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Sample records for 3d human face

  1. 3D measurement of human face by stereophotogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Holger; Wiegmann, Axel; Kowarschik, Richard; Zöllner, Friedrich

    2006-01-01

    The following article describes a stereophotogrammetry based technique for 3D measurement of human faces. The method was developed for function orientated diagnostics and therapy in dentistry to provide prognoses for jaw-growth or surgical procedures. The main aim of our activities was to realize both -- a rapid measurement and a dense point cloud. The setup consists of two digital cameras in a convergent arrangement and a digital projector. During the measurement a rapid sequence of about 20 statistical generated patterns were projected onto the face and synchronously captured by the two cameras. Therefore, every single pixel of the two cameras is encoded by a characteristically stack of intensity values. To find corresponding points into the image sequences a correlation technique is used. At least, the 3D reconstruction is done by triangulation. The advantages of the shown method are the possible short measurement time (< 1 second) and - in comparison to gray code and phase shift techniques - the low quality requirements of the projection unit. At present the reached accuracy is +/- 0.1mm (rms), which is sufficient for medical applications. But the demonstrated method is not restricted to evaluate the shape of human faces. Also technical objects could be measured.

  2. Sexual Dimorphism Analysis and Gender Classification in 3D Human Face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuan; Lu, Li; Yan, Jingqi; Liu, Zhi; Shi, Pengfei

    In this paper, we present the sexual dimorphism analysis in 3D human face and perform gender classification based on the result of sexual dimorphism analysis. Four types of features are extracted from a 3D human-face image. By using statistical methods, the existence of sexual dimorphism is demonstrated in 3D human face based on these features. The contributions of each feature to sexual dimorphism are quantified according to a novel criterion. The best gender classification rate is 94% by using SVMs and Matcher Weighting fusion method.This research adds to the knowledge of 3D faces in sexual dimorphism and affords a foundation that could be used to distinguish between male and female in 3D faces.

  3. Uniformly spaced 3D modeling of human face from two images using parallel particle swarm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yau-Zen; Hou, Jung-Fu; Tsao, Yi Hsiang; Lee, Shih-Tseng

    2011-09-01

    This paper proposes a scheme for finding the correspondence between uniformly spaced locations on the images of human face captured from different viewpoints at the same instant. The correspondence is dedicated for 3D reconstruction to be used in the registration procedure for neurosurgery where the exposure to projectors must be seriously restricted. The approach utilizes structured light to enhance patterns on the images and is initialized with the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT). Successive locations are found according to spatial order using a parallel version of the particle swarm optimization algorithm. Furthermore, false locations are singled out for correction by searching for outliers from fitted curves. Case studies show that the scheme is able to correctly generate 456 evenly spaced 3D coordinate points in 23 seconds from a single shot of projected human face using a PC with 2.66 GHz Intel Q9400 CPU and 4GB RAM.

  4. SNL3dFace

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmore » of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.« less

  5. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  6. Fabricating 3D figurines with personalized faces.

    PubMed

    Tena, J Rafael; Mahler, Moshe; Beeler, Thabo; Grosse, Max; Hengchin Yeh; Matthews, Iain

    2013-01-01

    We present a semi-automated system for fabricating figurines with faces that are personalised to the individual likeness of the customer. The efficacy of the system has been demonstrated by commercial deployments at Walt Disney World Resort and Star Wars Celebration VI in Orlando Florida. Although the system is semi automated, human intervention is limited to a few simple tasks to maintain the high throughput and consistent quality required for commercial application. In contrast to existing systems that fabricate custom heads that are assembled to pre-fabricated plastic bodies, our system seamlessly integrates 3D facial data with a predefined figurine body into a unique and continuous object that is fabricated as a single piece. The combination of state-of-the-art 3D capture, modelling, and printing that are the core of our system provide the flexibility to fabricate figurines whose complexity is only limited by the creativity of the designer. PMID:24808129

  7. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Tokola, Ryan A; Mikkilineni, Aravind K; Boehnen, Chris Bensing

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  8. Random-Profiles-Based 3D Face Recognition System

    PubMed Central

    Joongrock, Kim; Sunjin, Yu; Sangyoun, Lee

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a noble nonintrusive three-dimensional (3D) face modeling system for random-profile-based 3D face recognition is presented. Although recent two-dimensional (2D) face recognition systems can achieve a reliable recognition rate under certain conditions, their performance is limited by internal and external changes, such as illumination and pose variation. To address these issues, 3D face recognition, which uses 3D face data, has recently received much attention. However, the performance of 3D face recognition highly depends on the precision of acquired 3D face data, while also requiring more computational power and storage capacity than 2D face recognition systems. In this paper, we present a developed nonintrusive 3D face modeling system composed of a stereo vision system and an invisible near-infrared line laser, which can be directly applied to profile-based 3D face recognition. We further propose a novel random-profile-based 3D face recognition method that is memory-efficient and pose-invariant. The experimental results demonstrate that the reconstructed 3D face data consists of more than 50 k 3D point clouds and a reliable recognition rate against pose variation. PMID:24691101

  9. 3D Face Modeling Using the Multi-Deformable Method

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jinkyu; Yu, Sunjin; Kim, Joongrock; Lee, Sangyoun

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the problem of the accuracy performance of 3D face modeling techniques using corresponding features in multiple views, which is quite sensitive to feature extraction errors. To solve the problem, we adopt a statistical model-based 3D face modeling approach in a mirror system consisting of two mirrors and a camera. The overall procedure of our 3D facial modeling method has two primary steps: 3D facial shape estimation using a multiple 3D face deformable model and texture mapping using seamless cloning that is a type of gradient-domain blending. To evaluate our method's performance, we generate 3D faces of 30 individuals and then carry out two tests: accuracy test and robustness test. Our method shows not only highly accurate 3D face shape results when compared with the ground truth, but also robustness to feature extraction errors. Moreover, 3D face rendering results intuitively show that our method is more robust to feature extraction errors than other 3D face modeling methods. An additional contribution of our method is that a wide range of face textures can be acquired by the mirror system. By using this texture map, we generate realistic 3D face for individuals at the end of the paper. PMID:23201976

  10. Objective 3D face recognition: Evolution, approaches and challenges.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Dirk; Claes, Peter; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Clement, John Gerald

    2010-09-10

    Face recognition is a natural human ability and a widely accepted identification and authentication method. In modern legal settings, a lot of credence is placed on identifications made by eyewitnesses. Consequently these are based on human perception which is often flawed and can lead to situations where identity is disputed. Therefore, there is a clear need to secure identifications in an objective way based on anthropometric measures. Anthropometry has existed for many years and has evolved with each advent of new technology and computing power. As a result of this, face recognition methodology has shifted from a purely 2D image-based approach to the use of 3D facial shape. However, one of the main challenges still remaining is the non-rigid structure of the face, which can change permanently over varying time-scales and briefly with facial expressions. The majority of face recognition methods have been developed by scientists with a very technical background such as biometry, pattern recognition and computer vision. This article strives to bridge the gap between these communities and the forensic science end-users. A concise review of face recognition using 3D shape is given. Methods using 3D shape applied to data embodying facial expressions are tabulated for reference. From this list a categorization of different strategies to deal with expressions is presented. The underlying concepts and practical issues relating to the application of each strategy are given, without going into technical details. The discussion clearly articulates the justification to establish archival, reference databases to compare and evaluate different strategies. PMID:20395086

  11. Creating 3D realistic head: from two orthogonal photos to multiview face contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuan; Lin, Qian; Tang, Feng; Tang, Liang; Lim, Sukhwan; Wang, Shengjin

    2011-03-01

    3D Head models have many applications, such as virtual conference, 3D web game, and so on. The existing several web-based face modeling solutions that can create a 3D face model from one or two user uploaded face images, are limited to generating the 3D model of only face region. The accuracy of such reconstruction is very limited for side views, as well as hair regions. The goal of our research is to develop a framework for reconstructing the realistic 3D human head based on two approximate orthogonal views. Our framework takes two images, and goes through segmentation, feature points detection, 3D bald head reconstruction, 3D hair reconstruction and texture mapping to create a 3D head model. The main contribution of the paper is that the processing steps are applies to both the face region as well as the hair region.

  12. The use of 3D information in face recognition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang Hong; Ward, James

    2006-03-01

    Effects of shading in face recognition have often alluded to 3D shape processing. However, research to date has failed to demonstrate any use of important 3D information. Stereopsis adds no advantage in face encoding [Liu, C. H., Ward, J., & Young, A. W. (in press). Transfer between 2D and 3D representations of faces. Visual Cognition], and perspective transformation impairs rather than assists recognition performance [Liu, C. H. (2003). Is face recognition in pictures affected by the center of projection? In IEEE international workshop on analysis and modeling of faces and gestures (pp. 53-59). Nice, France: IEEE Computer Society]. Although evidence tends to rule out involvement of 3D information in face processing, it remains possible that the usefulness of this information depends on certain combinations of cues. We tested this hypothesis in a recognition task, where face stimuli with several levels of perspective transformation were either presented in stereo or without stereo. We found that even at a moderate level of perspective transformation where training and test faces were separated by just 30 cm, the stereo condition produced better performance. This provides the first evidence that stereo information can facilitate face recognition. We conclude that 3D information plays a role in face processing but only when certain types of 3D cues are properly combined. PMID:16298412

  13. 3D fast wavelet network model-assisted 3D face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, Salwa; Jemai, Olfa; Zaied, Mourad; Ben Amar, Chokri

    2015-12-01

    In last years, the emergence of 3D shape in face recognition is due to its robustness to pose and illumination changes. These attractive benefits are not all the challenges to achieve satisfactory recognition rate. Other challenges such as facial expressions and computing time of matching algorithms remain to be explored. In this context, we propose our 3D face recognition approach using 3D wavelet networks. Our approach contains two stages: learning stage and recognition stage. For the training we propose a novel algorithm based on 3D fast wavelet transform. From 3D coordinates of the face (x,y,z), we proceed to voxelization to get a 3D volume which will be decomposed by 3D fast wavelet transform and modeled after that with a wavelet network, then their associated weights are considered as vector features to represent each training face . For the recognition stage, an unknown identity face is projected on all the training WN to obtain a new vector features after every projection. A similarity score is computed between the old and the obtained vector features. To show the efficiency of our approach, experimental results were performed on all the FRGC v.2 benchmark.

  14. 3D face recognition based on a modified ICP method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kankan; Xi, Jiangtao; Yu, Yanguang; Chicharo, Joe F.

    2011-11-01

    3D face recognition technique has gained much more attention recently, and it is widely used in security system, identification system, and access control system, etc. The core technique in 3D face recognition is to find out the corresponding points in different 3D face images. The classic partial Iterative Closest Point (ICP) method is iteratively align the two point sets based on repetitively calculate the closest points as the corresponding points in each iteration. After several iterations, the corresponding points can be obtained accurately. However, if two 3D face images with different scale are from the same person, the classic partial ICP does not work. In this paper we propose a modified partial Iterative Closest Point (ICP) method in which the scaling effect is considered to achieve 3D face recognition. We design a 3x3 diagonal matrix as the scale matrix in each iteration of the classic partial ICP. The probing face image which is multiplied by the scale matrix will keep the similar scale with the reference face image. Therefore, we can accurately determine the corresponding points even the scales of probing image and reference image are different. 3D face images in our experiments are acquired by a 3D data acquisition system based on Digital Fringe Projection Profilometry (DFPP). A 3D database consists of 30 group images, three images with the same scale, which are from the same person with different views, are included in each group. And in different groups, the scale of the 3 images may be different from other groups. The experiment results show that our proposed method can achieve 3D face recognition, especially in the case that the scales of probing image and referent image are different.

  15. 3D face recognition based on matching of facial surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echeagaray-Patrón, Beatriz A.; Kober, Vitaly

    2015-09-01

    Face recognition is an important task in pattern recognition and computer vision. In this work a method for 3D face recognition in the presence of facial expression and poses variations is proposed. The method uses 3D shape data without color or texture information. A new matching algorithm based on conformal mapping of original facial surfaces onto a Riemannian manifold followed by comparison of conformal and isometric invariants computed in the manifold is suggested. Experimental results are presented using common 3D face databases that contain significant amount of expression and pose variations.

  16. A review of recent advances in 3D face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jing; Geng, Shuze; Xiao, Zhaoxia; Xiu, Chunbo

    2015-03-01

    Face recognition based on machine vision has achieved great advances and been widely used in the various fields. However, there are some challenges on the face recognition, such as facial pose, variations in illumination, and facial expression. So, this paper gives the recent advances in 3D face recognition. 3D face recognition approaches are categorized into four groups: minutiae approach, space transform approach, geometric features approach, model approach. Several typical approaches are compared in detail, including feature extraction, recognition algorithm, and the performance of the algorithm. Finally, this paper summarized the challenge existing in 3D face recognition and the future trend. This paper aims to help the researches majoring on face recognition.

  17. Iterative closest normal point for 3D face recognition.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzade, Hoda; Hatzinakos, Dimitrios

    2013-02-01

    The common approach for 3D face recognition is to register a probe face to each of the gallery faces and then calculate the sum of the distances between their points. This approach is computationally expensive and sensitive to facial expression variation. In this paper, we introduce the iterative closest normal point method for finding the corresponding points between a generic reference face and every input face. The proposed correspondence finding method samples a set of points for each face, denoted as the closest normal points. These points are effectively aligned across all faces, enabling effective application of discriminant analysis methods for 3D face recognition. As a result, the expression variation problem is addressed by minimizing the within-class variability of the face samples while maximizing the between-class variability. As an important conclusion, we show that the surface normal vectors of the face at the sampled points contain more discriminatory information than the coordinates of the points. We have performed comprehensive experiments on the Face Recognition Grand Challenge database, which is presently the largest available 3D face database. We have achieved verification rates of 99.6 and 99.2 percent at a false acceptance rate of 0.1 percent for the all versus all and ROC III experiments, respectively, which, to the best of our knowledge, have seven and four times less error rates, respectively, compared to the best existing methods on this database. PMID:22585097

  18. Learning the spherical harmonic features for 3-D face recognition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peijiang; Wang, Yunhong; Huang, Di; Zhang, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Liming

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, a competitive method for 3-D face recognition (FR) using spherical harmonic features (SHF) is proposed. With this solution, 3-D face models are characterized by the energies contained in spherical harmonics with different frequencies, thereby enabling the capture of both gross shape and fine surface details of a 3-D facial surface. This is in clear contrast to most 3-D FR techniques which are either holistic or feature based, using local features extracted from distinctive points. First, 3-D face models are represented in a canonical representation, namely, spherical depth map, by which SHF can be calculated. Then, considering the predictive contribution of each SHF feature, especially in the presence of facial expression and occlusion, feature selection methods are used to improve the predictive performance and provide faster and more cost-effective predictors. Experiments have been carried out on three public 3-D face datasets, SHREC2007, FRGC v2.0, and Bosphorus, with increasing difficulties in terms of facial expression, pose, and occlusion, and which demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:23060332

  19. Thermal infrared exploitation for 3D face reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abayowa, Bernard O.

    2009-05-01

    Despite the advances in face recognition research, current face recognition systems are still not accurate or robust enough to be deployed in uncontrolled environments. The existence of a pose and illumination invariant face recognition system is still lacking. This research exploits the relationship between thermal infrared and visible imagery, to estimate 3D face with visible texture from infrared imagery. The relationship between visible and thermal infrared texture is learned using kernel canonical correlation analysis(KCCA), and then a 3D modeler is used to estimate the geometric structure from predicted visual imagery. This research will find it's application in uncontrolled environments where illumination and pose invariant identification or tracking is required at long range such as urban search and rescue (Amber alert, missing dementia patient), and manhunt scenarios.

  20. Head pose estimation from a 2D face image using 3D face morphing with depth parameters.

    PubMed

    Kong, Seong G; Mbouna, Ralph Oyini

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents estimation of head pose angles from a single 2D face image using a 3D face model morphed from a reference face model. A reference model refers to a 3D face of a person of the same ethnicity and gender as the query subject. The proposed scheme minimizes the disparity between the two sets of prominent facial features on the query face image and the corresponding points on the 3D face model to estimate the head pose angles. The 3D face model used is morphed from a reference model to be more specific to the query face in terms of the depth error at the feature points. The morphing process produces a 3D face model more specific to the query image when multiple 2D face images of the query subject are available for training. The proposed morphing process is computationally efficient since the depth of a 3D face model is adjusted by a scalar depth parameter at feature points. Optimal depth parameters are found by minimizing the disparity between the 2D features of the query face image and the corresponding features on the morphed 3D model projected onto 2D space. The proposed head pose estimation technique was evaluated on two benchmarking databases: 1) the USF Human-ID database for depth estimation and 2) the Pointing'04 database for head pose estimation. Experiment results demonstrate that head pose estimation errors in nodding and shaking angles are as low as 7.93° and 4.65° on average for a single 2D input face image. PMID:25706638

  1. 3D Multi-Spectrum Sensor System with Face Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joongrock; Yu, Sunjin; Kim, Ig-Jae; Lee, Sangyoun

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel three-dimensional (3D) multi-spectrum sensor system, which combines a 3D depth sensor and multiple optical sensors for different wavelengths. Various image sensors, such as visible, infrared (IR) and 3D sensors, have been introduced into the commercial market. Since each sensor has its own advantages under various environmental conditions, the performance of an application depends highly on selecting the correct sensor or combination of sensors. In this paper, a sensor system, which we will refer to as a 3D multi-spectrum sensor system, which comprises three types of sensors, visible, thermal-IR and time-of-flight (ToF), is proposed. Since the proposed system integrates information from each sensor into one calibrated framework, the optimal sensor combination for an application can be easily selected, taking into account all combinations of sensors information. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system, a face recognition system with light and pose variation is designed. With the proposed sensor system, the optimal sensor combination, which provides new effectively fused features for a face recognition system, is obtained. PMID:24072025

  2. 3D multi-spectrum sensor system with face recognition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joongrock; Yu, Sunjin; Kim, Ig-Jae; Lee, Sangyoun

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel three-dimensional (3D) multi-spectrum sensor system, which combines a 3D depth sensor and multiple optical sensors for different wavelengths. Various image sensors, such as visible, infrared (IR) and 3D sensors, have been introduced into the commercial market. Since each sensor has its own advantages under various environmental conditions, the performance of an application depends highly on selecting the correct sensor or combination of sensors. In this paper, a sensor system, which we will refer to as a 3D multi-spectrum sensor system, which comprises three types of sensors, visible, thermal-IR and time-of-flight (ToF), is proposed. Since the proposed system integrates information from each sensor into one calibrated framework, the optimal sensor combination for an application can be easily selected, taking into account all combinations of sensors information. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system, a face recognition system with light and pose variation is designed. With the proposed sensor system, the optimal sensor combination, which provides new effectively fused features for a face recognition system, is obtained. PMID:24072025

  3. Color constancy in 3D-2D face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Manuel; Riess, Christian; Angelopoulou, Elli; Evangelopoulos, Georgios; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A.

    2013-05-01

    Face is one of the most popular biometric modalities. However, up to now, color is rarely actively used in face recognition. Yet, it is well-known that when a person recognizes a face, color cues can become as important as shape, especially when combined with the ability of people to identify the color of objects independent of illuminant color variations. In this paper, we examine the feasibility and effect of explicitly embedding illuminant color information in face recognition systems. We empirically examine the theoretical maximum gain of including known illuminant color to a 3D-2D face recognition system. We also investigate the impact of using computational color constancy methods for estimating the illuminant color, which is then incorporated into the face recognition framework. Our experiments show that under close-to-ideal illumination estimates, one can improve face recognition rates by 16%. When the illuminant color is algorithmically estimated, the improvement is approximately 5%. These results suggest that color constancy has a positive impact on face recognition, but the accuracy of the illuminant color estimate has a considerable effect on its benefits.

  4. 2D face database diversification based on 3D face modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qun; Li, Jiang; Asari, Vijayan K.; Karim, Mohammad A.

    2011-05-01

    Pose and illumination are identified as major problems in 2D face recognition (FR). It has been theoretically proven that the more diversified instances in the training phase, the more accurate and adaptable the FR system appears to be. Based on this common awareness, researchers have developed a large number of photographic face databases to meet the demand for data training purposes. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme for 2D face database diversification based on 3D face modeling and computer graphics techniques, which supplies augmented variances of pose and illumination. Based on the existing samples from identical individuals of the database, a synthesized 3D face model is employed to create composited 2D scenarios with extra light and pose variations. The new model is based on a 3D Morphable Model (3DMM) and genetic type of optimization algorithm. The experimental results show that the complemented instances obviously increase diversification of the existing database.

  5. Modeling 3D faces from samplings via compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qi; Tang, Yanlong; Hu, Ping

    2013-07-01

    3D data is easier to acquire for family entertainment purpose today because of the mass-production, cheapness and portability of domestic RGBD sensors, e.g., Microsoft Kinect. However, the accuracy of facial modeling is affected by the roughness and instability of the raw input data from such sensors. To overcome this problem, we introduce compressive sensing (CS) method to build a novel 3D super-resolution scheme to reconstruct high-resolution facial models from rough samples captured by Kinect. Unlike the simple frame fusion super-resolution method, this approach aims to acquire compressed samples for storage before a high-resolution image is produced. In this scheme, depth frames are firstly captured and then each of them is measured into compressed samples using sparse coding. Next, the samples are fused to produce an optimal one and finally a high-resolution image is recovered from the fused sample. This framework is able to recover 3D facial model of a given user from compressed simples and this can reducing storage space as well as measurement cost in future devices e.g., single-pixel depth cameras. Hence, this work can potentially be applied into future applications, such as access control system using face recognition, and smart phones with depth cameras, which need high resolution and little measure time.

  6. 3D face recognition under expressions, occlusions, and pose variations.

    PubMed

    Drira, Hassen; Ben Amor, Boulbaba; Srivastava, Anuj; Daoudi, Mohamed; Slama, Rim

    2013-09-01

    We propose a novel geometric framework for analyzing 3D faces, with the specific goals of comparing, matching, and averaging their shapes. Here we represent facial surfaces by radial curves emanating from the nose tips and use elastic shape analysis of these curves to develop a Riemannian framework for analyzing shapes of full facial surfaces. This representation, along with the elastic Riemannian metric, seems natural for measuring facial deformations and is robust to challenges such as large facial expressions (especially those with open mouths), large pose variations, missing parts, and partial occlusions due to glasses, hair, and so on. This framework is shown to be promising from both--empirical and theoretical--perspectives. In terms of the empirical evaluation, our results match or improve upon the state-of-the-art methods on three prominent databases: FRGCv2, GavabDB, and Bosphorus, each posing a different type of challenge. From a theoretical perspective, this framework allows for formal statistical inferences, such as the estimation of missing facial parts using PCA on tangent spaces and computing average shapes. PMID:23868784

  7. Many-faced cells and many-edged faces in 3D Poisson-Voronoi tessellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilhorst, H. J.; Lazar, E. A.

    2014-10-01

    Motivated by recent new Monte Carlo data we investigate a heuristic asymptotic theory that applies to n-faced 3D Poisson-Voronoi cells in the limit of large n. We show how this theory may be extended to n-edged cell faces. It predicts the leading order large-n behavior of the average volume and surface area of the n-faced cell, and of the average area and perimeter of the n-edged face. Such a face is shown to be surrounded by a toroidal region of volume n/λ (with λ the seed density) that is void of seeds. Two neighboring cells sharing an n-edged face are found to have their seeds at a typical distance that scales as n-1/6 and whose probability law we determine. We present a new data set of 4 × 109 Monte Carlo generated 3D Poisson-Voronoi cells, larger than any before. Full compatibility is found between the Monte Carlo data and the theory. Deviations from the asymptotic predictions are explained in terms of subleading corrections whose powers in n we estimate from the data.

  8. Description and recognition of faces from 3D data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coombes, Anne M.; Richards, Robin; Linney, Alfred D.; Bruce, Vicki; Fright, Rick

    1992-12-01

    A method based on differential geometry, is presented for mathematically describing the shape of the facial surface. Three-dimensional data for the face are collected by optical surface scanning. The method allows the segmentation of the face into regions of a particular `surface type,' according to the surface curvature. Eight different surface types are produced which all have perceptually meaningful interpretations. The correspondence of the surface type regions to the facial features are easily visualized, allowing a qualitative assessment of the face. A quantitative description of the face in terms of the surface type regions can be produced and the variation of the description between faces is demonstrated. A set of optical surface scans can be registered together and averages to produce an average male and average female face. Thus an assessment of how individuals vary from the average can be made as well as a general statement about the differences between male and female faces. This method will enable an investigation to be made as to how reliably faces can be individuated by their surface shape which, if feasible, may be the basis of an automatic system for recognizing faces. It also has applications in physical anthropology, for classification of the face, facial reconstructive surgery, to quantify the changes in a face altered by reconstructive surgery and growth, and in visual perception, to assess the recognizability of faces. Examples of some of these applications are presented.

  9. Transferring of speech movements from video to 3D face space.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yuru; Zha, Hongbin

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel method for transferring speech animation recorded in low quality videos to high resolution 3D face models. The basic idea is to synthesize the animated faces by an interpolation based on a small set of 3D key face shapes which span a 3D face space. The 3D key shapes are extracted by an unsupervised learning process in 2D video space to form a set of 2D visemes which are then mapped to the 3D face space. The learning process consists of two main phases: 1) Isomap-based nonlinear dimensionality reduction to embed the video speech movements into a low-dimensional manifold and 2) K-means clustering in the low-dimensional space to extract 2D key viseme frames. Our main contribution is that we use the Isomap-based learning method to extract intrinsic geometry of the speech video space and thus to make it possible to define the 3D key viseme shapes. To do so, we need only to capture a limited number of 3D key face models by using a general 3D scanner. Moreover, we also develop a skull movement recovery method based on simple anatomical structures to enhance 3D realism in local mouth movements. Experimental results show that our method can achieve realistic 3D animation effects with a small number of 3D key face models. PMID:17093336

  10. FaceWarehouse: a 3D facial expression database for visual computing.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chen; Weng, Yanlin; Zhou, Shun; Tong, Yiying; Zhou, Kun

    2014-03-01

    We present FaceWarehouse, a database of 3D facial expressions for visual computing applications. We use Kinect, an off-the-shelf RGBD camera, to capture 150 individuals aged 7-80 from various ethnic backgrounds. For each person, we captured the RGBD data of her different expressions, including the neutral expression and 19 other expressions such as mouth-opening, smile, kiss, etc. For every RGBD raw data record, a set of facial feature points on the color image such as eye corners, mouth contour, and the nose tip are automatically localized, and manually adjusted if better accuracy is required. We then deform a template facial mesh to fit the depth data as closely as possible while matching the feature points on the color image to their corresponding points on the mesh. Starting from these fitted face meshes, we construct a set of individual-specific expression blendshapes for each person. These meshes with consistent topology are assembled as a rank-3 tensor to build a bilinear face model with two attributes: identity and expression. Compared with previous 3D facial databases, for every person in our database, there is a much richer matching collection of expressions, enabling depiction of most human facial actions. We demonstrate the potential of FaceWarehouse for visual computing with four applications: facial image manipulation, face component transfer, real-time performance-based facial image animation, and facial animation retargeting from video to image. PMID:24434222

  11. FaceWarehouse: A 3D Facial Expression Database for Visual Computing.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chen; Weng, Yanlin; Zhou, Shun; Tong, Yiying; Zhou, Kun

    2013-10-25

    We present FaceWarehouse, a database of 3D facial expressions for visual computing applications. We use Microsoft's Kinect system to capture 150 individuals from various ethnic backgrounds. For each person, we captured the RGBD data of her different expressions, including the neutral expression and 19 other expressions. For every raw data record, a set of facial feature points on the color image such as eye corners and mouth contour are automatically localized, and manually adjusted if better accuracy is required. We then deform a template facial mesh to fit the depth data as closely as possible while matching the feature points on the color image to their corresponding points on the mesh. Starting from these fitted face meshes, we construct a set of individual-specific expression blendshapes for each person. These meshes with consistent topology are assembled as a rank-three tensor to build a bilinear face model with two attributes, identity and expression. Compared with previous 3D facial databases, for every person in our database, there is a much richer matching collection of expressions, enabling depiction of most human facial actions. We demonstrate the potential of FaceWarehouse with four applications: facial image manipulation, face component transfer, real-time performance-based facial image animation, and facial animation retargeting from video to image. PMID:24166613

  12. The fast and accurate 3D-face scanning technology based on laser triangle sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinjiang; Chang, Tianyu; Ge, Baozhen; Tian, Qingguo; Chen, Yang; Kong, Bin

    2013-08-01

    A laser triangle scanning method and the structure of 3D-face measurement system were introduced. In presented system, a liner laser source was selected as an optical indicated signal in order to scanning a line one times. The CCD image sensor was used to capture image of the laser line modulated by human face. The system parameters were obtained by system calibrated calculated. The lens parameters of image part of were calibrated with machine visual image method and the triangle structure parameters were calibrated with fine wire paralleled arranged. The CCD image part and line laser indicator were set with a linear motor carry which can achieve the line laser scanning form top of the head to neck. For the nose is ledge part and the eyes are sunk part, one CCD image sensor can not obtain the completed image of laser line. In this system, two CCD image sensors were set symmetric at two sides of the laser indicator. In fact, this structure includes two laser triangle measure units. Another novel design is there laser indicators were arranged in order to reduce the scanning time for it is difficult for human to keep static for longer time. The 3D data were calculated after scanning. And further data processing include 3D coordinate refine, mesh calculate and surface show. Experiments show that this system has simply structure, high scanning speed and accurate. The scanning range covers the whole head of adult, the typical resolution is 0.5mm.

  13. Challenges Facing 3-D Audio Display Design for Multimedia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The challenges facing successful multimedia presentation depend largely on the expectations of the designer and end user for a given application. Perceptual limitations in distance, elevation and azimuth sound source simulation differ significantly between headphone and cross-talk cancellation loudspeaker listening and therefore must be considered. Simulation of an environmental context is desirable but the quality depends on processing resources and lack of interaction with the host acoustical environment. While techniques such as data reduction of head-related transfer functions have been used widely to improve simulation fidelity, another approach involves determining thresholds for environmental acoustic events. Psychoacoustic studies relevant to this approach are reviewed in consideration of multimedia applications

  14. Single view-based 3D face reconstruction robust to self-occlusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Youn Joo; Lee, Sung Joo; Park, Kang Ryoung; Jo, Jaeik; Kim, Jaihie

    2012-12-01

    State-of-the-art 3D morphable model (3DMM) is used widely for 3D face reconstruction based on a single image. However, this method has a high computational cost, and hence, a simplified 3D morphable model (S3DMM) was proposed as an alternative. Unlike the original 3DMM, S3DMM uses only a sparse 3D facial shape, and therefore, it incurs a lower computational cost. However, this method is vulnerable to self-occlusion due to head rotation. Therefore, we propose a solution to the self-occlusion problem in S3DMM-based 3D face reconstruction. This research is novel compared with previous works, in the following three respects. First, self-occlusion of the input face is detected automatically by estimating the head pose using a cylindrical head model. Second, a 3D model fitting scheme is designed based on selected visible facial feature points, which facilitates 3D face reconstruction without any effect from self-occlusion. Third, the reconstruction performance is enhanced by using the estimated pose as the initial pose parameter during the 3D model fitting process. The experimental results showed that the self-occlusion detection had high accuracy and our proposed method delivered a noticeable improvement in the 3D face reconstruction performance compared with previous methods.

  15. 3D Face Recognition Based on Multiple Keypoint Descriptors and Sparse Representation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Ding, Zhixuan; Li, Hongyu; Shen, Ying; Lu, Jianwei

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in developing methods for 3D face recognition. However, 3D scans often suffer from the problems of missing parts, large facial expressions, and occlusions. To be useful in real-world applications, a 3D face recognition approach should be able to handle these challenges. In this paper, we propose a novel general approach to deal with the 3D face recognition problem by making use of multiple keypoint descriptors (MKD) and the sparse representation-based classification (SRC). We call the proposed method 3DMKDSRC for short. Specifically, with 3DMKDSRC, each 3D face scan is represented as a set of descriptor vectors extracted from keypoints by meshSIFT. Descriptor vectors of gallery samples form the gallery dictionary. Given a probe 3D face scan, its descriptors are extracted at first and then its identity can be determined by using a multitask SRC. The proposed 3DMKDSRC approach does not require the pre-alignment between two face scans and is quite robust to the problems of missing data, occlusions and expressions. Its superiority over the other leading 3D face recognition schemes has been corroborated by extensive experiments conducted on three benchmark databases, Bosphorus, GavabDB, and FRGC2.0. The Matlab source code for 3DMKDSRC and the related evaluation results are publicly available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/3dmkdsrcface/3dmkdsrc.htm. PMID:24940876

  16. 3D face reconstruction from limited images based on differential evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qun; Li, Jiang; Asari, Vijayan K.; Karim, Mohammad A.

    2011-09-01

    3D face modeling has been one of the greatest challenges for researchers in computer graphics for many years. Various methods have been used to model the shape and texture of faces under varying illumination and pose conditions from a single given image. In this paper, we propose a novel method for the 3D face synthesis and reconstruction by using a simple and efficient global optimizer. A 3D-2D matching algorithm which employs the integration of the 3D morphable model (3DMM) and the differential evolution (DE) algorithm is addressed. In 3DMM, the estimation process of fitting shape and texture information into 2D images is considered as the problem of searching for the global minimum in a high dimensional feature space, in which optimization is apt to have local convergence. Unlike the traditional scheme used in 3DMM, DE appears to be robust against stagnation in local minima and sensitiveness to initial values in face reconstruction. Benefitting from DE's successful performance, 3D face models can be created based on a single 2D image with respect to various illuminating and pose contexts. Preliminary results demonstrate that we are able to automatically create a virtual 3D face from a single 2D image with high performance. The validation process shows that there is only an insignificant difference between the input image and the 2D face image projected by the 3D model.

  17. 3D face recognition based on multiple keypoint descriptors and sparse representation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Ding, Zhixuan; Li, Hongyu; Shen, Ying; Lu, Jianwei

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in developing methods for 3D face recognition. However, 3D scans often suffer from the problems of missing parts, large facial expressions, and occlusions. To be useful in real-world applications, a 3D face recognition approach should be able to handle these challenges. In this paper, we propose a novel general approach to deal with the 3D face recognition problem by making use of multiple keypoint descriptors (MKD) and the sparse representation-based classification (SRC). We call the proposed method 3DMKDSRC for short. Specifically, with 3DMKDSRC, each 3D face scan is represented as a set of descriptor vectors extracted from keypoints by meshSIFT. Descriptor vectors of gallery samples form the gallery dictionary. Given a probe 3D face scan, its descriptors are extracted at first and then its identity can be determined by using a multitask SRC. The proposed 3DMKDSRC approach does not require the pre-alignment between two face scans and is quite robust to the problems of missing data, occlusions and expressions. Its superiority over the other leading 3D face recognition schemes has been corroborated by extensive experiments conducted on three benchmark databases, Bosphorus, GavabDB, and FRGC2.0. The Matlab source code for 3DMKDSRC and the related evaluation results are publicly available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/3dmkdsrcface/3dmkdsrc.htm. PMID:24940876

  18. Intraclass retrieval of nonrigid 3D objects: application to face recognition.

    PubMed

    Passalis, Georgios; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A; Theoharis, Theoharis

    2007-02-01

    As the size of the available collections of 3D objects grows, database transactions become essential for their management with the key operation being retrieval (query). Large collections are also precategorized into classes so that a single class contains objects of the same type (e.g., human faces, cars, four-legged animals). It is shown that general object retrieval methods are inadequate for intraclass retrieval tasks. We advocate that such intraclass problems require a specialized method that can exploit the basic class characteristics in order to achieve higher accuracy. A novel 3D object retrieval method is presented which uses a parameterized annotated model of the shape of the class objects, incorporating its main characteristics. The annotated subdivision-based model is fitted onto objects of the class using a deformable model framework, converted to a geometry image and transformed into the wavelet domain. Object retrieval takes place in the wavelet domain. The method does not require user interaction, achieves high accuracy, is efficient for use with large databases, and is suitable for nonrigid object classes. We apply our method to the face recognition domain, one of the most challenging intraclass retrieval tasks. We used the Face Recognition Grand Challenge v2 database, yielding an average verification rate of 95.2 percent at 10-3 false accept rate. The latest results of our work can be found at http://www.cbl.uh.edu/UR8D/. PMID:17170476

  19. The Role of Active Exploration of 3D Face Stimuli on Recognition Memory of Facial Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chang Hong; Ward, James; Markall, Helena

    2007-01-01

    Research on face recognition has mainly relied on methods in which observers are relatively passive viewers of face stimuli. This study investigated whether active exploration of three-dimensional (3D) face stimuli could facilitate recognition memory. A standard recognition task and a sequential matching task were employed in a yoked design.…

  20. What is 3D good for? A review of human performance on stereoscopic 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntire, John P.; Havig, Paul R.; Geiselman, Eric E.

    2012-06-01

    This work reviews the human factors-related literature on the task performance implications of stereoscopic 3D displays, in order to point out the specific performance benefits (or lack thereof) one might reasonably expect to observe when utilizing these displays. What exactly is 3D good for? Relative to traditional 2D displays, stereoscopic displays have been shown to enhance performance on a variety of depth-related tasks. These tasks include judging absolute and relative distances, finding and identifying objects (by breaking camouflage and eliciting perceptual "pop-out"), performing spatial manipulations of objects (object positioning, orienting, and tracking), and navigating. More cognitively, stereoscopic displays can improve the spatial understanding of 3D scenes or objects, improve memory/recall of scenes or objects, and improve learning of spatial relationships and environments. However, for tasks that are relatively simple, that do not strictly require depth information for good performance, where other strong cues to depth can be utilized, or for depth tasks that lie outside the effective viewing volume of the display, the purported performance benefits of 3D may be small or altogether absent. Stereoscopic 3D displays come with a host of unique human factors problems including the simulator-sickness-type symptoms of eyestrain, headache, fatigue, disorientation, nausea, and malaise, which appear to effect large numbers of viewers (perhaps as many as 25% to 50% of the general population). Thus, 3D technology should be wielded delicately and applied carefully; and perhaps used only as is necessary to ensure good performance.

  1. A framework for the recognition of 3D faces and expressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Barreto, Armando

    2006-04-01

    Face recognition technology has been a focus both in academia and industry for the last couple of years because of its wide potential applications and its importance to meet the security needs of today's world. Most of the systems developed are based on 2D face recognition technology, which uses pictures for data processing. With the development of 3D imaging technology, 3D face recognition emerges as an alternative to overcome the difficulties inherent with 2D face recognition, i.e. sensitivity to illumination conditions and orientation positioning of the subject. But 3D face recognition still needs to tackle the problem of deformation of facial geometry that results from the expression changes of a subject. To deal with this issue, a 3D face recognition framework is proposed in this paper. It is composed of three subsystems: an expression recognition system, a system for the identification of faces with expression, and neutral face recognition system. A system for the recognition of faces with one type of expression (happiness) and neutral faces was implemented and tested on a database of 30 subjects. The results proved the feasibility of this framework.

  2. A 2D range Hausdorff approach for 3D face recognition.

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Mark William; Russ, Trina Denise; Little, Charles Quentin

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents a 3D facial recognition algorithm based on the Hausdorff distance metric. The standard 3D formulation of the Hausdorff matching algorithm has been modified to operate on a 2D range image, enabling a reduction in computation from O(N2) to O(N) without large storage requirements. The Hausdorff distance is known for its robustness to data outliers and inconsistent data between two data sets, making it a suitable choice for dealing with the inherent problems in many 3D datasets due to sensor noise and object self-occlusion. For optimal performance, the algorithm assumes a good initial alignment between probe and template datasets. However, to minimize the error between two faces, the alignment can be iteratively refined. Results from the algorithm are presented using 3D face images from the Face Recognition Grand Challenge database version 1.0.

