications relays, e.g., Tactical Common Data Link, and low data SATCOM, e.g, Ku Spread Spectrum, are deployed and used by the military. This may change with recent advances in laser communications technologies created by the fiber optic communications revolution. This paper will provide a high level overview of the various laser communications programs conducted over the last 30 plus years, and proposed efforts to get these systems finally deployed.

  13. The Role and Challenges of Free-space Optical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Sushank; Amphawan, Angela

    2014-12-01

    Complementing wireless radio networks with free-space optics (FSO) achieves high data rates by modulating radio subcarriers over an optical carrier without expensive optical fiber cabling, enabling a pervasive platform for reaching underserved areas. In this paper, we review the main features of FSO for terrestrial and inter-satellite communications. Simulations of 1 Gbps data transmission through FSO links in both terrestrial and inter-satellite communications have been investigated to highlight potential atmospheric challenges in FSO.

  14. Experimental free-space optical network for massively parallel computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, S.; Kajita, M.; Kasahara, K.; Kubota, K.; Kurihara, K.; Redmond, I.; Schenfeld, E.; Suzaki, T.

    1996-03-01

    A free-space optical interconnection scheme is described for massively parallel processors based on the interconnection-cached network architecture. The optical network operates in a circuit-switching mode. Combined with a packet-switching operation among the circuit-switched optical channels, a high-bandwidth, low-latency network for massively parallel processing results. The design and assembly of a 64-channel experimental prototype is discussed, and operational results are presented.

  15. Free-space carpet cloak using transformation optics and graphene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Runren; Lin, Xiao; Shen, Lian; Wang, Zuojia; Zheng, Bin; Lin, Shisheng; Chen, Hongsheng

    2014-12-01

    Free-space carpet cloak designed with transformation optics requires materials exhibiting simultaneously anisotropic properties and plasma-like behaviors, but materials that simultaneously meet these requirements are rarely found in nature. The recently discovered graphene has shown unique anisotropic plasma-like behavior benefitting from its natural two-dimensional structure and in-plane ultrahigh electron mobility, and therefore, can be a good candidate for the free-space carpet cloak design. In this Letter, we theoretically propose a novel free-space carpet cloak by using periodically stacking layered graphene for the first time. Simulation results show an object under the graphene-based carpet cloak becomes invisible in the THz frequencies. By exploiting the large tunability of graphene's conductivity, we also demonstrate the working frequency of the designed cloak is continuously tunable in a wide spectrum. PMID:25490666

  16. Free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner.

    PubMed

    Yaqoob, Z; Rizvi, A A; Riza, N A

    2001-12-10

    A wavelength-multiplexed optical scanning scheme is proposed for deflecting a free-space optical beam by selection of the wavelength of the light incident on a wavelength-dispersive optical element. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters, this scanner features microsecond domain scan setting speeds and large- diameter apertures of several centimeters or more for subdegree angular scans. Analysis performed indicates an optimum scan range for a given diffraction order and grating period. Limitations include beam-spreading effects based on the varying scanner aperture sizes and the instantaneous information bandwidth of the data-carrying laser beam.

  17. Free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner.

    PubMed

    Yaqoob, Z; Rizvi, A A; Riza, N A

    2001-12-10

    A wavelength-multiplexed optical scanning scheme is proposed for deflecting a free-space optical beam by selection of the wavelength of the light incident on a wavelength-dispersive optical element. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters, this scanner features microsecond domain scan setting speeds and large- diameter apertures of several centimeters or more for subdegree angular scans. Analysis performed indicates an optimum scan range for a given diffraction order and grating period. Limitations include beam-spreading effects based on the varying scanner aperture sizes and the instantaneous information bandwidth of the data-carrying laser beam. PMID:18364951

  18. Laser Beam Steering/shaping for Free Space Optical Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xinghua; Wang, Bin; Bos, Philip J.; Anderson, James E.; Pouch, John; Miranda, Felix; McManamon, Paul F.

    2004-01-01

    The 2-D Optical Phased Array (OPA) antenna based on a Liquid Crystal On Silicon (LCoS) device can be considered for use in free space optical communication as an active beam controlling device. Several examples of the functionality of the device include: beam steering in the horizontal and elevation direction; high resolution wavefront compensation in a large telescope; and beam shaping with the computer generated kinoform. Various issues related to the diffraction efficiency, steering range, steering accuracy as well as the magnitude of wavefront compensation are discussed.

  19. Nanostructure arrays in free-space: optical properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Collin, Stéphane

    2014-12-01

    Dielectric and metallic gratings have been studied for more than a century. Nevertheless, novel optical phenomena and fabrication techniques have emerged recently and have opened new perspectives for applications in the visible and infrared domains. Here, we review the design rules and the resonant mechanisms that can lead to very efficient light-matter interactions in sub-wavelength nanostructure arrays. We emphasize the role of symmetries and free-space coupling of resonant structures. We present the different scenarios for perfect optical absorption, transmission or reflection of plane waves in resonant nanostructures. We discuss the fabrication issues, experimental achievements and emerging applications of resonant nanostructure arrays.

  20. Free-space optical wireless links with topology control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Stuart D.; Ho, Tzung-Hsien; Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Trisno, Sugianto; Davis, Christopher C.

    2002-12-01

    The worldwide demand for broadband communications is being met in many places through the use of installed single-mode fiber networks. However, there is still a significant 'first-mile' problem, which seriously limits the availability of broadband Internet access. Free-space optical wireless communication has emerged as a technique of choice for bridging gaps in the existing high data rate communication networks, and as a backbone for rapidly deployable mobile wireless communication infrastructure. Because free space laser communication links can be easily and rapidly redirected, optical wireless networks can be autonomously reconfigured in a multiple-connected topology to provide improved network performance. In this paper we describe research designed to improve the performance of such networks. Using topology control algorithms, we have demonstrated that multiply-connected, rapidly reconfigurable optical wireless networks can provide robust performance, and a high quality of service at high data rates (up to and beyond 1 Gbps). These systems are also very cost-effective. We have designed and tested on the University of Maryland campus a prototype four-node optical wireless network, where each node could be connected to the others via steerable optical wireless links. The design and performance of this network and the topology control is discussed.

  1. Indoor Free Space Optic: a new prototype, realization and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchet, Olivier; Besnard, Pascal; Mihaescu, Adrian

    2008-08-01

    The Free Space Optic (FSO) communication is a daily reality used by an increasing number of companies. For indoor environment, optical wireless communication becomes a good alternative with respect to radio proposals. For both technologies, the architecture is similar: emission/reception base station (Gateway or Bridge) are installed to cover zones, which are defined to ensure a quality of service. The customers may be connected to the Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) with an adapter or module that emits and receives on this network. But due to its specific characteristics, wireless optical technology could present important advantages such as: Transmitted data security, medical immunity, high data rate, etc... Nevertheless, the optical system may have a limit on the network management aspect and link budget. The scope of this paper is to present a proposal at crossroads between optical fibre telecom system and data processing. In this document, we will present a prototype developed in Brittany during a regional collaborative project (Techim@ges). In order to answer to the management aspect and the link budget, this prototype uses an optical multiplexing technique in 1550 nm band: the Wavelength Division Multiple Access (WDMA). Moreover it also proposes a new class 1 high power emission solution. This full duplex system transmits these various wavelengths in free space, by using optical Multiplexer/Demultiplexer and optical modules. Each module has a defined and personal wavelength associated to the terminal identification (addresses MAC or IP). This approach permits a data rate at a minimum of a ten's Mbit/s per customer and potentially hundred Mbps for a line of sight system. The application field for the achieved and proposed prototype is potentially investigated from WLAN to WPAN.

  2. OAM-labeled free-space optical flow routing.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shecheng; Lei, Ting; Li, Yangjin; Yuan, Yangsheng; Xie, Zhenwei; Li, Zhaohui; Yuan, Xiaocong

    2016-09-19

    Space-division multiplexing allows unprecedented scaling of bandwidth density for optical communication. Routing spatial channels among transmission ports is critical for future scalable optical network, however, there is still no characteristic parameter to label the overlapped optical carriers. Here we propose a free-space optical flow routing (OFR) scheme by using optical orbital angular moment (OAM) states to label optical flows and simultaneously steer each flow according to their OAM states. With an OAM multiplexer and a reconfigurable OAM demultiplexer, massive individual optical flows can be routed to the demanded optical ports. In the routing process, the OAM beams act as data carriers at the same time their topological charges act as each carrier's labels. Using this scheme, we experimentally demonstrate switching, multicasting and filtering network functions by simultaneously steer 10 input optical flows on demand to 10 output ports. The demonstration of data-carrying OFR with nonreturn-to-zero signals shows that this process enables synchronous processing of massive spatial channels and flexible optical network. PMID:27661902

  3. Software design of segment optical transmitter for indoor free-space optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latal, Jan; Vitasek, Jan; Koudelka, Petr; Siska, Petr; Liner, Andrej; Hajek, Lukas; Vanderka, Ales; Vasinek, Vladimir; Lucki, Michal

    2015-01-01

    During recent years, there has been rapid development in optical networks. This includes not only fiber optical networks but also free space optical networks. The free space optical networks can be divided into indoor and outdoor ones. The indoor free space optical networks have been experiencing dramatic progress in the last years, allowed by the newest IEEE norm 802.15.7, which enabled development of different types of transmitter receivers, modulation formats, etc. The team of authors is dealing with software design of segment optical transmitters for an indoor free space optical network based on the multi-mode optical 50/125 or 62.5/125 μm fiber. Simulated data are then evaluated from the point of view of optical intensity uniform distribution and space spot light size radiating from segment optical transmitter.

  4. Free-space optical communications link budget estimation.

    PubMed

    Stotts, Larry B; Kolodzy, Paul; Pike, Alan; Graves, Buzz; Dougherty, Dave; Douglass, Jeff

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes a new methodology of estimating free-space optical communications link budgets to be expected in conditions of severe turbulence. The approach is derived from observing that the ability of an adaptive optics (AO) system to compensate turbulence along a path is limited by the transmitter and receiver Rayleigh range, proportional to the diameter of the optics squared and inverse of the wavelength of light utilized. The method uses the Fried parameter computed over the range outside of the transmitter and receiver Rayleigh ranges, to calculate the Strehl ratios that yield a reasonable prediction of the light impinging on the receiving telescope aperture and the power coupling into the fiber. Comparisons will be given between theory and field measurements. These comparisons show that AO is most effective within the Rayleigh ranges, or when an atmospheric gradient is present, and lesser so when the total range is much greater than the sum of the Rayleigh ranges.

  5. Initial alignment method for free space optics laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Yuta; Tashiro, Yuki; Izumi, Kiyotaka; Yoshida, Koichi; Tsujimura, Takeshi

    2016-08-01

    The authors have newly proposed and constructed an active free space optics transmission system. It is equipped with a motor driven laser emitting mechanism and positioning photodiodes, and it transmits a collimated thin laser beam and accurately steers the laser beam direction. It is necessary to introduce the laser beam within sensible range of the receiver in advance of laser beam tracking control. This paper studies an estimation method of laser reaching point for initial laser beam alignment. Distributed photodiodes detect laser luminescence at respective position, and the optical axis of laser beam is analytically presumed based on the Gaussian beam optics. Computer simulation evaluates the accuracy of the proposed estimation methods, and results disclose that the methods help us to guide the laser beam to a distant receiver.

  6. Tolerancing of board-level-free-space optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaleta, David; Patra, Susant; Ozguz, Volkan; Ma, Jian; Lee, Sing H.

    1996-03-01

    For optical interconnects to become a mature technology they must be amenable to electronic packaging technology. Two main obstacles to including free-space optical interconnects are alignment and heat-dissipation issues. Here we study the issues of alignment tolerancing that are due to assembly and manufacturing variations (passive-element tolerancing) over long board-level distances ( greater than 10 cm) for free-space optical interconnects. We also combine these variations with active optoelectronic device variations (active-element tolerancing). We demonstrate a computer-aided analysis procedure that permits one to determine both active-and passive-element tolerances needed to achieve some system-level specification, such as yield or cost. The procedure that we employ relies on developing a detailed design of the system to be studied in a standard optical design program, such as code v. Using information from this model, we can determine the integrated power falling on the detector, which we term optical throughput, by performing Gaussian propagation or general Fresnel propagation (if significant vignetting occurs). This optical throughput can be used to determine system-level performance criteria, such as bit-error rate. With this computer-aided analysis technique, a sensitivity analysis of all the variations under study is made on a system with realistic board-level interconnect distances to find each perturbation's relative effects (with other perturbations set to 0) on the power falling on the detector. This information is used to set initial tolerances for subsequent tolerancing analysis and design runs. A tolerancing analysis by Monte Carlo techniques is applied to determine if the yield or cost (yield is defined as the percentage of systems that have acceptable system performance) is acceptable. With a technique called parametric sampling, a subsequent tolerancing design run can be applied to optimize this yield or cost with little increase in

  7. Recent progress on silica-based optical switches and free-space optical switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himeno, Akira; Yamaguchi, Masayasu

    1996-03-01

    Space-division optical switches will be indispensable for future fiber-optic communication systems such as fiber-optic subscriber-line concentrators, photonic inter-module connectors, and protection switches. This paper reports recent progress on both silica-based thermo-optic optical switches with drive electronics. Two types of free-space switch modules are also reviewed; analog free-space switching modules which use liquid crystal beam shifters and digital free-space switching modules which incorporate semiconductor photonic switch array devices.

  8. Free space optical communication links in a marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadwal, Veena; Hammel, Stephen

    2006-08-01

    We present an analysis of Free Space Optical (FSO) signal attenuation experienced in a marine environment. This work is in support of the Communication Link Assessment in Marine Environments program (CLAIME), for the Navy's investment in a network infrastructure for high altitude tactical layer connectivity to the Global Information Grid. The expanded bandwidth requirement can be realized using FSO networking capabilities. The performance of the link needs to be evaluated for different platforms such as ship-to-ship, airborne-to-ship, as well as airborne-to-airborne links. Near surface horizontal links required for ship-to-ship communications will be described in detail. The challenges faced in this environment include determining the attenuation due to aerosol scattering as well as optical turbulence. Determining the attenuation due to fog, haze, rain and snow will be addressed as well.

  9. Semiconductor optoelectronic devices for free-space optical communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J.

    1983-01-01

    The properties of individual injection lasers are reviewed, and devices of greater complexity are described. These either include or are relevant to monolithic integration configurations of the lasers with their electronic driving circuitry, power combining methods of semiconductor lasers, and electronic methods of steering the radiation patterns of semiconductor lasers and laser arrays. The potential of AlGaAs laser technology for free-space optical communications systems is demonstrated. These solid-state components, which can generate and modulate light, combine the power of a number of sources and perform at least part of the beam pointing functions. Methods are proposed for overcoming the main drawback of semiconductor lasers, that is, their inability to emit the needed amount of optical power in a single-mode operation.

  10. Free space optical communications through clouds: analysis of signal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Binbin; Hajjarian, Zeinab; Kavehrad, Mohsen

    2008-06-10

    Free space optical communications (FSOC) is a method by which one transmits a modulated beam of light through the atmosphere for broadband applications. Fundamental limitations of FSOC arise from the environment through which light propagates. This work addresses transmitted light beam dispersion (spatial, angular, and temporal dispersion) in FSOC operating as a ground-to-air link when clouds exist along the communications channel. Light signals (photons) transmitted through clouds will interact with the cloud particles. Photon-particle interaction causes dispersion of light signals, which has significant effects on signal attenuation and pulse spread. The correlation between spatial and angular dispersion is investigated as well, which plays an important role on the receiver design. Moreover, the paper indicates that temporal dispersion (pulse spread) and energy loss strongly depend on the aperture size of the receiver, the field-of-view (FOV), and the position of the receiver relative to the optical axis of the transmitter.

  11. Free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner demonstration.

    PubMed

    Yaqoob, Zahid; Riza, Nabeel A

    2002-09-10

    Experimental demonstration of a no-moving-parts free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner (W-MOS) is presented. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters and planar wavelength dispersive elements such as diffraction gratings, this microsecond-speed scanner enables large several-centimeter apertures for subdegree angular scans. The proposed W-MOS design incorporates a unique optical amplifier and variable optical attenuator combination that enables the calibration and modulation of the scanner response, leading to any desired scanned laser beam power shaping. The experimental setup uses a tunable laser centered at 1560 nm and a 600-grooves/mm blazed reflection grating to accomplish an angular scan of 12.92 degrees as the source is tuned over an 80-nm bandwidth. The values for calculated maximum optical beam divergance, required wavelength resolution, beam-pointing accuracy, and measured scanner insertion loss are 1.076 mrad, 0.172 nm, 0.06 mrad, and 4.88 dB, respectively.

  12. Free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner demonstration.

    PubMed

    Yaqoob, Zahid; Riza, Nabeel A

    2002-09-10

    Experimental demonstration of a no-moving-parts free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner (W-MOS) is presented. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters and planar wavelength dispersive elements such as diffraction gratings, this microsecond-speed scanner enables large several-centimeter apertures for subdegree angular scans. The proposed W-MOS design incorporates a unique optical amplifier and variable optical attenuator combination that enables the calibration and modulation of the scanner response, leading to any desired scanned laser beam power shaping. The experimental setup uses a tunable laser centered at 1560 nm and a 600-grooves/mm blazed reflection grating to accomplish an angular scan of 12.92 degrees as the source is tuned over an 80-nm bandwidth. The values for calculated maximum optical beam divergance, required wavelength resolution, beam-pointing accuracy, and measured scanner insertion loss are 1.076 mrad, 0.172 nm, 0.06 mrad, and 4.88 dB, respectively. PMID:12224780

  13. Free-space optical channel estimation for physical layer security.

    PubMed

    Endo, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Mikio; Kitamura, Mitsuo; Ito, Toshiyuki; Toyoshima, Morio; Takayama, Yoshihisa; Takenaka, Hideki; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Laurenti, Nicola; Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo; Aoki, Takao; Sasaki, Masahide

    2016-04-18

    We present experimental data on message transmission in a free-space optical (FSO) link at an eye-safe wavelength, using a testbed consisting of one sender and two receiver terminals, where the latter two are a legitimate receiver and an eavesdropper. The testbed allows us to emulate a typical scenario of physical-layer (PHY) security such as satellite-to-ground laser communications. We estimate information-theoretic metrics including secrecy rate, secrecy outage probability, and expected code lengths for given secrecy criteria based on observed channel statistics. We then discuss operation principles of secure message transmission under realistic fading conditions, and provide a guideline on a multi-layer security architecture by combining PHY security and upper-layer (algorithmic) security. PMID:27137325

  14. Free-space optical channel estimation for physical layer security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Mikio; Kitamura, Mitsuo; Ito, Toshiyuki; Toyoshima, Morio; Takayama, Yoshihisa; Takenaka, Hideki; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Laurenti, Nicola; Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo; Aoki, Takao; Sasaki, Masahide

    2016-04-01

    We present experimental data on message transmission in a free-space optical (FSO) link at an eye-safe wavelength, using a testbed consisting of one sender and two receiver terminals, where the latter two are a legitimate receiver and an eavesdropper. The testbed allows us to emulate a typical scenario of physical-layer (PHY) security such as satellite-to-ground laser communications. We estimate information-theoretic metrics including secrecy rate, secrecy outage probability, and expected code lengths for given secrecy criteria based on observed channel statistics. We then discuss operation principles of secure message transmission under realistic fading conditions, and provide a guideline on a multi-layer security architecture by combining PHY security and upper-layer (algorithmic) security.

  15. Free-space optical channel estimation for physical layer security.

    PubMed

    Endo, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Mikio; Kitamura, Mitsuo; Ito, Toshiyuki; Toyoshima, Morio; Takayama, Yoshihisa; Takenaka, Hideki; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Laurenti, Nicola; Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo; Aoki, Takao; Sasaki, Masahide

    2016-04-18

    We present experimental data on message transmission in a free-space optical (FSO) link at an eye-safe wavelength, using a testbed consisting of one sender and two receiver terminals, where the latter two are a legitimate receiver and an eavesdropper. The testbed allows us to emulate a typical scenario of physical-layer (PHY) security such as satellite-to-ground laser communications. We estimate information-theoretic metrics including secrecy rate, secrecy outage probability, and expected code lengths for given secrecy criteria based on observed channel statistics. We then discuss operation principles of secure message transmission under realistic fading conditions, and provide a guideline on a multi-layer security architecture by combining PHY security and upper-layer (algorithmic) security.

  16. Free space optics: a viable last-mile alternative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willebrand, Heinz A.; Clark, Gerald R.

    2001-10-01

    This paper explores Free Space Optics (FSO) as an access technology in the last mile of metropolitan area networks (MANs). These networks are based in part on fiber-optic telecommunications infrastructure, including network architectures of Synchronous Optical Network (commonly referred to as SONET), the North American standard for synchronous data transmission; and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (commonly referred to as SDH), the international standard and equivalent of SONET. Several converging forces have moved FSO beyond a niche technology for use only in local area networks (LANs) as a bridge connecting two facilities. FSO now allows service providers to cost effectively provide optical bandwidth for access networks and accelerate the extension of metro optical networks bridging what has been termed by industry experts as the optical dead zone. The optical dead zone refers to both the slowdown in capital investment in the short-term future and the actual connectivity gap that exists today between core metro optical networks and the access optical networks. Service providers have built extensive core and minimal metro networks but have not yet provided optical bandwidth to the access market largely due to the non-compelling economics to bridge the dead zone with fiber. Historically, such infrastructure build-out slowdowns have been blamed on a combination of economics, time-to-market constraints and limited technology options. However, new technology developments and market acceptance of FSO give service providers a new cost-effective alternative to provide high-bandwidth services with optical bandwidth in the access networks. Merrill Lynch predicts FSO will grow into a $2 billion market by 2005. The drivers for this market are a mere 5%- 6% penetration of fiber to business buildings; cost effective solution versus RF or fiber; and significant capacity which can only be matched by a physical fiber link, Merrill Lynch reports. This paper will describe FSO

  17. Receiver front end for optical free space communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrand, Ulrich

    1994-09-01

    The Receiver Front End (RFE) is the optical receiver of ESA's Semiconductor Laser Intersatellite Link Experiment (SILEX). Optical free space communication between satellites is characterized by narrow beams and therefore by demanding requirements for pointing accuracy. This applies for the steering of the laser beam in transmission, for the pointing of the receiver's field of view (FOV), and for the alignment between transmitted and received beams. The RFE housing, the optical system, the lens and detector's mounting have to be designed to meet the stringent requirements for angular stability. This paper concentrates on the mechanical and thermal aspects which strongly influence the performance. Thermal expansion effects are of major concern when keeping the optical axis stable. All materials have been matched to the thermal expansion characteristics of the hybrid circuit which contains the detector. Assuming only homogeneous temperature changes during life, no stress or angular deviations have to be expected. The relative changes of dimensions in any direction stays equal at different temperatures. The verification of opto-mechanical performance requires sophisticated measurement tools. Measurements have to be performed in order to determine the lateral stability of lens and detector. A dedicated autocollimator was developed which measures the angular stability of the optical axis after vibration, thermo-vacuum test and under temperature changes. It also serves as a test transmitter. Measurement accuracies of 5 (mu) rad have been achieved. For the measurements the RFE is mounted onto a test fixture. A reference mirror on the fixture is the stable reference which has to be more stable than the equipment itself.

  18. Free-space optical communication through a forest canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Clinton L.; Davis, Christopher C.

    2006-01-01

    We model the effects of the leaves of mature broadleaf (deciduous) trees on air-to-ground free-space optical communication systems operating through the leaf canopy. The concept of leaf area index (LAI) is reviewed and related to a probabilistic model of foliage consisting of obscuring leaves randomly distributed throughout a treetop layer. Individual leaves are opaque. The expected fractional unobscured area statistic is derived as well as the variance around the expected value. Monte Carlo simulation results confirm the predictions of this probabilistic model. To verify the predictions of the statistical model experimentally, a passive optical technique has been used to make measurements of observed sky illumination in a mature broadleaf environment. The results of the measurements, as a function of zenith angle, provide strong evidence for the applicability of the model, and a single parameter fit to the data reinforces a natural connection to LAI. Specific simulations of signal-to-noise ratio degradation as a function of zenith angle in a specific ground-to-unmanned aerial vehicle communication situation have demonstrated the effect of obscuration on performance.

  19. Free-space optical communication through a forest canopy.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Clinton L; Davis, Christopher C

    2006-01-01

    We model the effects of the leaves of mature broadleaf (deciduous) trees on air-to-ground free-space optical communication systems operating through the leaf canopy. The concept of leaf area index (LAI) is reviewed and related to a probabilistic model of foliage consisting of obscuring leaves randomly distributed throughout a treetop layer. Individual leaves are opaque. The expected fractional unobscured area statistic is derived as well as the variance around the expected value. Monte Carlo simulation results confirm the predictions of this probabilistic model. To verify the predictions of the statistical model experimentally, a passive optical technique has been used to make measurements of observed sky illumination in a mature broadleaf environment. The results of the measurements, as a function of zenith angle, provide strong evidence for the applicability of the model, and a single parameter fit to the data reinforces a natural connection to LAI. Specific simulations of signal-to-noise ratio degradation as a function of zenith angle in a specific ground-to-unmanned aerial vehicle communication situation have demonstrated the effect of obscuration on performance.

  20. Pointing Reference Scheme for Free-Space Optical Communications Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Malcolm; Ortiz, Gerardo; Jeganathan, Muthu

    2006-01-01

    A scheme is proposed for referencing the propagation direction of the transmit laser signal in pointing a free-space optical communications terminal. This recently developed scheme enables the use of low-cost, commercial silicon-based sensors for tracking the direction of the transmit laser, regardless of the transmit wavelength. Compared with previous methods, the scheme offers some advantages of less mechanical and optical complexity and avoids expensive and exotic sensor technologies. In free-space optical communications, the transmit beam must be accurately pointed toward the receiver in order to maintain the communication link. The current approaches to achieve this function call for part of the transmit beam to be split off and projected onto an optical sensor used to infer the pointed direction. This requires that the optical sensor be sensitive to the wavelength of the transmit laser. If a different transmit wavelength is desired, for example to obtain a source capable of higher data rates, this can become quite impractical because of the unavailability or inefficiency of sensors at these wavelengths. The innovation proposed here decouples this requirement by allowing any transmit wavelength to be used with any sensor. We have applied this idea to a particular system that transmits at the standard telecommunication wavelength of 1,550 nm and uses a silicon-based sensor, sensitive from 0.5 to 1.0 micrometers, to determine the pointing direction. The scheme shown in the figure involves integrating a low-power 980-nm reference or boresight laser beam coupled to the 1,550-nm transmit beam via a wavelength-division-multiplexed fiber coupler. Both of these signals propagate through the optical fiber where they achieve an extremely high level of co-alignment before they are launched into the telescope. The telescope uses a dichroic beam splitter to reflect the 980- nm beam onto the silicon image sensor (a quad detector, charge-coupled device, or active

  1. Simulating atmospheric free-space optical propagation: rainfall attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achour, Maha

    2002-04-01

    With recent advances and interest in Free-Space Optics (FSO) for commercial deployments, more attention has been placed on FSO weather effects and the availability of global weather databases. The Meteorological Visual Range (Visibility) is considered one of the main weather parameters necessary to estimate FSO attenuation due to haze, fog and low clouds. Proper understanding of visibility measurements conducted throughout the years is essential. Unfortunately, such information is missing from most of the databases, leaving FSO players no choice but to use the standard visibility equation based on 2% contrast and other assumptions on the source luminance and its background. Another challenge is that visibility is measured using the visual wavelength of 550 nm. Extrapolating the measured attenuations to longer infrared wavelengths is not trivial and involves extensive experimentations. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by spherical droplets of different sizes is considered to simulate FSO scattering effects. This paper serves as an introduction to a series of publications regarding simulation of FSO atmospheric propagation. This first part focuses on attenuation due to rainfall. Additional weather parameters, such as rainfall rate, temperature and relative humidity are considered to effectively build the rain model. Comparison with already published experimental measurement is performed to validate the model. The scattering cross section due to rain is derived from the density of different raindrop sizes and the raindrops fall velocity is derived from the overall rainfall rate. Absorption due the presence of water vapor is computed using the temperature and relative humidity measurements.

  2. Inter-aperture correlation in MIMO free space optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özbilgin, Tuğba; Koca, Mutlu

    2015-10-01

    We present a unified framework for determining the inter-aperture separations in multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) free space optical (FSO) systems such that the transmitter-receiver paths are resolvable. The analysis framework is also useful in determining the amount of spatial correlation for a given set of system configuration parameters and aperture separations. It is applicable to both point apertures and also apertures with larger diameters and can be used at both transmit and receive arrays. We show that the results obtained via theoretical derivations are in good agreement with those in the literature obtained via measurements or simulations. The theoretical calculations reveal that even under strong turbulence conditions and very long link distances, aperture separations at the order of a few tens of centimeters are sufficient to have resolvable paths with independent fading gains. Furthermore, the channel correlations increase relatively slowly with decreasing inter-aperture separations which are below these values. We also provide design guidelines to obtain resolvable paths for several commonly used system configurations.

  3. Determining the feasibility of Free Space Optical Communication in Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handura, M. R.; Ndjavera, K. M.; Nyirenda, C. N.; Olwal, T. O.

    2016-05-01

    Namibia has a great potential for Free Space Optical Communication (FSOC) because of its clear skies. This paper determines the feasibility of FSOC in Namibia by using theoretical models. Visibility, wind speed, and altitude data for several locations are used to compute atmospheric losses under average and worst case atmospheric conditions. Optimal FSOC link distances for all the locations are determined under both conditions by evaluating each location's atmospheric loss against the power link margin. Results show that under average conditions, an FSOC optimal link distance of up to 7500 m can be achieved for inland locations. On the other hand, Grootfontein and Katima Mulilo, at 6900 m, have the longest distance under worst case atmospheric conditions. Walvis Bay has the shortest FSOC link distances of 3224 m and 2500 m under average and worst case conditions respectively. This study shows that FSOC in Namibia is feasible for last mile broadband access networks, where link distances are generally less than 10 km. These results are based on theoretical models, which have taken into account reasonable realistic assumptions. Practical field tests using FSOC equipment will be conducted as part of future work. Comparisons will be made with theoretical results obtained in this study.

  4. Free space optical communication link using a silicon photonic optical phased array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, William S.; Goetz, Peter G.; Pruessner, Marcel; Mahon, Rita; Ferraro, Mike S.; Park, Doe; Fleet, Erin; DePrenger, Michael J.

    2015-03-01

    Many components for free space optical communication systems have shrunken in size over the last decade. However, the steering systems have remained large and power hungry. Non-mechanical beam steering offers a path to reducing the size of these systems. Optical phased arrays can allow integrated beam steering elements. One of the most important aspects of an optical phased array technology is its scalability to a large number of elements. Silicon photonics can potentially offer this scalability using CMOS foundry techniques. In this paper a small-scale silicon photonic optical phased array is demonstrated for both the transmitter and receiver functions in a free space optical link. The device using an array of thermo-optically controlled waveguide phase shifters and demonstrates one-dimensional steering with a single control electrode. Transmission of a digitized video data stream over the link is shown.

  5. Optical sensing in high voltage transmission lines using power over fiber and free space optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosolem, João Batista; Bassan, Fabio Renato; Penze, Rivael Strobel; Leonardi, Ariovaldo Antonio; Fracarolli, João Paulo Vicentini; Floridia, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    In this work we propose the use of power over fiber (PoF) and free space optics (FSO) techniques to powering and receive signals from an electrical current sensor placed at high voltage potential using a pair of optical collimators. The technique evaluation was performed in a laboratorial prototype using 62.5/125 μm multimode fiber to study the sensitivity of the optical alignment and the influence of the collimation process in the sensing system wavelengths: data communication (1310 nm) and powering (830 nm). The collimators were installed in a rigid electric insulator in order to maintain the stability of transmission.

  6. Spectral model of optical scintillation for terrestrial free-space optical communication link design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung-Hwan; Higashino, Takeshi; Tsukamoto, Katsutoshi; Komaki, Shozo; Kazaura, Kamugisha; Matsumoto, Mitsuji

    2011-03-01

    Since a deep and long-term fading in optical intensity results in considerable burst errors in the data, a terrestrial free-space optical (FSO) system has to be designed with consideration of a frequency characteristic of optical scintillation to achieve high quality wireless services over the link. In designing a terrestrial FSO link, we had better design the system considering variations caused by some slow time-varying parameters. This paper proposes a Butterworth-type spectral model of optical scintillation to design a terrestrial FSO link, which enables us to estimate the power spectral density of optical scintillation in a current optical wireless channel when time zone and weather parameters, such as temperature and rainfall intensity, are given. The spectral parameters of optical scintillation, cut-off frequency, and spectral slope are estimated from the data obtained in the experiment, and then their dependencies on time zone, temperature, and rainfall intensity are examined.

  7. Practical Realization of Massively Parallel Fiber -Free-Space Optical Interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Matthias; Jahns, Jürgen; El Joudi, El Mehdi; Sinzinger, Stefan

    2001-06-01

    We propose a novel approach to realizing massively parallel optical interconnects based on commercially available multifiber ribbons with MT-type connectors and custom-designed planar-integrated free-space components. It combines the advantages of fiber optics, that is, a long range and convenient and flexible installation, with those of (planar-integrated) free-space optics, that is, a wide range of implementable functions and a high potential for integration and parallelization. For the interface between fibers and free-space optical systems a low-cost practical solution is presented. It consists of using a metal connector plate that was manufactured on a computer-controlled milling machine. Channel densities are of the order of 100 /mm2 between optoelectronic VLSI chips and the free-space optical systems and 1 /mm2 between the free-space optical systems and MT-type fiber connectors. Experiments in combination with specially designed planar-integrated test systems prove that multiple one-to-one and one-to-many interconnects can be established with not more than 10% uniformity error.

  8. Fiber optic bundle array wide field-of-view optical receiver for free space optical communications.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Daniel V; Brown, David M; Rolander, Nathan W; Sluz, Joseph E; Venkat, Radha

    2010-11-01

    We propose a design for a free space optical communications (FSOC) receiver terminal that offers an improved field of view (FOV) in comparison to conventional FSOC receivers. The design utilizes a microlens to couple the incident optical signal into an individual fiber in a bundle routed to remote optical detectors. Each fiber in the bundle collects power from a solid angle of space; utilizing multiple fibers enhances the total FOV of the receiver over typical single-fiber designs. The microlens-to-fiber-bundle design is scalable and modular and can be replicated in an array to increase aperture size. The microlens is moved laterally with a piezoelectric transducer to optimize power coupling into a given fiber core in the bundle as the source appears to move due to relative motion between the transmitter and receiver. The optimum position of the lens array is determined via a feedback loop whose input is derived from a position sensing detector behind another lens. Light coupled into like fibers in each array cell is optically combined (in fiber) before illuminating discrete detectors.

  9. Performance analysis of fiber-based free-space optical communications with coherent detection spatial diversity.

    PubMed

    Li, Kangning; Ma, Jing; Tan, Liying; Yu, Siyuan; Zhai, Chao

    2016-06-10

    The performances of fiber-based free-space optical (FSO) communications over gamma-gamma distributed turbulence are studied for multiple aperture receiver systems. The equal gain combining (EGC) technique is considered as a practical scheme to mitigate the atmospheric turbulence. Bit error rate (BER) performances for binary-phase-shift-keying-modulated coherent detection fiber-based free-space optical communications are derived and analyzed for EGC diversity receptions through an approximation method. To show the net diversity gain of a multiple aperture receiver system, BER performances of EGC are compared with a single monolithic aperture receiver system with the same total aperture area (same average total incident optical power on the aperture surface) for fiber-based free-space optical communications. The analytical results are verified by Monte Carlo simulations. System performances are also compared for EGC diversity coherent FSO communications with or without considering fiber-coupling efficiencies. PMID:27409022

  10. Performance analysis of fiber-based free-space optical communications with coherent detection spatial diversity.

    PubMed

    Li, Kangning; Ma, Jing; Tan, Liying; Yu, Siyuan; Zhai, Chao

    2016-06-10

    The performances of fiber-based free-space optical (FSO) communications over gamma-gamma distributed turbulence are studied for multiple aperture receiver systems. The equal gain combining (EGC) technique is considered as a practical scheme to mitigate the atmospheric turbulence. Bit error rate (BER) performances for binary-phase-shift-keying-modulated coherent detection fiber-based free-space optical communications are derived and analyzed for EGC diversity receptions through an approximation method. To show the net diversity gain of a multiple aperture receiver system, BER performances of EGC are compared with a single monolithic aperture receiver system with the same total aperture area (same average total incident optical power on the aperture surface) for fiber-based free-space optical communications. The analytical results are verified by Monte Carlo simulations. System performances are also compared for EGC diversity coherent FSO communications with or without considering fiber-coupling efficiencies.

  11. FIT3D: Fitting optical spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; González, J. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Cano-Díaz, M.; López-Cobá, C.; Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Mollá, M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.

    2016-09-01

    FIT3D fits optical spectra to deblend the underlying stellar population and the ionized gas, and extract physical information from each component. FIT3D is focused on the analysis of Integral Field Spectroscopy data, but is not restricted to it, and is the basis of Pipe3D, a pipeline used in the analysis of datasets like CALIFA, MaNGA, and SAMI. It can run iteratively or in an automatic way to derive the parameters of a large set of spectra.

  12. Optical apparatus for conversion of whispering-gallery modes into a free space gaussian like beam

    DOEpatents

    Stallard, B.W.; Makowski, M.A.; Byers, J.A.

    1992-05-19

    An optical converter for efficient conversion of millimeter wavelength whispering-gallery gyrotron output into a linearly polarized, free-space Gaussian-like beam is described. The converter uses a mode-converting taper and three mirror optics. The first mirror has an azimuthal tilt to eliminate the k[sub [phi

  13. Free-space optical communications research and demonstrations at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, W S; Moore, C I; Mahon, R; Goetz, P G; Burris, H R; Ferraro, M S; Murphy, J L; Thomas, L M; Gilbreath, G C; Vilcheck, M; Suite, M R

    2015-11-01

    Free-space optical communication can allow high-bandwidth data links that are hard to detect, intercept, or jam. This makes them attractive for many applications. However, these links also require very accurate pointing, and their availability is affected by weather. These challenges have limited the deployment of free-space optical systems. The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory has, for the last 15 years, engaged in research into atmospheric propagation and photonic components with a goal of characterizing and overcoming these limitations. In addition several demonstrations of free-space optical links in real-world Navy applications have been conducted. This paper reviews this work and the principles guiding it.

  14. Free-Space Optical Interconnect Employing VCSEL Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Savich, Gregory R.; Torres, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Sensor signal processing is widely used on aircraft and spacecraft. The scheme employs multiple input/output nodes for data acquisition and CPU (central processing unit) nodes for data processing. To connect 110 nodes and CPU nodes, scalable interconnections such as backplanes are desired because the number of nodes depends on requirements of each mission. An optical backplane consisting of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), VCSEL drivers, photodetectors, and transimpedance amplifiers is the preferred approach since it can handle several hundred megabits per second data throughput.The next generation of satellite-borne systems will require transceivers and processors that can handle several Gb/s of data. Optical interconnects have been praised for both their speed and functionality with hopes that light can relieve the electrical bottleneck predicted for the near future. Optoelectronic interconnects provide a factor of ten improvement over electrical interconnects.

  15. Hybrid free-space optical bus system for board-to-board interconnections.

    PubMed

    Yeh, J H; Kostuk, R K; Tu, K Y

    1996-11-10

    A free-space optical bus system is described for board-to-board interconnections at the backplane level. The system uses active optoelectronic modules as the interface between the circuit boards and the electrical backplane. Substrate-mode holograms are used to implement signal broadcast operations between boards, and each board on the backplane shares common free-space channels for transmitting and receiving signals. System-design considerations are given, and the potential performance of the optical bus system is evaluated. An experimental demonstration is also presented for the signal broadcast operation through cascaded substrate-mode holograms at a data rate of 622 Mb/s.

  16. Demonstration of a High-Efficiency Free-Space Optical Communications Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birnbaum, Kevin; Farr, William; Gin, Jonathan; Moision, Bruce; Quirk, Kevin; Wright, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss recent progress on the implementation of a hardware free-space optical communications test-bed. The test-bed implements an end-to-end communications system comprising a data encoder, modulator, laser-transmitter, telescope, detector, receiver and error-correction-code decoder. Implementation of each of the component systems is discussed, with an emphasis on 'real-world' system performance degradation and limitations. We have demonstrated real-time data rates of 44 Mbps and photon efficiencies of approximately 1.8 bits/photon over a 100m free-space optical link.

  17. Unidirectionally optical coupling from free space into silicon waveguide with wide flat-top angular efficiency.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Li, Guangyuan; Xiao, Feng; Lu, Fan; Wang, Zhonghua; Xu, Anshi

    2012-08-13

    A grating coupling scheme from free-space light into silicon waveguide with a remarkable property of wide flat-top angular efficiency is proposed and theoretically investigated. The coupling structure is composed of two cascaded gratings with a proper distance between their peak angular efficiencies. A quantitative semi-analytical theory based on coupled-mode models is developed for performance prediction and validated with the fully vectorial aperiodic Fourier modal method (a-FMM). With the theory, wide flat-top angular response is achieved and the conditions are pointed out. Proof-of-principle demonstrations show that the -1 dB angular width, a figure of merit to evaluate the flat-top performance, is broadened to almost 3 to 4 times, and meanwhile the -3 dB angular width, i.e., angular-full-width-half-maximum (AFWHM), is widened to nearly more than twice, compared with the reference gratings composed of the same number of periodic defects. We believe this work will find applications in biological or chemical sensing and novel optical devices.

  18. Enhanced link availability for free space optical time-frequency transfer using adaptive optic terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrillo, Keith G.; Dennis, Michael L.; Juarez, Juan C.; Souza, Katherine T.; Baumann, Esther; Bergeron, Hugo; Coddington, Ian; Deschenes, Jean-Daniel; Giorgetta, Fabrizio R.; Newbury, Nathan R.; Sinclair, Laura C.; Swann, William C.

    2016-05-01

    Optical time and frequency transfer offers extremely high precision wireless synchronization across multiple platforms for untethered distributed systems. While large apertures provide antenna gain for wireless systems which leads to robust link budgets and operation over increased distance, turbulence disrupts the beam and limits the full realization of the antenna gain. Adaptive optics can correct for phase distortions due to turbulence which potentially increases the total gain of the aperture to that for diffraction-limited operation. Here, we explore the use of adaptive optics terminals for free-space time and frequency transfer. We find that the requirement of reciprocity in a two-way time and frequency transfer link is maintained during the phase compensation of adaptive optics, and that the enhanced link budget due to aperture gain allows for potential system operation over ranges of at least tens of kilometers.

  19. Planets as background noise sources in free space optical communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J.

    1986-01-01

    Background noise generated by planets is the dominant noise source in most deep space direct detection optical communications systems. Earlier approximate analyses of this problem are based on simplified blackbody calculations and can yield results that may be inaccurate by up to an order of magnitude. Various other factors that need to be taken into consideration, such as the phase angle and the actual spectral dependence of the planet albedo, in order to obtain a more accurate estimate of the noise magnitude are examined.

  20. Data transmission with twisted light through a free-space to fiber optical communication link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brüning, Robert; Ndagano, Bienvenu; McLaren, Melanie; Schröter, Siegmund; Kobelke, Jens; Duparré, Michael; Forbes, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Mode division multiplexing (MDM), where information is transmitted in the spatial modes of light, is mooted as a future technology with which to transmit large bits of information. However, one of the key issues in optical communication lies in connecting free-space to optical fiber networks, otherwise known as the ‘last mile’ problem. This is particularly problematic for MDM as the eigenmodes of free-space and fibers are in general not the same. Here we demonstrate a data transmission scheme across a free-space and fiber link using twisted light in the form of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) azimuthal modes. As a proof-of-principle we design and implement a custom fiber where the supported LG modes can be grouped into five non-degenerate sets, and successfully transmit a gray-scale image across the composite link using one mode from each group, thereby ensuring minimal crosstalk.

  1. Intra-Chip Free-Space Optical Interconnect: System, Device, Integration and Prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciftcioglu, Berkehan

    Currently, on-chip optical interconnect schemes already proposed utilize circuit switching using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) or all-optical packet switching, all based on planar optical waveguides and related photonic devices such as microrings. These proposed approaches pose significant challenges in latency, energy efficiency, integration, and scalability. This thesis presents a new alternative approach by utilizing free-space optics. This 3-D integrated intra-chip free-space optical interconnect (FSOI) leverages mature photonic devices such as integrated lasers, photodiodes, microlenses and mirrors. It takes full advantages of the latest developments in 3-D integration technologies. This interconnect system provides point-to-point free-space optical links between any two communication nodes to construct an all-to-all intra-chip communication network with little or no arbitration. Therefore, it has significant networking advantages over conventional electrical and waveguide-based optical interconnects. An FSOI system is evaluated based on the real device parameters, predictive technology models and International Roadmap of Semiconductor's predictions. A single FSOI link achieves 10-Gbps data rate with 0.5-pJ/bit energy efficiency and less than 10--12 bit-error-rate (BER). A system using this individual link can provide scalability up to 36 nodes, providing 10-Tbps aggregate bandwidth. A comparison analysis performed between a WDM-based waveguide interconnect system and the proposed FSOI system shows that FSOI achieves better energy efficiency than the WDM one as the technology scales. Similarly, network simulation on a 16-core microprocessor using the proposed FSOI system instead of mesh networks has been shown to speed up the system by 12% and reduce the energy consumption by 33%. As a part of the development of a 3-D integrated FSOI system, operating at 850 nm with a 10-Gbps data rate per optical link, the photonics devices and optical components are

  2. Intra-Chip Free-Space Optical Interconnect: System, Device, Integration and Prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciftcioglu, Berkehan

    Currently, on-chip optical interconnect schemes already proposed utilize circuit switching using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) or all-optical packet switching, all based on planar optical waveguides and related photonic devices such as microrings. These proposed approaches pose significant challenges in latency, energy efficiency, integration, and scalability. This thesis presents a new alternative approach by utilizing free-space optics. This 3-D integrated intra-chip free-space optical interconnect (FSOI) leverages mature photonic devices such as integrated lasers, photodiodes, microlenses and mirrors. It takes full advantages of the latest developments in 3-D integration technologies. This interconnect system provides point-to-point free-space optical links between any two communication nodes to construct an all-to-all intra-chip communication network with little or no arbitration. Therefore, it has significant networking advantages over conventional electrical and waveguide-based optical interconnects. An FSOI system is evaluated based on the real device parameters, predictive technology models and International Roadmap of Semiconductor's predictions. A single FSOI link achieves 10-Gbps data rate with 0.5-pJ/bit energy efficiency and less than 10--12 bit-error-rate (BER). A system using this individual link can provide scalability up to 36 nodes, providing 10-Tbps aggregate bandwidth. A comparison analysis performed between a WDM-based waveguide interconnect system and the proposed FSOI system shows that FSOI achieves better energy efficiency than the WDM one as the technology scales. Similarly, network simulation on a 16-core microprocessor using the proposed FSOI system instead of mesh networks has been shown to speed up the system by 12% and reduce the energy consumption by 33%. As a part of the development of a 3-D integrated FSOI system, operating at 850 nm with a 10-Gbps data rate per optical link, the photonics devices and optical components are

  3. Free-space optical mode division multiplexing for switching between millimeter-wave picocells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amphawan, Angela; Chaudhary, Sushank

    2015-07-01

    For connectivity between millimeter-wave radio femtocells or picocells, a free-space optical link may be used in a ubiquitous radio-over-free-space-optics (Ro-FSO) platform. This work introduces a new optical Hermite-Gaussian mode division multiplexing scheme for multiplexing radio signals between different picocells in a Ro-FSO network using a spatial correlator. Distinct 2.5GHz 10GHz radio-modulated subcarrier data streams from two picocells over two 850nm optical Hermite-Gaussian mode carriers were successfully multiplexed to two picocells separated by 500 meters. At the receiver, the signals were retrieved on the two modes using nonintermetric decomposition and spatial correlation optical Hermite-Gaussian modes into linearly polarized modes. Optical signal-to-noise ratios, bit-error-rates and modal decomposition results demonstrate effective data transmission between the picocells.

  4. 3D optical measuring technologies and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yuri V.

    2005-02-01

    The results of the R & D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for noncontact 3D optical dimensional inspection applied to atomic and railway industry safety problems are presented. This activity includes investigations of diffraction phenomena on some 3D objects, using the original constructive calculation method. The efficient algorithms for precise determining the transverse and longitudinal sizes of 3D objects of constant thickness by diffraction method, peculiarities on formation of the shadow and images of the typical elements of the extended objects were suggested. Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and running trains as well as their high exploitation reliability requires a 100% noncontact precise inspection of geometrical parameters of their components. To solve this problem we have developed methods and produced the technical vision measuring systems LMM, CONTROL, PROFIL, and technologies for noncontact 3D dimensional inspection of grid spacers and fuel elements for the nuclear reactor VVER-1000 and VVER-440, as well as automatic laser diagnostic COMPLEX for noncontact inspection of geometric parameters of running freight car wheel pairs. The performances of these systems and the results of industrial testing are presented and discussed. The created devices are in pilot operation at Atomic and Railway Companies.

  5. Multiplexing free-space optical signals using superimposed collinear orbital angular momentum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Yuan, X.-C.; Tao, S. H.; Burge, R. E.

    2007-07-01

    As a proof of concept, we experimentally demonstrate multiplexing of free-space optical signals in multiple channels labeled with different states of orbital angular momentum. The multiplexing process is carried out by a dynamic liquid-crystal spatial light modulator, while the phase function is calculated by an iterative algorithm. A binary amplitude computer-generated hologram serves as a demultiplexer.

  6. Fiber coupling and field mixing of coherent free-space optical beams in satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poliak, J.; Giggenbach, D.; Mata Calvo, R.; Bok, D.

    2016-03-01

    Effective coupling of the optical field from free-space to optical fiber is an essential prerequisite for modern free-space optical communications systems. It allows for easier system integration with active and passive optical fiber-coupled components as well as for efficient optical field mixing for coherent communications. While coupling into single-mode fiber provides the advantage of using low-noise erbium-doped fiber preamplifiers, its relatively small mode field diameter limits achievable fiber coupling efficiency. Coupling into multimode fiber (MMF) increases the fiber coupling efficiency while introducing other spurious effects the authors have set out to analyze. The study of free-space optical beam coupling in the context of satellite communications will be presented. Here, we assume satellite link scenarios with different elevations, which correspond to different index-of-refraction turbulence (IRT) conditions. IRT gives rise to both intensity and phase aberration of the received optical field, which then causes extended speckle patterns in the focus of the receiver telescope. The speckle field at the fiber input is calculated by means of Fourier transform of the received field. Using dedicated modelling software, study of the fiber coupling efficiency, polarization preservation and high-order mode coupling in different multi-mode fibers is carried out.

  7. Free space optical communication using beam parameters with translational and transverse rotational invariance.

    PubMed

    Ivan, J Solomon; Goswami, Kaumudibikash

    2015-06-01

    Two natural requirements on a measurable quantity possessed by a paraxially propagating light-field to be suitable for free space optical communication are invariance under free space propagation and invariance under transverse plane rotation. While the former invariance ensures that the measurable quantity is robust while signalling through free space, the latter invariance ensures that a detector measuring the quantity can be oriented at any angle in the transverse plane, and a measurement by the detector yields the same value for the quantity irrespective of the transverse angle, thus avoiding alignment issues. The variance matrix of a paraxially propagating light-field is analyzed from the perspective of the aforementioned invariances. That the "charge" of a paraxial light-field, which is contained in the variance matrix, and which has been previously well studied for its suitability toward free space optical communication, possesses these two invariance properties, emerges naturally in the analysis. Seven functionally independent quantities other than charge, which are derived from the variance matrix, and which share these invariances, are presented and studied for their suitability toward signalling through turbulent atmosphere using the low-order Hermite-Gaussian modes. It is found that the spot size of a Gaussian light-field can be effectively used as a switch, to communicate through short distances in a turbulent atmosphere.

  8. Experimental implementation of fiber optic bundle array wide FOV free space optical communications receiver.

    PubMed

    Brown, Andrea M; Hahn, Daniel V; Brown, David M; Rolander, Nathan W; Bair, Chun-Huei; Sluz, Joseph E

    2012-06-20

    A gimbal-free wide field-of-regard (FOR) optical receiver has been built in a laboratory setting for proof-of-concept testing. Multiple datasets are presented that examine the overall FOR of the system and the receiver's ability to track and collect a signal from a moving source. The design is not intended to compete with traditional free space optical communication systems, but rather offer an alternative design that minimizes the number and complexity of mechanical components required at the surface of a small mobile platform. The receiver is composed of a micro-lens array and hexagonal bundles of large core optical fibers that route the optical signal to remote detectors and electronics. Each fiber in the bundle collects power from a distinct solid angle of space and a piezo-electric transducer is used to translate the micro-lens array and optimize coupling into a given fiber core in the bundle. The micro-lens to fiber bundle design is scalable, modular, and can be replicated in an array to increase aperture size.

  9. Atmospheric transmission at ~1.55 μm for free-space optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, John; Manzur, Tariq

    2010-04-01

    Free-space optics (FSO) holds the potential for high bandwidth communication, but atmospheric conditions can significantly affect the capability of a communication system to transfer information successfully. The effects of atmosphere on FSO communication and consequent optimal wavelength range for transmission are investigated through MODTRAN-based modeling of 1.55 μm transmission for multiple elevation angles in atmospheric conditions including clear maritime, desert extinction, and various levels of rain and fog. Beam transmission was also simulated for different relevant elevations for surface-to-surface and surface-to-air free-space optical communication networks. The atmospheric, free-space, and scintillation losses are investigated for optical path lengths of 2 km to determine transmit power required for successful data reception. In addition, FSO transmitter and receiver circuits were designed to optically relay an analog video signal and tested at path distances of up to 130 m. Using advanced tunable laser sources to provide illumination across wavelength ranges, particularly around the eye-safe 1.55 μm wavelength, it should be possible to overcome transmission limitations associated with adverse weather and atmospheric conditions.

  10. Free-Space optical interconnects for cable-less readout in particle physics detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Chramowicz, John; Kwan, Simon; Moretti, Tony; Sugg, Alan; Prosser, Alan; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    Particle physics detectors utilize readout data links requiring a complicated network of copper wires or optical fibers. These links are both massive and costly. Upgrades to such detectors may require additional bandwidth to be provisioned with limited space available to route new cables or fibers. In contrast, free-space optical interconnects will offer cable-less readout, thereby resulting in significant reductions of material and labor. A collaborative effort between Fermilab and Vega Wave Systems is pursuing the development of a unique free-space optical link design that utilizes the transparency of silicon at wavelengths including 1310 nm and multiple wavelengths used in standard telecommunications applications such as coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM). The first step in the pursuit of that design is a proof that the concept may be viable. To that end, experiments have been performed to characterize the bit error rate performance of a prototype link over a free-space optical path and through doped silicon at multi-gigabit rates. These experiments have demonstrated that operation within acceptable bit error rates is possible using single and multiple wavelength transmission arrangements.

  11. Free-space optical communications using encoding of data on different orbital-angular-momentum modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willner, Asher J.; Ren, Yongxiong; Xie, Guodong; Li, Long; Cao, Yinwen; Zhao, Zhe; Liao, Peicheng; Wang, Zhe; Yan, Yan; Ahmed, Nisar; Liu, Cong; Tur, Moshe; Willner, Alan E.

    2016-03-01

    Free-space optical communications can play a significant role in line-of-sight links. In general, data can be encoded on the amplitude, phase, or temporal position of the optical wave. Importantly, there are environments for which ever-more information is desired for a given amount of optical energy. This can be accomplished if there are more degrees-of-freedom that the wave can occupy to provide higher energy efficiency for a given capacity (i.e., bits/photon). Traditionally, free-space optical links have used only a single beam, such that there was little opportunity for a wave to occupy more than one spatial location, thereby not allowing the spatial domain to be used for data encoding. Recently, space- and mode-multiplexing has been demonstrated to simultaneously transmit multiple data-carrying free-space beams. Each spatially overlapping mode was orthogonal to other modes and carried a unique amount of orbital-angular-momentum (OAM). In this paper, we consider that OAM modes could be a data-encoding domain, such that a beam could uniquely occupy one of many modes, i.e., 4 modes would provide 4 possible states and double the bits of information for the same amount of energy. In the past, such OAM-based encoding was shown at kHz data rates. We will present the architecture and experimental results for OAM-based data encoding for a free-space 1.55-μm data link under different system parameters. Key features of the results include: (a) encoding on several modes is accomplished using a fast switch, and (b) low bit-error-rates are achieved at >Gbit/s, which is orders-of-magnitude faster than previous results.

  12. Gaps of free-space optics beams with the Beer-Lambert law.

    PubMed

    Lacaze, Bernard

    2009-05-10

    Lasers used in free-space optics propagate a beam within a truncated cone. Because of this shape, the intensity cannot follow the Beer-Lambert law. In the case of a homogeneous atmosphere, we calculate the gap from the cylinder case. We will see that the gap exists but is generally very weak and, therefore, that the use of the Beer-Lambert law is a justified approximation.

  13. Comparison of swarm intelligence algorithms in atmospheric compensation for free space optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhaokun; Cao, Jingtai; Liu, Wei; Feng, Jianfeng; Zhao, Xiaohui

    2015-03-01

    We use conventional adaptive optical system to compensate atmospheric turbulence in free space optical (FSO) communication system under strong scintillation circumstances, undesired wave-front measurements based on Shark-Hartman sensor (SH). Since wavefront sensor-less adaptive optics is a feasible option, we propose several swarm intelligence algorithms to compensate the wavefront aberration from atmospheric interference in FSO and mainly discuss the algorithm principle, basic flows, and simulation result. The numerical simulation experiment and result analysis show that compared with SPGD algorithm, the proposed algorithms can effectively restrain wavefront aberration, and improve convergence rate of the algorithms and the coupling efficiency of receiver in large extent.

  14. Compact 4 cm aperture transmissive liquid crystal optical phased array for free-space optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Hua; Mahajan, Milind; Taber, Donald; Wen, Bing; Winker, Bruce

    2005-08-01

    There is a critical need for high bandwidth, high availability free-space optical communication links between the battlefield and the global information grid. Compact large aperture transceivers with low size, weight and power (SWaP) are needed to initiate and maintain communication links involving airborne platforms. The transceiver optical beam director typically contains fine and coarse steering stages. Existing beam director technology is based on electro-mechanical gimbaled mirrors with large SWaP that hinders deployment on many airborne platforms. To address the need for compact beam directors, we designed, fabricated, and tested an optical phased array (OPA) based on electro-optic dual frequency liquid crystal technology. This OPA has a transmissive architecture that enables a lower system SWaP, as compared to conventional reflective OPA. It has an 8 μm pixel pitch and steers over a 2.5° field of regard in one dimension at 1.55 μm. Two such OPAs can be stacked to steer in two dimensions. It has four independently addressable 1 cm x 4 cm regions arranged in a linear array to produce a continuous 4 cm x 4 cm aperture. The device incorporates novel addressing schemes to reduce the number of control channels by over an order of magnitude compared to conventional OPA addressing methods. It also utilizes proprietary low-loss transparent conductive TransconTM film for low optical absorption in the infrared. The OPA uses a custom multi-channel controller circuit operating at a 500 Hz frame rate. We present results on OPA design, fabrication, and optical performance on steering.

  15. A lightweight secure routing algorithm for ad hoc networks with free-space optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhong; Dai, Guanzhong; Zhang, Guoqing; Liu, Xue; Yang, Deming

    2007-11-01

    Nowadays, there are some works with free-space laser communication system, but security issues of this network are always neglected. We present an efficient online/offline routing based on identity-based signature for ad hoc networks with Free-Space-Optics (FSO). The protocol is especially suitable for ad hoc networks with FSO because the major computational overhead is shifted to the offline phase, whereas the online phase requires only a very low computational overhead to achieve a full scale of authentication. In addition, since the signature scheme uses an identity-based cryptosystem, it does not need to maintain a public key directory and to exchange any certificate. The effectiveness of our protocol is simulated using QualNet tools.

  16. Active disturbance rejection controller of fine tracking system for free space optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Ning; Liu, Yang; Chen, Xinglin; Wang, Yan

    2013-08-01

    Free space optical communication is one of the best approaches in future communications. Laser beam's acquisition, pointing and tracking are crucial technologies of free space optical communication. Fine tracking system is important component of APT (acquisition, pointing and tracking) system. It cooperates with the coarse pointing system in executing the APT mission. Satellite platform vibration and disturbance, which reduce received optical power, increase bit error rate and affect seriously the natural performance of laser communication. For the characteristic of satellite platform, an active disturbance rejection controller was designed to reduce the vibration and disturbance. There are three major contributions in the paper. Firstly, the effects of vibration on the inter satellite optical communications were analyzed, and the reasons and characters of vibration of the satellite platform were summarized. The amplitude-frequency response of a filter was designed according to the power spectral density of platform vibration of SILEX (Semiconductor Inter-satellite Laser Experiment), and then the signals of platform vibration were generated by filtering white Gaussian noise using the filter. Secondly, the fast steering mirror is a key component of the fine tracking system for optical communication. The mechanical design and model analysis was made to the tip/tilt mirror driven by the piezoelectric actuator and transmitted by the flexure hinge. The transfer function of the fast steering mirror, camera, D/A data acquisition card was established, and the theory model of transfer function of this system was further obtained. Finally, an active disturbance rejection control method is developed, multiple parallel extended state observers were designed for estimation of unknown dynamics and external disturbance, and the estimated states were used for nonlinear feedback control and compensation to improve system performance. The simulation results show that the designed

  17. Overview and trend of steady tracking in free-space optical communication links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Siyuan; Ma, Zhongtian; Wu, Feng; Ma, Jing; Tan, Liying

    2015-03-01

    The tracking is mainly used to maintain the established optical communication links (OCLs) in pointing, acquisition and tracking (PAT) ensuring the reliability of date transmission. The structure of pointing and tracking assembly, implementation methods and performances of beacon detector are reviewed. Analysis results show that reducing beam divergence and emission power, using closed-loop composite axis structure tracking system, removing acquisition beacon, analyzing far-filed characters of bidirectional tracking beam are critical to achieve high reliability of data transmission and long steady tracking in free-space optical communication.

  18. Atmospheric compensation in free space optical communication with simulated annealing algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhaokun; Cao, Jingtai; Zhao, Xiaohui; Liu, Wei

    2015-03-01

    As we know that the conventional adaptive optics (AO) systems can compensate atmospheric turbulence in free space optical (FSO) communication system. Since in strong scintillation conditions, wave-front measurements based on phase-conjugation principle are undesired. A novel global optimization simulated annealing (SA) algorithm is proposed in this paper to compensate wave-front aberration. With global optimization characteristics, SA algorithm is better than stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) and other algorithms that already exist. Related simulations are conducted and the results show that the SA algorithm can significantly improve performance in FSO communication system and is better than SPGD algorithm with the increase of coupling efficiency.

  19. Orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing in free-space optical data transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jiao; Yuan, Xiao-Cong; Tao, Shaohua

    2006-08-01

    In the optical wireless communication systems proposed by Gibson, et al, the information is encoded as states of orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light and the transmitter unit can produce laser beam with single OAM-state in a time-slot. Recently we have proved that it is possible to generate multiple OAM-states simultaneously by single spatial light modulator. This method is adopted in our free-space optical wireless communication system and these OAM-states can be detected in the receiving unit by a computer-generated hologram. Hence, the transmission capacity is enhanced significantly without increasing the complexity of system.

  20. Electro-Optical Sensing Apparatus and Method for Characterizing Free-Space Electromagnetic Radiation

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Libelo, Louis Francis; Wu, Qi

    1999-09-14

    Apparatus and methods for characterizing free-space electromagnetic energy, and in particular, apparatus/method suitable for real-time two-dimensional far-infrared imaging applications are presented. The sensing technique is based on a non-linear coupling between a low-frequency electric field and a laser beam in an electro-optic crystal. In addition to a practical counter-propagating sensing technique, a co-linear approach is described which provides longer radiated field--optical beam interaction length, thereby making imaging applications practical.

  1. Optical apparatus for conversion of whispering-gallery modes into a free space gaussian like beam

    DOEpatents

    Stallard, Barry W.; Makowski, Michael A.; Byers, Jack A.

    1992-01-01

    An optical converter for efficient conversion of millimeter wavelength whispering-gallery gyrotron output into a linearly polarized, free-space Gaussian-like beam. The converter uses a mode-converting taper and three mirror optics. The first mirror has an azimuthal tilt to eliminate the k.sub..phi. component of the propagation vector of the gyrotron output beam. The second mirror has a twist reflector to linearly polarize the beam. The third mirror has a constant phase surface so the converter output is in phase.

  2. Swarm intelligence for atmospheric compensation in free space optical communication-Modified shuffled frog leaping algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhaokun; Cao, Jingtai; Zhao, Xiaohui; Liu, Wei

    2015-03-01

    A conventional adaptive optics (AO) system is widely used to compensate atmospheric turbulence in free space optical (FSO) communication systems, but wavefront measurements based on phase-conjugation principle are not desired under strong scintillation circumstances. In this study we propose a novel swarm intelligence optimization algorithm, which is called modified shuffled frog leaping algorithm (MSFL), to compensate the wavefront aberration. Simulation and experiments results show that MSFL algorithm performs well in the atmospheric compensation and it can increase the coupling efficiency in receiver terminal and significantly improve the performance of the FSO communication systems.

  3. Integrated receiver architectures for board-to-board free-space optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Feiyang; Vj, Logeeswaran; Islam, M. Saif; Horsley, David A.; Walmsley, Robert G.; Mathai, Sagi; Houng, Denny; Tan, Michael R. T.; Wang, Shih-Yuan

    2009-06-01

    In many computer and server communications copper cables and wires are currently being used for data transmission and interconnects. However, due to significant shortcomings, such as long transmission time, high noise level, unstable electrical properties, and high power consumption for cooling, researchers are increasingly turning their research interests toward alternatives, such as fiber optic interconnects and free-space optical communication technologies. In this paper, we present design considerations for an integrated receiver for high-speed free-space line-of-sight optical interconnects for distortion-free data transmission in an environment with mechanical vibrations and air turbulences. The receiver consists of an array of high-speed photodiodes for data communication and an array of quadrant photodiodes for real-time beam tracking in order to compensate for the beam misalignment caused by vibrations in servers. Different configurations for spatially positioning the quadrant and data photodiodes are discussed for 4×4 and 9×9 multielement optical detector arrays. We also introduce a new beam tracking device, termed the strip quadrant photodiodes, in order to accurately track highly focused optical beams with very small beam diameter.

  4. Role of transverse-momentum currents in the optical Magnus effect in free space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun; Shu, Weixing; Fan, Dianyuan

    2010-05-01

    We establish a general vector field model to describe the role of transverse-momentum currents in the optical Magnus effect in free space. As an analogy of the mechanical Magnus effect, the circularly polarized wave packet in our model acts as the rotating ball, and its rotation direction depends on the polarization state. Based on this model, we demonstrate the existence of an optical polarization-dependent Magnus effect which is significantly different from the conventional optical Magnus effect in that light-matter interaction is not required. Further, we reveal the relation between transverse-momentum currents and the optical Magnus effect, and find that such a polarization-dependent rotation is unavoidable when the wave packet possesses transverse-momentum currents. The physics underlying this intriguing effect is the combined contributions of transverse spin and orbital currents. We predict that this effect may be observed experimentally even in the propagation direction. These findings provide further evidence for the optical Magnus effect in free space and can be extrapolated to other physical systems.

  5. Role of transverse-momentum currents in the optical Magnus effect in free space

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Hailu; Wen Shuangchun; Shu Weixing; Fan Dianyuan

    2010-05-15

    We establish a general vector field model to describe the role of transverse-momentum currents in the optical Magnus effect in free space. As an analogy of the mechanical Magnus effect, the circularly polarized wave packet in our model acts as the rotating ball, and its rotation direction depends on the polarization state. Based on this model, we demonstrate the existence of an optical polarization-dependent Magnus effect which is significantly different from the conventional optical Magnus effect in that light-matter interaction is not required. Further, we reveal the relation between transverse-momentum currents and the optical Magnus effect, and find that such a polarization-dependent rotation is unavoidable when the wave packet possesses transverse-momentum currents. The physics underlying this intriguing effect is the combined contributions of transverse spin and orbital currents. We predict that this effect may be observed experimentally even in the propagation direction. These findings provide further evidence for the optical Magnus effect in free space and can be extrapolated to other physical systems.

  6. Beam width and transmitter power adaptive to tracking system performance for free-space optical communication.

    PubMed

    Arnon, S; Rotman, S; Kopeika, N S

    1997-08-20

    The basic free-space optical communication system includes at least two satellites. To communicate between them, the transmitter satellite must track the beacon of the receiver satellite and point the information optical beam in its direction. Optical tracking and pointing systems for free space suffer during tracking from high-amplitude vibration because of background radiation from interstellar objects such as the Sun, Moon, Earth, and stars in the tracking field of view or the mechanical impact from satellite internal and external sources. The vibrations of beam pointing increase the bit error rate and jam communication between the two satellites. One way to overcome this problem is to increase the satellite receiver beacon power. However, this solution requires increased power consumption and weight, both of which are disadvantageous in satellite development. Considering these facts, we derive a mathematical model of a communication system that adapts optimally the transmitter beam width and the transmitted power to the tracking system performance. Based on this model, we investigate the performance of a communication system with discrete element optical phased array transmitter telescope gain. An example for a practical communication system between a Low Earth Orbit Satellite and a Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite is presented. From the results of this research it can be seen that a four-element adaptive transmitter telescope is sufficient to compensate for vibration amplitude doubling. The benefits of the proposed model are less required transmitter power and improved communication system performance. PMID:18259455

  7. Beam width and transmitter power adaptive to tracking system performance for free-space optical communication.

    PubMed

    Arnon, S; Rotman, S; Kopeika, N S

    1997-08-20

    The basic free-space optical communication system includes at least two satellites. To communicate between them, the transmitter satellite must track the beacon of the receiver satellite and point the information optical beam in its direction. Optical tracking and pointing systems for free space suffer during tracking from high-amplitude vibration because of background radiation from interstellar objects such as the Sun, Moon, Earth, and stars in the tracking field of view or the mechanical impact from satellite internal and external sources. The vibrations of beam pointing increase the bit error rate and jam communication between the two satellites. One way to overcome this problem is to increase the satellite receiver beacon power. However, this solution requires increased power consumption and weight, both of which are disadvantageous in satellite development. Considering these facts, we derive a mathematical model of a communication system that adapts optimally the transmitter beam width and the transmitted power to the tracking system performance. Based on this model, we investigate the performance of a communication system with discrete element optical phased array transmitter telescope gain. An example for a practical communication system between a Low Earth Orbit Satellite and a Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite is presented. From the results of this research it can be seen that a four-element adaptive transmitter telescope is sufficient to compensate for vibration amplitude doubling. The benefits of the proposed model are less required transmitter power and improved communication system performance.

  8. Research and development of a next-generation free-space optical communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakamori, Kazuhiko; Kazaura, Kamugisha; Matsumoto, Mitsuji

    2009-01-01

    Achieving an all-optical connection between any wireless communication systems with optical fiber network is one of the ultimate goals of communication network design. An all-optical system providing seamless connection between freespace and optical fiber links by using free-space optical (FSO) communication technology suitable for next generation network has been developed. In order to realize this next-generation FSO communication system in which the transmitted light signal does not undergo any conversion thus achieving all-optical connection, it is necessary to develop a technology for tracking and focusing the free-space optical signal to a single mode fiber (SMF). The developed FSO system incorporates a fine pointing mirror (FPM) for high speed beam control and steering. This novel tracking method can suppress the beam intensity variations as a result of angle-of-arrival fluctuation (AOA) caused by atmospheric turbulence. This paper presents experimental results of a next-generation FSO system providing stable and reliable single channel transmission at 10 Gbps data rates as well as multiple channels using dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM). This kind of data rate is not possible to achieve using conventional FSO systems. The developed system can provide transmission capacity equivalent to optical fiber and from its design concept and configuration it is bit-rate and protocol transparent. Furthermore, we present research on Radio-on-FSO (RoFSO) system which is a combination of the developed nextgeneration FSO system and Radio over Fiber (RoF) technology. We demonstrate the possibility of utilizing this system for optical and radio frequency signals transmission. RoFSO technology is independent of the difference in the underlying physical layers for radio system or fiber system, but realizing fusion at the service level. The RoFSO technology is available to realize a universal platform for transparent forwarding various wireless services in a

  9. Orbital-angular-momentum-multiplexed free-space optical communication link using transmitter lenses.

    PubMed

    Li, Long; Xie, Guodong; Ren, Yongxiong; Ahmed, Nisar; Huang, Hao; Zhao, Zhe; Liao, Peicheng; Lavery, Martin P J; Yan, Yan; Bao, ChangJing; Wang, Zhe; Willner, Asher J; Ashrafi, Nima; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tur, Moshe; Willner, Alan E

    2016-03-10

    In this paper, we explore the potential benefits and limitations of using transmitter lenses in an orbital-angular-momentum (OAM)-multiplexed free-space optical (FSO) communication link. Both simulation and experimental results indicate that within certain transmission distances, using lenses at the transmitter to focus OAM beams could reduce power loss in OAM-based FSO links and that this improvement might be more significant for higher-order OAM beams. Moreover, the use of transmitter lenses could enhance system tolerance to angular error between transmitter and receiver, but they might degrade tolerance to lateral displacement.

  10. The performance of space shift keying for free-space optical communications over turbulent channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abaza, Mohamed; Mesleh, Raed; Mansour, Ali; Aggoune, El-Hadi M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of space shift keying (SSK) free-space optical communication (FSO) over moderate and strong turbulent channels. It has been shown previously that repetition codes (RCs) using intensity modulation with direct detection techniques are superior to SSK system for a spectral efficiency of 1 bit/s/Hz. It is shown in this study that SSK outperforms RCs using M-ary pulse amplitude modulation for spectral efficiencies of 3 bits/s/Hz or larger. Analytical expressions for the bit error rate for the SSK system under study are derived and extensive simulation results corroborate the correctness of the conducted analysis.

  11. Polarization shift keying based relay-assisted free space optical communication over strong turbulence with misalignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabu, K.; Sriram Kumar, D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the outage performance of polarization shift keying (PolSK) based multihop parallel relay assisted free space optics (FSO) system over a strong atmospheric turbulence channel with misalignment fading. An exact closed form expression is derived for the end-to-end outage probability of the system. The results are compared with the direct transmission and on-off keying (OOK) based FSO systems. The results indicate that the performance of the PolSK based relay-assisted FSO system is much better than the direct transmission and OOK systems. The outage performance is enhanced by increasing the number of relay path between the transmitter and receiver.

  12. Free-space optical channel simulator for weak-turbulence conditions.

    PubMed

    Bykhovsky, Dima

    2015-11-01

    Free-space optical (FSO) communication may be severely influenced by the inevitable turbulence effect that results in channel gain fluctuations and fading. The objective of this paper is to provide a simple and effective simulator of the weak-turbulence FSO channel that emulates the influence of the temporal covariance effect. Specifically, the proposed model is based on lognormal distributed samples with a corresponding correlation time. The simulator is based on the solution of the first-order stochastic differential equation (SDE). The results of the provided SDE analysis reveal its efficacy for turbulent channel modeling.

  13. Integrating free-space optical communication links with existing WiFi (WiFO) network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liverman, S.; Wang, Q.; Chu, Y.; Duong, T.; Nguyen-Huu, D.; Wang, S.; Nguyen, T.; Wang, A. X.

    2016-02-01

    Recently, free-space optical (FSO) systems have generated great interest due to their large bandwidth potential and a line-of-sight physical layer of protection. In this paper, we propose WiFO, a novel hybrid system, FSO downlink and WiFi uplink, which will integrate currently available WiFi infrastructure with inexpensive infrared light emitting diodes. This system takes full advantage of the mobility inherent in WiFi networks while increasing the downlink bandwidth available to each end user. We report the results of our preliminary investigation that show the capabilities of our prototype design in terms of bandwidth, bit error rates, delays and transmission distances.

  14. Design of free-space optical interconnects using two Gabor superlenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garza-Rivera, Anel; Renero-Carrillo, Francisco-Javier; Trevino-Palacios, Carlos-G.

    2014-09-01

    We propose a novel design of micro-optical devices based on multi-aperture compound insect eyes, which transfer a point-to-point multichannel free space signal combined with a diffraction grating. The system is inspired in the refractive superposition compound eyes configuration known as Gabor superlens (GSL) using microlens arrays. A switching function and wave division multiplexing are achieved by introducing a diffraction grating placed in the global focus of the system. The source characteristics, either coherent or incoherent, influence the device performance.

  15. Three-dimensional reconstruction in free-space whole-body fluorescence tomography of mice using optically reconstructed surface and atlas anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Badea, Cristian T.; Johnson, G. Allan

    2009-11-01

    We present a 3-D image reconstruction method for free-space fluorescence tomography of mice using hybrid anatomical prior information. Specifically, we use an optically reconstructed surface of the experimental animal and a digital mouse atlas to approximate the anatomy of the animal as structural priors to assist image reconstruction. Experiments are carried out on a cadaver of a nude mouse with a fluorescent inclusion (2.4-mm-diam cylinder) implanted in the chest cavity. Tomographic fluorescence images are reconstructed using an iterative algorithm based on a finite element method. Coregistration of the fluorescence reconstruction and micro-CT (computed tomography) data acquired afterward show good localization accuracy (localization error 1.2+/-0.6 mm). Using the optically reconstructed surface, but without the atlas anatomy, image reconstruction fails to show the fluorescent inclusion correctly. The method demonstrates the utility of anatomical priors in support of free-space fluorescence tomography.

  16. Three-dimensional reconstruction in free-space whole-body fluorescence tomography of mice using optically reconstructed surface and atlas anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Badea, Cristian T.; Johnson, G. Allan

    2009-01-01

    We present a 3-D image reconstruction method for free-space fluorescence tomography of mice using hybrid anatomical prior information. Specifically, we use an optically reconstructed surface of the experimental animal and a digital mouse atlas to approximate the anatomy of the animal as structural priors to assist image reconstruction. Experiments are carried out on a cadaver of a nude mouse with a fluorescent inclusion (2.4-mm-diam cylinder) implanted in the chest cavity. Tomographic fluorescence images are reconstructed using an iterative algorithm based on a finite element method. Coregistration of the fluorescence reconstruction and micro-CT (computed tomography) data acquired afterward show good localization accuracy (localization error 1.2±0.6 mm). Using the optically reconstructed surface, but without the atlas anatomy, image reconstruction fails to show the fluorescent inclusion correctly. The method demonstrates the utility of anatomical priors in support of free-space fluorescence tomography. PMID:20059248

  17. Channel characterization for air-to-ground free-space optical communication links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shortt, Kevin; Giggenbach, Dirk; Mata-Calvo, Ramon; Moll, Florian; Fuchs, Christian; Schmidt, Christopher; Horwath, Joachim; Yeh, Jack; Selvaraj, Vevek; Banerjee, Ranjoy

    2014-03-01

    The next five to ten years will see more and more free-space optical communication systems being put into practical use as technologies and techniques continue to mature, particularly in the area of mobile and satellite-to-ground communications. To meet the increasing demand of these types of systems, it is necessary to gain a deeper understanding of the various atmospheric effects at play in a free-space optical link in an effort to mitigate their impact on operational systems. In that context, the German Aerospace Center (DLR) has conducted a number of field trials between a Dornier 228 aircraft and its ground station in Oberpfaffenhofen, just south of Munich, Germany. These field trials have involved the concurrent measurement of atmospheric turbulence using three different techniques: pupil plane imaging, focus spot imaging and Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensing. To ensure the accurate synchronization of measurements between the three techniques, a concerted effort was made in the selection of computer hardware and the development of image acquisition software. Furthermore, power measurements in up- and downlink have been taken to be further correlated with the 3 primary instruments. It is envisioned that the resulting analysis of these measurements shall contribute to the implementation of new adaptive optics techniques to facilitate various air and space communication links. This paper shall describe the overall experiment design as well as some of the design decisions that led to the final experiment configuration.

  18. Effects of atmosphere on free-space optical transmission at 1.55 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, John; Manzur, Tariq

    2010-10-01

    Free-space optics (FSO) holds the potential for high bandwidth communication, but atmospheric conditions can significantly affect the capability of this type of communication system to transfer information consistently and operate effectively. The effects of atmosphere on FSO communication and consequent optimal wavelength range for transmission are investigated through MODTRAN-based modeling of 1.55 μm transmission for multiple elevation angles in atmospheric weather conditions including clear maritime, desert extinction, and various levels of rain and fog, to simulate surface-to-surface and surface-to-air FSO communication networks. Furthermore, atmospheric, free-space, and scintillation losses are analyzed for optical path lengths of 2 km to determine minimum transmit power required for successful data reception. In addition, FSO transmitter and receiver circuits were designed to optically relay analog video signals and their operation verified at path distances of up to 130 m. Using advanced laser sources to provide illumination at infrared wavelengths, particularly around the eye-safe 1.55 μm wavelength, it should be possible to overcome many transmission limitations associated with atmospheric conditions such as adverse weather and turbulence.

  19. Visibility effect on the availability of a terrestrial free space optics link under a tropical climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basahel, Ahmed; Rafiqul, Islam Md.; Habaebi, Mohamad Hadi; Suriza, A. Z.

    2016-06-01

    Haze, fog and rain limit the visibilities and acts as dominant parameter for free space optics availability estimation. Low visibilities increase atmospheric attenuation and reduce the availability of optical signals from free space optics (FSO) links. Thus, this study determines the effect of visibility on FSO link availability in a tropical climate. Visibility data were measured in Malaysia for three years and used to estimate availability of FSO links. Rain and haze are two phenomena which reduces the visibility in tropical climate like Malaysia. Hence three cases were considered for measured data analysis: rain with dense haze, dense haze, and normal haze cases. In Malaysia, seasonal dense haze is mainly attributed to forest fires in Indonesia and in parts of Malaysia. The atmospheric attenuations predicted based on measured visibility (km) were compared across the three cases. The attenuations in the first two cases are found severe (almost 155 dB/km); while in the third case it is very low (almost 6 dB/km). The worst case (dense haze) is equivalent to a thick fog in temperate regions and must be examined carefully with respect to FSO deployment in a tropical environment.

  20. Statistical description of the free-space propagation of highly aberrated optical beams.

    PubMed

    Mani, Ali; Wang, Meng; Moin, Parviz

    2006-12-01

    The free-space propagation of initially aberrated optical beams is considered with an emphasis on aero-optical applications. An exact statistical solution of the paraxial wave equation is derived that can be used to obtain statistics of the beam such as beam center, spread, and higher-order statistics as algebraic functions of propagation distance, wavelength, and statistics of the initial wavefront. Correlations between the proposed description and intensity-based statistics, such as the Strehl ratio, are investigated. It is found that the root-mean-square (rms) of the gradient of the wavefront plays an important role in causing coherence degradation and that the rms of the wavefront error is not always an appropriate measure of the degradation. To illustrate the use of this statistical tool, index of refraction data from a numerical simulation of compressible flow over a cylinder are employed to perform an aero-optical analysis.

  1. 500  Gb/s free-space optical transmission over strong atmospheric turbulence channels.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhen; Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-07-15

    We experimentally demonstrate a high-spectral-efficiency, large-capacity, featured free-space-optical (FSO) transmission system by using low-density, parity-check (LDPC) coded quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) combined with orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing. The strong atmospheric turbulence channel is emulated by two spatial light modulators on which four randomly generated azimuthal phase patterns yielding the Andrews spectrum are recorded. The validity of such an approach is verified by reproducing the intensity distribution and irradiance correlation function (ICF) from the full-scale simulator. Excellent agreement of experimental, numerical, and analytical results is found. To reduce the phase distortion induced by the turbulence emulator, the inexpensive wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (AO) is used. To deal with remaining channel impairments, a large-girth LDPC code is used. To further improve the aggregate data rate, the OAM multiplexing is combined with WDM, and 500 Gb/s optical transmission over the strong atmospheric turbulence channels is demonstrated.

  2. Fiber-based free-space optical coherent receiver with vibration compensation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruochi; Wang, Jianmin; Zhao, Guang; Lv, Junyi

    2013-07-29

    We propose a novel fiber-based free-space optical (FSO) coherent receiver for inter-satellite communication. The receiver takes advantage of established fiber-optic components and utilizes the fine-pointing subsystem installed in FSO terminals to minimize the influence of satellite platform vibrations. The received beam is coupled to a single-mode fiber, and the coupling efficiency of the system is investigated both analytically and experimentally. A receiving sensitivity of -38 dBm is obtained at the forward error correction limit with a transmission rate of 22.4 Gbit/s. The proposed receiver is shown to be a promising component for inter-satellite optical communication.

  3. Diffractive optical element for creating visual 3D images.

    PubMed

    Goncharsky, Alexander; Goncharsky, Anton; Durlevich, Svyatoslav

    2016-05-01

    A method is proposed to compute and synthesize the microrelief of a diffractive optical element to produce a new visual security feature - the vertical 3D/3D switch effect. The security feature consists in the alternation of two 3D color images when the diffractive element is tilted up/down. Optical security elements that produce the new security feature are synthesized using electron-beam technology. Sample optical security elements are manufactured that produce 3D to 3D visual switch effect when illuminated by white light. Photos and video records of the vertical 3D/3D switch effect of real optical elements are presented. The optical elements developed can be replicated using standard equipment employed for manufacturing security holograms. The new optical security feature is easy to control visually, safely protected against counterfeit, and designed to protect banknotes, documents, ID cards, etc. PMID:27137530

  4. Effect of atmosphere on free-space optical communication networks for border patrol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, John; Manzur, Tariq

    2010-04-01

    Free-space optics (FSO) communication links for relaying video from cameras are investigated in relation to atmospheric attenuation. Through MODTRAN-based modeling of transmission bands across the NIR to MWIR (1.5-4.2 μm) portion of the infrared spectrum in atmospheric conditions including clear maritime, desert extinction, and various levels of rain and fog, we seek to identify which wavelength ranges are the most practical for minimizing transmission losses in both ideal and unfavorable conditions. Atmospheric, free-space, and scintillation losses are investigated for various FSO configurations and atmospheric conditions to determine incident beam power required for successful data transmission in view of a 2 km FSO link at various path elevation angles from the horizon. In addition, FSO transmitter and receiver circuits were designed to optically relay an analog video signal at IR wavelengths. Using advanced tunable laser sources to provide illumination across wavelength ranges from visible to mid-wave infrared, it should be possible to overcome transmission limitations associated with adverse weather and atmospheric conditions for communication networks to benefit border protection.

  5. Energy efficient rateless codes for high speed data transfer over free space optical channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Geetha; Kulkarni, Muralidhar; Acharya, U. S.

    2015-03-01

    Terrestrial Free Space Optical (FSO) links transmit information by using the atmosphere (free space) as a medium. In this paper, we have investigated the use of Luby Transform (LT) codes as a means to mitigate the effects of data corruption induced by imperfect channel which usually takes the form of lost or corrupted packets. LT codes, which are a class of Fountain codes, can be used independent of the channel rate and as many code words as required can be generated to recover all the message bits irrespective of the channel performance. Achieving error free high data rates with limited energy resources is possible with FSO systems if error correction codes with minimal overheads on the power can be used. We also employ a combination of Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) with provision for modification of threshold and optimized LT codes with belief propagation for decoding. These techniques provide additional protection even under strong turbulence regimes. Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) is another method of improving link reliability. Performance of ARQ is limited by the number of retransmissions and the corresponding time delay. We prove through theoretical computations and simulations that LT codes consume less energy per bit. We validate the feasibility of using energy efficient LT codes over ARQ for FSO links to be used in optical wireless sensor networks within the eye safety limits.

  6. Arrayed waveguide collimators for integrating free-space optics on polymeric waveguide devices.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin-Soo; Lee, Chang-Hee; Shin, Sang-Yung; Huang, Guang-Hao; Chu, Woo-Sung; Oh, Min-Cheol; Noh, Young-Ouk; Lee, Hyung-Jong

    2014-10-01

    Array-type optical devices are important for wavelength-division multiplexing optical communication system to achieve small footprint, mass production, and reliability. For fabricating transmitter module in an array configuration, it is difficult to achieve a passive alignment of isolator, collimating lens, and laser diode. To facilitate array isolator integration, a waveguide collimator is proposed in this work by using a low-contrast, large-core polymer waveguide. The diffraction of a guided mode propagating through a free-space region is suppressed by enlarging the guided mode. The fiber coupling loss due to the enlarged mode was overcome by incorporating an adiabatic taper structure. The excess loss of waveguide collimator including the loss through a 400-μm free-propagation region was less than 1.0 dB. PMID:25321959

  7. Proposed parameters of specific rain attenuation prediction for Free Space Optics link operating in tropical region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suriza, A. Z.; Md Rafiqul, Islam; Wajdi, A. K.; Naji, A. W.

    2013-03-01

    As the demand for higher and unlimited bandwidth for communication channel is increased, Free Space Optics (FSO) is a good alternative solution. As it is protocol transparent, easy to install, cost effective and have capabilities like fiber optics, its demand rises very fast. Weather condition, however is the limiting factor for FSO link. In the temperate region the major blockage for FSO link feasibility is fog. In the tropical region high rainfall rate is expected to be the major drawback of FSO link availability. Rain attenuation is the most significant to influence FSO link availability in tropical region. As for now the available k and α values are developed using data from temperate regions. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to propose new parameters for specific rain attenuation prediction model that represents tropical weather condition. The proposed values are derived from data measured in Malaysia and using methods recommended by ITU-R.

  8. System and method that suppresses intensity fluctuations for free space high-speed optical communication

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Gennady P.; Bishop, Alan R.; Nguyen, Dinh C.; Chernobrod, Boris M.; Gorshkov, Vacheslav N.

    2009-10-13

    A high-speed (Gbps), free space optical communication system is based on spectral encoding of radiation from a wide band light source, such as a laser. By using partially coherent laser beams in combination with a relatively slow photosensor, scintillations can be suppressed by orders of magnitude for distances of more than 10 km. To suppress the intensity fluctuations due to atmospheric turbulence, a source with partial transverse coherence in combination with slow response time photodetector is used. Information is encoded in the spectral domain of a wideband optical source by modulation of spectral amplitudes. A non-coherent light source with wide spectrum (an LED, for example) may be used for high-speed communication over short (less than about a mile) distances.

  9. InAlAs/InGaAs avalanche photodiode arrays for free space optical communication.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Mike S; Clark, William R; Rabinovich, William S; Mahon, Rita; Murphy, James L; Goetz, Peter G; Thomas, Linda M; Burris, Harris R; Moore, Christopher I; Waters, William D; Vaccaro, Kenneth; Krejca, Brian D

    2015-11-01

    In free space optical communication, photodetectors serve not only as communications receivers but also as position sensitive detectors (PSDs) for pointing, tracking, and stabilization. Typically, two separate detectors are utilized to perform these tasks, but recent advances in the fabrication and development of large-area, low-noise avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays have enabled these devices to be used both as PSDs and as communications receivers. This combined functionality allows for more flexibility and simplicity in optical system design without sacrificing the sensitivity and bandwidth performance of smaller, single-element data receivers. This work presents the development of APD arrays rated for bandwidths beyond 1 GHz with measured carrier ionization ratios of approximately 0.2 at moderate APD gains. We discuss the fabrication and characterization of three types of APD arrays along with their performance as high-speed photodetectors.

  10. High power free space optical link for rapid energy and data transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhadwal, Harbans S.; Rastegar, Jahangir; Feng, Dake; Kwok, Philip

    2016-05-01

    Design and experimental data for a high power laser diode based free space point-to-point optical power/data link is presented. In time critical power up applications, such as providing power and guidance information to a munition shell just prior to deployment, energy of the order of 100 J needs to be transferred in under 10 s. Current inductive technology is slow and broadcasts a radio-frequency signal which is undesirable for stealth operation. Rapid energy transfer times require high irradiance levels at the surface of the photovoltaic cells, typically, exceeding 1000X suns. Through efficient thermal design of heat sinks, high optical to electrical power conversion efficiencies of 50%, which are usually attainable at low power levels of 1 W, are achievable at higher power levels.

  11. Phase-Stable Free-Space Optical Lattices for Trapped Ions.

    PubMed

    Schmiegelow, C T; Kaufmann, H; Ruster, T; Schulz, J; Kaushal, V; Hettrich, M; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Poschinger, U G

    2016-01-22

    We demonstrate control of the absolute phase of an optical lattice with respect to a single trapped ion. The lattice is generated by off-resonant free-space laser beams, and we actively stabilize its phase by measuring its ac-Stark shift on a trapped ion. The ion is localized within the standing wave to better than 2% of its period. The locked lattice allows us to apply displacement operations via resonant optical forces with a controlled direction in phase space. Moreover, we observe the lattice-induced phase evolution of spin superposition states in order to analyze the relevant decoherence mechanisms. Finally, we employ lattice-induced phase shifts for inferring the variation of the ion position over the 157  μm range along the trap axis at accuracies of better than 6 nm.

  12. Fade-resistant forward error correction method for free-space optical communications systems

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Gary W.; Dowla, Farid U.; Ruggiero, Anthony J.

    2007-10-02

    Free-space optical (FSO) laser communication systems offer exceptionally wide-bandwidth, secure connections between platforms that cannot other wise be connected via physical means such as optical fiber or cable. However, FSO links are subject to strong channel fading due to atmospheric turbulence and beam pointing errors, limiting practical performance and reliability. We have developed a fade-tolerant architecture based on forward error correcting codes (FECs) combined with delayed, redundant, sub-channels. This redundancy is made feasible though dense wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and/or high-order M-ary modulation. Experiments and simulations show that error-free communications is feasible even when faced with fades that are tens of milliseconds long. We describe plans for practical implementation of a complete system operating at 2.5 Gbps.

  13. Free-space optics based sensor network design using angle-diversity photodiode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Anjan K.; Kunta, Swathi; Verma, Pramode; Huck, Robert C.

    2010-08-01

    In this paper we describe a free-space optics (FSO) based mobile sensor network that is not subject to RF interference common to wireless sensor networks. FSO-based mobile sensor networks can potentially be used in applications where security of communication, including freedom from susceptibility to jamming, is important. The design of nodes containing multiple transceivers each composed of an LED and an angle-diversity array of identical photo detectors is discussed in this paper. Depending on the number of photodetectors in the array and the angular field of view of each photo detector we may obtain an increase in the signal to noise ratio of the overall optical communication system.

  14. Packaging a free-space intra-chip optical interconnect module: Monte Carlo tolerance study and assembly results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervaeke, Michael; Lahti, Markku; Karpinnen, Mikko; Debaes, Christof; Volckaerts, Bart; Karioja, Pentti; Thienpont, Hugo

    2006-04-01

    In this paper we give an overview of the fabrication and assembly induced performance degradation of an intra-multi-chip-module free-space optical interconnect, integrating micro-lenses and a deflection prism above a dense opto-electronic chip. The proposed component is used to demonstrate the capabilities of an accurate micro-optical rapid prototype technique, namely the Deep Proton Writing (DPW). To evaluate the accuracy of DPW and to assess whether our assembly scheme will provide us with a reasonable process yield, we have built a simulation framework combining mechanical Monte Carlo analysis with optical simulations. Both the technological requirements to ensure a high process yield, and the specifications of our in-house DPW technology are discussed. Therefore, we first conduct a sensitivity analysis and we subsequently simulate the effect of combined errors using a Monte Carlo simulation. We are able to investigate the effect of a technology accuracy enhancement on the fabrication and assembly yield by scaling the standard deviation of the errors proportionally to each sensitivity interval. We estimate that 40% of the systems fabricated with DPW will show an optical transmission efficiency above -4.32 dB, which is -3 dB below the theoretical obtainable value. We also discuss our efforts to implement an opto-mechanical Monte Carlo simulator. It enables us to address specific issues not directly related with the micro-optical or DPW components, such as the influence of glueing layers and structures that allow for self-alignment, by combining mechanical tolerancing algorithms with optical simulation software. More in particular we determined that DPW provides ample accuracy to meet the requirements to obtain a high manufacturing yield. Finally, we shortly highlight the basic layout of a completed demonstrator. The adhesive bonding of opto-electronic devices in their package is subject to further improvement to enhance the tilt accuracy of the devices with

  15. Experimental verification of long-term evolution radio transmissions over dual-polarization combined fiber and free-space optics optical infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Bohata, J; Zvanovec, S; Pesek, P; Korinek, T; Mansour Abadi, M; Ghassemlooy, Z

    2016-03-10

    This paper describes the experimental verification of the utilization of long-term evolution radio over fiber (RoF) and radio over free space optics (RoFSO) systems using dual-polarization signals for cloud radio access network applications determining the specific utilization limits. A number of free space optics configurations are proposed and investigated under different atmospheric turbulence regimes in order to recommend the best setup configuration. We show that the performance of the proposed link, based on the combination of RoF and RoFSO for 64 QAM at 2.6 GHz, is more affected by the turbulence based on the measured difference error vector magnitude value of 5.5%. It is further demonstrated the proposed systems can offer higher noise immunity under particular scenarios with the signal-to-noise ratio reliability limit of 5 dB in the radio frequency domain for RoF and 19.3 dB in the optical domain for a combination of RoF and RoFSO links.

  16. Temperature sensing in high voltage transmission lines using fiber Bragg grating and free-space-optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floridia, Claudio; Rosolem, Joao B.; Leonardi, Ariovaldo A.; Hortencio, Claudio A.; Fonseca, Romeu F.; Moreira, Rodrigo O. C.; Souza, Giovani C. L.; Melo, Altair L.; Nascimento, Carlos A. M.

    2013-05-01

    In this work we proposed the use of free-space-optics (FSO) to transmit and receive the optical signals from optical fiber placed in ground potential to the FBG fiber optics at high voltage potential, using a pair of optical collimators. The technique evaluation was performed in a prototype for the study of sensitivity to optical alignment and in an external environment using emulated sensing systems for both bus bar and overhead transmission line with real isolator chain. It has been shown that the FSO system allows collimators operate at distances of 500 mm to 2.000 mm. This range of distances is similar to the length of insulator's chain up to 230 kV. It was also shown that the proposed system can be used in real external environment for bus bar temperature monitoring in substations, where, even if the time out of the system is of 45%, with major interruption time of almost 15 hours, the majority of the interruption time was less than 18 minutes long. On the other hand, system has to be improved in order to be used in overhead transmission line. As tested for a real isolator chain the system shown a time out of 80.3%, with significant number of events of interruption acquisition time greater than 150 minutes. It is believed that for overhead power lines, system must be installed in rigid surge arresters or in a line post where it is expected to have similar results as in substation bus bars monitoring.

  17. Data Relay Board with Protocol for High-Speed, Free-Space Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Malcolm; Clare, Loren; Gould, Gary; Pedyash, Maxim

    2004-01-01

    In a free-space optical communication system, the mitigation of transient outages through the incorporation of error-control methods is of particular concern, the outages being caused by scintillation fades and obscurants. The focus of this innovative technology is the development of a data relay system for a reliable high-data-rate free-spacebased optical-transport network. The data relay boards will establish the link, maintain synchronous connection, group the data into frames, and provide for automatic retransmission (ARQ) of lost or erred frames. A certain Quality of Service (QoS) can then be ensured, compatible with the required data rate. The protocol to be used by the data relay system is based on the draft CCSDS standard data-link protocol Proximity-1, selected by orbiters to multiple lander assets in the Mars network, for example. In addition to providing data-link protocol capabilities for the free-space optical link and buffering the data, the data relay system will interface directly with user applications over Gigabit Ethernet and/or with highspeed storage resources via Fibre Channel. The hardware implementation is built on a network-processor-based architecture. This technology combines the power of a hardware switch capable of data switching and packet routing at Gbps rates, with the flexibility of a software- driven processor that can host highly adaptive and reconfigurable protocols used, for example, in wireless local-area networks (LANs). The system will be implemented in a modular multi-board fashion. The main hardware elements of the data relay system are the new data relay board developed by Rockwell Scientific, a COTS Gigabit Ethernet board for user interface, and a COTS Fibre Channel board that connects to local storage. The boards reside in a cPCI back plane, and can be housed in a VME-type enclosure.

  18. Electro-optical and Magneto-optical Sensing Apparatus and Method for Characterizing Free-space Electromagnetic Radiation

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Riordan, Jenifer Ann; Sun, Feng-Guo

    2000-08-29

    Apparatus and methods for characterizing free-space electromagnetic energy, and in particular, apparatus/method suitable for real-time two-dimensional far-infrared imaging applications are presented. The sensing technique is based on a non-linear coupling between a low-frequency electric (or magnetic) field and a laser beam in an electro-optic (or magnetic-optic) crystal. In addition to a practical counter-propagating sensing technique, a co-linear approach is described which provides longer radiated field-optical beam interaction length, thereby making imaging applications practical.

  19. Free-space optical data link to a small robot using modulating retroreflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, William S.; Murphy, James L.; Suite, Michele; Ferraro, Mike; Mahon, Rita; Goetz, Peter; Hacker, Kurt; Freeman, Wade; Saint Georges, Eric; Uecke, Stan; Sender, John

    2009-08-01

    Small robots are finding increasing use for operations in areas that may be dangerous to humans. These robots often have needs for high bandwidth communications to return video and other data. While radio frequency (RF) links can be used in may cases, in some circumstances they may be impractical due to frequency congestion, reflections off surfaces, jamming or other RF noise. In these cases an optical link may be advantageous, particularly when a clear line of sight exists. However, a conventional optical link has limitations for this application. For example, a conventional optical link operating at rates of megabits per second at ranges of 1 Km requires about a 1 degree pointing accuracy. This implies a need for active pointing and tracking, which maybe be unacceptable for a small platform. We explored an optical modulating retroreflector (MRR) link for these cases. An array of 6 MRRs and photodetectors with a field of view of 180 degrees (azimuth)x 30 degrees (elevation) was constructed and mounted a small robot, the iRobot PackbotTM. An Ethernet modem designed to work with MRR links was also part of the system. Using a tracking laser interrogator at the other end of the link, a 1.5 Mbps free space optical Ethernet link was established that completely replaced the normal RF Ethernet link. The link was demonstrated out to ranges of 1 Km down a road, exceeding the range of the RF link. Design issues and measurements of performance will be described.

  20. MIMO Free-Space Optical Communication Employing Subcarrier Intensity Modulation in Atmospheric Turbulence Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Popoola, Wasiu O.; Ahmadi, Vahid; Leitgeb, Erich

    In this paper, we analyse the error performance of transmitter/receiver array free-space optical (FSO) communication system employing binary phase shift keying (BPSK) subcarrier intensity modulation (SIM) in clear but turbulent atmospheric channel. Subcarrier modulation is employed to eliminate the need for adaptive threshold detector. Direct detection is employed at the receiver and each subcarrier is subsequently demodulated coherently. The effect of irradiance fading is mitigated with an array of lasers and photodetectors. The received signals are linearly combined using the optimal maximum ratio combining (MRC), the equal gain combining (EGC) and the selection combining (SelC). The bit error rate (BER) equations are derived considering additive white Gaussian noise and log normal intensity fluctuations. This work is part of the EU COST actions and EU projects.

  1. Demonstration of free space coherent optical communication using integrated silicon photonic orbital angular momentum devices.

    PubMed

    Su, Tiehui; Scott, Ryan P; Djordjevic, Stevan S; Fontaine, Nicolas K; Geisler, David J; Cai, Xinran; Yoo, S J B

    2012-04-23

    We propose and demonstrate silicon photonic integrated circuits (PICs) for free-space spatial-division-multiplexing (SDM) optical transmission with multiplexed orbital angular momentum (OAM) states over a topological charge range of -2 to +2. The silicon PIC fabricated using a CMOS-compatible process exploits tunable-phase arrayed waveguides with vertical grating couplers to achieve space division multiplexing and demultiplexing. The experimental results utilizing two silicon PICs achieve SDM mux/demux bit-error-rate performance for 1‑b/s/Hz, 10-Gb/s binary phase shifted keying (BPSK) data and 2-b/s/Hz, 20-Gb/s quadrature phase shifted keying (QPSK) data for individual and two simultaneous OAM states.

  2. Characterization of dual-polarization LTE radio over a free-space optical turbulence channel.

    PubMed

    Bohata, J; Zvanovec, S; Korinek, T; Mansour Abadi, M; Ghassemlooy, Z

    2015-08-10

    A dual polarization (DP) radio over a free-space optical (FSO) communication link using a long-term evolution (LTE) radio signal is proposed and analyzed under different turbulence channel conditions. Radio signal transmission over the DP FSO channel is experimentally verified by means of error vector magnitude (EVM) statistics. We demonstrate that such a system, employing a 64 quadrature amplitude modulation at the frequency bands of 800 MHz and 2.6 GHz, evinces reliability with <8% of EVM in a turbulent channel. Based on the results, we show that transmitting the LTE signal over the FSO channel is a potential solution for last-mile access or backbone networks, when using multiple-input multiple-output based DP signals.

  3. Free-space-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors for infrared optical communications.

    PubMed

    Bellei, Francesco; Cartwright, Alyssa P; McCaughan, Adam N; Dane, Andrew E; Najafi, Faraz; Zhao, Qingyuan; Berggren, Karl K

    2016-02-22

    This paper describes the construction of a cryostat and an optical system with a free-space coupling efficiency of 56.5% ± 3.4% to a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD) for infrared quantum communication and spectrum analysis. A 1K pot decreases the base temperature to T = 1.7 K from the 2.9 K reached by the cold head cooled by a pulse-tube cryocooler. The minimum spot size coupled to the detector chip was 6.6 ± 0.11 µm starting from a fiber source at wavelength, λ = 1.55 µm. We demonstrated photon counting on a detector with an 8 × 7.3 µm2 area. We measured a dark count rate of 95 ± 3.35 kcps and a system detection efficiency of 1.64% ± 0.13%. We explain the key steps that are required to improve further the coupling efficiency.

  4. Average BER of subcarrier intensity modulated free space optical systems over the exponentiated Weibull fading channels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Zhang, Lu; Guo, Lixin; Huang, Feng; Shang, Tao; Wang, Ranran; Yang, Yintang

    2014-08-25

    The average bit error rate (BER) for binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation in free-space optical (FSO) links over turbulence atmosphere modeled by the exponentiated Weibull (EW) distribution is investigated in detail. The effects of aperture averaging on the average BERs for BPSK modulation under weak-to-strong turbulence conditions are studied. The average BERs of EW distribution are compared with Lognormal (LN) and Gamma-Gamma (GG) distributions in weak and strong turbulence atmosphere, respectively. The outage probability is also obtained for different turbulence strengths and receiver aperture sizes. The analytical results deduced by the generalized Gauss-Laguerre quadrature rule are verified by the Monte Carlo simulation. This work is helpful for the design of receivers for FSO communication systems.

  5. Theoretical and experimental studies of turbo product code with time diversity in free space optical communication.

    PubMed

    Han, Yaoqiang; Dang, Anhong; Ren, Yongxiong; Tang, Junxiong; Guo, Hong

    2010-12-20

    In free space optical communication (FSOC) systems, channel fading caused by atmospheric turbulence degrades the system performance seriously. However, channel coding combined with diversity techniques can be exploited to mitigate channel fading. In this paper, based on the experimental study of the channel fading effects, we propose to use turbo product code (TPC) as the channel coding scheme, which features good resistance to burst errors and no error floor. However, only channel coding cannot cope with burst errors caused by channel fading, interleaving is also used. We investigate the efficiency of interleaving for different interleaving depths, and then the optimum interleaving depth for TPC is also determined. Finally, an experimental study of TPC with interleaving is demonstrated, and we show that TPC with interleaving can significantly mitigate channel fading in FSOC systems.

  6. Performance analysis of multihop coherent OFDM free-space optical communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Deli; Ma, Jing

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes a multihop coherent orthogonal frequency division multiplexing free space optical (OFDM-FSO) communication system model based on a relay transmission mode of decode and forward (DF) with the Gamma-Gamma channel. In the study of atmospheric statistical model, mainly considering the combined action by the following three aspects, they are the light intensity scintillation caused by the atmospheric turbulence, the pointing error caused the transmitter and the receiver without aiming at each other and the path loss. We derived closed-form expressions of outage probability and symbol error rate of the multihop coherent OFDM-FSO system with serial DF relay transmission. We simulated and analyzed the influence of the atmospheric turbulence, the modulation order, the beam width and the jitter factor on the communication interruption performance and bit error performance of the multihop coherent OFDM-FSO system with different number of hops.

  7. Novel non-mechanical fine tracking module for retroreflective free space optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana, C.; Gomez, A.; Faulkner, G.; Erry, Gavin R.; Thueux, Y.; O'Brien, D.

    2014-10-01

    The new generation of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) require high speed data links to offload all its sensors data. RFSO (Reflective Free Space Optics) has become an important alternative to RF systems because it is robust against interception and jamming, enhancing data security. Moreover, the weight and power consumption of the RFSO coms module is reduced, making it suitable for SWaP (Size, Weight, and Power) constrained applications. In this paper, we present the design of a tracking module based on a non-mechanical holographic beam steering system. A highly accurate position sensing unit is required to accomplish a good tracking process and therefore guarantee the data link stability. Different localization methods such as centroid, centroid windowed or centroid squared are tested and compared using real data captured in a turbulent scenario. Errors below 8cm are reported in a double pass 1km link.

  8. Retro-modulators and fast beam steering for free-space optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Trevor Keith

    Free-space optical (FSO) communications is a means of secure, high bandwidth communication through the use of a modulated laser beam in free-space as the information medium. The chaotic nature of the atmosphere and the motion of the communication nodes make laser alignment a crucial concern. The employment of retro-reflecting modulators makes the bidirectional quality of a communication link into a one sided alignment problem. While there are existing retro-reflecting modulators, their trade-offs create a lack of abilities (such as aperture size, angular range, high modulation speeds, economic viability) which do not fulfill the requirements for certain applications. Also, the beam must be directed towards the intended receiver. Form mobile or scintillated communication links, beam direction must be adaptable in real time. Once again, this area suffers from trade-offs where beamsteering speed is often limited. Research used to mitigate the trade-offs and adapt the devices into viable options for a wider range of applications is explored in this dissertation. Two forms of retro-modulators were explored; a MEMS deformable mirror retro-modulator and a solid silicon retro-modulator that modulated the light by frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR). The MEMS version offered a high speed, scalable, wavelength/angle insensitive retro-modulator which can be massed produced at low cost, while the solid retro-modulator offered a large field of view with low cost as well. Both modulator's design, simulated performances, fabrication and experimental characterization are described in this dissertation. An ultra-fast beamscanner was also designed using 2-dimensional dispersion. By using wavelength switching for directional control, a beamscanner was developed that could switch light faster than pre-existing beamscanners while the beams characteristics (most importantly its aperture) could be freely adjusted by the independent optics. This beamscanner was preceded by our

  9. Simulating Atmospheric Free-Space Optical Propagation; Part II: Haze, Fog, and Low Clouds Attenuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achour, Maha

    2002-12-01

    One of the biggest challenges facing Free-Space Optics deployment is proper understanding of optical signal propagation in different atmospheric conditions. In an earlier study by the author (30), attenuation by rain was analyzed and successfully modeled for infrared signal transmission. In this paper, we focus on attenuation due to scattering by haze, fog and low clouds droplets using the original Mie Scattering theory. Relying on published experimental results on infrared propagation, electromagnetic waves scattering by spherical droplet, atmospheric physics and thermodynamics, UlmTech developed a computer-based platform, Simulight, which simulates infrared signal (750 nm-12 μm) propagation in haze, fog, low clouds, rain and clear weather. Optical signals are scattered by fog droplets during transmission in the forward direction preventing the receiver from detecting the minimum required power. Weather databases describe foggy conditions by measuring the visibility parameter, which is, in general, defined as the maximum distance that the visible 550 nm signal can travel while distinguishing between the target object and its background at 2% contrast. Extrapolating optical signal attenuations beyond 550 nm using only visibility is not as straightforward as stated by the Kruse equation which is unfortunately widely used. We conclude that it is essential to understand atmospheric droplet sizes and their distributions based on measured attenuations to effectively estimate infrared attenuation. We focus on three types of popular fogs: Evolving, Stable and Selective.

  10. Parallel distributed free-space optoelectronic computer engine using flat plug-on-top optics package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Christoph; Ekman, Jeremy T.; Wang, Xiaoqing; Marchand, Philippe J.; Spaanenburg, Henk; Kiamilev, Fouad E.; Esener, Sadik C.

    2000-05-01

    We report about ongoing work on a free-space optical interconnect system, which will demonstrate a Fast Fourier Transformation calculation, distributed among six processor chips. Logically, the processors are arranged in two linear chains, where each element communicates optically with its nearest neighbors. Physically, the setup consists of a large motherboard, several multi-chip carrier modules, which hold the processor/driver chips and the optoelectronic chips (arrays of lasers and detectors), and several plug-on-top optics modules, which provide the optical links between the chip carrier modules. The system design tries to satisfy numerous constraints, such as compact size, potential for mass-production, suitability for large arrays (up to 1024 parallel channels), compatibility with standard electronics fabrication and packaging technology, potential for active misalignment compensation by integration MEMS technology, and suitability for testing different imaging topologies. We present the system architecture together with details of key components and modules, and report on first experiences with prototype modules of the setup.

  11. Statistical properties of a short analog RF free-space optical link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucholtz, F.; Burris, H. R., Jr.; Moore, C. I.; McDermitt, C. S.; Mahon, R.; Suite, M. R.; Michalowicz, J. V.; Gilbreath, G. C.; Rabinovich, W. S.

    2009-05-01

    Free-space optical (FSO) links typically carry digital data over short to moderate distances (100m - 50 km). From a military perspective, FSO links have the advantages of low probability of interception, inherent anti-jam capability and a reasonable degree of covertness. In certain applications it is desirable to minimize size, weight and power of the transmitter and this pushes the designer to eliminate power-hungry digitizers and to transmit raw analog, instead of digital, information. However, the transmission of analog signals presents significant technical challenges due to strong fluctuations in received optical power resulting from atmospheric turbulence. In this case the standard RF link properties of gain, noise factor, and linearity must be described entirely in statistical terms. In this paper we present preliminary experimental results from a short (500m), single-tone, 5 MHz analog FSO link and compare the data to theoretical predictions. Theory suggests, and our preliminary experimental results confirm, that the statistical properties of all the RF performance metrics of a FSO analog link are determined entirely by the statistical properties of the received optical power. We show that the distribution of values of RF link parameters can be obtained directly from the distribution of received optical power, without the need for modeling the received power with a continuous function.

  12. Beyond optical molasses: 3D raman sideband cooling of atomic cesium to high phase-space density

    PubMed

    Kerman; Vuletic; Chin; Chu

    2000-01-17

    We demonstrate a simple, general purpose method to cool neutral atoms. A sample containing 3x10(8) cesium atoms prepared in a magneto-optical trap is cooled and simultaneously spin polarized in 10 ms at a density of 1.1x10(11) cm (-3) to a phase space density nlambda(3)(dB) = 1/500, which is almost 3 orders of magnitude higher than attainable in free space with optical molasses. The technique is based on 3D degenerate Raman sideband cooling in optical lattices and remains efficient even at densities where the mean lattice site occupation is close to unity.

  13. 500  Gb/s free-space optical transmission over strong atmospheric turbulence channels.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhen; Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-07-15

    We experimentally demonstrate a high-spectral-efficiency, large-capacity, featured free-space-optical (FSO) transmission system by using low-density, parity-check (LDPC) coded quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) combined with orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing. The strong atmospheric turbulence channel is emulated by two spatial light modulators on which four randomly generated azimuthal phase patterns yielding the Andrews spectrum are recorded. The validity of such an approach is verified by reproducing the intensity distribution and irradiance correlation function (ICF) from the full-scale simulator. Excellent agreement of experimental, numerical, and analytical results is found. To reduce the phase distortion induced by the turbulence emulator, the inexpensive wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (AO) is used. To deal with remaining channel impairments, a large-girth LDPC code is used. To further improve the aggregate data rate, the OAM multiplexing is combined with WDM, and 500 Gb/s optical transmission over the strong atmospheric turbulence channels is demonstrated. PMID:27420516

  14. An innovative modulating retro-reflector for free-space optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenkrantz, Etai; Arnon, Shlomi

    2013-09-01

    Modulating retro-reflectors (MRR) are beneficial for asymmetric free-space optics communication links. An MRR includes an optical retro-reflector and an electro-optic shutter. The main advantage of an MRR configuration is that it shifts most of the power, weight, and pointing requirements onto one end of the link. In this study an innovative device comprising of nanoparticle-embedded ferroelectric thin film is used as an MRR. The new modulator is mounted in front of a passive retro-reflector. In our study we calculated the link budget for lunar exploration scenario. The scenario includes a base station that communicates with several robots or astronauts. In our simulations, the base station illuminates a robot with a continuous-wave beam, i.e. an interrogating beam. The un-modulated beam strikes the MRR, which is located on the robot, and is passively reflected back to the base station carrying the data that has been modulated onto it by the MRR. In this scenario a robot and a base-station are 4km apart, with a clear line of sight. In addition, the innovative MRR is capable of achieving 12dB contrast ratio. Under these assumptions and using the nanoparticle-embedded ferroelectric MRR we calculated the required transmission power for a given bit-rate and BER.

  15. Mitigation of time-spatial influence in free-space optical networks utilizing route diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libich, J.; Zvanovec, S.; Mudroch, M.

    2012-02-01

    New communication systems are emerging with growing demand on the data traffic. Fiber optics allow us to transfer data of rates higher than hundreds gigabits per second. These systems are usually used for backbone networks, although using of these systems is appearing in last mile connections. Wireless communication systems are still more and more popular owing to fast and cheaper deployment contrary to wire or fiber communication systems. On the other hand, wireless communication systems including free-space optics (FSO) are affected by weather conditions. In order to mitigate these effects, several mitigation techniques were investigated. For instance spatial diversity using more than one transmitter or receiver, auto-tracking of an optical beam, wavelength diversity utilizing radio band links as a backup etc. FSO links may be used in FSO networks to connect several building of a corporation, hospital or university campus. In case of proper network topology, route diversity can contribute to availability enhancement. In this paper, mitigation technique based on the route diversity is presented. Results are compared with hybrid FSO link.

  16. Integration of optoelectronics and MEMS by free-space micro-optics

    SciTech Connect

    WARREN,MIAL E.; SPAHN,OLGA B.; SWEATT,WILLIAM C.; SHUL,RANDY J.; WENDT,JOEL R.; VAWTER,GREGORY A.; KRYGOWSKI,TOM W.; REYES,DAVID NMN; RODGERS,M. STEVEN; SNIEGOWSKI,JEFFRY J.

    2000-06-01

    This report represents the completion of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to investigate combining microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) with optoelectronic components as a means of realizing compact optomechanical subsystems. Some examples of possible applications are laser beam scanning, switching and routing and active focusing, spectral filtering or shattering of optical sources. The two technologies use dissimilar materials with significant compatibility problems for a common process line. This project emphasized a hybrid approach to integrating optoelectronics and MEMS. Significant progress was made in developing processing capabilities for adding optical function to MEMS components, such as metal mirror coatings and through-vias in the substrate. These processes were used to demonstrate two integration examples, a MEMS discriminator driven by laser illuminated photovoltaic cells and a MEMS shutter or chopper. Another major difficulty with direct integration is providing the optical path for the MEMS components to interact with the light. The authors explored using folded optical paths in a transparent substrate to provide the interconnection route between the components of the system. The components can be surface-mounted by flip-chip bonding to the substrate. Micro-optics can be fabricated into the substrate to reflect and refocus the light so that it can propagate from one device to another and them be directed out of the substrate into free space. The MEMS components do not require the development of transparent optics and can be completely compatible with the current 5-level polysilicon process. They report progress on a MEMS-based laser scanner using these concepts.

  17. Generation of multiple optical frequencies referenced to a frequency comb for precision free-space frequency transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Byung Jae; Kang, Hyun Jay; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2016-03-01

    Generating multiple optical frequencies referenced to the frequency standard is an important task in optical clock dissemination and optical communication. An apparatus for frequency-comb-referenced generation of multiple optical frequencies is demonstrated for high-precision free-space transfer of multiple optical frequencies. The relative linewidth and frequency instability at each channel corresponds to sub-1 Hz and 1.06×10-15 at 10 s averaging time, respectively. During the free-space transfer, the refractive index change of transmission media caused by atmospheric turbulences induces phase and frequency noise on optical frequencies. These phase and frequency noise causes induced linewidth broadening and frequency shift in optical frequencies which can disturb the accurate frequency transfer. The proposed feedback loop with acousto-optic modulator can monitor and compensate phase/frequency noise on optical frequencies. As a result, a frequency-comb-referenced single optical mode is compensated with a high signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 80 dB. By sharing the same optical paths, this feedback loop is confirmed to be successfully transferred to the neighboring wavelength channels (a 100 GHz spaced channel). This result confirms our proposed system can transfer optical frequencies to the remote site in free-space without performance degradation.

  18. Manufacturing: 3D printed micro-optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juodkazis, Saulius

    2016-08-01

    Uncompromised performance of micro-optical compound lenses has been achieved by high-fidelity shape definition during two-photon absorption microfabrication. The lenses have been made directly onto image sensors and even onto the tip of an optic fibre.

  19. Ethernet access network based on free-space optic deployment technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhart, Michael; Leitgeb, Erich; Birnbacher, Ulla; Schrotter, Peter

    2004-06-01

    The satisfaction of all communication needs from single households and business companies over a single access infrastructure is probably the most challenging topic in communications technology today. But even though the so-called "Last Mile Access Bottleneck" is well known since more than ten years and many distribution technologies have been tried out, the optimal solution has not yet been found and paying commercial access networks offering all service classes are still rare today. Conventional services like telephone, radio and TV, as well as new and emerging services like email, web browsing, online-gaming, video conferences, business data transfer or external data storage can all be transmitted over the well known and cost effective Ethernet networking protocol standard. Key requirements for the deployment technology driven by the different services are high data rates to the single customer, security, moderate deployment costs and good scalability to number and density of users, quick and flexible deployment without legal impediments and high availability, referring to the properties of optical and wireless communication. We demonstrate all elements of an Ethernet Access Network based on Free Space Optic distribution technology. Main physical parts are Central Office, Distribution Network and Customer Equipment. Transmission of different services, as well as configuration, service upgrades and remote control of the network are handled by networking features over one FSO connection. All parts of the network are proven, the latest commercially available technology. The set up is flexible and can be adapted to any more specific need if required.

  20. Study of turbulence effects for a free-space optical link over water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, Ruth; Chen, Mingzhou; Lambert, Andrew; Mackey, David; Goncharov, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we report on measurements of atmospheric turbulence effects arising from water air interaction. The aim of this study is to aid in the design of a free-space optical relay system to facilitate longer line-of-sight distances between relay buoys in a large expanse of water. Analysis of turbulence statistics will provide the basis for adaptive optics solutions to improve the relay signal strength affected by scintillation and beam wander. We report on experiments determining the isokinetic angle using an array of broadband incoherent sources of variable angular separation on the order of 0.1 mrad to 2.8 mrad. The experimental setup consists of a 5 inch telescope with high speed CMOS camera observing over a distance of 300 m close at a height of 1.5 m above the water surface. As part of the turbulence characterisation we experimentally estimate the relative image motion of angle-ofarrival fluctuations and perform other time series analysis. Analysis of the image motion requires new techniques due to the extended nature of the source. We explore different centroiding algorithms and surface fitting techniques.

  1. Improved artificial bee colony algorithm for wavefront sensor-less system in free space optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Chaojun; Han, Xiang'e.

    2015-10-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) technology is an effective way to alleviate the effect of turbulence on free space optical communication (FSO). A new adaptive compensation method can be used without a wave-front sensor. Artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC) is a population-based heuristic evolutionary algorithm inspired by the intelligent foraging behaviour of the honeybee swarm with the advantage of simple, good convergence rate, robust and less parameter setting. In this paper, we simulate the application of the improved ABC to correct the distorted wavefront and proved its effectiveness. Then we simulate the application of ABC algorithm, differential evolution (DE) algorithm and stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm to the FSO system and analyze the wavefront correction capabilities by comparison of the coupling efficiency, the error rate and the intensity fluctuation in different turbulence before and after the correction. The results show that the ABC algorithm has much faster correction speed than DE algorithm and better correct ability for strong turbulence than SPGD algorithm. Intensity fluctuation can be effectively reduced in strong turbulence, but not so effective in week turbulence.

  2. An analysis of the optimal size of image sensors in free space optic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lixing; Huang, Yongmei; An, Tao

    2014-09-01

    There are several advantages offered by free space optic systems compared with conventional radio frequency systems. As a consequence of shorter wavelengths, the high directivity of the transmitted beam makes acquisition and pointing difficult, thus an imaging system is set up for acquisition and pointing. Optical wave front distortions induced by atmospheric turbulence result in a spreading of the beam leads to image jitter take place in the focal plane, where the image sensor is. The behavior of the image jitter can be described in a statistical manner. Consequently, the size, which is a very important parameter to an image sensor, can be determined by the statistical quantity of image jitter, which customarily is the root mean square (RMS) image displacement. The quantity of the RMS image displacement is as a function of several measurable parameters. In this paper, variations of the estimated RMS image displacement were calculate and discussed in detail. The calculation showed good agreement with the experimental results conducted with a propagation path length of 96 km. The optimal sizes of image sensors that are used for some specific circumstances were analyzed and proposed based on the RMS image displacement.

  3. 850-nm hybrid fiber/free-space optical communications using orbital angular momentum modes.