  3. 3D Human Motion Editing and Synthesis: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Chen, Qiudi; Wang, Wanliang

    2014-01-01

    The ways to compute the kinematics and dynamic quantities of human bodies in motion have been studied in many biomedical papers. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of 3D human motion editing and synthesis techniques. Firstly, four types of methods for 3D human motion synthesis are introduced and compared. Secondly, motion capture data representation, motion editing, and motion synthesis are reviewed successively. Finally, future research directions are suggested. PMID:25045395

  4. The impact of specular highlights on 3D-2D face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christlein, Vincent; Riess, Christian; Angelopoulou, Elli; Evangelopoulos, Georgios; Kakadiaris, Ioannis

    2013-05-01

    One of the most popular form of biometrics is face recognition. Face recognition techniques typically assume that a face exhibits Lambertian reectance. However, a face often exhibits prominent specularities, especially in outdoor environments. These specular highlights can compromise an identity authentication. In this work, we analyze the impact of such highlights on a 3D-2D face recognition system. First, we investigate three different specularity removal methods as preprocessing steps for face recognition. Then, we explicitly model facial specularities within the face detection system with the Cook-Torrance reflectance model. In our experiments, specularity removal increases the recognition rate on an outdoor face database by about 5% at a false alarm rate of 10-3. The integration of the Cook-Torrance model further improves these results, increasing the verification rate by 19% at a FAR of 10-3.

  5. Personalized development of human organs using 3D printing technology.

    PubMed

    Radenkovic, Dina; Solouk, Atefeh; Seifalian, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    3D printing is a technique of fabricating physical models from a 3D volumetric digital image. The image is sliced and printed using a specific material into thin layers, and successive layering of the material produces a 3D model. It has already been used for printing surgical models for preoperative planning and in constructing personalized prostheses for patients. The ultimate goal is to achieve the development of functional human organs and tissues, to overcome limitations of organ transplantation created by the lack of organ donors and life-long immunosuppression. We hypothesized a precision medicine approach to human organ fabrication using 3D printed technology, in which the digital volumetric data would be collected by imaging of a patient, i.e. CT or MRI images followed by mathematical modeling to create a digital 3D image. Then a suitable biocompatible material, with an optimal resolution for cells seeding and maintenance of cell viability during the printing process, would be printed with a compatible printer type and finally implanted into the patient. Life-saving operations with 3D printed implants were already performed in patients. However, several issues need to be addressed before translational application of 3D printing into clinical medicine. These are vascularization, innervation, and financial cost of 3D printing and safety of biomaterials used for the construct. PMID:26826637

  6. Interactive Cosmetic Makeup of a 3D Point-Based Face Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong-Sik; Choi, Soo-Mi

    We present an interactive system for cosmetic makeup of a point-based face model acquired by 3D scanners. We first enhance the texture of a face model in 3D space using low-pass Gaussian filtering, median filtering, and histogram equalization. The user is provided with a stereoscopic display and haptic feedback, and can perform simulated makeup tasks including the application of foundation, color makeup, and lip gloss. Fast rendering is achieved by processing surfels using the GPU, and we use a BSP tree data structure and a dynamic local refinement of the facial surface to provide interactive haptics. We have implemented a prototype system and evaluated its performance.

  7. High-speed 3D face measurement based on color speckle projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Junpeng; Su, Xianyu; Zhang, Qican

    2015-03-01

    Nowadays, 3D face recognition has become a subject of considerable interest in the security field due to its unique advantages in domestic and international. However, acquiring color-textured 3D faces data in a fast and accurate manner is still highly challenging. In this paper, a new approach based on color speckle projection for 3D face data dynamic acquisition is proposed. Firstly, the projector-camera color crosstalk matrix that indicates how much each projector channel influences each camera channel is measured. Secondly, the reference-speckle-sets images are acquired with CCD, and then three gray sets are separated from the color sets using the crosstalk matrix and are saved. Finally, the color speckle image which is modulated by face is captured, and it is split three gray channels. We measure the 3D face using multi-sets of speckle correlation methods with color speckle image in high-speed similar as one-shot, which greatly improves the measurement accuracy and stability. The suggested approach has been implemented and the results are supported by experiments.

  8. Learning deformation model for expression-robust 3D face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhe; Liu, Shu; Wang, Yi; Lei, Tao

    2015-12-01

    Expression change is the major cause of local plastic deformation of the facial surface. The intra-class differences with large expression change somehow are larger than the inter-class differences as it's difficult to distinguish the same individual with facial expression change. In this paper, an expression-robust 3D face recognition method is proposed by learning expression deformation model. The expression of the individuals on the training set is modeled by principal component analysis, the main components are retained to construct the facial deformation model. For the test 3D face, the shape difference between the test and the neutral face in training set is used for reconstructing the expression change by the constructed deformation model. The reconstruction residual error is used for face recognition. The average recognition rate on GavabDB and self-built database reaches 85.1% and 83%, respectively, which shows strong robustness for expression changes.

  9. 3D recovery of human gaze in natural environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paletta, Lucas; Santner, Katrin; Fritz, Gerald; Mayer, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of human attention has recently been addressed in the context of human robot interaction. Today, joint work spaces already exist and challenge cooperating systems to jointly focus on common objects, scenes and work niches. With the advent of Google glasses and increasingly affordable wearable eye-tracking, monitoring of human attention will soon become ubiquitous. The presented work describes for the first time a method for the estimation of human fixations in 3D environments that does not require any artificial landmarks in the field of view and enables attention mapping in 3D models. It enables full 3D recovery of the human view frustum and the gaze pointer in a previously acquired 3D model of the environment in real time. The study on the precision of this method reports a mean projection error ≈1.1 cm and a mean angle error ≈0.6° within the chosen 3D model - the precision does not go below the one of the technical instrument (≈1°). This innovative methodology will open new opportunities for joint attention studies as well as for bringing new potential into automated processing for human factors technologies.

  10. Face recognition using 3D facial shape and color map information: comparison and combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godil, Afzal; Ressler, Sandy; Grother, Patrick

    2004-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of 3D surface geometry for face recognition and compare it to one based on color map information. The 3D surface and color map data are from the CAESAR anthropometric database. We find that the recognition performance is not very different between 3D surface and color map information using a principal component analysis algorithm. We also discuss the different techniques for the combination of the 3D surface and color map information for multi-modal recognition by using different fusion approaches and show that there is significant improvement in results. The effectiveness of various techniques is compared and evaluated on a dataset with 200 subjects in two different positions.

  11. Understanding 3D human torso shape via manifold clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sheng; Li, Peng; Fu, Yun

    2013-05-01

    Discovering the variations in human torso shape plays a key role in many design-oriented applications, such as suit designing. With recent advances in 3D surface imaging technologies, people can obtain 3D human torso data that provide more information than traditional measurements. However, how to find different human shapes from 3D torso data is still an open problem. In this paper, we propose to use spectral clustering approach on torso manifold to address this problem. We first represent high-dimensional torso data in a low-dimensional space using manifold learning algorithm. Then the spectral clustering method is performed to get several disjoint clusters. Experimental results show that the clusters discovered by our approach can describe the discrepancies in both genders and human shapes, and our approach achieves better performance than the compared clustering method.

  12. 3-D PARTICLE TRANSPORT WITHIN THE HUMAN UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study trajectories of inhaled particulate matter (PM) were simulated within a three-dimensional (3-D) computer model of the human upper respiratory tract (URT). The airways were described by computer-reconstructed images of a silicone rubber cast of the human head, throat...

  13. An efficient multimodal 2D-3D hybrid approach to automatic face recognition.

    PubMed

    Mian, Ajmal S; Bennamoun, Mohammed; Owens, Robyn

    2007-11-01

    We present a fully automatic face recognition algorithm and demonstrate its performance on the FRGC v2.0 data. Our algorithm is multimodal (2D and 3D) and performs hybrid (feature-based and holistic) matching in order to achieve efficiency and robustness to facial expressions. The pose of a 3D face along with its texture is automatically corrected using a novel approach based on a single automatically detected point and the Hotelling transform. A novel 3D Spherical Face Representation (SFR) is used in conjunction with the SIFT descriptor to form a rejection classifier which quickly eliminates a large number of candidate faces at an early stage for efficient recognition in case of large galleries. The remaining faces are then verified using a novel region-based matching approach which is robust to facial expressions. This approach automatically segments the eyes-forehead and the nose regions, which are relatively less sensitive to expressions, and matches them separately using a modified ICP algorithm. The results of all the matching engines are fused at the metric level to achieve higher accuracy. We use the FRGC benchmark to compare our results to other algorithms which used the same database. Our multimodal hybrid algorithm performed better than others by achieving 99.74% and 98.31% verification rates at 0.001 FAR and identification rates of 99.02% and 95.37% for probes with neutral and non-neutral expression respectively. PMID:17848775

  14. A prescreener for 3D face recognition using radial symmerty and the Hausdorff fraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Koudelka, Melissa L.; Koch, Mark William; Russ, Trina Denise

    2005-04-01

    Face recognition systems require the ability to efficiently scan an existing database of faces to locate a match for a newly acquired face. The large number of faces in real world databases makes computationally intensive algorithms impractical for scanning entire databases. We propose the use of more efficient algorithms to 'prescreen' face databases, determining a limited set of likely matches that can be processed further to identify a match. We use both radial symmetry and shape to extract five features of interest on 3D range images of faces. These facial features determine a very small subset of discriminating points which serve as input to a prescreening algorithm based on a Hausdorff fraction. We show how to compute the Haudorff fraction in linear O(n) time using a range image representation. Our feature extraction and prescreening algorithms are verified using the FRGC v1.0 3D face scan data. Results show 97% of the extracted facial features are within 10 mm or less of manually marked ground truth, and the prescreener has a rank 6 recognition rate of 100%.

  15. 3D comparison of average faces in subjects with oral clefts.

    PubMed

    Bugaighis, Iman; Tiddeman, Bernard; Mattick, Claire R; Hobson, Ross

    2014-08-01

    This prospective cross-sectional, case-controlled morphometric study assessed three dimensional (3D) facial morphological differences between average faces of 103 children aged 8-12 years; 40 with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), 23 with unilateral cleft lip and alveolus (UCLA), 19 with bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP), 21 with isolated cleft palate (ICP), and 80 gender and age-matched controls. 3D stereophotogrammetric facial scans were recorded for each participant at rest. Thirty-nine landmarks were digitized for each scan, and x-, y-, z-coordinates for each landmark were extracted. A 3D photorealistic average face was constructed for each participating group and subjective and objective comparisons were carried out between each cleft and control average faces. Marked differences were observed between all groups. The most severely affected were groups where the lip and palate were affected and repaired (UCLP and UCLA). The group with midsagittal palatal deformity and repair (ICP) was the most similar to the control group. The results revealed that 3D shape analysis allows morphometric discrimination between subjects with craniofacial anomalies and the control group, and underlines the potential value of statistical shape analysis in assessing the outcomes of cleft lip and palate surgery, and orthodontic treatment. PMID:23172581

  16. A moving mesh algorithm for 3-D regional groundwater flow with water table and seepage face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knupp, P.

    A numerical algorithm is described for solving the free-surface groundwater flow equations in 3-D large-scale unconfined aquifers with strongly heterogeneous conductivity and surface recharge. The algorithm uses a moving mesh to track the water-table as it evolves according to kinematic and seepage face boundary conditions. Both steady-state and transient algorithms are implemented in the SECO-Flow 3-D code and demonstrated on stratigraphy based on the Delaware Basin of south-eastern New Mexico.

  17. Error analysis for creating 3D face templates based on cylindrical quad-tree structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutfeter, Weronika

    2015-09-01

    Development of new biometric algorithms is parallel to advances in technology of sensing devices. Some of the limitations of the current face recognition systems may be eliminated by integrating 3D sensors into these systems. Depth sensing devices can capture a spatial structure of the face in addition to the texture and color. This kind of data is yet usually very voluminous and requires large amount of computer resources for being processed (face scans obtained with typical depth cameras contain more than 150 000 points per face). That is why defining efficient data structures for processing spatial images is crucial for further development of 3D face recognition methods. The concept described in this work fulfills the aforementioned demands. Modification of the quad-tree structure was chosen because it can be easily transformed into less dimensional data structures and maintains spatial relations between data points. We are able to interpret data stored in the tree as a pyramid of features which allow us to analyze face images using coarse-to-fine strategy, often exploited in biometric recognition systems.

  18. A Two-Stage Framework for 3D Face Reconstruction from RGBD Images.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kangkan; Wang, Xianwang; Pan, Zhigeng; Liu, Kai

    2014-08-01

    This paper proposes a new approach for 3D face reconstruction with RGBD images from an inexpensive commodity sensor. The challenges we face are: 1) substantial random noise and corruption are present in low-resolution depth maps; and 2) there is high degree of variability in pose and face expression. We develop a novel two-stage algorithm that effectively maps low-quality depth maps to realistic face models. Each stage is targeted toward a certain type of noise. The first stage extracts sparse errors from depth patches through the data-driven local sparse coding, while the second stage smooths noise on the boundaries between patches and reconstructs the global shape by combining local shapes using our template-based surface refinement. Our approach does not require any markers or user interaction. We perform quantitative and qualitative evaluations on both synthetic and real test sets. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is able to produce high-resolution 3D face models with high accuracy, even if inputs are of low quality, and have large variations in viewpoint and face expression. PMID:26353333

  19. 3D face recognition using simulated annealing and the surface interpenetration measure.

    PubMed

    Queirolo, Chauã C; Silva, Luciano; Bellon, Olga R P; Segundo, Maurício Pamplona

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents a novel automatic framework to perform 3D face recognition. The proposed method uses a Simulated Annealing-based approach (SA) for range image registration with the Surface Interpenetration Measure (SIM), as similarity measure, in order to match two face images. The authentication score is obtained by combining the SIM values corresponding to the matching of four different face regions: circular and elliptical areas around the nose, forehead, and the entire face region. Then, a modified SA approach is proposed taking advantage of invariant face regions to better handle facial expressions. Comprehensive experiments were performed on the FRGC v2 database, the largest available database of 3D face images composed of 4,007 images with different facial expressions. The experiments simulated both verification and identification systems and the results compared to those reported by state-of-the-art works. By using all of the images in the database, a verification rate of 96.5 percent was achieved at a False Acceptance Rate (FAR) of 0.1 percent. In the identification scenario, a rank-one accuracy of 98.4 percent was achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest rank-one score ever achieved for the FRGC v2 database when compared to results published in the literature. PMID:20075453

  20. Robust bioengineered 3D functional human intestinal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Lin, Yinan; Davis, Kimberly M.; Wang, Qianrui; Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; Li, Chunmei; Isberg, Ralph R.; Kumamoto, Carol A.; Mecsas, Joan; Kaplan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal functions are central to human physiology, health and disease. Options to study these functions with direct relevance to the human condition remain severely limited when using conventional cell cultures, microfluidic systems, organoids, animal surrogates or human studies. To replicate in vitro the tissue architecture and microenvironments of native intestine, we developed a 3D porous protein scaffolding system, containing a geometrically-engineered hollow lumen, with adaptability to both large and small intestines. These intestinal tissues demonstrated representative human responses by permitting continuous accumulation of mucous secretions on the epithelial surface, establishing low oxygen tension in the lumen, and interacting with gut-colonizing bacteria. The newly developed 3D intestine model enabled months-long sustained access to these intestinal functions in vitro, readily integrable with a multitude of different organ mimics and will therefore ensure a reliable ex vivo tissue system for studies in a broad context of human intestinal diseases and treatments. PMID:26374193

  1. 3D face recognition based on the hierarchical score-level fusion classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mráček, Štěpán.; Váša, Jan; Lankašová, Karolína; Drahanský, Martin; Doležel, Michal

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the 3D face recognition algorithm that is based on the hierarchical score-level fusion clas-sifiers. In a simple (unimodal) biometric pipeline, the feature vector is extracted from the input data and subsequently compared with the template stored in the database. In our approachm, we utilize several feature extraction algorithms. We use 6 different image representations of the input 3D face data. Moreover, we are using Gabor and Gauss-Laguerre filter banks applied on the input image data that yield to 12 resulting feature vectors. Each representation is compared with corresponding counterpart from the biometric database. We also add the recognition based on the iso-geodesic curves. The final score-level fusion is performed on 13 comparison scores using the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier.

  2. Tissuelike 3D Assemblies of Human Broncho-Epithelial Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tissuelike assemblies (TLAs) of human broncho-epithelial (HBE) cells have been developed for use in in vitro research on infection of humans by respiratory viruses. The 2D monolayer HBE cell cultures heretofore used in such research lack the complex cell structures and interactions characteristic of in vivo tissues and, consequently, do not adequately emulate the infection dynamics of in-vivo microbial adhesion and invasion. In contrast, the 3D HBE TLAs are characterized by more-realistic reproductions of the geometrical and functional complexity, differentiation of cells, cell-to-cell interactions, and cell-to-matrix interactions characteristic of human respiratory epithelia. Hence, the 3D HBE TLAs are expected to make it possible to perform at least some of the research in vitro under more-realistic conditions, without need to infect human subjects. The TLAs are grown on collagen-coated cyclodextran microbeads under controlled conditions in a nutrient liquid in the simulated microgravitational environment of a bioreactor of the rotating- wall-vessel type. Primary human mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells are used as a foundation matrix, while adult human bronchial epithelial immortalized cells are used as the overlying component. The beads become coated with cells, and cells on adjacent beads coalesce into 3D masses. The resulting TLAs have been found to share significant characteristics with in vivo human respiratory epithelia including polarization, tight junctions, desmosomes, and microvilli. The differentiation of the cells in these TLAs into tissues functionally similar to in vivo tissues is confirmed by the presence of compounds, including villin, keratins, and specific lung epithelium marker compounds, and by the production of tissue mucin. In a series of initial infection tests, TLA cultures were inoculated with human respiratory syncytial viruses and parainfluenza type 3 viruses. Infection was confirmed by photomicrographs that

  3. 3-D segmentation of human sternum in lung MDCT images.

    PubMed

    Pazokifard, Banafsheh; Sowmya, Arcot

    2013-01-01

    A fully automatic novel algorithm is presented for accurate 3-D segmentation of the human sternum in lung multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) images. The segmentation result is refined by employing active contours to remove calcified costal cartilage that is attached to the sternum. For each dataset, costal notches (sternocostal joints) are localized in 3-D by using a sternum mask and positions of the costal notches on it as reference. The proposed algorithm for sternum segmentation was tested on 16 complete lung MDCT datasets and comparison of the segmentation results to the reference delineation provided by a radiologist, shows high sensitivity (92.49%) and specificity (99.51%) and small mean distance (dmean=1.07 mm). Total average of the Euclidean distance error for costal notches positioning in 3-D is 4.2 mm. PMID:24110446

  4. A 3D surface imaging system for assessing human obesity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, B.; Yu, W.; Yao, M.; Yao, X.; Li, Q.; Pepper, M. R.; Freeland-Graves, J. H.

    2009-08-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity suggests a need to develop a convenient, reliable and economical tool for assessment of this condition. Three-dimensional (3D) body surface imaging has emerged as an exciting technology for estimation of body composition. This paper presents a new 3D body imaging system, which was designed for enhanced portability, affordability, and functionality. In this system, stereo vision technology was used to satisfy the requirements for a simple hardware setup and fast image acquisitions. The portability of the system was created via a two-stand configuration, and the accuracy of body volume measurements was improved by customizing stereo matching and surface reconstruction algorithms that target specific problems in 3D body imaging. Body measurement functions dedicated to body composition assessment also were developed. The overall performance of the system was evaluated in human subjects by comparison to other conventional anthropometric methods, as well as air displacement plethysmography, for body fat assessment.

  5. Generation and use of human 3D-CAD models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotepass, Juergen; Speyer, Hartmut; Kaiser, Ralf

    2002-05-01

    Individualized Products are one of the ten mega trends of the 21st Century with human modeling as the key issue for tomorrow's design and product development. The use of human modeling software for computer based ergonomic simulations within the production process increases quality while reducing costs by 30- 50 percent and shortening production time. This presentation focuses on the use of human 3D-CAD models for both, the ergonomic design of working environments and made to measure garment production. Today, the entire production chain can be designed, individualized models generated and analyzed in 3D computer environments. Anthropometric design for ergonomics is matched to human needs, thus preserving health. Ergonomic simulation includes topics as human vision, reachability, kinematics, force and comfort analysis and international design capabilities. In German more than 17 billions of Mark are moved to other industries, because clothes do not fit. Individual clothing tailored to the customer's preference means surplus value, pleasure and perfect fit. The body scanning technology is the key to generation and use of human 3D-CAD models for both, the ergonomic design of working environments and made to measure garment production.

  6. 3D Reconstruction of Human Motion from Monocular Image Sequences.

    PubMed

    Wandt, Bastian; Ackermann, Hanno; Rosenhahn, Bodo

    2016-08-01

    This article tackles the problem of estimating non-rigid human 3D shape and motion from image sequences taken by uncalibrated cameras. Similar to other state-of-the-art solutions we factorize 2D observations in camera parameters, base poses and mixing coefficients. Existing methods require sufficient camera motion during the sequence to achieve a correct 3D reconstruction. To obtain convincing 3D reconstructions from arbitrary camera motion, our method is based on a-priorly trained base poses. We show that strong periodic assumptions on the coefficients can be used to define an efficient and accurate algorithm for estimating periodic motion such as walking patterns. For the extension to non-periodic motion we propose a novel regularization term based on temporal bone length constancy. In contrast to other works, the proposed method does not use a predefined skeleton or anthropometric constraints and can handle arbitrary camera motion. We achieve convincing 3D reconstructions, even under the influence of noise and occlusions. Multiple experiments based on a 3D error metric demonstrate the stability of the proposed method. Compared to other state-of-the-art methods our algorithm shows a significant improvement. PMID:27093439

  7. Template protection and its implementation in 3D face recognition systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xuebing

    2007-04-01

    As biometric recognition systems are widely applied in various application areas, security and privacy risks have recently attracted the attention of the biometric community. Template protection techniques prevent stored reference data from revealing private biometric information and enhance the security of biometrics systems against attacks such as identity theft and cross matching. This paper concentrates on a template protection algorithm that merges methods from cryptography, error correction coding and biometrics. The key component of the algorithm is to convert biometric templates into binary vectors. It is shown that the binary vectors should be robust, uniformly distributed, statistically independent and collision-free so that authentication performance can be optimized and information leakage can be avoided. Depending on statistical character of the biometric template, different approaches for transforming biometric templates into compact binary vectors are presented. The proposed methods are integrated into a 3D face recognition system and tested on the 3D facial images of the FRGC database. It is shown that the resulting binary vectors provide an authentication performance that is similar to the original 3D face templates. A high security level is achieved with reasonable false acceptance and false rejection rates of the system, based on an efficient statistical analysis. The algorithm estimates the statistical character of biometric templates from a number of biometric samples in the enrollment database. For the FRGC 3D face database, the small distinction of robustness and discriminative power between the classification results under the assumption of uniquely distributed templates and the ones under the assumption of Gaussian distributed templates is shown in our tests.

  8. Realistic texture extraction for 3D face models robust to self-occlusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Chengchao; Monari, Eduardo; Schuchert, Tobias; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    In the context of face modeling, probably the most well-known approach to represent 3D faces is the 3D Morphable Model (3DMM). When 3DMM is fitted to a 2D image, the shape as well as the texture and illumination parameters are simultaneously estimated. However, if real facial texture is needed, texture extraction from the 2D image is necessary. This paper addresses the possible problems in texture extraction of a single image caused by self-occlusion. Unlike common approaches that leverage the symmetric property of the face by mirroring the visible facial part, which is sensitive to inhomogeneous illumination, this work first generates a virtual texture map for the skin area iteratively by averaging the color of neighbored vertices. Although this step creates unrealistic, overly smoothed texture, illumination stays constant between the real and virtual texture. In the second pass, the mirrored texture is gradually blended with the real or generated texture according to the visibility. This scheme ensures a gentle handling of illumination and yet yields realistic texture. Because the blending area only relates to non-informative area, main facial features still have unique appearance in different face halves. Evaluation results reveal realistic rendering in novel poses robust to challenging illumination conditions and small registration errors.

  9. 3D shape descriptors for face segmentation and fiducial points detection: an anatomical-based analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Augusto E.; Cerón, Alexander; Prieto, Flavio A.

    2011-03-01

    The behavior of nine 3D shape descriptors which were computed on the surface of 3D face models, is studied. The set of descriptors includes six curvature-based ones, SPIN images, Folded SPIN Images, and Finger prints. Instead of defining clusters of vertices based on the value of a given primitive surface feature, a face template composed by 28 anatomical regions, is used to segment the models and to extract the location of different landmarks and fiducial points. Vertices are grouped by: region, region boundaries, and subsampled versions of them. The aim of this study is to analyze the discriminant capacity of each descriptor to characterize regions and to identify key points on the facial surface. The experiment includes testing with data from neutral faces and faces showing expressions. Also, in order to see the usefulness of the bending-invariant canonical form (BICF) to handle variations due to facial expressions, the descriptors are computed directly from the surface and also from its BICF. In the results: the values, distributions, and relevance indexes of each set of vertices, were analyzed.

  10. 3D imaging by serial block face scanning electron microscopy for materials science using ultramicrotomy.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Teruo; Thompson, George E; Zhou, Xiaorong; Withers, Philip J

    2016-04-01

    Mechanical serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) has emerged as a means of obtaining three dimensional (3D) electron images over volumes much larger than possible by focused ion beam (FIB) serial sectioning and at higher spatial resolution than achievable with conventional X-ray computed tomography (CT). Such high resolution 3D electron images can be employed for precisely determining the shape, volume fraction, distribution and connectivity of important microstructural features. While soft (fixed or frozen) biological samples are particularly well suited for nanoscale sectioning using an ultramicrotome, the technique can also produce excellent 3D images at electron microscope resolution in a time and resource-efficient manner for engineering materials. Currently, a lack of appreciation of the capabilities of ultramicrotomy and the operational challenges associated with minimising artefacts for different materials is limiting its wider application to engineering materials. Consequently, this paper outlines the current state of the art for SBFSEM examining in detail how damage is introduced during slicing and highlighting strategies for minimising such damage. A particular focus of the study is the acquisition of 3D images for a variety of metallic and coated systems. PMID:26855205

  11. Molecular cartography of the human skin surface in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Bouslimani, Amina; Porto, Carla; Rath, Christopher M.; Wang, Mingxun; Guo, Yurong; Gonzalez, Antonio; Berg-Lyon, Donna; Ackermann, Gail; Moeller Christensen, Gitte Julie; Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Zhang, Lingjuan; Borkowski, Andrew W.; Meehan, Michael J.; Dorrestein, Kathleen; Gallo, Richard L.; Bandeira, Nuno; Knight, Rob; Alexandrov, Theodore; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2015-01-01

    The human skin is an organ with a surface area of 1.5–2 m2 that provides our interface with the environment. The molecular composition of this organ is derived from host cells, microbiota, and external molecules. The chemical makeup of the skin surface is largely undefined. Here we advance the technologies needed to explore the topographical distribution of skin molecules, using 3D mapping of mass spectrometry data and microbial 16S rRNA amplicon sequences. Our 3D maps reveal that the molecular composition of skin has diverse distributions and that the composition is defined not only by skin cells and microbes but also by our daily routines, including the application of hygiene products. The technological development of these maps lays a foundation for studying the spatial relationships of human skin with hygiene, the microbiota, and environment, with potential for developing predictive models of skin phenotypes tailored to individual health. PMID:25825778

  12. Molecular cartography of the human skin surface in 3D.

    PubMed

    Bouslimani, Amina; Porto, Carla; Rath, Christopher M; Wang, Mingxun; Guo, Yurong; Gonzalez, Antonio; Berg-Lyon, Donna; Ackermann, Gail; Moeller Christensen, Gitte Julie; Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Zhang, Lingjuan; Borkowski, Andrew W; Meehan, Michael J; Dorrestein, Kathleen; Gallo, Richard L; Bandeira, Nuno; Knight, Rob; Alexandrov, Theodore; Dorrestein, Pieter C

    2015-04-28

    The human skin is an organ with a surface area of 1.5-2 m(2) that provides our interface with the environment. The molecular composition of this organ is derived from host cells, microbiota, and external molecules. The chemical makeup of the skin surface is largely undefined. Here we advance the technologies needed to explore the topographical distribution of skin molecules, using 3D mapping of mass spectrometry data and microbial 16S rRNA amplicon sequences. Our 3D maps reveal that the molecular composition of skin has diverse distributions and that the composition is defined not only by skin cells and microbes but also by our daily routines, including the application of hygiene products. The technological development of these maps lays a foundation for studying the spatial relationships of human skin with hygiene, the microbiota, and environment, with potential for developing predictive models of skin phenotypes tailored to individual health. PMID:25825778

  13. 3D map of the human corneal endothelial cell.

    PubMed

    He, Zhiguo; Forest, Fabien; Gain, Philippe; Rageade, Damien; Bernard, Aurélien; Acquart, Sophie; Peoc'h, Michel; Defoe, Dennis M; Thuret, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Corneal endothelial cells (CECs) are terminally differentiated cells, specialized in regulating corneal hydration and transparency. They are highly polarized flat cells that separate the cornea from the aqueous humor. Their apical surface, in contact with aqueous humor is hexagonal, whereas their basal surface is irregular. We characterized the structure of human CECs in 3D using confocal microscopy of immunostained whole corneas in which cells and their interrelationships remain intact. Hexagonality of the apical surface was maintained by the interaction between tight junctions and a submembraneous network of actomyosin, braced like a drum. Lateral membranes, which support enzymatic pumps, presented complex expansions resembling interdigitated foot processes at the basal surface. Using computer-aided design and drafting software, we obtained a first simplified 3D model of CECs. By comparing their expression with those in epithelial, stromal and trabecular corneal cells, we selected 9 structural or functional proteins for which 3D patterns were specific to CECs. This first 3D map aids our understanding of the morphologic and functional specificity of CECs and could be used as a reference for characterizing future cell therapy products destined to treat endothelial dysfunctions. PMID:27381832

  14. 3D map of the human corneal endothelial cell

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhiguo; Forest, Fabien; Gain, Philippe; Rageade, Damien; Bernard, Aurélien; Acquart, Sophie; Peoc’h, Michel; Defoe, Dennis M.; Thuret, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Corneal endothelial cells (CECs) are terminally differentiated cells, specialized in regulating corneal hydration and transparency. They are highly polarized flat cells that separate the cornea from the aqueous humor. Their apical surface, in contact with aqueous humor is hexagonal, whereas their basal surface is irregular. We characterized the structure of human CECs in 3D using confocal microscopy of immunostained whole corneas in which cells and their interrelationships remain intact. Hexagonality of the apical surface was maintained by the interaction between tight junctions and a submembraneous network of actomyosin, braced like a drum. Lateral membranes, which support enzymatic pumps, presented complex expansions resembling interdigitated foot processes at the basal surface. Using computer-aided design and drafting software, we obtained a first simplified 3D model of CECs. By comparing their expression with those in epithelial, stromal and trabecular corneal cells, we selected 9 structural or functional proteins for which 3D patterns were specific to CECs. This first 3D map aids our understanding of the morphologic and functional specificity of CECs and could be used as a reference for characterizing future cell therapy products destined to treat endothelial dysfunctions. PMID:27381832

  15. 3D Extracellular Matrix from Sectioned Human Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Catherine B; Cukierman, Edna; Artym, Vira V

    2014-01-01

    corneal endothelial cell lines produce an ECM mimicking an in vivo subendothelium, and the EHS tumor cell line produces a matrix that can be extracted to produce Matrigel, which simulates basement membrane molecular complexity including laminin, collagen IV and nidogen (Beacham, et al., 2007; Friedl and Brocker, 2000). To simulate a physiological environment even more closely, 3D matrices derived from mouse tissue slices from which cells were extracted have reportedly provided successful ECM replicas for studying in vivo cellular behavior (Cukierman, et al., 2001). Because of the important roles of the extracellular microenvironment on normal and tumor cells, we have developed protocols to produce cell-free (decellularized) 3D matrices from cryostat sections of normal and tumor human tissues. These extracted matrices can be used as a 3D tissue culture environment to analyze effects of various 3D matrices on normal and tumor cell responses and behavior. Using human pancreas and breast tissue samples, we have successfully prepared cell-free 3D ECM models, used them as cell culture substrates for a human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, and then performed immunofluorescence staining to characterize intracellular structures. A frequently observed difference between normal and tumor tissue-derived ECM environments involves the amount of deposited fibrillar collagen (Provenzano, 2008). Tumor tissues from both breast and pancreas often contain substantially more collagen than normal adjacent tissue, and this protocol preserves this difference in cell-free 3D matrices from these tissues (Vidi, et al., 2013). This 3D culture system we describe using cell-free 3D matrix provides an approach to studying cellular behavior and migratory mechanisms associated with cancer. The basic protocol describes methods for successfully extracting cells and cellular debris from human tissue cryostat sections to obtain a clean, cell-free 3D ECM for plating cell lines (Figure 1). Cellular

  16. Robust and Blind 3D Mesh Watermarking in Spatial Domain Based on Faces Categorization and Sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaei, Amir Masoud; Ebrahimnezhad, Hossein; Sedaaghi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a 3D watermarking algorithm in spatial domain is presented with blind detection. In the proposed method, a negligible visual distortion is observed in host model. Initially, a preprocessing is applied on the 3D model to make it robust against geometric transformation attacks. Then, a number of triangle faces are determined as mark triangles using a novel systematic approach in which faces are categorized and sorted robustly. In order to enhance the capability of information retrieval by attacks, block watermarks are encoded using Reed-Solomon block error-correcting code before embedding into the mark triangles. Next, the encoded watermarks are embedded in spherical coordinates. The proposed method is robust against additive noise, mesh smoothing and quantization attacks. Also, it is stout next to geometric transformation, vertices and faces reordering attacks. Moreover, the proposed algorithm is designed so that it is robust against the cropping attack. Simulation results confirm that the watermarked models confront very low distortion if the control parameters are selected properly. Comparison with other methods demonstrates that the proposed method has good performance against the mesh smoothing attacks.

  17. 3-D Volumetric Evaluation of Human Mandibular Growth

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Mathew; Reynolds, Michael; Adeeb, Samer; El-Bialy, Tarek

    2011-01-01

    Bone growth is a complex process that is controlled by a multitude of mechanisms that are not fully understood.Most of the current methods employed to measure the growth of bones focus on either studying cadaveric bones from different individuals of different ages, or successive two-dimensional (2D) radiographs. Both techniques have their known limitations. The purpose of this study was to explore a technique for quantifying the three dimensional (3D) growth of an adolescent human mandible over the period of one year utilizing cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans taken for regular orthodontic records. Three -dimensional virtual models were created from the CBCT data using mainstream medical imaging software. A comparison between computer-generated surface meshes of successive 3-D virtual models illustrates the magnitude of relative mandible growth. The results of this work are in agreement with previously reported data from human cadaveric studies and implantable marker studies. The presented method provides a new relatively simple basis (utilizing commercially available software) to visualize and evaluate individualized 3D (mandibular) growth in vivo. PMID:22046201

  18. A general framework for face reconstruction using single still image based on 2D-to-3D transformation kernel.

    PubMed

    Fooprateepsiri, Rerkchai; Kurutach, Werasak

    2014-03-01

    Face authentication is a biometric classification method that verifies the identity of a user based on image of their face. Accuracy of the authentication is reduced when the pose, illumination and expression of the training face images are different than the testing image. The methods in this paper are designed to improve the accuracy of a features-based face recognition system when the pose between the input images and training images are different. First, an efficient 2D-to-3D integrated face reconstruction approach is introduced to reconstruct a personalized 3D face model from a single frontal face image with neutral expression and normal illumination. Second, realistic virtual faces with different poses are synthesized based on the personalized 3D face to characterize the face subspace. Finally, face recognition is conducted based on these representative virtual faces. Compared with other related works, this framework has the following advantages: (1) only one single frontal face is required for face recognition, which avoids the burdensome enrollment work; and (2) the synthesized face samples provide the capability to conduct recognition under difficult conditions like complex pose, illumination and expression. From the experimental results, we conclude that the proposed method improves the accuracy of face recognition by varying the pose, illumination and expression. PMID:24529782

  19. Prediction of 3D chip formation in the facing cutting with lathe machine using FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetyo, Yudhi; Tauviqirrahman, Mohamad; Rusnaldy

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the prediction of the chip formation at the machining process using a lathe machine in a more specific way focusing on facing cutting (face turning). The main purpose is to propose a new approach to predict the chip formation with the variation of the cutting directions i.e., the backward and forward direction. In addition, the interaction between stress analysis and chip formation on cutting process was also investigated. The simulations were conducted using three dimensional (3D) finite element method based on ABAQUS software with aluminum and high speed steel (HSS) as the workpiece and the tool materials, respectively. The simulation result showed that the chip resulted using a backward direction depicts a better formation than that using a conventional (forward) direction.

  20. Heritability of Face Shape in Twins: A Preliminary Study using 3D Stereophotogrammetry and Geometric Morphometrics

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Seth M.; Parsons, Trish E.; Marazita, Mary L.; Maher, Brion S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous research suggests that aspects of facial surface morphology are heritable. Traditionally, heritability studies have used a limited set of linear distances to quantify facial morphology and often employ statistical methods poorly designed to deal with biological shape. In this preliminary report, we use a combination of 3D photogrammetry and landmark-based morphometrics to explore which aspects of face shape show the strongest evidence of heritability in a sample of twins. Methods 3D surface images were obtained from 21 twin pairs (10 monozygotic, 11 same-sex dizygotic). Thirteen 3D landmarks were collected from each facial surface and their coordinates subjected to geometric morphometric analysis. This involved superimposing the individual landmark configurations and then subjecting the resulting shape coordinates to a principal components analysis. The resulting PC scores were then used to calculate rough narrow-sense heritability estimates. Results Three principal components displayed evidence of moderate to high heritability and were associated with variation in the breadth of orbital and nasal structures, upper lip height and projection, and the vertical and forward projection of the root of the nose due to variation in the position of nasion. Conclusions Aspects of facial shape, primarily related to variation in length and breadth of central midfacial structures, were shown to demonstrate evidence of strong heritability. An improved understanding of which facial features are under strong genetic control is an important step in the identification of specific genes that underlie normal facial variation. PMID:24501696

  1. Human efficiency for recognizing 3-D objects in luminance noise.

    PubMed

    Tjan, B S; Braje, W L; Legge, G E; Kersten, D

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish how efficiently humans use visual information to recognize simple 3-D objects. The stimuli were computer-rendered images of four simple 3-D objects--wedge, cone, cylinder, and pyramid--each rendered from 8 randomly chosen viewing positions as shaded objects, line drawings, or silhouettes. The objects were presented in static, 2-D Gaussian luminance noise. The observer's task was to indicate which of the four objects had been presented. We obtained human contrast thresholds for recognition, and compared these to an ideal observer's thresholds to obtain efficiencies. In two auxiliary experiments, we measured efficiencies for object detection and letter recognition. Our results showed that human object-recognition efficiency is low (3-8%) when compared to efficiencies reported for some other visual-information processing tasks. The low efficiency means that human recognition performance is limited primarily by factors intrinsic to the observer rather than the information content of the stimuli. We found three factors that play a large role in accounting for low object-recognition efficiency: stimulus size, spatial uncertainty, and detection efficiency. Four other factors play a smaller role in limiting object-recognition efficiency: observers' internal noise, stimulus rendering condition, stimulus familiarity, and categorization across views. PMID:8533342

  2. Novel irregular mesh tagging algorithm for wound synthesis on a 3D face.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangyong; Chin, Seongah

    2015-01-01

    Recently, advanced visualizing techniques in computer graphics have considerably enhanced the visual appearance of synthetic models. To realize enhanced visual graphics for synthetic medical effects, the first step followed by rendering techniques involves attaching albedo textures to the region where a certain graphic is to be rendered. For instance, in order to render wound textures efficiently, the first step is to recognize the area where the user wants to attach a wound. However, in general, face indices are not stored in sequential order, which makes sub-texturing difficult. In this paper, we present a novel mesh tagging algorithm that utilizes a task for mesh traversals and level extension in the general case of a wound sub-texture mapping and a selected region deformation in a three-dimensional (3D) model. This method works automatically on both regular and irregular mesh surfaces. The approach consists of mesh selection (MS), mesh leveling (ML), and mesh tagging (MT). To validate our approach, we performed experiments for synthesizing wounds on a 3D face model and on a simulated mesh. PMID:26405904

  3. 3D Cultivation Techniques for Primary Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Anastasia; Moll, Matthias; Gottwald, Eric; Nies, Cordula; Zantl, Roman; Wagner, Helga; Burkhardt, Britta; Sánchez, Juan J. Martínez; Ladurner, Ruth; Thasler, Wolfgang; Damm, Georg; Nussler, Andreas K.