    PubMed

    Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Tatarczak, Anna; Lu, Xiaofeng; Olmos, Juan José Vegas; Garrido-Balsells, José María; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur

    2015-12-28

    Light beams can carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) associated to the helicity of their phasefronts. These OAM modes can be employed to encode information onto a laser beam for transmitting not only in a fiber link but also in a free-space optical (FSO) one. Regarding this latter scenario, FSO communications are considered as an alternative and promising mean complementing the traditional optical communications in many applications where the use of fiber cable is not justified. This next generation FSO communication systems have attracted much interest recently, and the inclusion of beams carrying OAM modes can be seen as an efficient solution to increase the capacity and the security in the link. In this paper, we discuss an experimental demonstration of a proposal for next generation FSO communication system where a light beam carrying different OAM modes and affected by ℳ turbulence is coupled to the multimode fiber link. In addition, we report a better and more robust behavior of higher order OAM modes when the intermodal dispersion is dominant in the fiber after exceeding its maximum range of operation.

  4. Novel space-time trellis codes for free-space optical communications using transmit laser selection.

    PubMed

    García-Zambrana, Antonio; Boluda-Ruiz, Rubén; Castillo-Vázquez, Carmen; Castillo-Vázquez, Beatriz

    2015-09-21

    In this paper, the deployment of novel space-time trellis codes (STTCs) with transmit laser selection (TLS) for free-space optical (FSO) communication systems using intensity modulation and direct detection (IM/DD) over atmospheric turbulence and misalignment fading channels is presented. Combining TLS and STTC with rate 1 bit/(s · Hz), a new code design criterion based on the use of the largest order statistics is here proposed for multiple-input/single-output (MISO) FSO systems in order to improve the diversity order gain by properly chosing the transmit lasers out of the available L lasers. Based on a pairwise error probability (PEP) analysis, closed-form asymptotic bit error-rate (BER) expressions in the range from low to high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are derived when the irradiance of the transmitted optical beam is susceptible to moderate-to-strong turbulence conditions, following a gamma-gamma (GG) distribution, and pointing error effects, following a misalignment fading model where the effect of beam width, detector size and jitter variance is considered. Obtained results show diversity orders of 2L and 3L when simple two-state and four-state STTCs are considered, respectively. Simulation results are further demonstrated to confirm the analytical results.

  5. Wavelength optimization via retroreflection for underwater free-space optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuner, Burton; Pascoguin, B. Melvin

    2015-05-01

    The wireless, high-data-rate transmission of information is becoming increasingly important for undersea applications that include defense, environmental monitoring, and petroleum engineering. Free-space optical (FSO) communication addresses this need by providing an undersea high-data-rate link over moderate distances (up to 100s of meters). Light transmission through seawater is maximal in the blue-green part of the optical spectrum (475 nm-575 nm), but turbidity conditions, which are dynamic, strongly influence the actual maximum. We describe the development of a laser-wavelength auto-selection algorithm and system for optimized underwater FSO communications. The use of a passive corner cube retroreflector allows all transmitter and receiver electronics to be collocated, which will be beneficial for any fielded system. First, we describe the laser test bed and retroreflector system. Next, we describe the development of the algorithm and hardware. We then describe the creation of various water types (from clear to turbid) in the laboratory using particle suspensions and dyes, which will enable wavelength-dependent transmission tests. Finally, we show experimental results from water tube tests, demonstrating wavelength auto-selection within one minute.

  6. A reconsideration of the best wavelengths for free-space optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Colin N.; Degrassie, John S.; Rudiger, Joshua J.; Hammel, Stephen M.

    2014-10-01

    The selection of the "optimal" operating wavelength for Free Space Optical (FSO) systems has been a subject of some ongoing controversy over the past several decades. Practical FSO systems have been found to suffer severe performance degradation in adverse atmospheric visibility conditions (high extinction/low-transmission) such as fog, haze, and other atmospheric aerosols (smoke, dust). Claims have been made that certain wavelengths offer generally superior performance and reduced attenuation for FSO system operation. We will revisit the problem of optical propagation through atmospheric particulates, and will show that the specific details of the selected aerosol size distribution function (SDF), which specifies the aerosol number density distribution by radius, and the corresponding wavelength-dependent complex refractive indices can significantly influence the total extinction/transmission behavior of various wavelengths and hence the choice of "optimal" wavelength. We will use a variety of realistic atmospheric SDFs to highlight the sensitivity of the "optimal" wavelength to the SDF composition details. A primary result will be a comparison illustrating extinction performance at selected wavelengths across the spectrum of visible to LWIR for a variety of realistic and clearly-defined atmospheric scenarios: urban, desert, maritime, with fogs, hazes, smoke, and dust.

  7. Studies of pointing, acquisition, and tracking of agile optical wireless transceivers for free-space optical communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Tzung-Hsien; Trisno, Sugianto; Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Milner, Stuart D.; Davis, Christopher C.

    2004-02-01

    Free space, dynamic, optical wireless communications will require topology control for optimization of network performance. Such networks may need to be configured for bi- or multiple-connectedness, reliability and quality-of-service. Topology control involves the introduction of new links and/or nodes into the network to achieve such performance objectives through autonomous reconfiguration as well as precise pointing, acquisition, tracking, and steering of laser beams. Reconfiguration may be required because of link degradation resulting from obscuration or node loss. As a result, the optical transceivers may need to be re-directed to new or existing nodes within the network and tracked on moving nodes. The redirection of transceivers may require operation over a whole sphere, so that small-angle beam steering techniques cannot be applied. In this context, we are studying the performance of optical wireless links using lightweight, bi-static transceivers mounted on high-performance stepping motor driven stages. These motors provide an angular resolution of 0.00072 degree at up to 80,000 steps per second. This paper focuses on the performance characteristics of these agile transceivers for pointing, acquisition, and tracking (PAT), including the influence of acceleration/deceleration time, motor angular speed, and angular re-adjustment, on latency and packet loss in small free space optical (FSO) wireless test networks.

  8. Deconvolution in 3-D optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Shaw, P

    1994-09-01

    Fluorescent probes are becoming ever more widely used in the study of subcellular structure, and determination of their three-dimensional distributions has become very important. Confocal microscopy is now a common technique for overcoming the problem of out-of-focus flare in fluorescence imaging, but an alternative method uses digital image processing of conventional fluorescence images--a technique often termed 'deconvolution' or 'restoration'. This review attempts to explain image deconvolution in a non-technical manner. It is also applicable to 3-D confocal images, and can provide a further significant improvement in clarity and interpretability of such images. Some examples of the application of image deconvolution to both conventional and confocal fluorescence images are shown.

  9. 3D-additive manufactured optical mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammini, Paul V.; Ciscel, David; Wooten, John

    2015-09-01

    The Area Defense Anti-Munitions (ADAM) is a low cost and effective high power laser weapon system. It's designed to address and negate important threats such as short-range rockets, UAVs, and small boats. Many critical optical components operate in the system. The optics and mounts must accommodate thermal and mechanical stresses, plus maintain an exceptional wave front during operation. Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) developed, designed, and currently operates ADAM. This paper covers the design and development of a key monolithic, flexured, titanium mirror mount that was manufactured by CalRAM using additive processes.

  10. 3D printed long period gratings for optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Iezzi, Victor Lambin; Boisvert, Jean-Sébastien; Loranger, Sébastien; Kashyap, Raman

    2016-04-15

    We demonstrate a simple technique for implementing long period grating (LPG) structures by the use of a 3D printer. This Letter shows a way of manipulating the mode coupling within an optical fiber by applying stress through an external 3D printed periodic structure. Different LPG lengths and periods have been studied, as well as the effect of the applied stress on the coupling efficiency from the fundamental mode to cladding modes. The technique is very simple, highly flexible, affordable, and easy to implement without the need of altering the optical fiber. This Letter is part of a growing line of interest in the use of 3D printers for optical applications.

  11. Research of the application of low-precision large aperture nonimaging optics in free-space optical communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia; Yu, Xin

    2008-03-01

    A novel receiving antenna using low precision large aperture nonimaging optical apparatus in free-space optical (FSO) communication system has been proposed. The receiving optical antenna of FSO communication system is usually a conventional imaging optical system such as Newton system, Green system or Cassegrain system. It is ineffective to use a large aperture receiving antenna in FSO communication system because the precision imaging optical apparatus will be very expensive with aperture increase, so that, in order to reduce the difficulty of pointing and tracking between transmitter and receiver, the beam divergence has to be increased with the cost of lost part of the transmitted power. Since in the field of FSO communication system, the receiving optical antenna is used not to image but to concentrate optical signal as much as possible, the novel concept of using low precision large aperture nonimaging optical apparatus as receiving optical antenna to replace the conventional imaging optical system was proposed. Several nonimaging apparatus including spherical reflector, elliptical reflector, compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) and conical barrel concentrator are analyzed by ray tracing. Their gain and the transmission rate limitation due to wave-front aberrations are discussed, and their merit used in FSO communication system has been proved.

  12. Impact ionization engineered avalanche photodiode arrays for free space optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Mike S.; Rabinovich, William S.; Clark, William R.; Waters, William D.; Campbell, Joe C.; Mahon, Rita; Vaccaro, Kenneth; Krejca, Brian D.

    2016-03-01

    High sensitivity photodetectors serve two purposes in free space optical communication: data reception and position sensing for pointing, tracking, and stabilization. Because of conflicting performance criteria, two separate detectors are traditionally utilized to perform these tasks but recent advances in the fabrication and development of large area, low noise avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays have enabled these devices to be used both as position sensitive detectors (PSD) and as communications receivers. Combining these functionalities allows for more flexibility and simplicity in optical assembly design without sacrificing the sensitivity and bandwidth performance of smaller, single element data receivers. Beyond eliminating the need to separate the return beam into two separate paths, these devices enable implementation of adaptive approaches to compensate for focal plane beam wander and breakup often seen in highly scintillated terrestrial and maritime optical links. While the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and Optogration Inc, have recently demonstrated the performance of single period, InAlAs/InGaAs APD arrays as combined data reception and tracking sensors, an impact ionization engineered (I2E) epilayer design achieves even lower carrier ionization ratios by incorporating multiple multiplication periods engineered to suppress lower ionization rate carriers while enhancing the higher ionization rate carriers of interest. This work presents a three period I2E concentric, five element avalanche photodiode array rated for bandwidths beyond 1GHz with measured carrier ionization ratios of 0.05-0.1 at moderate APD gains. The epilayer design of the device will be discussed along with initial device characterization and high speed performance measurements.

  13. 1550 nm modulating retroreflector based on coated nanoparticles for free-space optical communication.

    PubMed

    Rosenkrantz, Etai; Arnon, Shlomi

    2015-06-10

    Nowadays, there is a renaissance in the field of space exploration. Current and future missions depend on astronauts and a swarm of robots for reconnaissance. In order to reduce the power consumption, weight, and size of the robots, an asymmetric communication system may be used. This is achieved by installing modulating retroreflectors (MRRs) on one side of the link and an interrogating laser on the other side. In this paper, we theoretically study an innovative device that can serve as an MRR in the infrared range of the spectrum. The device is based on a ferroelectric PZT thin film containing TiO2 coated Ag nanoparticles, which exhibit strong plasmonic resonance in the infrared range. After intensive analyses, which included calculations and simulations, we were able to design the device to operate at the 1550 nm wavelength. This is of great importance since the design of devices operating at 1550 nm as this wavelength is a mature technology widely used in free-space optics. Hence, this MRR can serve in asymmetric communication links relying on 1550 nm transmissions, which are also eye-safe. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time coated metal nanoparticles have been proposed to modulate light in the infrared region. The performance of this device is unique, reaching a 17.5 dB modulation contrast with only a ±2 V operating voltage. This modulator may also be used for terrestrial communication such as fiber optics and optical interconnects in future data centers. PMID:26192828

  14. 1550 nm modulating retroreflector based on coated nanoparticles for free-space optical communication.

    PubMed

    Rosenkrantz, Etai; Arnon, Shlomi

    2015-06-10

    Nowadays, there is a renaissance in the field of space exploration. Current and future missions depend on astronauts and a swarm of robots for reconnaissance. In order to reduce the power consumption, weight, and size of the robots, an asymmetric communication system may be used. This is achieved by installing modulating retroreflectors (MRRs) on one side of the link and an interrogating laser on the other side. In this paper, we theoretically study an innovative device that can serve as an MRR in the infrared range of the spectrum. The device is based on a ferroelectric PZT thin film containing TiO2 coated Ag nanoparticles, which exhibit strong plasmonic resonance in the infrared range. After intensive analyses, which included calculations and simulations, we were able to design the device to operate at the 1550 nm wavelength. This is of great importance since the design of devices operating at 1550 nm as this wavelength is a mature technology widely used in free-space optics. Hence, this MRR can serve in asymmetric communication links relying on 1550 nm transmissions, which are also eye-safe. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time coated metal nanoparticles have been proposed to modulate light in the infrared region. The performance of this device is unique, reaching a 17.5 dB modulation contrast with only a ±2 V operating voltage. This modulator may also be used for terrestrial communication such as fiber optics and optical interconnects in future data centers.

  15. Method for simulating free space optical data links for personnel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateti, Kiron; Clarke, Brandon R.; Seals, Ean J.; Petty, Gregory J.; Tran, Hoang Q.; Boykin, Courtney L.; Nicholson, Gail M.; Borneman, Joshua D.

    2013-05-01

    Free Space Optical (FSO) wireless data links are attractive alternatives to RF communications. This technology could enable vision around corners or barriers, and allow covert, secure, and wireless distribution of scope images to other squad helmet mounted displays (HMDs), with minimal additional hardware to the current equipment. A major design challenge for FSO links in personnel applications is ensuring line of sight (LoS) between transmitter and receiver. This work captures warfighter helmet and gun movement using video motion tracking in a typical application for FSO data links. A method to simulate transmitter and receiver on the warfighter helmet and gun scope and analyze LoS and FOV is presented. This method allows optimization of FSO data link placement and provides requirements for future FSO technology. The initial results suggest that to meet 100% of the threshold requirements, the vertical FOV of a receiver must be 80° and the horizontal FOV must be 60° and oriented 10° in pitch and -7.5° in yaw. Simulating a FSO link with horizontal and vertical FOV of 60° shows expected performance using a visual method from a helmet mounted camera. Additionally, the FOV of the transmitter and receiver can be visualized with arbitrary FOV, position, and orientation.

  16. Debunking the recurring myth of a magic wavelength for free-space optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korevaar, Eric J.; Kim, Isaac I.; McArthur, Bruce

    2002-12-01

    Free-Space Optics (FSO) is a proven, reliable technology for last mile telecommunications applications, used worldwide for both enterprise network building-to-building connections and for wireless access to more traditional land line communications networks. In most mid-latitude coastal cities, link availability at distances above a few hundred meters is primarily affected by fog and low clouds. At longer distances, heavy rain and snow can also affect the link. The most mature technology used in FSO equipment relies on low cost semiconductor lasers or LED"s operating in the near infrared at wavelengths of 785 nm or 850 nm. In the past few years, systems operating at 1550 nm have also been developed. At first the vendors of these systems claimed that the 1550 nm wavelength had better propagation characteristics in severe weather than the 785 nm wavelength. With further analysis and research, those claims were withdrawn. Now there are claims that even longer wavelengths near 10 microns will solve the FSO link availability issues associated with severe weather. Hype about such magic wavelengths for FSO is both a disservice to the investors who will lose the money they are investing based on exaggerated claims, and to the rest of the FSO industry which should be creating realistic expectations for the capability of its equipment. In the weather conditions which normally cause the highest attenuation for FSO systems, namely coastal fog and low clouds, 10 microns offers no propagation advantage over shorter wavelengths.

  17. Heterodyne efficiency of a coherent free-space optical communication model through atmospheric turbulence.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yongxiong; Dang, Anhong; Liu, Ling; Guo, Hong

    2012-10-20

    The heterodyne efficiency of a coherent free-space optical (FSO) communication model under the effects of atmospheric turbulence and misalignment is studied in this paper. To be more general, both the transmitted beam and local oscillator beam are assumed to be partially coherent based on the Gaussian Schell model (GSM). By using the derived analytical form of the cross-spectral function of a GSM beam propagating through atmospheric turbulence, a closed-form expression of heterodyne efficiency is derived, assuming that the propagation directions for the transmitted and local oscillator beams are slightly different. Then the impacts of atmospheric turbulence, configuration of the two beams (namely, beam radius and spatial coherence width), detector radius, and misalignment angle over heterodyne efficiency are examined. Numerical results suggest that the beam radius of the two overlapping beams can be optimized to achieve a maximum heterodyne efficiency according to the turbulence conditions and the detector radius. It is also found that atmospheric turbulence conditions will significantly degrade the efficiency of heterodyne detection, and compared to fully coherent beams, partially coherent beams are less sensitive to the changes in turbulence conditions and more robust against misalignment at the receiver.

  18. Feasibility study of free-space optical communication for South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohale, Julius; Handura, Michelle R.; Olwal, Thomas O.; Nyirenda, Clement N.

    2016-05-01

    This paper aims to determine the feasibility of deploying free-space optical communication (FSOC) technology in South Africa. In order to achieve this aim, visibility, wind speed, and altitude data for several potential deployment locations over a period of 4 years have been used to compute the FSOC-based atmospheric losses under average and worst case atmospheric conditions. Results have shown that Ermelo has the highest optimal FSOC link distance of 7.5 km at an overall atmospheric loss of 2.8 dB under average conditions, while Durban has the shortest FSOC link distance at 2.6 km at an overall atmospheric loss of 12 dB under worst case conditions. It has also been found that the refractive index structure parameter is mainly altitude dependent. The parameter is larger at lower altitudes due to the more significant heat transfer between the air and the surface. Overall, this study has shown that FSOC technology deployment in South Africa is largely feasible (i.e., deployable with good reliability) for last mile broadband access networks, where link distances between transceivers measure 10 km on average. These results have been based on theoretical models, which take into account reasonable realistic assumptions of worst case atmospheric and the transceiver system parameter losses.

  19. Microphysical characterization of free space optical link due to hydrometeor and fog effects.

    PubMed

    Mori, Saverio; Marzano, Frank S

    2015-08-01

    Free space optics (FSO) channel availability is affected by atmospheric water particles, which may introduce severe path attenuation. A unified microphysically oriented atmospheric particle scattering (MAPS) model is proposed and described to simulate particle scattering effects on FSO links. Atmospheric particles, such as raindrops, graupel particles, and snowflakes, together with fog droplets, are considered. Input data to characterize liquid and frozen water particle size distribution, density, and refractivity are derived from available literature data and measurements. Scattering, absorption, and extinction coefficients as well as the asymmetry factor are numerically simulated for each particle class and then parametrized with respect to particle water content, fall rate, and visibility, spanning from visible to infrared wavelengths. Both single- and multiple-scattering effects are discussed and quantified by using a radiative transfer model for small-angle approximation. MAPS simulations confirm that fog layers are those causing the largest power extinction on FSO links, but also several decibels of attenuation can be attributed to snow and rain conditions. Multiple-scattering effects, especially due to fog droplets, heavy rain, and dry snowflakes, typically tend to reduce the total attenuation by increasing the received power. An estimate of these effects, parameterized to single-scattering extinction, is proposed for near-infrared FSO link design.

  20. Free space optical communication flight mission: simulations and experimental results on ground level demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mata Calvo, Ramon; Ferrero, Valter; Camatel, Stefano; Catalano, Valeria; Bonino, Luciana; Toselli, Italo

    2009-05-01

    In the context of the increasing demand in high-speed data link for scientific, planetary exploration and earth observation missions, the Italian Space Agency (ASI), involving Thales Alenia Space as prime, the Polytechnic of Turin and other Italian partners, is developing a program for feasibility demonstration of optical communication system with the goal of a prototype flight mission in the next future. We have designed and analyzed a ground level bidirectional Free Space Optical Communication (FSOC) Breadboard at 2.5Gbit/s working at 1550nm as an emulator of slant path link. The breadboard is full-working and we tested it back-toback, at 500m and 2.3km during one month. The distances were chosen in order to get an equivalent slant path cumulative turbulence in a ground level link. The measurements campaign was done during the day and the night time and under several weather conditions, from sunny, rainy or windy. So we could work under very different turbulence conditions from weak to strong turbulence. We measured the scintillation both, on-axis and off-axis by introducing known misalignments at the terminals, transmission losses at both path lengths and BER at both receivers. We present simulations results considering slant and ground level links, where we took into account the atmospheric effects; scintillation, beam spread, beam wander and fade probability, and comparing them with the ground level experimental results, we find a good agreement between them. Finally we discuss the results obtained in the experimentation and in the flight mission simulations in order to apply our experimental results in the next project phases.

  1. A Coherent Free Space Optical Link for Long Distance Clock Comparison, Navigation, and Communication: The Mini-Doll Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djerroud, K.

    2010-10-01

    We describe the realization of a 5 km free space coherent optical link thro ugh the turbulent atmosphere between a telescope and a ground target. We present the phase noise of the link, limited mainly by atmospheric turbulence and mechanical vibrations of the telescope and the target. We discuss the implications of our results for applications, with particular emphasis on optical Doppler ranging to satellites and long distance frequency transfer.

  2. Optical characterization and measurements of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmimaa, Marja; Järvenpää, Toni

    2008-04-01

    3D or autostereoscopic display technologies offer attractive solutions for enriching the multimedia experience. However, both characterization and comparison of 3D displays have been challenging when the definitions for the consistent measurement methods have been lacking and displays with similar specifications may appear quite different. Earlier we have investigated how the optical properties of autostereoscopic (3D) displays can be objectively measured and what are the main characteristics defining the perceived image quality. In this paper the discussion is extended to cover the viewing freedom (VF) and the definition for the optimum viewing distance (OVD) is elaborated. VF is the volume inside which the eyes have to be to see an acceptable 3D image. Characteristics limiting the VF space are proposed to be 3D crosstalk, luminance difference and color difference. Since the 3D crosstalk can be presumed to be dominating the quality of the end user experience and in our approach is forming the basis for the calculations of the other optical parameters, the reliability of the 3D crosstalk measurements is investigated. Furthermore the effect on the derived VF definition is evaluated. We have performed comparison 3D crosstalk measurements with different measurement device apertures and the effect of different measurement geometry on the results on actual 3D displays is reported.

  3. Coherent free space optics communications over the maritime atmosphere with use of adaptive optics for beam wavefront correction.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Cvijetic, Milorad

    2015-02-20

    We evaluate the performance of the coherent free space optics (FSO) employing quadrature array phase-shift keying (QPSK) modulation over the maritime atmosphere with atmospheric turbulence compensated by use of adaptive optics (AO). We have established a comprehensive FSO channel model for maritime conditions and also made a comprehensive comparison of performance between the maritime and terrestrial atmospheric links. The FSO links are modeled based on the intensity attenuation resulting from scattering and absorption effects, the log-amplitude fluctuations, and the phase distortions induced by turbulence. The obtained results show that the FSO system performance measured by the bit-error-rate (BER) can be significantly improved when the optimization of the AO system is achieved. Also, we find that the higher BER is observed in the maritime FSO channel with atmospheric turbulence, as compared to the terrestrial FSO systems if they experience the same turbulence strength.

  4. Local multipoint distribution system (LDMS) versus free-space optical (FSO) networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willebrand, Heinz A.; Clark, Gerald R.; Willson, Bryan; Andreu von Euw, Christian G.; Roy, Joe; Mayhew, Laurel M.

    2001-11-01

    This paper compares two emerging broadband access methodologies, Free Space Optics (FSO) and Local Multipoint Distribution System (LMDS) and the atmospheric propagation characteristics of each when exposed to a dynamically changing channel. The comparison focuses on bandwidth, availability, and distance requirements for the new broadband market and how LMDS and FSO can be used to meet these requirements. Possible network topologies and their associated costs are examined. This comparison takes into account the total cost of deployment, including equipment costs, installation fees, access fees, and spectrum licensing fees. LMDS and FSO are compared on speed of deployment, scalability, aggregate bandwidth, and bandwidth per customer. Present and projected capabilities of each technology are considered for their suitability in different locations in the network, from the Wide Area Network (WAN), to the Metropolitan Area Network (MAN), all the way to Last Mile Access. There is a discussion on the relative performance of LMDS and FSO, focusing on the different factors that can affect link availability. Since network design is a large factor in assuring overall reliability, the flexibility of each technology with regard to network design is compared. LMDS and FSO are both line of sight, space-propagated technologies, and as such, they are both susceptible to path impediments and atmospheric attenuation, dispersion, scattering, and absorption. LMDS and FSO are affected very differently by different meteorological phenomena. Problematic atmospheric conditions are, specifically scintillation, rainfall, and fog, are examined. In addition to a discussion of these conditions, various techniques for minimizing atmospheric and environmental effects are investigated. The paper concludes with a summary of findings and recommendations for a number of broadband wireless applications.

  5. Effect of the incidence angle to free space optical communication based on cat-eye modulating retro-reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lai-xian; Sun, Hua-yan; Zhao, Yan-zhong; Zheng, Yong-hui; Shan, Cong-miao

    2013-08-01

    Based on the cat-eye effect of optical system, free space optical communication based on cat-eye modulating retro-reflector can build communication link rapidly. Compared to classical free space optical communication system, system based on cat-eye modulating retro-reflector has great advantages such as building communication link more rapidly, a passive terminal is smaller, lighter and lower power consuming. The incident angle is an important factor of cat-eye effect, so it will affect the retro-reflecting communication link. In this paper, the principle and work flow of free space optical communication based on cat-eye modulating retro-reflector were introduced. Then, using the theory of geometric optics, the equivalent model of modulating retro-reflector with incidence angle was presented. The analytical solution of active area and retro-reflected light intensity of cat-eye modulating retro-reflector were given. Noise of PIN photodetector was analyzed, based on which, bit error rate of free space optical communication based on cat-eye modulating retro-reflector was presented. Finally, simulations were done to study the effect of incidence angle to the communication. The simulation results show that the incidence angle has little effect on active area and retro-reflected light intensity when the incidence beam is in the active field angle of cat-eye modulating retro-reflector. With certain system and condition, the communication link can rapidly be built when the incidence light beam is in the field angle, and the bit error rate increases greatly with link range. When link range is smaller than 35Km, the bit error rate is less than 10-16.

  6. Flexydos3D: A new deformable anthropomorphic 3D dosimeter readout with optical CT scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deene, Yves; Hill, Robin; Skyt, Peter S.; Booth, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    A new deformable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based dosimeter is proposed that can be cast in an anthropomorphic shape and that can be used for 3D radiation dosimetry of deformable targets. The new material has additional favorable characteristics as it is tissue equivalent for high-energy photons, easy to make and is non-toxic. In combination with dual wavelength optical scanning, it is a powerful dosimeter for dose verification of image gated or organ tracked radiotherapy with moving and deforming targets.

  7. High-dimensional structured light coding/decoding for free-space optical communications free of obstructions.

    PubMed

    Du, Jing; Wang, Jian

    2015-11-01

    Bessel beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) with helical phase fronts exp(ilφ)(l=0;±1;±2;…), where φ is the azimuthal angle and l corresponds to the topological number, are orthogonal with each other. This feature of Bessel beams provides a new dimension to code/decode data information on the OAM state of light, and the theoretical infinity of topological number enables possible high-dimensional structured light coding/decoding for free-space optical communications. Moreover, Bessel beams are nondiffracting beams having the ability to recover by themselves in the face of obstructions, which is important for free-space optical communications relying on line-of-sight operation. By utilizing the OAM and nondiffracting characteristics of Bessel beams, we experimentally demonstrate 12 m distance obstruction-free optical m-ary coding/decoding using visible Bessel beams in a free-space optical communication system. We also study the bit error rate (BER) performance of hexadecimal and 32-ary coding/decoding based on Bessel beams with different topological numbers. After receiving 500 symbols at the receiver side, a zero BER of hexadecimal coding/decoding is observed when the obstruction is placed along the propagation path of light.

  8. Wave optics simulation of spatially partially coherent beams: Applications to free space laser communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xifeng

    One of the main drawbacks that prevent the extensive application of free space laser communications is the atmospheric turbulence through which the beam must propagate. For the past four decades, much attention has been devoted to finding different methods to overcome this difficulty. A partially coherent beam (PCB) has been recognized as an effective approach to improve the performance of an atmospheric link. It has been examined carefully with most analyses considering the Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beam. However, practical PCBs may not follow GSM theory and are better examined through some numerical simulation approach such as a wave optics simulation. Consequently, an approach for modeling the spatially PCB in wave optics simulation is presented here. The approach involves the application of a sequence of random phase screens to an initial beam field and the summation of the intensity results after propagation. The relationship between the screen parameters and the spatial coherence function for the beam is developed and the approach is verified by comparing results with analytic formulations for a Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beam. A variety of simulation studies were performed for this dissertation. The propagation through turbulence of a coherent beam and a particular version of a PCB, a pseudo-partially coherent beam (PPCB), is analyzed. The beam is created with a sequence of several Gaussian random phase screens for each atmospheric realization. The average intensity profiles, the scintillation index and aperture averaging factor for a horizontal propagation scenario are examined. Comparisons between these results and their corresponding analytic results for the well-known GSM beam are also made. Cumulative probability density functions for the received irradiance are initially investigated. Following the general simulation investigations, a performance metric is proposed as a general measure for optimizing the transverse coherence length of a partial

  9. Optical-CT imaging of complex 3D dose distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark; Kim, Leonard; Hugo, Geoffrey

    2005-04-01

    The limitations of conventional dosimeters restrict the comprehensiveness of verification that can be performed for advanced radiation treatments presenting an immediate and substantial problem for clinics attempting to implement these techniques. In essence, the rapid advances in the technology of radiation delivery have not been paralleled by corresponding advances in the ability to verify these treatments. Optical-CT gel-dosimetry is a relatively new technique with potential to address this imbalance by providing high resolution 3D dose maps in polymer and radiochromic gel dosimeters. We have constructed a 1st generation optical-CT scanner capable of high resolution 3D dosimetry and applied it to a number of simple and increasingly complex dose distributions including intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy (IMRT). Prior to application to IMRT, the robustness of optical-CT gel dosimetry was investigated on geometry and variable attenuation phantoms. Physical techniques and image processing methods were developed to minimize deleterious effects of refraction, reflection, and scattered laser light. Here we present results of investigations into achieving accurate high-resolution 3D dosimetry with optical-CT, and show clinical examples of 3D IMRT dosimetry verification. In conclusion, optical-CT gel dosimetry can provide high resolution 3D dose maps that greatly facilitate comprehensive verification of complex 3D radiation treatments. Good agreement was observed at high dose levels (>50%) between planned and measured dose distributions. Some systematic discrepancies were observed however (rms discrepancy 3% at high dose levels) indicating further work is required to eliminate confounding factors presently compromising the accuracy of optical-CT 3D gel-dosimetry.

  10. Measurement of fog and haze extinction characteristics and availability evaluation of free space optical link under the sea surface environment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaojun; Wang, Hongxing; Song, Bo

    2015-02-10

    Fog and haze can lead to changes in extinction characteristics. Therefore, the performance of the free space optical link is highly influenced by severe weather conditions. Considering the influential behavior of weather conditions, a state-of-the-art solution for the observation of fog and haze over the sea surface is presented in this paper. A Mie scattering laser radar, with a wavelength of 532 nm, is used to observe the weather conditions of the sea surface environment. The horizontal extinction coefficients and visibilities are obtained from the observation data, and the results are presented in the paper. The changes in the characteristics of extinction coefficients and visibilities are analyzed based on both the short-term (6 days) severe weather data and long-term (6 months) data. Finally, the availability performance of the free space optical communication link is evaluated under the sea surface environment.

  11. Compact optical transmitters for CubeSat free-space optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingsbury, R. W.; Caplan, D. O.; Cahoy, K. L.

    2015-03-01

    We present the results of an architectural trade study and prototype implementation of an optical transmitter suitable for resource-constrained CubeSats. Recent advances in CubeSat attitude determination and control systems have made it possible to achieve three-axis stabilization. This is essential for laser communications systems, which have challenging pointing and stability requirements. Our downlink terminal design fits in a 10 cm x 10 cm x 5 cm volume, uses < 10W of power, weighs < 1 kg, and supports data rates up to 50 Mbps. The terminal incorporates pointing, tracking and acquisition optics, an optical fine-steering mechanism, and a compact transmitter. This work focuses on the development of the transmitter for the Nanosatellite Optical Downlink Experiment (NODE). Two transmitter architectures were considered initially: direct modulation of a high-power laser diode and a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA). The MOPA-based approach was selected and a prototype "breadboard" was built from commercially available components. The prototype transmitter produces high fidelity (extinction ratio, ER < 33 dB) pulse position modulation (PPM) waveforms at 1550nm with 200mW average output power while consuming 6:5W of electrical power.

  12. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3D vision system

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.B.; Gallman, P.G.; Slotwinski, A.R.; Wagner, K.; Weaver, S.; Xu, Jieping

    1996-12-31

    This CLVS will provide a substantial advance in high speed computer vision performance to support robotic Environmental Management (EM) operations. This 3D system employs a compact fiber optic based scanner and operator at a 128 x 128 pixel frame at one frame per second with a range resolution of 1 mm over its 1.5 meter working range. Using acousto-optic deflectors, the scanner is completely randomly addressable. This can provide live 3D monitoring for situations where it is necessary to update once per second. This can be used for decontamination and decommissioning operations in which robotic systems are altering the scene such as in waste removal, surface scarafacing, or equipment disassembly and removal. The fiber- optic coherent laser radar based system is immune to variations in lighting, color, or surface shading, which have plagued the reliability of existing 3D vision systems, while providing substantially superior range resolution.

  13. 3D printed long period gratings for optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Iezzi, Victor Lambin; Boisvert, Jean-Sébastien; Loranger, Sébastien; Kashyap, Raman

    2016-04-15

    We demonstrate a simple technique for implementing long period grating (LPG) structures by the use of a 3D printer. This Letter shows a way of manipulating the mode coupling within an optical fiber by applying stress through an external 3D printed periodic structure. Different LPG lengths and periods have been studied, as well as the effect of the applied stress on the coupling efficiency from the fundamental mode to cladding modes. The technique is very simple, highly flexible, affordable, and easy to implement without the need of altering the optical fiber. This Letter is part of a growing line of interest in the use of 3D printers for optical applications. PMID:27082365

  14. Mitigation of Laser Beam Scintillation in Free-Space Optical Communication Systems Through Coherence-Reducing Optical Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renner, Christoffer J.

    2005-01-01

    Free-space optical communication systems (also known as lasercom systems) offer several performance advantages over traditional radio frequency communication systems. These advantages include increased data rates and reduced operating power and system weight. One serious limiting factor in a lasercom system is Optical turbulence in Earth's atmosphere. This turbulence breaks up the laser beam used to transmit the information into multiple segments that interfere with each other when the beam is focused onto the receiver. This interference pattern at the receiver changes with time causing fluctuations in the received optical intensity (scintillation). Scintillation leads to intermittent losses of the signal and an overall reduction in the lasercom system's performance. Since scintillation is a coherent effect, reducing the spatial and temporal coherence of the laser beam will reduce the scintillation. Transmitting a laser beam through certain materials is thought to reduce its coherence. Materials that were tested included: sapphire, BK7 glass, fused silica and others. The spatial and temporal coherence of the laser beam was determined by examining the interference patterns (fringes) it formed when interacting with various interferometers and etalons.

  15. MIMO free-space optical communication employing coherent BPOLSK modulation in atmospheric optical turbulence channel with pointing errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabu, K.; Kumar, D. Sriram

    2015-05-01

    An optical wireless communication system is an alternative to radio frequency communication, but atmospheric turbulence induced fading and misalignment fading are the main impairments affecting an optical signal when propagating through the turbulence channel. The resultant of misalignment fading is the pointing errors, it degrades the bit error rate (BER) performance of the free space optics (FSO) system. In this paper, we study the BER performance of the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) FSO system employing coherent binary polarization shift keying (BPOLSK) in gamma-gamma (G-G) channel with pointing errors. The BER performance of the BPOLSK based MIMO FSO system is compared with the single-input single-output (SISO) system. Also, the average BER performance of the systems is analyzed and compared with and without pointing errors. A novel closed form expressions of BER are derived for MIMO FSO system with maximal ratio combining (MRC) and equal gain combining (EGC) diversity techniques. The analytical results show that the pointing errors can severely degrade the performance of the system.

  16. Optics. Spatially structured photons that travel in free space slower than the speed of light.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, Daniel; Romero, Jacquiline; Potoček, Václav; Ferenczi, Gergely; Speirits, Fiona; Barnett, Stephen M; Faccio, Daniele; Padgett, Miles J

    2015-02-20

    That the speed of light in free space is constant is a cornerstone of modern physics. However, light beams have finite transverse size, which leads to a modification of their wave vectors resulting in a change to their phase and group velocities. We study the group velocity of single photons by measuring a change in their arrival time that results from changing the beam's transverse spatial structure. Using time-correlated photon pairs, we show a reduction in the group velocity of photons in both a Bessel beam and photons in a focused Gaussian beam. In both cases, the delay is several micrometers over a propagation distance of ~1 meter. Our work highlights that, even in free space, the invariance of the speed of light only applies to plane waves.

  17. Optical fabrication of lightweighted 3D printed mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, Harrison; Segal, Jacob; Smith, Jeremy; Bates, Richard; Calis, Jacob; De La Torre, Alyssa; Kim, Dae Wook; Mici, Joni; Mireles, Jorge; Stubbs, David M.; Wicker, Ryan

    2015-09-01

    Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) and Electron Beam Melting (EBM) 3D printing technologies were utilized to create lightweight, optical grade mirrors out of AlSi10Mg aluminum and Ti6Al4V titanium alloys at the University of Arizona in Tucson. The mirror prototypes were polished to meet the λ/20 RMS and λ/4 P-V surface figure requirements. The intent of this project was to design topologically optimized mirrors that had a high specific stiffness and low surface displacement. Two models were designed using Altair Inspire software, and the mirrors had to endure the polishing process with the necessary stiffness to eliminate print-through. Mitigating porosity of the 3D printed mirror blanks was a challenge in the face of reconciling new printing technologies with traditional optical polishing methods. The prototypes underwent Hot Isostatic Press (HIP) and heat treatment to improve density, eliminate porosity, and relieve internal stresses. Metal 3D printing allows for nearly unlimited topological constraints on design and virtually eliminates the need for a machine shop when creating an optical quality mirror. This research can lead to an increase in mirror mounting support complexity in the manufacturing of lightweight mirrors and improve overall process efficiency. The project aspired to have many future applications of light weighted 3D printed mirrors, such as spaceflight. This paper covers the design/fab/polish/test of 3D printed mirrors, thermal/structural finite element analysis, and results.

  18. Advanced techniques for free-space optical quantum cryptography over water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Alexander D.; Christensen, Bradley; Kwiat, Paul G.

    2016-03-01

    Free-space quantum key distribution (QKD) over water (e.g., ship to ship) may be limited by ship motion and atmospheric effects, such as mode distortion and beam wander due to turbulence. We report on a technique which reduces noise by excluding spatial modes which are less likely to contain QKD signal photons and experimentally demonstrate an improvement in QKD key generation rates in various noise and turbulence regimes.

  19. Optically Addressed Spatial Light Modulators for 3d Display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collings, N.

    An optically addressed spatial light modulator (OASLM) records the image on a write beam and transfers it to a read beam. Some example application areas are: image transduction; optical correlation; adaptive optics; and optical neural networks. Current interest in OASLMs has been generated by the work of Qinetiq on 3D display. This work is based on Active tiling, where an image can be recorded in one part of the device and is memorised, whilst the remainder of the device is updated with images. This paper will explain this system and survey the technological alternatives for this application.

  20. Massive free-space optical 1xN fiber switch using an adaptive membrane mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonte, Frederic; Peter, Yves-Alain; Herzig, Hans Peter; Daendliker, Rene

    2002-02-01

    We present a 1xN switch for single mode fiber optical communication systems, which is composed of an array of fibers, an achromatic lens, and an adaptive membrane mirror. The working principle of the optical switch is as follows: the center fiber of the array delivers the input signal, this signal is collimated by the lens, back reflected on the membrane mirror and refocused by the lens to an other fiber. The addressing of the receiving fiber is made by lateral displacement of the lens. However, using the achromatic lens under off-axis conditions introduces aberrations, which cause coupling losses to the receiving single-mode fibers. The deformable membrane mirror is used to adaptively correct these aberrations. The optimization of the coupling efficiency is made with the help of a genetic algorithm. For each position of the lens, the optimized voltages on the electrodes of the membrane mirror can be stored during the calibration procedure and afterwards recalled during operation of the switch. A demonstrator has been set up with a commercially available linear array of 32 single-mode fibers disposed in V-grooves, an achromatic lens mounted on a two-dimensional translation stage, and a membrane mirror made of silicon nitride coated with aluminum and electro-statically activated by thirty-seven electrodes. To demonstrate the capabilities of the aberration correction we used the first fiber in the array as input fiber and optimized the coupling efficiency to all the other fibers in the array. We obtained insertion losses of less than 3 dB and a cross talk below 30 dB. These results prove the feasibility to build a switch with a two-dimensional array of more than 1000 addressable fibers.

  1. Automatic respiration tracking for radiotherapy using optical 3D camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tuotuo; Geng, Jason; Li, Shidong

    2013-03-01

    Rapid optical three-dimensional (O3D) imaging systems provide accurate digitized 3D surface data in real-time, with no patient contact nor radiation. The accurate 3D surface images offer crucial information in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) treatments for accurate patient repositioning and respiration management. However, applications of O3D imaging techniques to image-guided radiotherapy have been clinically challenged by body deformation, pathological and anatomical variations among individual patients, extremely high dimensionality of the 3D surface data, and irregular respiration motion. In existing clinical radiation therapy (RT) procedures target displacements are caused by (1) inter-fractional anatomy changes due to weight, swell, food/water intake; (2) intra-fractional variations from anatomy changes within any treatment session due to voluntary/involuntary physiologic processes (e.g. respiration, muscle relaxation); (3) patient setup misalignment in daily reposition due to user errors; and (4) changes of marker or positioning device, etc. Presently, viable solution is lacking for in-vivo tracking of target motion and anatomy changes during the beam-on time without exposing patient with additional ionized radiation or high magnet field. Current O3D-guided radiotherapy systems relay on selected points or areas in the 3D surface to track surface motion. The configuration of the marks or areas may change with time that makes it inconsistent in quantifying and interpreting the respiration patterns. To meet the challenge of performing real-time respiration tracking using O3D imaging technology in IGRT, we propose a new approach to automatic respiration motion analysis based on linear dimensionality reduction technique based on PCA (principle component analysis). Optical 3D image sequence is decomposed with principle component analysis into a limited number of independent (orthogonal) motion patterns (a low dimension eigen-space span by eigen-vectors). New

  2. Average capacity of free-space optical systems for a partially coherent beam propagating through non-Kolmogorov turbulence.

    PubMed

    Cang, Ji; Liu, Xu

    2011-09-01

    The performance of partially coherent free-space optical links is investigated in the moderate to strong fluctuation regime of non-Kolmogorov turbulence. The expressions for large- and small-scale log-irradiance flux variance are obtained in non-Kolmogorov turbulence. By employing the gamma-gamma distribution of irradiance fluctuations, the effects of spatial coherence of the source, index of non-Kolmogorov spectrum, and size of the receiver on channel capacity for horizontal links are discussed. Results show that channel capacity presents fluctuating behaviors with the variation of alpha for longer links and increases for alpha values higher than 11/3.

  3. Atmospheric turbulence effects on the performance of a free space optical link employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yongxiong; Huang, Hao; Xie, Guodong; Ahmed, Nisar; Yan, Yan; Erkmen, Baris I; Chandrasekaran, Nivedita; Lavery, Martin P J; Steinhoff, Nicholas K; Tur, Moshe; Dolinar, Samuel; Neifeld, Mark; Padgett, Miles J; Boyd, Robert W; Shapiro, Jeffrey H; Willner, Alan E

    2013-10-15

    We experimentally investigate the performance of an orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexed free space optical (FSO) communication link through emulated atmospheric turbulence. The turbulence effects on the crosstalk and system power penalty of the FSO link are characterized. The experimental results show that the power of the transmitted OAM mode will tend to spread uniformly onto the neighboring mode in medium-to-strong turbulence, resulting in severe crosstalk at the receiver. The power penalty is found to exceed 10 dB in a weak-to-medium turbulence condition due to the turbulence-induced crosstalk and power fluctuation of the received signal.

  4. Outage performance of multihop free-space optical communication system over exponentiated Weibull fading channels with nonzero boresight pointing errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-xia; Wang, Ping; Cao, Tian

    2016-09-01

    The outage performance of the multihop free-space optical (FSO) communication system with decode-and-forward (DF) protocol is studied by considering the joint effects of nonzero boresight pointing errors and atmospheric turbulence modeled by exponentiated Weibull (EW) distribution. The closed-form analytical expression of outage probability is derived, and the results are validated through Monte Carlo simulation. Furthermore, the detailed analysis is provided to evaluate the impacts of turbulence strength, receiver aperture size, boresight displacement, beamwidth and number of relays on the outage performance for the studied system.

  5. Implementation of 3D Optical Scanning Technology for Automotive Applications.

    PubMed

    Kuş, Abdil

    2009-01-01

    Reverse engineering (RE) is a powerful tool for generating a CAD model from the 3D scan data of a physical part that lacks documentation or has changed from the original CAD design of the part. The process of digitizing a part and creating a CAD model from 3D scan data is less time consuming and provides greater accuracy than manually measuring the part and designing the part from scratch in CAD. 3D optical scanning technology is one of the measurement methods which have evolved over the last few years and it is used in a wide range of areas from industrial applications to art and cultural heritage. It is also used extensively in the automotive industry for applications such as part inspections, scanning of tools without CAD definition, scanning the casting for definition of the stock (i.e. the amount of material to be removed from the surface of the castings) model for CAM programs and reverse engineering. In this study two scanning experiments of automotive applications are illustrated. The first one examines the processes from scanning to re-manufacturing the damaged sheet metal cutting die, using a 3D scanning technique and the second study compares the scanned point clouds data to 3D CAD data for inspection purposes. Furthermore, the deviations of the part holes are determined by using different lenses and scanning parameters. PMID:22573995

  6. Implementation of 3D Optical Scanning Technology for Automotive Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kuş, Abdil

    2009-01-01

    Reverse engineering (RE) is a powerful tool for generating a CAD model from the 3D scan data of a physical part that lacks documentation or has changed from the original CAD design of the part. The process of digitizing a part and creating a CAD model from 3D scan data is less time consuming and provides greater accuracy than manually measuring the part and designing the part from scratch in CAD. 3D optical scanning technology is one of the measurement methods which have evolved over the last few years and it is used in a wide range of areas from industrial applications to art and cultural heritage. It is also used extensively in the automotive industry for applications such as part inspections, scanning of tools without CAD definition, scanning the casting for definition of the stock (i.e. the amount of material to be removed from the surface of the castings) model for CAM programs and reverse engineering. In this study two scanning experiments of automotive applications are illustrated. The first one examines the processes from scanning to re-manufacturing the damaged sheet metal cutting die, using a 3D scanning technique and the second study compares the scanned point clouds data to 3D CAD data for inspection purposes. Furthermore, the deviations of the part holes are determined by using different lenses and scanning parameters. PMID:22573995

  7. Implementation of 3D Optical Scanning Technology for Automotive Applications.

    PubMed

    Kuş, Abdil

    2009-01-01

    Reverse engineering (RE) is a powerful tool for generating a CAD model from the 3D scan data of a physical part that lacks documentation or has changed from the original CAD design of the part. The process of digitizing a part and creating a CAD model from 3D scan data is less time consuming and provides greater accuracy than manually measuring the part and designing the part from scratch in CAD. 3D optical scanning technology is one of the measurement methods which have evolved over the last few years and it is used in a wide range of areas from industrial applications to art and cultural heritage. It is also used extensively in the automotive industry for applications such as part inspections, scanning of tools without CAD definition, scanning the casting for definition of the stock (i.e. the amount of material to be removed from the surface of the castings) model for CAM programs and reverse engineering. In this study two scanning experiments of automotive applications are illustrated. The first one examines the processes from scanning to re-manufacturing the damaged sheet metal cutting die, using a 3D scanning technique and the second study compares the scanned point clouds data to 3D CAD data for inspection purposes. Furthermore, the deviations of the part holes are determined by using different lenses and scanning parameters.

  8. Stable, Free-space Optical Trapping and Manipulation of Sub-micron Particles in an Integrated Microfluidic Chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jisu; Shin, Jung H.

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate stable, free-space optical trapping and manipulation in an integrated microfluidic chip using counter-propagating beams. An inverted ridge-type waveguide made of SU8 is cut across by an open trench. The design of the waveguide provides low propagation losses and small divergence of the trapping beam upon emergence from the facet, and the trench designed to be deeper and wider than the optical mode enables full utilization of the optical power with an automatic alignment for counter-propagating beams in a trap volume away from all surfaces. After integration with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channel for particle delivery, 0.65 μm and 1 μm diameter polystyrene beads were trapped in free space in the trench, and manipulated to an arbitrary position between the waveguides with a resolution of < 100 nm. Comparison with numerical simulations confirm stable trapping of sub-micron particles, with a 10 kBT threshold power of less than 1 mW and a stiffness that can be 1 order of magnitude larger than that of comparable fiber-based trapping methods.

  9. Stable, Free-space Optical Trapping and Manipulation of Sub-micron Particles in an Integrated Microfluidic Chip

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jisu; Shin, Jung H.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate stable, free-space optical trapping and manipulation in an integrated microfluidic chip using counter-propagating beams. An inverted ridge-type waveguide made of SU8 is cut across by an open trench. The design of the waveguide provides low propagation losses and small divergence of the trapping beam upon emergence from the facet, and the trench designed to be deeper and wider than the optical mode enables full utilization of the optical power with an automatic alignment for counter-propagating beams in a trap volume away from all surfaces. After integration with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channel for particle delivery, 0.65 μm and 1 μm diameter polystyrene beads were trapped in free space in the trench, and manipulated to an arbitrary position between the waveguides with a resolution of < 100 nm. Comparison with numerical simulations confirm stable trapping of sub-micron particles, with a 10 kBT threshold power of less than 1 mW and a stiffness that can be 1 order of magnitude larger than that of comparable fiber-based trapping methods. PMID:27653191

  10. Tactile-optical 3D sensor applying image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuschaefer-Rube, Ulrich; Wissmann, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The tactile-optical probe (so-called fiber probe) is a well-known probe in micro-coordinate metrology. It consists of an optical fiber with a probing element at its end. This probing element is adjusted in the imaging plane of the optical system of an optical coordinate measuring machine (CMM). It can be illuminated through the fiber by a LED. The position of the probe is directly detected by image processing algorithms available in every modern optical CMM and not by deflections at the fixation of the probing shaft. Therefore, the probing shaft can be very thin and flexible. This facilitates the measurement with very small probing forces and the realization of very small probing elements (diameter: down to 10 μm). A limitation of this method is that at present the probe does not have full 3D measurement capability. At the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), several arrangements and measurement principles for a full 3D tactile-optical probe have been implemented and tested successfully in cooperation with Werth-Messtechnik, Giessen, Germany. This contribution provides an overview of the results of these activities.

  11. Optical Sensors and Methods for Underwater 3D Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Massot-Campos, Miquel; Oliver-Codina, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a survey on optical sensors and methods for 3D reconstruction in underwater environments. The techniques to obtain range data have been listed and explained, together with the different sensor hardware that makes them possible. The literature has been reviewed, and a classification has been proposed for the existing solutions. New developments, commercial solutions and previous reviews in this topic have also been gathered and considered. PMID:26694389

  12. Feasibility of utilizing Cherenkov Telescope Array gamma-ray telescopes as free-space optical communication ground stations.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Casado, Alberto; Vilera, Mariafernanda; Vergaz, Ricardo; Cabrero, Juan Francisco

    2013-04-10

    The signals that will be received on Earth from deep-space probes in future implementations of free-space optical communication will be extremely weak, and new ground stations will have to be developed in order to support these links. This paper addresses the feasibility of using the technology developed in the gamma-ray telescopes that will make up the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory in the implementation of a new kind of ground station. Among the main advantages that these telescopes provide are the much larger apertures needed to overcome the power limitation that ground-based gamma-ray astronomy and optical communication both have. Also, the large number of big telescopes that will be built for CTA will make it possible to reduce costs by economy-scale production, enabling optical communications in the large telescopes that will be needed for future deep-space links.

  13. Open-source 3D-printable optics equipment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenlong; Anzalone, Nicholas C; Faria, Rodrigo P; Pearce, Joshua M

    2013-01-01

    Just as the power of the open-source design paradigm has driven down the cost of software to the point that it is accessible to most people, the rise of open-source hardware is poised to drive down the cost of doing experimental science to expand access to everyone. To assist in this aim, this paper introduces a library of open-source 3-D-printable optics components. This library operates as a flexible, low-cost public-domain tool set for developing both research and teaching optics hardware. First, the use of parametric open-source designs using an open-source computer aided design package is described to customize the optics hardware for any application. Second, details are provided on the use of open-source 3-D printers (additive layer manufacturing) to fabricate the primary mechanical components, which are then combined to construct complex optics-related devices. Third, the use of the open-source electronics prototyping platform are illustrated as control for optical experimental apparatuses. This study demonstrates an open-source optical library, which significantly reduces the costs associated with much optical equipment, while also enabling relatively easily adapted customizable designs. The cost reductions in general are over 97%, with some components representing only 1% of the current commercial investment for optical products of similar function. The results of this study make its clear that this method of scientific hardware development enables a much broader audience to participate in optical experimentation both as research and teaching platforms than previous proprietary methods.

  14. Open-Source 3D-Printable Optics Equipment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chenlong; Anzalone, Nicholas C.; Faria, Rodrigo P.; Pearce, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Just as the power of the open-source design paradigm has driven down the cost of software to the point that it is accessible to most people, the rise of open-source hardware is poised to drive down the cost of doing experimental science to expand access to everyone. To assist in this aim, this paper introduces a library of open-source 3-D-printable optics components. This library operates as a flexible, low-cost public-domain tool set for developing both research and teaching optics hardware. First, the use of parametric open-source designs using an open-source computer aided design package is described to customize the optics hardware for any application. Second, details are provided on the use of open-source 3-D printers (additive layer manufacturing) to fabricate the primary mechanical components, which are then combined to construct complex optics-related devices. Third, the use of the open-source electronics prototyping platform are illustrated as control for optical experimental apparatuses. This study demonstrates an open-source optical library, which significantly reduces the costs associated with much optical equipment, while also enabling relatively easily adapted customizable designs. The cost reductions in general are over 97%, with some components representing only 1% of the current commercial investment for optical products of similar function. The results of this study make its clear that this method of scientific hardware development enables a much broader audience to participate in optical experimentation both as research and teaching platforms than previous proprietary methods. PMID:23544104

  15. Open-source 3D-printable optics equipment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenlong; Anzalone, Nicholas C; Faria, Rodrigo P; Pearce, Joshua M

    2013-01-01

    Just as the power of the open-source design paradigm has driven down the cost of software to the point that it is accessible to most people, the rise of open-source hardware is poised to drive down the cost of doing experimental science to expand access to everyone. To assist in this aim, this paper introduces a library of open-source 3-D-printable optics components. This library operates as a flexible, low-cost public-domain tool set for developing both research and teaching optics hardware. First, the use of parametric open-source designs using an open-source computer aided design package is described to customize the optics hardware for any application. Second, details are provided on the use of open-source 3-D printers (additive layer manufacturing) to fabricate the primary mechanical components, which are then combined to construct complex optics-related devices. Third, the use of the open-source electronics prototyping platform are illustrated as control for optical experimental apparatuses. This study demonstrates an open-source optical library, which significantly reduces the costs associated with much optical equipment, while also enabling relatively easily adapted customizable designs. The cost reductions in general are over 97%, with some components representing only 1% of the current commercial investment for optical products of similar function. The results of this study make its clear that this method of scientific hardware development enables a much broader audience to participate in optical experimentation both as research and teaching platforms than previous proprietary methods. PMID:23544104

  16. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3d vision system

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.B.; Simonson, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic of coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.

  17. Large optical 3D MEMS switches in access networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madamopoulos, Nicholas; Kaman, Volkan; Yuan, Shifu; Jerphagnon, Olivier; Helkey, Roger; Bowers, John E.

    2007-09-01

    Interest is high among residential customers and businesses for advanced, broadband services such as fast Internet access, electronic commerce, video-on-demand, digital broadcasting, teleconferencing and telemedicine. In order to satisfy such growing demand of end-customers, access technologies such as fiber-to-the-home/building (FTTH/B) are increasingly being deployed. Carriers can reduce maintenance costs, minimize technology obsolescence and introduce new services easily by reducing active elements in the fiber access network. However, having a passive optical network (PON) also introduces operational and maintenance challenges. Increased diagnostic monitoring capability of the network becomes a necessity as more and more fibers are provisioned to deliver services to the end-customers. This paper demonstrates the clear advantages that large 3D optical MEMS switches offer in solving these access network problems. The advantages in preventative maintenance, remote monitoring, test and diagnostic capability are highlighted. The low optical insertion loss for all switch optical connections of the switch enables the monitoring, grooming and serving of a large number of PON lines and customers. Furthermore, the 3D MEMS switch is transparent to optical wavelengths and data formats, thus making it easy to incorporate future upgrades, such higher bit rates or DWDM overlay to a PON.

  18. Quantum Degenerate Strontium in a 3D Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aman, J. A.; Desalvo, B. J.; Killian, T. C.

    2014-05-01

    We present our experiments with quantum degenerate neutral strontium in a 3-D optical lattice formed with 532 nm light. Precision control and manipulation of quantum degenerate gases in optical lattices allows for the realization and investigation of tunable many-body systems. Strontium, in particular, has been studied extensively in optical lattices due to the narrow 5s21S0 --> 5 s 5 p3Pj transitions for use as an atomic clock. However, in the present work, we take advantage of these narrow transitions together with strontium's unique isotopic properties to investigate interaction regimes inaccessible to alkali atoms. Among the topics we plan to explore are formation of ultracold molecules using an optical Feshbach resonance as well as the effects of dissipation on atom dynamics. This work was supported by Rice University, Shell, the Welch Foundation (C-1579) and the National Science Foundation (PHY-1205946).

  19. Constructing 3D microtubule networks using holographic optical trapping

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, J.; Osunbayo, O.; Vershinin, M.

    2015-01-01

    Developing abilities to assemble nanoscale structures is a major scientific and engineering challenge. We report a technique which allows precise positioning and manipulation of individual rigid filaments, enabling construction of custom-designed 3D filament networks. This approach uses holographic optical trapping (HOT) for nano-positioning and microtubules (MTs) as network building blocks. MTs are desirable engineering components due to their high aspect ratio, rigidity, and their ability to serve as substrate for directed nano-transport, reflecting their roles in the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. The 3D architecture of MT cytoskeleton is a significant component of its function, however experimental tools to study the roles of this geometric complexity in a controlled environment have been lacking. We demonstrate the broad capabilities of our system by building a self-supporting 3D MT-based nanostructure and by conducting a MT-based transport experiment on a dynamically adjustable 3D MT intersection. Our methodology not only will advance studies of cytoskeletal networks (and associated processes such as MT-based transport) but will also likely find use in engineering nanostructures and devices. PMID:26657337

  20. 3D Human cartilage surface characterization by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brill, Nicolai; Riedel, Jörn; Schmitt, Robert; Tingart, Markus; Truhn, Daniel; Pufe, Thomas; Jahr, Holger; Nebelung, Sven

    2015-10-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of cartilage degeneration is of high clinical interest. Loss of surface integrity is considered one of the earliest and most reliable signs of degeneration, but cannot currently be evaluated objectively. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an arthroscopically available light-based non-destructive real-time imaging technology that allows imaging at micrometre resolutions to millimetre depths. As OCT-based surface evaluation standards remain to be defined, the present study investigated the diagnostic potential of 3D surface profile parameters in the comprehensive evaluation of cartilage degeneration. To this end, 45 cartilage samples of different degenerative grades were obtained from total knee replacements (2 males, 10 females; mean age 63.8 years), cut to standard size and imaged using a spectral-domain OCT device (Thorlabs, Germany). 3D OCT datasets of 8  ×  8, 4  ×  4 and 1  ×  1 mm (width  ×  length) were obtained and pre-processed (image adjustments, morphological filtering). Subsequent automated surface identification algorithms were used to obtain the 3D primary profiles, which were then filtered and processed using established algorithms employing ISO standards. The 3D surface profile thus obtained was used to calculate a set of 21 3D surface profile parameters, i.e. height (e.g. Sa), functional (e.g. Sk), hybrid (e.g. Sdq) and segmentation-related parameters (e.g. Spd). Samples underwent reference histological assessment according to the Degenerative Joint Disease classification. Statistical analyses included calculation of Spearman’s rho and assessment of inter-group differences using the Kruskal Wallis test. Overall, the majority of 3D surface profile parameters revealed significant degeneration-dependent differences and correlations with the exception of severe end-stage degeneration and were of distinct diagnostic value in the assessment of surface integrity. None of the 3D

  1. Multimodal 3D cancer-mimicking optical phantom

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gennifer T.; Lurie, Kristen L.; Zlatev, Dimitar V.; Liao, Joseph C.; Ellerbee Bowden, Audrey K.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) organ-mimicking phantoms provide realistic imaging environments for testing various aspects of optical systems, including for evaluating new probe designs, characterizing the diagnostic potential of new technologies, and assessing novel image processing algorithms prior to validation in real tissue. We introduce and characterize the use of a new material, Dragon Skin (Smooth-On Inc.), and fabrication technique, air-brushing, for fabrication of a 3D phantom that mimics the appearance of a real organ under multiple imaging modalities. We demonstrate the utility of the material and technique by fabricating the first 3D, hollow bladder phantom with realistic normal and multi-stage pathology features suitable for endoscopic detection using the gold standard imaging technique, white light cystoscopy (WLC), as well as the complementary imaging modalities of optical coherence tomography and blue light cystoscopy, which are aimed at improving the sensitivity and specificity of WLC to bladder cancer detection. The flexibility of the material and technique used for phantom construction allowed for the representation of a wide range of diseased tissue states, ranging from inflammation (benign) to high-grade cancerous lesions. Such phantoms can serve as important tools for trainee education and evaluation of new endoscopic instrumentation. PMID:26977369

  2. Optic flow aided navigation and 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollason, Malcolm

    2013-10-01

    An important enabler for low cost airborne systems is the ability to exploit low cost inertial instruments. An Inertial Navigation System (INS) can provide a navigation solution, when GPS is denied, by integrating measurements from inertial sensors. However, the gyrometer and accelerometer biases of low cost inertial sensors cause compound errors in the integrated navigation solution. This paper describes experiments to establish whether (and to what extent) the navigation solution can be aided by fusing measurements from an on-board video camera with measurements from the inertial sensors. The primary aim of the work was to establish whether optic flow aided navigation is beneficial even when the 3D structure within the observed scene is unknown. A further aim was to investigate whether an INS can help to infer 3D scene content from video. Experiments with both real and synthetic data have been conducted. Real data was collected using an AR Parrot quadrotor. Empirical results illustrate that optic flow provides a useful aid to navigation even when the 3D structure of the observed scene is not known. With optic flow aiding of the INS, the computed trajectory is consistent with the true camera motion, whereas the unaided INS yields a rapidly increasing position error (the data represents ~40 seconds, after which the unaided INS is ~50 metres in error and has passed through the ground). The results of the Monte Carlo simulation concur with the empirical result. Position errors, which grow as a quadratic function of time when unaided, are substantially checked by the availability of optic flow measurements.

  3. Alignment analyses of a galvanometer-based scanner in free-space Fourier domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qun; Zhu, Dan; Gao, Zhishan

    2015-11-10

    Free-space Fourier domain optical coherence tomography is adopted for biomedical imaging with ultrahigh resolution, in which the setup consists of an interferometer and a spectrometer. Two-dimensional lateral sampling in the sample arm of the interferometer is achieved by using a galvanometer-based scanner. Optical path difference (OPD) drift in the full scan field of view is observed in the assembly process of the scanner. A galvo mirror mount offset with respect to the rotation axis is demonstrated as the derivation of this OPD drift by both geometric analyses and model building. Then, an iterative assembly process of the scanner is proposed with the OPD drift taken as the alignment criteria.

  4. Alignment analyses of a galvanometer-based scanner in free-space Fourier domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qun; Zhu, Dan; Gao, Zhishan

    2015-11-10

    Free-space Fourier domain optical coherence tomography is adopted for biomedical imaging with ultrahigh resolution, in which the setup consists of an interferometer and a spectrometer. Two-dimensional lateral sampling in the sample arm of the interferometer is achieved by using a galvanometer-based scanner. Optical path difference (OPD) drift in the full scan field of view is observed in the assembly process of the scanner. A galvo mirror mount offset with respect to the rotation axis is demonstrated as the derivation of this OPD drift by both geometric analyses and model building. Then, an iterative assembly process of the scanner is proposed with the OPD drift taken as the alignment criteria. PMID:26560786

  5. Beam Optics Analysis - An Advanced 3D Trajectory Code

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Bui, Thuc; Vogler, William; Neilson, Jeff; Read, Mike; Shephard, Mark; Bauer, Andrew; Datta, Dibyendu; Beal, Mark

    2006-01-03

    Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. has completed initial development of an advanced, 3D program for modeling electron trajectories in electromagnetic fields. The code is being used to design complex guns and collectors. Beam Optics Analysis (BOA) is a fully relativistic, charged particle code using adaptive, finite element meshing. Geometrical input is imported from CAD programs generating ACIS-formatted files. Parametric data is inputted using an intuitive, graphical user interface (GUI), which also provides control of convergence, accuracy, and post processing. The program includes a magnetic field solver, and magnetic information can be imported from Maxwell 2D/3D and other programs. The program supports thermionic emission and injected beams. Secondary electron emission is also supported, including multiple generations. Work on field emission is in progress as well as implementation of computer optimization of both the geometry and operating parameters. The principle features of the program and its capabilities are presented.

  6. Beam Optics Analysis — An Advanced 3D Trajectory Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Bui, Thuc; Vogler, William; Neilson, Jeff; Read, Mike; Shephard, Mark; Bauer, Andrew; Datta, Dibyendu; Beal, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. has completed initial development of an advanced, 3D program for modeling electron trajectories in electromagnetic fields. The code is being used to design complex guns and collectors. Beam Optics Analysis (BOA) is a fully relativistic, charged particle code using adaptive, finite element meshing. Geometrical input is imported from CAD programs generating ACIS-formatted files. Parametric data is inputted using an intuitive, graphical user interface (GUI), which also provides control of convergence, accuracy, and post processing. The program includes a magnetic field solver, and magnetic information can be imported from Maxwell 2D/3D and other programs. The program supports thermionic emission and injected beams. Secondary electron emission is also supported, including multiple generations. Work on field emission is in progress as well as implementation of computer optimization of both the geometry and operating parameters. The principle features of the program and its capabilities are presented.

  7. Single 3D cell segmentation from optical CT microscope images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yiting; Reeves, Anthony P.

    2014-03-01

    The automated segmentation of the nucleus and cytoplasm regions in 3D optical CT microscope images has been achieved with two methods, a global threshold gradient based approach and a graph-cut approach. For the first method, the first two peaks of a gradient figure of merit curve are selected as the thresholds for cytoplasm and nucleus segmentation. The second method applies a graph-cut segmentation twice: the first identifies the nucleus region and the second identifies the cytoplasm region. Image segmentation of single cells is important for automated disease diagnostic systems. The segmentation methods were evaluated with 200 3D images consisting of 40 samples of 5 different cell types. The cell types consisted of columnar, macrophage, metaplastic and squamous human cells and cultured A549 cancer cells. The segmented cells were compared with both 2D and 3D reference images and the quality of segmentation was determined by the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC). In general, the graph-cut method had a superior performance to the gradient-based method. The graph-cut method achieved an average DSC of 86% and 72% for nucleus and cytoplasm segmentations respectively for the 2D reference images and 83% and 75% for the 3D reference images. The gradient method achieved an average DSC of 72% and 51% for nucleus and cytoplasm segmentation for the 2D reference images and 71% and 51% for the 3D reference images. The DSC of cytoplasm segmentation was significantly lower than for the nucleus since the cytoplasm was not differentiated as well by image intensity from the background.

  8. Optical implementation of polarization-independent, bidirectional, nonblocking Clos network using polarization control technique in free space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Junbo; Yang, Jiankun; Li, Xiujian; Chang, Shengli; Su, Xianyu; Ping, Xu

    2011-04-01

    The clos network is one of the earliest multistage interconnection networks. Recently, it has been widely studied in parallel optical information processing systems, and there have been many efforts to develop this network. In this paper, a smart and compact Clos network, including Clos(2,3,2) and Clos(2,4,2), is proposed by using polarizing beam-splitters (PBS), phase spatial light modulators (PSLM), and mirrors. PBS features that are s-component (perpendicular to the incident plane) of the incident light beam is reflected, and the p-component (parallel to the incident plane) passes through it. According to switching logic, under control of external electrical signals, PSLM functions to control routing paths of the signal beams, i.e., the polarization of each optical signal is rotated or not rotated 90° by a programmable PSLM. This new type of configuration grants the features of less optical components, compact in structure, efficient in performance, and insensitive to polarization of signal beam. In addition, the straight, the exchange, and the broadcast functions of the basic switch element are implemented bidirectionally in free-space. Furthermore, the new optical experimental module of 2×3 and 2×4 optical switch is also presented by a cascading polarization-independent bidirectional 2×2 optical switch. Simultaneously, the routing state-table of 2×3 and 2×4 optical switch to perform all permutation output and nonblocking switch for the input signal beam, is achieved. Since the proposed optical setup consists of only optical polarization elements, it is compact in structure, and possesses a low energy loss, a high signal-to-ratio, and an available large number of optical channels. Finally, the discussions and the experimental results show that the Clos network proposed here should be helpful in the design of large-scale network matrix, and may be used in optical communication and optical information processing.

  9. Calibration of optical 3D-measuring instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Uwe

    1998-09-01

    For the inspection and measurement of microstructures small accurate three-dimensional coordinate measuring machines are needed. Typical measurement volumes are 10 mm by 10 mm by 3 mm and the desired 3D-measurement uncertainty is 0.1 micrometer. Up to now only optical coordinate measuring machines (CMM) offer the necessary lateral measurement ranges. But optical CMMs are restricted to two-dimensional measurements and moreover the aimed uncertainty has not been achieved yet. Since a few years new optical techniques are available which are able to measure nearly three-dimensionally (scanning white light, fringe projection, confocal microscopy, photogrammetry). In order to use these instruments and to specify their measurement uncertainty, calibration of these instruments is necessary. The calibration of the three measurement axes is divided into calibration of the lateral axes and calibration of the vertical axis. The contribution focuses on the development of new depth setting standards (1 micrometer - 1 milimeter) and their traceability.

  10. Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A

    2014-02-01

    3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints. PMID:24288392

  11. Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A

    2014-02-01

    3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints.

  12. Optimal Performance Monitoring of Hybrid Mid-Infrared Wavelength MIMO Free Space Optical and RF Wireless Networks in Fading Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Barnet Michael

    An optimal performance monitoring metric for a hybrid free space optical and radio-frequency (RF) wireless network, the Outage Capacity Objective Function, is analytically developed and studied. Current and traditional methods of performance monitoring of both optical and RF wireless networks are centered on measurement of physical layer parameters, the most common being signal-to-noise ratio, error rate, Q factor, and eye diagrams, occasionally combined with link-layer measurements such as data throughput, retransmission rate, and/or lost packet rate. Network management systems frequently attempt to predict or forestall network failures by observing degradations of these parameters and to attempt mitigation (such as offloading traffic, increasing transmitter power, reducing the data rate, or combinations thereof) prior to the failure. These methods are limited by the frequent low sensitivity of the physical layer parameters to the atmospheric optical conditions (measured by optical signal-to-noise ratio) and the radio frequency fading channel conditions (measured by signal-to-interference ratio). As a result of low sensitivity, measurements of this type frequently are unable to predict impending failures sufficiently in advance for the network management system to take corrective action prior to the failure. We derive and apply an optimal measure of hybrid network performance based on the outage capacity of the hybrid optical and RF channel, the outage capacity objective function. The objective function provides high sensitivity and reliable failure prediction, and considers both the effects of atmospheric optical impairments on the performance of the free space optical segment as well as the effect of RF channel impairments on the radio frequency segment. The radio frequency segment analysis considers the three most common RF channel fading statistics: Rayleigh, Ricean, and Nakagami-m. The novel application of information theory to the underlying physics of the

  13. Precision 3-D microscopy with intensity modulated fibre optic scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmos, P.

    2016-01-01

    Optical 3-D imagers constitute a family of precision and useful instruments, easily available on the market in a wide variety of configurations and performances. However, besides their cost they usually provide an image of the object (i.e. a more or less faithful representation of the reality) instead of a truly object's reconstruction. Depending on the detailed working principles of the equipment, this reconstruction may become a challenging task. Here a very simple yet reliable device is described; it is able to form images of opaque objects by illuminating them with an optical fibre and collecting the reflected light with another fibre. Its 3-D capability comes from the spatial filtering imposed by the fibres together with their movement (scanning) along the three directions: transversal (surface) and vertical. This unsophisticated approach allows one to model accurately the entire optical process and to perform the desired reconstruction, finding that information about the surface which is of interest: its profile and its reflectance, ultimately related to the type of material.

  14. Optical monitoring of scoliosis by 3D medical laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Quiñonez, Julio C.; Sergiyenko, Oleg Yu.; Preciado, Luis C. Basaca; Tyrsa, Vera V.; Gurko, Alexander G.; Podrygalo, Mikhail A.; Lopez, Moises Rivas; Balbuena, Daniel Hernandez

    2014-03-01

    Three dimensional recording of the human body surface or anatomical areas have gained importance in many medical applications. In this paper, our 3D Medical Laser Scanner is presented. It is based on the novel principle of dynamic triangulation. We analyze the method of operation, medical applications, orthopedically diseases as Scoliosis and the most common types of skin to employ the system the most proper way. It is analyzed a group of medical problems related to the application of optical scanning in optimal way. Finally, experiments are conducted to verify the performance of the proposed system and its method uncertainty.

  15. Towards 3-D laser nano patterning in polymer optical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scully, Patricia J.; Perrie, Walter

    2015-03-01

    Progress towards 3-D subsurface structuring of polymers using femtosecond lasers is presented. Highly localised refractive index changes can be generated deep in transparent optical polymers without pre doping for photosensitisation or post processing by annealing. Understanding the writing conditions surpasses the limitations of materials, dimensions and chemistry, to facilitate unique structures entirely formed by laser-polymeric interactions to overcome materials, dimensional, refractive index and wavelength constraints.. Numerical aperture, fluence, temporal pulselength, wavelength and incident polarisation are important parameters to be considered, in achieving the desired inscription. Non-linear aspects of multiphoton absorption, plasma generation, filamentation and effects of incident polarisation on the writing conditions will be presented.

  16. Fabrication of a novel gigabit/second free-space optical interconnect - photodetector characterization and testing and system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savich, Gregory R.

    2004-01-01

    The time when computing power is limited by the copper wire inherent in the computer system and not the speed of the microprocessor is rapidly approaching. With constant advances in computer technology, many researchers believe that in only a few years, optical interconnects will begin to replace copper wires in your Central Processing Unit (CPU). On a more macroscopic scale, the telecommunications industry has already made the switch to optical data transmission as, to date, fiber optic technology is the only reasonable method of reliable, long range data transmission. Within the span of a decade, we will see optical technologies move from the macroscopic world of the telecommunications industry to the microscopic world of the computer chip. Already, the communications industry is marketing commercially available optical links to connect two personal computers, thereby eliminating the need for standard and comparatively slow wired and wireless Ethernet transfers and greatly increasing the distance the computers can be separated. As processing demands continue to increase, the realm of optical communications will continue to move closer to the microprocessor and quite possibly onto the microprocessor itself. A day may come when copper connections are used only to supply power, not transfer data. This summer s work marks some of the beginning stages of a 5 to 10 year, long-term research project to create and study a free-space, 1 Gigabit/sec optical interconnect. The research will result in a novel fabricated, chip-to-chip interconnect consisting of a Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) Diode linked through free space to a Metal- Semiconductor-Metal (MSM) Photodetector with the possible integration of microlenses for signal focusing and Micro-Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) devices for optical signal steering. The advantages, disadvantages, and practicality of incorporating flip-chip mounting technologies will also be addressed. My work began with the

  17. Free-space optical communication links and evaporation layer study near sea surface at 1.55 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, John; Manzur, Tariq

    2011-06-01

    In many situations where it is necessary to set up a communication link such as emergencies or in remote locations, running fiber between two sites is not practical. Free-space optics (FSO) holds the potential for high bandwidth communication in such situations with relatively low cost, low maintenance, quick installation times, and average 70- 80% connectivity. Since atmospheric conditions can significantly affect the capability of this type of communication system to transfer information consistently and operate effectively, the effects of atmosphere on FSO communication and consequent optimal wavelength range for transmission are investigated through MODTRAN-based modeling of 1.55 μm transmission. Simulations were performed for multiple elevation angles in atmospheric weather conditions including clear maritime, desert extinction, and various levels of rain and fog to simulate surface-to-surface and surfaceto- air FSO communication networks. Atmospheric, free-space, and scintillation losses are analyzed for optical path lengths of up to 2 km or greater to determine minimum transmit power required for successful data reception. In addition, the effects of atmospheric turbulence on beam propagation in the evaporation layer are investigated, where wavefront sensing with adaptive optics as well as a software Kalman filter are seen as a means to compensate for wavefront distortion. Using advanced laser sources to provide illumination at infrared wavelengths, particularly around the eye-safe 1.55 μm wavelength, it should be possible to overcome many transmission limitations associated with atmospheric conditions such as adverse weather and turbulence to enable high data rate communication links where the use of fiber is not practical or prohibited.

  18. 3D refractive index measurements of special optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Cheng; Huang, Su-Juan; Miao, Zhuang; Chang, Zheng; Zeng, Jun-Zhang; Wang, Ting-Yun

    2016-09-01

    A digital holographic microscopic chromatography-based approach with considerably improved accuracy, simplified configuration and performance stability is proposed to measure three dimensional refractive index of special optical fibers. Based on the approach, a measurement system is established incorporating a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer and lab-developed supporting software for data processing. In the system, a phase projection distribution of an optical fiber is utilized to obtain an optimal digital hologram recorded by a CCD, and then an angular spectrum theory-based algorithm is adopted to extract the phase distribution information of an object wave. The rotation of the optic fiber enables the experimental measurements of multi-angle phase information. Based on the filtered back projection algorithm, a 3D refraction index of the optical fiber is thus obtained at high accuracy. To evaluate the proposed approach, both PANDA fibers and special elliptical optical fiber are considered in the system. The results measured in PANDA fibers agree well with those measured using S14 Refractive Index Profiler, which is, however, not suitable for measuring the property of a special elliptical fiber.

  19. Analog-to-digital optical waveguide conversion at sampling periods greater than the free-space wavelength.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Tarek A

    2014-01-01

    Nyquist sampling theorem reveals the possibility of sampling the continuous refractive index profiles of optical waveguides at periods greater than the free-space wavelength, λ(o). Binary encoding of these analog waveguides is investigated using the zero-order effective medium theory, while conserving the quantization of the modal spectrum implied by their boundary conditions. Both analytical and numerical approaches are developed for this analog-to-digital (A-to-D) conversion. An example is presented for the A-to-D conversion of a graded index waveguide with a hyperbolic secant profile at a sample period of 1.3λ(o). The results are confirmed using a beam propagation method.

  20. Aperture averaging in multiple-input single-output free-space optical systems using partially coherent radial array beams.

    PubMed

    Gökçe, Muhsin Caner; Baykal, Yahya; Uysal, Murat

    2016-06-01

    Multiple-input single-output (MISO) techniques are employed in free-space optical (FSO) links to mitigate the degrading effects of atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, for the MISO FSO system, a partially coherent radial array and a finite-sized receiver aperture are used at the transmitter and the receiver, respectively. Using the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, we formulate the average power and the power correlation at the finite-sized slow detector in weak atmospheric turbulence. System performance indicators such as the power scintillation index and the aperture averaging factor are determined. Effects of the source size, ring radius, receiver aperture radius, link distance, and structure constant and the degree of source coherence are analyzed on the performance of the MISO FSO system. In the limiting cases, the numerical results are found to be the same when compared to the existing coherent and partially coherent Gaussian beam scintillation indices. PMID:27409430

  1. Free space optical communications system performance under atmospheric scattering and turbulence for 850 and 1550  nm operation.

    PubMed

    El-Wakeel, Amr S; Mohammed, Nazmi A; Aly, Moustafa H

    2016-09-10

    In this work, a free space optical communication (FSO) link is proposed and utilized to explore and evaluate the FSO link performance under the joint occurrence of the atmospheric scattering and turbulence phenomena for 850 and 1550 nm operation. Diffraction and nondiffraction-limited systems are presented and evaluated for both wavelengths' operation, considering far-field conditions under different link distances. Bit error rate, pointing error angles, beam divergence angles, and link distance are the main performance indicators that are used to evaluate and compare the link performance under different system configurations and atmospheric phenomena combinations. A detailed study is performed to provide the merits of this work. For both far-field diffraction-limited and nondiffraction-limited systems, it is concluded that 1550 nm system operation is better than 850 nm for the whole presented joint occurrences of atmospheric scattering and turbulence.

  2. Free-space optical communications using orbital-angular-momentum multiplexing combined with MIMO-based spatial multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yongxiong; Wang, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Li, Long; Cao, Yinwen; Liu, Cong; Liao, Peicheng; Yan, Yan; Ahmed, Nisar; Zhao, Zhe; Willner, Asher; Ashrafi, Nima; Ashrafi, Solyman; Linquist, Roger D; Bock, Robert; Tur, Moshe; Molisch, Andreas F; Willner, Alan E

    2015-09-15

    We explore the potential of combining the advantages of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)-based spatial multiplexing with those of orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing to increase the capacity of free-space optical (FSO) communications. We experimentally demonstrate an 80 Gbit/s FSO system with a 2×2 aperture architecture, in which each transmitter aperture contains two multiplexed data-carrying OAM modes. Inter-channel crosstalk effects are minimized by the OAM beams' inherent orthogonality and by the use of 4×4 MIMO signal processing. Our experimental results show that the bit-error rates can reach below the forward error correction limit of 3.8×10(-3) and the power penalties are less than 3.6 dB for all channels after MIMO processing. This indicates that OAM and MIMO-based spatial multiplexing could be simultaneously utilized, thereby providing the potential to enhance system performance.

  3. Free space optical communications system performance under atmospheric scattering and turbulence for 850 and 1550  nm operation.

    PubMed

    El-Wakeel, Amr S; Mohammed, Nazmi A; Aly, Moustafa H

    2016-09-10

    In this work, a free space optical communication (FSO) link is proposed and utilized to explore and evaluate the FSO link performance under the joint occurrence of the atmospheric scattering and turbulence phenomena for 850 and 1550 nm operation. Diffraction and nondiffraction-limited systems are presented and evaluated for both wavelengths' operation, considering far-field conditions under different link distances. Bit error rate, pointing error angles, beam divergence angles, and link distance are the main performance indicators that are used to evaluate and compare the link performance under different system configurations and atmospheric phenomena combinations. A detailed study is performed to provide the merits of this work. For both far-field diffraction-limited and nondiffraction-limited systems, it is concluded that 1550 nm system operation is better than 850 nm for the whole presented joint occurrences of atmospheric scattering and turbulence. PMID:27661363

  4. Exact error rate analysis of free-space optical communications with spatial diversity over Gamma-Gamma atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jing; Li, Kangning; Tan, Liying; Yu, Siyuan; Cao, Yubin

    2016-02-01

    The error rate performances and outage probabilities of free-space optical (FSO) communications with spatial diversity are studied for Gamma-Gamma turbulent environments. Equal gain combining (EGC) and selection combining (SC) diversity are considered as practical schemes to mitigate turbulence. The exact bit-error rate (BER) expression and outage probability are derived for direct detection EGC multiple aperture receiver system. BER performances and outage probabilities are analyzed and compared for different number of sub-apertures each having aperture area A with EGC and SC techniques. BER performances and outage probabilities of a single monolithic aperture and multiple aperture receiver system with the same total aperture area are compared under thermal-noise-limited and background-noise-limited conditions. It is shown that multiple aperture receiver system can greatly improve the system communication performances. And these analytical tools are useful in providing highly accurate error rate estimation for FSO communication systems.

  5. Performance of heterodyne differential phase-shift keying system over double Weibull free-space optical channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa Hasan, Omar

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the bit error rate (BER), outage probability, and outage rate analysis of the heterodyne differential phase-shift keying system over double Weibull-distributed free-space optical channel (FSO) are proposed. The channel statistics are modeled based on the scintillation theory and derived as the product of two independent Weibull random variables. Novel closed-form expressions for evaluating BER, outage probability, and outage rate are derived taking into account the effect of turbulence strength and inner-scale turbulent cell size. Numerical results are provided to evaluate the FSO system performance for weak to strong turbulence channel conditions and inner-scale turbulent cell size. The BER, outage probability, and outage rate performance are displayed for different values of turbulence strength conditions, inner-scale values and signal-to-noise ratios.

  6. Aperture averaging in multiple-input single-output free-space optical systems using partially coherent radial array beams.

    PubMed

    Gökçe, Muhsin Caner; Baykal, Yahya; Uysal, Murat

    2016-06-01

    Multiple-input single-output (MISO) techniques are employed in free-space optical (FSO) links to mitigate the degrading effects of atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, for the MISO FSO system, a partially coherent radial array and a finite-sized receiver aperture are used at the transmitter and the receiver, respectively. Using the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, we formulate the average power and the power correlation at the finite-sized slow detector in weak atmospheric turbulence. System performance indicators such as the power scintillation index and the aperture averaging factor are determined. Effects of the source size, ring radius, receiver aperture radius, link distance, and structure constant and the degree of source coherence are analyzed on the performance of the MISO FSO system. In the limiting cases, the numerical results are found to be the same when compared to the existing coherent and partially coherent Gaussian beam scintillation indices.

  7. Analysis of effective capacity for free-space optical communication systems over gamma-gamma turbulence channels with pointing errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, You-quan; Chi, Xue-fen; Shi, Jia-lin; Zhao, Lin-lin

    2015-05-01

    To facilitate the efficient support of quality-of-service (QoS) for promising free-space optical (FSO) communication systems, it is essential to model and analyze FSO channels in terms of delay QoS. However, most existing works focus on the average capacity and outage capacity for FSO, which are not enough to characterize the effective transmission data rate when delay-sensitive service is applied. In this paper, the effective capacity of FSO communication systems under statistical QoS provisioning constraints is investigated to meet heterogeneous traffic demands. A novel closed-form expression for effective capacity is derived under the combined effects of atmospheric turbulence conditions, pointing errors, beam widths, detector sizes and QoS exponents. The obtained results reveal the effects of some significant parameters on effective capacity, which can be used for the design of FSO systems carrying a wide range of services with diverse QoS requirements.

  8. Turbulence-induced channel crosstalk in an orbital angular momentum-multiplexed free-space optical link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anguita, Jaime A.; Neifeld, Mark A.; Vasic, Bane V.

    2008-05-01

    A multichannel free-space optical (FSO) communication system based on orbital angular momentum (OAM)-carrying beams is studied. We numerically analyze the effects of atmospheric turbulence on the system and find that turbulence induces attenuation and crosstalk among channels. Based on a model in which the constituent channels are binary symmetric and crosstalk is a Gaussian noise source, we find optimal sets of OAM states at each turbulence condition studied and determine the aggregate capacity of the multichannel system at those conditions. OAM-multiplexed FSO systems that operate in the weak turbulence regime are found to offer good performance. We verify that the aggregate capacity decreases as the turbulence increases. A per-channel bit-error rate evaluation is presented to show the uneven effects of crosstalk on the constituent channels.

  9. Experimental characterization of a 400 Gbit/s orbital angular momentum multiplexed free-space optical link over 120 m.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yongxiong; Wang, Zhe; Liao, Peicheng; Li, Long; Xie, Guodong; Huang, Hao; Zhao, Zhe; Yan, Yan; Ahmed, Nisar; Willner, Asher; Lavery, Martin P J; Ashrafi, Nima; Ashrafi, Solyman; Bock, Robert; Tur, Moshe; Djordjevic, Ivan B; Neifeld, Mark A; Willner, Alan E

    2016-02-01

    We experimentally demonstrate and characterize the performance of a 400-Gbit/s orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexed free-space optical link over 120 m on the roof of a building. Four OAM beams, each carrying a 100-Gbit/s quadrature-phase-shift-keyed channel are multiplexed and transmitted. We investigate the influence of channel impairments on the received power, intermodal crosstalk among channels, and system power penalties. Without laser tracking and compensation systems, the measured received power and crosstalk among OAM channels fluctuate by 4.5 dB and 5 dB, respectively, over 180 s. For a beam displacement of 2 mm that corresponds to a pointing error less than 16.7 μrad, the link bit error rates are below the forward error correction threshold of 3.8×10(-3) for all channels. Both experimental and simulation results show that power penalties increase rapidly when the displacement increases.

  10. Rapid prototyping with optical 3D measurement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaessler, J.; Blount, G. N.; Jones, R. M.

    1994-11-01

    One of the important tools for speeding up the prototyping of an new industrial or consumer product is the rapid generation of CAD data from hand-made styling models and moulds. We present a new optical 3D digitizing system which produces in a fully automatic way non- ambiguous, absolute and complete surface coordinate data of very complex objects in a short time. The system named `OptoShape' is based on a projection of sinusoidal fringes with a true grey-level matrix projector. The system measures both non-ambiguous and absolute XYZ surface data with a pronounced robustness towards optical surface properties. By moving the 3D sensor head around the object to be digitized with a 3/5 axes manipulator, multiple range images are obtained and automatically merged into a unified cloud of point coordinates. This set of surface coordinates are transferred to a software package where interactive manipulation, sectioning and semi-automatic generation of CAD surface descriptions are performed. CNC data can also be directly generated from the point surface coordinate data set.

  11. Direct Conversion of Free Space Millimeter Waves to Optical Domain by Plasmonic Modulator Antenna.

    PubMed

    Salamin, Yannick; Heni, Wolfgang; Haffner, Christian; Fedoryshyn, Yuriy; Hoessbacher, Claudia; Bonjour, Romain; Zahner, Marco; Hillerkuss, David; Leuchtmann, Pascal; Elder, Delwin L; Dalton, Larry R; Hafner, Christian; Leuthold, Juerg

    2015-12-01

    A scheme for the direct conversion of millimeter and THz waves to optical signals is introduced. The compact device consists of a plasmonic phase modulator that is seamlessly cointegrated with an antenna. Neither high-speed electronics nor electronic amplification is required to drive the modulator. A built-in enhancement of the electric field by a factor of 35,000 enables the direct conversion of millimeter-wave signals to the optical domain. This high enhancement is obtained via a resonant antenna that is directly coupled to an optical field by means of a plasmonic modulator. The suggested concept provides a simple and cost-efficient alternative solution to conventional schemes where millimeter-wave signals are first converted to the electrical domain before being up-converted to the optical domain.

  12. Parallel processing demonstrator with plug-on-top free-space interconnect optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Christoph; Wang, Xiaoqing; Ekman, Jeremy T.; Marchand, Philippe J.; Spaanenburg, Henk; Wang, Mark M.; Kiamilev, Fouad E.; Esener, Sadik C.

    2001-05-01

    We demonstrate a setup with 10 optically interconnected chips,k which can perform a distributed radix-2-butterfly calculation for fast Fourier transformation. The setup consists of a motherboard, five multi-chip-modules (MCMs, with processor/transceiver chips and laser/detector chips), four plug-on-top optics modules that provide the bi- directional optical links between the MCMs, and external control electronics. The design of the optics and optomechanics satisfies numerous real-world constraints, such as compact size (< 1 inch thick), suitability for mass-production, suitability for large arrays (up to 103 parallel channels), compatibility with standard electronics fabrication and packaging technology, and potential for active misalignment compensation by integrating MEMS technology.

  13. Direct Conversion of Free Space Millimeter Waves to Optical Domain by Plasmonic Modulator Antenna

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A scheme for the direct conversion of millimeter and THz waves to optical signals is introduced. The compact device consists of a plasmonic phase modulator that is seamlessly cointegrated with an antenna. Neither high-speed electronics nor electronic amplification is required to drive the modulator. A built-in enhancement of the electric field by a factor of 35 000 enables the direct conversion of millimeter-wave signals to the optical domain. This high enhancement is obtained via a resonant antenna that is directly coupled to an optical field by means of a plasmonic modulator. The suggested concept provides a simple and cost-efficient alternative solution to conventional schemes where millimeter-wave signals are first converted to the electrical domain before being up-converted to the optical domain. PMID:26570995

  14. Quantitative 3D Optical Imaging: Applications in Dosimetry and Biophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Andrew Stephen

    Optical-CT has been shown to be a potentially useful imaging tool for the two very different spheres of biologists and radiation therapy physicists, but it has yet to live up to that potential. In radiation therapy, researchers have used optical-CT for the readout of 3D dosimeters, but it is yet to be a clinically relevant tool as the technology is too slow to be considered practical. Biologists have used the technique for structural imaging, but have struggled with emission tomography as the reality of photon attenuation for both excitation and emission have made the images quantitatively irrelevant. Dosimetry. The DLOS (Duke Large field of view Optical-CT Scanner) was designed and constructed to make 3D dosimetry utilizing optical-CT a fast and practical tool while maintaining the accuracy of readout of the previous, slower readout technologies. Upon construction/optimization/implementation of several components including a diffuser, band pass filter, registration mount & fluid filtration system the dosimetry system provides high quality data comparable to or exceeding that of commercial products. In addition, a stray light correction algorithm was tested and implemented. The DLOS in combination with the 3D dosimeter it was designed for, PREAGETM, then underwent rigorous commissioning and benchmarking tests validating its performance against gold standard data including a set of 6 irradiations. DLOS commissioning tests resulted in sub-mm isotropic spatial resolution (MTF >0.5 for frequencies of 1.5lp/mm) and a dynamic range of ˜60dB. Flood field uniformity was 10% and stable after 45minutes. Stray light proved to be small, due to telecentricity, but even the residual can be removed through deconvolution. Benchmarking tests showed the mean 3D passing gamma rate (3%, 3mm, 5% dose threshold) over the 6 benchmark data sets was 97.3% +/- 0.6% (range 96%-98%) scans totaling ˜10 minutes, indicating excellent ability to perform 3D dosimetry while improving the speed of

  15. Superluminal, luminal, and subluminal nondiffracting pulses applied to free-space optical systems: theoretical description.

    PubMed

    Garay-Avendaño, Roger L; Zamboni-Rached, Michel

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we show theoretically nondiffracting pulses with arbitrary peak velocities that are suitable for data signal transmission without distortion over long distances using different techniques of signal modulation. Our results provide closed-form analytical solutions to the wave equation describing superluminal, luminal, and subluminal ideal nondiffracting pulses with frequency spectra commonly used in the field of optical communications. PMID:26974644

  16. Inertial Sensor Assisted Acquisition, Tracking, and Pointing for High Data Rate Free Space Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Shinhak; Ortiz, Gerry G.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss use of inertial sensors to facilitate deep space optical communications. Implementation of this concept requires accurate and wide bandwidth inertial sensors. In this presentation, the principal concept and algorithm using linear accelerometers will be given along with the simulation and experimental results.

  17. Adaptive selective relaying in cooperative free-space optical systems over atmospheric turbulence and misalignment fading channels.

    PubMed

    Boluda-Ruiz, Rubén; García-Zambrana, Antonio; Castillo-Vázquez, Carmen; Castillo-Vázquez, Beatriz

    2014-06-30

    In this paper, a novel adaptive cooperative protocol with multiple relays using detect-and-forward (DF) over atmospheric turbulence channels with pointing errors is proposed. The adaptive DF cooperative protocol here analyzed is based on the selection of the optical path, source-destination or different source-relay links, with a greater value of fading gain or irradiance, maintaining a high diversity order. Closed-form asymptotic bit error-rate (BER) expressions are obtained for a cooperative free-space optical (FSO) communication system with Nr relays, when the irradiance of the transmitted optical beam is susceptible to either a wide range of turbulence conditions, following a gamma-gamma distribution of parameters α and β, or pointing errors, following a misalignment fading model where the effect of beam width, detector size and jitter variance is considered. A greater robustness for different link distances and pointing errors is corroborated by the obtained results if compared with similar cooperative schemes or equivalent multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. Simulation results are further demonstrated to confirm the accuracy and usefulness of the derived results. PMID:24977911

  18. Adaptive selective relaying in cooperative free-space optical systems over atmospheric turbulence and misalignment fading channels.

    PubMed

    Boluda-Ruiz, Rubén; García-Zambrana, Antonio; Castillo-Vázquez, Carmen; Castillo-Vázquez, Beatriz

    2014-06-30

    In this paper, a novel adaptive cooperative protocol with multiple relays using detect-and-forward (DF) over atmospheric turbulence channels with pointing errors is proposed. The adaptive DF cooperative protocol here analyzed is based on the selection of the optical path, source-destination or different source-relay links, with a greater value of fading gain or irradiance, maintaining a high diversity order. Closed-form asymptotic bit error-rate (BER) expressions are obtained for a cooperative free-space optical (FSO) communication system with Nr relays, when the irradiance of the transmitted optical beam is susceptible to either a wide range of turbulence conditions, following a gamma-gamma distribution of parameters α and β, or pointing errors, following a misalignment fading model where the effect of beam width, detector size and jitter variance is considered. A greater robustness for different link distances and pointing errors is corroborated by the obtained results if compared with similar cooperative schemes or equivalent multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. Simulation results are further demonstrated to confirm the accuracy and usefulness of the derived results.

  19. Ultracold polar molecules in a 3D optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Ultracold polar molecules, with their long-range electric dipolar interactions, offer new opportunities for studying quantum magnetism and many-body physics. KRb molecules loaded into a three-dimensional (3D) optical lattice allow one to study such a spin-lattice system in a stable environment without losses arising from chemical reactions. In the case with strong lattice confinement along two directions and a weak lattice potential along the third, we find the loss rate is suppressed by the quantum Zeno effect. In a deep 3D lattice with no tunneling, we observe evidences for spin exchange interactions. We use Ramsey spectroscopy to investigate the spin dynamics. By choosing the appropriate lattice polarizations and implementing a spin echo sequence, the single particle dephasing is largely suppressed, leaving the dipolar exchange interactions as the dominant contribution to the observed dynamics. This is supported by many-body theoretical calculations. While this initial demonstration was done with low lattice fillings, our current experimental efforts are focused on increasing the lattice filling fraction. This will greatly benefit the study of complex many-body dynamics with long-range interactions, such as transport of excitations in an out-of-equilibrium system and spin-orbit coupling in a lattice.

  20. Discrete-Time Demodulator Architectures for Free-Space Broadband Optical Pulse-Position Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, A. A.; Lee, C.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop discrete-time demodulator architectures for broadband optical pulse-position modulation (PPM) that are capable of processing Nyquist or near-Nyquist data rates. These architectures are motivated by the numerous advantages of realizing communications demodulators in digital very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits. The architectures are developed within a framework that encompasses a large body of work in optical communications, synchronization, and multirate discrete-time signal processing and are constrained by the limitations of the state of the art in digital hardware. This work attempts to create a bridge between theoretical communication algorithms and analysis for deep-space optical PPM and modern digital VLSI. The primary focus of this work is on the synthesis of discrete-time processing architectures for accomplishing the most fundamental functions required in PPM demodulators, post-detection filtering, synchronization, and decision processing. The architectures derived are capable of closely approximating the theoretical performance of the continuous-time algorithms from which they are derived. The work concludes with an outline of the development path that leads to hardware.

  1. New 3D optical digitizer for orthodontic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canal Bienzobas, Fernando; Dios, Federico; Garcia-Mateos, Jorge; Rivera, Alejandro

    2002-05-01

    A new three-dimensional optical digitizer working with white light and high accuracy has been developed for applications in orthodontic diagnosis, to store and analyze data taken from plaster dental casts. The scanner consists basically of a triangulation device made of a CCD camera and an active light projector using Gray code and the phase stepping method to sample the surfaces under tests. Dense clouds of 3D points of the object's surface, related to the device's reference system, are generated, from which very exact measurements can be taken. This technique allows us to greatly improve the accuracy of results that previously were obtained by using mainly manual methods. Our system has been tested successfully on many different samples.

  2. Volumetric (3D) compressive sensing spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Daguang; Huang, Yong; Kang, Jin U.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we proposed a novel three-dimensional compressive sensing (CS) approach for spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) volumetric image acquisition and reconstruction. Instead of taking a spectral volume whose size is the same as that of the volumetric image, our method uses a sub set of the original spectral volume that is under-sampled in all three dimensions, which reduces the amount of spectral measurements to less than 20% of that required by the Shan-non/Nyquist theory. The 3D image is recovered from the under-sampled spectral data dimension-by-dimension using the proposed three-step CS reconstruction strategy. Experimental results show that our method can significantly reduce the sampling rate required for a volumetric SD OCT image while preserving the image quality. PMID:25426320

  3. Volumetric (3D) compressive sensing spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Xu, Daguang; Huang, Yong; Kang, Jin U

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we proposed a novel three-dimensional compressive sensing (CS) approach for spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) volumetric image acquisition and reconstruction. Instead of taking a spectral volume whose size is the same as that of the volumetric image, our method uses a sub set of the original spectral volume that is under-sampled in all three dimensions, which reduces the amount of spectral measurements to less than 20% of that required by the Shan-non/Nyquist theory. The 3D image is recovered from the under-sampled spectral data dimension-by-dimension using the proposed three-step CS reconstruction strategy. Experimental results show that our method can significantly reduce the sampling rate required for a volumetric SD OCT image while preserving the image quality.

  4. Modulation and coding for throughput-efficient optical free-space links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georghiades, Costas N.

    1993-01-01

    Optical direct-detection systems are currently being considered for some high-speed inter-satellite links, where data-rates of a few hundred megabits per second are evisioned under power and pulsewidth constraints. In this paper we investigate the capacity, cutoff-rate and error-probability performance of uncoded and trellis-coded systems for various modulation schemes and under various throughput and power constraints. Modulation schemes considered are on-off keying (OOK), pulse-position modulation (PPM), overlapping PPM (OPPM) and multi-pulse (combinatorial) PPM (MPPM).

  5. A high performance laser diode transmitter for optical free space communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildbebrand, U.; Ohm, G.; Wiesmann, Th.; Hildebrand, K.; Voit, E.

    1990-07-01

    For the ESA Semiconductor Intersatellite Link Experiment (SILEX), elements of the communication chain have been breadboarded. The electrooptical converter, called the laser diode transmitter package (LDTP), is described here. The requirements on the LDTP optical quality are deduced from the overall system requirements. The tolerable wavefront errors (WFE) and the stability of beam direction are most critical. Four breadboards have been assembled and tested. The very stringent requirements on WFE were surpassed, with a resulting rms value of 1/40 waves. In order to achieve this wavefront quality, the typical astigmatism of index-guided laser diodes (1-10 microns) had to be compensated by adjustable cylindrical lenses.

  6. Development of an End-to-End Model for Free-Space Optical Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmati, H.

    2005-05-01

    Through funding by NASA's Exploration Systems Research and Technology (ESR&T) Program and the Advanced Space Technology Program (ASTP), a team, including JPL, Boeing, NASA-Glenn, and the Georgia Institute of Technology, will develop an end-to-end modeling tool for rapid architecture trade-offs of high-data-rate laser communications from lunar, martian, and outer planetary ranges. An objective of the modeling tool is to reduce the inefficient reliance on modeling of discrete subsystems or sequential development of multiple expensive and time-consuming hardware units, thereby saving significant cost and time. This dynamic, time-domain modeling tool will accept measured component and subsystem data inputs and generate "difficult to measure" characteristics required for the performance evaluation of different designs and architectural choices. The planned modeling tool will incorporate actual subsystem performance data to reduce the develop-build-evaluate-refine production cycle. The list of high-level objectives of the program includes (1) development of a bidirectional global link analysis backbone software encompassing all optical communication subsystem parameters; (2) development of a bidirectional global link simulation model encompassing all optical communication parameters; (3) interoperability of the link analysis tool with all relevant detailed subsystem design models; and (4) a validated model that is validated against known experimental data at the subsystem and system levels.

  7. Spot detection accuracy analysis in turbulent channel for free space optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan-Fei; Dai, Yong-Hong; Yu, Sheng-Lin; Xin, Shan; Chen, Jing; Ai, Yong

    2015-10-01

    Increasingly importance has been taken seriously for high frame rate CMOS camera to optical communication acquisition pointing and tacking (APT) system, with its compact structure, easy to developed and adapted to beacon light spot detection in atmospheric channel. As spot position accuracy directly determines the performance of space optical communication, it is very important to design a high precision spot center algorithm. Usually spot location algorithm uses gravity algorithm, shape center capturing algorithm or self-adaption threshold algorithm. In experiments we analyzed the characteristics of the spots which transmitted through atmospheric turbulence and studied light transmission characteristics in turbulent channel. We carried out a beacon light detection experiments in a distance of 3.4km, collected the beacon spots on CMOS camera and signal light power. We calculated spot position with two different algorithm and compared the calculation accuracy between field dispersive spot and ideal Gaussian laser spot. Experiment research show that, gravity center algorithm should be more suitable for beacon beam spot which accuracy can be improved about 1.3 pixels for a Gaussian spot. But the shape center algorithm has higher precision. The reasons were analyzed which made an important preparation for subsequent testing.

  8. Chip-interleaved optical code division multiple access relying on a photon-counting iterative successive interference canceller for free-space optical channels.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaolin; Zheng, Xiaowei; Zhang, Rong; Hanzo, Lajos

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we design a novel Poisson photon-counting based iterative successive interference cancellation (SIC) scheme for transmission over free-space optical (FSO) channels in the presence of both multiple access interference (MAI) as well as Gamma-Gamma atmospheric turbulence fading, shot-noise and background light. Our simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme exhibits a strong MAI suppression capability. Importantly, an order of magnitude of BER improvements may be achieved compared to the conventional chip-level optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) photon-counting detector.

  9. Multi-aperture digital coherent combining for free-space optical communication receivers.

    PubMed

    Geisler, David J; Yarnall, Timothy M; Stevens, Mark L; Schieler, Curt M; Robinson, Bryan S; Hamilton, Scott A

    2016-06-13

    Space-to-ground optical communication systems can benefit from reducing the size, weight, and power profiles of space terminals. One way of reducing the required power-aperture product on a space platform is to implement effective, but costly, single-aperture ground terminals with large collection areas. In contrast, we present a ground terminal receiver architecture in which many small less-expensive apertures are efficiently combined to create a large effective aperture while maintaining excellent receiver sensitivity. This is accomplished via coherent detection behind each aperture followed by digitization. The digitized signals are then combined in a digital signal processing chain. Experimental results demonstrate lossless coherent combining of four lasercom signals, at power levels below 0.1 photons/bit/aperture.

  10. Free-space optical communication systems (FOCUS): a U.S. Army overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallestero, Neil J.; Khusid, Mark; Prasad, Narasimha S.; Carrano, John C.; Duchak, George; Ricklin, Jennifer C.; Vorontsov, Mikhail A.

    2002-12-01

    The Army's objective is to design, develop and demonstrate its 'ability to distribute information around the battlefield.' Future Army systems will be based on a survivable, adaptable network capable of integrating commercial services and securely utilizing bandwidth for voice, data, and video applications. However, microwave bandwidth allocation has been a serious problem (given crosstalk, interference and frequency management) for a mobile, adaptive communication network. Because of the inherent advantages of the high data rate, crosstalk independence, jam - resistance, covertness and quick system setup time, the Army is looking into optical wireless communication as a means to address this communications requirement. However, development of a fielded laser communication system requires the development of enabling technologies, the understanding of physical limits and performance, and concept of operations (CONOPS).

  11. 50 Mbps free space direct detection laser diode optical communication system with Q = 4 PPM signaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Davidson, Frederic; Field, Christopher

    1990-01-01

    A 50 Mbps direct detection optical communication system for use in an intersatellite link was constructed with an AlGaAs laser diode transmitter and a silicon avalanche photodiode photodetector. The system used a Q = 4 PPM format. The receiver consisted of a maximum likelihood PPM detector and a timing recovery subsystem. The PPM slot clock was recovered at the receiver by using a transition detector followed by a PLL. The PPM word clock was recovered by using a second PLL whose input was derived from the presence of back-to-back PPM pulses contained in the received random PPM pulse sequences. The system achieved a bit error rate of 0.000001 at less than 50 detected signal photons/information bit. The receiver was capable of acquiring and maintaining slot and word synchronization for received signal levels greater than 20 photons/information bit, at which the receiver bit error rate was about 0.01.

  12. Statistical prediction of the atmospheric behavior for free space optical link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajek, Lukas; Vitasek, Jan; Vanderka, Ales; Latal, Jan; Perecar, Frantisek; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2015-09-01

    The atmosphere is unstable and unpredictable environment, where are continual changes of the air refractive index. These changes cause fluctuation of optical power at the receiver site. The prediction of behavior of the atmosphere and effect of this behavior on the FSO link is very complicated or even impossible. Aim of this article is focused on statistical analysis of measured level signal RSSI of the FSO link and atmospheric properties measured by hydro-meteorological station. For measured data the statistical analysis tools were used. Next part of article is focused on determination of the linear regression model to calculate level of RSSI depending on the atmospheric properties. Two empirical equations are result for day and night time. These equations describe behavior of signal RSSI in 30 days interval. Finally, comparison of the obtained mathematical model with real measured data of RSSI was introduced for one week before and one week after the analyzed time interval.

  13. Multi-aperture digital coherent combining for free-space optical communication receivers.

    PubMed

    Geisler, David J; Yarnall, Timothy M; Stevens, Mark L; Schieler, Curt M; Robinson, Bryan S; Hamilton, Scott A

    2016-06-13

    Space-to-ground optical communication systems can benefit from reducing the size, weight, and power profiles of space terminals. One way of reducing the required power-aperture product on a space platform is to implement effective, but costly, single-aperture ground terminals with large collection areas. In contrast, we present a ground terminal receiver architecture in which many small less-expensive apertures are efficiently combined to create a large effective aperture while maintaining excellent receiver sensitivity. This is accomplished via coherent detection behind each aperture followed by digitization. The digitized signals are then combined in a digital signal processing chain. Experimental results demonstrate lossless coherent combining of four lasercom signals, at power levels below 0.1 photons/bit/aperture. PMID:27410287

  14. Impact of atmospheric effects in free-space optics transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitgeb, Erich; Gebhart, M.; Fasser, Peter; Bregenzer, Josef; Tanczos, J.

    2003-04-01

    The coherent wave propagation is affected by the atmosphere in many ways. Several theoretical models for propagation of light through the atmosphere are well known. To predict link availability in different climate zones it is necessary to do field tests for data acquisition. Therefore we have done reliability- and availability-tests on commercial available and also on self-developed optical point-to-point and point-to-multipoint systems. We sent test data at 155 Mbps (STM-1) from one FSO-unit to a distant (2.7 km) FSO-unit. The received data were sent back (loop) to the first unit. Our primary interest in this long-time investigation was the time of link failure, because it turned out that BERs be low in general, less than 10-8 at very bad weather conditions in winter and less than 10-12 at clear sky. In a second measurement campaign we investigated the influence of turbulences in the air. The measurements clearly show variations in the fluctuation of the incoming optical power during a day. In principle there are two periods with strong variations, during the day and during the night, and two periods of rather stable air, these are around sunset and sunrise. The power variations have the highest amplitude and show the fastest changes at noon and they are less distinct and show slower changes in the night. As a medium value we got power variations of 4 dB over the distance of 2.7 km in summer. The duration of fades/scintillations was in the order of 4 to 60 milliseconds at daytime and about 10 to 150 ms in the night.

  15. Hybrid microtransmitter for free-space optical spacecraft communication: design, manufacturing, and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfi, Sara; Palmer, Kristoffer; Kratz, Henrik; Thornell, Greger

    2009-02-01

    Optical intra-communication links are investigated by several currently operational qualification missions. Compared with RF communication systems, the optical domain obtains a wider bandwidth, enables miniaturized spacecraft and reduced power consumption. In this project, a microtransmitter is designed and manufactured for formation flying spacecraft with transmission rates of 1 Gbit/s. Simulations in Matlab and Simulink show that a BER of 10-9 can be achieved with aperture sizes of 1 cm and a transmitter output peak power of 12 mW for a distance of 10 km. The results show that the performance of the communication link decreases due to mechanical vibrations in the spacecraft together with a narrow laser beam. A dual-axis microactuator designed as a deflectable mirror has been developed for the laser beam steering where the fabrication is based on a double-sided, bulk micromachining process. The mirror actuates by joints consisting of v-grooves filled with SU-8 polymer. The deflection is controlled by integrated resistive heaters in the joints causing the polymer to expand thermally. Results show that the mirror actuates 20-30° in the temperature interval 25-250°C. Flat Fresnel lenses made of Pyrex 7740 are used to collimate the laser beam. These lenses are simulated in the Comsol software and optimized for a 670 nm red VCSEL. The lenses are manufactured using lithography and reactive ion etching. All tests are made in a normal laboratory environment, but the effect of the space environment is discussed.

  16. Performance evaluation of receive-diversity free-space optical communications over correlated Gamma-Gamma fading channels.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guowei; Khalighi, Mohammad-Ali; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Bourennane, Salah

    2013-08-20

    The efficacy of spatial diversity in practical free-space optical communication systems is impaired by the fading correlation among the underlying subchannels. We consider in this paper the generation of correlated Gamma-Gamma random variables in view of evaluating the system outage probability and bit-error-rate under the condition of correlated fading. Considering the case of receive-diversity systems with intensity modulation and direct detection, we propose a set of criteria for setting the correlation coefficients on the small- and large-scale fading components based on scintillation theory. We verify these criteria using wave-optics simulations and further show through Monte Carlo simulations that we can effectively neglect the correlation corresponding to the small-scale turbulence in most practical systems, irrespective of the specific turbulence conditions. This has not been clarified before, to the best of our knowledge. We then present some numerical results to illustrate the effect of fading correlation on the system performance. Our conclusions can be generalized to the cases of multiple-beam and multiple-beam multiple-aperture systems.

  17. Evaluation of Error Correcting Code performances of a free space optical communication system between LEO satellite and Ground Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chochol, M.; Rissons, A.; Lacan, J.; Vedrenne, N.; Artaud, G.

    2015-10-01

    The use of optical communication to transfer data between LEO satellite and optical ground station is being studied. It creates the opportunities to highly increase a transmitted data rate across a free space. The optical propagation channel has specificities that imply the potential use of error correcting code (ECC) and interleaving at physical and higher layer. The study aims to assess the performance of a combination of ECC and interleaving in presence of various channel scenarios and receiver architectures. As a result of these studies, a functional physical layer simulator is provided. The simulator emulates a signal generation and applies time series representing the propagation channel with an effect of receiver front-ends. It also features various detection methods and computes mutual information (MI) in order to approximate ECC performances. A number of receiver architectures and channel scenarios were studied. The channel scenarios combine a direct coupling of the received signal into the photo-detector (PD) and among other assume the use of pre-amplified receiver implying the signal coupling into a standard single mode fiber (SSMF) prior to the detection. Time series were generated and represent the power received at PD input depending on the chosen scenarios (without adaptive optics (AO), with tip-tilt correction, with no dynamical coupling losses or with higher order AO correction). Two modulations of OOK and DBPSK along with various detection methods were examined. The tuning of ECC parameters was studied through the computation of mutual information. Additionally two cases of physical and higher layer interleaving were implemented providing an excellent diversity to the channel seen by the codeword of ECC.

  18. Laser differential image-motion monitor for characterization of turbulence during free-space optical communication tests.

    PubMed

    Brown, David M; Juarez, Juan C; Brown, Andrea M

    2013-12-01

    A laser differential image-motion monitor (DIMM) system was designed and constructed as part of a turbulence characterization suite during the DARPA free-space optical experimental network experiment (FOENEX) program. The developed link measurement system measures the atmospheric coherence length (r0), atmospheric scintillation, and power in the bucket for the 1550 nm band. DIMM measurements are made with two separate apertures coupled to a single InGaAs camera. The angle of arrival (AoA) for the wavefront at each aperture can be calculated based on focal spot movements imaged by the camera. By utilizing a single camera for the simultaneous measurement of the focal spots, the correlation of the variance in the AoA allows a straightforward computation of r0 as in traditional DIMM systems. Standard measurements of scintillation and power in the bucket are made with the same apertures by redirecting a percentage of the incoming signals to InGaAs detectors integrated with logarithmic amplifiers for high sensitivity and high dynamic range. By leveraging two, small apertures, the instrument forms a small size and weight configuration for mounting to actively tracking laser communication terminals for characterizing link performance.

  19. Capacity of MIMO free space optical communications using multiple partially coherent beams propagation through non-Kolmogorov strong turbulence.

    PubMed

    Deng, Peng; Kavehrad, Mohsen; Liu, Zhiwen; Zhou, Zhou; Yuan, Xiuhua

    2013-07-01

    We study the average capacity performance for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) free-space optical (FSO) communication systems using multiple partially coherent beams propagating through non-Kolmogorov strong turbulence, assuming equal gain combining diversity configuration and the sum of multiple gamma-gamma random variables for multiple independent partially coherent beams. The closed-form expressions of scintillation and average capacity are derived and then used to analyze the dependence on the number of independent diversity branches, power law α, refractive-index structure parameter, propagation distance and spatial coherence length of source beams. Obtained results show that, the average capacity increases more significantly with the increase in the rank of MIMO channel matrix compared with the diversity order. The effect of the diversity order on the average capacity is independent of the power law, turbulence strength parameter and spatial coherence length, whereas these effects on average capacity are gradually mitigated as the diversity order increases. The average capacity increases and saturates with the decreasing spatial coherence length, at rates depending on the diversity order, power law and turbulence strength. There exist optimal values of the spatial coherence length and diversity configuration for maximizing the average capacity of MIMO FSO links over a variety of atmospheric turbulence conditions.

  20. Experimental characterization of a 400 Gbit/s orbital angular momentum multiplexed free-space optical link over 120 m.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yongxiong; Wang, Zhe; Liao, Peicheng; Li, Long; Xie, Guodong; Huang, Hao; Zhao, Zhe; Yan, Yan; Ahmed, Nisar; Willner, Asher; Lavery, Martin P J; Ashrafi, Nima; Ashrafi, Solyman; Bock, Robert; Tur, Moshe; Djordjevic, Ivan B; Neifeld, Mark A; Willner, Alan E

    2016-02-01

    We experimentally demonstrate and characterize the performance of a 400-Gbit/s orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexed free-space optical link over 120 m on the roof of a building. Four OAM beams, each carrying a 100-Gbit/s quadrature-phase-shift-keyed channel are multiplexed and transmitted. We investigate the influence of channel impairments on the received power, intermodal crosstalk among channels, and system power penalties. Without laser tracking and compensation systems, the measured received power and crosstalk among OAM channels fluctuate by 4.5 dB and 5 dB, respectively, over 180 s. For a beam displacement of 2 mm that corresponds to a pointing error less than 16.7 μrad, the link bit error rates are below the forward error correction threshold of 3.8×10(-3) for all channels. Both experimental and simulation results show that power penalties increase rapidly when the displacement increases. PMID:26907439

  1. Optical 3D-coordinate measuring system using structured light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Wolfgang; Notni, Gunther; Kuehmstedt, Peter; Gerber, Joerg; Kowarschik, Richard M.

    1996-09-01

    The paper is aimed at the description of an optical shape measuring technique based on a consistent principle using fringe projection technique. We demonstrate a real 3D- coordinate measuring system where the sale of coordinates is given only by the illumination-structures. This method has the advantages that the aberration of the observing system and the depth-dependent imaging scale have no influence on the measuring accuracy and, moreover, the measurements are independent of the position of the camera with respect to the object under test. Furthermore, it is shown that the influence of specular effects of the surface on the measuring result can be eliminated. Moreover, we developed a very simple algorithm to calibrate the measuring system. The measuring examples show that a measuring accuracy of 10-4 (i.e. 10 micrometers ) within an object volume of 100 X 100 X 70 mm3 is achievable. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the set of coordinate values can be processed in CNC- and CAD-systems.

  2. Cordless hand-held optical 3D sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munkelt, Christoph; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Kühmstedt, Peter; Schmidt, Ingo; Notni, Gunther

    2007-07-01

    A new mobile optical 3D measurement system using phase correlation based fringe projection technique will be presented. The sensor consist of a digital projection unit and two cameras in a stereo arrangement, whereby both are battery powered. The data transfer to a base station will be done via WLAN. This gives the possibility to use the system in complicate, remote measurement situations, which are typical in archaeology and architecture. In the measurement procedure the sensor will be hand-held by the user, illuminating the object with a sequence of less than 10 fringe patterns, within a time below 200 ms. This short sequence duration was achieved by a new approach, which combines the epipolar constraint with robust phase correlation utilizing a pre-calibrated sensor head, containing two cameras and a digital fringe projector. Furthermore, the system can be utilized to acquire the all around shape of objects by using the phasogrammetric approach with virtual land marks introduced by the authors 1, 2. This way no matching procedures or markers are necessary for the registration of multiple views, which makes the system very flexible in accomplishing different measurement tasks. The realized measurement field is approx. 100 mm up to 400 mm in diameter. The mobile character makes the measurement system useful for a wide range of applications in arts, architecture, archaeology and criminology, which will be shown in the paper.

  3. Experimental verification of an all-optical dual-hop 10  Gbit/s free-space optics link under turbulence regimes.

    PubMed

    Libich, Jiri; Komanec, Matej; Zvanovec, Stanislav; Pesek, Petr; Popoola, Wasiu O; Ghassemlooy, Zabih

    2015-02-01

    This Letter presents original measurement results from an all-optical 10 Gbit/s free-space optics (FSO) relay link involving two FSO links and an all-optical switch. Considering the fact that reported analyses of relay links are dominated by analytical findings, the experimental results represent a vital resource for evaluating the performance of relay FSO links in the presence of atmospheric turbulence. Bit-error-rate (BER) performance of the relay system is tested for single and dual-hop links under several turbulence regimes. Furthermore, results from this measurement are used to ascertain real parameters of the outdoor links and to improve the accuracy of simulation results. Results show that using a dual-hop FSO link against a single FSO link could result in up to four orders of magnitude improvement in BER in the presence of atmospheric turbulence.

  4. Optical design of communication simulator for orbital angular momentum based free-space link with an adaptive optics receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza, Alonzo; Gao, Wenbo; Odom, Garret; Cvijetic, Milorad; Takashima, Yuzuru

    2015-09-01

    Optical angular momentum (OAM) based communication requires multiple OAM modes. Spiral phase plates for OAM generation are lithographically fabricated. Phase profile of the phase plate is evaluated by surface profiler as well as optically by using Mach Zehnder interferometer.

  5. Air-structured optical fiber drawn from a 3D-printed preform.

    PubMed

    Cook, Kevin; Canning, John; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Reid, Zane; Hossain, Md Arafat; Comatti, Jade-Edouard; Luo, Yanhua; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2015-09-01

    A structured optical fiber is drawn from a 3D-printed structured preform. Preforms containing a single ring of holes around the core are fabricated using filament made from a modified butadiene polymer. More broadly, 3D printers capable of processing soft glasses, silica, and other materials are likely to come on line in the not-so-distant future. 3D printing of optical preforms signals a new milestone in optical fiber manufacture.

  6. Performance evaluation of coherent free space optical communications with a double-stage fast-steering-mirror adaptive optics system depending on the Greenwood frequency.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Yao, Kainan; Huang, Danian; Lin, Xudong; Wang, Liang; Lv, Yaowen

    2016-06-13

    The Greenwood frequency (GF) is influential in performance improvement for the coherent free space optical communications (CFSOC) system with a closed-loop adaptive optics (AO) unit. We analyze the impact of tilt and high-order aberrations on the mixing efficiency (ME) and bit-error-rate (BER) under different GF. The root-mean-square value (RMS) of the ME related to the RMS of the tilt aberrations, and the GF is derived to estimate the volatility of the ME. Furthermore, a numerical simulation is applied to verify the theoretical analysis, and an experimental correction system is designed with a double-stage fast-steering-mirror and a 97-element continuous surface deformable mirror. The conclusions of this paper provide a reference for designing the AO system for the CFSOC system.

  7. Performance evaluation of coherent free space optical communications with a double-stage fast-steering-mirror adaptive optics system depending on the Greenwood frequency.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Yao, Kainan; Huang, Danian; Lin, Xudong; Wang, Liang; Lv, Yaowen

    2016-06-13

    The Greenwood frequency (GF) is influential in performance improvement for the coherent free space optical communications (CFSOC) system with a closed-loop adaptive optics (AO) unit. We analyze the impact of tilt and high-order aberrations on the mixing efficiency (ME) and bit-error-rate (BER) under different GF. The root-mean-square value (RMS) of the ME related to the RMS of the tilt aberrations, and the GF is derived to estimate the volatility of the ME. Furthermore, a numerical simulation is applied to verify the theoretical analysis, and an experimental correction system is designed with a double-stage fast-steering-mirror and a 97-element continuous surface deformable mirror. The conclusions of this paper provide a reference for designing the AO system for the CFSOC system. PMID:27410346

  8. A Hankel transform distribution algorithm for paraxial wavefields with an application to free-space optical beam propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruelas, Adrián; Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C.

    2016-09-01

    We propose an alternative method for evaluating numerically the complete set of integer order Hankel transforms that constitute a free-space paraxial wave. This algorithm consists only of fast Fourier transforms and one-dimensional interpolations, making it fast and efficient. To prove its reliability we compare the reconstruction it provides with the analyzed wavefield for a wide variety of profiles. Additionally, we make use of this set of Hankel transforms to construct an alternative free-space beam propagation scheme which, based on the evidence presented, we can conclude hinders the aliasing effect inside a finite region of space.

  9. Application issues when using optical 3D systems in place of CMMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Kevin G.

    2002-02-01

    A primary application of optical 3D measurement systems has been in the replacement of mechanical coordinate measurement machines (CMMs). The advantage of optical 3D systems is typically greater speed and flexibility of operation over even the best CMMs. However, the two technologies are not necessarily one to one replacements, requiring new methods of use and in general proof of performance. This paper will present specific data that highlights the differences between CMMs and optical 3D systems and suggests a method to properly achieve CMM compatible results with an optical 3D system and the problems seen in this study.