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges in drug development is the prediction of in vivo toxicity based on in vitro data. The standard cultivation system for primary human hepatocytes is based on monolayer cultures, even if it is known that these conditions result in a loss of hepatocyte morphology and of liver-specific functions, such as drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. As it has been demonstrated that hepatocytes embedded between two sheets of collagen maintain their function, various hydrogels and scaffolds for the 3D cultivation of hepatocytes have been developed. To further improve or maintain hepatic functions, 3D cultivation has been combined with perfusion. In this manuscript, we discuss the benefits and drawbacks of different 3D microfluidic devices. For most systems that are currently available, the main issues are the requirement of large cell numbers, the low throughput, and expensive equipment, which render these devices unattractive for research and the drug-developing industry. A higher acceptance of these devices could be achieved by their simplification and their compatibility with high-throughput, as both aspects are of major importance for a user-friendly device.

  4. 3D measurement of human upper body for gesture recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Khairunizam; Sawada, Hideyuki

    2007-10-01

    Measurement of human motion is widely required for various applications, and a significant part of this task is to identify motion in the process of human motion recognition. There are several application purposes of doing this research such as in surveillance, entertainment, medical treatment and traffic applications as user interfaces that require the recognition of different parts of human body to identify an action or a motion. The most challenging task in human motion recognition is to achieve the ability and reliability of a motion capture system for tracking and recognizing dynamic movements, because human body structure has many degrees of freedom. Many attempts for recognizing body actions have been reported so far, in which gestural motions have to be measured by some sensors first, and the obtained data are processed in a computer. This paper introduces the 3D motion analysis of human upper body using an optical motion capture system for the purpose of gesture recognition. In this study, the image processing technique to track optical markers attached at feature points of human body is introduced for constructing a human upper body model and estimating its three dimensional motion.

  5. Gene Electrotransfer in 3D Reconstructed Human Dermal Tissue.

    PubMed

    Madi, Moinecha; Rols, Marie-Pierre; Gibot, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Gene electrotransfer into the skin is of particular interest for the development of medical applications including DNA vaccination, cancer treatment, wound healing or treatment of local skin disorders. However, such clinical applications are currently limited due to poor understanding of the mechanisms governing DNA electrotransfer within human tissue. Nowadays, most studies are carried out in rodent models but rodent skin varies from human skin in terms of cell composition and architecture. We used a tissue-engineering approach to study gene electrotransfer mechanisms in a human tissue context. Primary human dermal fibroblasts were cultured according to the self-assembly method to produce 3D reconstructed human dermal tissue. In this study, we showed that cells of the reconstructed cutaneous tissue were efficiently electropermeabilized by applying millisecond electric pulses, without affecting their viability. A reporter gene was successfully electrotransferred into this human tissue and gene expression was detected for up to 48h. Interestingly, the transfected cells were solely located on the upper surface of the tissue, where they were in close contact with plasmid DNA solution. Furthermore, we report evidences that electrotransfection success depends on plasmid mobility within tissue- rich in collagens, but not on cell proliferation status. In conclusion, in addition to proposing a reliable alternative to animal experiments, tissue engineering produces valid biological tool for the in vitro study of gene electrotransfer mechanisms in human tissue. PMID:27029947

  6. 3D Chromosome Regulatory Landscape of Human Pluripotent Cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiong; Dadon, Daniel B; Powell, Benjamin E; Fan, Zi Peng; Borges-Rivera, Diego; Shachar, Sigal; Weintraub, Abraham S; Hnisz, Denes; Pegoraro, Gianluca; Lee, Tong Ihn; Misteli, Tom; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Young, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we describe the 3D chromosome regulatory landscape of human naive and primed embryonic stem cells. To devise this map, we identified transcriptional enhancers and insulators in these cells and placed them within the context of cohesin-associated CTCF-CTCF loops using cohesin ChIA-PET data. The CTCF-CTCF loops we identified form a chromosomal framework of insulated neighborhoods, which in turn form topologically associating domains (TADs) that are largely preserved during the transition between the naive and primed states. Regulatory changes in enhancer-promoter interactions occur within insulated neighborhoods during cell state transition. The CTCF anchor regions we identified are conserved across species, influence gene expression, and are a frequent site of mutations in cancer cells, underscoring their functional importance in cellular regulation. These 3D regulatory maps of human pluripotent cells therefore provide a foundation for future interrogation of the relationships between chromosome structure and gene control in development and disease. PMID:26686465

  7. Objective and subjective quality assessment of geometry compression of reconstructed 3D humans in a 3D virtual room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekuria, Rufael; Cesar, Pablo; Doumanis, Ioannis; Frisiello, Antonella

    2015-09-01

    Compression of 3D object based video is relevant for 3D Immersive applications. Nevertheless, the perceptual aspects of the degradation introduced by codecs for meshes and point clouds are not well understood. In this paper we evaluate the subjective and objective degradations introduced by such codecs in a state of art 3D immersive virtual room. In the 3D immersive virtual room, users are captured with multiple cameras, and their surfaces are reconstructed as photorealistic colored/textured 3D meshes or point clouds. To test the perceptual effect of compression and transmission, we render degraded versions with different frame rates in different contexts (near/far) in the scene. A quantitative subjective study with 16 users shows that negligible distortion of decoded surfaces compared to the original reconstructions can be achieved in the 3D virtual room. In addition, a qualitative task based analysis in a full prototype field trial shows increased presence, emotion, user and state recognition of the reconstructed 3D Human representation compared to animated computer avatars.

  8. Imaging system for creating 3D block-face cryo-images of whole mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Debashish; Breen, Michael; Salvado, Olivier; Heinzel, Meredith; McKinley, Eliot; Wilson, David

    2006-03-01

    We developed a cryomicrotome/imaging system that provides high resolution, high sensitivity block-face images of whole mice or excised organs, and applied it to a variety of biological applications. With this cryo-imaging system, we sectioned cryo-preserved tissues at 2-40 μm thickness and acquired high resolution brightfield and fluorescence images with microscopic in-plane resolution (as good as 1.2 μm). Brightfield images of normal and pathological anatomy show exquisite detail, especially in the abdominal cavity. Multi-planar reformatting and 3D renderings allow one to interrogate 3D structures. In this report, we present brightfield images of mouse anatomy, as well as 3D renderings of organs. For BPK mice model of polycystic kidney disease, we compared brightfield cryo-images and kidney volumes to MRI. The color images provided greater contrast and resolution of cysts as compared to in vivo MRI. We note that color cryo-images are closer to what a researcher sees in dissection, making it easier for them to interpret image data. The combination of field of view, depth of field, ultra high resolution and color/fluorescence contrast enables cryo-image volumes to provide details that cannot be found through in vivo imaging or other ex vivo optical imaging approaches. We believe that this novel imaging system will have applications that include identification of mouse phenotypes, characterization of diseases like blood vessel disease, kidney disease, and cancer, assessment of drug and gene therapy delivery and efficacy and validation of other imaging modalities.

  9. Flow control on a 3D backward facing ramp by pulsed jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Pierric; Bortolus, Dorian; Grasso, Francesco

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of flow separation control over a 3D backward facing ramp by means of pulsed jets. Such geometry has been selected to reproduce flow phenomena of interest for the automotive industry. The base flow has been characterised using PIV and pressure measurements. The results show that the classical notchback topology is correctly reproduced. A control system based on magnetic valves has been used to produce the pulsed jets whose properties have been characterised by hot wire anemometry. In order to shed some light on the role of the different parameters affecting the suppression of the slant recirculation area, a parametric study has been carried out by varying the frequency and the momentum coefficient of the jets for several Reynolds numbers. xml:lang="fr"

  10. 3D face reconstruction from 2D pictures: first results of a web-based computer aided system for aesthetic procedures.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Santos, Thiago; Baumberger, Christian; Constantinescu, Mihai; Olariu, Radu; Nolte, Lutz-Peter; Alaraibi, Salman; Reyes, Mauricio

    2013-05-01

    The human face is a vital component of our identity and many people undergo medical aesthetics procedures in order to achieve an ideal or desired look. However, communication between physician and patient is fundamental to understand the patient's wishes and to achieve the desired results. To date, most plastic surgeons rely on either "free hand" 2D drawings on picture printouts or computerized picture morphing. Alternatively, hardware dependent solutions allow facial shapes to be created and planned in 3D, but they are usually expensive or complex to handle. To offer a simple and hardware independent solution, we propose a web-based application that uses 3 standard 2D pictures to create a 3D representation of the patient's face on which facial aesthetic procedures such as filling, skin clearing or rejuvenation, and rhinoplasty are planned in 3D. The proposed application couples a set of well-established methods together in a novel manner to optimize 3D reconstructions for clinical use. Face reconstructions performed with the application were evaluated by two plastic surgeons and also compared to ground truth data. Results showed the application can provide accurate 3D face representations to be used in clinics (within an average of 2 mm error) in less than 5 min. PMID:23319167

  11. Elemental concentration distribution in human fingernails - A 3D study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda-Vargas, C. A.; Mars, J. A.; Gihwala, D.

    2012-02-01

    The verification of pathologies has normally been based on analysis of blood (serum and plasma), and physiological tissue. Recently, nails and in particular human fingernails have become an important medium for pathological studies, especially those of environmental origin. The analytical technique of PIXE has been used extensively in the analysis of industrial samples and human tissue specimens. The application of the analytical technique to nails has been mainly to bulk samples. In this study we use micro-PIXE and -RBS, as both complementary and supplementary, to determine the elemental concentration distribution of human fingernails of individuals. We report on the 3D quantitative elemental concentration distributions (QECDs) of various elements that include C, N and O as major elements (10-20%), P, S, Cl, K and Ca as minor elements (1-10%) and Fe, Mn, Zn, Ti, Na, Mg, Cu, Ni, Cr, Rb, Br, Sr and Se as trace elements (less than 1%). For PIXE and RBS the specimens were bombarded with a 3 MeV proton beam. To ascertain any correlations in the quantitative elemental concentration distributions, a linear traverse analysis was performed across the width of the nail. Elemental distribution correlations were also obtained.

  12. Extraction and refinement of building faces in 3D point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Melanie; Meidow, Jochen; Bulatov, Dimitri

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we present an approach to generate a 3D model of an urban scene out of sensor data. The first milestone on that way is to classify the sensor data into the main parts of a scene, such as ground, vegetation, buildings and their outlines. This has already been accomplished within our previous work. Now, we propose a four-step algorithm to model the building structure, which is assumed to consist of several dominant planes. First, we extract small elevated objects, like chimneys, using a hot-spot detector and handle the detected regions separately. In order to model the variety of roof structures precisely, we split up complex building blocks into parts. Two different approaches are used: To act on the assumption of underlying 2D ground polygons, we use geometric methods to divide them into sub-polygons. Without polygons, we use morphological operations and segmentation methods. In the third step, extraction of dominant planes takes place, by using either RANSAC or J-linkage algorithm. They operate on point clouds of sufficient confidence within the previously separated building parts and give robust results even with noisy, outlier-rich data. Last, we refine the previously determined plane parameters using geometric relations of the building faces. Due to noise, these expected properties of roofs and walls are not fulfilled. Hence, we enforce them as hard constraints and use the previously extracted plane parameters as initial values for an optimization method. To test the proposed workflow, we use both several data sets, including noisy data from depth maps and data computed by laser scanning.

  13. 3D Human cartilage surface characterization by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brill, Nicolai; Riedel, Jörn; Schmitt, Robert; Tingart, Markus; Truhn, Daniel; Pufe, Thomas; Jahr, Holger; Nebelung, Sven

    2015-10-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of cartilage degeneration is of high clinical interest. Loss of surface integrity is considered one of the earliest and most reliable signs of degeneration, but cannot currently be evaluated objectively. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an arthroscopically available light-based non-destructive real-time imaging technology that allows imaging at micrometre resolutions to millimetre depths. As OCT-based surface evaluation standards remain to be defined, the present study investigated the diagnostic potential of 3D surface profile parameters in the comprehensive evaluation of cartilage degeneration. To this end, 45 cartilage samples of different degenerative grades were obtained from total knee replacements (2 males, 10 females; mean age 63.8 years), cut to standard size and imaged using a spectral-domain OCT device (Thorlabs, Germany). 3D OCT datasets of 8  ×  8, 4  ×  4 and 1  ×  1 mm (width  ×  length) were obtained and pre-processed (image adjustments, morphological filtering). Subsequent automated surface identification algorithms were used to obtain the 3D primary profiles, which were then filtered and processed using established algorithms employing ISO standards. The 3D surface profile thus obtained was used to calculate a set of 21 3D surface profile parameters, i.e. height (e.g. Sa), functional (e.g. Sk), hybrid (e.g. Sdq) and segmentation-related parameters (e.g. Spd). Samples underwent reference histological assessment according to the Degenerative Joint Disease classification. Statistical analyses included calculation of Spearman’s rho and assessment of inter-group differences using the Kruskal Wallis test. Overall, the majority of 3D surface profile parameters revealed significant degeneration-dependent differences and correlations with the exception of severe end-stage degeneration and were of distinct diagnostic value in the assessment of surface integrity. None of the 3D

  14. 3D Human cartilage surface characterization by optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Brill, Nicolai; Riedel, Jörn; Schmitt, Robert; Tingart, Markus; Truhn, Daniel; Pufe, Thomas; Jahr, Holger; Nebelung, Sven

    2015-10-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of cartilage degeneration is of high clinical interest. Loss of surface integrity is considered one of the earliest and most reliable signs of degeneration, but cannot currently be evaluated objectively. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an arthroscopically available light-based non-destructive real-time imaging technology that allows imaging at micrometre resolutions to millimetre depths. As OCT-based surface evaluation standards remain to be defined, the present study investigated the diagnostic potential of 3D surface profile parameters in the comprehensive evaluation of cartilage degeneration. To this end, 45 cartilage samples of different degenerative grades were obtained from total knee replacements (2 males, 10 females; mean age 63.8 years), cut to standard size and imaged using a spectral-domain OCT device (Thorlabs, Germany). 3D OCT datasets of 8  ×  8, 4  ×  4 and 1  ×  1 mm (width  ×  length) were obtained and pre-processed (image adjustments, morphological filtering). Subsequent automated surface identification algorithms were used to obtain the 3D primary profiles, which were then filtered and processed using established algorithms employing ISO standards. The 3D surface profile thus obtained was used to calculate a set of 21 3D surface profile parameters, i.e. height (e.g. Sa), functional (e.g. Sk), hybrid (e.g. Sdq) and segmentation-related parameters (e.g. Spd). Samples underwent reference histological assessment according to the Degenerative Joint Disease classification. Statistical analyses included calculation of Spearman's rho and assessment of inter-group differences using the Kruskal Wallis test. Overall, the majority of 3D surface profile parameters revealed significant degeneration-dependent differences and correlations with the exception of severe end-stage degeneration and were of distinct diagnostic value in the assessment of surface integrity. None of the 3D surface

  15. Challenges faced in applying 3D noncontact metrology to turbine engine blade inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Joseph; Harding, Kevin; Hogarth, Eric

    2011-08-01

    3D Non-contact Inspection systems are becoming more capable and affordable, however successful application to complex parts requires understanding the remaining system limitations. Turbine airfoils are key components used in several important industries that present some unique challenges to any metrology application. Issues such as surface finish, complicated shapes and unique geometries exercise many of the key capabilities of a non-contact 3D measurement system. Therefore, many of the short comings of any 3D method become evident in addressing airfoil measurement applications. This paper will address the key challenges posed by complicated shapes such as airfoils, and what gaps still exist in the application of the technology.

  16. Robust 3D reconstruction system for human jaw modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamany, Sameh M.; Farag, Aly A.; Tazman, David; Farman, Allan G.

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a model-based vision system for dentistry that will replace traditional approaches used in diagnosis, treatment planning and surgical simulation. Dentistry requires accurate 3D representation of the teeth and jaws for many diagnostic and treatment purposes. For example orthodontic treatment involves the application of force systems to teeth over time to correct malocclusion. In order to evaluate tooth movement progress, the orthodontists monitors this movement by means of visual inspection, intraoral measurements, fabrication of plastic models, photographs and radiographs, a process which is both costly and time consuming. In this paper an integrate system has been developed to record the patient's occlusion using computer vision. Data is acquired with an intraoral video camera. A modified shape from shading (SFS) technique, using perspective projection and camera calibration, is used to extract accurate 3D information from a sequence of 2D images of the jaw. A new technique for 3D data registration, using a Grid Closest Point transform and genetic algorithms, is used to register the SFS output. Triangulization is then performed, and a solid 3D model is obtained via a rapid prototype machine.

  17. 3D Exploration of Meteorological Data: Facing the challenges of operational forecasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutek, Michal; Debie, Frans; van der Neut, Ian

    2016-04-01

    In the past years the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) has been working on innovation in the field of meteorological data visualization. We are dealing with Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model data and observational data, i.e. satellite images, precipitation radar, ground and air-borne measurements. These multidimensional multivariate data are geo-referenced and can be combined in 3D space to provide more intuitive views on the atmospheric phenomena. We developed the Weather3DeXplorer (W3DX), a visualization framework for processing and interactive exploration and visualization using Virtual Reality (VR) technology. We managed to have great successes with research studies on extreme weather situations. In this paper we will elaborate what we have learned from application of interactive 3D visualization in the operational weather room. We will explain how important it is to control the degrees-of-freedom during interaction that are given to the users: forecasters/scientists; (3D camera and 3D slicing-plane navigation appear to be rather difficult for the users, when not implemented properly). We will present a novel approach of operational 3D visualization user interfaces (UI) that for a great deal eliminates the obstacle and the time it usually takes to set up the visualization parameters and an appropriate camera view on a certain atmospheric phenomenon. We have found our inspiration in the way our operational forecasters work in the weather room. We decided to form a bridge between 2D visualization images and interactive 3D exploration. Our method combines WEB-based 2D UI's, pre-rendered 3D visualization catalog for the latest NWP model runs, with immediate entry into interactive 3D session for selected visualization setting. Finally, we would like to present the first user experiences with this approach.

  18. Metrological analysis of the human foot: 3D multisensor exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz Potosi, A.; Meneses Fonseca, J.; León Téllez, J.

    2011-08-01

    In the podiatry field, many of the foot dysfunctions are mainly generated due to: Congenital malformations, accidents or misuse of footwear. For the treatment or prevention of foot disorders, the podiatrist diagnoses prosthesis or specific adapted footwear, according to the real dimension of foot. Therefore, it is necessary to acquire 3D information of foot with 360 degrees of observation. As alternative solution, it was developed and implemented an optical system of threedimensional reconstruction based in the principle of laser triangulation. The system is constituted by an illumination unit that project a laser plane into the foot surface, an acquisition unit with 4 CCD cameras placed around of axial foot axis, an axial moving unit that displaces the illumination and acquisition units in the axial axis direction and a processing and exploration unit. The exploration software allows the extraction of distances on three-dimensional image, taking into account the topography of foot. The optical system was tested and their metrological performances were evaluated in experimental conditions. The optical system was developed to acquire 3D information in order to design and make more appropriate footwear.

  19. 3-D attitude representation of human joints: a standardization proposal.

    PubMed

    Woltring, H J

    1994-12-01

    In view of the singularities, asymmetries and other adverse properties of existing, three-dimensional definitions for joint and segment angles, the present paper proposes a new convention for unambiguous and easily interpretable, 3-D joint angles, based on the concept of the attitude 'vector' as derived from Euler's theorem. The suggested standard can be easily explained to non-mathematically trained clinicians, is readily implemented in software, and can be simply related to classical Cardanic/Eulerian angles. For 'planar' rotations about a coordinate system's axes, the proposed convention coincides with the Cardanic convention. The attitude vector dispenses with the 'gimbal-lock' and non-orthogonality disadvantages of Cardanic/Eulerian conventions; therefore, its components have better metrical properties, and they are less sensitive to measurement errors and to coordinate system uncertainties than Cardanic/Eulerian angles. A sensitivity analysis and a physical interpretation of the proposed standard are given, and some experimental results that demonstrate its advantages. PMID:7806549

  20. Viewpoint independent representation and recognition of polygonal faced in 3-D

    SciTech Connect

    Bunke, H.; Glauser, T.

    1993-08-01

    The recognition of polygons in 3-D space is an important task in robot vision. Two particular problems are addressed in the paper. First a new set of local shape descriptors for polygons are proposed that are invariant under affine transformation. Furthermore, they are complete in the sense that they allow the reconstruction of any polygon in 3-D space from three consecutive vertices. The second problem discussed in this paper is the recognition of 2-D polygonal objects under affine transformation and the presence of partial occlusion. A recognition procedure that is based on the matching of edge length ratios is introduced using a simplified version of the standard dynamic programming procedure commonly employed for string matching. The algorithm is conceptually very simple, easy to implement and has a low computational complexity. It will be shown in a set of experiments that the method is reliable and robust.

  1. A Measure of the Effectiveness of Incorporating 3D Human Anatomy into an Online Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbelink, Amy J.

    2009-01-01

    Results of a study designed to determine the effectiveness of implementing three-dimensional (3D) stereo images of a human skull in an undergraduate human anatomy online laboratory were gathered and analysed. Mental model theory and its applications to 3D relationships are discussed along with the research results. Quantitative results on 62 pairs…

  2. A 3D map of the human genome at kilobase resolution reveals principles of chromatin looping.

    PubMed

    Rao, Suhas S P; Huntley, Miriam H; Durand, Neva C; Stamenova, Elena K; Bochkov, Ivan D; Robinson, James T; Sanborn, Adrian L; Machol, Ido; Omer, Arina D; Lander, Eric S; Aiden, Erez Lieberman

    2014-12-18

    We use in situ Hi-C to probe the 3D architecture of genomes, constructing haploid and diploid maps of nine cell types. The densest, in human lymphoblastoid cells, contains 4.9 billion contacts, achieving 1 kb resolution. We find that genomes are partitioned into contact domains (median length, 185 kb), which are associated with distinct patterns of histone marks and segregate into six subcompartments. We identify ∼10,000 loops. These loops frequently link promoters and enhancers, correlate with gene activation, and show conservation across cell types and species. Loop anchors typically occur at domain boundaries and bind CTCF. CTCF sites at loop anchors occur predominantly (>90%) in a convergent orientation, with the asymmetric motifs "facing" one another. The inactive X chromosome splits into two massive domains and contains large loops anchored at CTCF-binding repeats. PMID:25497547

  3. FACE-R--a 3D database of 400 living individuals' full head CT- and face scans and preliminary GMM analysis for craniofacial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kustár, Agnes; Forró, Laszlo; Kalina, Ildiko; Fazekas, Ferenc; Honti, Szabolcs; Makra, Szabolcs; Friess, Martin

    2013-11-01

    In the past, improvements in craniofacial reconstructions (CFR) methodology languished due to the lack of adequate 3D databases that were sufficiently large and appropriate for 3-dimensional shape statistics. In our study, we created the "FACE-R" database from CT records and 3D surface scans of 400 clinical patients from Hungary, providing a significantly larger sample that was available before. The uniqueness of our database is linking of two data types that makes possible to investigate the bone and skin surface of the same individual, in upright position, thus eliminating many of the gravitational effects on the face during CT scanning. We performed a preliminary geometric morphometric (GMM) study using 3D data that produces a general idea of skull and face shape correlations. The vertical position of the tip of the (soft) nose for a skull and landmarks such as rhinion need to be taken into account. Likewise, the anterior nasal spine appears to exert some influence in this regard. PMID:24020394

  4. Computational 3-D Model of the Human Respiratory System

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are developing a comprehensive, morphologically-realistic computational model of the human respiratory system that can be used to study the inhalation, deposition, and clearance of contaminants, while being adaptable for age, race, gender, and health/disease status. The model ...

  5. Possible use of small UAV to create high resolution 3D model of vertical rock faces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, János; Kerkovits, Krisztian

    2014-05-01

    One of the newest and mostly emerging acquisition technologies is the use of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to photogrammetry and remote sensing. Several successful research project or industrial use can be found worldwide (mine investigation, precision agriculture, mapping etc.) but those surveys are focusing mainly on the survey of horizontal areas. In our research a mixed acquisition method was developed and tested to create a dense, 3D model about a columnar outcrop close to Kő-hegy (Pest County). Our primary goal was to create a model whereat the pattern of different layers is clearly visible and measurable, as well as to test the robustness of our idea. Our method uses a consumer grade camera to take digital photographs about the outcrop. A small, custom made tricopter was built to carry the camera above middle and top parts of the rock, the bottom part can be photographed only from several ground positions. During the field survey ground control points were installed and measured using a kinematic correction GPS. These latter data were used during the georeferencing of generated point cloud. Free online services built on Structure from Motion (SfM) algorithms and desktop software also were tested to generate the relative point cloud and for further processing and analysis.

  6. Analysis of 3D strain in the human medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Kolaczek, S; Hewison, C; Caterine, S; Ragbar, M X; Getgood, A; Gordon, K D

    2016-10-01

    This study presents a method to evaluate three-dimensional strain in meniscal tissue using medical imaging. Strain is calculated by tracking small teflon markers implanted within the meniscal tissue using computed tomography imaging. The results are presented for strains in the middle and posterior third of the medial menisci of 10 human cadaveric knees, under simulated physiologically relevant loading. In the middle position, an average compressive strain of 3.4% was found in the medial-lateral direction, and average tensile strains of 1.4% and 3.5% were found in the anterior-posterior and superior-inferior directions respectively at 5° of knee flexion with an applied load of 1× body weight. In the posterior position, under the same conditions, average compressive strains of 2.2% and 6.3% were found in the medial-lateral and superior-inferior directions respectively, and an average tensile strain of 3.8% was found in the anterior-posterior direction. No statistically significant difference between strain in the middle or posterior of the meniscus or between the global strains is uncovered. PMID:27484043

  7. Understanding Human Perception of Building Categories in Virtual 3d Cities - a User Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutzauer, P.; Becker, S.; Niese, T.; Deussen, O.; Fritsch, D.

    2016-06-01

    Virtual 3D cities are becoming increasingly important as a means of visually communicating diverse urban-related information. To get a deeper understanding of a human's cognitive experience of virtual 3D cities, this paper presents a user study on the human ability to perceive building categories (e.g. residential home, office building, building with shops etc.) from geometric 3D building representations. The study reveals various dependencies between geometric properties of the 3D representations and the perceptibility of the building categories. Knowledge about which geometries are relevant, helpful or obstructive for perceiving a specific building category is derived. The importance and usability of such knowledge is demonstrated based on a perception-guided 3D building abstraction process.

  8. Using of Bezier Interpolation in 3D Reconstruction of Human Femur Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth-Tascau, Mirela; Pater, Flavius; Stoia, Dan Ioan; Menyhardt, Karoly; Rosu, Serban; Rusu, Lucian; Vigaru, Cosmina

    2011-09-01

    The paper is focused on image acquisition and processing of CT scans of a human femur bone in order to obtain 3D reconstructions of the human femur. The objective of the presented study was to obtain 3D realistic model of the human femur bone. The reconstructed model provides useful data to the physician but more important are the data and 3D models that can be used for virtual testing of femoral implants and endoprosthesis. Using the B-spline patch a 3D volume model of the human femur bone can be achieved. This model can be easy imported in any CAD system, resulting a virtual femur model witch can be used in FEM analysis.

  9. 3D Bioprinting Human Chondrocytes with Nanocellulose-Alginate Bioink for Cartilage Tissue Engineering Applications.

    PubMed

    Markstedt, Kajsa; Mantas, Athanasios; Tournier, Ivan; Martínez Ávila, Héctor; Hägg, Daniel; Gatenholm, Paul

    2015-05-11

    The introduction of 3D bioprinting is expected to revolutionize the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The 3D bioprinter is able to dispense materials while moving in X, Y, and Z directions, which enables the engineering of complex structures from the bottom up. In this study, a bioink that combines the outstanding shear thinning properties of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) with the fast cross-linking ability of alginate was formulated for the 3D bioprinting of living soft tissue with cells. Printability was evaluated with concern to printer parameters and shape fidelity. The shear thinning behavior of the tested bioinks enabled printing of both 2D gridlike structures as well as 3D constructs. Furthermore, anatomically shaped cartilage structures, such as a human ear and sheep meniscus, were 3D printed using MRI and CT images as blueprints. Human chondrocytes bioprinted in the noncytotoxic, nanocellulose-based bioink exhibited a cell viability of 73% and 86% after 1 and 7 days of 3D culture, respectively. On the basis of these results, we can conclude that the nanocellulose-based bioink is a suitable hydrogel for 3D bioprinting with living cells. This study demonstrates the potential use of nanocellulose for 3D bioprinting of living tissues and organs. PMID:25806996

  10. Moving Human Path Tracking Based on Video Surveillance in 3d Indoor Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan; Zlatanova, Sisi; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Yeting; Liu, Liu

    2016-06-01

    Video surveillance systems are increasingly used for a variety of 3D indoor applications. We can analyse human behaviour, discover and avoid crowded areas, monitor human traffic and so forth. In this paper we concentrate on use of surveillance cameras to track and reconstruct the path a person has followed. For the purpose we integrated video surveillance data with a 3D indoor model of the building and develop a single human moving path tracking method. We process the surveillance videos to detected single human moving traces; then we match the depth information of 3D scenes to the constructed 3D indoor network model and define the human traces in the 3D indoor space. Finally, the single human traces extracted from multiple cameras are connected with the help of the connectivity provided by the 3D network model. Using this approach, we can reconstruct the entire walking path. The provided experiments with a single person have verified the effectiveness and robustness of the method.

  11. 2D and 3D Mechanobiology in Human and Nonhuman Systems.

    PubMed

    Warren, Kristin M; Islam, Md Mydul; LeDuc, Philip R; Steward, Robert

    2016-08-31

    Mechanobiology involves the investigation of mechanical forces and their effect on the development, physiology, and pathology of biological systems. The human body has garnered much attention from many groups in the field, as mechanical forces have been shown to influence almost all aspects of human life ranging from breathing to cancer metastasis. Beyond being influential in human systems, mechanical forces have also been shown to impact nonhuman systems such as algae and zebrafish. Studies of nonhuman and human systems at the cellular level have primarily been done in two-dimensional (2D) environments, but most of these systems reside in three-dimensional (3D) environments. Furthermore, outcomes obtained from 3D studies are often quite different than those from 2D studies. We present here an overview of a select group of human and nonhuman systems in 2D and 3D environments. We also highlight mechanobiological approaches and their respective implications for human and nonhuman physiology. PMID:27214883

  12. Imaging of human differentiated 3D neural aggregates using light sheet fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gualda, Emilio J.; Simão, Daniel; Pinto, Catarina; Alves, Paula M.; Brito, Catarina

    2014-01-01

    The development of three dimensional (3D) cell cultures represents a big step for the better understanding of cell behavior and disease in a more natural like environment, providing not only single but multiple cell type interactions in a complex 3D matrix, highly resembling physiological conditions. Light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) is becoming an excellent tool for fast imaging of such 3D biological structures. We demonstrate the potential of this technique for the imaging of human differentiated 3D neural aggregates in fixed and live samples, namely calcium imaging and cell death processes, showing the power of imaging modality compared with traditional microscopy. The combination of light sheet microscopy and 3D neural cultures will open the door to more challenging experiments involving drug testing at large scale as well as a better understanding of relevant biological processes in a more realistic environment. PMID:25161607

  13. Human factors guidelines for applications of 3D perspectives: a literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Sharon; Fitzhugh, Elisabeth; Aleva, Denise

    2009-05-01

    Once considered too processing-intense for general utility, application of the third dimension to convey complex information is facilitated by the recent proliferation of technological advancements in computer processing, 3D displays, and 3D perspective (2.5D) renderings within a 2D medium. The profusion of complex and rapidly-changing dynamic information being conveyed in operational environments has elevated interest in possible military applications of 3D technologies. 3D can be a powerful mechanism for clearer information portrayal, facilitating rapid and accurate identification of key elements essential to mission performance and operator safety. However, implementation of 3D within legacy systems can be costly, making integration prohibitive. Therefore, identifying which tasks may benefit from 3D or 2.5D versus simple 2D visualizations is critical. Unfortunately, there is no "bible" of human factors guidelines for usability optimization of 2D, 2.5D, or 3D visualizations nor for determining which display best serves a particular application. Establishing such guidelines would provide an invaluable tool for designers and operators. Defining issues common to each will enhance design effectiveness. This paper presents the results of an extensive review of open source literature addressing 3D information displays, with particular emphasis on comparison of true 3D with 2D and 2.5D representations and their utility for military tasks. Seventy-five papers are summarized, highlighting militarily relevant applications of 3D visualizations and 2.5D perspective renderings. Based on these findings, human factors guidelines for when and how to use these visualizations, along with recommendations for further research are discussed.

  14. Exact asymptotic statistics of the n-edged face in a 3D Poisson-Voronoi tessellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilhorst, H. J.

    2016-05-01

    This work considers the 3D Poisson-Voronoi tessellation. It investigates the joint probability distribution {πn}(L) for an arbitrarily selected cell face to be n-edged and for the distance between the seeds of the two adjacent cells to be equal to 2L. For this quantity an exact expression is derived, valid in the limit n\\to ∞ with n 1/6 L fixed. The leading order correction term is determined. Good agreement with earlier Monte Carlo data is obtained. The cell face is shown to be surrounded by a three-dimensional domain that is empty of seeds and is the union of n balls; it is pumpkin-shaped and analogous to the flower of the 2D Voronoi cell. For n\\to ∞ this domain tends towards a torus of equal major and minor radii. The radii scale as n 1/3, in agreement with earlier heuristic work. A detailed understanding is achieved of several other statistical properties of the n-edged cell face.

  15. Correlating 3D morphology with molecular pathology: fibrotic remodelling in human lung biopsies.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Manuela; Wehling, Judith; Warnecke, Gregor; Heidrich, Marko; Izykowski, Nicole; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Lorbeer, Raoul-Amadeus; Antonopoulos, Georgios; Janciauskiene, Sabina; Grothausmann, Roman; Knudsen, Lars; Ripken, Tammo; Meyer, Heiko; Kreipe, Hans; Ochs, Matthias; Jonigk, Danny; Kühnel, Mark Philipp

    2015-12-01

    Assessing alterations of the parenchymal architecture is essential in understanding fibrosing interstitial lung diseases. Here, we present a novel method to visualise fibrotic remodelling in human lungs and correlate morphological three-dimensional (3D) data with gene and protein expression in the very same sample. The key to our approach is a novel embedding resin that clears samples to full optical transparency and simultaneously allows 3D laser tomography and preparation of sections for histology, immunohistochemistry and RNA isolation. Correlating 3D laser tomography with molecular diagnostic techniques enables new insights into lung diseases. This approach has great potential to become an essential tool in pulmonary research. PMID:26108569

  16. Magnetic fields end-face effect investigation of HTS bulk over PMG with 3D-modeling numerical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yujie; Lu, Yiyun

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the magnetic fields end-face effect of high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk over a permanent magnetic guideway (PMG) is researched with 3D-modeling numerical method. The electromagnetic behavior of the bulk is simulated using finite element method (FEM). The framework is formulated by the magnetic field vector method (H-method). A superconducting levitation system composed of one rectangular HTS bulk and one infinite long PMG is successfully investigated using the proposed method. The simulation results show that for finite geometrical HTS bulk, even the applied magnetic field is only distributed in x-y plane, the magnetic field component Hz which is along the z-axis can be observed interior the HTS bulk.

  17. Using pH variations to improve the discrimination of wines by 3D front face fluorescence spectroscopy associated to Independent Components Analysis.

    PubMed

    Saad, Rita; Bouveresse, Delphine Jouan-Rimbaud; Locquet, Nathalie; Rutledge, Douglas N

    2016-06-01

    Wine composition in polyphenols is related to the variety of grape that it contains. These polyphenols play an essential role in its quality as well as a possible protective effect on human health. Their conjugated aromatic structure renders them fluorescent, which means that 3D front-face fluorescence spectroscopy could be a useful tool to differentiate among the grape varieties that characterize each wine. However, fluorescence spectra acquired simply at the natural pH of wine are not always sufficient to discriminate the wines. The structural changes in the polyphenols resulting from modifications in the pH induce significant changes in their fluorescence spectra, making it possible to more clearly separate different wines. 9 wines belonging to three different grape varieties (Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir) and from 9 different producers, were analyzed over a range of pHs. Independent Components Analysis (ICA) was used to extract characteristic signals from the matrix of unfolded 3D front-face fluorescence spectra and showed that the introduction of pH as an additional parameter in the study of wine fluorescence improved the discrimination of wines. PMID:27130119

  18. Finding faces among faces: human faces are located more quickly and accurately than other primate and mammal faces.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Elizabeth A; Buchin, Zachary; Werner, Katie; Worrell, Rey; Jakobsen, Krisztina V

    2014-11-01

    We tested the specificity of human face search efficiency by examining whether there is a broad window of detection for various face-like stimuli-human and animal faces-or whether own-species faces receive greater attentional allocation. We assessed the strength of the own-species face detection bias by testing whether human faces are located more efficiently than other animal faces, when presented among various other species' faces, in heterogeneous 16-, 36-, and 64-item arrays. Across all array sizes, we found that, controlling for distractor type, human faces were located faster and more accurately than primate and mammal faces, and that, controlling for target type, searches were faster when distractors were human faces compared to animal faces, revealing more efficient processing of human faces regardless of their role as targets or distractors (Experiment 1). Critically, these effects remained when searches were for specific species' faces (human, chimpanzee, otter), ruling out a category-level explanation (Experiment 2). Together, these results suggest that human faces may be processed more efficiently than animal faces, both when task-relevant (targets) and task-irrelevant (distractors), even in direct competition with other faces. These results suggest that there is not a broad window of detection for all face-like patterns but that human adults process own-species' faces more efficiently than other species' faces. Such own-species search efficiencies may arise through experience with own-species faces throughout development or may be privileged early in development, due to the evolutionary importance of conspecifics' faces. PMID:25113852

  19. Development and Optimization of Viable Human Platforms through 3D Printing

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Paul R.; Moya, Monica L.; Wheeler, Elizabeth K.

    2015-08-21

    3D printing technology offers a unique method for creating cell cultures in a manner far more conducive to accurate representation of human tissues and systems. Here we print cellular structures capable of forming vascular networks and exhibiting qualities of natural tissues and human systems. This allows for cheaper and readily available sources for further study of biological and pharmaceutical agents.

  20. Recognition by Humans and Pigeons of Novel Views of 3-D Objects and Their Photographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Alinda; Spetch, Marcia L.; Ferrey, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Humans and pigeons were trained to discriminate between 2 views of actual 3-D objects or their photographs. They were tested on novel views that were either within the closest rotational distance between the training views (interpolated) or outside of that range (extrapolated). When training views were 60? apart, pigeons, but not humans,…

  1. Effects of 3-D microwell culture on growth kinetics and metabolism of human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Azarin, Samira M.; Larson, Elise A.; Almodóvar-Cruz, Janice M; de Pablo, Juan J.; Palecek, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) hold potential in the field of tissue engineering given their capacity for both limitless self-renewal and differentiation to any adult cell type. However, several limitations, including the ability to expand undifferentiated cells and efficiently direct differentiation at scales needed for commercial cell production, prevent realizing the potential of hESCs in tissue engineering. Numerous studies have illustrated that 3-D culture systems provide microenvironmental cues that affect hESC pluripotency and differentiation fates, but little is known about how 3-D culture affects cell expansion. Here we have used a 3-D microwell array to model the differences in hESC growth kinetics and metabolism in 2-D vs. 3-D cultures. Our results demonstrated that 3-D microwell culture reduced hESC size and proliferative capacity, and impacted cell cycle dynamics, lengthening the G1 phase and shortening the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. However, glucose and lactate metabolism were similar in 2-D and 3-D cultures. Elucidating the effects of 3-D culture on growth and metabolism of hESCs may facilitate efforts for developing integrated, scalable cell expansion and differentiation processes with these cells. PMID:23586789

  2. The Extraction of 3D Shape from Texture and Shading in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Georgieva, Svetlana S.; Todd, James T.; Peeters, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the human cortical areas involved in processing 3-dimensional (3D) shape from texture (SfT) and shading. The stimuli included monocular images of randomly shaped 3D surfaces and a wide variety of 2-dimensional (2D) controls. The results of both passive and active experiments reveal that the extraction of 3D SfT involves the bilateral caudal inferior temporal gyrus (caudal ITG), lateral occipital sulcus (LOS) and several bilateral sites along the intraparietal sulcus. These areas are largely consistent with those involved in the processing of 3D shape from motion and stereo. The experiments also demonstrate, however, that the analysis of 3D shape from shading is primarily restricted to the caudal ITG areas. Additional results from psychophysical experiments reveal that this difference in neuronal substrate cannot be explained by a difference in strength between the 2 cues. These results underscore the importance of the posterior part of the lateral occipital complex for the extraction of visual 3D shape information from all depth cues, and they suggest strongly that the importance of shading is diminished relative to other cues for the analysis of 3D shape in parietal regions. PMID:18281304

  3. 3D reconstruction of a human heart fascicle using SurfDriver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rader, Robert J.; Phillips, Steven J.; LaFollette, Paul S., Jr.