  10. Free space optical communications systems using Mid-IR quantum cascade and low-power femtosecond laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrigan, Paul

    Free Space Optical (FSO) communication is a line of sight telecom technology delivering low-cost, high-volume bandwidth through the air (˜$20,000/1 day/Gbps). It is an appealing solution to the "Last-Mile" bottleneck in metropolitan areas where fiber optic deployment can be prohibitive. Over the past decade commercial design has incorporated traditional telecom components without reviewing the optimal physical layer. We therefore present a systematic investigation of physical light propagation for different laser wavelengths, investigating loss processes, margins and inherent security features. FSO's "Achilles Heel" is adverse weather which attenuates currently promoted continuous wave Near-IR systems (CW-1.55-mum). In certain conditions link range may be reduced to 50m. Absorption and Mie-scattering of light are the major obstacles for clear transmission. As scattering efficiency is coupled to the particle size to wavelength ratio, micron sized fog particles are the worst attenuators. Moving off the commercial basis we present two transmission and scattering studies demonstrating and explaining enhanced link performance for a longer wavelength Mid-IR (8.1-mum) vs. CW system and for low-power femtosecond pulse vs. CW system. We present data from the world's longest outdoor, collinear, multi-wavelength, FSO link and demonstrate that at its peak Mid-IR light attenuates 300% less power or equivalently has 3x deployable range potential. Our real-world result shows the empirical benchmark "Kruse-Mie Relation" which to date has discouraged Mid-IR industrial advancement incorrectly predicts a decrease in transmission for Mid-IR by up to 220%. We also present results for an indoor fog chamber experiment with artificial fog recording even stronger Mid-IR gains (+2000% power delivery). An indoor scattering measurement demonstrates Mid-IR light scatters 10x less power, accounting for the tremendous transmission gains and also demonstrating Mid-IR's inherent security

  11. Design of 3D isotropic metamaterial device using smart transformation optics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dongheok; Kim, Junhyun; Yoo, Do-Sik; Kim, Kyoungsik

    2015-08-24

    We report here a design method for a 3 dimensional (3D) isotropic transformation optical device using smart transformation optics. Inspired by solid mechanics, smart transformation optics regards a transformation optical medium as an elastic solid and deformations as coordinate transformations. Further developing from our previous work on 2D smart transformation optics, we introduce a method of 3D smart transformation optics to design 3D transformation optical devices by maintaining isotropic materials properties for all types of polarizations imposing free or nearly free boundary conditions. Due to the material isotropy, it is possible to fabricate such devices with structural metamaterials made purely of common dielectric materials. In conclusion, the practical importance of the method reported here lies in the fact that it enables us to fabricate, without difficulty, arbitrarily shaped 3D devices with existing 3D printing technology.

  12. Design of 3D isotropic metamaterial device using smart transformation optics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dongheok; Kim, Junhyun; Yoo, Do-Sik; Kim, Kyoungsik

    2015-08-24

    We report here a design method for a 3 dimensional (3D) isotropic transformation optical device using smart transformation optics. Inspired by solid mechanics, smart transformation optics regards a transformation optical medium as an elastic solid and deformations as coordinate transformations. Further developing from our previous work on 2D smart transformation optics, we introduce a method of 3D smart transformation optics to design 3D transformation optical devices by maintaining isotropic materials properties for all types of polarizations imposing free or nearly free boundary conditions. Due to the material isotropy, it is possible to fabricate such devices with structural metamaterials made purely of common dielectric materials. In conclusion, the practical importance of the method reported here lies in the fact that it enables us to fabricate, without difficulty, arbitrarily shaped 3D devices with existing 3D printing technology. PMID:26368165

  13. Application of an optical 3D sensor for automated disassembling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knackfuss, Peter; Schmidt, Achim

    1996-08-01

    The application of an active vision 3D sensor is described for the development and control of an autonomous intelligent robot cell for the disassembling of end-of-life-vehicle components. The research and development work was done concurrently by three European development teams at different locations. During this phase, the virtual environment was distributed on the local development platforms of these teams. Intermediate development results and 3D sensor data were exchanged through network communication to be mutually tested and verified. The physical environment of the disassembling cell demonstrator and its sensor systems is currently being integrated at the BIBA institute.

  14. Quantum cryptography in free space.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, B C; Franson, J D

    1996-11-15

    The range of quantum cryptography systems using optical fibers is limited to roughly 30 km because amplifiers cannot be used. A fully operational system for quantum cryptography based on the transmission of single photons in free space under daylight conditions has been demonstrated. The feasibility of a global system for quantum cryptography based on a network of ground stations and satellites is discussed.

  15. Optical turbulence above mountains seen in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Els, S. G.; Vogiatzis, K.; Otárola, A.; Riddle, R.; Schöck, M.; Skidmore, W.; Travouillon, T.

    2010-07-01

    Atmospheric optical turbulence is the main driver of wavefront distortions which affect optical telescope performance. Therefore, many techniques have been developed to measure the optical turbulence strength along the line of sight. Based on data collected with the MASS (Multi Aperture Scintillation Sensor), we show that a large sample of such measurements can be used to assess the average three dimensional turbulence distribution above ground. The use of, and a more sophisticated instrumental setup for, such turbulence tomography will be discussed.

  16. Ultrahigh-capacity access network architecture for mobile data backhaul using integrated W-band wireless and free-space optical links with OAM multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuan; Yu, Jianjun; Zhang, Junwen; Chi, Nan; Xiao, Jiangnan; Chang, Gee-Kung

    2014-07-15

    In this Letter, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel access network architecture using hybrid integrated W-band wireless and free-space optical (FSO) links with orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing. The transmission of a 20 GBd quadrature phase-shift keying signal modulated over 10 OAM modes has been demonstrated over a 0.6 m FSO link and a 0.4 m W-band wireless link at 100 GHz. The experimental results show that the architecture can support future ultrahigh-capacity, converged optical-wireless access networks that require extra bandwidth and system flexibility in mobile data networks.

  17. Test target for characterizing 3D resolution of optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhixiong; Hao, Bingtao; Liu, Wenli; Hong, Baoyu; Li, Jiao

    2014-12-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive 3D imaging technology which has been applied or investigated in many diagnostic fields including ophthalmology, dermatology, dentistry, cardiovasology, endoscopy, brain imaging and so on. Optical resolution is an important characteristic that can describe the quality and utility of an image acquiring system. We employ 3D printing technology to design and fabricate a test target for characterizing 3D resolution of optical coherence tomography. The test target which mimics USAF 1951 test chart was produced with photopolymer. By measuring the 3D test target, axial resolution as well as lateral resolution of a spectral domain OCT system was evaluated. For comparison, conventional microscope and surface profiler were employed to characterize the 3D test targets. The results demonstrate that the 3D resolution test targets have the potential of qualitatively and quantitatively validating the performance of OCT systems.

  18. Focusing optics of a parallel beam CCD optical tomography apparatus for 3D radiation gel dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Krstajić, Nikola; Doran, Simon J

    2006-04-21

    Optical tomography of gel dosimeters is a promising and cost-effective avenue for quality control of radiotherapy treatments such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Systems based on a laser coupled to a photodiode have so far shown the best results within the context of optical scanning of radiosensitive gels, but are very slow ( approximately 9 min per slice) and poorly suited to measurements that require many slices. Here, we describe a fast, three-dimensional (3D) optical computed tomography (optical-CT) apparatus, based on a broad, collimated beam, obtained from a high power LED and detected by a charged coupled detector (CCD). The main advantages of such a system are (i) an acquisition speed approximately two orders of magnitude higher than a laser-based system when 3D data are required, and (ii) a greater simplicity of design. This paper advances our previous work by introducing a new design of focusing optics, which take information from a suitably positioned focal plane and project an image onto the CCD. An analysis of the ray optics is presented, which explains the roles of telecentricity, focusing, acceptance angle and depth-of-field (DOF) in the formation of projections. A discussion of the approximation involved in measuring the line integrals required for filtered backprojection reconstruction is given. Experimental results demonstrate (i) the effect on projections of changing the position of the focal plane of the apparatus, (ii) how to measure the acceptance angle of the optics, and (iii) the ability of the new scanner to image both absorbing and scattering gel phantoms. The quality of reconstructed images is very promising and suggests that the new apparatus may be useful in a clinical setting for fast and accurate 3D dosimetry. PMID:16585845

  19. Focusing optics of a parallel beam CCD optical tomography apparatus for 3D radiation gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krstajic, Nikola; Doran, Simon J.

    2006-04-01

    Optical tomography of gel dosimeters is a promising and cost-effective avenue for quality control of radiotherapy treatments such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Systems based on a laser coupled to a photodiode have so far shown the best results within the context of optical scanning of radiosensitive gels, but are very slow (~9 min per slice) and poorly suited to measurements that require many slices. Here, we describe a fast, three-dimensional (3D) optical computed tomography (optical-CT) apparatus, based on a broad, collimated beam, obtained from a high power LED and detected by a charged coupled detector (CCD). The main advantages of such a system are (i) an acquisition speed approximately two orders of magnitude higher than a laser-based system when 3D data are required, and (ii) a greater simplicity of design. This paper advances our previous work by introducing a new design of focusing optics, which take information from a suitably positioned focal plane and project an image onto the CCD. An analysis of the ray optics is presented, which explains the roles of telecentricity, focusing, acceptance angle and depth-of-field (DOF) in the formation of projections. A discussion of the approximation involved in measuring the line integrals required for filtered backprojection reconstruction is given. Experimental results demonstrate (i) the effect on projections of changing the position of the focal plane of the apparatus, (ii) how to measure the acceptance angle of the optics, and (iii) the ability of the new scanner to image both absorbing and scattering gel phantoms. The quality of reconstructed images is very promising and suggests that the new apparatus may be useful in a clinical setting for fast and accurate 3D dosimetry.

  20. Role of amplified spontaneous emission in optical free-space communication links with optical amplification: impact on isolation and data transmission and utilization for pointing, acquisition, and

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winzer, Peter J.; Kalmar, Andras; Leeb, Walter R.

    1999-04-01

    We investigate the role of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) produced by an optical booster amplifier at the transmitter of free-space optical communication links. In a communication terminal with a single telescope for both transmission and reception, this ASE power has to be taken into account in connection with transmit-to-receive channel isolation, especially since it partly occupies the same state of polarization and the same frequency band as the receive signal. We show that the booster ASE intercepted by the receiver can represent a non-negligible source of background radiation: In a typical optical intersatellite link scenario, the ASE power spectral density generated by the booster amplifier at the transmitter and coupled to the receiver will be on the order of 10-20 W/Hz, which equals the background radiation of the sun. Exploiting these findings for pointing, acquisition, and tracking (PAT) purposes, we describe a patent-pending PAT system doing without beacon lasers and without the need for diverting a part of the data signal for PAT. Utilizing the transmit booster ASE over a bandwidth of e.g. 20 nm at the receiver, a total power of about -46 dBm is available for PAT purposes without extra power consumption at the transmitter and without the need for beacon lAser alignment.

  1. 3D reconstruction of SEM images by use of optical photogrammetry software.

    PubMed

    Eulitz, Mona; Reiss, Gebhard

    2015-08-01

    Reconstruction of the three-dimensional (3D) surface of an object to be examined is widely used for structure analysis in science and many biological questions require information about their true 3D structure. For Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) there has been no efficient non-destructive solution for reconstruction of the surface morphology to date. The well-known method of recording stereo pair images generates a 3D stereoscope reconstruction of a section, but not of the complete sample surface. We present a simple and non-destructive method of 3D surface reconstruction from SEM samples based on the principles of optical close range photogrammetry. In optical close range photogrammetry a series of overlapping photos is used to generate a 3D model of the surface of an object. We adapted this method to the special SEM requirements. Instead of moving a detector around the object, the object itself was rotated. A series of overlapping photos was stitched and converted into a 3D model using the software commonly used for optical photogrammetry. A rabbit kidney glomerulus was used to demonstrate the workflow of this adaption. The reconstruction produced a realistic and high-resolution 3D mesh model of the glomerular surface. The study showed that SEM micrographs are suitable for 3D reconstruction by optical photogrammetry. This new approach is a simple and useful method of 3D surface reconstruction and suitable for various applications in research and teaching.

  2. 3-D Adaptive Sparsity Based Image Compression with Applications to Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Leyuan; Li, Shutao; Kang, Xudong; Izatt, Joseph A.; Farsiu, Sina

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel general-purpose compression method for tomographic images, termed 3D adaptive sparse representation based compression (3D-ASRC). In this paper, we focus on applications of 3D-ASRC for the compression of ophthalmic 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. The 3D-ASRC algorithm exploits correlations among adjacent OCT images to improve compression performance, yet is sensitive to preserving their differences. Due to the inherent denoising mechanism of the sparsity based 3D-ASRC, the quality of the compressed images are often better than the raw images they are based on. Experiments on clinical-grade retinal OCT images demonstrate the superiority of the proposed 3D-ASRC over other well-known compression methods. PMID:25561591

  3. Optical multidimensional multiple access(O-MDMA): a new concept for free-space laser communication based on photonic mixer devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Holger; Albrecht, Martin; Grothof, Markus; Hussmann, Stephan; Schwarte, Rudolf

    2004-01-01

    Working on optical distance measurement a new optical correlator was developed at the Institute for Data Processing of the University of Siegen in the last years. The so called Photonic Mixer Device (PMD), to be meant originally for laser ranging systems, offers a lot of advantages for wireless optical data communication like high speed spatial light demodulation up to the GHz range and inherent backlight suppression. This contribution describes the application of such PMDs in a free space interconnect based on the principle of Multi Dimensional Multiple Access (MDMA) and the advantages of this new approach, starting from the MDMA principle and followed by the fundamental functionality of PMDs. After that an Optical MDMA (O-MDMA) demonstrator and first measurement results will be presented.

  4. Light sheet adaptive optics microscope for 3D live imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgenot, C.; Taylor, J. M.; Saunter, C. D.; Girkin, J. M.; Love, G. D.

    2013-02-01

    We report on the incorporation of adaptive optics (AO) into the imaging arm of a selective plane illumination microscope (SPIM). SPIM has recently emerged as an important tool for life science research due to its ability to deliver high-speed, optically sectioned, time-lapse microscope images from deep within in vivo selected samples. SPIM provides a very interesting system for the incorporation of AO as the illumination and imaging paths are decoupled and AO may be useful in both paths. In this paper, we will report the use of AO applied to the imaging path of a SPIM, demonstrating significant improvement in image quality of a live GFP-labeled transgenic zebrafish embryo heart using a modal, wavefront sensorless approach and a heart synchronization method. These experimental results are linked to a computational model showing that significant aberrations are produced by the tube holding the sample in addition to the aberration from the biological sample itself.

  5. Towards a 3-D Magneto-Optical Trap for Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collopy, Alejandra; Hummon, Matthew; Yeo, Mark; Stuhl, Benjamin; Hemmerling, Boerge; Drayna, Garrett; Chae, Eunmi; Ravi, Aakash; Lu, Hsin-I.; Doyle, John; Ye, Jun

    2013-05-01

    As the magneto-optical trap revolutionized atomic physics, we anticipate the molecular counterpart to open doors to unexplored molecular physics, including ultra-cold chemistry. While molecules possess more complex structure than atoms, quasi-cycling cooling transitions are still attainable in a variety of species, including the polar molecule YO. In order to remix dark states, we RF modulate the polarization of the light in our trap. In order to maintain a restoring force, we modulate the orientation of our magnetic fields in phase with the light using LC resonant in-vacuum magnetic coils. We demonstrate magneto-optical trapping in two dimensions for YO, and present progress towards a three dimensional implementation of a MOT loaded from a two-stage buffer gas cell source. We acknowledge support from the AFOSR (MURI), DOE, NIST and the NSF.

  6. Subtractive 3D printing of optically active diamond structures.

    PubMed

    Martin, Aiden A; Toth, Milos; Aharonovich, Igor

    2014-05-21

    Controlled fabrication of semiconductor nanostructures is an essential step in engineering of high performance photonic and optoelectronic devices. Diamond in particular has recently attracted considerable attention as a promising platform for quantum technologies, photonics and high resolution sensing applications. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of optically active, functional diamond structures using gas-mediated electron beam induced etching (EBIE). The technique achieves dry chemical etching at room temperature through the dissociation of surface-adsorbed H2O molecules by energetic electrons in a water vapor environment. Parallel processing is possible by electron flood exposure and the use of an etch mask, while high resolution, mask-free, iterative editing is demonstrated by direct write etching of inclined facets of diamond microparticles. The realized structures demonstrate the potential of EBIE for the fabrication of optically active structures in diamond.

  7. Performance analysis of relay-aided free-space optical communication system over gamma-gamma fading channels with pointing errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Hui-hua; Wang, Ping; Wang, Ran-ran; Liu, Xiao-xia; Guo, Li-xin; Yang, Yin-tang

    2016-07-01

    The average bit error rate ( ABER) performance of a decode-and-forward (DF) based relay-assisted free-space optical (FSO) communication system over gamma-gamma distribution channels considering the pointing errors is studied. With the help of Meijer's G-function, the probability density function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the aggregated channel model are derived on the basis of the best path selection scheme. The analytical ABER expression is achieved and the system performance is then investigated with the influence of pointing errors, turbulence strengths and structure parameters. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is also provided to confirm the analytical ABER expression.

  8. 3D parameter reconstruction in hyperspectral diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saibaba, Arvind K.; Krishnamurthy, Nishanth; Anderson, Pamela G.; Kainerstorfer, Jana M.; Sassaroli, Angelo; Miller, Eric L.; Fantini, Sergio; Kilmer, Misha E.

    2015-03-01

    The imaging of shape perturbation and chromophore concentration using Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) data can be mathematically described as an ill-posed and non-linear inverse problem. The reconstruction algorithm for hyperspectral data using a linearized Born model is prohibitively expensive, both in terms of computation and memory. We model the shape of the perturbation using parametric level-set approach (PaLS). We discuss novel computational strategies for reducing the computational cost based on a Krylov subspace approach for parameteric linear systems and a compression strategy for the parameter-to-observation map. We will demonstrate the validity of our approach by comparison with experiments.

  9. Snapshot 3D optical coherence tomography system using image mappingspectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thuc-Uyen; Pierce, Mark C; Higgins, Laura; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S

    2013-01-01

    A snapshot 3-Dimensional Optical Coherence Tomography system was developed using Image MappingSpectrometry. This system can give depth information (Z) at different spatial positions (XY) withinone camera integration time to potentially reduce motion artifact and enhance throughput. Thecurrent (x,y,λ) datacube of (85×356×117) provides a 3Dvisualization of sample with 400 μm depth and 13.4μm in transverse resolution. Axial resolution of 16.0μm can also be achieved in this proof-of-concept system. We present ananalysis of the theoretical constraints which will guide development of future systems withincreased imaging depth and improved axial and lateral resolutions. PMID:23736629

  10. Controllable 3D atomic Brownian motor in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dion, C. M.; Sjölund, P.; Petra, S. J. H.; Jonsell, S.; Nylén, M.; Sanchez-Palencia, L.; Kastberg, A.

    2008-06-01

    We study a Brownian motor, based on cold atoms in optical lattices, where atomic motion can be induced in a controlled manner in an arbitrary direction, by rectification of isotropic random fluctuations. In contrast with ratchet mechanisms, our Brownian motor operates in a potential that is spatially and temporally symmetric, in apparent contradiction to the Curie principle. Simulations, based on the Fokker-Planck equation, allow us to gain knowledge on the qualitative behaviour of our Brownian motor. Studies of Brownian motors, and in particular ones with unique control properties, are of fundamental interest because of the role they play in protein motors and their potential applications in nanotechnology. In particular, our system opens the way to the study of quantum Brownian motors.

  11. 3D Printing Optical Engine for Controlling Material Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei-Chin; Chang, Kuang-Po; Wu, Ping-Han; Wu, Chih-Hsien; Lin, Ching-Chih; Chuang, Chuan-Sheng; Lin, De-Yau; Liu, Sung-Ho; Horng, Ji-Bin; Tsau, Fang-Hei

    Controlling the cooling rate of alloy during melting and resolidification is the most commonly used method for varying the material microstructure and consequently the resuling property. However, the cooling rate of a selective laser melting (SLM) production is restricted by a preset optimal parameter of a good dense product. The head room for locally manipulating material property in a process is marginal. In this study, we invent an Optical Engine for locally controlling material microstructure in a SLM process. It develops an invovative method to control and adjust thermal history of the solidification process to gain desired material microstucture and consequently drastically improving the quality. Process parameters selected locally for specific materials requirement according to designed characteristics by using thermal dynamic principles of solidification process. It utilize a technique of complex laser beam shape of adaptive irradiation profile to permit local control of material characteristics as desired. This technology could be useful for industrial application of medical implant, aerospace and automobile industries.

  12. An optical real-time 3D measurement for analysis of facial shape and movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qican; Su, Xianyu; Chen, Wenjing; Cao, Yiping; Xiang, Liqun

    2003-12-01

    Optical non-contact 3-D shape measurement provides a novel and useful tool for analysis of facial shape and movement in presurgical and postsurgical regular check. In this article we present a system, which allows a precise 3-D visualization of the patient's facial before and after craniofacial surgery. We discussed, in this paper, the real time 3-D image capture, processing and the 3-D phase unwrapping method to recover complex shape deformation when the movement of the mouth. The result of real-time measurement for facial shape and movement will be helpful for the more ideal effect in plastic surgery.

  13. Dynamic complex optical fields for optical manipulation, 3D microscopy, and photostimulation of neurotransmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daria, Vincent R.; Stricker, Christian; Bekkers, John; Redman, Steve; Bachor, Hans

    2010-08-01

    We demonstrate a multi-functional system capable of multiple-site two-photon excitation of photo-sensitive compounds as well as transfer of optical mechanical properties on an array of mesoscopic particles. We use holographic projection of a single Ti:Sapphire laser operating in femtosecond pulse mode to show that the projected three-dimensional light patterns have sufficient spatiotemporal photon density for multi-site two-photon excitation of biological fluorescent markers and caged neurotransmitters. Using the same laser operating in continuous-wave mode, we can use the same light patterns for non-invasive transfer of both linear and orbital angular momentum on a variety of mesoscopic particles. The system also incorporates high-speed scanning using acousto-optic modulators to rapidly render 3D images of neuron samples via two-photon microscopy.

  14. Integration of 3D anatomical data obtained by CT imaging and 3D optical scanning for computer aided implant surgery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A precise placement of dental implants is a crucial step to optimize both prosthetic aspects and functional constraints. In this context, the use of virtual guiding systems has been recognized as a fundamental tool to control the ideal implant position. In particular, complex periodontal surgeries can be performed using preoperative planning based on CT data. The critical point of the procedure relies on the lack of accuracy in transferring CT planning information to surgical field through custom-made stereo-lithographic surgical guides. Methods In this work, a novel methodology is proposed for monitoring loss of accuracy in transferring CT dental information into periodontal surgical field. The methodology is based on integrating 3D data of anatomical (impression and cast) and preoperative (radiographic template) models, obtained by both CT and optical scanning processes. Results A clinical case, relative to a fully edentulous jaw patient, has been used as test case to assess the accuracy of the various steps concurring in manufacturing surgical guides. In particular, a surgical guide has been designed to place implants in the bone structure of the patient. The analysis of the results has allowed the clinician to monitor all the errors, which have been occurring step by step manufacturing the physical templates. Conclusions The use of an optical scanner, which has a higher resolution and accuracy than CT scanning, has demonstrated to be a valid support to control the precision of the various physical models adopted and to point out possible error sources. A case study regarding a fully edentulous patient has confirmed the feasibility of the proposed methodology. PMID:21338504

  15. Fiber-wireless integrated mobile backhaul network based on a hybrid millimeter-wave and free-space-optics architecture with an adaptive diversity combining technique.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junwen; Wang, Jing; Xu, Yuming; Xu, Mu; Lu, Feng; Cheng, Lin; Yu, Jianjun; Chang, Gee-Kung

    2016-05-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel fiber-wireless integrated mobile backhaul network based on a hybrid millimeter-wave (MMW) and free-space-optics (FSO) architecture using an adaptive combining technique. Both 60 GHz MMW and FSO links are demonstrated and fully integrated with optical fibers in a scalable and cost-effective backhaul system setup. Joint signal processing with an adaptive diversity combining technique (ADCT) is utilized at the receiver side based on a maximum ratio combining algorithm. Mobile backhaul transportation of 4-Gb/s 16 quadrature amplitude modulation frequency-division multiplexing (QAM-OFDM) data is experimentally demonstrated and tested under various weather conditions synthesized in the lab. Performance improvement in terms of reduced error vector magnitude (EVM) and enhanced link reliability are validated under fog, rain, and turbulence conditions. PMID:27128036

  16. Fiber-wireless integrated mobile backhaul network based on a hybrid millimeter-wave and free-space-optics architecture with an adaptive diversity combining technique.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junwen; Wang, Jing; Xu, Yuming; Xu, Mu; Lu, Feng; Cheng, Lin; Yu, Jianjun; Chang, Gee-Kung

    2016-05-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel fiber-wireless integrated mobile backhaul network based on a hybrid millimeter-wave (MMW) and free-space-optics (FSO) architecture using an adaptive combining technique. Both 60 GHz MMW and FSO links are demonstrated and fully integrated with optical fibers in a scalable and cost-effective backhaul system setup. Joint signal processing with an adaptive diversity combining technique (ADCT) is utilized at the receiver side based on a maximum ratio combining algorithm. Mobile backhaul transportation of 4-Gb/s 16 quadrature amplitude modulation frequency-division multiplexing (QAM-OFDM) data is experimentally demonstrated and tested under various weather conditions synthesized in the lab. Performance improvement in terms of reduced error vector magnitude (EVM) and enhanced link reliability are validated under fog, rain, and turbulence conditions.

  17. 3D phase stepping optical profilometry using a fiber optic Lloyd's mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosoglu, Gulsen; Yuksel, Heba; Inci, M. Naci

    2016-04-01

    This study defines measurements of three-dimensional rigid-body shapes by using a fiber optic Lloyd's mirror. A fiber optic Lloyd's mirror assembly is basically a technique to create an optical interference pattern using the real light point sources and their images. The generated fringe pattern thanks to this technique is deformed when it is projected on an object's surface. The introduced surface profilometry algorithm depends on a multi-step phase shifting process. The deformed fringe patterns containing information of the object's surface profile are captured by a digital CCD camera. While each frames are captured, required π/2 phase shifts for interference fringe pattern are obtained by mechanically sliding the Lloyd assembly via an ordinary micrometer stage. Some preprocess algorithms are applied to the frames and are processed with an algorithm to accomplish 3D topographies. Finally, the continuous data determines the depth information and the surface topography of the object. The experimental setup is simple and low cost to construct, and is insensitive to the ambient temperature fluctuations and environmental vibrations that cause unwanted effects on the projected fringe pattern. Such a fiber optic Lloyd's system which provides an accurate non-contact measurement without contaminating and harming the object surface has a wide range of applications from laser interference based lithography in nano-scale to macro-scale interferometers.

  18. Inspection, 3D modelling, and rapid prototyping of cultural heritage by means of a 3D optical digitiser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Docchio, F.; Sansoni, G.; Trebeschi, M.

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents the activity carried out to perform the three-dimensional acquisition of the "Vittoria Alata", a 2m-high, bronze statue, symbol of our City, located at the Civici Musei di Arte e Storia (S. Giulia) of Brescia. The acquisition of the statue has been performed by using a three-dimensional vision system based on active triangulation and on the projection of non-coherent light. This system, called OPL-3D, represents one of the research products of our Laboratory, which has been active for years in the development of techniques and systems for the contactless acquisition of free-form, complex shapes. The study, originally motivated by the need to explore a new hypothesis on the origin of the "Vittoria Alata", led to its complete digitization and description in terms of both polygonal and NURBS-based models. A suite of copies of the whole statue has been obtained in the framework of the collaboration between the City Museum and the EOS Electro Optical Systems GmbH, located in Munich, Germany. As a first step, one 30 cm-high replica of the whole statue has been produced using a low-resolution triangle model of the statue (3.5 millions of triangles). As a second step, two 1:1 scale copies of the statue have been produced. For them, the Laboratory has provided the high resolution STL file (16 millions of triangles). The paper discusses in detail the hardware and the software facilities used to implement the whole process, and gives a comprehensive description of the results.

  19. Nanoimprint of a 3D structure on an optical fiber for light wavefront manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calafiore, Giuseppe; Koshelev, Alexander; Allen, Frances I.; Dhuey, Scott; Sassolini, Simone; Wong, Edward; Lum, Paul; Munechika, Keiko; Cabrini, Stefano

    2016-09-01

    Integration of complex photonic structures onto optical fiber facets enables powerful platforms with unprecedented optical functionalities. Conventional nanofabrication technologies, however, do not permit viable integration of complex photonic devices onto optical fibers owing to their low throughput and high cost. In this paper we report the fabrication of a three-dimensional structure achieved by direct nanoimprint lithography on the facet of an optical fiber. Nanoimprint processes and tools were specifically developed to enable a high lithographic accuracy and coaxial alignment of the optical device with respect to the fiber core. To demonstrate the capability of this new approach, a 3D beam splitter has been designed, imprinted and optically characterized. Scanning electron microscopy and optical measurements confirmed the good lithographic capabilities of the proposed approach as well as the desired optical performance of the imprinted structure. The inexpensive solution presented here should enable advancements in areas such as integrated optics and sensing, achieving enhanced portability and versatility of fiber optic components.

  20. Nanoimprint of a 3D structure on an optical fiber for light wavefront manipulation.

    PubMed

    Calafiore, Giuseppe; Koshelev, Alexander; Allen, Frances I; Dhuey, Scott; Sassolini, Simone; Wong, Edward; Lum, Paul; Munechika, Keiko; Cabrini, Stefano

    2016-09-16

    Integration of complex photonic structures onto optical fiber facets enables powerful platforms with unprecedented optical functionalities. Conventional nanofabrication technologies, however, do not permit viable integration of complex photonic devices onto optical fibers owing to their low throughput and high cost. In this paper we report the fabrication of a three-dimensional structure achieved by direct nanoimprint lithography on the facet of an optical fiber. Nanoimprint processes and tools were specifically developed to enable a high lithographic accuracy and coaxial alignment of the optical device with respect to the fiber core. To demonstrate the capability of this new approach, a 3D beam splitter has been designed, imprinted and optically characterized. Scanning electron microscopy and optical measurements confirmed the good lithographic capabilities of the proposed approach as well as the desired optical performance of the imprinted structure. The inexpensive solution presented here should enable advancements in areas such as integrated optics and sensing, achieving enhanced portability and versatility of fiber optic components.

  1. Statistics of link blockage due to cloud cover for free-space optical communications using NCDC surface weather observation data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slobin, S. D.; Piazzolla, S.

    2002-01-01

    Cloud opacity is one of the main atmospheric physical phenomena that can jeopardize the successful completion of an optical link between a spacecraft and a ground station. Hence, the site location chosen for a telescope used for optical communications must rely on knowledge of weather and cloud cover statistics for the geographical area where the telescope itself is located.

  2. Comparison of Aperture Averaging and Receiver Diversity Techniques for Free Space Optical Links in Presence of Turbulence and Various Weather Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Prabhmandeep; Jain, Virander Kumar; Kar, Subrat

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of a Free Space Optic (FSO) link considering the impairments caused by the presence of various weather conditions such as very clear air, drizzle, haze, fog, etc., and turbulence in the atmosphere. Analytic expression for the outage probability is derived using the gamma-gamma distribution for turbulence and accounting the effect of weather conditions using the Beer-Lambert's law. The effect of receiver diversity schemes using aperture averaging and array receivers on the outage probability is studied and compared. As the aperture diameter is increased, the outage probability decreases irrespective of the turbulence strength (weak, moderate and strong) and weather conditions. Similar effects are observed when the number of direct detection receivers in the array are increased. However, it is seen that as the desired level of performance in terms of the outage probability decreases, array receiver becomes the preferred choice as compared to the receiver with aperture averaging.

  3. Atmospheric turbulence mitigation in an OAM-based MIMO free-space optical link using spatial diversity combined with MIMO equalization.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yongxiong; Wang, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Li, Long; Willner, Asher J; Cao, Yinwen; Zhao, Zhe; Yan, Yan; Ahmed, Nisar; Ashrafi, Nima; Ashrafi, Solyman; Bock, Robert; Tur, Moshe; Willner, Alan E

    2016-06-01

    We explore the mitigation of atmospheric turbulence effects for orbital angular momentum (OAM)-based free-space optical (FSO) communications with multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) architecture. Such a system employs multiple spatially separated aperture elements at the transmitter/receiver, and each transmitter aperture contains multiplexed data-carrying OAM beams. We propose to use spatial diversity combined with MIMO equalization to mitigate both weak and strong turbulence distortions. In a 2×2 FSO link with each transmitter aperture containing two multiplexed OAM modes of ℓ=+1 and ℓ=+3, we experimentally show that at least two OAM data channels could be recovered under both weak and strong turbulence distortions using selection diversity assisted with MIMO equalization.

  4. Hybrid polarization-division-multiplexed quadrature phase-shift keying and multi-pulse pulse position modulation for free space optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wenxiao; Wu, Pengxia; Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A new hybrid modulation scheme (PDM-QPSK-MPPM) for free space optical (FSO) communication is proposed in this paper, which is based on the combination of polarization-division-multiplexed quadrature phase-shift keying (PDM-QPSK) and multi-pulse pulse position modulation (MPPM). We describe the transmitter and receiver block diagram and the decoding scheme of proposed scheme, and derive the formulary expressions for symbol-error rate (SER) and upper bound of bit-error rate (BER) in Gamma-Gamma turbulence channel. Performance evaluations and comparisons are implemented through detailed analysis. The numerical results indicate that, under turbulence channel with average power constraint, the proposed hybrid PDM-QPSK-MPPM always offer better BER performance and SER performance than ordinary BPSK and MPPM. In addition, the proposed scheme offers higher bandwidth-utilization efficiency than conventional modulation formats.

  5. Bit error rate analysis of free-space optical system with spatial diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence channel with pointing errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Prabu; Sriram Kumar, D.

    2014-12-01

    Free-space optical communication (FSO) is emerging as a captivating alternative to work out the hindrances in the connectivity problems. It can be used for transmitting signals over common lands and properties that the sender or receiver may not own. The performance of an FSO system depends on the random environmental conditions. The bit error rate (BER) performance of differential phase shift keying FSO system is investigated. A distributed strong atmospheric turbulence channel with pointing error is considered for the BER analysis. Here, the system models are developed for single-input, single-output-FSO (SISO-FSO) and single-input, multiple-output-FSO (SIMO-FSO) systems. The closed-form mathematical expressions are derived for the average BER with various combining schemes in terms of the Meijer's G function.

  6. Performance of free-space optical communication system using differential phase-shift keying subcarrier-intensity modulated over the exponentiated Weibull channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhengguang; Liu, Hongzhan; Liao, Renbo; Ma, Xiaoping

    2015-10-01

    A differential phase-shift keying modulation for free-space optical (FSO) communication is considered in atmospheric turbulence modeled by the exponentiated Weibull distribution. The selection combining (SelC) spatial diversity is used to mitigate the effects of atmospheric turbulence. We analyze the average bit error rate (BER) of the system using SelC spatial diversity by Gauss-Laguerre approximation. The effect of aperture averaging and spatial diversity on the outage probability is also studied. The numerical results show that it requires a smaller level of signal-to-noise ratio to reach the same BER when large aperture and SelC spatial diversity are deployed in the FSO system. Moreover, it is proved that aperture averaging and SelC spatial diversity are effective for improving the performance of the system's outage probability.

  7. Free-space transmission with passive 2D beam steering for multi-gigabit-per-second per-beam indoor optical wireless networks.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chin Wan; Cao, Zizheng; Tangdiongga, Eduward; Koonen, Ton

    2016-08-22

    In order to circumvent radio spectrum congestion, we propose an innovative system which can provide multiple infrared optical wireless beams simultaneously where each beam supports multi-gigabit-per-second communication. Scalable two-dimensional beam steering by means of wavelength tuning is proposed. A passive beam-steering module constructed with cascaded reflection gratings is designed for simultaneous multi-user coverage. We experimentally characterized the beam-steered system and thoroughly evaluated the performance of steered channels using the spectrally efficient and robust discrete multitone modulation in a bandwidth-limited system deploying 10 GHz telecom transceivers. This study reports the achievement of at least 37 Gbps free-space transmission per beam over a distance of up to 2 m over 5.61° × 12.66° scanning angles. PMID:27557201

  8. Nondestructive optical testing of 3D disperse systems with micro- and nano-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezrukova, Alexandra G.

    2005-04-01

    Nondestructive testing and analysis of three-dimensional (3D) disperse systems (DS) with micro- and nano-particles of different nature by complex of optical compatible methods can provide further progress in on-line control of water and air. The simultaneous analysis of 3D-DS by refractometry, absorbency, fluorescence and by different types of light scattering can help to elaborate the sensing elements for specific impurity control. In our research we have investigated by complex of optical methods different 3D-DS such as: proteins, nucleoproteids, lipoproteids, liposomes, viruses, virosomes, lipid emulsions, blood substitutes, latexes, liquid crystals, biological cells with various form and size (including bacterial cells), metallic powders, clays, kimberlites, zeolites, oils, crude oils, etc., and mixtures -- proteins with nucleic acids, liposomes and viruses, liquid crystals with surfactants, mixtures of clay with bacterial cells, samples of natural and water-supply waters, etc. This experience suggests that the set of optical parameters of so called second class is unique for each 3D-DS. In another words each DS can be characterized by n-dimensional vector in n-dimensional space of optical parameters. Mixtures can be considered as polycomponent and polymodal 3D-DS (such as natural water and air). Due to the fusion of various optical data it is possible to indicate by information statistical theory the inverse physical problem on the presence of impurities in mixtures (viruses, bacteria, oil, metallic particles, etc.), and in this case polymodality of particle size distribution is not an obstacle. Bank of optical data for 3D-DS is the base for analysis by information-statistical method.

  9. Complementary cellophane optic gate and its use for a 3D iPad without glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, K.

    2012-04-01

    A complementary cellophane optic gate was fabricated using a birefringent cellophane sheet. Previous versions of the optic gate required the retardance of the cellophane to be as close to 180° as possible throughout the entire visible wavelength range, which meant it was often difficult to find a cellophane sheet with the right thickness and dispersion characteristics to meet this requirement. The complementary optic gate reported in this paper has no restriction on the thickness, composition, or wavelength range of the cellophane sheet except that the cellophane must have some birefringence. Even with an arbitrary retardance, an extinction ratio of 5 × 10-3 was achieved at λ = 0.63 μm. The optic gate was used to convert an iPad into a 3D display without the need for the observer to wear glasses. The high extinction ratio of the optic gate resulted in a 3D display of supreme quality.

  10. 3D printing of tissue-simulating phantoms as a traceable standard for biomedical optical measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Erbao; Wang, Minjie; Shen, Shuwei; Han, Yilin; Wu, Qiang; Xu, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Optical phantoms are commonly used to validate and calibrate biomedical optical devices in order to ensure accurate measurement of optical properties in biological tissue. However, commonly used optical phantoms are based on homogenous materials that reflect neither optical properties nor multi-layer heterogeneities of biological tissue. Using these phantoms for optical calibration may result in significant bias in biological measurement. We propose to characterize and fabricate tissue simulating phantoms that simulate not only the multi-layer heterogeneities but also optical properties of biological tissue. The tissue characterization module detects tissue structural and functional properties in vivo. The phantom printing module generates 3D tissue structures at different scales by layer-by-layer deposition of phantom materials with different optical properties. The ultimate goal is to fabricate multi-layer tissue simulating phantoms as a traceable standard for optimal calibration of biomedical optical spectral devices.

  11. Air-structured optical fibre drawn from a 3D-printed preform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Kevin; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Canning, John; Reid, Zane; Hossain, Md. Arafat; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2015-09-01

    We report the first optical fibre drawn from a 3D-printed preform. An air-structured polymer preform is printed using a modified butadiene plastic called Bendlay as opposed to the more-common Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS). The preform is subsequently drawn to fibre form at a relatively low temperature of 160 °C and maintains its air-structured cladding holes. Such ability to freely-design and 3D-print complex preform structures, such as photonic bandgap and photonic crystal structures, opens up an exciting new front in optical fibre fabrication.

  12. Free-space quantum cryptography

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.J.; Buttler, W.T.; Kwiat, P.G.; Lamoreaux, S.K.; Morgan, G.L.; Nordholt, J.E.; Peterson, C.G.

    1998-12-31

    An experimental free-space quantum key distribution (QKD) system has been tested over an outdoor optical path of {approximately}1 km under nighttime conditions at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This system employs the Bennett 92 protocol; here the authors give a brief overview of this protocol, and describe the experimental implementation of it. An analysis of the system efficiency is presented, as well as a description of the error detection protocol, which employs a two-dimensional parity check scheme. Finally, the susceptibility of this system to eavesdropping by various techniques is determined. Possible applications include the rekeying of satellites in low earth orbit.

  13. Demonstration of 20Gb/s polarization-insensitive wavelength switching system for high-speed free-space optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Feng-chen; Ye, Ya-lin; Wen, Yu; Duan, Tao; Feng, Huan

    2015-10-01

    A 20Gb/s polarization-insensitive all-optical wavelength switching system for high-speed free-space optical communication (FSO) network is experimentally demonstrated All-optical wavelength conversion (AOWC) is implemented using four-wave mixing (FWM) by highly-nonlinear fiber (HNLF). In the experimental setup, a simple actively mode-locked fiber ring laser (AML-FRL) with repetition frequency from 1 to 15 GHz is used to generate eight 2.5Gb/s tributary signals, which are multiplexed into one 20Gb/s optical data stream. At the receiver, the 20 Gb/s OTDM data stream is demultiplexed down to 2.5 Gb/s via a polarization-insensitive FWM scheme. The whole space communication distance is over 10 meters in building hallway. The experimental results show that this system can stably run over 24 hours at 10-9 BER level, thus the proposed architecture can work at higher rate with wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) and high order modulation schemes.

  14. A Coherent Free Space Optical Link for Long Distance Clock Comparison, Navigation, and Communication: The Mini-Doll Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Deppo, V.; Naletto, G.; Cremonese, G.; Calamai, L.; Paolinetti, R.; Debei, S.; Flamini, E.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper the adopted optical design solution for the Stereo Channel of the imaging system SIMBIOSYS for the BepiColombo ESA mission to Mercury is presented. The optical design of the camera together with its performance, expressed in terms of optical quality, tolerance and stray-light analysis, are fully described. The main scientific camera objective is the tridimensional global mapping of the entire surface of Mercury with a scale factor of 50 m per pixel at periherm. Five different spectral bands are foreseen, a panchromatic and four intermediate bands, in the range between 410 and 930 nm. The Stereo Channel consists of two sub-channels looking at ±20° from nadir direction, which share the detector and most of the optical components. The field of view of each channel is 4.8° × 5.3° with a scale factor of 22"/pixel. The chosen modified Schmidt configuration guarantees an optimal aberration balancing over all the field of view and all the wavelength range; in addition the technical solution chosen for the filter manufacturing, i.e. single substrate with stripe-butted filters, allows to further optimize chromatic aberration. For stray-light suppression, an efficient baffling system, able to well separate the two optical paths over the common optical elements, has been designed and an appropriate 'filter masking' has been foreseen to cope with ghosts and cross talk between adjacent filter stripes. The tolerance analysis shows that manufacturing, alignment and stability tolerances are rather relaxed. Thus concluding, the analysis of the global optical performance of the camera assures that the scientific requirements are optimally fulfilled.

  15. Near-infrared optical imaging of human brain based on the semi-3D reconstruction algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Meng, Wei; Qin, Zhuanping; Zhou, Xiaoqing; Zhao, Huijuan; Gao, Feng

    2013-03-01

    In the non-invasive brain imaging with near-infrared light, precise head model is of great significance to the forward model and the image reconstruction. To deal with the individual difference of human head tissues and the problem of the irregular curvature, in this paper, we extracted head structure with Mimics software from the MRI image of a volunteer. This scheme makes it possible to assign the optical parameters to every layer of the head tissues reasonably and solve the diffusion equation with the finite-element analysis. During the solution of the inverse problem, a semi-3D reconstruction algorithm is adopted to trade off the computation cost and accuracy between the full 3-D and the 2-D reconstructions. In this scheme, the changes in the optical properties of the inclusions are assumed either axially invariable or confined to the imaging plane, while the 3-D nature of the photon migration is still retained. This therefore leads to a 2-D inverse issue with the matched 3-D forward model. Simulation results show that comparing to the 3-D reconstruction algorithm, the Semi-3D reconstruction algorithm cut 27% the calculation time consumption.

  16. Quantifying axis orientation in 3D using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Black, Adam J.; Wang, Hui; Akkin, Taner

    2016-03-01

    The optic axis of birefringent tissues indicates the direction of structural anisotropy. Polarization-sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) can provide reflectivity contrast as well as retardance and optic axis orientation contrasts that originate from tissue birefringence. We introduce imaging 3D tissue anisotropy by using a single-camera and polarization-maintaining fiber (PMF) based PS-OCT, which utilizes normal and angled illuminations. Because environmental factors such as the movement of PMF and temperature fluctuations induce arbitrary phase changes, the optic axis orientation measurement has a time-varying offset. In order to measure the absolute axis orientation, we add a calibration path which dynamically provides the arbitrary offset to be subtracted from the relative axis orientation values. The axis orientation on the normal plane is the 2D projection of the fiber direction in 3D space. We propose to characterize the axis orientation in different planes (xy, xy' and x'y planes) by using normal and angled illuminations. This allows calculation of the polar angle that completes the orientation information in 3D. Polarization-based optical systems relying on one illumination angle measure the "apparent birefringence" that light encounters rather than the "true birefringence". Birefringence as a measure of anisotropy is quantified with the orientation information in 3D. The method and validation with a biological tissue are presented. The study can facilitate imaging and mapping the structural connections in anisotropic tissues including the brain.

  17. Study of 3D printing method for GRIN micro-optics devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P. J.; Yeh, J. A.; Hsu, W. Y.; Cheng, Y. C.; Lee, W.; Wu, N. H.; Wu, C. Y.

    2016-03-01

    Conventional optical elements are based on either refractive or reflective optics theory to fulfill the design specifications via optics performance data. In refractive optical lenses, the refractive index of materials and radius of curvature of element surfaces determine the optical power and wavefront aberrations so that optical performance can be further optimized iteratively. Although gradient index (GRIN) phenomenon in optical materials is well studied for more than a half century, the optics theory in lens design via GRIN materials is still yet to be comprehensively investigated before realistic GRIN lenses are manufactured. In this paper, 3D printing method for manufacture of micro-optics devices with special features has been studied based on methods reported in the literatures. Due to the additive nature of the method, GRIN lenses in micro-optics devices seem to be readily achievable if a design methodology is available. First, derivation of ray-tracing formulae is introduced for all possible structures in GRIN lenses. Optics simulation program is employed for characterization of GRIN lenses with performance data given by aberration coefficients in Zernike polynomial. Finally, a proposed structure of 3D printing machine is described with conceptual illustration.

  18. Viewpoint-independent 3D object segmentation for randomly stacked objects using optical object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang-Chia; Nguyen, Thanh-Hung; Lin, Shyh-Tsong

    2015-10-01

    This work proposes a novel approach to segmenting randomly stacked objects in unstructured 3D point clouds, which are acquired by a random-speckle 3D imaging system for the purpose of automated object detection and reconstruction. An innovative algorithm is proposed; it is based on a novel concept of 3D watershed segmentation and the strategies for resolving over-segmentation and under-segmentation problems. Acquired 3D point clouds are first transformed into a corresponding orthogonally projected depth map along the optical imaging axis of the 3D sensor. A 3D watershed algorithm based on the process of distance transformation is then performed to detect the boundary, called the edge dam, between stacked objects and thereby to segment point clouds individually belonging to two stacked objects. Most importantly, an object-matching algorithm is developed to solve the over- and under-segmentation problems that may arise during the watershed segmentation. The feasibility and effectiveness of the method are confirmed experimentally. The results reveal that the proposed method is a fast and effective scheme for the detection and reconstruction of a 3D object in a random stack of such objects. In the experiments, the precision of the segmentation exceeds 95% and the recall exceeds 80%.

  19. 3D reconstruction of coronary arteries using frequency domain optical coherence tomography images and biplane angiography.

    PubMed

    Athanasiou, L S; Bourantas, C V; Siogkas, P K; Sakellarios, A I; Exarchos, T P; Naka, K K; Papafaklis, M I; Michalis, L K; Prati, F; Fotiadis, D I

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe a new method for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of coronary arteries using Frequency Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (FD-OCT) images. The rationale is to fuse the information about the curvature of the artery, derived from biplane angiographies, with the information regarding the lumen wall, which is produced from the FD-OCT examination. The method is based on a three step approach. In the first step the lumen borders in FD-OCT images are detected. In the second step a 3D curve is produced using the center line of the vessel from the two biplane projections. Finally in the third step the detected lumen borders are placed perpendicularly onto the path based on the centroid of each lumen border. The result is a 3D reconstructed artery produced by all the lumen borders of the FD-OCT pullback representing the 3D arterial geometry of the vessel.

  20. 3D mapping of elastic modulus using shear wave optical micro-elastography

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiang; Qi, Li; Miao, Yusi; Ma, Teng; Dai, Cuixia; Qu, Yueqiao; He, Youmin; Gao, Yiwei; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Elastography provides a powerful tool for histopathological identification and clinical diagnosis based on information from tissue stiffness. Benefiting from high resolution, three-dimensional (3D), and noninvasive optical coherence tomography (OCT), optical micro-elastography has the ability to determine elastic properties with a resolution of ~10 μm in a 3D specimen. The shear wave velocity measurement can be used to quantify the elastic modulus. However, in current methods, shear waves are measured near the surface with an interference of surface waves. In this study, we developed acoustic radiation force (ARF) orthogonal excitation optical coherence elastography (ARFOE-OCE) to visualize shear waves in 3D. This method uses acoustic force perpendicular to the OCT beam to excite shear waves in internal specimens and uses Doppler variance method to visualize shear wave propagation in 3D. The measured propagation of shear waves agrees well with the simulation results obtained from finite element analysis (FEA). Orthogonal acoustic excitation allows this method to measure the shear modulus in a deeper specimen which extends the elasticity measurement range beyond the OCT imaging depth. The results show that the ARFOE-OCE system has the ability to noninvasively determine the 3D elastic map. PMID:27762276

  1. Solving tolerancing and 3D beam shaping problems by multifunctional wave optical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehling, Sven; Wyrowski, Frank

    2000-10-01

    A strategy for designing optical systems that are optimized for multiple optical functions on the basis of wave optics is presented. Each optical function is composed of an input field, a set of fixed system parameters, and a merit function. A design algorithm is proposed which is applicable for optical systems consisting of an transmission operator followed by an arbitrary linear operator. The goal is to find the transmission operator which is optimal for all optical functions simultaneously. In later design steps, the found transmission operator can be transformed to real optical elements, for instance by using the thin element approximation. It is shown that the algorithm is efficiently applicable by investigating two sample applications for multifunctional wave optical design: the design of tolerant systems and 3D beam shaping.

  2. Bone tissue phantoms for optical flowmeters at large interoptode spacing generated by 3D-stereolithography

    PubMed Central

    Binzoni, Tiziano; Torricelli, Alessandro; Giust, Remo; Sanguinetti, Bruno; Bernhard, Paul; Spinelli, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    A bone tissue phantom prototype allowing to test, in general, optical flowmeters at large interoptode spacings, such as laser-Doppler flowmetry or diffuse correlation spectroscopy, has been developed by 3D-stereolithography technique. It has been demonstrated that complex tissue vascular systems of any geometrical shape can be conceived. Absorption coefficient, reduced scattering coefficient and refractive index of the optical phantom have been measured to ensure that the optical parameters reasonably reproduce real human bone tissue in vivo. An experimental demonstration of a possible use of the optical phantom, utilizing a laser-Doppler flowmeter, is also presented. PMID:25136496

  3. Bone tissue phantoms for optical flowmeters at large interoptode spacing generated by 3D-stereolithography.

    PubMed

    Binzoni, Tiziano; Torricelli, Alessandro; Giust, Remo; Sanguinetti, Bruno; Bernhard, Paul; Spinelli, Lorenzo

    2014-08-01

    A bone tissue phantom prototype allowing to test, in general, optical flowmeters at large interoptode spacings, such as laser-Doppler flowmetry or diffuse correlation spectroscopy, has been developed by 3D-stereolithography technique. It has been demonstrated that complex tissue vascular systems of any geometrical shape can be conceived. Absorption coefficient, reduced scattering coefficient and refractive index of the optical phantom have been measured to ensure that the optical parameters reasonably reproduce real human bone tissue in vivo. An experimental demonstration of a possible use of the optical phantom, utilizing a laser-Doppler flowmeter, is also presented.

  4. Optical design for uniform scanning in MEMS-based 3D imaging lidar.

    PubMed

    Lee, Xiaobao; Wang, Chunhui

    2015-03-20

    This paper proposes a method for the optical system design of uniform scanning in a larger scan field of view (FOV) in 3D imaging lidar. The theoretical formulas are derived for the design scheme. By employing the optical design software ZEMAX, a foldaway uniform scanning optical system based on MEMS has been designed, and the scanning uniformity and spot size of the system on the target plane, perpendicular to optical axis, are analyzed and discussed. Results show that the designed system can scan uniformly within the FOV of 40°×40° with small spot size for the target at distance of about 100 m. PMID:25968504

  5. Bone tissue phantoms for optical flowmeters at large interoptode spacing generated by 3D-stereolithography.

    PubMed

    Binzoni, Tiziano; Torricelli, Alessandro; Giust, Remo; Sanguinetti, Bruno; Bernhard, Paul; Spinelli, Lorenzo

    2014-08-01

    A bone tissue phantom prototype allowing to test, in general, optical flowmeters at large interoptode spacings, such as laser-Doppler flowmetry or diffuse correlation spectroscopy, has been developed by 3D-stereolithography technique. It has been demonstrated that complex tissue vascular systems of any geometrical shape can be conceived. Absorption coefficient, reduced scattering coefficient and refractive index of the optical phantom have been measured to ensure that the optical parameters reasonably reproduce real human bone tissue in vivo. An experimental demonstration of a possible use of the optical phantom, utilizing a laser-Doppler flowmeter, is also presented. PMID:25136496

  6. Rapid 3D µ-printing of polymer optical whispering-gallery mode resonators.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jushuai; Guo, Xin; Zhang, A Ping; Tam, Hwa-Yaw

    2015-11-16

    A novel microfabrication method for rapid printing of polymer optical whispering-gallery mode (WGM) resonators is presented. A 3D micro-printing technology based on high-speed optical spatial modulator (SLM) and high-power UV light source is developed to fabricate suspended-disk WGM resonator array using SU-8 photoresist. The optical spectral responses of the fabricated polymer WGM resonators were measured with a biconically tapered optical fiber. Experimental results reveal that the demonstrated method is very flexible and time-saving for rapid fabrication of complex polymer WGM resonators. PMID:26698452

  7. Tracking left ventricular borders in 3D echocardiographic sequences using motion-guided optical flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, K. Y. Esther; Danilouchkine, Mikhail G.; van Stralen, Marijn; de Jong, Nico; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.; Bosch, Johan G.

    2009-02-01

    For obtaining quantitative and objective functional parameters from three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic sequences, automated segmentation methods may be preferable to cumbersome manual delineation of 3D borders. In this study, a novel optical-flow based tracking method is proposed for propagating 3D endocardial contours of the left ventricle throughout the cardiac cycle. To take full advantage of the time-continuous nature of cardiac motion, a statistical motion model was explicitly embedded in the optical flow solution. The cardiac motion was modeled as frame-to-frame affine transforms, which were extracted using Procrustes analysis on a set of training contours. Principal component analysis was applied to obtain a compact model of cardiac motion throughout the whole cardiac cycle. The parameters of this model were resolved in an optical flow manner, via spatial and temporal gradients in image intensity. The algorithm was tested on 36 noncontrast and 28 contrast enhanced 3D echocardiographic sequences in a leave-one-out manner. Good results were obtained using a combination of the proposed motion-guided method and a purely data-driven optical flow approach. The improvement was particularly noticeable in areas where the LV wall was obscured by image artifacts. In conclusion, the results show the applicability of the proposed method in clinical quality echocardiograms.

  8. Very high modulation efficiency two-sections tapered laser diode at 1060nm for free space optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, M.; Michel, N.; Calligaro, M.; Robert, Y.; Lecomte, M.; Parillaud, O.; Krakowski, M.; Esquivias, I.; Odriozola, H.; Tijero, J. M. G.; Kwok, C. H.; Penty, R. V.; White, I. H.

    2011-02-01

    High-power (more than 500 mW) and high-speed (more than 1 Gbps) tapered lasers at 1060 nm are required in freespace optical communications and (at lower frequencies of around 100 MHz) display applications for frequency doubling to the green. On a 3 mm long tapered laser, we have obtained an open eye diagram at 1 Gbps, together with a high extinction ratio of 11 dB, an optical modulation amplitude of 530 mW, and a high modulation efficiency of 13 W/A. On a 4 mm-long tapered laser, we have obtained an open eye diagram at 700 Mbps, together with a high extinction ratio of 19 dB, a high optical modulation amplitude of 1.6 W, and a very high modulation efficiency of 19 W/A. On a 6 mm-long tapered laser, we have obtained a very high power of 5W CW and a very high static modulation efficiency of 59.8 W/A.

  9. Towards non-invasive 3D hepatotoxicity assays with optical coherence phase microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Leonard J.; Koulovasilopoulos, Andreas; Treskes, Philipp; Hayes, Peter C.; Plevris, John N.; Bagnaninchi, Pierre O.

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional tissue-engineered models are increasingly recognised as more physiologically-relevant than standard 2D cell culture for pre-clinical drug toxicity testing. However, many types of conventional toxicity assays are incompatible with dense 3D tissues. This study investigated the use of optical coherence phase microscopy (OCPM) as a novel approach to assess cell death in 3D tissue culture. For 3D micro-spheroid formation Human hepatic C3A cells were encapsulated in hyaluronic acid gels and cultured in 100μl MEME/10%FBS in 96-well plates. After spheroid formation the 3D liver constructs were exposed to acetaminophen on culture day 8. Acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in 3D cultures was evaluated using standard biochemical assays. An inverted OCPM in common path configuration was developed with a Callisto OCT engine (Thorlabs), centred at 930nm and a custom scanning head. Intensity data were used to perform in-depth microstructural imaging. In addition, phase fluctuations were measured by collecting several successive B scans at the same location, and statistics on the first time derivative of the phase, i.e. time fluctuations, were analysed over the acquisition time interval to retrieve overall cell viability. OCPM intensity (cell cluster size) and phase fluctuation statistics were directly compared with biochemical assays. In this study, we investigated optical coherence phase tomography to assess cell death in a 3d liver model after exposure to a prototypical hepatotoxin, acetaminophen. We showed that OCPM has the potential to assess noninvasively and label-free drug toxicity in 3D tissue models.

  10. Determination of 3D optic axis orientation in cartilage by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugryumova, Nadya; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2007-02-01

    Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography has been used to solve fast-axis fibre orientation in three dimension space. Previously we have demonstrated that the apparent variations in polar angle orientation of collagen fibers along sagittal ridge of equine third metacarpophalangeal joint exist. A quantitative method based on multiple angles of illumination has been proposed to determine the polar angle of the collagen fibers. This method however ignored the full 3-D structure by assuming that the collagen fibers long-axis lay within the plane of incidence. A new quantitative method based on the theory of light propagation in uniaxial materials is described which avoids this assumption. To test this method we have performed control experiments on a sample of equine tendon (this tissue has well defined c-axis lying along the long-axis of the tendon). Several samples of tendon were cut to achieve a planar surface inclined at -20° to the long axis. Additional 30° rotation provided non-zero azimuthal angle. The surface was then imaged using incident beam angles -40°, -20°, 0, +20°, +40° in two orthogonal planes. Values for both the polar and azimuthal angles were then derived using a numerical optimisation procedure. Results agreed qualitatively with the nominal values but suggested that the accuracy was limited by our method of determining the apparent birefringence.

  11. Determination of 3D optic axis orientation in cartilage by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugryumova, Nadya; Bonesi, Marco; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2008-02-01

    Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography has been used to solve fast-axis fibre orientation in three dimension space. Previously we have demonstrated that the apparent variations in polar angle orientation of collagen fibers along sagittal ridge of equine third metacarpophalangeal joint exist. A quantitative method based on multiple angles of illumination has been proposed to determine the polar angle of the collagen fibers. This method however ignored the full 3D structure by assuming that the collagen fibers long-axis lay within the plane of incidence. A new quantitative method based on the theory of light propagation in uniaxial materials is described which avoids this assumption. To test this method we have performed control experiments on a sample of equine tendon (this tissue has well defined c-axis lying along the long-axis of the tendon). Several samples of tendon were cut to achieve a planar surface inclined at -20° to the long axis. Additional 30° rotation provided non-zero azimuthal angle. The surface was then imaged using incident beam angles -40°, -20°, 0, +20°, +40° in two orthogonal planes. Values for both the polar and azimuthal angles were then derived using a numerical optimisation procedure. Results agreed qualitatively with the nominal values but suggested that the accuracy was limited by our method of determining the apparent birefringence.

  12. A 3D integral imaging optical see-through head-mounted display.

    PubMed

    Hua, Hong; Javidi, Bahram

    2014-06-01

    An optical see-through head-mounted display (OST-HMD), which enables optical superposition of digital information onto the direct view of the physical world and maintains see-through vision to the real world, is a vital component in an augmented reality (AR) system. A key limitation of the state-of-the-art OST-HMD technology is the well-known accommodation-convergence mismatch problem caused by the fact that the image source in most of the existing AR displays is a 2D flat surface located at a fixed distance from the eye. In this paper, we present an innovative approach to OST-HMD designs by combining the recent advancement of freeform optical technology and microscopic integral imaging (micro-InI) method. A micro-InI unit creates a 3D image source for HMD viewing optics, instead of a typical 2D display surface, by reconstructing a miniature 3D scene from a large number of perspective images of the scene. By taking advantage of the emerging freeform optical technology, our approach will result in compact, lightweight, goggle-style AR display that is potentially less vulnerable to the accommodation-convergence discrepancy problem and visual fatigue. A proof-of-concept prototype system is demonstrated, which offers a goggle-like compact form factor, non-obstructive see-through field of view, and true 3D virtual display.

  13. Preliminary results of Terabit-per-second long-range free-space optical transmission Experiment THRUST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giggenbach, D.; Poliak, J.; Mata-Calvo, R.; Fuchs, C.; Perlot, N.; Freund, R.; Richter, T.