    2000-06-01

    The Temple University Medical School has a sequence of over 400 serial sections of adult normal ventricular human heart tissue, cut at 25 micrometer thickness. We used a Zeiss Ultraphot with a 4x planapo objective and a Pixera digital camera to make a series of 45 sequential montages to use in the 3D reconstruction of a fascicle (muscle bundle). We wrote custom software to merge 4 smaller image fields from each section into one composite image. We used SurfDriver software, developed by Scott Lozanoff of the University of Hawaii and David Moody of the University of Alberta, for registration, object boundary identification, and 3D surface reconstruction. We used an Epson Stylus Color 900 printer to get photo-quality prints. We describe the challenge and our solution to the following problems: image acquisition and digitization, image merge, alignment and registration, boundary identification, 3D surface reconstruction, 3D visualization and orientation, snapshot, and photo-quality prints.

  4. Deterministically patterned biomimetic human iPSC-derived hepatic model via rapid 3D bioprinting.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xuanyi; Qu, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Li, Yi-Shuan; Yuan, Suli; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Justin; Wang, Pengrui; Lai, Cheuk Sun Edwin; Zanella, Fabian; Feng, Gen-Sheng; Sheikh, Farah; Chien, Shu; Chen, Shaochen

    2016-02-23

    The functional maturation and preservation of hepatic cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are essential to personalized in vitro drug screening and disease study. Major liver functions are tightly linked to the 3D assembly of hepatocytes, with the supporting cell types from both endodermal and mesodermal origins in a hexagonal lobule unit. Although there are many reports on functional 2D cell differentiation, few studies have demonstrated the in vitro maturation of hiPSC-derived hepatic progenitor cells (hiPSC-HPCs) in a 3D environment that depicts the physiologically relevant cell combination and microarchitecture. The application of rapid, digital 3D bioprinting to tissue engineering has allowed 3D patterning of multiple cell types in a predefined biomimetic manner. Here we present a 3D hydrogel-based triculture model that embeds hiPSC-HPCs with human umbilical vein endothelial cells and adipose-derived stem cells in a microscale hexagonal architecture. In comparison with 2D monolayer culture and a 3D HPC-only model, our 3D triculture model shows both phenotypic and functional enhancements in the hiPSC-HPCs over weeks of in vitro culture. Specifically, we find improved morphological organization, higher liver-specific gene expression levels, increased metabolic product secretion, and enhanced cytochrome P450 induction. The application of bioprinting technology in tissue engineering enables the development of a 3D biomimetic liver model that recapitulates the native liver module architecture and could be used for various applications such as early drug screening and disease modeling. PMID:26858399

  5. Deterministically patterned biomimetic human iPSC-derived hepatic model via rapid 3D bioprinting

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xuanyi; Qu, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Li, Yi-Shuan; Yuan, Suli; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Justin; Wang, Pengrui; Lai, Cheuk Sun Edwin; Zanella, Fabian; Feng, Gen-Sheng; Sheikh, Farah; Chien, Shu; Chen, Shaochen

    2016-01-01

    The functional maturation and preservation of hepatic cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are essential to personalized in vitro drug screening and disease study. Major liver functions are tightly linked to the 3D assembly of hepatocytes, with the supporting cell types from both endodermal and mesodermal origins in a hexagonal lobule unit. Although there are many reports on functional 2D cell differentiation, few studies have demonstrated the in vitro maturation of hiPSC-derived hepatic progenitor cells (hiPSC-HPCs) in a 3D environment that depicts the physiologically relevant cell combination and microarchitecture. The application of rapid, digital 3D bioprinting to tissue engineering has allowed 3D patterning of multiple cell types in a predefined biomimetic manner. Here we present a 3D hydrogel-based triculture model that embeds hiPSC-HPCs with human umbilical vein endothelial cells and adipose-derived stem cells in a microscale hexagonal architecture. In comparison with 2D monolayer culture and a 3D HPC-only model, our 3D triculture model shows both phenotypic and functional enhancements in the hiPSC-HPCs over weeks of in vitro culture. Specifically, we find improved morphological organization, higher liver-specific gene expression levels, increased metabolic product secretion, and enhanced cytochrome P450 induction. The application of bioprinting technology in tissue engineering enables the development of a 3D biomimetic liver model that recapitulates the native liver module architecture and could be used for various applications such as early drug screening and disease modeling. PMID:26858399

  6. Modeling Human Dynamics of Face-to-Face Interaction Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starnini, Michele; Baronchelli, Andrea; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2013-04-01

    Face-to-face interaction networks describe social interactions in human gatherings, and are the substrate for processes such as epidemic spreading and gossip propagation. The bursty nature of human behavior characterizes many aspects of empirical data, such as the distribution of conversation lengths, of conversations per person, or of interconversation times. Despite several recent attempts, a general theoretical understanding of the global picture emerging from data is still lacking. Here we present a simple model that reproduces quantitatively most of the relevant features of empirical face-to-face interaction networks. The model describes agents that perform a random walk in a two-dimensional space and are characterized by an attractiveness whose effect is to slow down the motion of people around them. The proposed framework sheds light on the dynamics of human interactions and can improve the modeling of dynamical processes taking place on the ensuing dynamical social networks.

  7. 3D-front-face fluorescence spectroscopy and independent components analysis: A new way to monitor bread dough development.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Rebeca; Boussard, Aline; Rakotozafy, Lalatiana; Nicolas, Jacques; Potus, Jacques; Rutledge, Douglas N; Cordella, Christophe B Y

    2016-01-15

    Following bread dough development can be a hard task as no reliable method exists to give the optimal mixing time. Dough development is linked to the evolution of gluten proteins, carbohydrates and lipids which can result in modifications in the spectral properties of the various fluorophores naturally present in the system. In this paper, we propose to use 3-D-front-face-fluorescence (3D-FFF) spectroscopy in the 250-550nm domain to follow the dough development as influenced by formulation (addition or not of glucose, glucose oxidase and ferulic acid in the dough recipe) and mixing time (2, 4, 6 and 8min). In all the 32 dough samples as well as in flour, three regions of maximum fluorescence intensities have been observed at 320nm after excitation at 295nm (Region 1), at 420nm after excitation at 360nm (Region 2) and 450nm after excitation at 390nm (Region 3). The principal components analysis (PCA) of the evolution of these maxima shows that the formulations with and without ferulic acid are clearly separated since the presence of ferulic acid induces a decrease of fluorescence in Region 1 and an increase in Regions 2 and 3. In addition, a kinetic effect of the mixing time can be observed (decrease of fluorescence in the Regions 1 and 2) mainly in the absence of ferulic acid. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) on these maximum values statistically confirms these observations. Independent components analysis (ICA) is also applied to the complete 3-D-FFF spectra in order to extract interpretable signals from spectral data which reflect the complex contribution of several fluorophores as influenced by their environment. In all cases, 3 signals can be clearly separated matching the 3 regions of maximal fluorescence. The signals corresponding to regions 1 and 2 can be ascribed to proteins and ferulic acid respectively, whereas the fluorophores associated with the 3rd signal (corresponding to region 3) remain unidentified. Good correlations are obtained between the IC

  8. A Lack of Sexual Dimorphism in Width-to-Height Ratio in White European Faces Using 2D Photographs, 3D Scans, and Anthropometry

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Robin S. S.; Jones, Alex L.; Ward, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Facial width-to-height ratio has received a great deal of attention in recent research. Evidence from human skulls suggests that males have a larger relative facial width than females, and that this sexual dimorphism is an honest signal of masculinity, aggression, and related traits. However, evidence that this measure is sexually dimorphic in faces, rather than skulls, is surprisingly weak. We therefore investigated facial width-to-height ratio in three White European samples using three different methods of measurement: 2D photographs, 3D scans, and anthropometry. By measuring the same individuals with multiple methods, we demonstrated high agreement across all measures. However, we found no evidence of sexual dimorphism in the face. In our third study, we also found a link between facial width-to-height ratio and body mass index for both males and females, although this relationship did not account for the lack of dimorphism in our sample. While we showed sufficient power to detect differences between male and female width-to-height ratio, our results failed to support the general hypothesis of sexual dimorphism in the face. PMID:22880088

  9. Stereomicroscopic 3D-pattern profiling of murine and human intestinal inflammation reveals unique structural phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Palacios, Alex; Kodani, Tomohiro; Kaydo, Lindsey; Pietropaoli, Davide; Corridoni, Daniele; Howell, Scott; Katz, Jeffry; Xin, Wei; Pizarro, Theresa T.; Cominelli, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Histology is fundamental to assess two-dimensional intestinal inflammation; however, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are often indistinguishable microscopically on the basis of mucosal biopsies. Here, we use stereomicroscopy (SM) to rapidly profile the entire intestinal topography and assess inflammation. We examine the mucosal surface of >700 mice (encompassing >16 strains and various IBD-models), create a profiling catalogue of 3D-stereomicroscopic abnormalities and demonstrate that mice with comparable histological scores display unique sub-clusters of 3D-structure-patterns of IBD pathology, which we call 3D-stereoenterotypes, and which are otherwise indiscernible histologically. We show that two ileal IBD-stereoenterotypes (‘cobblestones' versus ‘villous mini-aggregation') cluster separately within two distinct mouse lines of spontaneous ileitis, suggesting that host genetics drive unique and divergent inflammatory 3D-structural patterns in the gut. In humans, stereomicroscopy reveals ‘liquefaction' lesions and hierarchical fistulous complexes, enriched with clostridia/segmented filamentous bacteria, running under healthy mucosa in Crohn's disease. We suggest that stereomicroscopic (3D-SMAPgut) profiling can be easily implemented and enable the comprehensive study of inflammatory 3D structures, genetics and flora in IBD. PMID:26154811

  10. Human tooth pulp anatomy visualization by 3D magnetic resonance microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sustercic, Dusan; Sersa, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Background Precise assessment of dental pulp anatomy is of an extreme importance for a successful endodontic treatment. As standard radiographs of teeth provide very limited information on dental pulp anatomy, more capable methods are highly appreciated. One of these is 3D magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy of which diagnostic capabilities in terms of a better dental pulp anatomy assessment were evaluated in the study. Materials and methods Twenty extracted human teeth were scanned on a 2.35 T MRI system for MR microscopy using the 3D spin-echo method that enabled image acquisition with isotropic resolution of 100 μm. The 3D images were then post processed by ImageJ program (NIH) to obtain advanced volume rendered views of dental pulps. Results MR microscopy at 2.35 T provided accurate data on dental pulp anatomy in vitro. The data were presented as a sequence of thin 2D slices through the pulp in various orientations or as volume rendered 3D images reconstructed form arbitrary view-points. Sequential 2D images enabled only an approximate assessment of the pulp, while volume rendered 3D images were more precise in visualization of pulp anatomy and clearly showed pulp diverticles, number of pulp canals and root canal anastomosis. Conclusions This in vitro study demonstrated that MR microscopy could provide very accurate 3D visualization of dental pulp anatomy. A possible future application of the method in vivo may be of a great importance for the endodontic treatment. PMID:22933973

  11. Near-infrared optical imaging of human brain based on the semi-3D reconstruction algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Meng, Wei; Qin, Zhuanping; Zhou, Xiaoqing; Zhao, Huijuan; Gao, Feng

    2013-03-01

    In the non-invasive brain imaging with near-infrared light, precise head model is of great significance to the forward model and the image reconstruction. To deal with the individual difference of human head tissues and the problem of the irregular curvature, in this paper, we extracted head structure with Mimics software from the MRI image of a volunteer. This scheme makes it possible to assign the optical parameters to every layer of the head tissues reasonably and solve the diffusion equation with the finite-element analysis. During the solution of the inverse problem, a semi-3D reconstruction algorithm is adopted to trade off the computation cost and accuracy between the full 3-D and the 2-D reconstructions. In this scheme, the changes in the optical properties of the inclusions are assumed either axially invariable or confined to the imaging plane, while the 3-D nature of the photon migration is still retained. This therefore leads to a 2-D inverse issue with the matched 3-D forward model. Simulation results show that comparing to the 3-D reconstruction algorithm, the Semi-3D reconstruction algorithm cut 27% the calculation time consumption.

  12. Hypoxia Created Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheet for Prevascularized 3D Tissue Construction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijun; Xing, Qi; Qian, Zichen; Tahtinen, Mitchell; Zhang, Zhaoqiang; Shearier, Emily; Qi, Shaohai; Zhao, Feng

    2016-02-01

    3D tissue based on human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) sheets offers many interesting opportunities for regenerating multiple types of connective tissues. Prevascularizing hMSC sheets with endothelial cells (ECs) will improve 3D tissue performance by supporting cell survival and accelerating integration with host tissue. It is hypothesized that hypoxia cultured hMSC sheets can promote microvessel network formation and preserve stemness of hMSCs. This study investigates the vascularization of hMSC sheets under different oxygen tensions. It is found that the HN condition, in which hMSC sheets formed under physiological hypoxia (2% O2 ) and then cocultured with ECs under normoxia (20% O2 ), enables longer and more branched microvessel network formation. The observation is corroborated by higher levels of angiogenic factors in coculture medium. Additionally, the hypoxic hMSC sheet is more uniform and less defective, which facilitates fabrication of 3D prevascularized tissue construct by layering the prevascularized hMSC sheets and maturing in rotating wall vessel bioreactor. The hMSCs in the 3D construct still maintain multilineage differentiation ability, which indicates the possible application of the 3D construct for various connective tissues regeneration. These results demonstrate that hypoxia created hMSC sheets benefit the microvessel growth and it is feasible to construct 3D prevascularized tissue construct using the prevascularized hMSC sheets. PMID:26663707

  13. Uniform Local Binary Pattern Based Texture-Edge Feature for 3D Human Behavior Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Yue; Wang, Guangchao; Fan, Chunxiao

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of 3D somatosensory technology, human behavior recognition has become an important research field. Human behavior feature analysis has evolved from traditional 2D features to 3D features. In order to improve the performance of human activity recognition, a human behavior recognition method is proposed, which is based on a hybrid texture-edge local pattern coding feature extraction and integration of RGB and depth videos information. The paper mainly focuses on background subtraction on RGB and depth video sequences of behaviors, extracting and integrating historical images of the behavior outlines, feature extraction and classification. The new method of 3D human behavior recognition has achieved the rapid and efficient recognition of behavior videos. A large number of experiments show that the proposed method has faster speed and higher recognition rate. The recognition method has good robustness for different environmental colors, lightings and other factors. Meanwhile, the feature of mixed texture-edge uniform local binary pattern can be used in most 3D behavior recognition. PMID:25942404

  14. Uniform Local Binary Pattern Based Texture-Edge Feature for 3D Human Behavior Recognition.

    PubMed

    Ming, Yue; Wang, Guangchao; Fan, Chunxiao

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of 3D somatosensory technology, human behavior recognition has become an important research field. Human behavior feature analysis has evolved from traditional 2D features to 3D features. In order to improve the performance of human activity recognition, a human behavior recognition method is proposed, which is based on a hybrid texture-edge local pattern coding feature extraction and integration of RGB and depth videos information. The paper mainly focuses on background subtraction on RGB and depth video sequences of behaviors, extracting and integrating historical images of the behavior outlines, feature extraction and classification. The new method of 3D human behavior recognition has achieved the rapid and efficient recognition of behavior videos. A large number of experiments show that the proposed method has faster speed and higher recognition rate. The recognition method has good robustness for different environmental colors, lightings and other factors. Meanwhile, the feature of mixed texture-edge uniform local binary pattern can be used in most 3D behavior recognition. PMID:25942404

  15. Functional metabolic interactions of human neuron-astrocyte 3D in vitro networks.

    PubMed

    Simão, Daniel; Terrasso, Ana P; Teixeira, Ana P; Brito, Catarina; Sonnewald, Ursula; Alves, Paula M

    2016-01-01

    The generation of human neural tissue-like 3D structures holds great promise for disease modeling, drug discovery and regenerative medicine strategies. Promoting the establishment of complex cell-cell interactions, 3D culture systems enable the development of human cell-based models with increased physiological relevance, over monolayer cultures. Here, we demonstrate the establishment of neuronal and astrocytic metabolic signatures and shuttles in a human 3D neural cell model, namely the glutamine-glutamate-GABA shuttle. This was indicated by labeling of neuronal GABA following incubation with the glia-specific substrate [2-(13)C]acetate, which decreased by methionine sulfoximine-induced inhibition of the glial enzyme glutamine synthetase. Cell metabolic specialization was further demonstrated by higher pyruvate carboxylase-derived labeling in glutamine than in glutamate, indicating its activity in astrocytes and not in neurons. Exposure to the neurotoxin acrylamide resulted in intracellular accumulation of glutamate and decreased GABA synthesis. These results suggest an acrylamide-induced impairment of neuronal synaptic vesicle trafficking and imbalanced glutamine-glutamate-GABA cycle, due to loss of cell-cell contacts at synaptic sites. This work demonstrates, for the first time to our knowledge, that neural differentiation of human cells in a 3D setting recapitulates neuronal-astrocytic metabolic interactions, highlighting the relevance of these models for toxicology and better understanding the crosstalk between human neural cells. PMID:27619889

  16. Face recognition motivated by human approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamgar-Parsi, Behrooz; Lawson, Wallace Edgar; Kamgar-Parsi, Behzad

    2010-04-01

    We report the development of a face recognition system which operates in the same way as humans in that it is capable of recognizing a number of people, while rejecting everybody else as strangers. While humans do it routinely, a particularly challenging aspect of the problem of open-world face recognition has been the question of rejecting previously unseen faces as unfamiliar. Our approach can handle previously unseen faces; it is based on identifying and enclosing the region(s) in the human face space which belong to the target person(s).

  17. A Hormone-responsive 3D Culture Model of the Human Mammary Gland Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Speroni, Lucia; Sweeney, Michael F; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    The process of mammary epithelial morphogenesis is influenced by hormones. The study of hormone action on the breast epithelium using 2D cultures is limited to cell proliferation and gene expression endpoints. However, in the organism, mammary morphogenesis occurs in a 3D environment. 3D culture systems help bridge the gap between monolayer cell culture (2D) and the complexity of the organism. Herein, we describe a 3D culture model of the human breast epithelium that is suitable to study hormone action. It uses the commercially available hormone-responsive human breast epithelial cell line, T47D, and rat tail collagen type 1 as a matrix. This 3D culture model responds to the main mammotropic hormones: estradiol, progestins and prolactin. The influence of these hormones on epithelial morphogenesis can be observed after 1- or 2-week treatment according to the endpoint. The 3D cultures can be harvested for analysis of epithelial morphogenesis, cell proliferation and gene expression. PMID:26891095

  18. Human Body 3D Posture Estimation Using Significant Points and Two Cameras

    PubMed Central

    Juang, Chia-Feng; Chen, Teng-Chang; Du, Wei-Chin

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a three-dimensional (3D) human posture estimation system that locates 3D significant body points based on 2D body contours extracted from two cameras without using any depth sensors. The 3D significant body points that are located by this system include the head, the center of the body, the tips of the feet, the tips of the hands, the elbows, and the knees. First, a linear support vector machine- (SVM-) based segmentation method is proposed to distinguish the human body from the background in red, green, and blue (RGB) color space. The SVM-based segmentation method uses not only normalized color differences but also included angle between pixels in the current frame and the background in order to reduce shadow influence. After segmentation, 2D significant points in each of the two extracted images are located. A significant point volume matching (SPVM) method is then proposed to reconstruct the 3D significant body point locations by using 2D posture estimation results. Experimental results show that the proposed SVM-based segmentation method shows better performance than other gray level- and RGB-based segmentation approaches. This paper also shows the effectiveness of the 3D posture estimation results in different postures. PMID:24883422

  19. Construction and application of 3D model sequence to illustrate the development of the human embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuta, Shinobu; Kakusho, Koh; Minekura, Yutaka; Minoh, Michihiko; Nakatsu, Tomoko; Shiota, Kohei

    2002-05-01

    Embryology is one of the basic subjects in medical education, to learn the process of human development especially from fertilization to birth. The shape deformation in the development of human embryo is one of the most important points to be comprehended, but it is difficult to illustrate the deformation by texts, 2D drawings, photographs and so on, because it is extremely complicated. The purpose of our research is to construct a 3D model sequence to illustrate the deformation of human embryo, and to make the model sequence into the teaching materials for medical education. Firstly, 3D images of the specimens of human embryo were acquired using MR microscopy. Next, an initial 3D model sequence was manually modified by comparing with the features of the acquired images under the supervision of medical doctors, because the images were influenced not only by the noise or limitation of resolution in MR image acquisition, but also by the variation of shape depending on the difference of subject. Using the constructed 3D model sequence, CG animations and an interactive VRML system were composed as the teaching materials for embryology. These materials were quite helpful to understand the shape deformation compared with the conventional materials.

  20. A framework for human spine imaging using a freehand 3D ultrasound system.

    PubMed

    Purnama, Ketut E; Wilkinson, Michael H F; Veldhuizen, Albert G; van Ooijen, Peter M A; Lubbers, Jaap; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Sardjono, Tri A; Verkerke, Gijbertus J

    2010-01-01

    The use of 3D ultrasound imaging to follow the progression of scoliosis, i.e., a 3D deformation of the spine, is described. Unlike other current examination modalities, in particular based on X-ray, its non-detrimental effect enables it to be used frequently to follow the progression of scoliosis which sometimes may develop rapidly. Furthermore, 3D ultrasound imaging provides information in 3D directly in contrast to projection methods. This paper describes a feasibility study of an ultrasound system to provide a 3D image of the human spine, and presents a framework of procedures to perform this task. The framework consist of an ultrasound image acquisition procedure to image a large part of the human spine by means of a freehand 3D ultrasound system and a volume reconstruction procedure which was performed in four stages: bin-filling, hole-filling, volume segment alignment, and volume segment compounding. The overall results of the procedures in this framework show that imaging of the human spine using ultrasound is feasible. Vertebral parts such as the transverse processes, laminae, superior articular processes, and spinous process of the vertebrae appear as clouds of voxels having intensities higher than the surrounding voxels. In sagittal slices, a string of transverse processes appears representing the curvature of the spine. In the bin-filling stage the estimated mean absolute noise level of a single measurement of a single voxel was determined. Our comparative study for the hole-filling methods based on rank sum statistics proved that the pixel nearest neighbour (PNN) method with variable radius and with the proposed olympic operation is the best method. Its mean absolute grey value error was less in magnitude than the noise level of a single measurement. PMID:20231799

  1. Face detection: mapping human performance.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael B; Edmonds, Andrew J

    2003-01-01

    The recognition of faces has been the focus of an extensive body of research, whereas the preliminary and prerequisite task of detecting a face has received limited attention from psychologists. Four experiments are reported that address the question how we detect a face. Experiment 1 reveals that we use information from the scene to aid detection. In experiment 2 we investigated which features of a face speed the detection of faces. Experiment 3 revealed inversion effects and an interaction between the effects of blurring and reduction of contrast. In experiment 4 the sizes of effects of reversal of orientation, luminance, and hue were compared. Luminance was found to have the greatest effect on reaction time to detect faces. The results are interpreted as suggesting that face detection proceeds by a pre-attentive stage that identifies possible face regions, which is followed by a focused-attention stage that employs a deformable template. Comparisons are drawn with automatic face-detection systems. PMID:14580138

  2. The 3D Human Motion Control Through Refined Video Gesture Annotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yohan; Suk, Myunghoon; Prabhakaran, B.

    In the beginning of computer and video game industry, simple game controllers consisting of buttons and joysticks were employed, but recently game consoles are replacing joystick buttons with novel interfaces such as the remote controllers with motion sensing technology on the Nintendo Wii [1] Especially video-based human computer interaction (HCI) technique has been applied to games, and the representative game is 'Eyetoy' on the Sony PlayStation 2. Video-based HCI technique has great benefit to release players from the intractable game controller. Moreover, in order to communicate between humans and computers, video-based HCI is very crucial since it is intuitive, easy to get, and inexpensive. On the one hand, extracting semantic low-level features from video human motion data is still a major challenge. The level of accuracy is really dependent on each subject's characteristic and environmental noises. Of late, people have been using 3D motion-capture data for visualizing real human motions in 3D space (e.g, 'Tiger Woods' in EA Sports, 'Angelina Jolie' in Bear-Wolf movie) and analyzing motions for specific performance (e.g, 'golf swing' and 'walking'). 3D motion-capture system ('VICON') generates a matrix for each motion clip. Here, a column is corresponding to a human's sub-body part and row represents time frames of data capture. Thus, we can extract sub-body part's motion only by selecting specific columns. Different from low-level feature values of video human motion, 3D human motion-capture data matrix are not pixel values, but is closer to human level of semantics.

  3. The correction of the distortion of human face based on three-dimensional modeling methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Qingmin; Chen, Kuo; Feng, Huajun; Xu, Zhihai; Li, Qi

    2015-08-01

    When the human face is on the edge of field of the camera which has a large view, serious deformation will be captured. To correct the distortion of the human face, we present an approach based on setting up a 3D model. Firstly, we construct 3D target face modeling by using the data and depth information of the standard human face, which is set up by the three-dimensional model with three-dimensional Gaussian function with sectional type. According to the size of the face in the image and the parameters of the camera, we can obtain the information of relative position and depth of the human face. Then by translating the virtual camera axis to the center of the face, we can achieve the goal to correct the distortion of the face based on the theory of three-dimensional imaging. Finally, we have made a lot of experiments, and we study the influence of parameters of the 3D model of human face. The result indicates that the method presented by this paper can play an effective role in correcting the distortion of the face in the edge of the view, and we can get better results if the model appreciates the real human face.

  4. A 3D human neural cell culture system for modeling Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Hye; Choi, Se Hoon; D’Avanzo, Carla; Hebisch, Matthias; Sliwinski, Christopher; Bylykbashi, Enjana; Washicosky, Kevin J.; Klee, Justin B.; Brüstle, Oliver; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Kim, Doo Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell technologies have facilitated the development of human cellular disease models that can be used to study pathogenesis and test therapeutic candidates. These models hold promise for complex neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) because existing animal models have been unable to fully recapitulate all aspects of pathology. We recently reported the characterization of a novel three-dimensional (3D) culture system that exhibits key events in AD pathogenesis, including extracellular aggregation of β-amyloid and accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau. Here we provide instructions for the generation and analysis of 3D human neural cell cultures, including the production of genetically modified human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) with familial AD mutations, the differentiation of the hNPCs in a 3D matrix, and the analysis of AD pathogenesis. The 3D culture generation takes 1–2 days. The aggregation of β-amyloid is observed after 6-weeks of differentiation followed by robust tau pathology after 10–14 weeks. PMID:26068894

  5. A 3D human neural cell culture system for modeling Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Hye; Choi, Se Hoon; D'Avanzo, Carla; Hebisch, Matthias; Sliwinski, Christopher; Bylykbashi, Enjana; Washicosky, Kevin J; Klee, Justin B; Brüstle, Oliver; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Kim, Doo Yeon

    2015-07-01

    Stem cell technologies have facilitated the development of human cellular disease models that can be used to study pathogenesis and test therapeutic candidates. These models hold promise for complex neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), because existing animal models have been unable to fully recapitulate all aspects of pathology. We recently reported the characterization of a novel 3D culture system that exhibits key events in AD pathogenesis, including extracellular aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau. Here we provide instructions for the generation and analysis of 3D human neural cell cultures, including the production of genetically modified human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) with familial AD mutations, the differentiation of the hNPCs in a 3D matrix and the analysis of AD pathogenesis. The 3D culture generation takes 1-2 d. The aggregation of Aβ is observed after 6 weeks of differentiation, followed by robust tau pathology after 10-14 weeks. PMID:26068894

  6. 3D Printed Microfluidic Device with Integrated Biosensors for Online Analysis of Subcutaneous Human Microdialysate

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of a robust 3D printed microfluidic analysis system that integrates with FDA-approved clinical microdialysis probes for continuous monitoring of human tissue metabolite levels. The microfluidic device incorporates removable needle type integrated biosensors for glucose and lactate, which are optimized for high tissue concentrations, housed in novel 3D printed electrode holders. A soft compressible 3D printed elastomer at the base of the holder ensures a good seal with the microfluidic chip. Optimization of the channel size significantly improves the response time of the sensor. As a proof-of-concept study, our microfluidic device was coupled to lab-built wireless potentiostats and used to monitor real-time subcutaneous glucose and lactate levels in cyclists undergoing a training regime. PMID:26070023

  7. X-Ray Phase Nanotomography Resolves the 3D Human Bone Ultrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Suhonen, Heikki; Grimal, Quentin; Cloetens, Peter; Peyrin, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    Bone strength and failure are increasingly thought to be due to ultrastructural properties, such as the morphology of the lacuno-canalicular network, the collagen fiber orientation and the mineralization on the nanoscale. However, these properties have not been studied in 3D so far. Here we report the investigation of the human bone ultrastructure with X-ray phase nanotomography, which now provides the required sensitivity, spatial resolution and field of view. The 3D organization of the lacuno-canalicular network is studied in detail over several cells in osteonal and interstitial tissue. Nanoscale density variations are revealed and show that the cement line separating these tissues is hypermineralized. Finally, we show that the collagen fibers are organized as a twisted plywood structure in 3D. PMID:22952569

  8. 3D Printed Microfluidic Device with Integrated Biosensors for Online Analysis of Subcutaneous Human Microdialysate.

    PubMed

    Gowers, Sally A N; Curto, Vincenzo F; Seneci, Carlo A; Wang, Chu; Anastasova, Salzitsa; Vadgama, Pankaj; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Boutelle, Martyn G

    2015-08-01

    This work presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of a robust 3D printed microfluidic analysis system that integrates with FDA-approved clinical microdialysis probes for continuous monitoring of human tissue metabolite levels. The microfluidic device incorporates removable needle type integrated biosensors for glucose and lactate, which are optimized for high tissue concentrations, housed in novel 3D printed electrode holders. A soft compressible 3D printed elastomer at the base of the holder ensures a good seal with the microfluidic chip. Optimization of the channel size significantly improves the response time of the sensor. As a proof-of-concept study, our microfluidic device was coupled to lab-built wireless potentiostats and used to monitor real-time subcutaneous glucose and lactate levels in cyclists undergoing a training regime. PMID:26070023

  9. X-ray phase nanotomography resolves the 3D human bone ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Langer, Max; Pacureanu, Alexandra; Suhonen, Heikki; Grimal, Quentin; Cloetens, Peter; Peyrin, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    Bone strength and failure are increasingly thought to be due to ultrastructural properties, such as the morphology of the lacuno-canalicular network, the collagen fiber orientation and the mineralization on the nanoscale. However, these properties have not been studied in 3D so far. Here we report the investigation of the human bone ultrastructure with X-ray phase nanotomography, which now provides the required sensitivity, spatial resolution and field of view. The 3D organization of the lacuno-canalicular network is studied in detail over several cells in osteonal and interstitial tissue. Nanoscale density variations are revealed and show that the cement line separating these tissues is hypermineralized. Finally, we show that the collagen fibers are organized as a twisted plywood structure in 3D. PMID:22952569

  10. On human pluripotent stem cell control: The rise of 3D bioengineering and mechanobiology

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yue; Sang, Jianming; Fu, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) provide promising resources for regenerating tissues and organs and modeling development and diseases in vitro. To fulfill their promise, the fate, function, and organization of hPSCs need to be precisely regulated in a three-dimensional (3D) environment to mimic cellular structures and functions of native tissues and organs. In the past decade, innovations in 3D culture systems with functional biomaterials have enabled efficient and versatile control of hPSC fate at the cellular level. However, we are just at the beginning of bringing hPSC-based regeneration and development and disease modeling to the tissue and organ levels. In this review, we summarize existing bioengineered culture platforms for controlling hPSC fate and function by regulating inductive mechanical and biochemical cues coexisting in the synthetic cell microenvironment. We highlight recent excitements in developing 3D hPSC-based in vitro tissue and organ models with in vivo-like cellular structures, interactions, and functions. We further discuss an emerging multifaceted mechanotransductive signaling network – with transcriptional coactivators YAP and TAZ at the center stage – that regulate fates and behaviors of mammalian cells, including hPSCs. Future development of 3D biomaterial systems should incorporate dynamically modulated mechanical and chemical properties targeting specific intracellular signaling events leading to desirable hPSC fate patterning and functional tissue formation in 3D. PMID:25818411

  11. 3D evaluation of palatal rugae for human identification using digital study models

    PubMed Central

    Taneva, Emilia D.; Johnson, Andrew; Viana, Grace; Evans, Carla A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: While there is literature suggesting that the palatal rugae could be used for human identification, most of these studies use two-dimensional (2D) approach. Aim: The aims of this study were to evaluate palatal ruga patterns using three-dimensional (3D) digital models; compare the most clinically relevant digital model conversion techniques for identification of the palatal rugae; develop a protocol for overlay registration; determine changes in palatal ruga individual patterns through time; and investigate the efficiency and accuracy of 3D matching processes between different individuals’ patterns. Material and Methods: Five cross sections in the anteroposterior dimension and four cross sections in the transverse dimension were computed which generated 18 2D variables. In addition, 13 3D variables were defined: The posterior point of incisive papilla (IP), and the most medial and lateral end points of the palatal rugae (R1MR, R1ML, R1LR, R1LL, R2MR, R2ML, R2LR, R2LL, R3MR, R3ML, R3LR, and R3LL). The deviation magnitude for each variable was statistically analyzed in this study. Five different data sets with the same 31 landmarks were evaluated in this study. Results: The results demonstrated that 2D images and linear measurements in the anteroposterior and transverse dimensions were not sufficient for comparing different digital model conversion techniques using the palatal rugae. 3D digital models proved to be a highly effective tool in evaluating different palatal ruga patterns. The 3D landmarks showed no statistically significant mean differences over time or as a result of orthodontic treatment. No statistically significant mean differences were found between different digital model conversion techniques, that is, between OrthoCAD™ and Ortho Insight 3D™, and between Ortho Insight 3D™ and the iTero® scans, when using 12 3D palatal rugae landmarks for comparison. Conclusion: Although 12 palatal 3D landmarks could be used for human

  12. A fast method to measure the 3D surface of the human heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yiping; Su, Xianyu; Xiang, Liqun; Chen, Wenjing; Zhang, Qican

    2003-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) automatic measurement of an object is widely used in many fields. In Biology and Medicine society, it can be applicable for surgery, orthopedics, viscera disease analysis and diagnosis etc. Here a new fast method to measure the 3D surface of human heart is proposed which can provide doctors a lot of information, such as the size of heart profile, the sizes of the left or right heart ventricle, and the curvature center and radius of heart ventricle, to fully analyze and diagnose pathobiology of human heart. The new fast method is optically and noncontacted and based upon the Phase Measurement Profilometry (PMP), which has higher measuring precision. A human heart specimen experiment has verified our method.

  13. Melanin Transfer in Human 3D Skin Equivalents Generated Exclusively from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gledhill, Karl; Guo, Zongyou; Umegaki-Arao, Noriko; Higgins, Claire A.; Itoh, Munenari; Christiano, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    The current utility of 3D skin equivalents is limited by the fact that existing models fail to recapitulate the cellular complexity of human skin. They often contain few cell types and no appendages, in part because many cells found in the skin are difficult to isolate from intact tissue and cannot be expanded in culture. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) present an avenue by which we can overcome this issue due to their ability to be differentiated into multiple cell types in the body and their unlimited growth potential. We previously reported generation of the first human 3D skin equivalents from iPSC-derived fibroblasts and iPSC-derived keratinocytes, demonstrating that iPSCs can provide a foundation for modeling a complex human organ such as skin. Here, we have increased the complexity of this model by including additional iPSC-derived melanocytes. Epidermal melanocytes, which are largely responsible for skin pigmentation, represent the second most numerous cell type found in normal human epidermis and as such represent a logical next addition. We report efficient melanin production from iPSC-derived melanocytes and transfer within an entirely iPSC-derived epidermal-melanin unit and generation of the first functional human 3D skin equivalents made from iPSC-derived fibroblasts, keratinocytes and melanocytes. PMID:26308443

  14. 3-D Human Action Recognition by Shape Analysis of Motion Trajectories on Riemannian Manifold.

    PubMed

    Devanne, Maxime; Wannous, Hazem; Berretti, Stefano; Pala, Pietro; Daoudi, Mohamed; Del Bimbo, Alberto

    2015-07-01

    Recognizing human actions in 3-D video sequences is an important open problem that is currently at the heart of many research domains including surveillance, natural interfaces and rehabilitation. However, the design and development of models for action recognition that are both accurate and efficient is a challenging task due to the variability of the human pose, clothing and appearance. In this paper, we propose a new framework to extract a compact representation of a human action captured through a depth sensor, and enable accurate action recognition. The proposed solution develops on fitting a human skeleton model to acquired data so as to represent the 3-D coordinates of the joints and their change over time as a trajectory in a suitable action space. Thanks to such a 3-D joint-based framework, the proposed solution is capable to capture both the shape and the dynamics of the human body, simultaneously. The action recognition problem is then formulated as the problem of computing the similarity between the shape of trajectories in a Riemannian manifold. Classification using k-nearest neighbors is finally performed on this manifold taking advantage of Riemannian geometry in the open curve shape space. Experiments are carried out on four representative benchmarks to demonstrate the potential of the proposed solution in terms of accuracy/latency for a low-latency action recognition. Comparative results with state-of-the-art methods are reported. PMID:25216492

  15. Computerised 3-D anatomical modelling using plastinates: an example utilising the human heart.

    PubMed

    Tunali, S; Kawamoto, K; Farrell, M L; Labrash, S; Tamura, K; Lozanoff, S

    2011-08-01

    Computerised modelling methods have become highly useful for generating electronic representations of anatomical structures. These methods rely on crosssectional tissue slices in databases such as the Visible Human Male and Female, the Visible Korean Human, and the Visible Chinese Human. However, these databases are time consuming to generate and require labour-intensive manual digitisation while the number of specimens is very limited. Plastinated anatomical material could provide a possible alternative to data collection, requiring less time to prepare and enabling the use of virtually any anatomical or pathological structure routinely obtained in a gross anatomy laboratory. The purpose of this study was to establish an approach utilising plastinated anatomical material, specifically human hearts, for the purpose computerised 3-D modelling. Human hearts were collected following gross anatomical dissection and subjected to routine plastination procedures including dehydration (-25(o)C), defatting, forced impregnation, and curing at room temperature. A graphics pipeline was established comprising data collection with a hand-held scanner, 3-D modelling, model polishing, file conversion, and final rendering. Representative models were viewed and qualitatively assessed for accuracy and detail. The results showed that the heart model provided detailed surface information necessary for gross anatomical instructional purposes. Rendering tools facilitated optional model manipulation for further structural clarification if selected by the user. The use of plastinated material for generating 3-D computerised models has distinct advantages compared to cross-sectional tissue images. PMID:21866531

  16. Standardization based on human factors for 3D display: performance characteristics and measurement methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehara, Shin-ichi; Ujike, Hiroyasu; Hamagishi, Goro; Taira, Kazuki; Koike, Takafumi; Kato, Chiaki; Nomura, Toshio; Horikoshi, Tsutomu; Mashitani, Ken; Yuuki, Akimasa; Izumi, Kuniaki; Hisatake, Yuzo; Watanabe, Naoko; Umezu, Naoaki; Nakano, Yoshihiko

    2010-02-01

    We are engaged in international standardization activities for 3D displays. We consider that for a sound development of 3D displays' market, the standards should be based on not only mechanism of 3D displays, but also human factors for stereopsis. However, we think that there is no common understanding on what the 3D display should be and that the situation makes developing the standards difficult. In this paper, to understand the mechanism and human factors, we focus on a double image, which occurs in some conditions on an autostereoscopic display. Although the double image is generally considered as an unwanted effect, we consider that whether the double image is unwanted or not depends on the situation and that there are some allowable double images. We tried to classify the double images into the unwanted and the allowable in terms of the display mechanism and visual ergonomics for stereopsis. The issues associated with the double image are closely related to performance characteristics for the autostereoscopic display. We also propose performance characteristics, measurement and analysis methods to represent interocular crosstalk and motion parallax.

  17. Neandertal faces were not long; modern human faces are short

    PubMed Central

    Trinkaus, Erik

    2003-01-01

    Neandertal faces have been described as being derived with respect to their overall length or degree of anterior projection. A comparison of cranial and mandibular indicators of lower facial projection across archaic and modern Homo indicates that Neandertal facial lengths on average are similar to those of preceding archaic Homo and principally contrast with those of recent humans. Neandertal facial length is not derived. The shortness of recent human facial skeletons is the evolutionarily derived condition. PMID:12815095

  18. High-throughput lensfree 3D tracking of human sperms reveals rare statistics of helical trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ting-Wei; Xue, Liang; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic tracking of human sperms across a large volume is a challenging task. To provide a high-throughput solution to this important need, here we describe a lensfree on-chip imaging technique that can track the three-dimensional (3D) trajectories of > 1,500 individual human sperms within an observation volume of approximately 8–17 mm3. This computational imaging platform relies on holographic lensfree shadows of sperms that are simultaneously acquired at two different wavelengths, emanating from two partially-coherent sources that are placed at 45° with respect to each other. This multiangle and multicolor illumination scheme permits us to dynamically track the 3D motion of human sperms across a field-of-view of > 17 mm2 and depth-of-field of approximately 0.5–1 mm with submicron positioning accuracy. The large statistics provided by this lensfree imaging platform revealed that only approximately 4–5% of the motile human sperms swim along well-defined helices and that this percentage can be significantly suppressed under seminal plasma. Furthermore, among these observed helical human sperms, a significant majority (approximately 90%) preferred right-handed helices over left-handed ones, with a helix radius of approximately 0.5–3 μm, a helical rotation speed of approximately 3–20 rotations/s and a linear speed of approximately 20–100 μm/s. This high-throughput 3D imaging platform could in general be quite valuable for observing the statistical swimming patterns of various other microorganisms, leading to new insights in their 3D motion and the underlying biophysics. PMID:22988076

  19. Multi-view indoor human behavior recognition based on 3D skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ling; Lu, Tongwei; Min, Feng

    2015-12-01

    For the problems caused by viewpoint changes in activity recognition, a multi-view interior human behavior recognition method based on 3D framework is presented. First, Microsoft's Kinect device is used to obtain body motion video in the positive perspective, the oblique angle and the side perspective. Second, it extracts bone joints and get global human features and the local features of arms and legs at the same time to form 3D skeletal features set. Third, online dictionary learning on feature set is used to reduce the dimension of feature. Finally, linear support vector machine (LSVM) is used to obtain the results of behavior recognition. The experimental results show that this method has better recognition rate.

  20. Virtual embryology: a 3D library reconstructed from human embryo sections and animation of development process.

    PubMed

    Komori, M; Miura, T; Shiota, K; Minato, K; Takahashi, T

    1995-01-01

    The volumetric shape of a human embryo and its development is hard to comprehend as they have been viewed as a 2D schemes in a textbook or microscopic sectional image. In this paper, a CAI and research support system for human embryology using multimedia presentation techniques is described. In this system, 3D data is acquired from a series of sliced specimens. Its 3D structure can be viewed interactively by rotating, extracting, and truncating its whole body or organ. Moreover, the development process of embryos can be animated using a morphing technique applied to the specimen in several stages. The system is intended to be used interactively, like a virtual reality system. Hence, the system is called Virtual Embryology. PMID:8591413

  1. Empirical temporal networks of face-to-face human interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrat, A.; Cattuto, C.; Colizza, V.; Gesualdo, F.; Isella, L.; Pandolfi, E.; Pinton, J.-F.; Ravà, L.; Rizzo, C.; Romano, M.; Stehlé, J.; Tozzi, A. E.; Van den Broeck, W.

    2013-09-01

    The ever increasing adoption of mobile technologies and ubiquitous services allows to sense human behavior at unprecedented level of details and scale. Wearable sensors, in particular, open up a new window on human mobility and proximity in a variety of indoor environments. Here we review stylized facts on the structural and dynamical properties of empirical networks of human face-to-face proximity, measured in three different real-world contexts: an academic conference, a hospital ward, and a museum exhibition. First, we discuss the structure of the aggregated contact networks, that project out the detailed ordering of contact events while preserving temporal heterogeneities in their weights. We show that the structural properties of aggregated networks highlight important differences and unexpected similarities across contexts, and discuss the additional complexity that arises from attributes that are typically associated with nodes in real-world interaction networks, such as role classes in hospitals. We then consider the empirical data at the finest level of detail, i.e., we consider time-dependent networks of face-to-face proximity between individuals. To gain insights on the effects that causal constraints have on spreading processes, we simulate the dynamics of a simple susceptible-infected model over the empirical time-resolved contact data. We show that the spreading pathways for the epidemic process are strongly affected by the temporal structure of the network data, and that the mere knowledge of static aggregated networks leads to erroneous conclusions about the transmission paths on the corresponding dynamical networks.

  2. TRAIL protein localization in human primary T cells by 3D microscopy using 3D interactive surface plot: a new method to visualize plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Gras, Christophe; Smith, Nikaïa; Sengmanivong, Lucie; Gandini, Mariana; Kubelka, Claire Fernandes; Herbeuval, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-31

    The apoptotic ligand TNF-related apoptosis ligand (TRAIL) is expressed on the membrane of immune cells during HIV infection. The intracellular stockade of TRAIL in human primary CD4(+) T cells is not known. Here we investigated whether primary CD4(+) T cells expressed TRAIL in their intracellular compartment and whether TRAIL is relocalized on the plasma membrane under HIV activation. We found that TRAIL protein was stocked in intracellular compartment in non activated CD4(+) T cells and that the total level of TRAIL protein was not increased under HIV-1 stimulation. However, TRAIL was massively relocalized on plasma membrane when cells were cultured with HIV. Using three dimensional (3D) microscopy we localized TRAIL protein in human T cells and developed a new method to visualize plasma membrane without the need of a membrane marker. This method used the 3D interactive surface plot and bright light acquired images. PMID:23085529

  3. Combining quantitative 2D and 3D image analysis in the serial block face SEM: application to secretory organelles of pancreatic islet cells.

    PubMed

    Shomorony, A; Pfeifer, C R; Aronova, M A; Zhang, G; Cai, T; Xu, H; Notkins, A L; Leapman, R D

    2015-08-01

    A combination of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) analyses of tissue volume ultrastructure acquired by serial block face scanning electron microscopy can greatly shorten the time required to obtain quantitative information from big data sets that contain many billions of voxels. Thus, to analyse the number of organelles of a specific type, or the total volume enclosed by a population of organelles within a cell, it is possible to estimate the number density or volume fraction of that organelle using a stereological approach to analyse randomly selected 2D block face views through the cells, and to combine such estimates with precise measurement of 3D cell volumes by delineating the plasma membrane in successive block face images. The validity of such an approach can be easily tested since the entire 3D tissue volume is available in the serial block face scanning electron microscopy data set. We have applied this hybrid 3D/2D technique to determine the number of secretory granules in the endocrine α and β cells of mouse pancreatic islets of Langerhans, and have been able to estimate the total insulin content of a β cell. PMID:26139222

  4. Combining quantitative 2D and 3D image analysis in the serial block face SEM: application to secretory organelles of pancreatic islet cells

    PubMed Central

    SHOMORONY, A.; PFEIFER, C.R.; ARONOVA, M.A.; ZHANG, G.; CAI, T.; XU, H.; NOTKINS, A.L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary A combination of two‐dimensional (2D) and three‐dimensional (3D) analyses of tissue volume ultrastructure acquired by serial block face scanning electron microscopy can greatly shorten the time required to obtain quantitative information from big data sets that contain many billions of voxels. Thus, to analyse the number of organelles of a specific type, or the total volume enclosed by a population of organelles within a cell, it is possible to estimate the number density or volume fraction of that organelle using a stereological approach to analyse randomly selected 2D block face views through the cells, and to combine such estimates with precise measurement of 3D cell volumes by delineating the plasma membrane in successive block face images. The validity of such an approach can be easily tested since the entire 3D tissue volume is available in the serial block face scanning electron microscopy data set. We have applied this hybrid 3D/2D technique to determine the number of secretory granules in the endocrine α and β cells of mouse pancreatic islets of Langerhans, and have been able to estimate the total insulin content of a β cell. PMID:26139222

  5. Impact of 3-D printed PLA- and chitosan-based scaffolds on human monocyte/macrophage responses: unraveling the effect of 3-D structures on inflammation.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Catarina R; Serra, Tiziano; Oliveira, Marta I; Planell, Josep A; Barbosa, Mário A; Navarro, Melba

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies have pointed towards a decisive role of inflammation in triggering tissue repair and regeneration, while at the same time it is accepted that an exacerbated inflammatory response may lead to rejection of an implant. Within this context, understanding and having the capacity to regulate the inflammatory response elicited by 3-D scaffolds aimed for tissue regeneration is crucial. This work reports on the analysis of the cytokine profile of human monocytes/macrophages in contact with biodegradable 3-D scaffolds with different surface properties, architecture and controlled pore geometry, fabricated by 3-D printing technology. Fabrication processes were optimized to create four different 3-D platforms based on polylactic acid (PLA), PLA/calcium phosphate glass or chitosan. Cytokine secretion and cell morphology of human peripheral blood monocytes allowed to differentiate on the different matrices were analyzed. While all scaffolds supported monocyte/macrophage adhesion and stimulated cytokine production, striking differences between PLA-based and chitosan scaffolds were found, with chitosan eliciting increased secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, while PLA-based scaffolds induced higher production of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12/23 and IL-10. Even though the material itself induced the biggest differences, the scaffold geometry also impacted on TNF-α and IL-12/23 production, with chitosan scaffolds having larger pores and wider angles leading to a higher secretion of these pro-inflammatory cytokines. These findings strengthen the appropriateness of these 3-D platforms to study modulation of macrophage responses by specific parameters (chemistry, topography, scaffold architecture). PMID:24211731

  6. 3D Printed Trileaflet Valve Conduits Using Biological Hydrogels and Human Valve Interstitial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Bin; Kapetanovic, Edi; Hockaday, Laura A.; Butcher, Jonathan T.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering has great potential to provide a functional de novo living valve replacement capable of integration with host tissue and growth. Among various valve conduit fabrication techniques, 3D bioprinting enables deposition of cells and hydrogels into 3D constructs with anatomical geometry and heterogeneous mechanical properties. Successful translation of this approach is however constrained by the dearth of printable and biocompatible hydrogel materials. Furthermore, it is not known how human valve cells respond to these printed environments. In this study, we develop 3D printable formulations of hybrid hydrogels based on methacrylated hyaluronic acid (Me-HA) and methacrylated gelatin (Me-Gel), and utilize them to bioprint heart valve conduits containing encapsulated human aortic valvular interstitial cells (HAVIC). Increasing Me-Gel concentration resulted in lower stiffness and higher viscosity, facilitated cell spreading, and better maintained HAVIC fibroblastic phenotype. Bioprinting accuracy was dependent upon the relative concentrations of Me-Gel and Me-HA, but when optimized enabled the fabrication of a trileaflet valve shape accurate to the original design. HAVIC encapsulated within bioprinted heart valves maintained high viability, and remodeled the initial matrix by depositing collagen and glyosaminoglycans. These findings represent the first rational design of bioprinted trileaflet valve hydrogels that regulate encapsulated human VIC behavior. The use of anatomically accurate living valve scaffolds through bioprinting may accelerate our understanding of physiological valve cell interactions and our progress towards de novo living valve replacements. PMID:24334142

  7. Biview learning for human posture segmentation from 3D points cloud.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Maoying; Cheng, Jun; Bian, Wei; Tao, Dacheng

    2014-01-01

    Posture segmentation plays an essential role in human motion analysis. The state-of-the-art method extracts sufficiently high-dimensional features from 3D depth images for each 3D point and learns an efficient body part classifier. However, high-dimensional features are memory-consuming and difficult to handle on large-scale training dataset. In this paper, we propose an efficient two-stage dimension reduction scheme, termed biview learning, to encode two independent views which are depth-difference features (DDF) and relative position features (RPF). Biview learning explores the complementary property of DDF and RPF, and uses two stages to learn a compact yet comprehensive low-dimensional feature space for posture segmentation. In the first stage, discriminative locality alignment (DLA) is applied to the high-dimensional DDF to learn a discriminative low-dimensional representation. In the second stage, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is used to explore the complementary property of RPF and the dimensionality reduced DDF. Finally, we train a support vector machine (SVM) over the output of CCA. We carefully validate the effectiveness of DLA and CCA utilized in the two-stage scheme on our 3D human points cloud dataset. Experimental results show that the proposed biview learning scheme significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art method for human posture segmentation. PMID:24465721

  8. Model-based 3D human shape estimation from silhouettes for virtual fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shunta; Kouchi, Makiko; Mochimaru, Masaaki; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    2014-03-01

    We propose a model-based 3D human shape reconstruction system from two silhouettes. Firstly, we synthesize a deformable body model from 3D human shape database consists of a hundred whole body mesh models. Each mesh model is homologous, so that it has the same topology and same number of vertices among all models. We perform principal component analysis (PCA) on the database and synthesize an Active Shape Model (ASM). ASM allows changing the body type of the model with a few parameters. The pose changing of our model can be achieved by reconstructing the skeleton structures from implanted joints of the model. By applying pose changing after body type deformation, our model can represents various body types and any pose. We apply the model to the problem of 3D human shape reconstruction from front and side silhouette. Our approach is simply comparing the contours between the model's and input silhouettes', we then use only torso part contour of the model to reconstruct whole shape. We optimize the model parameters by minimizing the difference between corresponding silhouettes by using a stochastic, derivative-free non-linear optimization method, CMA-ES.

  9. Evaluation of 3D-human skin equivalents for assessment of human dermal absorption of some brominated flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; Pawar, Gopal; Harrad, Stuart

    2015-11-01

    Ethical and technical difficulties inherent to studies in human tissues are impeding assessment of the dermal bioavailability of brominated flame retardants (BFRs). This is further complicated by increasing restrictions on the use of animals in toxicity testing, and the uncertainties associated with extrapolating data from animal studies to humans due to inter-species variations. To overcome these difficulties, we evaluate 3D-human skin equivalents (3D-HSE) as a novel in vitro alternative to human and animal testing for assessment of dermal absorption of BFRs. The percutaneous penetration of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A) through two commercially available 3D-HSE models was studied and compared to data obtained for human ex vivo skin according to a standard protocol. No statistically significant differences were observed between the results obtained using 3D-HSE and human ex vivo skin at two exposure levels. The absorbed dose was low (less than 7%) and was significantly correlated with log Kow of the tested BFR. Permeability coefficient values showed increasing dermal resistance to the penetration of γ-HBCD>β-HBCD>α-HBCD>TBBPA. The estimated long lag times (>30 min) suggests that frequent hand washing may reduce human exposure to HBCDs and TBBPA via dermal contact. PMID:26232142

  10. Large-scale probabilistic 3D organization of human chromosome territories.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Nitasha; Fritz, Andrew J; Vecerova, Jaromira; Ding, Hu; Chen, Zihe; Stojkovic, Branislav; Bhattacharya, Sambit; Xu, Jinhui; Berezney, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    There is growing evidence that chromosome territories (CT) have a probabilistic non-random arrangement within the cell nucleus of mammalian cells including radial positioning and preferred patterns of interchromosomal interactions that are cell-type specific. While it is generally assumed that the three-dimensional (3D) arrangement of genes within the CT is linked to genomic regulation, the degree of non-random organization of individual CT remains unclear. As a first step to elucidating the global 3D organization (topology) of individual CT, we performed multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization using six probes extending across each chromosome in human WI38 lung fibroblasts. Six CT were selected ranging in size and gene density (1, 4, 12, 17, 18 and X). In-house computational geometric algorithms were applied to measure the 3D distances between every combination of probes and to elucidate data-mined structural patterns. Our findings demonstrate a high degree of non-random arrangement of individual CT that vary from chromosome to chromosome and display distinct changes during the cell cycle. Application of a classic, well-defined data mining and pattern recognition approach termed the 'k-means' generated 3D models for the best fit arrangement of each chromosome. These predicted models correlated well with the detailed distance measurements and analysis. We propose that the unique 3D topology of each CT and characteristic changes during the cell cycle provide the structural framework for the global gene expression programs of the individual chromosomes. PMID:26604142

  11. A guide for human factors research with stereoscopic 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntire, John P.; Havig, Paul R.; Pinkus, Alan R.

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we provide some common methods, techniques, information, concepts, and relevant citations for those conducting human factors-related research with stereoscopic 3D (S3D) displays. We give suggested methods for calculating binocular disparities, and show how to verify on-screen image separation measurements. We provide typical values for inter-pupillary distances that are useful in such calculations. We discuss the pros, cons, and suggested uses of some common stereovision clinical tests. We discuss the phenomena and prevalence rates of stereoanomalous, pseudo-stereoanomalous, stereo-deficient, and stereoblind viewers. The problems of eyestrain and fatigue-related effects from stereo viewing, and the possible causes, are enumerated. System and viewer crosstalk are defined and discussed, and the issue of stereo camera separation is explored. Typical binocular fusion limits are also provided for reference, and discussed in relation to zones of comfort. Finally, the concept of measuring disparity distributions is described. The implications of these issues for the human factors study of S3D displays are covered throughout.

  12. Perfusion Stirred-Tank Bioreactors for 3D Differentiation of Human Neural Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Simão, Daniel; Arez, Francisca; Terasso, Ana P; Pinto, Catarina; Sousa, Marcos F Q; Brito, Catarina; Alves, Paula M

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic breakthroughs in neurological disorders have been hampered by the lack of accurate central nervous system (CNS) models. The development of these models allows the study of the disease onset/progression mechanisms and the preclinical evaluation of new therapeutics. This has traditionally relied on genetically engineered animal models that often diverge considerably from the human phenotype (developmental, anatomic, and physiological) and 2D in vitro cell models, which fail to recapitulate the characteristics of the target tissue (cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, cell polarity, etc.). Recapitulation of CNS phenotypic and functional features in vitro requires the implementation of advanced culture strategies, such as 3D culture systems, which enable to mimic the in vivo structural and molecular complexity. Models based on differentiation of human neural stem cells (hNSC) in 3D cultures have great potential as complementary tools in preclinical research, bridging the gap between human clinical studies and animal models. The development of robust and scalable processes for the 3D differentiation of hNSC can improve the accuracy of early stage development in preclinical research. In this context, the use of software-controlled stirred-tank bioreactors (STB) provides an efficient technological platform for hNSC aggregation and differentiation. This system enables to monitor and control important physicochemical parameters for hNSC culture, such as dissolved oxygen. Importantly, the adoption of a perfusion operation mode allows a stable flow of nutrients and differentiation/neurotrophic factors, while clearing the toxic by-products. This contributes to a setting closer to the physiological, by mimicking the in vivo microenvironment. In this chapter, we address the technical requirements and procedures for the implementation of 3D differentiation strategies of hNSC, by operating STB under perfusion mode for long-term cultures. This strategy is suitable

  13. Temporal Networks of Face-to-Face Human Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrat, Alain; Cattuto, Ciro

    The ever increasing adoption of mobile technologies and ubiquitous services allows to sense human behavior at unprecedented levels of details and scale. Wearable sensors are opening up a new window on human mobility and proximity at the finest resolution of face-to-face proximity. As a consequence, empirical data describing social and behavioral networks are acquiring a longitudinal dimension that brings forth new challenges for analysis and modeling. Here we review recent work on the representation and analysis of temporal networks of face-to-face human proximity, based on large-scale datasets collected in the context of the SocioPatterns collaboration. We show that the raw behavioral data can be studied at various levels of coarse-graining, which turn out to be complementary to one another, with each level exposing different features of the underlying system. We briefly review a generative model of temporal contact networks that reproduces some statistical observables. Then, we shift our focus from surface statistical features to dynamical processes on empirical temporal networks. We discuss how simple dynamical processes can be used as probes to expose important features of the interaction patterns, such as burstiness and causal constraints. We show that simulating dynamical processes on empirical temporal networks can unveil differences between datasets that would otherwise look statistically similar. Moreover, we argue that, due to the temporal heterogeneity of human dynamics, in order to investigate the temporal properties of spreading processes it may be necessary to abandon the notion of wall-clock time in favour of an intrinsic notion of time for each individual node, defined in terms of its activity level. We conclude highlighting several open research questions raised by the nature of the data at hand.

  14. 3D virtual human atria: A computational platform for studying clinical atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Aslanidi, Oleg V; Colman, Michael A; Stott, Jonathan; Dobrzynski, Halina; Boyett, Mark R; Holden, Arun V; Zhang, Henggui

    2011-10-01

    Despite a vast amount of experimental and clinical data on the underlying ionic, cellular and tissue substrates, the mechanisms of common atrial arrhythmias (such as atrial fibrillation, AF) arising from the functional interactions at the whole atria level remain unclear. Computational modelling provides a quantitative framework for integrating such multi-scale data and understanding the arrhythmogenic behaviour that emerges from the collective spatio-temporal dynamics in all parts of the heart. In this study, we have developed a multi-scale hierarchy of biophysically detailed computational models for the human atria--the 3D virtual human atria. Primarily, diffusion tensor MRI reconstruction of the tissue geometry and fibre orientation in the human sinoatrial node (SAN) and surrounding atrial muscle was integrated into the 3D model of the whole atria dissected from the Visible Human dataset. The anatomical models were combined with the heterogeneous atrial action potential (AP) models, and used to simulate the AP conduction in the human atria under various conditions: SAN pacemaking and atrial activation in the normal rhythm, break-down of regular AP wave-fronts during rapid atrial pacing, and the genesis of multiple re-entrant wavelets characteristic of AF. Contributions of different properties of the tissue to mechanisms of the normal rhythm and arrhythmogenesis were investigated. Primarily, the simulations showed that tissue heterogeneity caused the break-down of the normal AP wave-fronts at rapid pacing rates, which initiated a pair of re-entrant spiral waves; and tissue anisotropy resulted in a further break-down of the spiral waves into multiple meandering wavelets characteristic of AF. The 3D virtual atria model itself was incorporated into the torso model to simulate the body surface ECG patterns in the normal and arrhythmic conditions. Therefore, a state-of-the-art computational platform has been developed, which can be used for studying multi

  15. Novel 3D Microscopic Analysis of Human Placental Villous Trees Reveals Unexpected Significance of Branching Angles

    PubMed Central

    Haeussner, Eva; Buehlmeyer, Antonia; Schmitz, Christoph; von Koch, Franz Edler; Frank, Hans-Georg

    2014-01-01

    The villous trees of human placentas delineate the fetomaternal border and are complex three-dimensional (3D) structures. Thus far, they have primarily been analyzed as thin, two-dimensional (2D) histological sections. However, 2D sections cannot provide access to key aspects such as branching nodes and branch order. Using samples taken from 50 normal human placentas at birth, in the present study we show that analysis procedures for 3D reconstruction of neuronal dendritic trees can also be used for analyzing trees of human placentas. Nodes and their branches (e.g., branching hierarchy, branching angles, diameters, and lengths of branches) can be efficiently measured in whole-mount preparations of isolated villous trees using high-end light microscopy. Such data differ qualitatively from the data obtainable from histological sections and go substantially beyond the morphological horizon of such histological data. Unexpectedly, branching angles of terminal branches of villous trees varied inversely with the fetoplacental weight ratio, a widely used clinical parameter. Since branching angles have never before been determined in the human placenta, this result requires further detailed studies in order to fully understand its impact. PMID:25155961

  16. A Novel Fully Humanized 3D Skin Equivalent to Model Early Melanoma Invasion.

    PubMed

    Hill, David S; Robinson, Neil D P; Caley, Matthew P; Chen, Mei; O'Toole, Edel A; Armstrong, Jane L; Przyborski, Stefan; Lovat, Penny E

    2015-11-01

    Metastatic melanoma remains incurable, emphasizing the acute need for improved research models to investigate the underlying biologic mechanisms mediating tumor invasion and metastasis, and to develop more effective targeted therapies to improve clinical outcome. Available animal models of melanoma do not accurately reflect human disease and current in vitro human skin equivalent models incorporating melanoma cells are not fully representative of the human skin microenvironment. We have developed a robust and reproducible, fully humanized three-dimensional (3D) skin equivalent comprising a stratified, terminally differentiated epidermis and a dermal compartment consisting of fibroblast-generated extracellular matrix. Melanoma cells incorporated into the epidermis were able to invade through the basement membrane and into the dermis, mirroring early tumor invasion in vivo. Comparison of our novel 3D melanoma skin equivalent with melanoma in situ and metastatic melanoma indicates that this model accurately recreates features of disease pathology, making it a physiologically representative model of early radial and vertical growth-phase melanoma invasion. PMID:26330548

  17. Sand Face: Humanism after Antihumanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcilla, René V.

    2015-01-01

    Have the critiques of humanism of the 1960s and 1970s buried this idea once and for all? Or is there a way that humanism can absorb some of this antihumanist thinking and thereby renew itself? Drawing on writings of Michel Foucault, Charles Taylor, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Martin Heidegger in order to illuminate artworks by Robert Smithson and…

  18. 3-D imaging and quantitative comparison of human dentitions and simulated bite marks.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, S A; Taylor, R V; Gordon, I; Ogleby, C L; Tanijiri, T; Yoshino, M; Donald, M R; Clement, J G

    2007-01-01

    This study presents a technique developed for 3-D imaging and quantitative comparison of human dentitions and simulated bite marks. A sample of 42 study models and the corresponding bites, made by the same subjects in acrylic dental wax, were digitised by laser scanning. This technique allows image comparison of a 3-D dentition with a 3-D bite mark, eliminating distortion due to perspective as experienced in conventional photography. Cartesian co-ordinates of a series of landmarks were used to describe the dentitions and bite marks, and a matrix was created to compare all possible combinations of matches and non-matches using cross-validation techniques. An algorithm, which estimated the probability of a dentition matching its corresponding bite mark, was developed. A receiver operating characteristic graph illustrated the relationship between values for specificity and sensitivity. This graph also showed for this sample that 15% of non-matches could not be distinguished from the true match, translating to a 15% probability of falsely convicting an innocent person. PMID:16391946

  19. Microrheology and ROCK Signaling of Human Endothelial Cells Embedded in a 3D Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Panorchan, Porntula; Lee, Jerry S. H.; Kole, Thomas P.; Tseng, Yiider; Wirtz, Denis

    2006-01-01

    Cell function is profoundly affected by the geometry of the extracellular environment confining the cell. Whether and how cells plated on a two-dimensional matrix or embedded in a three-dimensional (3D) matrix mechanically sense the dimensionality of their environment is mostly unknown, partly because individual cells in an extended matrix are inaccessible to conventional cell-mechanics probes. Here we develop a functional assay based on multiple particle tracking microrheology coupled with ballistic injection of nanoparticles to measure the local intracellular micromechanical properties of individual cells embedded inside a matrix. With our novel assay, we probe the mechanical properties of the cytoplasm of individual human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) embedded in a 3D peptide hydrogel in the presence or absence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We found that VEGF treatment, which enhances endothelial migration, increases the compliance and reduces the elasticity of the cytoplasm of HUVECs in a matrix. This VEGF-induced softening response of the cytoplasm is abrogated by specific Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibition. These results establish combined particle-tracking microrheology and ballistic injection as the first method able to probe the micromechanical properties and mechanical response to agonists and/or drug treatments of individual cells inside a matrix. These results suggest that ROCK plays an essential role in the regulation of the intracellular mechanical response to VEGF of endothelial cells in a 3D matrix. PMID:16891369

  20. Comparison of Cyberware PX and PS 3D human head scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Jeremy; Corner, Brian D.; Crockett, Eric; Li, Peng; Paquette, Steven

    2008-02-01

    A common limitation of laser line three-Dimensional (3D) scanners is the inability to scan objects with surfaces that are either parallel to the laser line or that self-occlude. Filling in missing areas adds some unwanted inaccuracy to the 3D model. Capturing the human head with a Cyberware PS Head Scanner is an example of obtaining a model where the incomplete areas are difficult to fill accurately. The PS scanner uses a single vertical laser line to illuminate the head and is unable to capture data at top of the head, where the line of sight is tangent to the surface, and under the chin, an area occluded by the chin when the subject looks straight forward. The Cyberware PX Scanner was developed to obtain this missing 3D head data. The PX scanner uses two cameras offset at different angles to provide a more detailed head scan that captures surfaces missed by the PS scanner. The PX scanner cameras also use new technology to obtain color maps that are of higher resolution than the PS Scanner. The two scanners were compared in terms of amount of surface captured (surface area and volume) and the quality of head measurements when compared to direct measurements obtained through standard anthropometry methods. Relative to the PS scanner, the PX head scans were more complete and provided the full set of head measurements, but actual measurement values, when available from both scanners, were about the same.

  1. Finding and tracing human MSC in 3D microenvironments with the photoconvertible protein Dendra2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caires, Hugo R.; Gomez-Lazaro, Maria; Oliveira, Carla M.; Gomes, David; Mateus, Denisa D.; Oliveira, Carla; Barrias, Cristina C.; Barbosa, Mário A.; Almeida, Catarina R.

    2015-05-01

    Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells (MSC) are a promising cell type for cell-based therapies - from tissue regeneration to treatment of autoimmune diseases - due to their capacity to migrate to damaged tissues, to differentiate in different lineages and to their immunomodulatory and paracrine properties. Here, a simple and reliable imaging technique was developed to study MSC dynamical behavior in natural and bioengineered 3D matrices. Human MSC were transfected to express a fluorescent photoswitchable protein, Dendra2, which was used to highlight and follow the same group of cells for more than seven days, even if removed from the microscope to the incubator. This strategy provided reliable tracking in 3D microenvironments with different properties, including the hydrogels Matrigel and alginate as well as chitosan porous scaffolds. Comparison of cells mobility within matrices with tuned physicochemical properties revealed that MSC embedded in Matrigel migrated 64% more with 5.2 mg protein/mL than with 9.6 mg/mL and that MSC embedded in RGD-alginate migrated 51% faster with 1% polymer concentration than in 2% RGD-alginate. This platform thus provides a straightforward approach to characterize MSC dynamics in 3D and has applications in the field of stem cell biology and for the development of biomaterials for tissue regeneration.

  2. Quantitative 3D Tracing of Gene-delivery Viral Vectors in Human Cells and Animal Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ping-Jie; Li, Chengwen; Neumann, Aaron; Samulski, R Jude

    2012-01-01

    Trafficking through a variety of cellular structures and organelles is essential for the interaction between gene-delivery vectors (i.e., adeno-associated virus (AAV) and liposomes) and host cells/tissues. Here, we present a method of computer-assisted quantitative 3D biodistribution microscopy that samples the whole population of fluorescently-labeled vectors and document their trafficking routes. Using AAV as a working model, we first experimentally defined numerical parameters for the singularity of Cy5-labeled particles by combining confocal microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We then developed a robust approach that integrates single-particle fluorescence imaging with 3D deconvolution and isosurface rendering to quantitate viral distribution and trafficking in human cells as well as animal tissues at the single-particle level. Using this quantitative method, we uncovered an as yet uncharacterized rate-limiting step during viral cell entry, while delineating nuclear accumulation of virions during the first 8 hours postinfection. Further, our studies revealed for the first time that following intramuscular injection, AAV spread progressively across muscle tissues through endomysium between myofibers instead of traversing through target cells. Such 3D resolution and quantitative dissection of vector–host interactions at the subcellular level should significantly improve our ability to resolve trafficking mechanisms of gene-delivery particles and facilitate the development of enhanced viral vectors. PMID:22108857

  3. Fractality in the neuron axonal topography of the human brain based on 3-D diffusion MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsaloulis, P.; Ghosh, A.; Philippe, A. C.; Provata, A.; Deriche, R.

    2012-05-01

    In this work the fractal architecture of the neuron axonal topography of the human brain is evaluated, as derived from 3-D diffusion MRI (dMRI) acquisitions. This is a 3D extension of work performed previously in 2D regions of interest (ROIs), where the fractal dimension of the neuron axonal topography was computed from dMRI data. A group study with 18 subjects is here conducted and the fractal dimensions D f of the entire 3-D volume of the brains is estimated via the box counting, the correlation dimension and the fractal mass dimension methods. The neuron axon data is obtained using tractography algorithms on diffusion tensor imaging of the brain. We find that all three calculations of D f give consistent results across subjects, namely, they demonstrate fractal characteristics in the short and medium length scales: different fractal exponents prevail at different length scales, an indication of multifractality. We surmise that this complexity stems as a collective property emerging when many local brain units, performing different functional tasks and having different local topologies, are recorded together.

  4. 3D cultured immortalized human hepatocytes useful to develop drugs for blood-borne HCV

    SciTech Connect

    Aly, Hussein Hassan; Shimotohno, Kunitada; Hijikata, Makoto

    2009-02-06

    Due to the high polymorphism of natural hepatitis C virus (HCV) variants, existing recombinant HCV replication models have failed to be effective in developing effective anti-HCV agents. In the current study, we describe an in vitro system that supports the infection and replication of natural HCV from patient blood using an immortalized primary human hepatocyte cell line cultured in a three-dimensional (3D) culture system. Comparison of the gene expression profile of cells cultured in the 3D system to those cultured in the existing 2D system demonstrated an up-regulation of several genes activated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR{alpha}) signaling. Furthermore, using PPAR{alpha} agonists and antagonists, we also analyzed the effect of PPAR{alpha} signaling on the modulation of HCV replication using this system. The 3D in vitro system described in this study provides significant insight into the search for novel anti-HCV strategies that are specific to various strains of HCV.

  5. Efficient human face detection in infancy.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Krisztina V; Umstead, Lindsey; Simpson, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Adults detect conspecific faces more efficiently than heterospecific faces; however, the development of this own-species bias (OSB) remains unexplored. We tested whether 6- and 11-month-olds exhibit OSB in their attention to human and animal faces in complex visual displays with high perceptual load (25 images competing for attention). Infants (n = 48) and adults (n = 43) passively viewed arrays containing a face among 24 non-face distractors while we measured their gaze with remote eye tracking. While OSB is typically not observed until about 9 months, we found that, already by 6 months, human faces were more likely to be detected, were detected more quickly (attention capture), and received longer looks (attention holding) than animal faces. These data suggest that 6-month-olds already exhibit OSB in face detection efficiency, consistent with perceptual attunement. This specialization may reflect the biological importance of detecting conspecific faces, a foundational ability for early social interactions. PMID:26248583

  6. Fusing face-verification algorithms and humans.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Alice J; Abdi, Hervé; Jiang, Fang; Phillips, P Jonathon

    2007-10-01

    It has been demonstrated recently that state-of-the-art face-recognition algorithms can surpass human accuracy at matching faces over changes in illumination. The ranking of algorithms and humans by accuracy, however, does not provide information about whether algorithms and humans perform the task comparably or whether algorithms and humans can be fused to improve performance. In this paper, we fused humans and algorithms using partial least square regression (PLSR). In the first experiment, we applied PLSR to face-pair similarity scores generated by seven algorithms participating in the Face Recognition Grand Challenge. The PLSR produced an optimal weighting of the similarity scores, which we tested for generality with a jackknife procedure. Fusing the algorithms' similarity scores using the optimal weights produced a twofold reduction of error rate over the most accurate algorithm. Next, human-subject-generated similarity scores were added to the PLSR analysis. Fusing humans and algorithms increased the performance to near-perfect classification accuracy. These results are discussed in terms of maximizing face-verification accuracy with hybrid systems consisting of multiple algorithms and humans. PMID:17926698

  7. Subcellular Microanatomy by 3D Deconvolution Brightfield Microscopy: Method and Analysis Using Human Chromatin in the Interphase Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Tadrous, Paul Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Anatomy has advanced using 3-dimensional (3D) studies at macroscopic (e.g., dissection, injection moulding of vessels, radiology) and microscopic (e.g., serial section reconstruction with light and electron microscopy) levels. This paper presents the first results in human cells of a new method of subcellular 3D brightfield microscopy. Unlike traditional 3D deconvolution and confocal techniques, this method is suitable for general application to brightfield microscopy. Unlike brightfield serial sectioning it has subcellular resolution. Results are presented of the 3D structure of chromatin in the interphase nucleus of two human cell types, hepatocyte and plasma cell. I show how the freedom to examine these structures in 3D allows greater morphological discrimination between and within cell types and the 3D structural basis for the classical “clock-face” motif of the plasma cell nucleus is revealed. Potential for further applications discussed. PMID:22567315

  8. Face Recognition in Humans and Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Toole, Alice; Tistarelli, Massimo

    The study of human face recognition by psychologists and neuroscientists has run parallel to the development of automatic face recognition technologies by computer scientists and engineers. In both cases, there are analogous steps of data acquisition, image processing, and the formation of representations that can support the complex and diverse tasks we accomplish with faces. These processes can be understood and compared in the context of their neural and computational implementations. In this chapter, we present the essential elements of face recognition by humans and machines, taking a perspective that spans psychological, neural, and computational approaches. From the human side, we overview the methods and techniques used in the neurobiology of face recognition, the underlying neural architecture of the system, the role of visual attention, and the nature of the representations that emerges. From the computational side, we discuss face recognition technologies and the strategies they use to overcome challenges to robust operation over viewing parameters. Finally, we conclude the chapter with a look at some recent studies that compare human and machine performances at face recognition.

  9. 3-D Human body models in C.A.D. : Anthropometric Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, C.; Steck, R.; Pineau, J. C.

    1986-07-01

    Modeling and simulation methods of man-machine systems are developed at the laboratory by interactive infography and C.A.D. technics. In order to better apprehend the morphological variability of populations we have enriched the 3-D model with a parametric function using classical anthropometric dimensions. We have selected reference, associate and complementary dimensions : lengths, breadths, circumferences and depths, which depend on operator's tasks and characteristics of workplaces. All anthropometric values come from the International Data Bank of Human Biometry of ERGODATA System. The utilization of the parametric function brings a quick and accurate description of morphology for theoretic subjects and can be used in C.A.D. analysis.

  10. Articulated Non-Rigid Point Set Registration for Human Pose Estimation from 3D Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Song; Fan, Guoliang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a generative framework for 3D human pose estimation that is able to operate on both individual point sets and sequential depth data. We formulate human pose estimation as a point set registration problem, where we propose three new approaches to address several major technical challenges in this research. First, we integrate two registration techniques that have a complementary nature to cope with non-rigid and articulated deformations of the human body under a variety of poses. This unique combination allows us to handle point sets of complex body motion and large pose variation without any initial conditions, as required by most existing approaches. Second, we introduce an efficient pose tracking strategy to deal with sequential depth data, where the major challenge is the incomplete data due to self-occlusions and view changes. We introduce a visible point extraction method to initialize a new template for the current frame from the previous frame, which effectively reduces the ambiguity and uncertainty during registration. Third, to support robust and stable pose tracking, we develop a segment volume validation technique to detect tracking failures and to re-initialize pose registration if needed. The experimental results on both benchmark 3D laser scan and depth datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework when compared with state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:26131673

  11. 3D Normal Human Neural Progenitor Tissue-Like Assemblies: A Model of Persistent VZV Infection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a neurotropic human alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella upon primary infection, establishes latency in multiple ganglionic neurons, and can reactivate to cause zoster. Live attenuated VZV vaccines are available; however, they can also establish latent infections and reactivate. Studies of VZV latency have been limited to the analyses of human ganglia removed at autopsy, as the virus is strictly a human pathogen. Recently, terminally differentiated human neurons have received much attention as a means to study the interaction between VZV and human neurons; however, the short life-span of these cells in culture has limited their application. Herein, we describe the construction of a model of normal human neural progenitor cells (NHNP) in tissue-like assemblies (TLAs), which can be successfully maintained for at least 180 days in three-dimensional (3D) culture, and exhibit an expression profile similar to that of human trigeminal ganglia. Infection of NHNP TLAs with cell-free VZV resulted in a persistent infection that was maintained for three months, during which the virus genome remained stable. Immediate-early, early and late VZV genes were transcribed, and low-levels of infectious VZV were recurrently detected in the culture supernatant. Our data suggest that NHNP TLAs are an effective system to investigate long-term interactions of VZV with complex assemblies of human neuronal cells.

  12. Transverse injection into Mach 2 flow behind a rearward-facing step - A 3-D, compressible flow test case for hypersonic combustor CFD validation

    SciTech Connect

    Mcdaniel, J.C.; Fletcher, D.G.; Hartfield, R.J.; Hollo, S.D. NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA )

    1991-12-01

    A spatially-complete data set of the important primitive flow variables is presented for the complex, nonreacting, 3D unit combustor flow field employing transverse injection into a Mach 2 flow behind a rearward-facing step. A unique wind tunnel facility providing the capability for iodine seeding was built specifically for these measurements. Two optical techniques based on laser-induced-iodine fluorescence were developed and utilized for nonintrusive, in situ flow field measurements. LDA provided both mean and fluctuating velocity component measurements. A thermographic phosphor wall temperature measurement technique was developed and employed. Data from the 2D flow over a rearward-facing step and the complex 3D mixing flow with injection are reported. 25 refs.