    2015-10-01

    Future Very High Throughput Satellite Systems (VHTS) will perform at several Tbit/s throughput and thus face the challenge of limited feeder-link spectrum. Whereas with conventional RF feeder links several tens of ground gateway stations would be required, the total capacity can alternatively be linked through a single optical ground station using Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) techniques as known from terrestrial fiber communications. While intermittent link blockage by clouds can be compensated by ground station diversity, the optical uplink signal is directly affected by scintillation and beam wander induced by the atmospheric index-of-refraction turbulence. The transmission system must be capable to mitigate these distortions by according high-speed tracking and fading compensation techniques. We report on the design of a near-ground long-range (10km) atmospheric transmission test-bed which is, with its relatively low elevation of 1.8 degrees, exemplary for a worst case GEO uplink scenario. The transmitting side of the test-bed consists of a single telescope with a a fine pointing assembly in order to track the atmospheric angle-ofarrival and precisely aim towards the beacon of the receiver. On the other side of the test-bed, the receiver telescope is also capable of fine pointing by tracking the transmitted signal. The GEO uplink scenario is modelled by a precise scaling of the beam divergence and the receiver's field of view as well as by the beacon offset to model the point-ahead angle. In order to make the experimental test-bed correspond to an actual feeder link scenario, the link budget as well as the turbulence profile of the experimental scenario are modelled and compared to the GEO uplink. Several DWDM channels are multiplexed to reach the total link capacity of above one Tbit/s.

  14. Performance of an improved first generation optical CT scanner for 3D dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xin; Adamovics, John; Wuu, Cheng-Shie

    2013-12-01

    Performance analysis of a modified 3D dosimetry optical scanner based on the first generation optical CT scanner OCTOPUS is presented. The system consists of PRESAGE™ dosimeters, the modified 3D scanner, and a new developed in-house user control panel written in Labview program which provides more flexibility to optimize mechanical control and data acquisition technique. The total scanning time has been significantly reduced from initial 8 h to ∼2 h by using the modified scanner. The functional performance of the modified scanner has been evaluated in terms of the mechanical integrity uncertainty of the data acquisition process. Optical density distribution comparison between the modified scanner, OCTOPUS and the treatment plan system has been studied. It has been demonstrated that the agreement between the modified scanner and treatment plans is comparable with that between the OCTOPUS and treatment plans.

  15. Analytical description of 3D optical pulse diffraction by a phase-shifted Bragg grating.

    PubMed

    Golovastikov, Nikita V; Bykov, Dmitry A; Doskolovich, Leonid L; Soifer, Victor A

    2016-08-22

    Diffraction of a three-dimensional (3D) spatiotemporal optical pulse by a phase-shifted Bragg grating (PSBG) is considered. The pulse diffraction is described in terms of signal transmission through a linear system with a transfer function determined by the reflection or transmission coefficient of the PSBG. Resonant approximations of the reflection and transmission coefficients of the PSBG as functions of the angular frequency and the in-plane component of the wave vector are obtained. Using these approximations, a hyperbolic partial differential equation (Klein-Gordon equation) describing a general class of transformations of the incident 3D pulse envelope is derived. A solution to this equation is found in the form of a convolution integral. The presented rigorous simulation results fully confirm the proposed theoretical description. The obtained results may find application in the design of new devices for spatiotemporal pulse shaping and for optical information processing and analog optical computing. PMID:27557167

  16. Optical clearing based cellular-level 3D visualization of intact lymph node cortex

    PubMed Central

    Song, Eunjoo; Seo, Howon; Choe, Kibaek; Hwang, Yoonha; Ahn, Jinhyo; Ahn, Soyeon; Kim, Pilhan

    2015-01-01

    Lymph node (LN) is an important immune organ that controls adaptive immune responses against foreign pathogens and abnormal cells. To facilitate efficient immune function, LN has highly organized 3D cellular structures, vascular and lymphatic system. Unfortunately, conventional histological analysis relying on thin-sliced tissue has limitations in 3D cellular analysis due to structural disruption and tissue loss in the processes of fixation and tissue slicing. Optical sectioning confocal microscopy has been utilized to analyze 3D structure of intact LN tissue without physical tissue slicing. However, light scattering within biological tissues limits the imaging depth only to superficial portion of LN cortex. Recently, optical clearing techniques have shown enhancement of imaging depth in various biological tissues, but their efficacy for LN are remained to be investigated. In this work, we established optical clearing procedure for LN and achieved 3D volumetric visualization of the whole cortex of LN. More than 4 times improvement in imaging depth was confirmed by using LN obtained from H2B-GFP/actin-DsRed double reporter transgenic mouse. With adoptive transfer of GFP expressing B cells and DsRed expressing T cells and fluorescent vascular labeling by anti-CD31 and anti-LYVE-1 antibody conjugates, we successfully visualized major cellular-level structures such as T-cell zone, B-cell follicle and germinal center. Further, we visualized the GFP expressing metastatic melanoma cell colony, vasculature and lymphatic vessels in the LN cortex. PMID:26504662

  17. Generation of nearly 3D-unpolarized evanescent optical near fields using total internal reflection.

    PubMed

    Hassinen, Timo; Popov, Sergei; Friberg, Ari T; Setälä, Tero

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the time-domain partial polarization of optical fields composed of two evanescent waves created in total internal reflection by random electromagnetic beams with orthogonal planes of incidence. We show that such a two-beam configuration enables to generate nearly unpolarized, genuine three-component (3D) near fields. This result complements earlier studies on spectral polarization, which state that at least three symmetrically propagating beams are required to produce a 3D-unpolarized near field. The degree of polarization of the near field can be controlled by adjusting the polarization states and mutual correlation of the incident beams.

  18. Generation of nearly 3D-unpolarized evanescent optical near fields using total internal reflection.

    PubMed

    Hassinen, Timo; Popov, Sergei; Friberg, Ari T; Setälä, Tero

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the time-domain partial polarization of optical fields composed of two evanescent waves created in total internal reflection by random electromagnetic beams with orthogonal planes of incidence. We show that such a two-beam configuration enables to generate nearly unpolarized, genuine three-component (3D) near fields. This result complements earlier studies on spectral polarization, which state that at least three symmetrically propagating beams are required to produce a 3D-unpolarized near field. The degree of polarization of the near field can be controlled by adjusting the polarization states and mutual correlation of the incident beams. PMID:27367071

  19. Real-time visualization of 3-D dynamic microscopic objects using optical diffraction tomography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoohyun; Kim, Kyung Sang; Park, Hyunjoo; Ye, Jong Chul; Park, Yongkeun

    2013-12-30

    3-D refractive index (RI) distribution is an intrinsic bio-marker for the chemical and structural information about biological cells. Here we develop an optical diffraction tomography technique for the real-time reconstruction of 3-D RI distribution, employing sparse angle illumination and a graphic processing unit (GPU) implementation. The execution time for the tomographic reconstruction is 0.21 s for 96(3) voxels, which is 17 times faster than that of a conventional approach. We demonstrated the real-time visualization capability with imaging the dynamics of Brownian motion of an anisotropic colloidal dimer and the dynamic shape change in a red blood cell upon shear flow.

  20. Physical and statistical modeling of attenuation due to atmospheric hydrometeors on free-space optical links at 850 and 1550 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabner, Martin; Kvicera, Vaclav

    2012-10-01

    Atmospheric hydrometeors such as rain and fog may cause attenuation of an optical signal and degrade the performance of free-space optical (FSO) systems. For efficient design of the FSO links, attenuation characteristics must be predicted by sufficiently reliable models that have been tested on experimental data. A long term experiment on the FSO links operating at 850 and 1550 nm wavelengths is conducted in Prague. The path lengths are 100 and 853 m. Received power fluctuations on the FSO links and relevant meteorological quantities such as rain intensity and liquid water content of fog are measured simultaneously. The relationships between the physical parameters of hydrometeors and path attenuation are analyzed and compared with theoretical relations derived using the Mie scattering theory together with some natural assumptions about the physical properties of scattering particles such as droplet size distribution of different types of hydrometeors. Long term statistics of attenuation are obtained and availability performance of the experimental FSO links is assessed. The method for predicting attenuation statistics based on physical and statistical models is introduced and the errors of the proposed models with respect to measured data are analyzed. The models are compared with the existing empirical relationships derived from other FSO experiments and differences are discussed.

  1. Effects of aperture averaging and beam width on a partially coherent Gaussian beam over free-space optical links with turbulence and pointing errors.

    PubMed

    Lee, It Ee; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Ng, Wai Pang; Khalighi, Mohammad-Ali; Liaw, Shien-Kuei

    2016-01-01

    Joint effects of aperture averaging and beam width on the performance of free-space optical communication links, under the impairments of atmospheric loss, turbulence, and pointing errors (PEs), are investigated from an information theory perspective. The propagation of a spatially partially coherent Gaussian-beam wave through a random turbulent medium is characterized, taking into account the diverging and focusing properties of the optical beam as well as the scintillation and beam wander effects. Results show that a noticeable improvement in the average channel capacity can be achieved with an enlarged receiver aperture in the moderate-to-strong turbulence regime, even without knowledge of the channel state information. In particular, it is observed that the optimum beam width can be reduced to improve the channel capacity, albeit the presence of scintillation and PEs, given that either one or both of these adverse effects are least dominant. We show that, under strong turbulence conditions, the beam width increases linearly with the Rytov variance for a relatively smaller PE loss but changes exponentially with steeper increments for higher PE losses. Our findings conclude that the optimal beam width is dependent on the combined effects of turbulence and PEs, and this parameter should be adjusted according to the varying atmospheric channel conditions. Therefore, we demonstrate that the maximum channel capacity is best achieved through the introduction of a larger receiver aperture and a beam-width optimization technique.

  2. Optical design of wavelength selective CPVT system with 3D/2D hybrid concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, N.; Ijiro, T.; Yamada, N.; Kawaguchi, T.; Maemura, T.; Ohashi, H.

    2012-10-01

    Optical design of a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal (CPVT) system is carried out. Using wavelength-selective optics, the system demonstrates 3-D concentration onto a solar cell and 2-D concentration onto a thermal receiver. Characteristics of the two types of concentrator systems are examined with ray-tracing analysis. The first system is a glazed mirror-based concentrator system mounted on a 2-axis pedestal tracker. The size of the secondary optical element is minimized to decrease the cost of the system, and it has a wavelength-selective function for performing 3-D concentration onto a solar cell and 2-D concentration onto a thermal receiver. The second system is a non-glazed beamdown concentrator system containing parabolic mirrors in the lower part. The beam-down selective mirror performs 3-D concentration onto a solar cell placed above the beam-down selective mirror, and 2-D concentration down to a thermal receiver placed at the bottom level. The system is mounted on a two-axis carousel tracker. A parametric study is performed for those systems with different geometrical 2-D/3-D concentration ratios. Wavelength-selective optics such as hot/cold mirrors and spectrum-splitting technologies are taken into account in the analysis. Results show reduced heat load on the solar cell and increased total system efficiency compared to a non-selective CPV system. Requirements for the wavelength-selective properties are elucidated. It is also shown that the hybrid concept with 2-D concentration onto a thermal receiver and 3-D concentration onto a solar cell has an advantageous geometry because of the high total system efficiency and compatibility with the piping arrangement of the thermal receiver.

  3. Combined scanning probe nanotomography and optical microspectroscopy: a correlative technique for 3D characterization of nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Mochalov, Konstantin E; Efimov, Anton E; Bobrovsky, Alexey; Agapov, Igor I; Chistyakov, Anton A; Oleinikov, Vladimir; Sukhanova, Alyona; Nabiev, Igor

    2013-10-22

    Combination of 3D structural analysis with optical characterization of the same sample area on the nanoscale is a highly demanded approach in nanophotonics, materials science, and quality control of nanomaterial. We have developed a correlative microscopy technique where the 3D structure of the sample is reconstructed on the nanoscale by means of a "slice-and-view" combination of ultramicrotomy and scanning probe microscopy (scanning probe nanotomography, SPNT), and its optical characteristics are analyzed using microspectroscopy. This approach has been used to determine the direct quantitative relationship of the 3D structural characteristics of nanovolumes of materials with their microscopic optical properties. This technique has been applied to 3D structural and optical characterization of a hybrid material consisting of cholesteric liquid crystals doped with fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) that can be used for photochemical patterning and image recording through the changes in the dissymmetry factor of the circular polarization of QD emission. The differences in the polarization images and fluorescent spectra of this hybrid material have proved to be correlated with the arrangement of the areas of homogeneous distribution and heterogeneous clustering of QDs. The reconstruction of the 3D nanostructure of the liquid crystal matrix in the areas of homogeneous QDs distribution has shown that QDs do not perturb the periodic planar texture of the cholesteric liquid crystal matrix, whereas QD clusters do perturb it. The combined microspectroscopy-nanotomography technique will be important for evaluating the effects of nanoparticles on the structural organization of organic and liquid crystal matrices and biomedical materials, as well as quality control of nanotechnology fabrication processes and products.

  4. Combined scanning probe nanotomography and optical microspectroscopy: a correlative technique for 3D characterization of nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Mochalov, Konstantin E; Efimov, Anton E; Bobrovsky, Alexey; Agapov, Igor I; Chistyakov, Anton A; Oleinikov, Vladimir; Sukhanova, Alyona; Nabiev, Igor

    2013-10-22

    Combination of 3D structural analysis with optical characterization of the same sample area on the nanoscale is a highly demanded approach in nanophotonics, materials science, and quality control of nanomaterial. We have developed a correlative microscopy technique where the 3D structure of the sample is reconstructed on the nanoscale by means of a "slice-and-view" combination of ultramicrotomy and scanning probe microscopy (scanning probe nanotomography, SPNT), and its optical characteristics are analyzed using microspectroscopy. This approach has been used to determine the direct quantitative relationship of the 3D structural characteristics of nanovolumes of materials with their microscopic optical properties. This technique has been applied to 3D structural and optical characterization of a hybrid material consisting of cholesteric liquid crystals doped with fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) that can be used for photochemical patterning and image recording through the changes in the dissymmetry factor of the circular polarization of QD emission. The differences in the polarization images and fluorescent spectra of this hybrid material have proved to be correlated with the arrangement of the areas of homogeneous distribution and heterogeneous clustering of QDs. The reconstruction of the 3D nanostructure of the liquid crystal matrix in the areas of homogeneous QDs distribution has shown that QDs do not perturb the periodic planar texture of the cholesteric liquid crystal matrix, whereas QD clusters do perturb it. The combined microspectroscopy-nanotomography technique will be important for evaluating the effects of nanoparticles on the structural organization of organic and liquid crystal matrices and biomedical materials, as well as quality control of nanotechnology fabrication processes and products. PMID:23991901

  5. Introductory review on `Flying Triangulation': a motion-robust optical 3D measurement principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettl, Svenja

    2015-04-01

    'Flying Triangulation' (FlyTri) is a recently developed principle which allows for a motion-robust optical 3D measurement of rough surfaces. It combines a simple sensor with sophisticated algorithms: a single-shot sensor acquires 2D camera images. From each camera image, a 3D profile is generated. The series of 3D profiles generated are aligned to one another by algorithms, without relying on any external tracking device. It delivers real-time feedback of the measurement process which enables an all-around measurement of objects. The principle has great potential for small-space acquisition environments, such as the measurement of the interior of a car, and motion-sensitive measurement tasks, such as the intraoral measurement of teeth. This article gives an overview of the basic ideas and applications of FlyTri. The main challenges and their solutions are discussed. Measurement examples are also given to demonstrate the potential of the measurement principle.

  6. 3D Optical Measuring Systems and Laser Technologies for Scientific and Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yu.; Verkhoglyad, A.; Poleshchuk, A.; Korolkov, V.; Sysoev, E.; Zavyalov, P.

    2013-12-01

    Modern industry and science require novel 3D optical measuring systems and laser technologies with micro/nanometer resolution for solving actual problems. Such systems, including the 3D dimensional inspection of ceramic parts for electrotechnical industry, laser inspection of wheel pair diagnostic for running trains and 3D superresolution low-coherent micro- /nanoprofilometers are presented. The newest results in the field of laser technologies for high-precision synthesis of microstructures by updated image generator using the semiconductor laser are given. The measuring systems and the laser image generator developed and produced by TDI SIE and IAE SB RAS have been tested by customers and used in different branches of industry and science.

  7. An optical system for detecting 3D high-speed oscillation of a single ultrasound microbubble

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Yuan, Baohong

    2013-01-01

    As contrast agents, microbubbles have been playing significant roles in ultrasound imaging. Investigation of microbubble oscillation is crucial for microbubble characterization and detection. Unfortunately, 3-dimensional (3D) observation of microbubble oscillation is challenging and costly because of the bubble size—a few microns in diameter—and the high-speed dynamics under MHz ultrasound pressure waves. In this study, a cost-efficient optical confocal microscopic system combined with a gated and intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera were developed to detect 3D microbubble oscillation. The capability of imaging microbubble high-speed oscillation with much lower costs than with an ultra-fast framing or streak camera system was demonstrated. In addition, microbubble oscillations along both lateral (x and y) and axial (z) directions were demonstrated. Accordingly, this system is an excellent alternative for 3D investigation of microbubble high-speed oscillation, especially when budgets are limited. PMID:24049677

  8. Mesoscopic in vivo 3-D tracking of sparse cell populations using angular multiplexed optical projection tomography

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lingling; Alexandrov, Yuriy; Kumar, Sunil; Andrews, Natalie; Dallman, Margaret J.; French, Paul M. W.; McGinty, James

    2015-01-01

    We describe an angular multiplexed imaging technique for 3-D in vivo cell tracking of sparse cell distributions and optical projection tomography (OPT) with superior time-lapse resolution and a significantly reduced light dose compared to volumetric time-lapse techniques. We demonstrate that using dual axis OPT, where two images are acquired simultaneously at different projection angles, can enable localization and tracking of features in 3-D with a time resolution equal to the camera frame rate. This is achieved with a 200x reduction in light dose compared to an equivalent volumetric time-lapse single camera OPT acquisition with 200 projection angles. We demonstrate the application of this technique to mapping the 3-D neutrophil migration pattern observed over ~25.5 minutes in a live 2 day post-fertilisation transgenic LysC:GFP zebrafish embryo following a tail wound. PMID:25909009

  9. An optical system for detecting 3D high-speed oscillation of a single ultrasound microbubble.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Yuan, Baohong

    2013-01-01

    As contrast agents, microbubbles have been playing significant roles in ultrasound imaging. Investigation of microbubble oscillation is crucial for microbubble characterization and detection. Unfortunately, 3-dimensional (3D) observation of microbubble oscillation is challenging and costly because of the bubble size-a few microns in diameter-and the high-speed dynamics under MHz ultrasound pressure waves. In this study, a cost-efficient optical confocal microscopic system combined with a gated and intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera were developed to detect 3D microbubble oscillation. The capability of imaging microbubble high-speed oscillation with much lower costs than with an ultra-fast framing or streak camera system was demonstrated. In addition, microbubble oscillations along both lateral (x and y) and axial (z) directions were demonstrated. Accordingly, this system is an excellent alternative for 3D investigation of microbubble high-speed oscillation, especially when budgets are limited. PMID:24049677

  10. 3D printing method for freeform fabrication of optical phantoms simulating heterogeneous biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Minjie; Shen, Shuwei; Yang, Jie; Dong, Erbao; Xu, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    The performance of biomedical optical imaging devices heavily relies on appropriate calibration. However, many of existing calibration phantoms for biomedical optical devices are based on homogenous materials without considering the multi-layer heterogeneous structures observed in biological tissue. Using such a phantom for optical calibration may result in measurement bias. To overcome this problem, we propose a 3D printing method for freeform fabrication of tissue simulating phantoms with multilayer heterogeneous structure. The phantom simulates not only the morphologic characteristics of biological tissue but also absorption and scattering properties. The printing system is based on a 3D motion platform with coordinated control of the DC motors. A special jet nozzle is designed to mix base, scattering, and absorption materials at different ratios. 3D tissue structures are fabricated through layer-by-layer printing with selective deposition of phantom materials of different ingredients. Different mixed ratios of base, scattering and absorption materials have been tested in order to optimize the printing outcome. A spectrometer and a tissue spectrophotometer are used for characterizing phantom absorption and scattering properties. The goal of this project is to fabricate skin tissue simulating phantoms as a traceable standard for the calibration of biomedical optical spectral devices.

  11. Wave optics theory and 3-D deconvolution for the light field microscope

    PubMed Central

    Broxton, Michael; Grosenick, Logan; Yang, Samuel; Cohen, Noy; Andalman, Aaron; Deisseroth, Karl; Levoy, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Light field microscopy is a new technique for high-speed volumetric imaging of weakly scattering or fluorescent specimens. It employs an array of microlenses to trade off spatial resolution against angular resolution, thereby allowing a 4-D light field to be captured using a single photographic exposure without the need for scanning. The recorded light field can then be used to computationally reconstruct a full volume. In this paper, we present an optical model for light field microscopy based on wave optics, instead of previously reported ray optics models. We also present a 3-D deconvolution method for light field microscopy that is able to reconstruct volumes at higher spatial resolution, and with better optical sectioning, than previously reported. To accomplish this, we take advantage of the dense spatio-angular sampling provided by a microlens array at axial positions away from the native object plane. This dense sampling permits us to decode aliasing present in the light field to reconstruct high-frequency information. We formulate our method as an inverse problem for reconstructing the 3-D volume, which we solve using a GPU-accelerated iterative algorithm. Theoretical limits on the depth-dependent lateral resolution of the reconstructed volumes are derived. We show that these limits are in good agreement with experimental results on a standard USAF 1951 resolution target. Finally, we present 3-D reconstructions of pollen grains that demonstrate the improvements in fidelity made possible by our method. PMID:24150383

  12. Parametric estimation of 3D tubular structures for diffuse optical tomography

    PubMed Central

    Larusson, Fridrik; Anderson, Pamela G.; Rosenberg, Elizabeth; Kilmer, Misha E.; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio; Miller, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    We explore the use of diffuse optical tomography (DOT) for the recovery of 3D tubular shapes representing vascular structures in breast tissue. Using a parametric level set method (PaLS) our method incorporates the connectedness of vascular structures in breast tissue to reconstruct shape and absorption values from severely limited data sets. The approach is based on a decomposition of the unknown structure into a series of two dimensional slices. Using a simplified physical model that ignores 3D effects of the complete structure, we develop a novel inter-slice regularization strategy to obtain global regularity. We report on simulated and experimental reconstructions using realistic optical contrasts where our method provides a more accurate estimate compared to an unregularized approach and a pixel based reconstruction. PMID:23411913

  13. Design and verification of diffractive optical elements for speckle generation of 3-D range sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Pei-Qin; Shih, Hsi-Fu; Chen, Jenq-Shyong; Wang, Yi-Shiang

    2016-09-01

    The optical projection using speckles is one of the structured light methods that have been applied to three-dimensional (3-D) range sensors. This paper investigates the design and fabrication of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) for generating the light field with uniformly distributed speckles. Based on the principles of computer generated holograms, the iterative Fourier transform algorithm was adopted for the DOE design. It was used to calculate the phase map for diffracting the incident laser beam into a goal pattern with distributed speckles. Four patterns were designed in the study. Their phase maps were first examined by a spatial light modulator and then fabricated on glass substrates by microfabrication processes. Finally, the diffraction characteristics of the fabricated devices were verified. The experimental results show that the proposed methods are applicable to the DOE design of 3-D range sensors. Furthermore, any expected diffraction area and speckle density could be possibly achieved according to the relations presented in the paper.

  14. Computational optical-sectioning microscopy for 3D quantization of cell motion: results and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, James G.

    1994-09-01

    How cells move and navigate within a 3D tissue mass is of central importance in such diverse problems as embryonic development, wound healing and metastasis. This locomotion can now be visualized and quantified by using computation optical-sectioning microscopy. In this approach, a series of 2D images at different depths in a specimen are stacked to construct a 3D image, and then with a knowledge of the microscope's point-spread function, the actual distribution of fluorescent intensity in the specimen is estimated via computation. When coupled with wide-field optics and a cooled CCD camera, this approach permits non-destructive 3D imaging of living specimens over long time periods. With these techniques, we have observed a complex diversity of motile behaviors in a model embryonic system, the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium. To understand the mechanisms which control these various behaviors, we are examining motion in various Dictyostelium mutants with known defects in proteins thought to be essential for signal reception, cell-cell adhesion or locomotion. This application of computational techniques to analyze 3D cell locomotion raises several technical challenges. Image restoration techniques must be fast enough to process numerous 1 Gbyte time-lapse data sets (16 Mbytes per 3D image X 60 time points). Because some cells are weakly labeled and background intensity is often high due to unincorporated dye, the SNR in some of these images is poor. Currently, the images are processed by a regularized linear least- squares restoration method, and occasionally by a maximum-likelihood method. Also required for these studies are accurate automated- tracking procedures to generate both 3D trajectories for individual cells and 3D flows for a group of cells. Tracking is currently done independently for each cell, using a cell's image as a template to search for a similar image at the next time point. Finally, sophisticated visualization techniques are needed to view the

  15. 3D printed sensing patches with embedded polymer optical fibre Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubel, Michal G.; Sugden, Kate; Saez-Rodriguez, D.; Nielsen, K.; Bang, O.

    2016-05-01

    The first demonstration of a polymer optical fibre Bragg grating (POFBG) embedded in a 3-D printed structure is reported. Its cyclic strain performance and temperature characteristics are examined and discussed. The sensing patch has a repeatable strain sensitivity of 0.38 pm/μepsilon. Its temperature behaviour is unstable, with temperature sensitivity values varying between 30-40 pm/°C.

  16. Imaging and 3-D dosimetry: top tips for MRI and optical CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Simon J.

    2010-11-01

    The conference "refresher session" associated with this abstract reviews the main principles of the two most important imaging readout modalities for 3-D dosimetry: MRI and optical CT. Best practices for both these techniques are already described in several different places in the literature, but, for the uninitiated, there are a number of pitfalls. Here, I list some of the important considerations required to obtain good results from these methods and point to relevant prior work.

  17. Rapid fabrication of complex 3D extracellular microenvironments by dynamic optical projection stereolithography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, A Ping; Qu, Xin; Soman, Pranav; Hribar, Kolin C; Lee, Jin W; Chen, Shaochen; He, Sailing

    2012-08-16

    The topographic features of the extracelluar matrix (ECM) lay the foundation for cellular behavior. A novel biofabrication method using a digital-mirror device (DMD), called dynamic optical projection stereolithography (DOPsL) is demonstrated. This robust and versatile platform can generate complex biomimetic scaffolds within seconds. Such 3D scaffolds have promising potentials for studying cell interactions with microenvironments in vitro and in vivo.

  18. Fast 3D optical reconstruction in turbid media using spatially modulated light

    PubMed Central

    D’Andrea, Cosimo; Ducros, Nicolas; Bassi, Andrea; Arridge, Simon; Valentini, Gianluca

    2010-01-01

    A method to perform fast 3-D optical reconstruction, based on structured light, in thick samples is demonstrated and experimentally validated. The experimental and reconstruction procedure, based on Finite Elements Method, used to reconstruct absorbing heterogeneities, with arbitrary arrangement in space, is discussed. In particular we demonstrated that a 2D sampling of the source Fourier plane is required to improve the imaging capability. PMID:21258482

  19. Effects of source spatial partial coherence on temporal fade statistics of irradiance flux in free-space optical links through atmospheric turbulence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunyi; Yang, Huamin; Zhou, Zhou; Zhang, Weizhi; Kavehrad, Mohsen; Tong, Shoufeng; Wang, Tianshu

    2013-12-01

    The temporal covariance function of irradiance-flux fluctua-tions for Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beams propagating in atmospheric turbulence is theoretically formulated by making use of the method of effective beam parameters. Based on this formulation, new expressions for the root-mean-square (RMS) bandwidth of the irradiance-flux temporal spectrum due to GSM beams passing through atmospheric turbulence are derived. With the help of these expressions, the temporal fade statistics of the irradiance flux in free-space optical (FSO) communication systems, using spatially partially coherent sources, impaired by atmospheric turbulence are further calculated. Results show that with a given receiver aperture size, the use of a spatially partially coherent source can reduce both the fractional fade time and average fade duration of the received light signal; however, when atmospheric turbulence grows strong, the reduction in the fractional fade time becomes insignificant for both large and small receiver apertures and in the average fade duration turns inconsiderable for small receiver apertures. It is also illustrated that if the receiver aperture size is fixed, changing the transverse correlation length of the source from a larger value to a smaller one can reduce the average fade frequency of the received light signal only when a threshold parameter in decibels greater than the critical threshold level is specified.

  20. Analytical Evaluation of Bit Error Rate Performance of a Free-Space Optical Communication System with Receive Diversity Impaired by Pointing Error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazrul Islam, A. K. M.; Majumder, S. P.

    2015-06-01

    Analysis is carried out to evaluate the conditional bit error rate conditioned on a given value of pointing error for a Free Space Optical (FSO) link with multiple receivers using Equal Gain Combining (EGC). The probability density function (pdf) of output signal to noise ratio (SNR) is also derived in presence of pointing error with EGC. The average BER of a SISO and SIMO FSO links are analytically evaluated by averaging the conditional BER over the pdf of the output SNR. The BER performance results are evaluated for several values of pointing jitter parameters and number of IM/DD receivers. The results show that, the FSO system suffers significant power penalty due to pointing error and can be reduced by increasing in the number of receivers at a given value of pointing error. The improvement of receiver sensitivity over SISO is about 4 dB and 9 dB when the number of photodetector is 2 and 4 at a BER of 10-10. It is also noticed that, system with receive diversity can tolerate higher value of pointing error at a given BER and transmit power.

  1. Performance of a commercial optical CT scanner and polymer gel dosimeters for 3-D dose verification

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y.; Wuu, C.-S.; Maryanski, Marek J.

    2004-11-01

    Performance analysis of a commercial three-dimensional (3-D) dose mapping system based on optical CT scanning of polymer gels is presented. The system consists of BANG{sup reg}3 polymer gels (MGS Research, Inc., Madison, CT), OCTOPUS{sup TM} laser CT scanner (MGS Research, Inc., Madison, CT), and an in-house developed software for optical CT image reconstruction and 3-D dose distribution comparison between the gel, film measurements and the radiation therapy treatment plans. Various sources of image noise (digitization, electronic, optical, and mechanical) generated by the scanner as well as optical uniformity of the polymer gel are analyzed. The performance of the scanner is further evaluated in terms of the reproducibility of the data acquisition process, the uncertainties at different levels of reconstructed optical density per unit length and the effects of scanning parameters. It is demonstrated that for BANG{sup registered}3 gel phantoms held in cylindrical plastic containers, the relative dose distribution can be reproduced by the scanner with an overall uncertainty of about 3% within approximately 75% of the radius of the container. In regions located closer to the container wall, however, the scanner generates erroneous optical density values that arise from the reflection and refraction of the laser rays at the interface between the gel and the container. The analysis of the accuracy of the polymer gel dosimeter is exemplified by the comparison of the gel/OCT-derived dose distributions with those from film measurements and a commercial treatment planning system (Cadplan, Varian Corporation, Palo Alto, CA) for a 6 cmx6 cm single field of 6 MV x rays and a 3-D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) plan. The gel measurements agree with the treatment plans and the film measurements within the '3%-or-2 mm' criterion throughout the usable, artifact-free central region of the gel volume. Discrepancies among the three data sets are analyzed.

  2. Computational-optical microscopy for 3D biological imaging beyond the diffraction limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Ginni

    In recent years, super-resolution imaging has become an important fluorescent microscopy tool. It has enabled imaging of structures smaller than the optical diffraction limit with resolution less than 50 nm. Extension to high-resolution volume imaging has been achieved by integration with various optical techniques. In this thesis, development of a fluorescent microscope to enable high resolution, extended depth, three dimensional (3D) imaging is discussed; which is achieved by integration of computational methods with optical systems. In the first part of the thesis, point spread function (PSF) engineering for volume imaging is discussed. A class of PSFs, referred to as double-helix (DH) PSFs, is generated. The PSFs exhibit two focused spots in the image plane which rotate about the optical axis, encoding depth in rotation of the image. These PSFs extend the depth-of-field up to a factor of ˜5. Precision performance of the DH-PSFs, based on an information theoretical analysis, is compared with other 3D methods with conclusion that the DH-PSFs provide the best precision and the longest depth-of-field. Out of various possible DH-PSFs, a suitable PSF is obtained for super-resolution microscopy. The DH-PSFs are implemented in imaging systems, such as a microscope, with a special phase modulation at the pupil plane. Surface-relief elements which are polarization-insensitive and ˜90% light efficient are developed for phase modulation. The photon-efficient DH-PSF microscopes thus developed are used, along with optimal position estimation algorithms, for tracking and super-resolution imaging in 3D. Imaging at depths-of-field of up to 2.5 microm is achieved without focus scanning. Microtubules were imaged with 3D resolution of (6, 9, 39) nm, which is in close agreement with the theoretical limit. A quantitative study of co-localization of two proteins in volume was conducted in live bacteria. In the last part of the thesis practical aspects of the DH-PSF microscope are

  3. Simultaneous electrochemical and 3D optical imaging of silver nanoparticle oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Martinez-Marrades, Ariadna; Tschulik, Kristina; Patel, Anisha N.; Combellas, Catherine; Kanoufi, Frédéric; Tessier, Gilles; Compton, Richard G.

    2014-03-01

    The oxidation of AgNPs at a thin-film gold electrode is simultaneously investigated via digital holography and electrochemistry. The use of holography allows, for the first time, the 3D visualization of the electrochemical interfacial region at a relatively high acquisition rate. It is demonstrated how the coupling of these two techniques provides complementary chemical information. The ensemble response of the oxidation of surface-adsorbed silver nanoparticles to AgCl is monitored electrochemically, whereas this process is difficult to observe optically. Conversely, the subsequent chemical dissolution of individual AgCl nanocrystals can be tracked optically due to the associated decrease in the scattered light intensity.

  4. Optically Trapped Surface-Enhanced Raman Probes Prepared by Silver Photoreduction to 3D Microstructures.

    PubMed

    Vizsnyiczai, Gaszton; Lestyán, Tamás; Joniova, Jaroslava; Aekbote, Badri L; Strejčková, Alena; Ormos, Pál; Miskovsky, Pavol; Kelemen, Lóránd; Bánó, Gregor

    2015-09-15

    3D microstructures partially covered by silver nanoparticles have been developed and tested for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in combination with optical tweezers. The microstructures made by two-photon polymerization of SU-8 photoresist were manipulated in a dual beam optical trap. The active area of the structures was covered by a SERS-active silver layer using chemically assisted photoreduction from silver nitrate solutions. Silver layers of different grain size distributions were created by changing the photoreduction parameters and characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The structures were tested by measuring the SERS spectra of emodin and hypericin.

  5. Characterization of a parallel beam CCD optical-CT apparatus for 3D radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krstajić, Nikola; Doran, Simon J.

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the initial steps we have taken in establishing CCD based optical-CT as a viable alternative for 3-D radiation dosimetry. First, we compare the optical density (OD) measurements from a high quality test target and variable neutral density filter (VNDF). A modulation transfer function (MTF) of individual projections is derived for three positions of the sinusoidal test target within the scanning tank. Our CCD is then characterized in terms of its signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Finally, a sample reconstruction of a scan of a PRESAGETM (registered trademark of Heuris Pharma, NJ, Skillman, USA.) dosimeter is given, demonstrating the capabilities of the apparatus.

  6. Minimizing camera-eye optical aberrations during the 3D reconstruction of retinal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldana-Iuit, Javier; Martinez-Perez, M. Elena; Espinosa-Romero, Arturo; Diaz-Uribe, Rufino

    2010-05-01

    3D reconstruction of blood vessels is a powerful visualization tool for physicians, since it allows them to refer to qualitative representation of their subject of study. In this paper we propose a 3D reconstruction method of retinal vessels from fundus images. The reconstruction method propose herein uses images of the same retinal structure in epipolar geometry. Images are preprocessed by RISA system for segmenting blood vessels and obtaining feature points for correspondences. The correspondence points process is solved using correlation. The LMedS analysis and Graph Transformation Matching algorithm are used for outliers suppression. Camera projection matrices are computed with the normalized eight point algorithm. Finally, we retrieve 3D position of the retinal tree points by linear triangulation. In order to increase the power of visualization, 3D tree skeletons are represented by surfaces via generalized cylinders whose radius correspond to morphological measurements obtained by RISA. In this paper the complete calibration process including the fundus camera and the optical properties of the eye, the so called camera-eye system is proposed. On one hand, the internal parameters of the fundus camera are obtained by classical algorithms using a reference pattern. On the other hand, we minimize the undesirable efects of the aberrations induced by the eyeball optical system assuming that contact enlarging lens corrects astigmatism, spherical and coma aberrations are reduced changing the aperture size and eye refractive errors are suppressed adjusting camera focus during image acquisition. Evaluation of two self-calibration proposals and results of 3D blood vessel surface reconstruction are presented.

  7. Active optical system for advanced 3D surface structuring by laser remelting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pütsch, O.; Temmler, A.; Stollenwerk, J.; Willenborg, E.; Loosen, P.

    2015-03-01

    Structuring by laser remelting enables completely new possibilities for designing surfaces since material is redistributed but not wasted. In addition to technological advantages, cost and time benefits yield from shortened process times, the avoidance of harmful chemicals and the elimination of subsequent finishing steps such as cleaning and polishing. The functional principle requires a completely new optical machine technology that maintains the spatial and temporal superposition and manipulation of three different laser beams emitted from two laser sources of different wavelength. The optical system has already been developed and demonstrated for the processing of flat samples of hot and cold working steel. However, since particularly the structuring of 3D-injection molds represents an application example of high innovation potential, the optical system has to take into account the elliptical beam geometry that occurs when the laser beams irradiate a curved surface. To take full advantage of structuring by remelting for the processing of 3D surfaces, additional optical functionality, called EPS (elliptical pre-shaping) has to be integrated into the existing set-up. The development of the beam shaping devices not only requires the analysis of the mechanisms of the beam projection but also a suitable optical design. Both aspects are discussed in this paper.

  8. A joint estimation detection of Glaucoma progression in 3D spectral domain optical coherence tomography optic nerve head images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belghith, Akram; Bowd, Christopher; Weinreb, Robert N.; Zangwill, Linda M.

    2014-03-01

    Glaucoma is an ocular disease characterized by distinctive changes in the optic nerve head (ONH) and visual field. Glaucoma can strike without symptoms and causes blindness if it remains without treatment. Therefore, early disease detection is important so that treatment can be initiated and blindness prevented. In this context, important advances in technology for non-invasive imaging of the eye have been made providing quantitative tools to measure structural changes in ONH topography, an essential element for glaucoma detection and monitoring. 3D spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), an optical imaging technique, has been commonly used to discriminate glaucomatous from healthy subjects. In this paper, we present a new framework for detection of glaucoma progression using 3D SD-OCT images. In contrast to previous works that the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurement provided by commercially available spectral-domain optical coherence tomograph, we consider the whole 3D volume for change detection. To integrate a priori knowledge and in particular the spatial voxel dependency in the change detection map, we propose the use of the Markov Random Field to handle a such dependency. To accommodate the presence of false positive detection, the estimated change detection map is then used to classify a 3D SDOCT image into the "non-progressing" and "progressing" glaucoma classes, based on a fuzzy logic classifier. We compared the diagnostic performance of the proposed framework to existing methods of progression detection.

  9. Stereoscopic 3D display with dynamic optical correction for recovering from asthenopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Takashi; Kawai, Takashi; Otsuki, Masaki; Miyake, Nobuyuki; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Tsuneto

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to consider a practical application of a newly developed stereoscopic 3-D display that solves the problem of discrepancy between accommodation and convergence. The display uses dynamic optical correction to reduce the discrepancy, and can present images as if they are actually remote objects. The authors thought the display may assist in recovery from asthenopia, which is often caused when the eyes focus on a nearby object for a long time, such as in VDT (Visual Display Terminal) work. In general, recovery from asthenopia, and especially accommodative asthenopia, is achieved by focusing on distant objects. In order to verify this hypothesis, the authors performed visual acuity tests using Landolt rings before and after presenting stereoscopic 3-D images, and evaluated the degree of recovery from asthenopia. The experiment led to three main conclusions: (1) Visual acuity rose after viewing stereoscopic 3-D images on the developed display. (2) Recovery from asthenopia was particularly effective for the dominant eye in comparison with the other eye. (3) Interviews with the subjects indicated that the Landolt rings were particularly clear after viewing the stereoscopic 3-D images.

  10. Examination of asthenopia recovery using stereoscopic 3D display with dynamic optical correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Takashi; Kawai, Takashi; Ohta, Keiji; Lee, JaeLin; Otsuki, Masaki; Miyake, Nobuyuki; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Tsuneto

    2006-02-01

    A common cause of asthenopia is viewing objects from a short distance, as is the case when working at a VDT (Visual Display Terminal). In general, recovery from asthenopia, especially accommodative asthenopia, is aided by looking into the distance. The authors have developed a stereoscopic 3-D display with dynamic optical correction that may reduce asthenopia. The display does this by reducing the discrepancy between accommodation and convergence, thereby presenting images as if they were actually in the distance. The results of visual acuity tests given before and after presenting stereoscopic 3-D images with this display show a tendency towards less asthenopia. In this study, the authors developed a refraction feedback function that makes the viewer's distance vision more effective when viewing stereoscopic 3-D images on the this display. Using this function, refraction is fed back during viewing and the viewer gradually acquires distance vision. The results of the study suggest that stereoscopic 3-D images are more effective than 2-D images for recovery from asthenopia.

  11. A comprehensive evaluation of the PRESAGE∕optical-CT 3D dosimetry system

    PubMed Central

    Sakhalkar, H. S.; Adamovics, J.; Ibbott, G.; Oldham, M.

    2009-01-01

    This work presents extensive investigations to evaluate the robustness (intradosimeter consistency and temporal stability of response), reproducibility, precision, and accuracy of a relatively new 3D dosimetry system comprising a leuco-dye doped plastic 3D dosimeter (PRESAGE) and a commercial optical-CT scanner (OCTOPUS 5× scanner from MGS Research, Inc). Four identical PRESAGE 3D dosimeters were created such that they were compatible with the Radiologic Physics Center (RPC) head-and-neck (H&N) IMRT credentialing phantom. Each dosimeter was irradiated with a rotationally symmetric arrangement of nine identical small fields (1×3 cm2) impinging on the flat circular face of the dosimeter. A repetitious sequence of three dose levels (4, 2.88, and 1.28 Gy) was delivered. The rotationally symmetric treatment resulted in a dose distribution with high spatial variation in axial planes but only gradual variation with depth along the long axis of the dosimeter. The significance of this treatment was that it facilitated accurate film dosimetry in the axial plane, for independent verification. Also, it enabled rigorous evaluation of robustness, reproducibility and accuracy of response, at the three dose levels. The OCTOPUS 5× commercial scanner was used for dose readout from the dosimeters at daily time intervals. The use of improved optics and acquisition technique yielded substantially improved noise characteristics (reduced to ∼2%) than has been achieved previously. Intradosimeter uniformity of radiochromic response was evaluated by calculating a 3D gamma comparison between each dosimeter and axially rotated copies of the same dosimeter. This convenient technique exploits the rotational symmetry of the distribution. All points in the gamma comparison passed a 2% difference, 1 mm distance-to-agreement criteria indicating excellent intradosimeter uniformity even at low dose levels. Postirradiation, the dosimeters were all found to exhibit a slight increase in opaqueness

  12. A comprehensive evaluation of the PRESAGE/optical-CT 3D dosimetry system.

    PubMed

    Sakhalkar, H S; Adamovics, J; Ibbott, G; Oldham, M

    2009-01-01

    This work presents extensive investigations to evaluate the robustness (intradosimeter consistency and temporal stability of response), reproducibility, precision, and accuracy of a relatively new 3D dosimetry system comprising a leuco-dye doped plastic 3D dosimeter (PRESAGE) and a commercial optical-CT scanner (OCTOPUS 5x scanner from MGS Research, Inc). Four identical PRESAGE 3D dosimeters were created such that they were compatible with the Radiologic Physics Center (RPC) head-and-neck (H&N) IMRT credentialing phantom. Each dosimeter was irradiated with a rotationally symmetric arrangement of nine identical small fields (1 x 3 cm2) impinging on the flat circular face of the dosimeter. A repetitious sequence of three dose levels (4, 2.88, and 1.28 Gy) was delivered. The rotationally symmetric treatment resulted in a dose distribution with high spatial variation in axial planes but only gradual variation with depth along the long axis of the dosimeter. The significance of this treatment was that it facilitated accurate film dosimetry in the axial plane, for independent verification. Also, it enabled rigorous evaluation of robustness, reproducibility and accuracy of response, at the three dose levels. The OCTOPUS 5x commercial scanner was used for dose readout from the dosimeters at daily time intervals. The use of improved optics and acquisition technique yielded substantially improved noise characteristics (reduced to approximately 2%) than has been achieved previously. Intradosimeter uniformity of radiochromic response was evaluated by calculating a 3D gamma comparison between each dosimeter and axially rotated copies of the same dosimeter. This convenient technique exploits the rotational symmetry of the distribution. All points in the gamma comparison passed a 2% difference, 1 mm distance-to-agreement criteria indicating excellent intradosimeter uniformity even at low dose levels. Postirradiation, the dosimeters were all found to exhibit a slight increase in

  13. A comprehensive evaluation of the PRESAGE/optical-CT 3D dosimetry system

    SciTech Connect

    Sakhalkar, H. S.; Adamovics, J.; Ibbott, G.; Oldham, M.

    2009-01-15

    This work presents extensive investigations to evaluate the robustness (intradosimeter consistency and temporal stability of response), reproducibility, precision, and accuracy of a relatively new 3D dosimetry system comprising a leuco-dye doped plastic 3D dosimeter (PRESAGE) and a commercial optical-CT scanner (OCTOPUS 5x scanner from MGS Research, Inc). Four identical PRESAGE 3D dosimeters were created such that they were compatible with the Radiologic Physics Center (RPC) head-and-neck (H and N) IMRT credentialing phantom. Each dosimeter was irradiated with a rotationally symmetric arrangement of nine identical small fields (1x3 cm{sup 2}) impinging on the flat circular face of the dosimeter. A repetitious sequence of three dose levels (4, 2.88, and 1.28 Gy) was delivered. The rotationally symmetric treatment resulted in a dose distribution with high spatial variation in axial planes but only gradual variation with depth along the long axis of the dosimeter. The significance of this treatment was that it facilitated accurate film dosimetry in the axial plane, for independent verification. Also, it enabled rigorous evaluation of robustness, reproducibility and accuracy of response, at the three dose levels. The OCTOPUS 5x commercial scanner was used for dose readout from the dosimeters at daily time intervals. The use of improved optics and acquisition technique yielded substantially improved noise characteristics (reduced to {approx}2%) than has been achieved previously. Intradosimeter uniformity of radiochromic response was evaluated by calculating a 3D gamma comparison between each dosimeter and axially rotated copies of the same dosimeter. This convenient technique exploits the rotational symmetry of the distribution. All points in the gamma comparison passed a 2% difference, 1 mm distance-to-agreement criteria indicating excellent intradosimeter uniformity even at low dose levels. Postirradiation, the dosimeters were all found to exhibit a slight increase in

  14. 3D optical printing of piezoelectric nanoparticle-polymer composite materials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kanguk; Zhu, Wei; Qu, Xin; Aaronson, Chase; McCall, William R; Chen, Shaochen; Sirbuly, Donald J

    2014-10-28

    Here we demonstrate that efficient piezoelectric nanoparticle-polymer composite materials can be optically printed into three-dimensional (3D) microstructures using digital projection printing. Piezoelectric polymers were fabricated by incorporating barium titanate (BaTiO3, BTO) nanoparticles into photoliable polymer solutions such as polyethylene glycol diacrylate and exposing to digital optical masks that could be dynamically altered to generate user-defined 3D microstructures. To enhance the mechanical-to-electrical conversion efficiency of the composites, the BTO nanoparticles were chemically modified with acrylate surface groups, which formed direct covalent linkages with the polymer matrix under light exposure. The composites with a 10% mass loading of the chemically modified BTO nanoparticles showed piezoelectric coefficients (d(33)) of ∼ 40 pC/N, which were over 10 times larger than composites synthesized with unmodified BTO nanoparticles and over 2 times larger than composites containing unmodified BTO nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes to boost mechanical stress transfer efficiencies. These results not only provide a tool for fabricating 3D piezoelectric polymers but lay the groundwork for creating highly efficient piezoelectric polymer materials via nanointerfacial tuning.

  15. Changes in quantitative 3D shape features of the optic nerve head associated with age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopher, Mark; Tang, Li; Fingert, John H.; Scheetz, Todd E.; Abramoff, Michael D.

    2013-02-01

    Optic nerve head (ONH) structure is an important biological feature of the eye used by clinicians to diagnose and monitor progression of diseases such as glaucoma. ONH structure is commonly examined using stereo fundus imaging or optical coherence tomography. Stereo fundus imaging provides stereo views of the ONH that retain 3D information useful for characterizing structure. In order to quantify 3D ONH structure, we applied a stereo correspondence algorithm to a set of stereo fundus images. Using these quantitative 3D ONH structure measurements, eigen structures were derived using principal component analysis from stereo images of 565 subjects from the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS). To evaluate the usefulness of the eigen structures, we explored associations with the demographic variables age, gender, and race. Using regression analysis, the eigen structures were found to have significant (p < 0.05) associations with both age and race after Bonferroni correction. In addition, classifiers were constructed to predict the demographic variables based solely on the eigen structures. These classifiers achieved an area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.62 in predicting a binary age variable, 0.52 in predicting gender, and 0.67 in predicting race. The use of objective, quantitative features or eigen structures can reveal hidden relationships between ONH structure and demographics. The use of these features could similarly allow specific aspects of ONH structure to be isolated and associated with the diagnosis of glaucoma, disease progression and outcomes, and genetic factors.

  16. Development of scanning laser sensor for underwater 3D imaging with the coaxial optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochimizu, Hideaki; Imaki, Masaharu; Kameyama, Shumpei; Saito, Takashi; Ishibashi, Shoujirou; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    We have developed the scanning laser sensor for underwater 3-D imaging which has the wide scanning angle of 120º (Horizontal) x 30º (Vertical) with the compact size of 25 cm diameter and 60 cm long. Our system has a dome lens and a coaxial optics to realize both the wide scanning angle and the compactness. The system also has the feature in the sensitivity time control (STC) circuit, in which the receiving gain is increased according to the time of flight. The STC circuit contributes to detect a small signal by suppressing the unwanted signals backscattered by marine snows. We demonstrated the system performance in the pool, and confirmed the 3-D imaging with the distance of 20 m. Furthermore, the system was mounted on the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), and demonstrated the seafloor mapping at the depth of 100 m in the ocean.

  17. Optical absorption enhancement in 3D nanofibers coated on polymer substrate for photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Amirkianoosh; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan; Tan, Bo

    2015-06-01

    Recent research in the field of photovoltaics has shown that polymer solar cells have great potential to provide low-cost, lightweight and flexible electronic devices to harvest solar energy. In this paper, we propose a new method for the generation of three-dimensional nanofibers coated on polymer substrate induced by femtosecond laser pulses. In this new method, a thin layer of polymer is irradiated by megahertz femtosecond laser pulses under ambient conditions, and a thin fibrous layer is generated on top of the polymer substrate. This method is single step; no additional materials are added, and the layers of the three-dimensional (3D) polymer nanofibrous structures are grown on top of the substrate after laser irradiation. Light spectroscopy results show significant enhancement of light absorption in the generated 3D nanofibrous layers of polymer. Finally, we suggest how to maximize the light trapping and optical absorption of the generated nanofiber cells by optimizing the laser parameters. PMID:26072881

  18. Intrathoracic tumour motion estimation from CT imaging using the 3D optical flow method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Thomas; Zhang, Geoffrey; Huang, Tzung-Chi; Lin, Kang-Ping

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop and validate an automated method for intrathoracic tumour motion estimation from breath-hold computed tomography (BH CT) imaging using the three-dimensional optical flow method (3D OFM). A modified 3D OFM algorithm provided 3D displacement vectors for each voxel which were used to map tumour voxels on expiration BH CT onto inspiration BH CT images. A thoracic phantom and simulated expiration/inspiration BH CT pairs were used for validation. The 3D OFM was applied to the measured inspiration and expiration BH CT images from one lung cancer and one oesophageal cancer patient. The resulting displacements were plotted in histogram format and analysed to provide insight regarding the tumour motion. The phantom tumour displacement was measured as 1.20 and 2.40 cm with full-width at tenth maximum (FWTM) for the distribution of displacement estimates of 0.008 and 0.006 cm, respectively. The maximum error of any single voxel's motion estimate was 1.1 mm along the z-dimension or approximately one-third of the z-dimension voxel size. The simulated BH CT pairs revealed an rms error of less than 0.25 mm. The displacement of the oesophageal tumours was nonuniform and up to 1.4 cm, this was a new finding. A lung tumour maximum displacement of 2.4 cm was found in the case evaluated. In conclusion, 3D OFM provided an accurate estimation of intrathoracic tumour motion, with estimated errors less than the voxel dimension in a simulated motion phantom study. Surprisingly, oesophageal tumour motion was large and nonuniform, with greatest motion occurring at the gastro-oesophageal junction. Presented at The IASTED Second International Conference on Biomedical Engineering (BioMED 2004), Innsbruck, Austria, 16-18 February 2004.

  19. Three-Axis Distributed Fiber Optic Strain Measurement in 3D Woven Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellucci, Matt; Klute, Sandra; Lally, Evan M.; Froggatt, Mark E.; Lowry, David

    2013-01-01

    Recent advancements in composite materials technologies have broken further from traditional designs and require advanced instrumentation and analysis capabilities. Success or failure is highly dependent on design analysis and manufacturing processes. By monitoring smart structures throughout manufacturing and service life, residual and operational stresses can be assessed and structural integrity maintained. Composite smart structures can be manufactured by integrating fiber optic sensors into existing composite materials processes such as ply layup, filament winding and three-dimensional weaving. In this work optical fiber was integrated into 3D woven composite parts at a commercial woven products manufacturing facility. The fiber was then used to monitor the structures during a VARTM manufacturing process, and subsequent static and dynamic testing. Low cost telecommunications-grade optical fiber acts as the sensor using a high resolution commercial Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometer (OFDR) system providing distributed strain measurement at spatial resolutions as low as 2mm. Strain measurements using the optical fiber sensors are correlated to resistive strain gage measurements during static structural loading. Keywords: fiber optic, distributed strain sensing, Rayleigh scatter, optical frequency domain reflectometry

  20. Focus Variation - A New Technology for High Resolution Optical 3D Surface Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, S.

    2009-04-01

    Focus Variation - A New Technology for High Resolution Optical 3D Surface Metrology S. Scherer1, E. Cristea1, O. Huber1, A. Krenn1 1 ALICONA GmbH Graz, Austria The need for increasing accuracy is a characteristic of all geo-applications, and hence of the instruments contributing to obtaining relevant data. Small and fine sensors are being developed, measuring different parameters of our geosystem and requiring continuous validation and calibration. These sensors have often very small components (fine sensors able to sense dust, atmospheric water vapour characteristics, pressure change, gravimeters, satellite micro-components), showing complex topographies including steep flanks and having varying reflective properties. In order to get valid and reliable results, quality assurance of these instruments and sensors is required. The optical technology Focus-Variation, developed by Alicona and added in the latest draft of the upcoming ISO standard 25178, provides high resolution 3D surface metrology even at those complex topographies. The technique of Focus-Variation combines the small depth of focus of an optical system with vertical scanning to provide topographical and color information from the variation of focus. It is used for high-resolution optical 3D surface measurements. The traceable and repeatable measurement results are further being used for calibration and validation purposes. Some of the characteristics of the technology are: - Measurement of instruments / samples with steep flanks up to 80° - Measurement of materials with strongly varying reflection properties - Measurement of surfaces presenting fine (from 10nm) or strong roughness Here, we present the operating principle and possible applications of the optical 3D measurement system "InfiniteFocus", which is based on the technology of Focus-Variation and used for quality assurance in the lab and in production. With the vertical resolution of up to 10nm, InfiniteFocus yields meaningful form and

  1. Extended volume and surface scatterometer for optical characterization of 3D-printed elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannenberg, Florian; Uebeler, Denise; Weiß, Jürgen; Pescoller, Lukas; Weyer, Cornelia; Hahlweg, Cornelius

    2015-09-01

    The use of 3d printing technology seems to be a promising way for low cost prototyping, not only of mechanical, but also of optical components or systems. It is especially useful in applications where customized equipment repeatedly is subject to immediate destruction, as in experimental detonics and the like. Due to the nature of the 3D-printing process, there is a certain inner texture and therefore inhomogeneous optical behaviour to be taken into account, which also indicates mechanical anisotropy. Recent investigations are dedicated to quantification of optical properties of such printed bodies and derivation of corresponding optimization strategies for the printing process. Beside mounting, alignment and illumination means, also refractive and reflective elements are subject to investigation. The proposed measurement methods are based on an imaging nearfield scatterometer for combined volume and surface scatter measurements as proposed in previous papers. In continuation of last year's paper on the use of near field imaging, which basically is a reflective shadowgraph method, for characterization of glossy surfaces like printed matter or laminated material, further developments are discussed. The device has been extended for observation of photoelasticity effects and therefore homogeneity of polarization behaviour. A refined experimental set-up is introduced. Variation of plane of focus and incident angle are used for separation of various the images of the layers of the surface under test, cross and parallel polarization techniques are applied. Practical examples from current research studies are included.

  2. Fiber optic vibration sensor for high-power electric machines realized using 3D printing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igrec, Bojan; Bosiljevac, Marko; Sipus, Zvonimir; Babic, Dubravko; Rudan, Smiljko

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate a lightweight and inexpensive fiber-optic vibration sensor, built using 3D printing technology, for high-power electric machines and similar applications. The working principle is based on modulating the light intensity using a blade attached to a bendable membrane. The sensor prototype was manufactured using PolyJet Matrix technology with DM 8515 Grey 35 Polymer. The sensor shows linear response, expected bandwidth (< 150 Hz), and from our measurements we estimated the damping ratio for used polymer to be ζ ≍ 0.019. The developed prototype is simple to assemble, adjust, calibrate and repair.

  3. Ultra-compact on-chip LED collimation optics by 3D femtosecond direct laser writing.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Simon; Gissibl, Timo; Giessen, Harald; Herkommer, Alois M

    2016-07-01

    By using two-photon lithographic 3D printing, we demonstrate additive manufacturing of a dielectric concentrator directly on a LED chip. With a size of below 200 μm in diameter and length, light output is increased by a factor of 6.2 in collimation direction, while the emission half-angle is reduced by 50%. We measure excellent form fidelity and irradiance patterns close to simulation. Additionally, a more complex shape design is presented, which exhibits a nonconventional triangular illumination pattern. The introduced method features exceptional design freedoms which can be used to tailor high-quality miniature illumination optics for specific lighting tasks, for example, endoscopy. PMID:27367093

  4. 3D imaging of translucent media with a plenoptic sensor based on phase space optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuanzhe; Shu, Bohong; Du, Shaojun

    2015-05-01

    Traditional stereo imaging technology is not working for dynamical translucent media, because there are no obvious characteristic patterns on it and it's not allowed using multi-cameras in most cases, while phase space optics can solve the problem, extracting depth information directly from "space-spatial frequency" distribution of the target obtained by plenoptic sensor with single lens. This paper discussed the presentation of depth information in phase space data, and calculating algorithms with different transparency. A 3D imaging example of waterfall was given at last.

  5. 3D optical sectioning with a new hyperspectral confocal fluorescence imaging system.

    SciTech Connect

    Nieman, Linda T.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Davidson, George S.; Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Haaland, David Michael; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio; Bachand, George David; Jones, Howland D. T.

    2007-02-01

    A novel hyperspectral fluorescence microscope for high-resolution 3D optical sectioning of cells and other structures has been designed, constructed, and used to investigate a number of different problems. We have significantly extended new multivariate curve resolution (MCR) data analysis methods to deconvolve the hyperspectral image data and to rapidly extract quantitative 3D concentration distribution maps of all emitting species. The imaging system has many advantages over current confocal imaging systems including simultaneous monitoring of numerous highly overlapped fluorophores, immunity to autofluorescence or impurity fluorescence, enhanced sensitivity, and dramatically improved accuracy, reliability, and dynamic range. Efficient data compression in the spectral dimension has allowed personal computers to perform quantitative analysis of hyperspectral images of large size without loss of image quality. We have also developed and tested software to perform analysis of time resolved hyperspectral images using trilinear multivariate analysis methods. The new imaging system is an enabling technology for numerous applications including (1) 3D composition mapping analysis of multicomponent processes occurring during host-pathogen interactions, (2) monitoring microfluidic processes, (3) imaging of molecular motors and (4) understanding photosynthetic processes in wild type and mutant Synechocystis cyanobacteria.

  6. Polymer optical fibers integrated directly into 3D orthogonal woven composites for sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamouda, Tamer; Seyam, Abdel-Fattah M.; Peters, Kara

    2015-02-01

    This study demonstrates that standard polymer optical fibers (POF) can be directly integrated into composites from 3D orthogonal woven preforms during the weaving process and then serve as in-situ sensors to detect damage due to bending or impact loads. Different composite samples with embedded POF were fabricated of 3D orthogonal woven composites with different parameters namely number of y-/x-layers and x-yarn density. The signal of POF was not affected significantly by the preform structure. During application of resin using VARTM technique, significant drop in backscattering level was observed due to pressure caused by vacuum on the embedded POF. Measurements of POF signal while in the final composites after resin cure indicated that the backscattering level almost returned to the original level of un-embedded POF. The POF responded to application of bending and impact loads to the composite with a reduction in the backscattering level. The backscattering level almost returned back to its original level after removing the bending load until damage was present in the composite. Similar behavior occurred due to impact events. As the POF itself is used as the sensor and can be integrated throughout the composite, large sections of future 3D woven composite structures could be monitored without the need for specialized sensors or complex instrumentation.

  7. Diffractive 3D XUV optics at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzhezinskaya, Maria; Firsov, Alexander; Erko, Alexei

    2014-09-01

    The 2-Dimensional and 3-Dimensional variable line spacing (VLS) gratings based on total external reflection give the unique possibility for spectroscopy and focusing in application to 4th and 5th generation synchrotron sources. We focus on the elaboration of novel approaches for design and fabrication of 3D VLS working in the entire energy range, from THz to hard X-rays. These optical elements have unique combination of properties and can operate at all XUV sources including Free Electron Lasers (FELs), Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs) and High Harmonic Generators (HHGs). Such 3D DOEs are able to cover the energy range of up to 20 keV with energy resolution λ/Δλ ≥ 1000 for soft x-ray and λ/Δλ ≥ 10000 for hard x-ray. We fabricate 3D VLS for time-resolved spectroscopy (energy range 100 - 2000 eV, 7500-9500 eV), FELs and ERLs (energy range up to 3 keV), and HHGs (energy range 10 - 200 eV).