  13. Human factors flight trial analysis for 2D/3D SVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiefele, Jens; Howland, Duncan; Maris, John; Wipplinger, Patrick

    2004-08-01

    The paper describes flight trials performed in Reno, NV. Flight trial were conducted with a Cheyenne 1 from Marinvent. Twelve pilots flew the Cheyenne in seventy-two approaches to the Reno airfield. All pilots flew completely andomized settings. Three different settings (standard displays, 2D moving map, and 2D/3D moving map) were evaluated. They included seamless evaluation for STAR, approach, and taxi operations. The flight trial goal was to evaluate the objective performance of pilots compared among the different settings. As dependent variables, positional and time accuracy were measured. Analysis was conducted by an ANOVA test. In parallel, all pilots answered subjective Cooper-Harper, situation awareness rating technique (SART), situational awareness probe (SAP), and questionnaires.This article describes the human factor analysis from flight trials performed in Reno, NV. Flight trials were conducted with a Cheyenne 1 from Marinvent. Thirteen pilots flew the Cheyenne in seventy-two approaches to the Reno airfield. All pilots flew completely randomized settings. Three different display configurations: Elec. Flight Information System (EFIS), EFIS and 2D moving map, and 3D SVS Primary Flight Display (PFD) and 2D moving map were evaluated. They included normal/abnormal procedure evaluation for: Steep turns and reversals, Unusual attitude recovery, Radar vector guidance towards terrain, Non-precision approaches, En-route alternate for non-IFR rated pilots encountering IMC, and Taxiing on complex taxi-routes. The flight trial goal was to evaluate the objective performance of pilots for the different display configurations. As dependent variables, positional and time data were measured. Analysis was performed by an ANOVA test. In parallel, all pilots answered subjective NASA Task Load Index, Cooper-Harper, Situation Awareness Rating Technique (SART), and questionnaires. The result shows that pilots flying 2D/3D SVS perform no worse than pilots with conventional

  14. Repetition effects in human ERPs to faces.

    PubMed

    Schweinberger, Stefan R; Neumann, Markus F

    2016-07-01

    In the present paper, we review research conducted over the past 25 years addressing the effects of repeating various kinds of information in faces (e.g., pictorial, spatial configural, identity, semantic) on different components in human event-related brain potentials (ERPs). This body of evidence suggests that several ERP components are systematically linked to different functional components of face identity processing. Specifically, we argue (1) that repetition of the category of faces (categorical adaptation) strongly affects the occipitotemporal N170 amplitude, which is systematically suppressed when a face is preceded by another face, irrespective of its identity, whereas (2) the prototypicality of a face's second order spatial configuration has a prominent effect on the subsequent occipitotemporal P200. Longer-latency repetition effects are related to the processing of individual facial identities. These include (3) an ERP correlate of the transient activation of individual representations of repeated faces in the form of an enhanced occipitotemporal N250r as seen in repetition priming experiments, and (4) a correlate of the acquisition of individual face identity representations during learning as seen in a topographically similar long-lasting N250 effect. Finally, (5) the repetition of semantic information in familiar person recognition elicits a central-parietal N400 ERP effect. We hope that this overview will encourage researchers to further exploit the potential of ERPs to provide a continuous time window to neuronal correlates of multiple processes in face perception under comparatively natural viewing conditions. PMID:26672902

  15. Generation and transplantation of reprogrammed human neurons in the brain using 3D microtopographic scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Aaron L.; Bennett, Neal K.; Francis, Nicola L.; Halikere, Apoorva; Clarke, Stephen; Moore, Jennifer C.; Hart, Ronald P.; Paradiso, Kenneth; Wernig, Marius; Kohn, Joachim; Pang, Zhiping P.; Moghe, Prabhas V.

    2016-01-01

    Cell replacement therapy with human pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons has the potential to ameliorate neurodegenerative dysfunction and central nervous system injuries, but reprogrammed neurons are dissociated and spatially disorganized during transplantation, rendering poor cell survival, functionality and engraftment in vivo. Here, we present the design of three-dimensional (3D) microtopographic scaffolds, using tunable electrospun microfibrous polymeric substrates that promote in situ stem cell neuronal reprogramming, neural network establishment and support neuronal engraftment into the brain. Scaffold-supported, reprogrammed neuronal networks were successfully grafted into organotypic hippocampal brain slices, showing an ∼3.5-fold improvement in neurite outgrowth and increased action potential firing relative to injected isolated cells. Transplantation of scaffold-supported neuronal networks into mouse brain striatum improved survival ∼38-fold at the injection site relative to injected isolated cells, and allowed delivery of multiple neuronal subtypes. Thus, 3D microscale biomaterials represent a promising platform for the transplantation of therapeutic human neurons with broad neuro-regenerative relevance. PMID:26983594

  16. Wound healing properties of a 3-D scaffold comprising soluble silkworm gland hydrolysate and human collagen.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyu-Oh; Lee, Youngjun; Hwang, Jung-Wook; Kim, Hojin; Kim, Sun Mi; Chang, Sung Woon; Lee, Heui Sam; Choi, Yong-Soo

    2014-04-01

    Biomaterials that serve as scaffolds for cell proliferation and differentiation are increasingly being used in wound repair. In this study, the potential regenerative properties of a 3-D scaffold containing soluble silkworm gland hydrolysate (SSGH) and human collagen were evaluated. The scaffold was generated by solid-liquid phase separation and a freeze-drying method using a homogeneous aqueous solution. The porosity, swelling behavior, protein release, cytotoxicity, and antioxidative properties of scaffolds containing various ratios of SSGH and collagen were evaluated. SSGH/collagen scaffolds had a high porosity of 61-81% and swelling behavior studies demonstrated a 50-75% increase in swelling, along with complete protein release in the presence of phosphate-buffered saline. Cytocompatibility of the SSGH/collagen scaffold was demonstrated using mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cord. Furthermore, SSGH/collagen efficiently attenuated oxidative stress-induced cell damage. In an in vivo mouse model of wound healing, the SSGH/collagen scaffold accelerated wound re-epithelialization over a 15-day period. Overall, the microporous SSGH/collagen 3-D scaffold maintained optimal hydration of the exposed tissues and decreased wound healing time. These results contribute to the generation of advanced wound healing materials and may have future therapeutic implications. PMID:24503353

  17. Standardized 3D Bioprinting of Soft Tissue Models with Human Primary Cells.

    PubMed

    Rimann, Markus; Bono, Epifania; Annaheim, Helene; Bleisch, Matthias; Graf-Hausner, Ursula

    2016-08-01

    Cells grown in 3D are more physiologically relevant than cells cultured in 2D. To use 3D models in substance testing and regenerative medicine, reproducibility and standardization are important. Bioprinting offers not only automated standardizable processes but also the production of complex tissue-like structures in an additive manner. We developed an all-in-one bioprinting solution to produce soft tissue models. The holistic approach included (1) a bioprinter in a sterile environment, (2) a light-induced bioink polymerization unit, (3) a user-friendly software, (4) the capability to print in standard labware for high-throughput screening, (5) cell-compatible inkjet-based printheads, (6) a cell-compatible ready-to-use BioInk, and (7) standard operating procedures. In a proof-of-concept study, skin as a reference soft tissue model was printed. To produce dermal equivalents, primary human dermal fibroblasts were printed in alternating layers with BioInk and cultured for up to 7 weeks. During long-term cultures, the models were remodeled and fully populated with viable and spreaded fibroblasts. Primary human dermal keratinocytes were seeded on top of dermal equivalents, and epidermis-like structures were formed as verified with hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunostaining. However, a fully stratified epidermis was not achieved. Nevertheless, this is one of the first reports of an integrative bioprinting strategy for industrial routine application. PMID:25609254

  18. CTCF-Mediated Human 3D Genome Architecture Reveals Chromatin Topology for Transcription.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhonghui; Luo, Oscar Junhong; Li, Xingwang; Zheng, Meizhen; Zhu, Jacqueline Jufen; Szalaj, Przemyslaw; Trzaskoma, Pawel; Magalska, Adriana; Wlodarczyk, Jakub; Ruszczycki, Blazej; Michalski, Paul; Piecuch, Emaly; Wang, Ping; Wang, Danjuan; Tian, Simon Zhongyuan; Penrad-Mobayed, May; Sachs, Laurent M; Ruan, Xiaoan; Wei, Chia-Lin; Liu, Edison T; Wilczynski, Grzegorz M; Plewczynski, Dariusz; Li, Guoliang; Ruan, Yijun

    2015-12-17

    Spatial genome organization and its effect on transcription remains a fundamental question. We applied an advanced chromatin interaction analysis by paired-end tag sequencing (ChIA-PET) strategy to comprehensively map higher-order chromosome folding and specific chromatin interactions mediated by CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) and RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) with haplotype specificity and nucleotide resolution in different human cell lineages. We find that CTCF/cohesin-mediated interaction anchors serve as structural foci for spatial organization of constitutive genes concordant with CTCF-motif orientation, whereas RNAPII interacts within these structures by selectively drawing cell-type-specific genes toward CTCF foci for coordinated transcription. Furthermore, we show that haplotype variants and allelic interactions have differential effects on chromosome configuration, influencing gene expression, and may provide mechanistic insights into functions associated with disease susceptibility. 3D genome simulation suggests a model of chromatin folding around chromosomal axes, where CTCF is involved in defining the interface between condensed and open compartments for structural regulation. Our 3D genome strategy thus provides unique insights in the topological mechanism of human variations and diseases. PMID:26686651

  19. The Relationship Between Human Nucleolar Organizer Regions and Nucleoli, Probed by 3D-ImmunoFISH.

    PubMed

    van Sluis, Marjolein; van Vuuren, Chelly; McStay, Brian

    2016-01-01

    3D-immunoFISH is a valuable technique to compare the localization of DNA sequences and proteins in cells where three-dimensional structure has been preserved. As nucleoli contain a multitude of protein factors dedicated to ribosome biogenesis and form around specific chromosomal loci, 3D-immunoFISH is a particularly relevant technique for their study. In human cells, nucleoli form around transcriptionally active ribosomal gene (rDNA) arrays termed nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) positioned on the p-arms of each of the acrocentric chromosomes. Here, we provide a protocol for fixing and permeabilizing human cells grown on microscope slides such that nucleolar proteins can be visualized using antibodies and NORs visualized by DNA FISH. Antibodies against UBF recognize transcriptionally active rDNA/NORs and NOP52 antibodies provide a convenient way of visualizing the nucleolar volume. We describe a probe designed to visualize rDNA and introduce a probe comprised of NOR distal sequences, which can be used to identify or count individual NORs. PMID:27576706

  20. 3D Reconstruction of the Vortex in a Human Right Ventricle Model using High Speed PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheradvar, Arash; Falahatpisheh, Ahmad

    2011-11-01

    This work aims to characterize the formation process and translation of the vortex, which forms along with the trans-tricuspid jet in a realistic model of a human right ventricle (RV). A clear model of the RV made of silicone rubber was carefully casted in real size from echocardiographic data of an adult human heart. The RV model was used in our heart pulsed-flow simulator at KLAB at UCI to perform experiments. Bioprosthetic heart valves in appropriate sizes were used at tricuspid and pulmonary positions. Multi-planar high-speed PIV was performed to capture and reconstruct the 3D flow field with a 1-millisecond time gap between each two velocity frames. λ2 iso-surfaces were used to illustrate the evolution of vortex cores. The highly asymmetric shape of the RV chamber results in a complex 3D trans-tricuspid vortex that forms and translates toward right ventricular outflow tract, and finally departs RV from pulmonary valve. Through this study, -for the first time- the formation, evolution and pathway of the RV vortex have been characterized in vitro.

  1. Human Face Classification Using Ultrasonic Sonar Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Zhenwei; Ji, Wei; Xu, Yong; Yang, Jun

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, human face classification using ultrasonic sonar imaging is investigated. On the basis of Freedman's “image pulse” model, the scattering centers model is employed to simplify the complex geometry of the human face into a series of scattering centers. A chirp signal is utilized to detect the human face for its high range resolution and large signal-to-noise ratio. Ultrasonic sonar images, also named high-resolution range profiles, are obtained by demodulating the echoes with a reference chirp signal. Features directly related to the geometry of the human face are extracted from ultrasonic sonar images and verified in the experiments designed with different configurations of transmitter-receiver (TR) pairs. Experimental results indicate that the improved feature extraction method can achieve a high recognition rate of over 99% in the case of ultrasonic transmitters angled at 45° above and orthogonal to the face, and this method improves the performance of ultrasonic face recognition compared with our previous result.

  2. Nonintrusive 3D reconstruction of human bone models to simulate their bio-mechanical response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Tsouknidas; Antonis, Lontos; Savvas, Savvakis; Nikolaos, Michailidis

    2012-06-01

    3D finite element models representing functional parts of the human skeletal system, have been repeatedly introduced over the last years, to simulate biomechanical response of anatomical characteristics or investigate surgical treatment. The reconstruction of geometrically accurate FEM models, poses a significant challenge for engineers and physicians, as recent advances in tissue engineering dictate highly customized implants, while facilitating the production of alloplast materials that are employed to restore, replace or supplement the function of human tissue. The premises of every accurate reconstruction method, is to encapture the precise geometrical characteristics of the examined tissue and thus the selection of a sufficient imaging technique is of the up-most importance. This paper reviews existing and potential applications related to the current state-of-the-art of medical imaging and simulation techniques. The procedures are examined by introducing their concepts; strengths and limitations, while the authors also present part of their recent activities in these areas. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Quantitative 3D molecular cutaneous absorption in human skin using label free nonlinear microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xueqin; Grégoire, Sébastien; Formanek, Florian; Galey, Jean-Baptiste; Rigneault, Hervé

    2015-02-28

    Understanding the penetration mechanisms of drugs into human skin is a key issue in pharmaceutical and cosmetics research. To date, the techniques available for percutaneous penetration of compounds fail to provide a quantitative 3D map of molecular concentration distribution in complex tissues as the detected microscopy images are an intricate combination of concentration distribution and laser beam attenuation upon deep penetration. Here we introduce and validate a novel framework for imaging and reconstructing molecular concentration within the depth of artificial and human skin samples. Our approach combines the use of deuterated molecular compounds together with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy and microscopy that permits targeted molecules to be unambiguously discriminated within skin layers. We demonstrate both intercellular and transcellular pathways for different active compounds, together with in-depth concentration profiles reflecting the detailed skin barrier architecture. This method provides an enabling platform for establishing functional activity of topically applied products. PMID:25550155

  4. Visual search efficiency is greater for human faces compared to animal faces.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Elizabeth A; Husband, Haley L; Yee, Krysten; Fullerton, Alison; Jakobsen, Krisztina V

    2014-01-01

    The Animate Monitoring Hypothesis proposes that humans and animals were the most important categories of visual stimuli for ancestral humans to monitor, as they presented important challenges and opportunities for survival and reproduction; however, it remains unknown whether animal faces are located as efficiently as human faces. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether human, primate, and mammal faces elicit similar searches, or whether human faces are privileged. In the first three experiments, participants located a target (human, primate, or mammal face) among distractors (non-face objects). We found fixations on human faces were faster and more accurate than fixations on primate faces, even when controlling for search category specificity. A final experiment revealed that, even when task-irrelevant, human faces slowed searches for non-faces, suggesting some bottom-up processing may be responsible for the human face search efficiency advantage. PMID:24962122

  5. Visual Search Efficiency is Greater for Human Faces Compared to Animal Faces

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Mertins, Haley L.; Yee, Krysten; Fullerton, Alison; Jakobsen, Krisztina V.

    2015-01-01

    The Animate Monitoring Hypothesis proposes that humans and animals were the most important categories of visual stimuli for ancestral humans to monitor, as they presented important challenges and opportunities for survival and reproduction; however, it remains unknown whether animal faces are located as efficiently as human faces. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether human, primate, and mammal faces elicit similarly efficient searches, or whether human faces are privileged. In the first three experiments, participants located a target (human, primate, or mammal face) among distractors (non-face objects). We found fixations on human faces were faster and more accurate than primate faces, even when controlling for search category specificity. A final experiment revealed that, even when task-irrelevant, human faces slowed searches for non-faces, suggesting some bottom-up processing may be responsible for the human face search efficiency advantage. PMID:24962122

  6. Image-based modeling of objects and human faces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhengyou

    2000-12-01

    In this paper, provided is an overview of our project on 3D object and face modeling from images taken by a free-moving camera. We strive to advance the state of the art in 3D computer vision, and develop flexible and robust techniques for ordinary users to gain 3D experience from a ste of casually collected 2D images. Applications include product advertisement on the Web, virtual conference, and interactive games. We briefly cover the following topics: camera calibration, stereo rectification, image matching, 3D photo editing, object modeling, and face modeling. Demos on the last three topics will be shown during the conference.

  7. 3D visualization of aqueous humor outflow structures in-situ in humans.

    PubMed

    Kagemann, Larry; Wollstein, Gadi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Sigal, Ian A; Folio, Lindsey S; Xu, Juan; Gong, Haiyan; Schuman, Joel S

    2011-09-01

    Aqueous humor (AH) exiting the eye via the trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal (SC) passes through the deep and intrascleral venous plexus (ISVP) or directly through aqueous veins. The purpose of this study was to visualize the human AH outflow system 360° in three dimensions (3D) during active AH outflow in a virtual casting. The conventional AH outflow pathways of 7 donor eyes were imaged with a modified Bioptigen spectral-domain optical coherence tomography system (Bioptigen Inc, USA; SuperLum LTD, Ireland) at a perfusion pressure of 20 mmHg (N = 3), and 10 mmHg (N = 4). In all eyes, 36 scans (3 equally distributed in each clock hour), each covering a 2 × 3 × 2 mm volume (512 frames, each 512 × 1024 pixels), were obtained. All image data were black/white inverted, and the background subtracted (ImageJ 1.40 g, http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/). Contrast was adjusted to isolate the ISVP. SC, collector channels, the deep and ISVP, and episcleral veins were observed throughout the limbus. Aqueous veins could be observed extending into the episcleral veins. Individual scan ISVP castings were rendered and assembled in 3D space in Amira 4.1 (Visage Imaging Inc. USA). A 360-degree casting of the ISVP was obtained in all perfused eyes. The ISVP tended to be dense and overlapping in the superior and inferior quadrants, and thinner in the lateral quadrants. The human AH outflow pathway can be imaged using SD-OCT. The more superficial structures of the AH outflow pathway present with sufficient contrast as to be optically isolated and cast in-situ 360° in cadaver eye perfusion models. This approach may be useful as a model in future studies of human AH outflow. PMID:21514296

  8. Engineering a perfusable 3D human liver platform from iPS cells.

    PubMed

    Schepers, Arnout; Li, Cheri; Chhabra, Arnav; Seney, Benjamin Tschudy; Bhatia, Sangeeta

    2016-07-01

    In vitro models of human tissue are crucial to our ability to study human disease as well as develop safe and effective drug therapies. Models of single organs in static and microfluidic culture have been established and shown utility for modeling some aspects of health and disease; however, these systems lack multi-organ interactions that are critical to some aspects of drug metabolism and toxicity. Thus, as part of a consortium of researchers, we have developed a liver chip that meets the following criteria: (1) employs human iPS cells from a patient of interest, (2) cultures cells in perfusable 3D organoids, and (3) is robust to variations in perfusion rate so as to be compatible in series with other specialized tissue chips (e.g. heart, lung). In order to achieve this, we describe methods to form hepatocyte aggregates from primary and iPS-derived cells, alone and in co-culture with support cells. This necessitated a novel culture protocol for the interrupted differentiation of iPS cells that permits their removal from a plated surface and aggregation while maintaining phenotypic hepatic functions. In order to incorporate these 3D aggregates in a perfusable platform, we next encapsulated the cells in a PEG hydrogel to prevent aggregation and overgrowth once on chip. We adapted a C-trap chip architecture from the literature that enabled robust loading with encapsulated organoids and culture over a range of flow rates. Finally, we characterize the liver functions of this iHep organoid chip under perfusion and demonstrate a lifetime of at least 28 days. We envision that such this strategy can be generalized to other microfluidic tissue models and provides an opportunity to query patient-specific liver responses in vitro. PMID:27296616

  9. Primary human osteoblast culture on 3D porous collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gemma L; Walton, Robin; Czernuszka, Jan; Griffiths, Sarah L; El Haj, Alicia J; Cartmell, Sarah H

    2010-09-15

    There is a need in tissue-engineering for 3D scaffolds that mimic the natural extracellular matrix of bone to enhance cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. The scaffold is also required to be degradable. A highly porous scaffold has been developed to incorporate two of the extracellular components found in bone-collagen and hydroxyapatite (HA). The scaffold's collagen component is an afibrillar monomeric type I atelocollagen extracted from foetal calf's skin. This provided a novel environment for the inclusion of HA powder. Five hundred thousand primary human osteoblasts were seeded onto 4 mm cubed scaffolds that varied in ratio of HA to collagen. Weight ratios of 1:99, 25:75, 50:50, and 75:25 hydroxyapatite:collagen (HA:Collagen) were analysed. The scaffolds plus cells were cultured for 21 days. DNA assays and live/dead viability staining demonstrated that all of the scaffolds supported cell proliferation and viability. An alkaline phosphatase assay showed similar osteoblast phenotype maintenance on all of the 3D scaffolds analysed at 21 days. MicroCT analysis demonstrated an increase in total sample volume (correlating to increase in unmineralised matrix production). An even distribution of HA throughout the collagen matrix was observed using this technique. Also at 3 weeks, reductions in the percentage of the mineralised phase of the constructs were seen. These results indicate that each of the ratios of HA/collagen scaffolds have great potential for bone tissue engineering. PMID:20694991

  10. Rapid 3D human ribcage and kidney modeling for transcostal HIFU surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Rui; Gao, Jing; Melzer, Andreas; Nabi, Ghulam; Huang, Zhihong

    2012-11-01

    A rapid modeling technique for constructing human ribcage and kidney models for high intensity focused ultrasound through the ribcage is proposed and tested. In this study, a 3D model reconstructed from a patient's CT images provides solutions for the conversion of 3D image data into multi-part volumetric models of kidney and ribcage. The model was imported into PZFlex for simulation of acoustic field analysis. Tissue mimicking materials for the phantom were selected based on the acoustic characterisation result. The effect of the ribcage on HIFU sonication and acoustic pressure distribution were measured in the focal plane. Porcine ribcage sample was used in experiments for comparison. Results showed that with the presence of the ribcage phantom, the maximum temperature at the focus was reduced by approximately 60-70% and the maximum pressure at the focal zone was halved. Focus splitting with the ribcage in place was demonstrated both in experiments and simulations. The development of this model provides basis for using patient's data for transcostal HIFU research and maximise the efficiency of the HIFU surgery.

  11. 3D dose distribution calculation in a voxelized human phantom by means of Monte Carlo method.

    PubMed

    Abella, V; Miró, R; Juste, B; Verdú, G

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to provide the reconstruction of a real human voxelized phantom by means of a MatLab program and the simulation of the irradiation of such phantom with the photon beam generated in a Theratron 780 (MDS Nordion) (60)Co radiotherapy unit, by using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle), version 5. The project results in 3D dose mapping calculations inside the voxelized antropomorphic head phantom. The program provides the voxelization by first processing the CT slices; the process follows a two-dimensional pixel and material identification algorithm on each slice and three-dimensional interpolation in order to describe the phantom geometry via small cubic cells, resulting in an MCNP input deck format output. Dose rates are calculated by using the MCNP5 tool FMESH, superimposed mesh tally, which gives the track length estimation of the particle flux in units of particles/cm(2). Furthermore, the particle flux is converted into dose by using the conversion coefficients extracted from the NIST Physical Reference Data. The voxelization using a three-dimensional interpolation technique in combination with the use of the FMESH tool of the MCNP Monte Carlo code offers an optimal simulation which results in 3D dose mapping calculations inside anthropomorphic phantoms. This tool is very useful in radiation treatment assessments, in which voxelized phantoms are widely utilized. PMID:19892556

  12. A second generation of physical anthropomorphic 3D breast phantoms based on human subject data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolte, Adam; Kiarashi, Nooshin; Samei, Ehsan; Segars, W. P.; Lo, Joseph Y.

    2014-03-01

    Previous fabrication of anthropomorphic breast phantoms has demonstrated their viability as a model for 2D (mammography) and 3D (tomosynthesis) breast imaging systems. Further development of these models will be essential for the evaluation of breast x-ray systems. There is also the potential to use them as the ground truth in virtual clinical trials. The first generation of phantoms was segmented from human subject dedicated breast computed tomography data and fabricated into physical models using highresolution 3D printing. Two variations were made. The first was a multi-material model (doublet) printed with two photopolymers to represent glandular and adipose tissues with the greatest physical contrast available, mimicking 75% and 35% glandular tissue. The second model was printed with a single 75% glandular equivalent photopolymer (singlet) to represent glandular tissue, which can be filled independently with an adipose-equivalent material such as oil. For this study, we have focused on improving the latter, the singlet phantom. First, the temporary oil filler has been replaced with a permanent adipose-equivalent urethane-based polymer. This offers more realistic contrast as compared to the multi-material approach at the expense of air bubbles and pockets that form during the filling process. Second, microcalcification clusters have been included in the singlet model via crushed eggshells, which have very similar chemical composition to calcifications in vivo. The results from these new prototypes demonstrate significant improvement over the first generation of anthropomorphic physical phantoms.

  13. Estimation of foot pressure from human footprint depths using 3D scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibowo, Dwi Basuki; Haryadi, Gunawan Dwi; Priambodo, Agus

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of normal and pathological variation in human foot morphology is central to several biomedical disciplines, including orthopedics, orthotic design, sports sciences, and physical anthropology, and it is also important for efficient footwear design. A classic and frequently used approach to study foot morphology is analysis of the footprint shape and footprint depth. Footprints are relatively easy to produce and to measure, and they can be preserved naturally in different soils. In this study, we need to correlate footprint depth with corresponding foot pressure of individual using 3D scanner. Several approaches are used for modeling and estimating footprint depths and foot pressures. The deepest footprint point is calculated from z max coordinate-z min coordinate and the average of foot pressure is calculated from GRF divided to foot area contact and identical with the average of footprint depth. Evaluation of footprint depth was found from importing 3D scanner file (dxf) in AutoCAD, the z-coordinates than sorted from the highest to the lowest value using Microsoft Excel to make footprinting depth in difference color. This research is only qualitatif study because doesn't use foot pressure device as comparator, and resulting the maximum pressure on calceneus is 3.02 N/cm2, lateral arch is 3.66 N/cm2, and metatarsal and hallux is 3.68 N/cm2.

  14. Spontaneous gene transfection of human bone cells using 3D mineralized alginate-chitosan macrocapsules.

    PubMed

    Green, David W; Kim, Eun-Jung; Jung, Han-Sung

    2015-09-01

    The effectiveness of nonviral gene therapy remains uncertain because of low transfection efficiencies and high toxicities compared with viral-based strategies. We describe a simple system for transient transfection of continuous human cell lines, with low toxicity, using mineral-coated chitosan and alginate capsules. As proof-of-concept, we demonstrate transfection of Saos-2 and MG63 human osteosarcoma continuous cell lines with gfp, LacZ reporter genes, and a Sox-9 carrying plasmid, to illustrate expression of a functional gene with therapeutic relevance. We show that continuous cell lines transfect with significant efficiency of up to 65% possibly through the interplay between chitosan and DNA complexation and calcium/phosphate-induced translocation into cells entrapped within the 3D polysaccharide based environment, as evidenced by an absence of transfection in unmineralized and chitosan-free capsules. We demonstrated that our transfection system was equally effective at transfection of primary human bone marrow stromal cells. To illustrate, the Sox-9, DNA plasmid was spontaneously expressed in primary human bone marrow stromal cells at 7 days with up to 90% efficiency in two repeats. Mineralized polysaccharide macrocapsules are gene delivery vehicles with a number of biological and practical advantages. They are highly efficient at self-transfecting primary bone cells, with programmable spatial and temporal delivery prospects, premineralized bone-like environments, and have no cytotoxic effects, as compared with many other nonviral systems. PMID:25645372

  15. Telomere-surrounding regions are transcription-permissive 3D nuclear compartments in human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Quina, Ana Sofia; Parreira, Leonor . E-mail: lparreir@igc.gulbenkian.pt

    2005-07-01

    Positioning of genes relative to nuclear heterochromatic compartments is thought to help regulate their transcriptional activity. Given that human subtelomeric regions are rich in highly expressed genes, we asked whether human telomeres are related to transcription-permissive nuclear compartments. To address this question, we investigated in the nuclei of normal human lymphocytes the spatial relations of two constitutively expressed genes (ACTB and RARA) and three nuclear transcripts (ACTB, IL2RA and TCRB) to telomeres and centromeres, as a function of gene activity and transcription levels. We observed that genes and gene transcripts locate close to telomere clusters and away from chromocenters upon activation of transcription. These findings, together with the observation that SC35 domains, which are enriched in pre-mRNA processing factors, are in close proximity to telomeres, indicate that telomere-neighboring regions are permissive to gene expression in human cells. Therefore, the associations of telomeres observed in the interphase nucleus might contribute, as opposed to chromocenters, for the establishment of transcription-permissive 3D nuclear compartments.

  16. Influence of Young's moduli in 3D fluid-structure coupled models of the human cochlea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhnke, Frank; Semmelbauer, Sebastian; Marquardt, Torsten

    2015-12-01

    The acoustic wave propagation in the human cochlea was studied using a tapered box-model with linear assumptions respective to all mechanical parameters. The discretisation and evaluation is conducted by a commercial finite element package (ANSYS). The main difference to former models of the cochlea was the representation of the basilar membrane by a 3D elastic solid. The Young's moduli of this solid were modified to study their influence on the travelling wave. The lymph in the scala vestibuli and scala tympani was represented by a viscous and nearly incompressible fluid finite element approach. Our results show the maximum displacement for f = 2kHz at half of the length of the cochlea in accordance with former experiments. For low frequencies f <200 Hz nearly zero phase shifts were found, whereas for f =1 kHz it reaches values up to -12 cycles depending on the degree of orthotropy.

  17. Cognitive/emotional models for human behavior representation in 3D avatar simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, James K.

    2004-08-01

    Simplified models of human cognition and emotional response are presented which are based on models of auditory/ visual polymodal fusion. At the core of these models is a computational model of Area 37 of the temporal cortex which is based on new isocortex models presented recently by Grossberg. These models are trained using carefully chosen auditory (musical sequences), visual (paintings) and higher level abstract (meta level) data obtained from studies of how optimization strategies are chosen in response to outside managerial inputs. The software modules developed are then used as inputs to character generation codes in standard 3D virtual world simulations. The auditory and visual training data also enable the development of simple music and painting composition generators which significantly enhance one's ability to validate the cognitive model. The cognitive models are handled as interacting software agents implemented as CORBA objects to allow the use of multiple language coding choices (C++, Java, Python etc) and efficient use of legacy code.

  18. Recognizing Disguised Faces: Human and Machine Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Dhamecha, Tejas Indulal; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank; Kumar, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Face verification, though an easy task for humans, is a long-standing open research area. This is largely due to the challenging covariates, such as disguise and aging, which make it very hard to accurately verify the identity of a person. This paper investigates human and machine performance for recognizing/verifying disguised faces. Performance is also evaluated under familiarity and match/mismatch with the ethnicity of observers. The findings of this study are used to develop an automated algorithm to verify the faces presented under disguise variations. We use automatically localized feature descriptors which can identify disguised face patches and account for this information to achieve improved matching accuracy. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on the IIIT-Delhi Disguise database that contains images pertaining to 75 subjects with different kinds of disguise variations. The experiments suggest that the proposed algorithm can outperform a popular commercial system and evaluates them against humans in matching disguised face images. PMID:25029188

  19. 3D domain swapping causes extensive multimerisation of human interleukin-10 when expressed in planta.

    PubMed

    Westerhof, Lotte B; Wilbers, Ruud H P; Roosien, Jan; van de Velde, Jan; Goverse, Aska; Bakker, Jaap; Schots, Arjen

    2012-01-01

    Heterologous expression platforms of biopharmaceutical proteins have been significantly improved over the last decade. Further improvement can be established by examining the intrinsic properties of proteins. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine with a short half-life that plays an important role in re-establishing immune homeostasis. This homodimeric protein of 36 kDa has significant therapeutic potential to treat inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In this study we show that the major production bottleneck of human IL-10 is not protein instability as previously suggested, but extensive multimerisation due to its intrinsic 3D domain swapping characteristic. Extensive multimerisation of human IL-10 could be visualised as granules in planta. On the other hand, mouse IL-10 hardly multimerised, which could be largely attributed to its glycosylation. By introducing a short glycine-serine-linker between the fourth and fifth alpha helix of human IL-10 a stable monomeric form of IL-10 (hIL-10(mono)) was created that no longer multimerised and increased yield up to 20-fold. However, hIL-10(mono) no longer had the ability to reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Forcing dimerisation restored biological activity. This was achieved by fusing human IL-10(mono) to the C-terminal end of constant domains 2 and 3 of human immunoglobulin A (Fcα), a natural dimer. Stable dimeric forms of IL-10, like Fcα-IL-10, may not only be a better format for improved production, but also a more suitable format for medical applications. PMID:23049703

  20. Social transmission of face preferences among humans.

    PubMed

    Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Little, Anthony C; Burriss, Robert P; Feinberg, David R

    2007-03-22

    Previous studies demonstrating mate choice copying effects among females in non-human species have led many researchers to propose that social transmission of mate preferences may influence sexual selection for male traits. Although it has been suggested that social transmission may also influence mate preferences in humans, there is little empirical support for such effects. Here, we show that observing other women with smiling (i.e. positive) expressions looking at male faces increased women's preferences for those men to a greater extent than did observing women with neutral (i.e. relatively negative) expressions looking at male faces. By contrast, the reverse was true for male participants (i.e. observing women with neutral expressions looking at male faces increased male participant's preferences for those men to a greater extent than did observing women smiling at male faces). This latter finding suggests that within-sex competition promotes negative attitudes among men towards other men who are the target of positive social interest from women. Our findings demonstrate that social transmission of face preferences influences judgments of men's attractiveness, potentially demonstrating a mechanism for social transmission of mate preferences. PMID:17251104

  1. 3D Reconstruction of Human Laryngeal Dynamics Based on Endoscopic High-Speed Recordings.

    PubMed

    Semmler, Marion; Kniesburges, Stefan; Birk, Veronika; Ziethe, Anke; Patel, Rita; Dollinger, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Standard laryngoscopic imaging techniques provide only limited two-dimensional insights into the vocal fold vibrations not taking the vertical component into account. However, previous experiments have shown a significant vertical component in the vibration of the vocal folds. We present a 3D reconstruction of the entire superior vocal fold surface from 2D high-speed videoendoscopy via stereo triangulation. In a typical camera-laser set-up the structured laser light pattern is projected on the vocal folds and captured at 4000 fps. The measuring device is suitable for in vivo application since the external dimensions of the miniaturized set-up barely exceed the size of a standard rigid laryngoscope. We provide a conservative estimate on the resulting resolution based on the hardware components and point out the possibilities and limitations of the miniaturized camera-laser set-up. In addition to the 3D vocal fold surface, we extended previous approaches with a G2-continuous model of the vocal fold edge. The clinical applicability was successfully established by the reconstruction of visual data acquired from 2D in vivo high-speed recordings of a female and a male subject. We present extracted dynamic parameters like maximum amplitude and velocity in the vertical direction. The additional vertical component reveals deeper insights into the vibratory dynamics of the vocal folds by means of a non-invasive method. The successful miniaturization allows for in vivo application giving access to the most realistic model available and hence enables a comprehensive understanding of the human phonation process. PMID:26829782

  2. Challenge for 3D culture technology: Application in carcinogenesis studies with human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Emura, M; Aufderheide, M

    2016-05-01

    Lung cancer is still one of the major intractable diseases and we urgently need more efficient preventive and curative measures. Recent molecular studies have provided strong evidence that allows us to believe that classically well-known early airway lesions such as hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia and carcinoma in situ are really precancerous lesions progressing toward cancer but not necessarily transient and reversible alteration. This suggests that adequate early control of the precancerous lesions may lead to improved prevention of lung cancer. This knowledge is encouraging in view of the imminent necessity for additional experimental systems to investigate the causal mechanisms of cancers directly in human cells and tissues. There are many questions with regard to various precancerous lesions of the airways. For example, should cells, before reaching a stage of invasive carcinoma, undergo all precancerous stages such as hyperplasia or metaplasia and dysplasia, or is there any shortcut to bypass one or more of the precancerous stages? For the study of such questions, the emerging 3-dimensional (3D) cell culture technology appears to provide an effective and valuable tool. Though a great challenge, it is expected that this in vitro technology will be rapidly and reliably improved to enable the cultures to be maintained in an in vivo-mimicking state of differentiation for much longer than a period of at best a few months, as is currently the case. With the help of a "causes recombination-Lox" (Cre-lox) technology, it has been possible to trace cells giving rise to specific lung tumor types. In this short review we have attempted to assess the future role of 3D technology in the study of lung carcinogenesis. PMID:26951634

  3. Effects of pore size in 3-D fibrous matrix on human trophoblast tissue development.

    PubMed

    Ma, T; Li, Y; Yang, S T; Kniss, D A

    2000-12-20

    The effects of pore size in a 3-D polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nonwoven fibrous matrix on long-term tissue development of human trophoblast ED27 cells were studied. Thermal compression was used to modify the porosity and pore size of the PET matrix. The pore size distributions in PET matrices were quantified using a liquid extrusion method. Cell metabolic activities, estradiol production, and cell proliferation and differentiation were studied for ED27 cells cultured in the thermally compressed PET matrices with known pore structure characteristics. In general, metabolic activities and proliferation rate were higher initially for cultures grown in the low-porosity (LP) PET matrix (porosity of 0.849, average pore size of 30 microm in diameter) than those in the high-porosity (HP) matrix (porosity of 0.896, average pore size of 39 microm in diameter). However, 17beta-estradiol production and cell differentiation activity in the HP matrix surpassed those in the LP matrix after 12 days. The expression levels of cyclin B1 and p27kip1 in cells revealed progressively decreasing proliferation and increasing differentiation activities for cells grown in PET matrices. Also, difference in pore size controlled the cell spatial organization in the PET matrices and contributed to the tissue development in varying degrees of proliferation and differentiation. It was also found that cells grown on the 2-D surface behaved differently in cell cycle progression and did not show increased differentiation activities after growth had stopped and proliferation activities had lowered to a minimal level. The results from this study suggest that the 3-D cell organization guided by the tissue scaffold is important to tissue formation in vitro. PMID:11064329

  4. Photogrammetric Network for Evaluation of Human Faces for Face Reconstruction Purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrott, P.; Detrekői, Á.; Fekete, K.

    2012-08-01

    Facial reconstruction is the process of reconstructing the geometry of faces of persons from skeletal remains. A research group (BME Cooperation Research Center for Biomechanics) was formed representing several organisations to combine knowledgebases of different disciplines like anthropology, medical, mechanical, archaeological sciences etc. to computerize the face reconstruction process based on a large dataset of 3D face and skull models gathered from living persons: cranial data from CT scans and face models from photogrammetric evaluations. The BUTE Dept. of Photogrammetry and Geoinformatics works on the method and technology of the 3D data acquisition for the face models. In this paper we will present the research and results of the photogrammetric network design, the modelling to deal with visibility constraints, and the investigation of the developed basic photogrammetric configuration to specify the result characteristics to be expected using the device built for the photogrammetric face measurements.