  8. Kinetic depth effect and optic flow--I. 3D shape from Fourier motion.

    PubMed

    Dosher, B A; Landy, M S; Sperling, G

    1989-01-01

    Fifty-three different 3D shapes were defined by sequences of 2D views (frames) of dots on a rotating 3D surface. (1) Subjects' accuracy of shape identifications dropped from over 90% to less than 10% when either the polarity of the stimulus dots was alternated from light-on-gray to dark-on-gray on successive frames or when neutral gray interframe intervals were interposed. Both manipulations interfere with motion extraction by spatio-temporal (Fourier) and gradient first-order detectors. Second-order (non-Fourier) detectors that use full-wave rectification are unaffected by alternating-polarity but disrupted by interposed gray frames. (2) To equate the accuracy of two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) planar direction-of-motion discrimination in standard and polarity-alternated stimuli, standard contrast was reduced. 3D shape discrimination survived contrast reduction in standard stimuli whereas it failed completely with polarity-alternation even at full contrast. (3) When individual dots were permitted to remain in the image sequence for only two frames, performance showed little loss compared to standard displays where individual dots had an expected lifetime of 20 frames, showing that 3D shape identification does not require continuity of stimulus tokens. (4) Performance in all discrimination tasks is predicted (up to a monotone transformation) by considering the quality of first-order information (as given by a simple computation on Fourier power) and the number of locations at which motion information is required. Perceptual first-order analysis of optic flow is the primary substrate for structure-from-motion computations in random dot displays because only it offers sufficient quality of perceptual motion at a sufficient number of locations.

  9. Three-axis distributed fiber optic strain measurement in 3D woven composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellucci, Matt; Klute, Sandra; Lally, Evan M.; Froggatt, Mark E.; Lowry, David

    2013-03-01

    Recent advancements in composite materials technologies have broken further from traditional designs and require advanced instrumentation and analysis capabilities. Success or failure is highly dependent on design analysis and manufacturing processes. By monitoring smart structures throughout manufacturing and service life, residual and operational stresses can be assessed and structural integrity maintained. Composite smart structures can be manufactured by integrating fiber optic sensors into existing composite materials processes such as ply layup, filament winding and three-dimensional weaving. In this work optical fiber was integrated into 3D woven composite parts at a commercial woven products manufacturing facility. The fiber was then used to monitor the structures during a VARTM manufacturing process, and subsequent static and dynamic testing. Low cost telecommunications-grade optical fiber acts as the sensor using a high resolution commercial Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometer (OFDR) system providing distributed strain measurement at spatial resolutions as low as 2mm. Strain measurements using the optical fiber sensors are correlated to resistive strain gage measurements during static structural loading.

  10. Combining supine MRI and 3D optical scanning for improved surgical planning of breast conserving surgeries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallone, Matthew J.; Poplack, Steven P.; Barth, Richard J., Jr.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2012-02-01

    Image-guided wire localization is the current standard of care for the excision of non-palpable carcinomas during breast conserving surgeries (BCS). The efficacy of this technique depends upon the accuracy of wire placement, maintenance of the fixed wire position (despite patient movement), and the surgeon's understanding of the spatial relationship between the wire and tumor. Notably, breast shape can vary significantly between the imaging and surgical positions. Despite this method of localization, re-excision is needed in approximately 30% of patients due to the proximity of cancer to the specimen margins. These limitations make wire localization an inefficient and imprecise procedure. Alternatively, we investigate a method of image registration and finite element (FE) deformation which correlates preoperative supine MRIs with 3D optical scans of the breast surface. MRI of the breast can accurately define the extents of very small cancers. Furthermore, supine breast MR reduces the amount of tissue deformation between the imaging and surgical positions. At the time of surgery, the surface contour of the breast may be imaged using a handheld 3D laser scanner. With the MR images segmented by tissue type, the two scans are approximately registered using fiducial markers present in both acquisitions. The segmented MRI breast volume is then deformed to match the optical surface using a FE mechanical model of breast tissue. The resulting images provide the surgeon with 3D views and measurements of the tumor shape, volume, and position within the breast as it appears during surgery which may improve surgical guidance and obviate the need for wire localization.

  11. Optical-CT 3D Dosimetry Using Fresnel Lenses with Minimal Refractive-Index Matching Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Bache, Steven; Malcolm, Javian; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Telecentric optical computed tomography (optical-CT) is a state-of-the-art method for visualizing and quantifying 3-dimensional dose distributions in radiochromic dosimeters. In this work a prototype telecentric system (DFOS—Duke Fresnel Optical-CT Scanner) is evaluated which incorporates two substantial design changes: the use of Fresnel lenses (reducing lens costs from $10-30K t0 $1-3K) and the use of a ‘solid tank’ (which reduces noise, and the volume of refractively matched fluid from 1ltr to 10cc). The efficacy of DFOS was evaluated by direct comparison against commissioned scanners in our lab. Measured dose distributions from all systems were compared against the predicted dose distributions from a commissioned treatment planning system (TPS). Three treatment plans were investigated including a simple four-field box treatment, a multiple small field delivery, and a complex IMRT treatment. Dosimeters were imaged within 2h post irradiation, using consistent scanning techniques (360 projections acquired at 1 degree intervals, reconstruction at 2mm). DFOS efficacy was evaluated through inspection of dose line-profiles, and 2D and 3D dose and gamma maps. DFOS/TPS gamma pass rates with 3%/3mm dose difference/distance-to-agreement criteria ranged from 89.3% to 92.2%, compared to from 95.6% to 99.0% obtained with the commissioned system. The 3D gamma pass rate between the commissioned system and DFOS was 98.2%. The typical noise rates in DFOS reconstructions were up to 3%, compared to under 2% for the commissioned system. In conclusion, while the introduction of a solid tank proved advantageous with regards to cost and convenience, further work is required to improve the image quality and dose reconstruction accuracy of the new DFOS optical-CT system. PMID:27019460

  12. Optical-CT 3D Dosimetry Using Fresnel Lenses with Minimal Refractive-Index Matching Fluid.

    PubMed

    Bache, Steven; Malcolm, Javian; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Telecentric optical computed tomography (optical-CT) is a state-of-the-art method for visualizing and quantifying 3-dimensional dose distributions in radiochromic dosimeters. In this work a prototype telecentric system (DFOS-Duke Fresnel Optical-CT Scanner) is evaluated which incorporates two substantial design changes: the use of Fresnel lenses (reducing lens costs from $10-30K t0 $1-3K) and the use of a 'solid tank' (which reduces noise, and the volume of refractively matched fluid from 1 ltr to 10 cc). The efficacy of DFOS was evaluated by direct comparison against commissioned scanners in our lab. Measured dose distributions from all systems were compared against the predicted dose distributions from a commissioned treatment planning system (TPS). Three treatment plans were investigated including a simple four-field box treatment, a multiple small field delivery, and a complex IMRT treatment. Dosimeters were imaged within 2 h post irradiation, using consistent scanning techniques (360 projections acquired at 1 degree intervals, reconstruction at 2mm). DFOS efficacy was evaluated through inspection of dose line-profiles, and 2D and 3D dose and gamma maps. DFOS/TPS gamma pass rates with 3%/3mm dose difference/distance-to-agreement criteria ranged from 89.3% to 92.2%, compared to from 95.6% to 99.0% obtained with the commissioned system. The 3D gamma pass rate between the commissioned system and DFOS was 98.2%. The typical noise rates in DFOS reconstructions were up to 3%, compared to under 2% for the commissioned system. In conclusion, while the introduction of a solid tank proved advantageous with regards to cost and convenience, further work is required to improve the image quality and dose reconstruction accuracy of the new DFOS optical-CT system.

  13. Optical-CT 3D Dosimetry Using Fresnel Lenses with Minimal Refractive-Index Matching Fluid.

    PubMed

    Bache, Steven; Malcolm, Javian; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Telecentric optical computed tomography (optical-CT) is a state-of-the-art method for visualizing and quantifying 3-dimensional dose distributions in radiochromic dosimeters. In this work a prototype telecentric system (DFOS-Duke Fresnel Optical-CT Scanner) is evaluated which incorporates two substantial design changes: the use of Fresnel lenses (reducing lens costs from $10-30K t0 $1-3K) and the use of a 'solid tank' (which reduces noise, and the volume of refractively matched fluid from 1 ltr to 10 cc). The efficacy of DFOS was evaluated by direct comparison against commissioned scanners in our lab. Measured dose distributions from all systems were compared against the predicted dose distributions from a commissioned treatment planning system (TPS). Three treatment plans were investigated including a simple four-field box treatment, a multiple small field delivery, and a complex IMRT treatment. Dosimeters were imaged within 2 h post irradiation, using consistent scanning techniques (360 projections acquired at 1 degree intervals, reconstruction at 2mm). DFOS efficacy was evaluated through inspection of dose line-profiles, and 2D and 3D dose and gamma maps. DFOS/TPS gamma pass rates with 3%/3mm dose difference/distance-to-agreement criteria ranged from 89.3% to 92.2%, compared to from 95.6% to 99.0% obtained with the commissioned system. The 3D gamma pass rate between the commissioned system and DFOS was 98.2%. The typical noise rates in DFOS reconstructions were up to 3%, compared to under 2% for the commissioned system. In conclusion, while the introduction of a solid tank proved advantageous with regards to cost and convenience, further work is required to improve the image quality and dose reconstruction accuracy of the new DFOS optical-CT system. PMID:27019460

  14. Reconstruction and Visualization of Coordinated 3D Cell Migration Based on Optical Flow.

    PubMed

    Kappe, Christopher P; Schütz, Lucas; Gunther, Stefan; Hufnagel, Lars; Lemke, Steffen; Leitte, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Animal development is marked by the repeated reorganization of cells and cell populations, which ultimately determine form and shape of the growing organism. One of the central questions in developmental biology is to understand precisely how cells reorganize, as well as how and to what extent this reorganization is coordinated. While modern microscopes can record video data for every cell during animal development in 3D+t, analyzing these videos remains a major challenge: reconstruction of comprehensive cell tracks turned out to be very demanding especially with decreasing data quality and increasing cell densities. In this paper, we present an analysis pipeline for coordinated cellular motions in developing embryos based on the optical flow of a series of 3D images. We use numerical integration to reconstruct cellular long-term motions in the optical flow of the video, we take care of data validation, and we derive a LIC-based, dense flow visualization for the resulting pathlines. This approach allows us to handle low video quality such as noisy data or poorly separated cells, and it allows the biologists to get a comprehensive understanding of their data by capturing dynamic growth processes in stills. We validate our methods using three videos of growing fruit fly embryos.

  15. Coupling 3D Monte Carlo light transport in optically heterogeneous tissues to photoacoustic signal generation

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    The generation of photoacoustic signals for imaging objects embedded within tissues is dependent on how well light can penetrate to and deposit energy within an optically absorbing object, such as a blood vessel. This report couples a 3D Monte Carlo simulation of light transport to stress wave generation to predict the acoustic signals received by a detector at the tissue surface. The Monte Carlo simulation allows modeling of optically heterogeneous tissues, and a simple MATLAB™ acoustic algorithm predicts signals reaching a surface detector. An example simulation considers a skin with a pigmented epidermis, a dermis with a background blood perfusion, and a 500-μm-dia. blood vessel centered at a 1-mm depth in the skin. The simulation yields acoustic signals received by a surface detector, which are generated by a pulsed 532-nm laser exposure before and after inserting the blood vessel. A MATLAB™ version of the acoustic algorithm and a link to the 3D Monte Carlo website are provided. PMID:25426426

  16. Coupling 3D Monte Carlo light transport in optically heterogeneous tissues to photoacoustic signal generation.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Steven L

    2014-12-01

    The generation of photoacoustic signals for imaging objects embedded within tissues is dependent on how well light can penetrate to and deposit energy within an optically absorbing object, such as a blood vessel. This report couples a 3D Monte Carlo simulation of light transport to stress wave generation to predict the acoustic signals received by a detector at the tissue surface. The Monte Carlo simulation allows modeling of optically heterogeneous tissues, and a simple MATLAB™ acoustic algorithm predicts signals reaching a surface detector. An example simulation considers a skin with a pigmented epidermis, a dermis with a background blood perfusion, and a 500-μm-dia. blood vessel centered at a 1-mm depth in the skin. The simulation yields acoustic signals received by a surface detector, which are generated by a pulsed 532-nm laser exposure before and after inserting the blood vessel. A MATLAB™ version of the acoustic algorithm and a link to the 3D Monte Carlo website are provided.

  17. Brightness-compensated 3-D optical flow algorithm for monitoring cochlear motion patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Tiedemann, Miriam; Fridberger, Anders; Ulfendahl, Mats; de Monvel, Jacques Boutet

    2010-09-01

    A method for three-dimensional motion analysis designed for live cell imaging by fluorescence confocal microscopy is described. The approach is based on optical flow computation and takes into account brightness variations in the image scene that are not due to motion, such as photobleaching or fluorescence variations that may reflect changes in cellular physiology. The 3-D optical flow algorithm allowed almost perfect motion estimation on noise-free artificial sequences, and performed with a relative error of <10% on noisy images typical of real experiments. The method was applied to a series of 3-D confocal image stacks from an in vitro preparation of the guinea pig cochlea. The complex motions caused by slow pressure changes in the cochlear compartments were quantified. At the surface of the hearing organ, the largest motion component was the transverse one (normal to the surface), but significant radial and longitudinal displacements were also present. The outer hair cell displayed larger radial motion at their basolateral membrane than at their apical surface. These movements reflect mechanical interactions between different cellular structures, which may be important for communicating sound-evoked vibrations to the sensory cells. A better understanding of these interactions is important for testing realistic models of cochlear mechanics.

  18. Fast parallel interferometric 3D tracking of numerous optically trapped particles and their hydrodynamic interaction.

    PubMed

    Ruh, Dominic; Tränkle, Benjamin; Rohrbach, Alexander

    2011-10-24

    Multi-dimensional, correlated particle tracking is a key technology to reveal dynamic processes in living and synthetic soft matter systems. In this paper we present a new method for tracking micron-sized beads in parallel and in all three dimensions - faster and more precise than existing techniques. Using an acousto-optic deflector and two quadrant-photo-diodes, we can track numerous optically trapped beads at up to tens of kHz with a precision of a few nanometers by back-focal plane interferometry. By time-multiplexing the laser focus, we can calibrate individually all traps and all tracking signals in a few seconds and in 3D. We show 3D histograms and calibration constants for nine beads in a quadratic arrangement, although trapping and tracking is easily possible for more beads also in arbitrary 2D arrangements. As an application, we investigate the hydrodynamic coupling and diffusion anomalies of spheres trapped in a 3 × 3 arrangement. PMID:22109012

  19. How effective can optical-CT 3D dosimetry be without refractive fluid matching?

    PubMed Central

    Rankine, L; Oldham

    2013-01-01

    Achieving accurate optical CT 3D dosimetry without the use of viscous refractive index (RI) matching fluids would greatly increase convenience. Software has been developed to simulate optical CT 3D dosimetry for a range of scanning configurations including parallel-beam, point and converging light sources. For each configuration the efficacy of 3 refractive media were investigated: air, water, and a fluid closely matched to Presage (RI = 1.00, 1.33 and 1.49 respectively). The results revealed that the useable radius of the dosimeter (i.e. where data was within 2% of truth) reduced to 68% for water-matching, and 31% for dry-scanning in air. Point source incident ray geometry produced slightly more favourable results, although variation between the three geometries was relatively small. The required detector size however, increased by a factor six for dry-scanning, introducing cost penalties. For applications where dose information is not required in the periphery, some dry and low-viscous matching configurations may be feasible. PMID:24454520

  20. Improved Uav-Borne 3d Mapping by Fusing Optical and Laserscanner Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutzi, B.; Weinmann, M.; Meidow, J.

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, a new method for fusing optical and laserscanner data is presented for improved UAV-borne 3D mapping. We propose to equip an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with a small platform which includes two sensors: a standard low-cost digital camera and a lightweight Hokuyo UTM-30LX-EW laserscanning device (210 g without cable). Initially, a calibration is carried out for the utilized devices. This involves a geometric camera calibration and the estimation of the position and orientation offset between the two sensors by lever-arm and bore-sight calibration. Subsequently, a feature tracking is performed through the image sequence by considering extracted interest points as well as the projected 3D laser points. These 2D results are fused with the measured laser distances and fed into a bundle adjustment in order to obtain a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). It is demonstrated that an improvement in terms of precision for the pose estimation is derived by fusing optical and laserscanner data.

  1. Sub-millimeter resolution 3D optical imaging of living tissue using laminar optical tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Burgess, Sean A.

    2009-01-01

    In-vivo imaging of optical contrast in living tissues can allow measurement of functional parameters such as blood oxygenation and detection of targeted and active fluorescent contrast agents. However, optical imaging must overcome the effects of light scattering, which limit the penetration depth and can affect quantitation and sensitivity. This article focuses on a technique for high-resolution, high-speed depth-resolved optical imaging of superficial living tissues called laminar optical tomography (LOT), which is capable of imaging absorbing and fluorescent contrast in living tissues to depths of 2–3 mm with 100–200 micron resolution. An overview of the advantages and challenges of in-vivo optical imaging is followed by a review of currently available techniques for high-resolution optical imaging of tissues. LOT is then described, including a description of the imaging system design and discussion of data analysis and image reconstruction approaches. Examples of recent applications of LOT are then provided and compared to other existing technologies. By measuring multiply-scattered light, Laminar Optical Tomography can probe beneath the surface of living tissues such as the skin and brain. PMID:19844595

  2. Development of portable 3D optical measuring system using structured light projection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) scanners are becoming increasingly common in many industries. However most of these scanning technologies have drawbacks for practical use due to size, weight, accessibility, and ease-of-use. Depending on the application, speed, flexibility and portability can often be deemed more important than accuracy. We have developed a solution to address this market requirement and overcome the aforementioned limitations. To counteract shortcomings such as heavy weight and large size, an optical sensor is used that consists of a laser projector, a camera system, and a multi-touch screen. Structured laser light is projected onto the measured object with a newly designed laser projector employing a single Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) mirror. The optical system is optimized for the combination of a Laser Diode (LD), the MEMS mirror and the size of measurement area to secure the ideal contrast of structured light. Also, we developed a new calibration algorithm for this sensor with MEMS laser projector that uses an optical camera model for point cloud calculation. These technical advancements make the sensor compact, save power consumption, and reduce heat generation yet still allows for rapid calculation. Due to the principle of the measurement, structured light triangulation utilizing phase-shifting technology, resolution is improved. To meet requirements for practical applications, the optics, electronics, image processing, display and data management capabilities have been integrated into a single compact unit.

  3. Fiber based optical tweezers for simultaneous in situ force exertion and measurements in a 3D polyacrylamide gel compartment.

    PubMed

    Ti, Chaoyang; Thomas, Gawain M; Ren, Yundong; Zhang, Rui; Wen, Qi; Liu, Yuxiang

    2015-07-01

    Optical tweezers play an important role in biological applications. However, it is difficult for traditional optical tweezers based on objective lenses to work in a three-dimensional (3D) solid far away from the substrate. In this work, we develop a fiber based optical trapping system, namely inclined dual fiber optical tweezers, that can simultaneously apply and measure forces both in water and in a 3D polyacrylamide gel matrix. In addition, we demonstrate in situ, non-invasive characterization of local mechanical properties of polyacrylamide gel by measurements on an embedded bead. The fiber optical tweezers measurements agree well with those of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The inclined dual fiber optical tweezers provide a promising and versatile tool for cell mechanics study in 3D environments.

  4. Fiber based optical tweezers for simultaneous in situ force exertion and measurements in a 3D polyacrylamide gel compartment

    PubMed Central

    Ti, Chaoyang; Thomas, Gawain M; Ren, Yundong; Zhang, Rui; Wen, Qi; Liu, Yuxiang

    2015-01-01

    Optical tweezers play an important role in biological applications. However, it is difficult for traditional optical tweezers based on objective lenses to work in a three-dimensional (3D) solid far away from the substrate. In this work, we develop a fiber based optical trapping system, namely inclined dual fiber optical tweezers, that can simultaneously apply and measure forces both in water and in a 3D polyacrylamide gel matrix. In addition, we demonstrate in situ, non-invasive characterization of local mechanical properties of polyacrylamide gel by measurements on an embedded bead. The fiber optical tweezers measurements agree well with those of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The inclined dual fiber optical tweezers provide a promising and versatile tool for cell mechanics study in 3D environments. PMID:26203364

  5. Scanning all-fiber-optic endomicroscopy system for 3D nonlinear optical imaging of biological tissues

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yicong; Leng, Yuxin; Xi, Jiefeng; Li, Xingde

    2009-01-01

    An extremely compact all-fiber-optic scanning endomicroscopy system was developed for two-photon fluorescence (TPF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging of biological samples. A conventional double-clad fiber (DCF) was employed in the endomicroscope for single-mode femtosecond pulse delivery, multimode nonlinear optical signals collection and fast two-dimensional scanning. A single photonic bandgap fiber (PBF) with negative group velocity dispersion at two-photon excitation wavelength (i.e. ~810 nm) was used for pulse prechirping in replacement of a bulky grating/lens-based pulse stretcher. The combined use of DCF and PBF in the endomicroscopy system made the endomicroscope basically a plug-and-play unit. The excellent imaging ability of the extremely compact all-fiber-optic nonlinear optical endomicroscopy system was demonstrated by SHG imaging of rat tail tendon and depth-resolved TPF imaging of epithelial tissues stained with acridine orange. The preliminary results suggested the promising potential of this extremely compact all-fiber-optic endomicroscopy system for real-time assessment of both epithelial and stromal structures in luminal organs. PMID:19434122

  6. Axial-Stereo 3-D Optical Metrology for Inner Profile of Pipes Using a Scanning Laser Endoscope

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yuanzheng; Johnston, Richard S.; Melville, C. David; Seibel, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    As the rapid progress in the development of optoelectronic components and computational power, 3D optical metrology becomes more and more popular in manufacturing and quality control due to its flexibility and high speed. However, most of the optical metrology methods are limited to external surfaces. This paper proposed a new approach to measure tiny internal 3D surfaces with a scanning fiber endoscope and axial-stereo vision algorithm. A dense, accurate point cloud of internally machined threads was generated to compare with its corresponding X-ray 3D data as ground truth, and the quantification was analyzed by Iterative Closest Points algorithm. PMID:26640425

  7. Axial-Stereo 3-D Optical Metrology for Inner Profile of Pipes Using a Scanning Laser Endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yuanzheng; Johnston, Richard S.; Melville, C. David; Seibel, Eric J.

    2015-07-01

    As the rapid progress in the development of optoelectronic components and computational power, 3-D optical metrology becomes more and more popular in manufacturing and quality control due to its flexibility and high speed. However, most of the optical metrology methods are limited to external surfaces. This article proposed a new approach to measure tiny internal 3-D surfaces with a scanning fiber endoscope and axial-stereo vision algorithm. A dense, accurate point cloud of internally machined threads was generated to compare with its corresponding X-ray 3-D data as ground truth, and the quantification was analyzed by Iterative Closest Points algorithm.

  8. Free Space Laser Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesh, James

    2000-01-01

    This presentation concerns the use of Laser communication for deep space applications. The presentation reviews the problems with electromagnetic beams and then the advantages and disadvantages of the use of optical communication. The presentation then reviews some of the spacecraft technology with pictures of some of the devices. The ground reception systems and the simplified link calculation are also reviewed. Recent and planned demonstration projects are also reviewed.

  9. 3D optical coherence tomography image registration for guiding cochlear implant insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, Gyeong-Woo; Jeong, Hyun-Woo; Chalasani, Preetham; Chien, Wade W.; Iordachita, Iulian; Taylor, Russell; Niparko, John; Kang, Jin U.

    2014-03-01

    In cochlear implant surgery, an electrode array is inserted into the cochlear canal to restore hearing to a person who is profoundly deaf or significantly hearing impaired. One critical part of the procedure is the insertion of the electrode array, which looks like a thin wire, into the cochlear canal. Although X-ray or computed tomography (CT) could be used as a reference to evaluate the pathway of the whole electrode array, there is no way to depict the intra-cochlear canal and basal turn intra-operatively to help guide insertion of the electrode array. Optical coherent tomography (OCT) is a highly effective way of visualizing internal structures of cochlea. Swept source OCT (SSOCT) having center wavelength of 1.3 micron and 2D Galvonometer mirrors was used to achieve 7-mm depth 3-D imaging. Graphics processing unit (GPU), OpenGL, C++ and C# were integrated for real-time volumetric rendering simultaneously. The 3D volume images taken by the OCT system were assembled and registered which could be used to guide a cochlear implant. We performed a feasibility study using both dry and wet temporal bones and the result is presented.

  10. Accuracy assessment of human trunk surface 3D reconstructions from an optical digitising system.

    PubMed

    Pazos, V; Cheriet, F; Song, L; Labelle, H; Dansereau, J

    2005-01-01

    The lack of reliable techniques to follow up scoliotic deformity from the external asymmetry of the trunk leads to a general use of X-rays and indices of spinal deformity. Young adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis need intensive follow-ups for many years and, consequently, they are repeatedly exposed to ionising radiation, which is hazardous to their long-term health. Furthermore, treatments attempt to improve both spinal and surface deformities, but internal indices do not describe the external asymmetry. The purpose of this study was to assess a commercial, optical 3D digitising system for the 3D reconstruction of the entire trunk for clinical assessment of external asymmetry. The resulting surface is a textured, high-density polygonal mesh. The accuracy assessment was based on repeated reconstructions of a manikin with markers fixed on it. The average normal distance between the reconstructed surfaces and the reference data (markers measured with CMM) was 1.1 +/- 0.9 mm. PMID:15742714

  11. Free-Space Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center organized a workshop on technology availability for free-space power transmission (beam power). This document contains a collection of viewgraph presentations that describes the effort by academia, industry, and the national laboratories in the area of high-frequency, high-power technology applicable to free-space power transmission systems. The areas covered were rectenna technology, high-frequency, high-power generation (gyrotrons, solar pumped lasers, and free electron lasers), and antenna technology.

  12. Particle-based optical pressure sensors for 3D pressure mapping.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Niladri; Xie, Yan; Chalaseni, Sandeep; Mastrangelo, Carlos H

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents particle-based optical pressure sensors for in-flow pressure sensing, especially for microfluidic environments. Three generations of pressure sensitive particles have been developed- flat planar particles, particles with integrated retroreflectors and spherical microballoon particles. The first two versions suffer from pressure measurement dependence on particles orientation in 3D space and angle of interrogation. The third generation of microspherical particles with spherical symmetry solves these problems making particle-based manometry in microfluidic environment a viable and efficient methodology. Static and dynamic pressure measurements have been performed in liquid medium for long periods of time in a pressure range of atmospheric to 40 psi. Spherical particles with radius of 12 μm and balloon-wall thickness of 0.5 μm are effective for more than 5 h in this pressure range with an error of less than 5%.

  13. Full optical characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays using local viewing angle and imaging measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boher, Pierre; Leroux, Thierry; Bignon, Thibault; Collomb-Patton, Véronique

    2012-03-01

    Two commercial auto-stereoscopic 3D displays are characterized a using Fourier optics viewing angle system and an imaging video-luminance-meter. One display has a fixed emissive configuration and the other adapts its emission to the observer position using head tracking. For a fixed emissive condition, three viewing angle measurements are performed at three positions (center, right and left). Qualified monocular and binocular viewing spaces in front of the display are deduced as well as the best working distance. The imaging system is then positioned at this working distance and crosstalk homogeneity on the entire surface of the display is measured. We show that the crosstalk is generally not optimized on all the surface of the display. Display aspect simulation using viewing angle measurements allows understanding better the origin of those crosstalk variations. Local imperfections like scratches and marks generally increase drastically the crosstalk, demonstrating that cleanliness requirements for this type of display are quite critical.

  14. 3D optical phase reconstruction within PMMA samples using a spectral OCT system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briones-R., Manuel d. J.; De La Torre-Ibarra, Manuel H.; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    The optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique has proved to be a useful method in biomedical areas such as ophthalmology, dentistry, dermatology, among many others. In all these applications the main target is to reconstruct the internal structure of the samples from which the physician's expertise may recognize and diagnose the existence of a disease. Nowadays OCT has been applied one step further and is used to study the mechanics of some particular type of materials, where the resulting information involves more than just their internal structure and the measurement of parameters such as displacements, stress and strain. Here we report on a spectral OCT system used to image the internal 3D microstructure and displacement maps from a PMMA (Poly-methyl-methacrylate) sample, subjected to a deformation by a controlled three point bending and tilting. The internal mechanical response of the polymer is shown as consecutive 2D images.

  15. Intra-retinal layer segmentation of 3D optical coherence tomography using coarse grained diffusion map

    PubMed Central

    Kafieh, Raheleh; Rabbani, Hossein; Abramoff, Michael D.; Sonka, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful and noninvasive method for retinal imaging. In this paper, we introduce a fast segmentation method based on a new variant of spectral graph theory named diffusion maps. The research is performed on spectral domain (SD) OCT images depicting macular and optic nerve head appearance. The presented approach does not require edge-based image information in localizing most of boundaries and relies on regional image texture. Consequently, the proposed method demonstrates robustness in situations of low image contrast or poor layer-to-layer image gradients. Diffusion mapping applied to 2D and 3D OCT datasets is composed of two steps, one for partitioning the data into important and less important sections, and another one for localization of internal layers. In the first step, the pixels/voxels are grouped in rectangular/cubic sets to form a graph node. The weights of the graph are calculated based on geometric distances between pixels/voxels and differences of their mean intensity. The first diffusion map clusters the data into three parts, the second of which is the area of interest. The other two sections are eliminated from the remaining calculations. In the second step, the remaining area is subjected to another diffusion map assessment and the internal layers are localized based on their textural similarities. The proposed method was tested on 23 datasets from two patient groups (glaucoma and normals). The mean unsigned border positioning errors (mean ± SD) was 8.52 ± 3.13 and 7.56 ± 2.95 μm for the 2D and 3D methods, respectively. PMID:23837966

  16. Rat Optic Nerve Head Anatomy within 3D Histomorphometric Reconstructions of Normal Control Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Pazos, Marta; Yang, Hongli; Gardiner, Stuart K.; Cepurna, William O.; Johnson, Elaine C.; Morrison, John C.; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to three-dimensionally (3D) characterize the principal macroscopic and microscopic relationships within the rat optic nerve head (ONH) and quantify them in normal control eyes. Perfusion-fixed, trephinated ONH from 8 normal control eyes of 8 Brown Norway Rats were 3D histomorphometrically reconstructed, visualized, delineated and parameterized. The rat ONH consists of 2 scleral openings, (a superior neurovascular and inferior arterial) separated by a thin connective tissue strip we have termed the “scleral sling”. Within the superior opening, the nerve abuts a prominent extension of Bruch's Membrane (BM) superiorly and is surrounded by a vascular plexus, as it passes through the sclera, that is a continuous from the choroid into and through the dural sheath and contains the central retinal vein (CRV), (inferiorly). The inferior scleral opening contains the central retinal artery and three long posterior ciliary arteries which obliquely pass through the sclera to obtain the choroid. Bruch's Membrane Opening (BMO) is irregular and vertically elongated, enclosing the nerve (superiorly) and CRV and CRA (inferiorly). Overall mean BMO Depth, BMO Area, Choroidal Thickness and peripapillary Scleral Thickness were 29 μm, 56.5 × 103 μm2, 57 μm and 104 μm respectively. Mean anterior scleral canal opening (ASCO) and posterior scleral canal opening (PSCO) radii were 201 ± 15 μm and 204 ± 16 μm, respectively. Mean optic nerve area at the ASCO and PSCO were 46.3 × 103 ± 4.4 × 103 μm2 and 44.1 × 103 ± 4.5 × 103 μm2 respectively. In conclusion, the 3D complexity of the rat ONH and the extent to which it differs from the primate have been under-appreciated within previous 2D studies. Properly understood, these anatomic differences may provide new insights into the relative susceptibilities of the rat and primate ONH to elevated intraocular pressure. PMID:26021973

  17. Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays.

    PubMed

    McCormick, F B; Cloonan, T J; Lentine, A L; Sasian, J M; Morrison, R L; Beckman, M G; Walker, S L; Wojcik, M J; Hinterlong, S J; Crisci, R J; Novotny, R A; Hinton, H S

    1994-03-10

    The design, construction, and operational testing of a five-stage, fully interconnected 32 × 16 switching fabric by the use of smart-pixel (2, 1, 1) switching nodes are described. The arrays of switching nodes use monolithically integrated GaAs field-effect transistors, multiple-quantum-well p-i-n detectors, and self-electro-optic-device modulators. Each switching node incorporates 25 field-effect transistors and 17 p-i-n diodes to realize two differential optical receivers, the 2 × 1 node switching logic, a single-bit node control memory, and one differential optical transmitter. The five stages of node arrays are interconnected to form a two-dimensional banyan network by the use of Fourier-plane computer-generated holograms. System input and output are made by two-dimensional fiber-bundle matrices, and the system optical hardware design incorporates frequency-stabilized lasers, pupil-division beam combination, and a hybrid micro-macro lens for fiber-bundle imaging. Optomechanical packaging of the system ut lizes modular kinematic component positioning and active thermal control to enable simple rapid assembly. Two preliminary operational experiments are completed. In the first experiment, five stages are operated at 50 Mbits/s with 15 active inputs and outputs. The second experiment attempts to operate two stages of second-generation node arrays at 155 Mbits/s, with eight of the 15 active nodes functioning correctly along the straight switch-routing paths. PMID:20862186

  18. Oscillating optical tweezer-based 3-D confocal microrheometer for investigating the intracellular micromechanics and structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou-Yang, H. D.; Rickter, E. A.; Pu, C.; Latinovic, O.; Kumar, A.; Mengistu, M.; Lowe-Krentz, L.; Chien, S.

    2005-08-01

    Mechanical properties of living biological cells are important for cells to maintain their shapes, support mechanical stresses and move through tissue matrix. The use of optical tweezers to measure micromechanical properties of cells has recently made significant progresses. This paper presents a new approach, the oscillating optical tweezer cytorheometer (OOTC), which takes advantage of the coherent detection of harmonically modulated particle motions by a lock-in amplifier to increase sensitivity, temporal resolution and simplicity. We demonstrate that OOTC can measure the dynamic mechanical modulus in the frequency range of 0.1-6,000 Hz at a rate as fast as 1 data point per second with submicron spatial resolution. More importantly, OOTC is capable of distinguishing the intrinsic non-random temporal variations from random fluctuations due to Brownian motion; this capability, not achievable by conventional approaches, is particular useful because living systems are highly dynamic and often exhibit non-thermal, rhythmic behavior in a broad time scale from a fraction of a second to hours or days. Although OOTC is effective in measuring the intracellular micromechanical properties, unless we can visualize the cytoskeleton in situ, the mechanical property data would only be as informative as that of "Blind men and the Elephant". To solve this problem, we take two steps, the first, to use of fluorescent imaging to identify the granular structures trapped by optical tweezers, and second, to integrate OOTC with 3-D confocal microscopy so we can take simultaneous, in situ measurements of the micromechanics and intracellular structure in living cells. In this paper, we discuss examples of applying the oscillating tweezer-based cytorheometer for investigating cultured bovine endothelial cells, the identification of caveolae as some of the granular structures in the cell as well as our approach to integrate optical tweezers with a spinning disk confocal microscope.

  19. Automatic registration of optical imagery with 3d lidar data using local combined mutual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmehr, E. G.; Fraser, C. S.; Zhang, C.; Leach, J.

    2013-10-01

    Automatic registration of multi-sensor data is a basic step in data fusion for photogrammetric and remote sensing applications. The effectiveness of intensity-based methods such as Mutual Information (MI) for automated registration of multi-sensor image has been previously reported for medical and remote sensing applications. In this paper, a new multivariable MI approach that exploits complementary information of inherently registered LiDAR DSM and intensity data to improve the robustness of registering optical imagery and LiDAR point cloud, is presented. LiDAR DSM and intensity information has been utilised in measuring the similarity of LiDAR and optical imagery via the Combined MI. An effective histogramming technique is adopted to facilitate estimation of a 3D probability density function (pdf). In addition, a local similarity measure is introduced to decrease the complexity of optimisation at higher dimensions and computation cost. Therefore, the reliability of registration is improved due to the use of redundant observations of similarity. The performance of the proposed method for registration of satellite and aerial images with LiDAR data in urban and rural areas is experimentally evaluated and the results obtained are discussed.

  20. Label-free optical detection of cells grown in 3D silicon microstructures.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Sabina; Carpignano, Francesca; Silva, Gloria; Aredia, Francesca; Scovassi, A Ivana; Mazzini, Giuliano; Surdo, Salvatore; Barillaro, Giuseppe

    2013-08-21

    We demonstrate high aspect-ratio photonic crystals that could serve as three-dimensional (3D) microincubators for cell culture and also provide label-free optical detection of the cells. The investigated microstructures, fabricated by electrochemical micromachining of standard silicon wafers, consist of periodic arrays of silicon walls separated by narrow deeply etched air-gaps (50 μm high and 5 μm wide) and feature the typical spectral properties of photonic crystals in the wavelength range 1.0-1.7 μm: their spectral reflectivity is characterized by wavelength regions where reflectivity is high (photonic bandgaps), separated by narrow wavelength regions where reflectivity is very low. In this work, we show that the presence of cells, grown inside the gaps, strongly affects light propagation across the photonic crystal and, therefore, its spectral reflectivity. Exploiting a label-free optical detection method, based on a fiberoptic setup, we are able to probe the extension of cells adherent to the vertical silicon walls with a non-invasive direct testing. In particular, the intensity ratio at two wavelengths is the experimental parameter that can be well correlated to the cell spreading on the silicon wall inside the gaps.

  1. In situ 3D characterization of historical coatings and wood using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Latour, Gaël; Echard, Jean-Philippe; Didier, Marie; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire

    2012-10-22

    We demonstrate multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of historical artifacts by combining Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and Two-Photon Excited Fluorescence (2PEF) microscopies. We first identify the nonlinear optical response of materials commonly encountered in coatings of cultural heritage artifacts by analyzing one- and multi-layered model samples. We observe 2PEF signals from cochineal lake and sandarac and show that pigments and varnish films can be discriminated by exploiting their different emission spectral ranges as in luminescence linear spectroscopy. We then demonstrate SHG imaging of a filler, plaster, composed of bassanite particles which exhibit a non centrosymmetric crystal structure. We also show that SHG/2PEF imaging enables the visualization of wood microstructure through typically 60 µm-thick coatings by revealing crystalline cellulose (SHG signal) and lignin (2PEF signal) in the wood cell walls. Finally, in situ multimodal nonlinear imaging is demonstrated in a historical violin. SHG/2PEF imaging thus appears as a promising non-destructive and contactless tool for in situ 3D investigation of historical coatings and more generally for wood characterization and coating analysis at micrometer scale. PMID:23187225

  2. Real-time 3D Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography guided microvascular anastomosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong; Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Lee, W. P. A.; Brandacher, Gerald; Kang, Jin U.

    2013-03-01

    Vascular and microvascular anastomosis is considered to be the foundation of plastic and reconstructive surgery, hand surgery, transplant surgery, vascular surgery and cardiac surgery. In the last two decades innovative techniques, such as vascular coupling devices, thermo-reversible poloxamers and suture-less cuff have been introduced. Intra-operative surgical guidance using a surgical imaging modality that provides in-depth view and 3D imaging can improve outcome following both conventional and innovative anastomosis techniques. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive high-resolution (micron level), high-speed, 3D imaging modality that has been adopted widely in biomedical and clinical applications. In this work we performed a proof-of-concept evaluation study of OCT as an assisted intraoperative and post-operative imaging modality for microvascular anastomosis of rodent femoral vessels. The OCT imaging modality provided lateral resolution of 12 μm and 3.0 μm axial resolution in air and 0.27 volume/s imaging speed, which could provide the surgeon with clearly visualized vessel lumen wall and suture needle position relative to the vessel during intraoperative imaging. Graphics processing unit (GPU) accelerated phase-resolved Doppler OCT (PRDOCT) imaging of the surgical site was performed as a post-operative evaluation of the anastomosed vessels and to visualize the blood flow and thrombus formation. This information could help surgeons improve surgical precision in this highly challenging anastomosis of rodent vessels with diameter less than 0.5 mm. Our imaging modality could not only detect accidental suture through the back wall of lumen but also promptly diagnose and predict thrombosis immediately after reperfusion. Hence, real-time OCT can assist in decision-making process intra-operatively and avoid post-operative complications.

  3. Nonlinear Optical Macroscopic Assessment of 3-D Corneal Collagen Organization and Axial Biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Moritz; Chai, Dongyul; Kriling, Shelsea; Nien, Chyong Jy; Brown, Donald J.; Jester, Bryan; Juhasz, Tibor

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To characterize and quantify the collagen fiber (lamellar) organization of human corneas in three dimensions by using nonlinear optical high-resolution macroscopy (NLO-HRMac) and to correlate these findings with mechanical data obtained by indentation testing of corneal flaps. Methods. Twelve corneas from 10 donors were studied. Vibratome sections, 200 μm thick, from five donor eyes were cut along the vertical meridian from limbus to limbus (arc length, 12 mm). Backscattered second harmonic–generated (SHG) NLO signals from these sections were collected as a series of overlapping 3-D images, which were concatenated to form a single 3-D mosaic (pixel resolution: 0.44 μm lateral, 2 μm axial). Collagen fiber intertwining was quantified by determining branching point density as a function of stromal depth. Mechanical testing was performed on corneal flaps from seven additional eyes. Corneas were cut into three layers (anterior, middle, and posterior) using a femtosecond surgical laser system and underwent indentation testing to determine the elastic modulus for each layer. Results. The 3-D reconstructions revealed complex collagen fiber branching patterns in the anterior cornea, with fibers extending from the anterior limiting lamina (ALL, Bowman's layer), intertwining with deeper fibers and reinserting back to the ALL, forming bow spring–like structures. Measured branching-point density was four times higher in the anterior third of the cornea than in the posterior third and decreased logarithmically with increasing distance from the ALL. Indentation testing showed an eightfold increase in elastic modulus in the anterior stroma. Conclusions. The axial gradient in lamellar intertwining appears to be associated with an axial gradient in the effective elastic modulus of the cornea, suggesting that collagen fiber intertwining and formation of bow spring–like structures provide structural support similar to cross-beams in bridges and large-scale structures

  4. Practical free-space quantum cryptography

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.J.; Buttler, W.T.; Kwiat, P.G.; Lamoreaux, S.K.; Luther, G.G.; Morgan, G.L.; Nordholt, J.E.; Peterson, C.G.; Simmons, C.M.

    1998-12-01

    An experimental free-space quantum key distribution (QKD) system has been tested over an outdoor optical path of {approx} 1 km under nighttime conditions at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This system employs the Bennett 92 protocol; here the authors give a brief overview of this protocol, and describe the experimental implementation of it. An analysis of the system efficiency is presented, as well as a description of the error detection protocol, which employs a two-dimensional parity check scheme. Finally, the susceptibility of this system to eavesdropping by various techniques is determined, and the effectiveness of privacy amplification procedures is discussed. The conclusions are that free-space QKD is both effective and secure; possible applications include the rekeying of satellites in low earth orbit.

  5. A prototype fan-beam optical CT scanner for 3D dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Warren G.; Rudko, D. A.; Braam, Nicolas A.; Jirasek, Andrew; Wells, Derek M.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: The objective of this work is to introduce a prototype fan-beam optical computed tomography scanner for three-dimensional (3D) radiation dosimetry. Methods: Two techniques of fan-beam creation were evaluated: a helium-neon laser (HeNe, {lambda} = 543 nm) with line-generating lens, and a laser diode module (LDM, {lambda} = 635 nm) with line-creating head module. Two physical collimator designs were assessed: a single-slot collimator and a multihole collimator. Optimal collimator depth was determined by observing the signal of a single photodiode with varying collimator depths. A method of extending the dynamic range of the system is presented. Two sample types were used for evaluations: nondosimetric absorbent solutions and irradiated polymer gel dosimeters, each housed in 1 liter cylindrical plastic flasks. Imaging protocol investigations were performed to address ring artefacts and image noise. Two image artefact removal techniques were performed in sinogram space. Collimator efficacy was evaluated by imaging highly opaque samples of scatter-based and absorption-based solutions. A noise-based flask registration technique was developed. Two protocols for gel manufacture were examined. Results: The LDM proved advantageous over the HeNe laser due to its reduced noise. Also, the LDM uses a wavelength more suitable for the PRESAGE{sup TM} dosimeter. Collimator depth of 1.5 cm was found to be an optimal balance between scatter rejection, signal strength, and manufacture ease. The multihole collimator is capable of maintaining accurate scatter-rejection to high levels of opacity with scatter-based solutions (T < 0.015%). Imaging protocol investigations support the need for preirradiation and postirradiation scanning to reduce reflection-based ring artefacts and to accommodate flask imperfections and gel inhomogeneities. Artefact removal techniques in sinogram space eliminate streaking artefacts and reduce ring artefacts of up to {approx}40% in magnitude. The

  6. 2D and 3D micro-XRF based on polycapillary optics at XLab Frascati

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polese, C.; Cappuccio, G.; Dabagov, S. B.; Hampai, D.; Liedl, A.; Pace, E.

    2015-08-01

    XRF imaging spectrometry is a powerful tool for materials characterization. A high spatial resolution is often required, in order to appreciate very tiny details of the studied object. With respect to simple pinholes, polycapillary optics allows much more intense fluxes to be achieved. This is fundamental to detect elements in trace and to strongly reduce the global acquisition time that is actually among the main reasons, in addition to radioprotection issues, affecting the competitiveness of XRF imaging with respect to other faster imaging techniques such as multispectral imaging. Unlike other well-known X-ray optics, principally employed for high brilliant radiation source such as synchrotron facilities, polyCO can be efficiently coupled also with conventional X-ray tubes. All these aspects make them the most suitable choice to realize portable, safe and high performing μXRF spectrometers. In this work preliminary results achieved with a novel 2D and 3D XRF facility, called Rainbow X-Ray (RXR), are reported, with particular attention to the spatial resolution achieved. RXR is based on the confocal arrangement of three polycapillary lenses, one focusing the primary beam and the other two capturing the fluorescence signal. The detection system is split in two couples of lens-detector in order to cover a wider energy range. The entire device is a laboratory user-friendly facility and, though it allows measurements on medium-size objects, its dimensions do not preclude it to be transported for in situ analysis on request, thanks also to a properly shielded cabinet.

  7. Best fit refractive index of matching liquid for 3D NIPAM gel dosimeters using optical CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chin-Hsing; Wu, Jay; Hsieh, Bor-Tsung; Chen, De-Shiou; Wang, Tzu-Hwei; Chien, Sou-Hsin; Chang, Yuan-Jen

    2014-11-01

    The accuracy of an optical computed tomography (CT)-based dosimeter is significantly affected by the refractive index (RI) of the matching liquid. Mismatched RI induces reflection and refraction as the laser beam passes through the gel phantom. Moreover, the unwanted light rays collected by the photodetector produce image artifacts after image reconstruction from the collected data. To obtain the best image quality, this study investigates the best-fit RI of the matching liquid for a 3D NIPAM gel dosimeter. The three recipes of NIPAM polymer gel used in this study consisted of 5% gelatin, 5% NIPAM and 3% N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide, which were combined with three compositions (5, 10, and 20 mM) of Tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride. Results were evaluated using a quantitative evaluation method of the gamma evaluation technique. Results showed that the best-fit RI for the non-irradiated NIPAM gel ranges from 1.340 to 1.346 for various NIPAM recipes with sensitivities ranging from 0.0113 to 0.0227. The greatest pass rate of 88.00% is achieved using best-fit RI=1.346 of the matching liquid. The adoption of mismatching RI decreases the gamma pass rate by 2.63% to 16.75% for all three recipes of NIPAM gel dosimeters. In addition, the maximum average deviation is less than 0.1% for the red and transparent matching liquids. Thus, the color of the matching liquid does not affect the measurement accuracy of the NIPAM gel dosimeter, as measured by optical CT.

  8. A new technique of recognition for coded targets in optical 3D measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Changye; Cheng, Xiaosheng; Cui, Haihua; Dai, Ning; Weng, Jinping

    2014-11-01

    A new technique for coded targets recognition in optical 3D-measurement application is proposed in this paper. Traditionally, point cloud registration is based on homologous features, such as the curvature, which is time-consuming and not reliable. For this, we paste some coded targets onto the surface of the object to be measured to improve the optimum target location and accurate correspondence among multi-source images. Circular coded targets are used, and an algorithm to automatically detecting them is proposed. This algorithm extracts targets with intensive bimodal histogram features from complex background, and filters noise according to their size, shape and intensity. In addition, the coded targets' identification is conducted out by their ring codes. We affine them around the circle inversely, set foreground and background respectively as 1 and 0 to constitute a binary number, and finally shift one bit every time to calculate a decimal one of the binary number to determine a minimum decimal number as its code. In this 3Dmeasurement application, we build a mutual relationship between different viewpoints containing three or more coded targets with different codes. Experiments show that it is of efficiency to obtain global surface data of an object to be measured and is robust to the projection angles and noise.

  9. Real Time Gabor-Domain Optical Coherence Microscopy for 3D Imaging.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Jannick P; Canavesi, Cristina; Tankam, Patrice; Cogliati, Andrea; Lanis, Mara; Santhanam, Anand P

    2016-01-01

    Fast, robust, nondestructive 3D imaging is needed for the characterization of microscopic tissue structures across various clinical applications. A custom microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based 2D scanner was developed to achieve, together with a multi-level GPU architecture, 55 kHz fast-axis A-scan acquisition in a Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy (GD-OCM) custom instrument. GD-OCM yields high-definition micrometer-class volumetric images. A dynamic depth of focusing capability through a bio-inspired liquid lens-based microscope design, as in whales' eyes, was developed to enable the high definition instrument throughout a large field of view of 1 mm3 volume of imaging. Developing this technology is prime to enable integration within the workflow of clinical environments. Imaging at an invariant resolution of 2 μm has been achieved throughout a volume of 1 × 1 × 0.6 mm3, acquired in less than 2 minutes. Volumetric scans of human skin in vivo and an excised human cornea are presented. PMID:27046601

  10. Combining 3D optical imaging and dual energy absorptiometry to measure three compositional components.

    PubMed

    Malkov, Serghei; Shepherd, John

    2014-02-17

    We report on the design of the technique combining 3D optical imaging and dual-energy absorptiometry body scanning to estimate local body area compositions of three compartments. Dual-energy attenuation and body shape measures are used together to solve for the three compositional tissue thicknesses: water, lipid, and protein. We designed phantoms with tissue-like properties as our reference standards for calibration purposes. The calibration was created by fitting phantom values using non-linear regression of quadratic and truncated polynomials. Dual-energy measurements were performed on tissue-mimicking phantoms using a bone densitometer unit. The phantoms were made of materials shown to have similar x-ray attenuation properties of the biological compositional compartments. The components for the solid phantom were tested and their high energy/low energy attenuation ratios are in good correspondent to water, lipid, and protein for the densitometer x-ray region. The three-dimensional body shape was reconstructed from the depth maps generated by Microsoft Kinect for Windows. We used open-source Point Cloud Library and freeware software to produce dense point clouds. Accuracy and precision of compositional and thickness measures were calculated. The error contributions due to two modalities were estimated. The preliminary phantom composition and shape measurements are found to demonstrate the feasibility of the method proposed.

  11. Automated multilayer segmentation and characterization in 3D spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhihong; Wu, Xiaodong; Hariri, Amirhossein; Sadda, SriniVas R.

    2013-03-01

    Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is a 3-D imaging technique, allowing direct visualization of retinal morphology and architecture. The various layers of the retina may be affected differentially by various diseases. In this study, an automated graph-based multilayer approach was developed to sequentially segment eleven retinal surfaces including the inner retinal bands to the outer retinal bands in normal SD-OCT volume scans at three different stages. For stage 1, the four most detectable and/or distinct surfaces were identified in the four-times-downsampled images and were used as a priori positional information to limit the graph search for other surfaces at stage 2. Eleven surfaces were then detected in the two-times-downsampled images at stage 2, and refined in the original image space at stage 3 using the graph search integrating the estimated morphological shape models. Twenty macular SD-OCT (Heidelberg Spectralis) volume scans from 20 normal subjects (one eye per subject) were used in this study. The overall mean and absolute mean differences in border positions between the automated and manual segmentation for all 11 segmented surfaces were -0.20 +/- 0.53 voxels (-0.76 +/- 2.06 μm) and 0.82 +/- 0.64 voxels (3.19 +/- 2.46 μm). Intensity and thickness properties in the resultant retinal layers were investigated. This investigation in normal subjects may provide a comparative reference for subsequent investigations in eyes with disease.

  12. Combining 3D optical imaging and dual energy absorptiometry to measure three compositional components

    PubMed Central

    Malkov, Serghei; Shepherd, John

    2014-01-01

    We report on the design of the technique combining 3D optical imaging and dual-energy absorptiometry body scanning to estimate local body area compositions of three compartments. Dual-energy attenuation and body shape measures are used together to solve for the three compositional tissue thicknesses: water, lipid, and protein. We designed phantoms with tissue-like properties as our reference standards for calibration purposes. The calibration was created by fitting phantom values using non-linear regression of quadratic and truncated polynomials. Dual-energy measurements were performed on tissue-mimicking phantoms using a bone densitometer unit. The phantoms were made of materials shown to have similar x-ray attenuation properties of the biological compositional compartments. The components for the solid phantom were tested and their high energy/low energy attenuation ratios are in good correspondent to water, lipid, and protein for the densitometer x-ray region. The three-dimensional body shape was reconstructed from the depth maps generated by Microsoft Kinect for Windows. We used open-source Point Cloud Library and freeware software to produce dense point clouds. Accuracy and precision of compositional and thickness measures were calculated. The error contributions due to two modalities were estimated. The preliminary phantom composition and shape measurements are found to demonstrate the feasibility of the method proposed. PMID:25083118

  13. Combining 3D optical imaging and dual energy absorptiometry to measure three compositional components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, Serghei; Shepherd, John

    2014-02-01

    We report on the design of the technique combining 3D optical imaging and dual-energy absorptiometry body scanning to estimate local body area compositions of three compartments. Dual-energy attenuation and body shape measures are used together to solve for the three compositional tissue thicknesses: water, lipid, and protein. We designed phantoms with tissue-like properties as our reference standards for calibration purposes. The calibration was created by fitting phantom values using non-linear regression of quadratic and truncated polynomials. Dual-energy measurements were performed on tissue-mimicking phantoms using a bone densitometer unit. The phantoms were made of materials shown to have similar x-ray attenuation properties of the biological compositional compartments. The components for the solid phantom were tested and their high energy/low energy attenuation ratios are in good correspondent to water, lipid, and protein for the densitometer x-ray region. The three-dimensional body shape was reconstructed from the depth maps generated by Microsoft Kinect for Windows. We used open-source Point Cloud Library and freeware software to produce dense point clouds. Accuracy and precision of compositional and thickness measures were calculated. The error contributions due to two modalities were estimated. The preliminary phantom composition and shape measurements are found to demonstrate the feasibility of the method proposed.

  14. Large area 3-D optical coherence tomography imaging of lumpectomy specimens for radiation treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cuihuan; Kim, Leonard; Barnard, Nicola; Khan, Atif; Pierce, Mark C.

    2016-02-01

    Our long term goal is to develop a high-resolution imaging method for comprehensive assessment of tissue removed during lumpectomy procedures. By identifying regions of high-grade disease within the excised specimen, we aim to develop patient-specific post-operative radiation treatment regimens. We have assembled a benchtop spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system with 1320 nm center wavelength. Automated beam scanning enables "sub-volumes" spanning 5 mm x 5 mm x 2 mm (500 A-lines x 500 B-scans x 2 mm in depth) to be collected in under 15 seconds. A motorized sample positioning stage enables multiple sub-volumes to be acquired across an entire tissue specimen. Sub-volumes are rendered from individual B-scans in 3D Slicer software and en face (XY) images are extracted at specific depths. These images are then tiled together using MosaicJ software to produce a large area en face view (up to 40 mm x 25 mm). After OCT imaging, specimens were sectioned and stained with HE, allowing comparison between OCT image features and disease markers on histopathology. This manuscript describes the technical aspects of image acquisition and reconstruction, and reports initial qualitative comparison between large area en face OCT images and HE stained tissue sections. Future goals include developing image reconstruction algorithms for mapping an entire sample, and registering OCT image volumes with clinical CT and MRI images for post-operative treatment planning.

  15. Optical absorption enhancement in 3D silicon oxide nano-sandwich type solar cell.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Amirkianoosh; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan; Tan, Bo

    2014-01-13

    Recent research in the field of photovoltaic and solar cell fabrication has shown the potential to significantly enhance light absorption in thin-film solar cells by using surface texturing and nanostructure coating techniques. In this paper, for the first time, we propose a new method for nano sandwich type thin-film solar cell fabrication by combining the laser amorphization (2nd solar cell generation) and laser nanofibers generation (3rd solar cell generation) techniques. In this novel technique, the crystalline silicon is irradiated by megahertz frequency femtosecond laser pulses under ambient conditions and the multi-layer of amorphorized silicon and nano fibrous layer are generated in the single-step on top of the silicon substrate. Light spectroscopy results show significant enhancement of light absorption in the generated multi layers solar cells (Silicon Oxide nanofibers / thin-film amorphorized silicon). This method is single step and no additional materials are added and both layers of the amorphorized thin-film silicon and three-dimensional (3D) silicon oxide nanofibrous structures are grown on top of the silicon substrate after laser irradiation. Finally, we suggest how to maximize the light trapping and optical absorption of the generated nanofibers/thin-film cells by optimizing the laser pulse duration. PMID:24921988

  16. A Novel, Free-Space Optical Interconnect Employing Vertical-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser Diodes and InGaAs Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetectors for Gbit/s RF/Microwave Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savich, Gregory R.; Simons, Rainee N.

    2006-01-01

    Emerging technologies and continuing progress in vertical-cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) diode and metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetector research are making way for novel, high-speed forms of optical data transfer in communication systems. VCSEL diodes operating at 1550 nm have only recently become commercially available, while MSM photodetectors are pushing the limits of contact lithography with interdigitated electrode widths reaching sub micron levels. We propose a novel, free-space optical interconnect operating at about 1Gbit/s utilizing VCSEL diodes and MSM photodetectors. We report on development, progress, and current work, which are as follows: first, analysis of the divergent behavior of VCSEL diodes for coupling to MSM photodetectors with a 50 by 50 m active area and second, the normalized frequency response of the VCSEL diode as a function of the modulating frequency. Third, the calculated response of MSM photodetectors with varying electrode width and spacing on the order of 1 to 3 m as well as the fabrication and characterization of these devices. The work presented here will lead to the formation and characterization of a fully integrated 1Gbit/s free-space optical interconnect at 1550 nm and demonstrates both chip level and board level functionality for RF/microwave digital systems.

  17. Feasibility study on 3-D shape analysis of high-aspect-ratio features using through-focus scanning optical microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Attota, Ravi Kiran; Weck, Peter; Kramar, John A.; Bunday, Benjamin; Vartanian, Victor

    2016-01-01

    In-line metrologies currently used in the semiconductor industry are being challenged by the aggressive pace of device scaling and the adoption of novel device architectures. Metrology and process control of three-dimensional (3-D) high-aspect-ratio (HAR) features are becoming increasingly important and also challenging. In this paper we present a feasibility study of through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM) for 3-D shape analysis of HAR features. TSOM makes use of 3-D optical data collected using a conventional optical microscope for 3-D shape analysis. Simulation results of trenches and holes down to the 11 nm node are presented. The ability of TSOM to analyze an array of HAR features or a single isolated HAR feature is also presented. This allows for the use of targets with area over 100 times smaller than that of conventional gratings, saving valuable real estate on the wafers. Indications are that the sensitivity of TSOM may match or exceed the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) measurement requirements for the next several years. Both simulations and preliminary experimental results are presented. The simplicity, lowcost, high throughput, and nanometer scale 3-D shape sensitivity of TSOM make it an attractive inspection and process monitoring solution for nanomanufacturing. PMID:27464112

  18. Feasibility study on 3-D shape analysis of high-aspect-ratio features using through-focus scanning optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Attota, Ravi Kiran; Weck, Peter; Kramar, John A; Bunday, Benjamin; Vartanian, Victor

    2016-07-25

    In-line metrologies currently used in the semiconductor industry are being challenged by the aggressive pace of device scaling and the adoption of novel device architectures. Metrology and process control of three-dimensional (3-D) high-aspect-ratio (HAR) features are becoming increasingly important and also challenging. In this paper we present a feasibility study of through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM) for 3-D shape analysis of HAR features. TSOM makes use of 3-D optical data collected using a conventional optical microscope for 3-D shape analysis. Simulation results of trenches and holes down to the 11 nm node are presented. The ability of TSOM to analyze an array of HAR features or a single isolated HAR feature is also presented. This allows for the use of targets with area over 100 times smaller than that of conventional gratings, saving valuable real estate on the wafers. Indications are that the sensitivity of TSOM may match or exceed the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) measurement requirements for the next several years. Both simulations and preliminary experimental results are presented. The simplicity, lowcost, high throughput, and nanometer scale 3-D shape sensitivity of TSOM make it an attractive inspection and process monitoring solution for nanomanufacturing. PMID:27464112

  19. Creation of quantum-degenerate gases of ytterbium in a compact 2D-/3D-magneto-optical trap setup

    SciTech Connect

    Doerscher, Soeren; Thobe, Alexander; Hundt, Bastian; Kochanke, Andre; Le Targat, Rodolphe; Windpassinger, Patrick; Becker, Christoph; Sengstock, Klaus

    2013-04-15

    We report on the first experimental setup based on a 2D-/3D-magneto-optical trap (MOT) scheme to create both Bose-Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermi gases of several ytterbium isotopes. Our setup does not require a Zeeman slower and offers the flexibility to simultaneously produce ultracold samples of other atomic species. Furthermore, the extraordinary optical access favors future experiments in optical lattices. A 2D-MOT on the strong {sup 1}S{sub 0}{yields}{sup 1}P{sub 1} transition captures ytterbium directly from a dispenser of atoms and loads a 3D-MOT on the narrow {sup 1}S{sub 0}{yields}{sup 3}P{sub 1} intercombination transition. Subsequently, atoms are transferred to a crossed optical dipole trap and cooled evaporatively to quantum degeneracy.

  20. Dependence of Terahertz Electric Fields on Electric Bias and Modulation Frequency in Pulsed Terahertz Emissions from Electrically-Modulated Photoconductive Antenna Detected with Free-Space Electro-Optic Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Takeshi; Araki, Tsutomu

    2005-04-01

    We investigated the dependence of terahertz (THz) electric fields on electric bias and modulation frequency in the pulsed THz emissions from electrically modulated photoconductive antennas detected with free-space electro-optic sampling. The linear dependence of the THz electric field on the electric bias achieves distortion-free modulation of the THz pulse even for deep modulation. We confirmed that the signal-to-noise ratio in free-space electro-optic sampling of the THz pulse is strongly affected by the 1/f noise characteristics of the mode-locked laser, and is improved effectively by increasing the modulation frequency. The resulting signal-to-noise ratio was 4,900 in THz radiation power at 0.1 THz using an audio-frequency lock-in amplifier with a time constant of 1 ms and modulation frequency of 100 kHz. The proposed method will be a powerful tool for real-time or highly sensitive THz measurements.

  1. Development of a strain analyzer system for sheet metal stamped parts based on an optical 3D digitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carasusan, Eusebio; Canal, Fernando

    2003-05-01

    In this paper a new automatic strain analyzer system for sheet metal stamped parts is presented. This device is based on an optic 3D scanner working with structure white light, that performs measurements with high speed and accuracy. This new device can be a very useful tool in manufacturing industry.