  5. Reconstituted Human Upper Airway Epithelium as 3-D In Vitro Model for Nasal Polyposis

    PubMed Central

    de Borja Callejas, Francisco; Martínez-Antón, Asunción; Alobid, Isam; Fuentes, Mireya; Cortijo, Julio; Picado, César

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary human airway epithelial cells cultured in an air-liquid interface (ALI) develop a well-differentiated epithelium. However, neither characterization of mucociliar differentiation overtime nor the inflammatory function of reconstituted nasal polyp (NP) epithelia have been described. Objectives 1st) To develop and characterize the mucociliar differentiation overtime of human epithelial cells of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) in ALI culture system; 2nd) To corroborate that 3D in vitro model of NP reconstituted epithelium maintains, compared to control nasal mucosa (NM), an inflammatory function. Methods Epithelial cells were obtained from 9 NP and 7 control NM, and differentiated in ALI culture for 28 days. Mucociliary differentiation was characterized at different times (0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days) using ultrastructure analysis by electron microscopy; ΔNp63 (basal stem/progenitor cell), β-tubulin IV (cilia), and MUC5AC (goblet cell) expression by immunocytochemistry; and mucous (MUC5AC, MUC5B) and serous (Lactoferrin) secretion by ELISA. Inflammatory function of ALI cultures (at days 0, 14, and 28) through cytokine (IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and IL-12p70) and chemokine (RANTES, MIG, MCP-1, IP-10, eotaxin-1, and GM-CSF) production was analysed by CBA (Cytometric Bead Array). Results In both NP and control NM ALI cultures, pseudostratified epithelium with ciliated, mucus-secreting, and basal cells were observed by electron microscopy at days 14 and 28. Displaying epithelial cell re-differentation, β-tubulin IV and MUC5AC positive cells increased, while ΔNp63 positive cells decreased overtime. No significant differences were found overtime in MUC5AC, MUC5B, and lactoferrin secretions between both ALI cultures. IL-8 and GM-CSF were significantly increased in NP compared to control NM regenerated epithelia. Conclusion Reconstituted epithelia from human NP epithelial cells cultured in ALI system provides a 3D in vitro model

  6. Improved Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Osteogenesis in 3D Bioprinted Tissue Scaffolds with Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xuan; Castro, Nathan J.; Zhu, Wei; Cui, Haitao; Aliabouzar, Mitra; Sarkar, Kausik; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-01-01

    3D printing and ultrasound techniques are showing great promise in the evolution of human musculoskeletal tissue repair and regeneration medicine. The uniqueness of the present study was to combine low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and advanced 3D printing techniques to synergistically improve growth and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Specifically, polyethylene glycol diacrylate bioinks containing cell adhesive Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic acid-Serene (RGDS) peptide and/or nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA) were used to fabricate 3D scaffolds with different geometric patterns via novel table-top stereolithography 3D printer. The resultant scaffolds provide a highly porous and interconnected 3D environment to support cell proliferation. Scaffolds with small square pores were determined to be the optimal geometric pattern for MSC attachment and growth. The optimal LIPUS working parameters were determined to be 1.5 MHz, 20% duty cycle with 150 mW/cm2 intensity. Results demonstrated that RGDS peptide and nHA containing 3D printed scaffolds under LIPUS treatment can greatly promote MSC proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium deposition and total protein content. These results illustrate the effectiveness of the combination of LIPUS and biomimetic 3D printing scaffolds as a valuable combinatorial tool for improved MSC function, thus make them promising for future clinical and various regenerative medicine application. PMID:27597635

  7. Improved Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Osteogenesis in 3D Bioprinted Tissue Scaffolds with Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuan; Castro, Nathan J; Zhu, Wei; Cui, Haitao; Aliabouzar, Mitra; Sarkar, Kausik; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-01-01

    3D printing and ultrasound techniques are showing great promise in the evolution of human musculoskeletal tissue repair and regeneration medicine. The uniqueness of the present study was to combine low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and advanced 3D printing techniques to synergistically improve growth and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Specifically, polyethylene glycol diacrylate bioinks containing cell adhesive Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic acid-Serene (RGDS) peptide and/or nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA) were used to fabricate 3D scaffolds with different geometric patterns via novel table-top stereolithography 3D printer. The resultant scaffolds provide a highly porous and interconnected 3D environment to support cell proliferation. Scaffolds with small square pores were determined to be the optimal geometric pattern for MSC attachment and growth. The optimal LIPUS working parameters were determined to be 1.5 MHz, 20% duty cycle with 150 mW/cm(2) intensity. Results demonstrated that RGDS peptide and nHA containing 3D printed scaffolds under LIPUS treatment can greatly promote MSC proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium deposition and total protein content. These results illustrate the effectiveness of the combination of LIPUS and biomimetic 3D printing scaffolds as a valuable combinatorial tool for improved MSC function, thus make them promising for future clinical and various regenerative medicine application. PMID:27597635

  8. “Taller and Shorter”: Human 3-D Spatial Memory Distorts Familiar Multilevel Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Thomas; Huber, Markus; Schramm, Hannah; Kugler, Günter; Dieterich, Marianne; Glasauer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Animal experiments report contradictory findings on the presence of a behavioural and neuronal anisotropy exhibited in vertical and horizontal capabilities of spatial orientation and navigation. We performed a pointing experiment in humans on the imagined 3-D direction of the location of various invisible goals that were distributed horizontally and vertically in a familiar multilevel hospital building. The 21 participants were employees who had worked for years in this building. The hypothesis was that comparison of the experimentally determined directions and the true directions would reveal systematic inaccuracy or dimensional anisotropy of the localizations. The study provides first evidence that the internal representation of a familiar multilevel building was distorted compared to the dimensions of the true building: vertically 215% taller and horizontally 51% shorter. This was not only demonstrated in the mathematical reconstruction of the mental model based on the analysis of the pointing experiments but also by the participants’ drawings of the front view and the ground plan of the building. Thus, in the mental model both planes were altered in different directions: compressed for the horizontal floor plane and stretched for the vertical column plane. This could be related to human anisotropic behavioural performance of horizontal and vertical navigation in such buildings. PMID:26509927

  9. "Taller and Shorter": Human 3-D Spatial Memory Distorts Familiar Multilevel Buildings.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Thomas; Huber, Markus; Schramm, Hannah; Kugler, Günter; Dieterich, Marianne; Glasauer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Animal experiments report contradictory findings on the presence of a behavioural and neuronal anisotropy exhibited in vertical and horizontal capabilities of spatial orientation and navigation. We performed a pointing experiment in humans on the imagined 3-D direction of the location of various invisible goals that were distributed horizontally and vertically in a familiar multilevel hospital building. The 21 participants were employees who had worked for years in this building. The hypothesis was that comparison of the experimentally determined directions and the true directions would reveal systematic inaccuracy or dimensional anisotropy of the localizations. The study provides first evidence that the internal representation of a familiar multilevel building was distorted compared to the dimensions of the true building: vertically 215% taller and horizontally 51% shorter. This was not only demonstrated in the mathematical reconstruction of the mental model based on the analysis of the pointing experiments but also by the participants' drawings of the front view and the ground plan of the building. Thus, in the mental model both planes were altered in different directions: compressed for the horizontal floor plane and stretched for the vertical column plane. This could be related to human anisotropic behavioural performance of horizontal and vertical navigation in such buildings. PMID:26509927

  10. A 3D bioprinting system to produce human-scale tissue constructs with structural integrity.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Sang Jin; Ko, In Kap; Kengla, Carlos; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    A challenge for tissue engineering is producing three-dimensional (3D), vascularized cellular constructs of clinically relevant size, shape and structural integrity. We present an integrated tissue-organ printer (ITOP) that can fabricate stable, human-scale tissue constructs of any shape. Mechanical stability is achieved by printing cell-laden hydrogels together with biodegradable polymers in integrated patterns and anchored on sacrificial hydrogels. The correct shape of the tissue construct is achieved by representing clinical imaging data as a computer model of the anatomical defect and translating the model into a program that controls the motions of the printer nozzles, which dispense cells to discrete locations. The incorporation of microchannels into the tissue constructs facilitates diffusion of nutrients to printed cells, thereby overcoming the diffusion limit of 100-200 μm for cell survival in engineered tissues. We demonstrate capabilities of the ITOP by fabricating mandible and calvarial bone, cartilage and skeletal muscle. Future development of the ITOP is being directed to the production of tissues for human applications and to the building of more complex tissues and solid organs. PMID:26878319

  11. Personalized Medicine Approaches in Prostate Cancer Employing Patient Derived 3D Organoids and Humanized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bartucci, Monica; Ferrari, Anna C.; Kim, Isaac Yi; Ploss, Alexander; Yarmush, Martin; Sabaawy, Hatem E.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death in Western men. Despite its prevalence, PCa has proven very difficult to propagate in vitro. PCa represents a complex organ-like multicellular structure maintained by the dynamic interaction of tumoral cells with parenchymal stroma, endothelial and immune cells, and components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The lack of PCa models that recapitulate this intricate system has hampered progress toward understanding disease progression and lackluster therapeutic responses. Tissue slices, monolayer cultures and genetically engineered mouse models (GEMM) fail to mimic the complexities of the PCa microenvironment or reproduce the diverse mechanisms of therapy resistance. Moreover, patient derived xenografts (PDXs) are expensive, time consuming, difficult to establish for prostate cancer, lack immune cell-tumor regulation, and often tumors undergo selective engraftments. Here, we describe an interdisciplinary approach using primary PCa and tumor initiating cells (TICs), three-dimensional (3D) tissue engineering, genetic and morphometric profiling, and humanized mice to generate patient-derived organoids for examining personalized therapeutic responses in vitro and in mice co-engrafted with a human immune system (HIS), employing adaptive T-cell- and chimeric antigen receptor- (CAR) immunotherapy. The development of patient specific therapies targeting the vulnerabilities of cancer, when combined with antiproliferative and immunotherapy approaches could help to achieve the full transformative power of cancer precision medicine. PMID:27446916

  12. Personalized Medicine Approaches in Prostate Cancer Employing Patient Derived 3D Organoids and Humanized Mice.

    PubMed

    Bartucci, Monica; Ferrari, Anna C; Kim, Isaac Yi; Ploss, Alexander; Yarmush, Martin; Sabaawy, Hatem E

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death in Western men. Despite its prevalence, PCa has proven very difficult to propagate in vitro. PCa represents a complex organ-like multicellular structure maintained by the dynamic interaction of tumoral cells with parenchymal stroma, endothelial and immune cells, and components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The lack of PCa models that recapitulate this intricate system has hampered progress toward understanding disease progression and lackluster therapeutic responses. Tissue slices, monolayer cultures and genetically engineered mouse models (GEMM) fail to mimic the complexities of the PCa microenvironment or reproduce the diverse mechanisms of therapy resistance. Moreover, patient derived xenografts (PDXs) are expensive, time consuming, difficult to establish for prostate cancer, lack immune cell-tumor regulation, and often tumors undergo selective engraftments. Here, we describe an interdisciplinary approach using primary PCa and tumor initiating cells (TICs), three-dimensional (3D) tissue engineering, genetic and morphometric profiling, and humanized mice to generate patient-derived organoids for examining personalized therapeutic responses in vitro and in mice co-engrafted with a human immune system (HIS), employing adaptive T-cell- and chimeric antigen receptor- (CAR) immunotherapy. The development of patient specific therapies targeting the vulnerabilities of cancer, when combined with antiproliferative and immunotherapy approaches could help to achieve the full transformative power of cancer precision medicine. PMID:27446916

  13. Multicamera 3D modeling system to digitize human head and body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimura, Kouta; Matsumoto, Yukinori; Emi, Tetsuichi

    2001-04-01

    A multi-camera 3D modeling system to digitize a human head and body is presented in this paper. The main features of this system are as follows: 1) Fast capturing: Both of texture images and pattern images can be taken within a few seconds using multiple digital still cameras which are set around the target human. Slide projectors are also set to provide a color line patterned light on the target for pattern image capturing, 2) Realistic Shape and Texture: The whole shape and photo-realistic textures of the human head including hair can be digitized at a time on a personal computer, and 3) Hybrid Algorithm: Our modeling algorithm is based on a hybrid method where the Shape-from-Silhouette technique and the Active-Stereo technique are combined. In the first step, the rough shape of the target is estimated in a voxel space using our Extended Shape-from-Silhouette method. In the next step, the shape is refined based on the depth-map data that is calculated using a multi-camera active stereo method. This combination makes up for the shortcomings of each method. Our system has been applied to the digitizing several Japanese people using sixteen cameras for texture image capturing and twelve cameras and two projectors for pattern image capturing. Its capturing time is approximately three seconds and calculation time is about 15-20 minutes on a personal computer with the Pentium-III processor (600MHz) and 512MB memory to digitize the whole shape as well as the texture of the human head and body.

  14. Simulated Microgravity and 3D Culture Enhance Induction, Viability, Proliferation and Differentiation of Cardiac Progenitors from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Jha, Rajneesh; Wu, Qingling; Singh, Monalisa; Preininger, Marcela K; Han, Pengcheng; Ding, Gouliang; Cho, Hee Cheol; Jo, Hanjoong; Maher, Kevin O; Wagner, Mary B; Xu, Chunhui

    2016-01-01

    Efficient generation of cardiomyocytes from human pluripotent stem cells is critical for their regenerative applications. Microgravity and 3D culture can profoundly modulate cell proliferation and survival. Here, we engineered microscale progenitor cardiac spheres from human pluripotent stem cells and exposed the spheres to simulated microgravity using a random positioning machine for 3 days during their differentiation to cardiomyocytes. This process resulted in the production of highly enriched cardiomyocytes (99% purity) with high viability (90%) and expected functional properties, with a 1.5 to 4-fold higher yield of cardiomyocytes from each undifferentiated stem cell as compared with 3D-standard gravity culture. Increased induction, proliferation and viability of cardiac progenitors as well as up-regulation of genes associated with proliferation and survival at the early stage of differentiation were observed in the 3D culture under simulated microgravity. Therefore, a combination of 3D culture and simulated microgravity can be used to efficiently generate highly enriched cardiomyocytes. PMID:27492371

  15. Simulated Microgravity and 3D Culture Enhance Induction, Viability, Proliferation and Differentiation of Cardiac Progenitors from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Rajneesh; Wu, Qingling; Singh, Monalisa; Preininger, Marcela K.; Han, Pengcheng; Ding, Gouliang; Cho, Hee Cheol; Jo, Hanjoong; Maher, Kevin O.; Wagner, Mary B.; Xu, Chunhui

    2016-01-01

    Efficient generation of cardiomyocytes from human pluripotent stem cells is critical for their regenerative applications. Microgravity and 3D culture can profoundly modulate cell proliferation and survival. Here, we engineered microscale progenitor cardiac spheres from human pluripotent stem cells and exposed the spheres to simulated microgravity using a random positioning machine for 3 days during their differentiation to cardiomyocytes. This process resulted in the production of highly enriched cardiomyocytes (99% purity) with high viability (90%) and expected functional properties, with a 1.5 to 4-fold higher yield of cardiomyocytes from each undifferentiated stem cell as compared with 3D-standard gravity culture. Increased induction, proliferation and viability of cardiac progenitors as well as up-regulation of genes associated with proliferation and survival at the early stage of differentiation were observed in the 3D culture under simulated microgravity. Therefore, a combination of 3D culture and simulated microgravity can be used to efficiently generate highly enriched cardiomyocytes. PMID:27492371

  16. Employing Virtual Humans for Education and Training in X3D/VRML Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ieronutti, Lucio; Chittaro, Luca

    2007-01-01

    Web-based education and training provides a new paradigm for imparting knowledge; students can access the learning material anytime by operating remotely from any location. Web3D open standards, such as X3D and VRML, support Web-based delivery of Educational Virtual Environments (EVEs). EVEs have a great potential for learning and training…

  17. 3D Modeling of the Lateral Ventricles and Histological Characterization of Periventricular Tissue in Humans and Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Acabchuk, Rebecca L.; Sun, Ye; Wolferz,, Richard; Eastman, Matthew B.; Lennington, Jessica B.; Shook, Brett A.; Wu, Qian; Conover, Joanne C.

    2015-01-01

    The ventricular system carries and circulates cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and facilitates clearance of solutes and toxins from the brain. The functional units of the ventricles are ciliated epithelial cells termed ependymal cells, which line the ventricles and through ciliary action are capable of generating laminar flow of CSF at the ventricle surface. This monolayer of ependymal cells also provides barrier and filtration functions that promote exchange between brain interstitial fluids (ISF) and circulating CSF. Biochemical changes in the brain are thereby reflected in the composition of the CSF and destruction of the ependyma can disrupt the delicate balance of CSF and ISF exchange. In humans there is a strong correlation between lateral ventricle expansion and aging. Age-associated ventriculomegaly can occur even in the absence of dementia or obstruction of CSF flow. The exact cause and progression of ventriculomegaly is often unknown; however, enlarged ventricles can show regional and, often, extensive loss of ependymal cell coverage with ventricle surface astrogliosis and associated periventricular edema replacing the functional ependymal cell monolayer. Using MRI scans together with postmortem human brain tissue, we describe how to prepare, image and compile 3D renderings of lateral ventricle volumes, calculate lateral ventricle volumes, and characterize periventricular tissue through immunohistochemical analysis of en face lateral ventricle wall tissue preparations. Corresponding analyses of mouse brain tissue are also presented supporting the use of mouse models as a means to evaluate changes to the lateral ventricles and periventricular tissue found in human aging and disease. Together, these protocols allow investigations into the cause and effect of ventriculomegaly and highlight techniques to study ventricular system health and its important barrier and filtration functions within the brain. PMID:26068121

  18. 3D Modeling of the Lateral Ventricles and Histological Characterization of Periventricular Tissue in Humans and Mouse.

    PubMed

    Acabchuk, Rebecca L; Sun, Ye; Wolferz, Richard; Eastman, Matthew B; Lennington, Jessica B; Shook, Brett A; Wu, Qian; Conover, Joanne C

    2015-01-01

    The ventricular system carries and circulates cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and facilitates clearance of solutes and toxins from the brain. The functional units of the ventricles are ciliated epithelial cells termed ependymal cells, which line the ventricles and through ciliary action are capable of generating laminar flow of CSF at the ventricle surface. This monolayer of ependymal cells also provides barrier and filtration functions that promote exchange between brain interstitial fluids (ISF) and circulating CSF. Biochemical changes in the brain are thereby reflected in the composition of the CSF and destruction of the ependyma can disrupt the delicate balance of CSF and ISF exchange. In humans there is a strong correlation between lateral ventricle expansion and aging. Age-associated ventriculomegaly can occur even in the absence of dementia or obstruction of CSF flow. The exact cause and progression of ventriculomegaly is often unknown; however, enlarged ventricles can show regional and, often, extensive loss of ependymal cell coverage with ventricle surface astrogliosis and associated periventricular edema replacing the functional ependymal cell monolayer. Using MRI scans together with postmortem human brain tissue, we describe how to prepare, image and compile 3D renderings of lateral ventricle volumes, calculate lateral ventricle volumes, and characterize periventricular tissue through immunohistochemical analysis of en face lateral ventricle wall tissue preparations. Corresponding analyses of mouse brain tissue are also presented supporting the use of mouse models as a means to evaluate changes to the lateral ventricles and periventricular tissue found in human aging and disease. Together, these protocols allow investigations into the cause and effect of ventriculomegaly and highlight techniques to study ventricular system health and its important barrier and filtration functions within the brain. PMID:26068121

  19. Human astrocytes develop physiological morphology and remain quiescent in a novel 3D matrix.

    PubMed

    Placone, Amanda L; McGuiggan, Patricia M; Bergles, Dwight E; Guerrero-Cazares, Hugo; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Searson, Peter C

    2015-02-01

    Astrocytes are the most abundant glial cells in the brain and are responsible for diverse functions, from modulating synapse function to regulating the blood-brain barrier. In vivo, these cells exhibit a star-shaped morphology with multiple radial processes that contact synapses and completely surround brain capillaries. In response to trauma or CNS disease, astrocytes become activated, a state associated with profound changes in gene expression, including upregulation of intermediate filament proteins, such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The inability to recapitulate the complex structure of astrocytes and maintain their quiescent state in vitro is a major roadblock to further developments in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Here, we characterize astrocyte morphology and activation in various hydrogels to assess the feasibility of developing a matrix that mimics key aspects of the native microenvironment. We show that astrocytes seeded in optimized matrix composed of collagen, hyaluronic acid, and matrigel exhibit a star-shaped morphology with radial processes and do not upregulate GFAP expression, hallmarks of quiescent astrocytes in the brain. In these optimized gels, collagen I provides structural support, HA mimics the brain extracellular matrix, and matrigel provides endothelial cell compatibility and was found to minimize GFAP upregulation. This defined 3D microenvironment for maintaining human astrocytes in vitro provides new opportunities for developing improved models of the blood-brain barrier and studying their response to stress signals. PMID:25542801

  20. 3D Raman mapping of the collagen fibril orientation in human osteonal lamellae.

    PubMed

    Schrof, Susanne; Varga, Peter; Galvis, Leonardo; Raum, Kay; Masic, Admir

    2014-09-01

    Chemical composition and fibrillar organization are the major determinants of osteonal bone mechanics. However, prominent methodologies commonly applied to investigate mechanical properties of bone on the micro scale are usually not able to concurrently describe both factors. In this study, we used polarized Raman spectroscopy (PRS) to simultaneously analyze structural and chemical information of collagen fibrils in human osteonal bone in a single experiment. Specifically, the three-dimensional arrangement of collagen fibrils in osteonal lamellae was assessed. By analyzing the anisotropic intensity of the amide I Raman band of collagen as a function of the orientation of the incident laser polarization, different parameters related to the orientation of the collagen fibrils and the degree of alignment of the fibrils were derived. Based on the analysis of several osteons, two major fibrillar organization patterns were identified, one with a monotonic and another with a periodically changing twist direction. These results confirm earlier reported twisted and oscillating plywood arrangements, respectively. Furthermore, indicators of the degree of alignment suggested the presence of disordered collagen within the lamellar organization of the osteon. The results show the versatility of the analytical PRS approach and demonstrate its capability in providing not only compositional, but also 3D structural information in a complex hierarchically structured biological material. The concurrent assessment of chemical and structural features may contribute to a comprehensive characterization of the microstructure of bone and other collagen-based tissues. PMID:25025981

  1. Indoor Localization Algorithms for an Ambulatory Human Operated 3D Mobile Mapping System

    SciTech Connect

    Corso, N; Zakhor, A

    2013-12-03

    Indoor localization and mapping is an important problem with many applications such as emergency response, architectural modeling, and historical preservation. In this paper, we develop an automatic, off-line pipeline for metrically accurate, GPS-denied, indoor 3D mobile mapping using a human-mounted backpack system consisting of a variety of sensors. There are three novel contributions in our proposed mapping approach. First, we present an algorithm which automatically detects loop closure constraints from an occupancy grid map. In doing so, we ensure that constraints are detected only in locations that are well conditioned for scan matching. Secondly, we address the problem of scan matching with poor initial condition by presenting an outlier-resistant, genetic scan matching algorithm that accurately matches scans despite a poor initial condition. Third, we present two metrics based on the amount and complexity of overlapping geometry in order to vet the estimated loop closure constraints. By doing so, we automatically prevent erroneous loop closures from degrading the accuracy of the reconstructed trajectory. The proposed algorithms are experimentally verified using both controlled and real-world data. The end-to-end system performance is evaluated using 100 surveyed control points in an office environment and obtains a mean accuracy of 10 cm. Experimental results are also shown on three additional datasets from real world environments including a 1500 meter trajectory in a warehouse sized retail shopping center.

  2. Bioengineered glaucomatous 3D human trabecular meshwork as an in vitro disease model.

    PubMed

    Torrejon, Karen Y; Papke, Ellen L; Halman, Justin R; Stolwijk, Judith; Dautriche, Cula N; Bergkvist, Magnus; Danias, John; Sharfstein, Susan T; Xie, Yubing

    2016-06-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is mostly regulated by aqueous humor outflow through the human trabecular meshwork (HTM) and represents the only modifiable risk factor of glaucoma. The lack of IOP-modulating therapeutics that targets HTM underscores the need of engineering HTM for understanding the outflow physiology and glaucoma pathology in vitro. Using a 3D HTM model that allows for regulation of outflow in response to a pharmacologic steroid, a fibrotic state has been induced resembling that of glaucomatous HTM. This disease model exhibits HTM marker expression, ECM overproduction, impaired HTM cell phagocytic activity and outflow resistance, which represent characteristics found in steroid-induced glaucoma. In particular, steroid-induced ECM alterations in the glaucomatous model can be modified by a ROCK inhibitor. Altogether, this work presents a novel in vitro disease model that allows for physiological and pathological studies pertaining to regulating outflow, leading to improved understanding of steroid-induced glaucoma and accelerated discovery of new therapeutic targets. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1357-1368. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26615056

  3. Learning Dictionaries of Sparse Codes of 3D Movements of Body Joints for Real-Time Human Activity Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Jin; Yang, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    Real-time human activity recognition is essential for human-robot interactions for assisted healthy independent living. Most previous work in this area is performed on traditional two-dimensional (2D) videos and both global and local methods have been used. Since 2D videos are sensitive to changes of lighting condition, view angle, and scale, researchers begun to explore applications of 3D information in human activity understanding in recently years. Unfortunately, features that work well on 2D videos usually don't perform well on 3D videos and there is no consensus on what 3D features should be used. Here we propose a model of human activity recognition based on 3D movements of body joints. Our method has three steps, learning dictionaries of sparse codes of 3D movements of joints, sparse coding, and classification. In the first step, space-time volumes of 3D movements of body joints are obtained via dense sampling and independent component analysis is then performed to construct a dictionary of sparse codes for each activity. In the second step, the space-time volumes are projected to the dictionaries and a set of sparse histograms of the projection coefficients are constructed as feature representations of the activities. Finally, the sparse histograms are used as inputs to a support vector machine to recognize human activities. We tested this model on three databases of human activities and found that it outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms. Thus, this model can be used for real-time human activity recognition in many applications. PMID:25473850

  4. Learning dictionaries of sparse codes of 3D movements of body joints for real-time human activity understanding.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jin; Yang, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    Real-time human activity recognition is essential for human-robot interactions for assisted healthy independent living. Most previous work in this area is performed on traditional two-dimensional (2D) videos and both global and local methods have been used. Since 2D videos are sensitive to changes of lighting condition, view angle, and scale, researchers begun to explore applications of 3D information in human activity understanding in recently years. Unfortunately, features that work well on 2D videos usually don't perform well on 3D videos and there is no consensus on what 3D features should be used. Here we propose a model of human activity recognition based on 3D movements of body joints. Our method has three steps, learning dictionaries of sparse codes of 3D movements of joints, sparse coding, and classification. In the first step, space-time volumes of 3D movements of body joints are obtained via dense sampling and independent component analysis is then performed to construct a dictionary of sparse codes for each activity. In the second step, the space-time volumes are projected to the dictionaries and a set of sparse histograms of the projection coefficients are constructed as feature representations of the activities. Finally, the sparse histograms are used as inputs to a support vector machine to recognize human activities. We tested this model on three databases of human activities and found that it outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms. Thus, this model can be used for real-time human activity recognition in many applications. PMID:25473850

  5. 3D Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Clusters as a Model for In Vitro Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Rajangam, Thanavel; Park, Min Hee; Kim, Sang-Heon

    2016-07-01

    Excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition is a cause of progressive fibrosis, which ultimately leads to progressive organ dysfunction. The lack of an in vitro fibrosis model and in vitro drug screening tools limits the development of effective antifibrotic drugs. The profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), which is secreted by a variety of cells under continuous hypoxic condition, correlates strongly with tissue fibrosis and is largely responsible for the observed increases in ECM deposition in fibrotic diseases. In this study, we established an in vitro fibrosis model in which human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) secrete TGF-β1 by engineering three-dimensional cell masses (3DCMs) of hASCs on a maltose-binding protein-basic fibroblast growth factor (MBP-FGF2)-immobilized substrate. We found that the hypoxic microenvironment created in the interior of 3DCMs during the early stages of culture leads to activation and synthesis of TGF-β1. The gene expression of fibrosis-related molecules such as TGF-β1, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), and collagen type I was upregulated in 3DCMs. As culture time increased, overexpression of TGF-β1 led to differentiation of hASCs into activated myofibroblasts, which accumulate excessive collagen type I and are characterized by αSMA expression. Furthermore, immunofluorescence data verified the increase in collagen type I synthesis in αSMA-positive cells. Scanning electron microscopy revealed rigid and compact 3DCMs, probably due to accumulation of ECM components and cross-linking of these components. The advantage of this TGF-β1-mediated 3D in vitro fibrosis model is that it opens up new avenues to understand the common mechanism of fibrosis, which will then facilitate the development of broadly effective antifibrotic compounds and the screening of existing antifibrotic agents. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first proper biomimetic 3D in vitro fibrosis model to be developed. PMID

  6. Engineering Human TMJ Discs with Protein-Releasing 3D-Printed Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Legemate, K; Tarafder, S; Jun, Y; Lee, C H

    2016-07-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc is a heterogeneous fibrocartilaginous tissue positioned between the mandibular condyle and glenoid fossa of the temporal bone, with important roles in TMJ functions. Tissue engineering TMJ discs has emerged as an alternative approach to overcoming limitations of current treatments for TMJ disorders. However, the anisotropic collagen orientation and inhomogeneous fibrocartilaginous matrix distribution present challenges in the tissue engineering of functional TMJ discs. Here, we developed 3-dimensional (3D)-printed anatomically correct scaffolds with region-variant microstrand alignment, mimicking anisotropic collagen alignment in the TMJ disc and corresponding mechanical properties. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGFβ3) were then delivered in the scaffolds by spatially embedding CTGF- or TGFβ3-encapsulated microspheres (µS) to reconstruct the regionally variant fibrocartilaginous matrix in the native TMJ disc. When cultured with human mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) for 6 wk, 3D-printed scaffolds with CTGF/TGFβ3-µS resulted in a heterogeneous fibrocartilaginous matrix with overall distribution of collagen-rich fibrous structure in the anterior/posterior (AP) bands and fibrocartilaginous matrix in the intermediate zone, reminiscent of the native TMJ disc. High dose of CTGF/TGFβ3-µS (100 mg µS/g of scaffold) showed significantly more collagen II and aggrecan in the intermediate zone than a low dose (50 mg µS/g of scaffold). Similarly, a high dose of CTGF/TGFβ3-µS yielded significantly higher collagen I expression in the AP bands compared with the low-dose and empty µS. From stress relaxation tests, the ratio of relaxation modulus to instantaneous modulus was significantly smaller with CTGF/TGFβ3-µS than empty µS. Similarly, a significantly higher coefficient of viscosity was achieved with the high dose of CTGF/TGFβ3-µS compared with the low-dose and empty

  7. Effects of Polyamidoamine Dendrimers on a 3-D Neurosphere System Using Human Neural Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yang; Kurokawa, Yoshika; Zeng, Qin; Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Nansai, Hiroko; Zhang, Zhenya; Sone, Hideko

    2016-07-01

    The practical application of engineered nanomaterials or nanoparticles like polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers has been promoted in medical devices or industrial uses. The safety of PAMAM dendrimers needs to be assessed when used as a drug carrier to treat brain disease. However, the effects of PAMAM on the human nervous system remain unknown. In this study, human neural progenitor cells cultured as a 3D neurosphere model were used to study the effects of PAMAM dendrimers on the nervous system. Neurospheres were exposed to different G4-PAMAM dendrimers for 72 h at concentrations of 0.3, 1, 3, and 10 μg/ml. The biodistribution was investigated using fluorescence-labeled PAMAM dendrimers, and gene expression was evaluated using microarray analysis followed by pathway and network analysis. Results showed that PAMAM dendrimer nanoparticles can penetrate into neurospheres via superficial cells on them. PAMAM-NH2 but not PAMAM-SC can inhibit neurosphere growth. A reduced number of MAP2-positive cells in flare regions were inhibited after 10 days of differentiation, indicating an inhibitory effect of PAMAM-NH2 on cell proliferation and neuronal migration. A microarray assay showed 32 dendrimer toxicity-related genes, with network analysis showing 3 independent networks of the selected gene targets. Inducible immediate early gene early growth response gene 1 (Egr1), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI2), and adrenomedullin (ADM) were the key genes in each network, and the expression of these genes was significantly down regulated. These findings suggest that exposure of neurospheres to PAMAM-NH2 dendrimers affects cell proliferation and migration through pathways regulated by Egr1, IGFBP3, TFPI2, and ADM. PMID:27125967

  8. Adaptive optics SLO/OCT for 3D imaging of human photoreceptors in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Felberer, Franz; Kroisamer, Julia-Sophie; Baumann, Bernhard; Zotter, Stefan; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.; Pircher, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We present a new instrument that is capable of imaging human photoreceptors in three dimensions. To achieve high lateral resolution, the system incorporates an adaptive optics system. The high axial resolution is achieved through the implementation of optical coherence tomography (OCT). The instrument records simultaneously both, scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) and OCT en-face images, with a pixel to pixel correspondence. The information provided by the SLO is used to correct for transverse eye motion in post-processing. In order to correct for axial eye motion, the instrument is equipped with a high speed axial eye tracker. In vivo images of foveal cones as well as images recorded at an eccentricity from the fovea showing cones and rods are presented. PMID:24575339

  9. Comparing face patch systems in macaques and humans

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Doris Y.; Moeller, Sebastian; Freiwald, Winrich A.

    2008-01-01

    Face recognition is of central importance for primate social behavior. In both humans and macaques, the visual analysis of faces is supported by a set of specialized face areas. The precise organization of these areas and the correspondence between individual macaque and human face-selective areas are debated. Here, we examined the organization of face-selective regions across the temporal lobe in a large number of macaque and human subjects. Macaques showed 6 regions of face-selective cortex arranged in a stereotypical pattern along the temporal lobe. Human subjects showed, in addition to 3 reported face areas (the occipital, fusiform, and superior temporal sulcus face areas), a face-selective area located anterior to the fusiform face area, in the anterior collateral sulcus. These results suggest a closer anatomical correspondence between macaque and human face-processing systems than previously realized. PMID:19033466

  10. A 3D Toolbox to Enhance Physiological Relevance of Human Tissue Models.

    PubMed

    Picollet-D'hahan, Nathalie; Dolega, Monika E; Liguori, Lavinia; Marquette, Christophe; Le Gac, Séverine; Gidrol, Xavier; Martin, Donald K

    2016-09-01

    We discuss the current challenges and future prospects of flow-based organoid models and 3D self-assembling scaffolds. The existing paradigm of 3D culture suffers from a lack of control over organoid size and shape; can be an obstacle for cell harvesting and extended cellular and molecular analysis; and does not provide access to the function of exocrine glands. Moreover, existing organ-on-chip models are mostly composed of 2D extracellular matrix (ECM)-coated elastomeric membranes that do not mimic real organ architectures. A new comprehensive 3D toolbox for cell biology has emerged to address some of these issues. Advances in microfabrication and cell-culturing approaches enable the engineering of sophisticated models that mimic organ 3D architectures and physiological conditions, while supporting flow-based drug screening and secretomics-based diagnosis. PMID:27497676

  11. Heterogeneous Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in 3D Extracellular Matrix Composites

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jangwook P.; Bache-Wiig, Meredith K.; Provenzano, Paolo P.; Ogle, Brenda M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are structural elements of tissue and also potent signaling molecules. Previously, our laboratory showed that ECM of 2D coatings can trigger differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into mesodermal lineages in an ECM-specific manner over 14 days, in some cases comparable to chemical induction. To test whether a similar effect was possible in a 3D, tissue-like environment, we designed a synthetic-natural biomaterial composite. The composite can present whole-molecule ECM proteins to cells, even those that do not spontaneously form hydrogels ex vivo, in 3D. To this end, we entrapped collagen type I, laminin-111, or fibronectin in ECM composites with MSCs and directly compared markers of mesodermal differentiation including cardiomyogenic (ACTC1), osteogenic (SPP1), adipogenic (PPARG), and chondrogenic (SOX9) in 2D versus 3D. We found the 3D condition largely mimicked the 2D condition such that the addition of type I collagen was the most potent inducer of differentiation to all lineages tested. One notable difference between 2D and 3D was pronounced adipogenic differentiation in 3D especially in the presence of exogenous collagen type I. In particular, PPARG gene expression was significantly increased ∼16-fold relative to chemical induction, in 3D and not in 2D. Unexpectedly, 3D engagement of ECM proteins also altered immunomodulatory function of MSCs in that expression of IL-6 gene was elevated relative to basal levels in 2D. In fact, levels of IL-6 gene expression in 3D composites containing exogenously supplied collagen type I or fibronectin were statistically similar to levels attained in 2D with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) stimulation and these levels were sustained over a 2-week period. Thus, this novel biomaterial platform allowed us to compare the biochemical impact of whole-molecule ECM proteins in 2D versus 3D indicating enhanced adipogenic differentiation and IL-6 expression

  12. Heterogeneous Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in 3D Extracellular Matrix Composites.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jangwook P; Bache-Wiig, Meredith K; Provenzano, Paolo P; Ogle, Brenda M

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are structural elements of tissue and also potent signaling molecules. Previously, our laboratory showed that ECM of 2D coatings can trigger differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into mesodermal lineages in an ECM-specific manner over 14 days, in some cases comparable to chemical induction. To test whether a similar effect was possible in a 3D, tissue-like environment, we designed a synthetic-natural biomaterial composite. The composite can present whole-molecule ECM proteins to cells, even those that do not spontaneously form hydrogels ex vivo, in 3D. To this end, we entrapped collagen type I, laminin-111, or fibronectin in ECM composites with MSCs and directly compared markers of mesodermal differentiation including cardiomyogenic (ACTC1), osteogenic (SPP1), adipogenic (PPARG), and chondrogenic (SOX9) in 2D versus 3D. We found the 3D condition largely mimicked the 2D condition such that the addition of type I collagen was the most potent inducer of differentiation to all lineages tested. One notable difference between 2D and 3D was pronounced adipogenic differentiation in 3D especially in the presence of exogenous collagen type I. In particular, PPARG gene expression was significantly increased ∼16-fold relative to chemical induction, in 3D and not in 2D. Unexpectedly, 3D engagement of ECM proteins also altered immunomodulatory function of MSCs in that expression of IL-6 gene was elevated relative to basal levels in 2D. In fact, levels of IL-6 gene expression in 3D composites containing exogenously supplied collagen type I or fibronectin were statistically similar to levels attained in 2D with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) stimulation and these levels were sustained over a 2-week period. Thus, this novel biomaterial platform allowed us to compare the biochemical impact of whole-molecule ECM proteins in 2D versus 3D indicating enhanced adipogenic differentiation and IL-6 expression of MSC in

  13. Novel carbocyclic curcumin analog CUR3d modulates genes involved in multiple apoptosis pathways in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bhullar, Khushwant S; Jha, Amitabh; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2015-12-01

    Anticancer activity of a novel curcumin analog (E)-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)-5-((E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acryloyl)cyclopentanone (CUR3d) was studied using a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2). The results showed that CUR3d completely inhibits the tumor cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. CUR3d at 100 μmol/L activated the pro-apoptotic caspase-3 along with downregulation of anti-apoptotic BIRC5 and Bcl2. CUR3d treatment controlled the cancer cell growth by downregulating the expression of PI3K/Akt (Akt1, Akt2) pathway along with NF-κB. CUR3d down-regulated the members of epidermal growth receptor family (EGFR, ERBB3, ERBB2) and insulin like growth receptors (IGF1, IGF-1R, IGF2). This correlated with the downregulation of G-protein (RHOA, RHOB) and RAS (ATF2, HRAS, KRAS, NRAS) pathway signaling. CUR3d also arrested cell cycle via inhibition of CDK2, CDK4, CDK5, CDK9, MDM2, MDM4 and TERT genes. Cell cycle essential aurora kinases (AURKα, AURKβ) and polo-like kinases (PLK1, PLK2, PLK3) were also modulated by CUR3d. Topoisomerases (TOP2α, TOP2β), important factors in cancer cell immortality, as well as HIF-1α were downregulated following CUR3d treatment. The expression of protein kinase-C family (PRKC-A, PRKC-D, PRKC-E) was also attenuated by CUR3d. The downregulation of histone deacetylases (Class I, II, IV) and PARP I further strengthened the anticancer efficacy of CUR3d. Downregulation of carcinogenic cathepsins (CTSB, CTSD) and heat shock proteins exhibited CUR3d's potency as a potential immunological adjuvant. Finally, the non-toxic manifestation of CUR3d in healthy liver and lung cells along with downregulation of drug resistant gene ABCC1 further warrant need for advance investigations. PMID:26409325