  2. Characterization of 3D printing output using an optical sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the experimental design and initial testing of a system to characterize the progress and performance of a 3D printer. The system is based on five Raspberry Pi single-board computers. It collects images of the 3D printed object, which are compared to an ideal model. The system, while suitable for printers of all sizes, can potentially be produced at a sufficiently low cost to allow its incorporation into consumer-grade printers. The efficacy and accuracy of this system is presented and discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of the benefits of being able to characterize 3D printer performance.

  3. Analysis of 3D-printed metal for rapid-prototyped reflective terahertz optics.

    PubMed

    Headland, Daniel; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Webb, Michael; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Luiten, Andre; Abbott, Derek

    2016-07-25

    We explore the potential of 3D metal printing to realize complex conductive terahertz devices. Factors impacting performance such as printing resolution, surface roughness, oxidation, and material loss are investigated via analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches. The high degree of control offered by a 3D-printed topology is exploited to realize a zone plate operating at 530 GHz. Reflection efficiency at this frequency is found to be over 90%. The high-performance of this preliminary device suggest that 3D metal printing can play a strong role in guided-wave and general beam control devices in the terahertz range. PMID:27464185

  4. Analysis of 3D-printed metal for rapid-prototyped reflective terahertz optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Headland, Daniel; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Webb, Michael; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Luiten, Andre; Abbott, Derek

    2016-07-01

    We explore the potential of 3D metal printing to realize complex conductive terahertz devices. Factors impacting performance such as printing resolution, surface roughness, oxidation, and material loss are investigated via analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches. The high degree of control offered by a 3D-printed topology is exploited to realize a zone plate operating at 530 GHz. Reflection efficiency at this frequency is found to be over 90%. The high-performance of this preliminary device suggest that 3D metal printing can play a strong role in guided-wave and general beam control devices in the terahertz range.

  5. Analysis of 3D-printed metal for rapid-prototyped reflective terahertz optics.

    PubMed

    Headland, Daniel; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Webb, Michael; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Luiten, Andre; Abbott, Derek

    2016-07-25

    We explore the potential of 3D metal printing to realize complex conductive terahertz devices. Factors impacting performance such as printing resolution, surface roughness, oxidation, and material loss are investigated via analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches. The high degree of control offered by a 3D-printed topology is exploited to realize a zone plate operating at 530 GHz. Reflection efficiency at this frequency is found to be over 90%. The high-performance of this preliminary device suggest that 3D metal printing can play a strong role in guided-wave and general beam control devices in the terahertz range.

  6. 3D imaging of cone photoreceptors over extended time periods using optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocaoglu, Omer P.; Lee, Sangyeol; Jonnal, Ravi S.; Wang, Qiang; Herde, Ashley E.; Besecker, Jason; Gao, Weihua; Miller, Donald T.

    2011-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics (AO-OCT) is a highly sensitive, noninvasive method for 3D imaging of the microscopic retina. The purpose of this study is to advance AO-OCT technology by enabling repeated imaging of cone photoreceptors over extended periods of time (days). This sort of longitudinal imaging permits monitoring of 3D cone dynamics in both normal and diseased eyes, in particular the physiological processes of disc renewal and phagocytosis, which are disrupted by retinal diseases such as age related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. For this study, the existing AO-OCT system at Indiana underwent several major hardware and software improvements to optimize system performance for 4D cone imaging. First, ultrahigh speed imaging was realized using a Basler Sprint camera. Second, a light source with adjustable spectrum was realized by integration of an Integral laser (Femto Lasers, λc=800nm, ▵λ=160nm) and spectral filters in the source arm. For cone imaging, we used a bandpass filter with λc=809nm and ▵λ=81nm (2.6 μm nominal axial resolution in tissue, and 167 KHz A-line rate using 1,408 px), which reduced the impact of eye motion compared to previous AO-OCT implementations. Third, eye motion artifacts were further reduced by custom ImageJ plugins that registered (axially and laterally) the volume videos. In two subjects, cone photoreceptors were imaged and tracked over a ten day period and their reflectance and outer segment (OS) lengths measured. High-speed imaging and image registration/dewarping were found to reduce eye motion to a fraction of a cone width (1 μm root mean square). The pattern of reflections in the cones was found to change dramatically and occurred on a spatial scale well below the resolution of clinical instruments. Normalized reflectance of connecting cilia (CC) and OS posterior tip (PT) of an exemplary cone was 54+/-4, 47+/-4, 48+/-6, 50+/-5, 56+/-1% and 46+/-4, 53+/-4, 52+/-6, 50+/-5, 44

  7. 3-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels in spectral-domain OCT volumes of the optic nerve head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyungmoo; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Garvin, Mona K.; Sonka, Milan

    2010-03-01

    Segmentation of retinal blood vessels can provide important information for detecting and tracking retinal vascular diseases including diabetic retinopathy, arterial hypertension, arteriosclerosis and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Many studies on 2-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels from a variety of medical images have been performed. However, 3-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) volumes, which is capable of providing geometrically accurate vessel models, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously studied. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a method that can automatically detect 3-D retinal blood vessels from spectral-domain OCT scans centered on the optic nerve head (ONH). The proposed method utilized a fast multiscale 3-D graph search to segment retinal surfaces as well as a triangular mesh-based 3-D graph search to detect retinal blood vessels. An experiment on 30 ONH-centered OCT scans (15 right eye scans and 15 left eye scans) from 15 subjects was performed, and the mean unsigned error in 3-D of the computer segmentations compared with the independent standard obtained from a retinal specialist was 3.4 +/- 2.5 voxels (0.10 +/- 0.07 mm).

  8. Optical low-cost and portable arrangement for full field 3D displacement measurement using a single camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Alba, E.; Felipe-Sesé, L.; Schmeer, S.; Díaz, F. A.

    2016-11-01

    In the current paper, an optical low-cost system for 3D displacement measurement based on a single camera and 3D digital image correlation is presented. The conventional 3D-DIC set-up based on a two-synchronized-cameras system is compared with a proposed pseudo-stereo portable system that employs a mirror system integrated in a device for a straightforward application achieving a novel handle and flexible device for its use in many scenarios. The proposed optical system splits the image by the camera into two stereo images of the object. In order to validate this new approach and quantify its uncertainty compared to traditional 3D-DIC systems, solid rigid in and out-of-plane displacements experiments have been performed and analyzed. The differences between both systems have been studied employing an image decomposition technique which performs a full image comparison. Therefore, results of all field of view are compared with those using a stereoscopy system and 3D-DIC, discussing the accurate results obtained with the proposed device not having influence any distortion or aberration produced by the mirrors. Finally, the adaptability of the proposed system and its accuracy has been tested performing quasi-static and dynamic experiments using a silicon specimen under high deformation. Results have been compared and validated with those obtained from a conventional stereoscopy system showing an excellent level of agreement.

  9. Nondestructive testing of 3D disperse systems with micro- and nano-particles: N-dimensional space of optical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezrukova, Alexandra G.

    2006-04-01

    The simultaneous analysis of 3D disperse systems (DS) with micro- and nano- particles by refractometry, absorbency, fluorescence and by different types of light scattering, can help to elaborate the sensing elements for specffic impurity control. Our research has investigated by complex of optical methods different 3D DS such as: proteins, nucleoproteids, lipoproteids, liposomes, viruses, virosomes, lipid emulsions, blood substitutes, latexes, liquid crystals, biological cells with various form and size (including bacterial cells), metallic powders, clays, kimberlites, zeolites, oils, crude oils, samples of natural and water-supply waters, etc. This experience suggests that each 3D DS can be charactensed by N-dimensional vector in N-dimensional space of optical parameters. Due to the fusion of various optical data it is possible to solve the inverse physical problem on the presence of impurity in mixtures of 3D DS by information statistical theory methods. It is important that in this case polymodality of particle size distribution is not an obstacle.

  10. Analytic 3D imaging of mammalian nucleus at nanoscale using coherent x-rays and optical fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Song, Changyong; Takagi, Masatoshi; Park, Jaehyun; Xu, Rui; Gallagher-Jones, Marcus; Imamoto, Naoko; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2014-09-01

    Despite the notable progress that has been made with nano-bio imaging probes, quantitative nanoscale imaging of multistructured specimens such as mammalian cells remains challenging due to their inherent structural complexity. Here, we successfully performed three-dimensional (3D) imaging of mammalian nuclei by combining coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy, explicitly visualizing nuclear substructures at several tens of nanometer resolution, and optical fluorescence microscopy, cross confirming the substructures with immunostaining. This demonstrates the successful application of coherent x-rays to obtain the 3D ultrastructure of mammalian nuclei and establishes a solid route to nanoscale imaging of complex specimens.

  11. A compact acousto-optic lens for 2D and 3D femtosecond based 2-photon microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kirkby, Paul A.; Naga Srinivas, N.K.M.; Silver, R. Angus

    2010-01-01

    We describe a high speed 3D Acousto-Optic Lens Microscope (AOLM) for femtosecond 2-photon imaging. By optimizing the design of the 4 AO Deflectors (AODs) and by deriving new control algorithms, we have developed a compact spherical AOL with a low temporal dispersion that enables 2-photon imaging at 10-fold lower power than previously reported. We show that the AOLM can perform high speed 2D raster-scan imaging (>150 Hz) without scan rate dependent astigmatism. It can deflect and focus a laser beam in a 3D random access sequence at 30 kHz and has an extended focusing range (>137 μm; 40X 0.8NA objective). These features are likely to make the AOLM a useful tool for studying fast physiological processes distributed in 3D space PMID:20588506

  12. 3D papillary image capturing by the stereo fundus camera system for clinical diagnosis on retina and optic nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, Danilo A.; Serillo, André; de Matos, Luciana; Yasuoka, Fatima M. M.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Carvalho, Luis A. V.

    2014-03-01

    Glaucoma is the second main cause of the blindness in the world and there is a tendency to increase this number due to the lifetime expectation raise of the population. Glaucoma is related to the eye conditions, which leads the damage to the optic nerve. This nerve carries visual information from eye to brain, then, if it has damage, it compromises the visual quality of the patient. In the majority cases the damage of the optic nerve is irreversible and it happens due to increase of intraocular pressure. One of main challenge for the diagnosis is to find out this disease, because any symptoms are not present in the initial stage. When is detected, it is already in the advanced stage. Currently the evaluation of the optic disc is made by sophisticated fundus camera, which is inaccessible for the majority of Brazilian population. The purpose of this project is to develop a specific fundus camera without fluorescein angiography and red-free system to accomplish 3D image of optic disc region. The innovation is the new simplified design of a stereo-optical system, in order to make capable the 3D image capture and in the same time quantitative measurements of excavation and topography of optic nerve; something the traditional fundus cameras do not do. The dedicated hardware and software is developed for this ophthalmic instrument, in order to permit quick capture and print of high resolution 3D image and videos of optic disc region (20° field-of-view) in the mydriatic and nonmydriatic mode.

  13. Numerical simulation of linear and nonlinear quantum optics as a design tool for free-space quantum communications and quantum imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, Ronald E.; Deacon, Keith S.; Rosen, D.

    2002-12-01

    A new quantum optics tool for simulating quantum probability density functions resulting from the linear and nonlinear interaction of photons with atoms and with other photons is developed and presented. It can be used to design and simulate quantum optics experiments used in quantum communications, quantum computing, and quantum imaging. Examples of a photon interacting with linears systems of mirrors and beamsplitters are simulated. Nonlinear simulations of the interaction of three photons resulting in photon momentum entanglement is presented. The wavefunction is expanded in Fock states. Fock states cannot be represented by classical modeling and therefore, the results of our modeling can in general represent phenomena in both the linear and nonlinear cases which cannot be modeled by classical linear optics. The modeling presented here is more general than the classical linear optics. Models of atmospheric turbulence and their simulations are presented and demonstrate the potential for first principles physics quantum optics simulations through turbulence in realistic environments.

  14. Monitoring adipose-derived stem cells within 3D carrier by combined dielectric spectroscopy and spectral domain optical coherence topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnaninchi, P. O.

    2010-02-01

    Monitoring non-invasively the cellular events in three dimensional carriers is a major challenge for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine that prevents time-lapsed studies over large population of sample. The potential of optical coherence tomography has been demonstrated to assess tissue formation within porous matrices. In this study we explore the combination of dielectric spectroscopy (DS) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) to quality assess ADSCs loaded in three dimensional carriers. A SDOCT (930nm, FWHM 90nm) was combined to an open ended coaxial probe connected to material analyser, and broadband measurements between 20MHz and 1GHz were synchronized with Labview. Both ADSCs maintained in undifferentiated state within 3D carrier and induced towards osteoblasts were monitored with this multimodality technique and their DS spectra were acquired at high cell concentration simultaneously to 3D imaging. This multimodality technique will be instrumental to assess non-invasively cell loaded carriers for cell therapy.

  15. Flattop beam illumination for 3D imaging ladar with simple optical devices in the wide distance range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Hidenobu; Nakano, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Kameyama, Shumpei

    2016-04-01

    We have developed an illumination optical system for 3D imaging ladar (laser detection and ranging) which forms flattop beam shape by transformation of the Gaussian beam in the wide distance range. The illumination is achieved by beam division and recombination using a prism and a negative powered lens. The optimum condition of the transformation by the optical system is derived. It is confirmed that the flattop distribution can be formed in the wide range of the propagation distance from 1 to 1000 m. The experimental result with the prototype is in good agreement with the calculation result.

  16. Optical fibre sensing in metals by embedment in 3D printed metallic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, R. R. J.; Havermann, D.; Schneller, O.; Mathew, J.; Polyzos, D.; MacPherson, W. N.; Hand, D. P.

    2014-05-01

    Additive manufacturing or 3D printing of structural components in metals has potential to revolutionise the manufacturing industry. Embedded sensing in such structures opens a route towards SMART metals, providing added functionality, intelligence and enhanced performance in many components. Such embedded sensors would be capable of operating at extremely high temperatures by utilizing regenerated fibre Bragg gratings and in-fibre Fabry-Perot cavities.

  17. Towards a noninvasive intracranial tumor irradiation using 3d optical imaging and multimodal data registration.

    PubMed

    Posada, R; Daul, Ch; Wolf, D; Aletti, P

    2007-01-01

    Conformal radiotherapy (CRT) results in high-precision tumor volume irradiation. In fractioned radiotherapy (FRT), lesions are irradiated in several sessions so that healthy neighbouring tissues are better preserved than when treatment is carried out in one fraction. In the case of intracranial tumors, classical methods of patient positioning in the irradiation machine coordinate system are invasive and only allow for CRT in one irradiation session. This contribution presents a noninvasive positioning method representing a first step towards the combination of CRT and FRT. The 3D data used for the positioning is point clouds spread over the patient's head (CT-data usually acquired during treatment) and points distributed over the patient's face which are acquired with a structured light sensor fixed in the therapy room. The geometrical transformation linking the coordinate systems of the diagnosis device (CT-modality) and the 3D sensor of the therapy room (visible light modality) is obtained by registering the surfaces represented by the two 3D point sets. The geometrical relationship between the coordinate systems of the 3D sensor and the irradiation machine is given by a calibration of the sensor position in the therapy room. The global transformation, computed with the two previous transformations, is sufficient to predict the tumor position in the irradiation machine coordinate system with only the corresponding position in the CT-coordinate system. Results obtained for a phantom show that the mean positioning error of tumors on the treatment machine isocentre is 0.4 mm. Tests performed with human data proved that the registration algorithm is accurate (0.1 mm mean distance between homologous points) and robust even for facial expression changes.

  18. Pre-Processing of Point-Data from Contact and Optical 3D Digitization Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Budak, Igor; Vukelić, Djordje; Bračun, Drago; Hodolič, Janko; Soković, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary 3D digitization systems employed by reverse engineering (RE) feature ever-growing scanning speeds with the ability to generate large quantity of points in a unit of time. Although advantageous for the quality and efficiency of RE modelling, the huge number of point datas can turn into a serious practical problem, later on, when the CAD model is generated. In addition, 3D digitization processes are very often plagued by measuring errors, which can be attributed to the very nature of measuring systems, various characteristics of the digitized objects and subjective errors by the operator, which also contribute to problems in the CAD model generation process. This paper presents an integral system for the pre-processing of point data, i.e., filtering, smoothing and reduction, based on a cross-sectional RE approach. In the course of the proposed system development, major emphasis was placed on the module for point data reduction, which was designed according to a novel approach with integrated deviation analysis and fuzzy logic reasoning. The developed system was verified through its application on three case studies, on point data from objects of versatile geometries obtained by contact and laser 3D digitization systems. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of the system. PMID:22368513

  19. Mode-Division-Multiplexing of Multiple Bessel-Gaussian Beams Carrying Orbital-Angular-Momentum for Obstruction-Tolerant Free-Space Optical and Millimetre-Wave Communication Links.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nisar; Zhao, Zhe; Li, Long; Huang, Hao; Lavery, Martin P J; Liao, Peicheng; Yan, Yan; Wang, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Ren, Yongxiong; Almaiman, Ahmed; Willner, Asher J; Ashrafi, Solyman; Molisch, Andreas F; Tur, Moshe; Willner, Alan E

    2016-03-01

    We experimentally investigate the potential of using 'self-healing' Bessel-Gaussian beams carrying orbital-angular-momentum to overcome limitations in obstructed free-space optical and 28-GHz millimetre-wave communication links. We multiplex and transmit two beams (l = +1 and +3) over 1.4 metres in both the optical and millimetre-wave domains. Each optical beam carried 50-Gbaud quadrature-phase-shift-keyed data, and each millimetre-wave beam carried 1-Gbaud 16-quadrature-amplitude-modulated data. In both types of links, opaque disks of different sizes are used to obstruct the beams at different transverse positions. We observe self-healing after the obstructions, and assess crosstalk and power penalty when data is transmitted. Moreover, we show that Bessel-Gaussian orbital-angular-momentum beams are more tolerant to obstructions than non-Bessel orbital-angular-momentum beams. For example, when obstructions that are 1 and 0.44 the size of the l = +1 beam, are placed at beam centre, optical and millimetre-wave Bessel-Gaussian beams show ~6 dB and ~8 dB reduction in crosstalk, respectively.

  20. Mode-Division-Multiplexing of Multiple Bessel-Gaussian Beams Carrying Orbital-Angular-Momentum for Obstruction-Tolerant Free-Space Optical and Millimetre-Wave Communication Links

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Nisar; Zhao, Zhe; Li, Long; Huang, Hao; Lavery, Martin P. J.; Liao, Peicheng; Yan, Yan; Wang, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Ren, Yongxiong; Almaiman, Ahmed; Willner, Asher J.; Ashrafi, Solyman; Molisch, Andreas F.; Tur, Moshe; Willner, Alan E.

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the potential of using ‘self-healing’ Bessel-Gaussian beams carrying orbital-angular-momentum to overcome limitations in obstructed free-space optical and 28-GHz millimetre-wave communication links. We multiplex and transmit two beams (l = +1 and +3) over 1.4 metres in both the optical and millimetre-wave domains. Each optical beam carried 50-Gbaud quadrature-phase-shift-keyed data, and each millimetre-wave beam carried 1-Gbaud 16-quadrature-amplitude-modulated data. In both types of links, opaque disks of different sizes are used to obstruct the beams at different transverse positions. We observe self-healing after the obstructions, and assess crosstalk and power penalty when data is transmitted. Moreover, we show that Bessel-Gaussian orbital-angular-momentum beams are more tolerant to obstructions than non-Bessel orbital-angular-momentum beams. For example, when obstructions that are 1 and 0.44 the size of the l = +1 beam, are placed at beam centre, optical and millimetre-wave Bessel-Gaussian beams show ~6 dB and ~8 dB reduction in crosstalk, respectively. PMID:26926068

  1. Writing of 3D optical integrated circuits with ultrashort laser pulses in the presence of strong spherical aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukharin, M. A.; Skryabin, N. N.; Khudyakov, D. V.; Vartapetov, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    A novel technique was proposed for 3D femtosecond writing of waveguides and optical integrated circuits in the presence of strong spherical aberration, caused by inscription at significantly different depth under the surface of optical glasses and crystals. Strong negative effect of spherical aberration and related asymmetry of created structures was reduced due to transition to the cumulative thermal regime of femtosecond interaction with the material. The differences in the influence of spherical aberration effect in a broad depth range (larger than 200 µm) was compensated by dynamic adjustment of laser pulse energy during the process of waveguides recording. The presented approach has been experimentally implemented in fused silica. Obtained results can be used in production of a broad class of femtosecond written three-dimensional integrated optical systems, inscripted at non-optimal (for focusing lens) optical depth or in significantly extended range of depths.

  2. New method for detection of complex 3D fracture motion - Verification of an optical motion analysis system for biomechanical studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fracture-healing depends on interfragmentary motion. For improved osteosynthesis and fracture-healing, the micromotion between fracture fragments is undergoing intensive research. The detection of 3D micromotions at the fracture gap still presents a challenge for conventional tactile measurement systems. Optical measurement systems may be easier to use than conventional systems, but, as yet, cannot guarantee accuracy. The purpose of this study was to validate the optical measurement system PONTOS 5M for use in biomechanical research, including measurement of micromotion. Methods A standardized transverse fracture model was created to detect interfragmentary motions under axial loadings of up to 200 N. Measurements were performed using the optical measurement system and compared with a conventional high-accuracy tactile system consisting of 3 standard digital dial indicators (1 μm resolution; 5 μm error limit). Results We found that the deviation in the mean average motion detection between the systems was at most 5.3 μm, indicating that detection of micromotion was possible with the optical measurement system. Furthermore, we could show two considerable advantages while using the optical measurement system. Only with the optical system interfragmentary motion could be analyzed directly at the fracture gap. Furthermore, the calibration of the optical system could be performed faster, safer and easier than that of the tactile system. Conclusion The PONTOS 5 M optical measurement system appears to be a favorable alternative to previously used tactile measurement systems for biomechanical applications. Easy handling, combined with a high accuracy for 3D detection of micromotions (≤ 5 μm), suggests the likelihood of high user acceptance. This study was performed in the context of the deployment of a new implant (dynamic locking screw; Synthes, Oberdorf, Switzerland). PMID:22405047

  3. Correlation between Optic Nerve Parameters Obtained Using 3D Nonmydriatic Retinal Camera and Optical Coherence Tomography: Interobserver Agreement on the Disc Damage Likelihood Scale.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae Wook; Cho, Soon Young; Kang, Kui Dong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To compare stereometric parameters obtained by three-dimensional (3D) optic disc photography and optical coherence tomography (OCT) and assess interobserver agreement on the disc damage likelihood scale (DDLS). Methods. This retrospective study included 190 eyes from 190 patients classified as normal, glaucoma suspect, or glaucomatous. Residents at different levels of training completed the DDLS for each patient before and after attending a training module. 3D optic disc photography and OCT were performed on each eye, and correlations between the DDLS and various parameters obtained by each device were calculated. Results. We found moderate agreement (weighted kappa value, 0.59 ± 0.03) between DDLS scores obtained by 3D optic disc photography and the glaucoma specialist. The weighted kappa values for agreement and interobserver concordance increased among residents after the training module. Interobserver concordance was the poorest at DDLS stages 5 and 6. The DDLS scored by the glaucoma specialist had the highest predictability value (0.941). Conclusions. The DDLS obtained by 3D optic disc photography is a useful diagnostic tool for glaucoma. A supervised teaching program increased trainee interobserver agreement on the DDLS. DDLS stages 5 and 6 showed the poorest interobserver agreement, suggesting that caution is required when recording these stages.

  4. Correlation between Optic Nerve Parameters Obtained Using 3D Nonmydriatic Retinal Camera and Optical Coherence Tomography: Interobserver Agreement on the Disc Damage Likelihood Scale.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae Wook; Cho, Soon Young; Kang, Kui Dong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To compare stereometric parameters obtained by three-dimensional (3D) optic disc photography and optical coherence tomography (OCT) and assess interobserver agreement on the disc damage likelihood scale (DDLS). Methods. This retrospective study included 190 eyes from 190 patients classified as normal, glaucoma suspect, or glaucomatous. Residents at different levels of training completed the DDLS for each patient before and after attending a training module. 3D optic disc photography and OCT were performed on each eye, and correlations between the DDLS and various parameters obtained by each device were calculated. Results. We found moderate agreement (weighted kappa value, 0.59 ± 0.03) between DDLS scores obtained by 3D optic disc photography and the glaucoma specialist. The weighted kappa values for agreement and interobserver concordance increased among residents after the training module. Interobserver concordance was the poorest at DDLS stages 5 and 6. The DDLS scored by the glaucoma specialist had the highest predictability value (0.941). Conclusions. The DDLS obtained by 3D optic disc photography is a useful diagnostic tool for glaucoma. A supervised teaching program increased trainee interobserver agreement on the DDLS. DDLS stages 5 and 6 showed the poorest interobserver agreement, suggesting that caution is required when recording these stages. PMID:24804081

  5. The 3D manipulation of a microsphere for nano-CMM probe using single fiber optical trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eom, Sang In; Takaya, Yasuhiro; Miyoshi, Takashi; Hayashi, Terutake

    2006-08-01

    We suggest a novel 3-D probing technique for measuring micro parts which have high aspect ratio such as a groove or a deep-hole. This technique uses the optical force exerted on a dielectric microsphere at the tip of optical fiber so called the fiber optical trapping. A microsphere is trapped at the tip of an optical fiber which has micrometer size of the diameter and sub micrometer size of the tapered tip. The optical source is a Nd:YAG laser with the wavelength of 1064 nm. A fiber optical trapping system is quite similar to a conventional CMM. The roll of a microsphere is the same as the probe sphere of a conventional CMM and an optical fiber works as a stylus shaft. The micro optical fiber part is thinner than the diameter of the microsphere and longer than the depth of shapes such as deep holes and grooves, which enable to make an approach to a steep angle surface of a work piece with high aspect ratio.

  6. WebTOP: A 3D Interactive System for Teaching and Learning Optics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mzoughi, Taha; Herring, S. Davis; Foley, John T.; Morris, Matthew J.; Gilbert, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    WebTOP is a three-dimensional, Web-based, interactive computer graphics system that helps instructors teach and students learn about waves and optics. Current subject areas include waves, geometrical optics, reflection and refraction, polarization, interference, diffraction, lasers, and scattering. Some of the topics covered are suited for…

  7. 3D monitoring and quality control using intraoral optical camera systems.

    PubMed

    Mehl, A; Koch, R; Zaruba, M; Ender, A

    2013-01-01

    The quality of intraoral scanning systems is steadily improving, and they are becoming easier and more reliable to operate. This opens up possibilities for routine clinical applications. A special aspect is that overlaying (superimposing) situations recorded at different times facilitates an accurate three-dimensional difference analysis. Such difference analyses can also be used to advantage in other areas of dentistry where target/actual comparisons are required. This article presents potential indications using a newly developed software, explaining the functionality of the evaluation process and the prerequisites and limitations of 3D monitoring.

  8. Single qubit gates on neutral atoms in a 3d Optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Aishwarya; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xianli; Corcovilos, Theodore A.; Weiss, David S.

    2015-05-01

    Neutral atoms are especially promising candidates for quantum computing because of their inherent scalability. To realize this scalability requires being able to manipulate the quantum information at target qubits with high fidelity and low crosstalk. We will present two single qubit gate addressing protocols. We have experimentally applied them both to targeted sites in a 5 × 5 × 5 3D array. The two distinct approaches both use crossed MEMS-mirror directed addressing beams along with microwave pulses to target atoms at single sites, while having minimal impact on the quantum information at non-target sites. Supported by DARPA, QUEST and ARO.

  9. Segmentation of whole cells and cell nuclei from 3-D optical microscope images using dynamic programming.

    PubMed

    McCullough, D P; Gudla, P R; Harris, B S; Collins, J A; Meaburn, K J; Nakaya, M A; Yamaguchi, T P; Misteli, T; Lockett, S J

    2008-05-01

    Communications between cells in large part drive tissue development and function, as well as disease-related processes such as tumorigenesis. Understanding the mechanistic bases of these processes necessitates quantifying specific molecules in adjacent cells or cell nuclei of intact tissue. However, a major restriction on such analyses is the lack of an efficient method that correctly segments each object (cell or nucleus) from 3-D images of an intact tissue specimen. We report a highly reliable and accurate semi-automatic algorithmic method for segmenting fluorescence-labeled cells or nuclei from 3-D tissue images. Segmentation begins with semi-automatic, 2-D object delineation in a user-selected plane, using dynamic programming (DP) to locate the border with an accumulated intensity per unit length greater that any other possible border around the same object. Then the two surfaces of the object in planes above and below the selected plane are found using an algorithm that combines DP and combinatorial searching. Following segmentation, any perceived errors can be interactively corrected. Segmentation accuracy is not significantly affected by intermittent labeling of object surfaces, diffuse surfaces, or spurious signals away from surfaces. The unique strength of the segmentation method was demonstrated on a variety of biological tissue samples where all cells, including irregularly shaped cells, were accurately segmented based on visual inspection.

  10. 3D optical two-mirror scanner with focus-tunable lens.

    PubMed

    Pokorny, Petr; Miks, Antonin

    2015-08-01

    The paper presents formulas for a ray tracing in the optical system of two-mirror optical scanner with a focus-tunable lens. Furthermore, equations for the calculation of focal length which ensure focusing of a beam in the desired point in a detection plane are derived. The uncertainty description of such focal length follows as well. The chosen vector approach is general; therefore, the application of formulas in various configurations of the optical systems is possible. In the example situation, the authors derived formulas for mirrors' rotations and the focal length depending on the position of the point in the detection plane. PMID:26368115

  11. Neutron detection and characterization for non-proliferation applications using 3D computer optical memories [Use of 3D optical computer memory for radiation detectors/dosimeters. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gary W. Phillips

    2000-12-20

    We have investigated 3-dimensional optical random access memory (3D-ORAM) materials for detection and characterization of charged particles of neutrons by detecting tracks left by the recoil charged particles produced by the neutrons. We have characterized the response of these materials to protons, alpha particles and carbon-12 nuclei as a functions of dose and energy. We have observed individual tracks using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. We are investigating the use of neural net analysis to characterize energetic neutron fields from their track structure in these materials.

  12. Feasibility study of a single-shot 3D electron bunch shape monitor with an electro-optic sampling technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okayasu, Yuichi; Tomizawa, Hiromitsu; Matsubara, Shinichi; Kumagai, Noritaka; Maekawa, Akira; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2013-05-01

    We developed a three-dimensional electron bunch charge distribution (3D-BCD) monitor with single-shot detection, and a spectral decoding based electro-optic (EO) sampling technique for a nondestructive monitor enables real-time reconstruction of the three-dimensional distribution of a bunch charge. We realized three goals by simultaneously probing a number of Pockels EO crystals that surround the electron beam axis with hollow and radial polarized laser pulses. First, we performed a feasibility test as a simple case of a 3D-BCD monitor probing two ZnTe crystals as EO detectors installed on the opposite angle to the electron beam axis and confirmed that we simultaneously obtained both EO signals. Since the adopted hollow probe laser pulse is not only radially polarized but also temporally shifted azimuthally, some disorders in the radial polarization distribution of such a laser pulse were numerically analyzed with a plane-wave expansion method. Based on the above investigations, the 3D-BCD monitor is feasible both in experimental and numerical estimations. Furthermore, we previously developed a femtosecond response organic crystal as a Pockels EO detector and a broadband probe laser (≥350nm in FWHM); the 3D-BCD monitor realizes 30- to 40-fs (FWHM) temporal resolution. Eventually, the monitor is expected to be equipped in such advanced accelerators as XFEL to measure and adjust the electron bunch charge distribution in real time. The 3D-BCD measurement works as a critical tool to provide feedback to seeded FELs.

  13. Operational Retrieval of aerosol optical depth over Indian subcontinent and Indian Ocean using INSAT-3D/Imager product validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, M. K.; Rastogi, G.; Chauhan, P.

    2014-11-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) over Indian subcontinent and Indian Ocean region is derived operationally for the first time from the geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellite INSAT-3D Imager data at 0.65 μm wavelength. Single visible channel algorithm based on clear sky composites gives larger retrieval error in AOD than other multiple channel algorithms due to errors in estimating surface reflectance and atmospheric property. However, since MIR channel signal is insensitive to the presence of most aerosols, therefore in present study, AOD retrieval algorithm employs both visible (centred at 0.65 μm) and mid-infrared (MIR) band (centred at 3.9 μm) measurements, and allows us to monitor transport of aerosols at higher temporal resolution. Comparisons made between INSAT-3D derived AOD (τI) and MODIS derived AOD (τM) co-located in space (at 1° resolution) and time during January, February and March (JFM) 2014 encompasses 1165, 1052 and 900 pixels, respectively. Good agreement found between τI and τM during JFM 2014 with linear correlation coefficients (R) of 0.87, 0.81 and 0.76, respectively. The extensive validation made during JFM 2014 encompasses 215 co-located AOD in space and time derived by INSAT 3D (τI) and 10 sun-photometers (τA) that includes 9 AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) and 1 handheld sun-photometer site. INSAT-3D derived AOD i.e. τI, is found within the retrieval errors of τI = ±0.07 ±0.15τA with linear correlation coefficient (R) of 0.90 and root mean square error equal (RMSE) to 0.06. Present work shows that INSAT-3D aerosol products can be used quantitatively in many applications with caution for possible residual clouds, snow/ice, and water contamination.

  14. Treating benign optic nerve tumors with a 3-D conformal plan

    SciTech Connect

    Millunchick, Cheryl Hope

    2013-07-01

    A 68 year old male patient presented for radiation therapy for treatment of a benign tumor, a glioma of his left optic nerve. The radiation oncologist intended to prescribe 52.2 Gy to the planning target volume, while maintaining a maximum of 54 Gy to the optic nerves and the optic chiasm and a maximum of 40–45 Gy to the globes in order to minimize the possibility of damaging the optic system, which is especially important as this is a benign tumor. The dosimetrist devised a conformal non-coplanar three-dimensional plan with a slightly weighted forward planning component. This plan was created in approximately 15 minutes after the critical organs and the targets were delineated and resulted in an extremely conformal and homogenous plan, treating the target while sparing the nearby critical structures. This approach can also be extended to other tumors in the brain - benign or malignant.

  15. Full-color holographic 3D imaging system using color optical scanning holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hayan; Kim, You Seok; Kim, Taegeun

    2016-06-01

    We propose a full-color holographic three-dimensional imaging system that composes a recording stage, a transmission and processing stage and reconstruction stage. In recording stage, color optical scanning holography (OSH) records the complex RGB holograms of an object. In transmission and processing stage, the recorded complex RGB holograms are transmitted to the reconstruction stage after conversion to off-axis RGB holograms. In reconstruction stage, the off-axis RGB holograms are reconstructed optically.

  16. Cost-effective method of manufacturing a 3D MEMS optical switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Emily; Zhang, Ping; Keebaugh, Doug; Chau, Kelvin

    2009-02-01

    growth of data and video transport networks. All-optical switching eliminates the need for optical-electrical conversion offering the ability to switch optical signals transparently: independent of data rates, formats and wavelength. It also provides network operators much needed automation capabilities to create, monitor and protect optical light paths. To further accelerate the market penetration, it is necessary to identify a path to reduce the manufacturing cost significantly as well as enhance the overall system performance, uniformity and reliability. Currently, most MEMS optical switches are assembled through die level flip-chip bonding with either epoxies or solder bumps. This is due to the alignment accuracy requirements of the switch assembly, defect matching of individual die, and cost of the individual components. In this paper, a wafer level assembly approach is reported based on silicon fusion bonding which aims to reduce the packaging time, defect count and cost through volume production. This approach is successfully demonstrated by the integration of two 6-inch wafers: a mirror array wafer and a "snap-guard" wafer, which provides a mechanical structure on top of the micromirror to prevent electrostatic snap-down. The direct silicon-to-silicon bond eliminates the CTEmismatch and stress issues caused by non-silicon bonding agents. Results from a completed integrated switch assembly will be presented, which demonstrates the reliability and uniformity of some key parameters of this MEMS optical switch.

  17. LES prediction and analysis of the aero-optical environment around a 3-D turret

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, Edwin; Wang, Kan; Wang, Meng; Jumper, Eric

    2015-11-01

    Using wall-modeled large-eddy simulation, a Mach 0.4 flow over a hemisphere-on-cylinder turret at the experimental Reynolds number of ReD = 2 . 3 ×106 is simulated to study the aero-optical distortions caused by turbulent density fluctuations. The optical distortions are calculated at over 250 viewing angles during the simulation to thoroughly investigate the optical environment around the turret. Flow field and optical results show good comparisons with experimental measurements. A large database of three-dimensional velocity and density fields is generated for study of the connection between global flow dynamics and local optical distortions. Proper orthogonal decomposition and dynamic mode decomposition are applied to both the distorted wavefronts and the flow-field database. A method of reconstructing the optical wavefronts from the density field modes is investigated. Relations between prominent flow features and wavefront components including tip/tilt and higher-order effects will be discussed. Supported by HEL-JTO through AFOSR Grant FA9550-13-1-0001.

  18. Fast, high-resolution 3D dosimetry utilizing a novel optical-CT scanner incorporating tertiary telecentric collimation.

    PubMed

    Sakhalkar, H S; Oldham, M

    2008-01-01

    This study introduces a charge coupled device (CCD) area detector based optical-computed tomography (optical-CT) scanner for comprehensive verification of radiation dose distributions recorded in nonscattering radiochromic dosimeters. Defining characteristics include: (i) a very fast scanning time of approximately 5 min to acquire a complete three-dimensional (3D) dataset, (ii) improved image formation through the use of custom telecentric optics, which ensures accurate projection images and minimizes artifacts from scattered and stray-light sources, and (iii) high resolution (potentially 50 microm) isotropic 3D dose readout. The performance of the CCD scanner for 3D dose readout was evaluated by comparison with independent 3D readout from the single laser beam OCTOPUS-scanner for the same PRESAGE dosimeters. The OCTOPUS scanner was considered the "gold standard" technique in light of prior studies demonstrating its accuracy. Additional comparisons were made against calculated dose distributions from the ECLIPSE treatment-planning system. Dose readout for the following treatments were investigated: (i) a single rectangular beam irradiation to investigate small field and very steep dose gradient dosimetry away from edge effects, (ii) a 2-field open beam parallel-opposed irradiation to investigate dosimetry along steep dose gradients, and (iii) a 7-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) irradiation to investigate dosimetry for complex treatment delivery involving modulation of fluence and for dosimetry along moderate dose gradients. Dose profiles, dose-difference plots, and gamma maps were employed to evaluate quantitative estimates of agreement between independently measured and calculated dose distributions. Results indicated that dose readout from the CCD scanner was in agreement with independent gold-standard readout from the OCTOPUS-scanner as well as the calculated ECLIPSE dose distribution for all treatments, except in regions within a few

  19. Fast, high-resolution 3D dosimetry utilizing a novel optical-CT scanner incorporating tertiary telecentric collimation

    SciTech Connect

    Sakhalkar, H. S.; Oldham, M.

    2008-01-15

    This study introduces a charge coupled device (CCD) area detector based optical-computed tomography (optical-CT) scanner for comprehensive verification of radiation dose distributions recorded in nonscattering radiochromic dosimeters. Defining characteristics include: (i) a very fast scanning time of {approx}5 min to acquire a complete three-dimensional (3D) dataset, (ii) improved image formation through the use of custom telecentric optics, which ensures accurate projection images and minimizes artifacts from scattered and stray-light sources, and (iii) high resolution (potentially 50 {mu}m) isotropic 3D dose readout. The performance of the CCD scanner for 3D dose readout was evaluated by comparison with independent 3D readout from the single laser beam OCTOPUS-scanner for the same PRESAGE dosimeters. The OCTOPUS scanner was considered the 'gold standard' technique in light of prior studies demonstrating its accuracy. Additional comparisons were made against calculated dose distributions from the ECLIPSE treatment-planning system. Dose readout for the following treatments were investigated: (i) a single rectangular beam irradiation to investigate small field and very steep dose gradient dosimetry away from edge effects, (ii) a 2-field open beam parallel-opposed irradiation to investigate dosimetry along steep dose gradients, and (iii) a 7-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) irradiation to investigate dosimetry for complex treatment delivery involving modulation of fluence and for dosimetry along moderate dose gradients. Dose profiles, dose-difference plots, and gamma maps were employed to evaluate quantitative estimates of agreement between independently measured and calculated dose distributions. Results indicated that dose readout from the CCD scanner was in agreement with independent gold-standard readout from the OCTOPUS-scanner as well as the calculated ECLIPSE dose distribution for all treatments, except in regions within a few millimeters of

  20. Optical 3D Nano-fabrication: Drawing or Growing? (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    Conventional nanotechnology based on the lithography and scanning probe microscopy is limited to 2D fabrication and modification. Here, I will talk about the method for 3D laser fabrication with two-photon polymerization [1], two-photon isomerization [2], and two-photon photo-reduction [3]. Self-growth technology, such as self-grown fiber structures of polymer [4] and self-grown metallic fractal metamaterials structures [5] will be also discussed. [1] S. Kawata, et. al, Nature 412, 697-698, 2001. [2] S. Kawata and Y. Kawata, Chem Rev. 88, 083110, 2006. [3] Y. -Y. Cao, et. al., Small 5, 1144-1148, 2009 [4] S. Shoji and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 737-739, 1999. [5] N. Takeyasu, N. Nishimura, S. Kawata, submitted.

  1. QUASI-OPTICAL 3-dB HYBRID FOR FUTURE HIGH-ENERGY ACCELERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2005-12-15

    Phase-controlled wave combiners-commutators and isolators for protecting rf sources against reflection from the accelerating structure can be built using a 3-dB hybrid built around a metallic grating used in a ''magic-Y'' configuration. Models of the magic-Y were designed and tested, both at 34.272 GHz using the Omega-P Ka-band magnicon, and at 11.424 GHz using the Omega-P/NRL X-band magnicon. All elements of the magic-Y were optimized analytically and numerically. A non-vacuum 34 GHz model of the magic Y was built and tested experimentally at a low power. An engineering design for the high power (vacuum) compressor was configured. Similar steps were taken for the 11-GHz version.

  2. Study of negative hydrogen ion beam optics using the 3D3V PIC model

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, K.; Nishioka, S.; Goto, I.; Hatayama, A.; Hanada, M.; Kojima, A.

    2015-04-08

    The mechanism of negative ion extraction under real conditions with the complex magnetic field is studied by using the 3D PIC simulation code. The extraction region of the negative ion source for the negative ion based neutral beam injection system in fusion reactors is modelled. It is shown that the E x B drift of electrons is caused by the magnetic filter and the electron suppression magnetic field, and the resultant asymmetry of the plasma meniscus. Furthermore, it is indicated that that the asymmetry of the plasma meniscus results in the asymmetry of negative ion beam profile including the beam halo. It could be demonstrated theoretically that the E x B drift is not significantly weakened by the elastic collisions of the electrons with neutral particles.

  3. Diffuse reflectance optical topography: location of inclusions in 3D and detectability limits

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, N. A.; Baez, G. R.; García, H. A.; Waks Serra, M. V.; Di Rocco, H. O.; Iriarte, D. I.; Pomarico, J. A.; Grosenick, D.; Macdonald, R.

    2014-01-01

    In the present contribution we investigate the images of CW diffusely reflected light for a point-like source, registered by a CCD camera imaging a turbid medium containing an absorbing lesion. We show that detection of μa variations (absorption anomalies) is achieved if images are normalized to background intensity. A theoretical analysis based on the diffusion approximation is presented to investigate the sensitivity and the limitations of our proposal and a novel procedure to find the location of the inclusions in 3D is given and tested. An analysis of the noise and its influence on the detection capabilities of our proposal is provided. Experimental results on phantoms are also given, supporting the proposed approach. PMID:24876999

  4. Comparison of different techniques in optical trap for generating picokelvin 3D atom cloud in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Hepeng; Luan, Tian; Li, Chen; Zhang, Yin; Ma, Zhaoyuan; Chen, Xuzong

    2016-01-01

    Pursuing ultralow temperature 3D atom gas under microgravity conditions is one of the popular topics in the field of ultracold research. Many groups around the world are using, or are planning to use, delta-kick cooling (DKC) in microgravity. Our group has also proposed a two-stage crossed beam cooling (TSCBC) method that also provides a path to picokelvin temperatures. In this paper, we compare the characteristics of TSCBC and DKC for producing a picokelvin system in microgravity. Using a direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, we simulate the cooling process of 87Rb using the two different cooling techniques. Under the same initial conditions, 87Rb can reach 7 pK in 15 s using TSCBC and 75 pK in 5.1 s with DKC. The simulation results show that TSCBC can reach lower temperatures compared with DKC, but needs more time and a more stable laser.

  5. Application of optical 3D measurement on thin film buckling to estimate interfacial toughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, H. K.; Wang, S. B.; Li, L. A.; Wang, Z. Y.; Goudeau, P.

    2014-03-01

    The shape-from-focus (SFF) method has been widely studied as a passive depth recovery and 3D reconstruction method for digital images. An important step in SFF is the calculation of the focus level for different points in an image by using a focus measure. In this work, an image entropy-based focus measure is introduced into the SFF method to measure the 3D buckling morphology of an aluminum film on a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrate at a micro scale. Spontaneous film wrinkles and telephone-cord wrinkles are investigated after the deposition of a 300 nm thick aluminum film onto the PMMA substrate. Spontaneous buckling is driven by the highly compressive stress generated in the Al film during the deposition process. The interfacial toughness between metal films and substrates is an important parameter for the reliability of the film/substrate system. The height profiles of different sections across the telephone-cord wrinkle can be considered a straight-sided model with uniform width and height or a pinned circular model that has a delamination region characterized by a sequence of connected sectors. Furthermore, the telephone-cord geometry of the thin film can be used to calculate interfacial toughness. The instability of the finite element model is introduced to fit the buckling morphology obtained by SFF. The interfacial toughness is determined to be 0.203 J/m2 at a 70.4° phase angle from the straight-sided model and 0.105 J/m2 at 76.9° from the pinned circular model.

  6. Spatially monitoring oxygen level in 3D microfabricated cell culture systems using optical oxygen sensing beads.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Acosta, Miguel A; Leach, Jennie B; Carrier, Rebecca L

    2013-04-21

    Capability of measuring and monitoring local oxygen concentration at the single cell level (tens of microns scale) is often desirable but difficult to achieve in cell culture. In this study, biocompatible oxygen sensing beads were prepared and tested for their potential for real-time monitoring and mapping of local oxygen concentration in 3D micro-patterned cell culture systems. Each oxygen sensing bead is composed of a silica core loaded with both an oxygen sensitive Ru(Ph2phen3)Cl2 dye and oxygen insensitive Nile blue reference dye, and a poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) shell rendering biocompatibility. Human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells were cultivated on a series of PDMS and type I collagen based substrates patterned with micro-well arrays for 3 or 7 days, and then brought into contact with oxygen sensing beads. Using an image analysis algorithm to convert florescence intensity of beads to partial oxygen pressure in the culture system, tens of microns-size oxygen sensing beads enabled the spatial measurement of local oxygen concentration in the microfabricated system. Results generally indicated lower oxygen level inside wells than on top of wells, and local oxygen level dependence on structural features of cell culture surfaces. Interestingly, chemical composition of cell culture substrates also appeared to affect oxygen level, with type-I collagen based cell culture systems having lower oxygen concentration compared to PDMS based cell culture systems. In general, results suggest that oxygen sensing beads can be utilized to achieve real-time and local monitoring of micro-environment oxygen level in 3D microfabricated cell culture systems.

  7. Focus Variation - A New Technology for High Resolution Optical 3D Surface Metrology in the Micro- and Nanometer Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, O.

    2009-04-01

    Focus Variation - A New Technology for High Resolution Optical 3D Surface Metrology in the Micro- and Nanometer Range S. Scherer1, E. Cristea1, O. Huber1, A. Krenn1 1 ALICONA GmbH Graz, Austria The need for increasing accuracy is a characteristic of all geo-applications, and hence of the instruments contributing to obtaining relevant data. Small and fine sensors are being developed, measuring different parameters of our geosystem and requiring continuous validation and calibration. These sensors have often very small components (fine sensors able to sense dust, atmospheric water vapour characteristics, pressure change, gravimeters, satellite micro-components), showing complex topographies including steep flanks and having varying reflective properties. In order to get valid and reliable results, quality assurance of these instruments and sensors is required. The optical technology Focus-Variation, developed by Alicona and added in the latest draft of the upcoming ISO standard 25178, provides high resolution 3D surface metrology even at those complex topographies. The technique of Focus-Variation combines the small depth of focus of an optical system with vertical scanning to provide topographical and color information from the variation of focus. It is used for high-resolution optical 3D surface measurements. The traceable and repeatable measurement results are further being used for e.g. calibration and validation purposes. Some of the characteristics of the technology are: - Measurement of instruments / samples with steep flanks up to 80° - Measurement of materials with strongly varying reflection properties - Measurement of surfaces presenting fine (from 10nm) or strong roughness Here, we present the operating principle and possible applications of the optical 3D measurement system "InfiniteFocus", which is based on the technology of Focus-Variation. With the vertical resolution of up to 10nm, InfiniteFocus yields meaningful form and roughness measurements. The

  8. Optically clearing tissue as an initial step for 3D imaging of core biopsies to diagnose pancreatic cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ronnie; Agrawal, Aishwarya; Upton, Melissa P.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2014-02-01

    The pancreas is a deeply seated organ requiring endoscopically, or radiologically guided biopsies for tissue diagnosis. Current approaches include either fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) for cytologic evaluation, or core needle biopsies (CBs), which comprise of tissue cores (L = 1-2 cm, D = 0.4-2.0 mm) for examination by brightfield microscopy. Between procurement and visualization, biospecimens must be processed, sectioned and mounted on glass slides for 2D visualization. Optical information about the native tissue state can be lost with each procedural step and a pathologist cannot appreciate 3D organization from 2D observations of tissue sections 1-8 μm in thickness. Therefore, how might histological disease assessment improve if entire, intact CBs could be imaged in both brightfield and 3D? CBs are mechanically delicate; therefore, a simple device was made to cut intact, simulated CBs (L = 1-2 cm, D = 0.2-0.8 mm) from porcine pancreas. After CBs were laid flat in a chamber, z-stack images at 20x and 40x were acquired through the sample with and without the application of an optical clearing agent (FocusClear®). Intensity of transmitted light increased by 5-15x and islet structures unique to pancreas were clearly visualized 250-300 μm beneath the tissue surface. CBs were then placed in index matching square capillary tubes filled with FocusClear® and a standard optical clearing agent. Brightfield z-stack images were then acquired to present 3D visualization of the CB to the pathologist.

  9. Fast spatial beam shaping by acousto-optic diffraction for 3D non-linear microscopy.

    PubMed

    Akemann, Walther; Léger, Jean-François; Ventalon, Cathie; Mathieu, Benjamin; Dieudonné, Stéphane; Bourdieu, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Acousto-optic deflection (AOD) devices offer unprecedented fast control of the entire spatial structure of light beams, most notably their phase. AOD light modulation of ultra-short laser pulses, however, is not straightforward to implement because of intrinsic chromatic dispersion and non-stationarity of acousto-optic diffraction. While schemes exist to compensate chromatic dispersion, non-stationarity remains an obstacle. In this work we demonstrate an efficient AOD light modulator for stable phase modulation using time-locked generation of frequency-modulated acoustic waves at the full repetition rate of a high power laser pulse amplifier of 80 kHz. We establish the non-local relationship between the optical phase and the generating acoustic frequency function and verify the system for temporal stability, phase accuracy and generation of non-linear two-dimensional phase functions. PMID:26561090

  10. Fast spatial beam shaping by acousto-optic diffraction for 3D non-linear microscopy.

    PubMed

    Akemann, Walther; Léger, Jean-François; Ventalon, Cathie; Mathieu, Benjamin; Dieudonné, Stéphane; Bourdieu, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Acousto-optic deflection (AOD) devices offer unprecedented fast control of the entire spatial structure of light beams, most notably their phase. AOD light modulation of ultra-short laser pulses, however, is not straightforward to implement because of intrinsic chromatic dispersion and non-stationarity of acousto-optic diffraction. While schemes exist to compensate chromatic dispersion, non-stationarity remains an obstacle. In this work we demonstrate an efficient AOD light modulator for stable phase modulation using time-locked generation of frequency-modulated acoustic waves at the full repetition rate of a high power laser pulse amplifier of 80 kHz. We establish the non-local relationship between the optical phase and the generating acoustic frequency function and verify the system for temporal stability, phase accuracy and generation of non-linear two-dimensional phase functions.

  11. Propagation of the Lissajous singularity dipole in free space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haitao; Gao, Zenghui; Zou, Xuefang; Xiao, Xi; Wang, Fanhou; Yang, Huajun

    2014-01-01

    The propagation properties of a pair of Lissajous singularities with opposite singularity indexes called the Lissajous singularity dipole (LSD) in free space are studied analytically and illustrated numerically. It is shown that the motion, creation, annihilation and change in the degree of polarization of the LSD, and change in the shape of Lissajous figures take place by suitably varying the waist width, off-axis distance or propagation distance. In particular, the creation and shift to infinity of a single Lissajous singularity may appear. A comparison with the free-space propagation of an optical vortex dipole and a C-dipole is also made.

  12. Differential axial contrast of optical sections: laser microtomography and quantitative 3D reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogorelova, M. A.; Golichenkov, V. A.; Pogorelov, A. G.

    2014-03-01

    Specific features of the quantitative laser microtomography of biological samples are discussed. The method exhibits the main advantages of a confocal microscope (rapid measurement of a stack of parallel optical cross sections and accurate displacement of an object along the optical axis). A relatively high contrast is reached owing to the superposition of pairwise complementary images on neighboring cross sections. A simple and convenient algorithm for image processing does not require additional software and can be computerized using a conventional graphic editor. The applicability of the method is illustrated using volume measurements of a single cell of an early mouse embryo.

  13. New light-trapping concept by means of several optical components applied to compact holographic 3D concentration solar module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villamarín Villegas, Ayalid M.; Pérez López, Francisco J.; Calo López, Antonio; Rodríguez San Segundo, Hugo-José

    2014-05-01

    A new light-trapping concept is presented, which joins broad bandwidth volume phase reflection holograms (VPRH) working together with three other optical components: specifically designed three-dimensional (3D) cavities, Total Internal Reflection (TIR) within an optical medium, and specular reflection by means of a highly reflective surface. This concept is applied to the design and development of both low concentration photovoltaic (LCPV) and solar thermal modules reaching a concentration factor of up to 3X. Higher concentrations are feasible for use in concentrated solar power (CSP) devices. The whole system is entirely made of polymeric materials (except for the solar cells or fluid carrying pipes), thus reducing cost by up to 40%. The module concentrates solar light onto solar cells - or fluid carrying pipes - with no need for active tracking of the sun, covering the whole seasonal and daily incident angle spectrum while it also minimizes optical losses. In this work we analyze the first experimentally measured optical characteristics and performance of VPRH in dichromated gelatin film (DCG) in our concept. The VPRH can reach high diffraction efficiencies (˜98%, ignoring Fresnel reflection losses). Thanks to specifically designed raw material, coating and developing process specifications, also very broad selective spectral (higher than 300 nm) and angular bandwidths (˜+20º) per grating are achieved. The VPRH was optimized to use silicon solar cells, but designs for other semiconductor devices or for fluid heating are feasible. The 3D shape, the hologram's and reflective surface's optical quality, the TIR effect and the correct coupling of all the components are key to high performance of the concentration solar module.

  14. Modular optical topometric sensor for 3D acquisition of human body surfaces and long-term monitoring of variations.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Guido; Böröcz, Zoltan; Proll, Christian; Kleinheinz, Johannes; von Bally, Gert; Dirksen, Dieter

    2007-08-01

    Optical topometric 3D sensors such as laser scanners and fringe projection systems allow detailed digital acquisition of human body surfaces. For many medical applications, however, not only the current shape is important, but also its changes, e.g., in the course of surgical treatment. In such cases, time delays of several months between subsequent measurements frequently occur. A modular 3D coordinate measuring system based on the fringe projection technique is presented that allows 3D coordinate acquisition including calibrated color information, as well as the detection and visualization of deviations between subsequent measurements. In addition, parameters describing the symmetry of body structures are determined. The quantitative results of the analysis may be used as a basis for objective documentation of surgical therapy. The system is designed in a modular way, and thus, depending on the object of investigation, two or three cameras with different capabilities in terms of resolution and color reproduction can be utilized to optimize the set-up.

  15. Impact of nonzero boresight pointing errors on the performance of a relay-assisted free-space optical communication system over exponentiated Weibull fading channels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Xiaoxia; Cao, Tian; Fu, Huihua; Wang, Ranran; Guo, Lixin

    2016-09-20

    The impact of nonzero boresight pointing errors on the system performance of decode-and-forward protocol-based multihop parallel optical wireless communication systems is studied. For the aggregated fading channel, the atmospheric turbulence is simulated by an exponentiated Weibull model, and pointing errors are described by one recently proposed statistical model including both boresight and jitter. The binary phase-shift keying subcarrier intensity modulation-based analytical average bit error rate (ABER) and outage probability expressions are achieved for a nonidentically and independently distributed system. The ABER and outage probability are then analyzed with different turbulence strengths, receiving aperture sizes, structure parameters (P and Q), jitter variances, and boresight displacements. The results show that aperture averaging offers almost the same system performance improvement with boresight included or not, despite the values of P and Q. The performance enhancement owing to the increase of cooperative path (P) is more evident with nonzero boresight than that with zero boresight (jitter only), whereas the performance deterioration because of the increasing hops (Q) with nonzero boresight is almost the same as that with zero boresight. Monte Carlo simulation is offered to verify the validity of ABER and outage probability expressions.

  16. Impact of nonzero boresight pointing errors on the performance of a relay-assisted free-space optical communication system over exponentiated Weibull fading channels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Xiaoxia; Cao, Tian; Fu, Huihua; Wang, Ranran; Guo, Lixin

    2016-09-20

    The impact of nonzero boresight pointing errors on the system performance of decode-and-forward protocol-based multihop parallel optical wireless communication systems is studied. For the aggregated fading channel, the atmospheric turbulence is simulated by an exponentiated Weibull model, and pointing errors are described by one recently proposed statistical model including both boresight and jitter. The binary phase-shift keying subcarrier intensity modulation-based analytical average bit error rate (ABER) and outage probability expressions are achieved for a nonidentically and independently distributed system. The ABER and outage probability are then analyzed with different turbulence strengths, receiving aperture sizes, structure parameters (P and Q), jitter variances, and boresight displacements. The results show that aperture averaging offers almost the same system performance improvement with boresight included or not, despite the values of P and Q. The performance enhancement owing to the increase of cooperative path (P) is more evident with nonzero boresight than that with zero boresight (jitter only), whereas the performance deterioration because of the increasing hops (Q) with nonzero boresight is almost the same as that with zero boresight. Monte Carlo simulation is offered to verify the validity of ABER and outage probability expressions. PMID:27661587

  17. Probing the intrinsic optical Bloch-mode emission from a 3D photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Mei-Li; Bur, James A.; Du, Qingguo; John, Sajeev; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2016-10-01

    We report experimental observation of intrinsic Bloch-mode emission from a 3D tungsten photonic crystal at low thermal excitation. After the successful removal of conventional metallic emission (normal emission), it is possible to make an accurate comparison of the Bloch-mode and the normal emission. For all biases, we found that the emission intensity of the Bloch-mode is higher than that of the normal emission. The Bloch-mode emission also exhibits a slower dependence on (\\hslash ω /{k}bT) than that of the normal emission. The observed higher emission intensity and a different T-dependence is attributed to Bloch-mode assisted emission where emitters have been located into a medium having local density of states different than the isotropic case. Furthermore, our finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation shows the presence of localized spots at metal-air boundaries and corners, having intense electric field. The enhanced plasmonic field and local non-equilibrium could induce a strong thermally stimulated emission and may be the cause of our unusual observation.

  18. Optical 3D laser measurement system for navigation of autonomous mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Básaca-Preciado, Luis C.; Sergiyenko, Oleg Yu.; Rodríguez-Quinonez, Julio C.; García, Xochitl; Tyrsa, Vera V.; Rivas-Lopez, Moises; Hernandez-Balbuena, Daniel; Mercorelli, Paolo; Podrygalo, Mikhail; Gurko, Alexander; Tabakova, Irina; Starostenko, Oleg

    2014-03-01

    In our current research, we are developing a practical autonomous mobile robot navigation system which is capable of performing obstacle avoiding task on an unknown environment. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a robot navigation system which works using a high accuracy localization scheme by dynamic triangulation. Our two main ideas are (1) integration of two principal systems, 3D laser scanning technical vision system (TVS) and mobile robot (MR) navigation system. (2) Novel MR navigation scheme, which allows benefiting from all advantages of precise triangulation localization of the obstacles, mostly over known camera oriented vision systems. For practical use, mobile robots are required to continue their tasks with safety and high accuracy on temporary occlusion condition. Presented in this work, prototype II of TVS is significantly improved over prototype I of our previous publications in the aspects of laser rays alignment, parasitic torque decrease and friction reduction of moving parts. The kinematic model of the MR used in this work is designed considering the optimal data acquisition from the TVS with the main goal of obtaining in real time, the necessary values for the kinematic model of the MR immediately during the calculation of obstacles based on the TVS data.

  19. Probing the intrinsic optical Bloch-mode emission from a 3D photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Mei-Li; Bur, James A; Du, Qingguo; John, Sajeev; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2016-10-14

    We report experimental observation of intrinsic Bloch-mode emission from a 3D tungsten photonic crystal at low thermal excitation. After the successful removal of conventional metallic emission (normal emission), it is possible to make an accurate comparison of the Bloch-mode and the normal emission. For all biases, we found that the emission intensity of the Bloch-mode is higher than that of the normal emission. The Bloch-mode emission also exhibits a slower dependence on [Formula: see text] than that of the normal emission. The observed higher emission intensity and a different T-dependence is attributed to Bloch-mode assisted emission where emitters have been located into a medium having local density of states different than the isotropic case. Furthermore, our finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation shows the presence of localized spots at metal-air boundaries and corners, having intense electric field. The enhanced plasmonic field and local non-equilibrium could induce a strong thermally stimulated emission and may be the cause of our unusual observation. PMID:27606574

  20. Probing the intrinsic optical Bloch-mode emission from a 3D photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Mei-Li; Bur, James A; Du, Qingguo; John, Sajeev; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2016-10-14

    We report experimental observation of intrinsic Bloch-mode emission from a 3D tungsten photonic crystal at low thermal excitation. After the successful removal of conventional metallic emission (normal emission), it is possible to make an accurate comparison of the Bloch-mode and the normal emission. For all biases, we found that the emission intensity of the Bloch-mode is higher than that of the normal emission. The Bloch-mode emission also exhibits a slower dependence on [Formula: see text] than that of the normal emission. The observed higher emission intensity and a different T-dependence is attributed to Bloch-mode assisted emission where emitters have been located into a medium having local density of states different than the isotropic case. Furthermore, our finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation shows the presence of localized spots at metal-air boundaries and corners, having intense electric field. The enhanced plasmonic field and local non-equilibrium could induce a strong thermally stimulated emission and may be the cause of our unusual observation.