  14. Crossing the “Uncanny Valley”: adaptation to cartoon faces can influence perception of human faces

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haiwen; Russell, Richard; Nakayama, Ken; Livingstone, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation can shift what individuals identify to be a prototypical or attractive face. Past work suggests that low-level shape adaptation can affect high-level face processing but is position dependent. Adaptation to distorted images of faces can also affect face processing but only within sub-categories of faces, such as gender, age, and race/ethnicity. This study assesses whether there is a representation of face that is specific to faces (as opposed to all shapes) but general to all kinds of faces (as opposed to subcategories) by testing whether adaptation to one type of face can affect perception of another. Participants were shown cartoon videos containing faces with abnormally large eyes. Using animated videos allowed us to simulate naturalistic exposure and avoid positional shape adaptation. Results suggest that adaptation to cartoon faces with large eyes shifts preferences for human faces toward larger eyes, supporting the existence of general face representations. PMID:20465173

  15. Face recognition algorithms surpass humans matching faces over changes in illumination.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Alice J; Jonathon Phillips, P; Jiang, Fang; Ayyad, Janet; Penard, Nils; Abdi, Hervé

    2007-09-01

    There has been significant progress in improving the performance of computer-based face recognition algorithms over the last decade. Although algorithms have been tested and compared extensively with each other, there has been remarkably little work comparing the accuracy of computer-based face recognition systems with humans. We compared seven state-of-the-art face recognition algorithms with humans on a facematching task. Humans and algorithms determined whether pairs of face images, taken under different illumination conditions, were pictures of the same person or of different people. Three algorithms surpassed human performance matching face pairs prescreened to be "difficult" and six algorithms surpassed humans on "easy" face pairs. Although illumination variation continues to challenge face recognition algorithms, current algorithms compete favorably with humans. The superior performance of the best algorithms over humans, in light of the absolute performance levels of the algorithms, underscores the need to compare algorithms with the best current control--humans. PMID:17627050

  16. Preclinical validation and imaging of Wnt-induced repair in human 3D lung tissue cultures.

    PubMed

    Uhl, Franziska E; Vierkotten, Sarah; Wagner, Darcy E; Burgstaller, Gerald; Costa, Rita; Koch, Ina; Lindner, Michael; Meiners, Silke; Eickelberg, Oliver; Königshoff, Melanie

    2015-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by a progressive loss of lung tissue. Inducing repair processes within the adult diseased lung is of major interest and Wnt/β-catenin signalling represents a promising target for lung repair. However, the translation of novel therapeutic targets from model systems into clinical use remains a major challenge.We generated murine and patient-derived three-dimensional (3D) ex vivo lung tissue cultures (LTCs), which closely mimic the 3D lung microenvironment in vivo. Using two well-known glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibitors, lithium chloride (LiCl) and CHIR 99021 (CT), we determined Wnt/β-catenin-driven lung repair processes in high spatiotemporal resolution using quantitative PCR, Western blotting, ELISA, (immuno)histological assessment, and four-dimensional confocal live tissue imaging.Viable 3D-LTCs exhibited preserved lung structure and function for up to 5 days. We demonstrate successful Wnt/β-catenin signal activation in murine and patient-derived 3D-LTCs from COPD patients. Wnt/β-catenin signalling led to increased alveolar epithelial cell marker expression, decreased matrix metalloproteinase-12 expression, as well as altered macrophage activity and elastin remodelling. Importantly, induction of surfactant protein C significantly correlated with disease stage (per cent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s) in patient-derived 3D-LTCs.Patient-derived 3D-LTCs represent a valuable tool to analyse potential targets and drugs for lung repair. Enhanced Wnt/β-catenin signalling attenuated pathological features of patient-derived COPD 3D-LTCs. PMID:25929950

  17. FHR3 Blocks C3d-Mediated Coactivation of Human B Cells.

    PubMed

    Buhlmann, Denise; Eberhardt, Hannes U; Medyukhina, Anna; Prodinger, Wolfgang M; Figge, Marc Thilo; Zipfel, Peter F; Skerka, Christine

    2016-07-15

    The autoimmune renal disease deficient for complement factor H-related (CFHR) genes and autoantibody-positive form of hemolytic uremic syndrome is characterized by the presence of autoantibodies specific for the central complement regulator, factor H, combined with a homozygous deficiency, mostly in CFHR3 and CFHR1 Because FHR3 and FHR1 bind to C3d and inactivated C3b, which are ligands for complement receptor type 2 (CR2/CD21), the aim of the current study was to examine whether FHR3-C3d or FHR1-C3d complexes modulate B cell activation. Laser-scanning microscopy and automated image-based analysis showed that FHR3, but not FHR1 or factor H, blocked B cell activation by the BCR coreceptor complex (CD19/CD21/CD81). FHR3 bound to C3d, thereby inhibiting the interaction between C3d and CD21 and preventing colocalization of the coreceptor complex with the BCR. FHR3 neutralized the adjuvant effect of C3d on B cells, as shown by inhibited intracellular CD19 and Akt phosphorylation in Raji cells, as well as Ca(2+) release in peripheral B cells. In cases of CFHR3/CFHR1 deficiency, the FHR3 binding sites on C3d are occupied by factor H, which lacks B cell-inhibitory functions. These data provide evidence that FHR3, which is absent in patients with the autoimmune form of hemolytic uremic syndrome, is involved in B cell regulation. PMID:27279373

  18. Functional 3D Neural Mini-Tissues from Printed Gel-Based Bioink and Human Neural Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qi; Tomaskovic-Crook, Eva; Lozano, Rodrigo; Chen, Yu; Kapsa, Robert M; Zhou, Qi; Wallace, Gordon G; Crook, Jeremy M

    2016-06-01

    Direct-write printing of stem cells within biomaterials presents an opportunity to engineer tissue for in vitro modeling and regenerative medicine. Here, a first example of constructing neural tissue by printing human neural stem cells that are differentiated in situ to functional neurons and supporting neuroglia is reported. The supporting biomaterial incorporates a novel clinically relevant polysaccharide-based bioink comprising alginate, carboxymethyl-chitosan, and agarose. The printed bioink rapidly gels by stable cross-linking to form a porous 3D scaffold encapsulating stem cells for in situ expansion and differentiation. Differentiated neurons form synaptic contacts, establish networks, are spontaneously active, show a bicuculline-induced increased calcium response, and are predominantly gamma-aminobutyric acid expressing. The 3D tissues will facilitate investigation of human neural development, function, and disease, and may be adaptable for engineering other 3D tissues from different stem cell types. PMID:27028356

  19. True-3D Accentuating of Grids and Streets in Urban Topographic Maps Enhances Human Object Location Memory

    PubMed Central

    Edler, Dennis; Bestgen, Anne-Kathrin; Kuchinke, Lars; Dickmann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive representations of learned map information are subject to systematic distortion errors. Map elements that divide a map surface into regions, such as content-related linear symbols (e.g. streets, rivers, railway systems) or additional artificial layers (coordinate grids), provide an orientation pattern that can help users to reduce distortions in their mental representations. In recent years, the television industry has started to establish True-3D (autostereoscopic) displays as mass media. These modern displays make it possible to watch dynamic and static images including depth illusions without additional devices, such as 3D glasses. In these images, visual details can be distributed over different positions along the depth axis. Some empirical studies of vision research provided first evidence that 3D stereoscopic content attracts higher attention and is processed faster. So far, the impact of True-3D accentuating has not yet been explored concerning spatial memory tasks and cartography. This paper reports the results of two empirical studies that focus on investigations whether True-3D accentuating of artificial, regular overlaying line features (i.e. grids) and content-related, irregular line features (i.e. highways and main streets) in official urban topographic maps (scale 1/10,000) further improves human object location memory performance. The memory performance is measured as both the percentage of correctly recalled object locations (hit rate) and the mean distances of correctly recalled objects (spatial accuracy). It is shown that the True-3D accentuating of grids (depth offset: 5 cm) significantly enhances the spatial accuracy of recalled map object locations, whereas the True-3D emphasis of streets significantly improves the hit rate of recalled map object locations. These results show the potential of True-3D displays for an improvement of the cognitive representation of learned cartographic information. PMID:25679208

  20. True-3D accentuating of grids and streets in urban topographic maps enhances human object location memory.

    PubMed

    Edler, Dennis; Bestgen, Anne-Kathrin; Kuchinke, Lars; Dickmann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive representations of learned map information are subject to systematic distortion errors. Map elements that divide a map surface into regions, such as content-related linear symbols (e.g. streets, rivers, railway systems) or additional artificial layers (coordinate grids), provide an orientation pattern that can help users to reduce distortions in their mental representations. In recent years, the television industry has started to establish True-3D (autostereoscopic) displays as mass media. These modern displays make it possible to watch dynamic and static images including depth illusions without additional devices, such as 3D glasses. In these images, visual details can be distributed over different positions along the depth axis. Some empirical studies of vision research provided first evidence that 3D stereoscopic content attracts higher attention and is processed faster. So far, the impact of True-3D accentuating has not yet been explored concerning spatial memory tasks and cartography. This paper reports the results of two empirical studies that focus on investigations whether True-3D accentuating of artificial, regular overlaying line features (i.e. grids) and content-related, irregular line features (i.e. highways and main streets) in official urban topographic maps (scale 1/10,000) further improves human object location memory performance. The memory performance is measured as both the percentage of correctly recalled object locations (hit rate) and the mean distances of correctly recalled objects (spatial accuracy). It is shown that the True-3D accentuating of grids (depth offset: 5 cm) significantly enhances the spatial accuracy of recalled map object locations, whereas the True-3D emphasis of streets significantly improves the hit rate of recalled map object locations. These results show the potential of True-3D displays for an improvement of the cognitive representation of learned cartographic information. PMID:25679208

  1. Human Liver Infection in a Dish: Easy-To-Build 3D Liver Models for Studying Microbial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Petropolis, Debora B.; Faust, Daniela M.; Tolle, Matthieu; Rivière, Lise; Valentin, Tanguy; Neuveut, Christine; Hernandez-Cuevas, Nora; Dufour, Alexandre; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Guillen, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Human liver infection is a major cause of death worldwide, but fundamental studies on infectious diseases affecting humans have been hampered by the lack of robust experimental models that accurately reproduce pathogen-host interactions in an environment relevant for the human disease. In the case of liver infection, one consequence of this absence of relevant models is a lack of understanding of how pathogens cross the sinusoidal endothelial barrier and parenchyma. To fill that gap we elaborated human 3D liver in vitro models, composed of human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) and Huh-7 hepatoma cells as hepatocyte model, layered in a structure mimicking the hepatic sinusoid, which enable studies of key features of early steps of hepatic infection. Built with established cell lines and scaffold, these models provide a reproducible and easy-to-build cell culture approach of reduced complexity compared to animal models, while preserving higher physiological relevance compared to standard 2D systems. For proof-of-principle we challenged the models with two hepatotropic pathogens: the parasitic amoeba Entamoeba histolytica and hepatitis B virus (HBV). We constructed four distinct setups dedicated to investigating specific aspects of hepatic invasion: 1) pathogen 3D migration towards hepatocytes, 2) hepatocyte barrier crossing, 3) LSEC and subsequent hepatocyte crossing, and 4) quantification of human hepatic virus replication (HBV). Our methods comprise automated quantification of E. histolytica migration and hepatic cells layer crossing in the 3D liver models. Moreover, replication of HBV virus occurs in our virus infection 3D liver model, indicating that routine in vitro assays using HBV or others viruses can be performed in this easy-to-build but more physiological hepatic environment. These results illustrate that our new 3D liver infection models are simple but effective, enabling new investigations on infectious disease mechanisms. The better

  2. Human Liver Infection in a Dish: Easy-To-Build 3D Liver Models for Studying Microbial Infection.

    PubMed

    Petropolis, Debora B; Faust, Daniela M; Tolle, Matthieu; Rivière, Lise; Valentin, Tanguy; Neuveut, Christine; Hernandez-Cuevas, Nora; Dufour, Alexandre; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Guillen, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Human liver infection is a major cause of death worldwide, but fundamental studies on infectious diseases affecting humans have been hampered by the lack of robust experimental models that accurately reproduce pathogen-host interactions in an environment relevant for the human disease. In the case of liver infection, one consequence of this absence of relevant models is a lack of understanding of how pathogens cross the sinusoidal endothelial barrier and parenchyma. To fill that gap we elaborated human 3D liver in vitro models, composed of human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) and Huh-7 hepatoma cells as hepatocyte model, layered in a structure mimicking the hepatic sinusoid, which enable studies of key features of early steps of hepatic infection. Built with established cell lines and scaffold, these models provide a reproducible and easy-to-build cell culture approach of reduced complexity compared to animal models, while preserving higher physiological relevance compared to standard 2D systems. For proof-of-principle we challenged the models with two hepatotropic pathogens: the parasitic amoeba Entamoeba histolytica and hepatitis B virus (HBV). We constructed four distinct setups dedicated to investigating specific aspects of hepatic invasion: 1) pathogen 3D migration towards hepatocytes, 2) hepatocyte barrier crossing, 3) LSEC and subsequent hepatocyte crossing, and 4) quantification of human hepatic virus replication (HBV). Our methods comprise automated quantification of E. histolytica migration and hepatic cells layer crossing in the 3D liver models. Moreover, replication of HBV virus occurs in our virus infection 3D liver model, indicating that routine in vitro assays using HBV or others viruses can be performed in this easy-to-build but more physiological hepatic environment. These results illustrate that our new 3D liver infection models are simple but effective, enabling new investigations on infectious disease mechanisms. The better

  3. Shape and 3D acoustically induced vibrations of the human eardrum characterized by digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaleghi, Morteza; Furlong, Cosme; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Rosowski, John J.

    2014-07-01

    The eardrum or Tympanic Membrane (TM) transfers acoustic energy from the ear canal (at the external ear) into mechanical motions of the ossicles (at the middle ear). The acousto-mechanical-transformer behavior of the TM is determined by its shape and mechanical properties. For a better understanding of hearing mysteries, full-field-of-view techniques are required to quantify shape, nanometer-scale sound-induced displacement, and mechanical properties of the TM in 3D. In this paper, full-field-of-view, three-dimensional shape and sound-induced displacement of the surface of the TM are obtained by the methods of multiple wavelengths and multiple sensitivity vectors with lensless digital holography. Using our developed digital holographic systems, unique 3D information such as, shape (with micrometer resolution), 3D acoustically-induced displacement (with nanometer resolution), full strain tensor (with nano-strain resolution), 3D phase of motion, and 3D directional cosines of the displacement vectors can be obtained in full-field-ofview with a spatial resolution of about 3 million points on the surface of the TM and a temporal resolution of 15 Hz.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF 3-D COMPUTER MODELS OF HUMAN LUNG MORPHOLOGY FOR IMPROOVED RISK ASSESSMENT OF INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEVELOPMENT OF 3-D COMPUTER MODELS OF HUMAN LUNG MORPHOLOGY FOR IMPROVED RISK ASSESSMENT OF INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER

    Jeffry D. Schroeter, Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599; Ted B. Martonen, ETD, NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC 27711; Do...

  5. A pilot study of the photoprotective effect of almond phytochemicals in a 3D human skin equivalent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    UV exposure causes oxidative stress, inflammation, erythema, and skin cancer. Alpha-Tocopherol (AT) and polyphenols (AP) present in almonds may serve as photoprotectants. Our objectives were to assess the feasibility of using a 3D human skin equivalent (HSE) in photoprotectant research and to deter...

  6. Preference for Attractive Faces in Human Infants Extends beyond Conspecifics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Paul C.; Kelly, David J.; Lee, Kang; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M.

    2008-01-01

    Human infants, just a few days of age, are known to prefer attractive human faces. We examined whether this preference is human-specific. Three- to 4-month-olds preferred attractive over unattractive domestic and wild cat (tiger) faces (Experiments 1 and 3). The preference was not observed when the faces were inverted, suggesting that it did not…

  7. 3D surface imaging of the human female torso in upright to supine positions.

    PubMed

    Reece, Gregory P; Merchant, Fatima; Andon, Johnny; Khatam, Hamed; Ravi-Chandar, K; Weston, June; Fingeret, Michelle C; Lane, Chris; Duncan, Kelly; Markey, Mia K

    2015-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging of breasts is usually done with the patient in an upright position, which does not permit comparison of changes in breast morphology with changes in position of the torso. In theory, these limitations may be eliminated if the 3D camera system could remain fixed relative to the woman's torso as she is tilted from 0 to 90°. We mounted a 3dMDtorso imaging system onto a bariatric tilt table to image breasts at different tilt angles. The images were validated using a rigid plastic mannequin and the metrics compared to breast metrics obtained from five subjects with diverse morphology. The differences between distances between the same fiducial marks differed between the supine and upright positions by less than 1% for the mannequin, whereas the differences for distances between the same fiducial marks on the breasts of the five subjects differed significantly and could be correlated with body mass index and brassiere cup size for each position change. We show that a tilt table-3D imaging system can be used to determine quantitative changes in the morphology of ptotic breasts when the subject is tilted to various angles. PMID:25703742

  8. 3D Surface Imaging of the Human Female Torso in Upright to Supine Positions

    PubMed Central

    Reece, Gregory P.; Merchant, Fatima; Andon, Johnny; Khatam, Hamed; Ravi-Chandar, K.; Weston, June; Fingeret, Michelle C.; Lane, Chris; Duncan, Kelly; Markey, Mia K.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging of breasts is usually done with the patient in an upright position, which does not permit comparison of changes in breast morphology with changes in position of the torso. In theory, these limitations may be eliminated if the 3D camera system could remain fixed relative to the woman’s torso as she is tilted from 0 to 90 degrees. We mounted a 3dMDtorso imaging system onto a bariatric tilt table to image breasts at different tilt angles. The images were validated using a rigid plastic mannequin and the metrics compared to breast metrics obtained from 5 subjects with diverse morphology. The differences between distances between the same fiducial marks differed between the supine and upright positions by less than one percent for the mannequin, whereas the differences for distances between the same fiducial marks on the breasts of the 5 subjects differed significantly and could be correlated with body mass index and brassiere cup size for each position change. We show that a tilt table - 3D imaging system can be used to determine quantitative changes in the morphology of ptotic breasts when the subject is tilted to various angles. PMID:25703742

  9. Fat Face Illusion, or Jastrow Illusion with Faces, in Humans but not in Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    When two identical faces are aligned vertically, humans readily perceive the face at the bottom to be fatter than the top one. This phenomenon is called the fat face illusion. Furthermore, an apparent similarity has been pointed out between the fat face illusion and the Jastrow illusion. Recent studies have suggested the importance of facial contours and the role of basic-level processing of faces. In the present study, we directly compared the typical Jastrow illusion and fat face illusion in humans and chimpanzees using the same task. Both humans and chimpanzees clearly showed the Jastrow illusion, but only humans perceived the face at the bottom as fatter than the top. Although further examination is necessary, these results might reflect different processing levels of faces between the two species. PMID:27551367

  10. Effects of scatter on model parameter estimates in 3D PET studies of the human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, S.R.; Huang, S.C.

    1995-08-01

    Phantom measurements and simulated data were used to characterize the effects of scatter on 3D PET projection data, reconstructed images and model parameter estimates. Scatter distributions were estimated form studies of the 3D Hoffman brain phantom by the 2D/3D difference method. The total scatter fraction in the projection data was 40%, but reduces to 27% when only those counts within the boundary of the brain are considered. After reconstruction, the whole brain scatter fraction is 20%, averaging 10% in cortical gray matter, 21% in basal ganglia and 40% in white matter. The scatter contribution varies by almost a factor of two from the edge to the center of the brain due to the shape of the scatter distribution and the effects of attenuation correction. The effect of scatter on estimates of cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRGI) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) is evaluated by simulating typical gray matter time activity curves (TAC`s) and adding a scatter component based on whole-brain activity. Both CMRGI and CBF change in a linear fashion with scatter fraction. Efforts of between 10 and 30% will typically result if 3D studies are not corrected for scatter. The authors also present results from a simple and fast scatter correction which fits a gaussian function to the scattered events outside the brain. This reduced the scatter fraction to <2% in a range of phantom studies with different activity distributions. Using this correction, quantitative errors in 3D PET studies of CMRGI and CBF can be reduced to well below 10%.

  11. Simultaneous full-field 3-D vibrometry of the human eardrum using spatial-bandwidth multiplexed holography

    PubMed Central

    Khaleghi, Morteza; Guignard, Jérémie; Furlong, Cosme; Rosowski, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Holographic interferometric methods typically require the use of three sensitivity vectors in order to obtain three-dimensional (3-D) information. Methods based on multiple directions of illumination have limited applications when studying biological tissues that have temporally varying responses such as the tympanic membrane (TM). Therefore, to measure 3-D displacements in such applications, the measurements along all the sensitivity vectors have to be done simultaneously. We propose a multiple-illumination directions approach to measure 3-D displacements from a single-shot hologram that contains displacement information from three sensitivity vectors. The hologram of an object of interest is simultaneously recorded with three incoherently superimposed pairs of reference and object beams. The incident off-axis angles of the reference beams are adjusted such that the frequency components of the multiplexed hologram are completely separate. Because of the differences in the directions and wavelengths of the reference beams, the positions of each reconstructed image corresponding to each sensitivity vector are different. We implemented a registration algorithm to accurately translate individual components of the hologram into a single global coordinate system to calculate 3-D displacements. The results include magnitudes and phases of 3-D sound-induced motions of a human cadaveric TM at several excitation frequencies showing modal and traveling wave motions on its surface. PMID:25984986

  12. Vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in the first trimester human placenta: an innovative 3D study using an immersive Virtual Reality system.

    PubMed

    van Oppenraaij, R H F; Koning, A H J; Lisman, B A; Boer, K; van den Hoff, M J B; van der Spek, P J; Steegers, E A P; Exalto, N

    2009-03-01

    First trimester human villous vascularization is mainly studied by conventional two-dimensional (2D) microscopy. With this (2D) technique it is not possible to observe the spatial arrangement of the haemangioblastic cords and vessels, transition of cords into vessels and the transition of vasculogenesis to angiogenesis. The Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) allows for a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of images of early pregnancy villous vascularization. These 3D reconstructions, however, are normally analyzed on a 2D medium, lacking depth perception. We performed a descriptive morphologic study, using an immersive Virtual Reality system to utilize the full third dimension completely. This innovative 3D technique visualizes 3D datasets as enlarged 3D holograms and provided detailed insight in the spatial arrangement of first trimester villous vascularization, the beginning of lumen formation within various junctions of haemangioblastic cords between 5 and 7 weeks gestational age and in the gradual transition of vasculogenesis to angiogenesis. This innovative immersive Virtual Reality system enables new perspectives for vascular research and will be implemented for future investigation. PMID:19185915

  13. Electrical stimulation of human fusiform face-selective regions distorts face perception.

    PubMed

    Parvizi, Josef; Jacques, Corentin; Foster, Brett L; Witthoft, Nathan; Withoft, Nathan; Rangarajan, Vinitha; Weiner, Kevin S; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2012-10-24

    Face-selective neural responses in the human fusiform gyrus have been widely examined. However, their causal role in human face perception is largely unknown. Here, we used a multimodal approach of electrocorticography (ECoG), high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electrical brain stimulation (EBS) to directly investigate the causal role of face-selective neural responses of the fusiform gyrus (FG) in face perception in a patient implanted with subdural electrodes in the right inferior temporal lobe. High-resolution fMRI identified two distinct FG face-selective regions [mFus-faces and pFus-faces (mid and posterior fusiform, respectively)]. ECoG revealed a striking anatomical and functional correspondence with fMRI data where a pair of face-selective electrodes, positioned 1 cm apart, overlapped mFus-faces and pFus-faces, respectively. Moreover, electrical charge delivered to this pair of electrodes induced a profound face-specific perceptual distortion during viewing of real faces. Specifically, the subject reported a "metamorphosed" appearance of faces of people in the room. Several controls illustrate the specificity of the effect to the perception of faces. EBS of mFus-faces and pFus-faces neither produced a significant deficit in naming pictures of famous faces on the computer, nor did it affect the appearance of nonface objects. Further, the appearance of faces remained unaffected during both sham stimulation and stimulation of a pair of nearby electrodes that were not face-selective. Overall, our findings reveal a striking convergence of fMRI, ECoG, and EBS, which together offer a rare causal link between functional subsets of the human FG network and face perception. PMID:23100414

  14. Intrinsic FGF2 and FGF5 promotes angiogenesis of human aortic endothelial cells in 3D microfluidic angiogenesis system

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ha-Rim; Jeong, Hyo Eun; Joo, Hyung Joon; Choi, Seung-Cheol; Park, Chi-Yeon; Kim, Jong-Ho; Choi, Ji-Hyun; Cui, Long-Hui; Hong, Soon Jun; Chung, Seok; Lim, Do-Sun

    2016-01-01

    The human body contains different endothelial cell types and differences in their angiogenic potential are poorly understood. We compared the functional angiogenic ability of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic cell culture system. HAECs and HUVECs exhibited similar cellular characteristics in a 2D culture system; however, in the 3D microfluidic angiogenesis system, HAECs exhibited stronger angiogenic potential than HUVECs. Interestingly, the expression level of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)2 and FGF5 under vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A stimulation was significantly higher in HAECs than in HUVECs. Moreover, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of FGF2 and FGF5 more significantly attenuated vascular sprouting induced from HAECs than HUVECs. Our results suggest that HAECs have greater angiogenic potential through FGF2 and FGF5 upregulation and could be a compatible endothelial cell type to achieve robust angiogenesis. PMID:27357248

  15. Intrinsic FGF2 and FGF5 promotes angiogenesis of human aortic endothelial cells in 3D microfluidic angiogenesis system.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ha-Rim; Jeong, Hyo Eun; Joo, Hyung Joon; Choi, Seung-Cheol; Park, Chi-Yeon; Kim, Jong-Ho; Choi, Ji-Hyun; Cui, Long-Hui; Hong, Soon Jun; Chung, Seok; Lim, Do-Sun

    2016-01-01

    The human body contains different endothelial cell types and differences in their angiogenic potential are poorly understood. We compared the functional angiogenic ability of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic cell culture system. HAECs and HUVECs exhibited similar cellular characteristics in a 2D culture system; however, in the 3D microfluidic angiogenesis system, HAECs exhibited stronger angiogenic potential than HUVECs. Interestingly, the expression level of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)2 and FGF5 under vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A stimulation was significantly higher in HAECs than in HUVECs. Moreover, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of FGF2 and FGF5 more significantly attenuated vascular sprouting induced from HAECs than HUVECs. Our results suggest that HAECs have greater angiogenic potential through FGF2 and FGF5 upregulation and could be a compatible endothelial cell type to achieve robust angiogenesis. PMID:27357248

  16. Faces in Motion: Selectivity of Macaque and Human Face Processing Areas for Dynamic Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Polosecki, Pablo; Moeller, Sebastian; Schweers, Nicole; Romanski, Lizabeth M.; Tsao, Doris Y.

    2013-01-01

    Face recognition mechanisms need to extract information from static and dynamic faces. It has been hypothesized that the analysis of dynamic face attributes is performed by different face areas than the analysis of static facial attributes. To date, there is no evidence for such a division of labor in macaque monkeys. We used fMRI to determine specializations of macaque face areas for motion. Face areas in the fundus of the superior temporal sulcus responded to general object motion; face areas outside of the superior temporal sulcus fundus responded more to facial motion than general object motion. Thus, the macaque face-processing system exhibits regional specialization for facial motion. Human face areas, processing the same stimuli, exhibited specializations for facial motion as well. Yet the spatial patterns of facial motion selectivity differed across species, suggesting that facial dynamics are analyzed differently in humans and macaques. PMID:23864665

  17. Gradient Shifts with Naturally Occurring Human Face Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derenne, Adam; Breitstein, R. Michael

    2006-01-01

    The present research examined stimulus generalization and gradient shifts on a dimension involving human faces. Twenty undergraduates were instructed to examine the proportion of the total face length that lay between the tip of the nose and the end of the chin. The face stimuli were images of actual people shown on a computer screen; no face was…

  18. Perceptual integration for qualitatively different 3-D cues in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Dövencioğlu, Dicle; Ban, Hiroshi; Schofield, Andrew J; Welchman, Andrew E

    2013-09-01

    The visual system's flexibility in estimating depth is remarkable: We readily perceive 3-D structure under diverse conditions from the seemingly random dots of a "magic eye" stereogram to the aesthetically beautiful, but obviously flat, canvasses of the Old Masters. Yet, 3-D perception is often enhanced when different cues specify the same depth. This perceptual process is understood as Bayesian inference that improves sensory estimates. Despite considerable behavioral support for this theory, insights into the cortical circuits involved are limited. Moreover, extant work tested quantitatively similar cues, reducing some of the challenges associated with integrating computationally and qualitatively different signals. Here we address this challenge by measuring fMRI responses to depth structures defined by shading, binocular disparity, and their combination. We quantified information about depth configurations (convex "bumps" vs. concave "dimples") in different visual cortical areas using pattern classification analysis. We found that fMRI responses in dorsal visual area V3B/KO were more discriminable when disparity and shading concurrently signaled depth, in line with the predictions of cue integration. Importantly, by relating fMRI and psychophysical tests of integration, we observed a close association between depth judgments and activity in this area. Finally, using a cross-cue transfer test, we found that fMRI responses evoked by one cue afford classification of responses evoked by the other. This reveals a generalized depth representation in dorsal visual cortex that combines qualitatively different information in line with 3-D perception. PMID:23647559

  19. The mathematical description of the body centre of mass 3D path in human and animal locomotion.

    PubMed

    Minetti, Alberto E; Cisotti, Caterina; Mian, Omar S

    2011-05-17

    Although the 3D trajectory of the body centre of mass during ambulation constitutes the 'locomotor signature' at different gaits and speeds for humans and other legged species, no quantitative method for its description has been proposed in the literature so far. By combining the mathematical discoveries of Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830, analysis of periodic events) and of Jules Antoine Lissajous (1822-1880, parametric equation for closed loops) we designed a method simultaneously capturing the spatial and dynamical features of that 3D trajectory. The motion analysis of walking and running humans, and the re-processing of previously published data on trotting and galloping horses, as moving on a treadmill, allowed to obtain closed loops for the body centre of mass showing general and individual locomotor characteristics. The mechanical dynamics due to the different energy exchange, the asymmetry along each 3D axis, and the sagittal and lateral energy recovery, among other parameters, were evaluated for each gait according to the present methodology. The proposed mathematical description of the 3D trajectory of the body centre of mass could be used to better understand the physiology and biomechanics of normal locomotion, from monopods to octopods, and to evaluate individual deviations with respect to average values as resulting from gait pathologies and the restoration of a normal pattern after pharmacological, physiotherapeutic and surgical treatments. PMID:21463861

  20. Extracting the inclination angle of nerve fibers within the human brain with 3D-PLI independent of system properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckfort, Julia; Wiese, Hendrik; Dohmen, Melanie; Grässel, David; Pietrzyk, Uwe; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin; Axer, Markus

    2013-09-01

    The neuroimaging technique 3D-polarized light imaging (3D-PLI) has opened up new avenues to study the complex nerve fiber architecture of the human brain at sub-millimeter spatial resolution. This polarimetry technique is applicable to histological sections of postmortem brains utilizing the birefringence of nerve fibers caused by the regular arrangement of lipids and proteins in the myelin sheaths surrounding axons. 3D-PLI provides a three-dimensional description of the anatomical wiring scheme defined by the in-section direction angle and the out-of-section inclination angle. To date, 3D-PLI is the only available method that allows bridging the microscopic and the macroscopic description of the fiber architecture of the human brain. Here we introduce a new approach to retrieve the inclination angle of the fibers independently of the properties of the used polarimeters. This is relevant because the image resolution and the signal transmission inuence the measured birefringent signal (retardation) significantly. The image resolution was determined using the USAF- 1951 testchart applying the Rayleigh criterion. The signal transmission was measured by elliptical polarizers applying the Michelson contrast and histological slices of the optic tract of a postmortem brain. Based on these results, a modified retardation-inclination transfer function was proposed to extract the fiber inclination. The comparison of the actual and the inclination angles calculated with the theoretically proposed and the modified transfer function revealed a significant improvement in the extraction of the fiber inclinations.

  1. Variation and signatures of selection on the human face.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Tan, Jingze; Yang, Yajun; Zhou, Hang; Hu, Sile; Hashan, Agu; Bahaxar, Nurmamat; Xu, Shuhua; Weaver, Timothy D; Jin, Li; Stoneking, Mark; Tang, Kun

    2014-10-01

    There has been much debate about why humans throughout the world differ in facial form. Previous studies of human skull morphology found levels of among-population differentiation that were comparable to those of neutral genetic markers, suggesting that genetic drift (neutral processes) played an important role in influencing facial differentiation. However, variation in soft-tissue morphology has not been studied in detail. In this study, we analyzed high-resolution 3D images of soft-tissue facial form in four Eurasian populations: Han Chinese, Tibetans, Uyghur and Europeans. A novel method was used to establish a high-density alignment across all of the faces, allowing facial diversity to be examined at an unprecedented resolution. These data exhibit signatures of population structure and history. However, among-population differentiation was higher for soft-tissue facial form than for genome-wide genetic loci, and high-resolution analyses reveal that the nose, brow area and cheekbones exhibit particularly strong signals of differentiation (Qst estimates: 0.3-0.8) between Europeans and Han Chinese. Our results suggest that local adaptation and/or sexual selection have been important in shaping human soft-tissue facial morphology. PMID:25186351

  2. Computer-aided segmentation and 3D analysis of in vivo MRI examinations of the human vocal tract during phonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wismüller, Axel; Behrends, Johannes; Hoole, Phil; Leinsinger, Gerda L.; Meyer-Baese, Anke; Reiser, Maximilian F.

    2008-03-01

    We developed, tested, and evaluated a 3D segmentation and analysis system for in vivo MRI examinations of the human vocal tract during phonation. For this purpose, six professionally trained speakers, age 22-34y, were examined using a standardized MRI protocol (1.5 T, T1w FLASH, ST 4mm, 23 slices, acq. time 21s). The volunteers performed a prolonged (>=21s) emission of sounds of the German phonemic inventory. Simultaneous audio tape recording was obtained to control correct utterance. Scans were made in axial, coronal, and sagittal planes each. Computer-aided quantitative 3D evaluation included (i) automated registration of the phoneme-specific data acquired in different slice orientations, (ii) semi-automated segmentation of oropharyngeal structures, (iii) computation of a curvilinear vocal tract midline in 3D by nonlinear PCA, (iv) computation of cross-sectional areas of the vocal tract perpendicular to this midline. For the vowels /a/,/e/,/i/,/o/,/ø/,/u/,/y/, the extracted area functions were used to synthesize phoneme sounds based on an articulatory-acoustic model. For quantitative analysis, recorded and synthesized phonemes were compared, where area functions extracted from 2D midsagittal slices were used as a reference. All vowels could be identified correctly based on the synthesized phoneme sounds. The comparison between synthesized and recorded vowel phonemes revealed that the quality of phoneme sound synthesis was improved for phonemes /a/ and /y/, if 3D instead of 2D data were used, as measured by the average relative frequency shift between recorded and synthesized vowel formants (p<0.05, one-sided Wilcoxon rank sum test). In summary, the combination of fast MRI followed by subsequent 3D segmentation and analysis is a novel approach to examine human phonation in vivo. It unveils functional anatomical findings that may be essential for realistic modelling of the human vocal tract during speech production.

  3. The estimation of 3D SAR distributions in the human head from mobile phone compliance testing data for epidemiological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wake, Kanako; Varsier, Nadège; Watanabe, Soichi; Taki, Masao; Wiart, Joe; Mann, Simon; Deltour, Isabelle; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2009-10-01

    A worldwide epidemiological study called 'INTERPHONE' has been conducted to estimate the hypothetical relationship between brain tumors and mobile phone use. In this study, we proposed a method to estimate 3D distribution of the specific absorption rate (SAR) in the human head due to mobile phone use to provide the exposure gradient for epidemiological studies. 3D SAR distributions due to exposure to an electromagnetic field from mobile phones are estimated from mobile phone compliance testing data for actual devices. The data for compliance testing are measured only on the surface in the region near the device and in a small 3D region around the maximum on the surface in a homogeneous phantom with a specific shape. The method includes an interpolation/extrapolation and a head shape conversion. With the interpolation/extrapolation, SAR distributions in the whole head are estimated from the limited measured data. 3D SAR distributions in the numerical head models, where the tumor location is identified in the epidemiological studies, are obtained from measured SAR data with the head shape conversion by projection. Validation of the proposed method was performed experimentally and numerically. It was confirmed that the proposed method provided good estimation of 3D SAR distribution in the head, especially in the brain, which is the tissue of major interest in epidemiological studies. We conclude that it is possible to estimate 3D SAR distributions in a realistic head model from the data obtained by compliance testing measurements to provide a measure for the exposure gradient in specific locations of the brain for the purpose of exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. The proposed method has been used in several studies in the INTERPHONE.

  4. In Vivo 3D Meibography of the Human Eyelid Using Real Time Imaging Fourier-Domain OCT

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ho Sik; Shin, Jun Geun; Lee, Byeong Ha; Eom, Tae Joong; Joo, Choun-Ki

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we reported obtaining tomograms of meibomian glands from healthy volunteers using commercial anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), which is widely employed in clinics for examination of the anterior segment. However, we could not create 3D images of the meibomian glands, because the commercial OCT does not have a 3D reconstruction function. In this study we report the creation of 3D images of the meibomian glands by reconstructing the tomograms of these glands using high speed Fourier-Domain OCT (FD-OCT) developed in our laboratory. This research was jointly undertaken at the Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital (Seoul, Korea) and the Advanced Photonics Research Institute of Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (Gwangju, Korea) with two healthy volunteers and seven patients with meibomian gland dysfunction. A real time imaging FD-OCT system based on a high-speed wavelength swept laser was developed that had a spectral bandwidth of 100 nm at the 1310 nm center wavelength. The axial resolution was 5 µm and the lateral resolution was 13 µm in air. Using this device, the meibomian glands of nine subjects were examined. A series of tomograms from the upper eyelid measuring 5 mm (from left to right, B-scan) × 2 mm (from upper part to lower part, C-scan) were collected. Three-D images of the meibomian glands were then reconstructed using 3D “data visualization, analysis, and modeling software”. Established infrared meibography was also performed for comparison. The 3D images of healthy subjects clearly showed the meibomian glands, which looked similar to bunches of grapes. These results were consistent with previous infrared meibography results. The meibomian glands were parallel to each other, and the saccular acini were clearly visible. Here we report the successful production of 3D images of human meibomian glands by reconstructing tomograms of these glands with high speed FD-OCT. PMID:23805297

  5. Increasing 3D Matrix Rigidity Strengthens Proliferation and Spheroid Development of Human Liver Cells in a Constant Growth Factor Environment.

    PubMed

    Bomo, Jérémy; Ezan, Frédéric; Tiaho, François; Bellamri, Medjda; Langouët, Sophie; Theret, Nathalie; Baffet, Georges

    2016-03-01

    Mechanical forces influence the growth and shape of virtually all tissues and organs. Recent studies show that increased cell contractibility, growth and differentiation might be normalized by modulating cell tensions. Particularly, the role of these tensions applied by the extracellular matrix during liver fibrosis could influence the hepatocarcinogenesis process. The objective of this study is to determine if 3D stiffness could influence growth and phenotype of normal and transformed hepatocytes and to integrate extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness to tensional homeostasis. We have developed an appropriate 3D culture model: hepatic cells within three-dimensional collagen matrices with varying rigidity. Our results demonstrate that the rigidity influenced the cell phenotype and induced spheroid clusters development whereas in soft matrices, Huh7 transformed cells were less proliferative, well-spread and flattened. We confirmed that ERK1 played a predominant role over ERK2 in cisplatin-induced death, whereas ERK2 mainly controlled proliferation. As compared to 2D culture, 3D cultures are associated with epithelial markers expression. Interestingly, proliferation of normal hepatocytes was also induced in rigid gels. Furthermore, biotransformation activities are increased in 3D gels, where CYP1A2 enzyme can be highly induced/activated in primary culture of human hepatocytes embedded in the matrix. In conclusion, we demonstrated that increasing 3D rigidity could promote proliferation and spheroid developments of liver cells demonstrating that 3D collagen gels are an attractive tool for studying rigidity-dependent homeostasis of the liver cells embedded in the matrix and should be privileged for both chronic toxicological and pharmacological drug screening. PMID:26331987

  6. Faces in places: humans and machines make similar face detection errors.

    PubMed

    't Hart, Bernard Marius; Abresch, Tilman Gerrit Jakob; Einhäuser, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    The human visual system seems to be particularly efficient at detecting faces. This efficiency sometimes comes at the cost of wrongfully seeing faces in arbitrary patterns, including famous examples such as a rock configuration on Mars or a toast's roast patterns. In machine vision, face detection has made considerable progress and has become a standard feature of many digital cameras. The arguably most wide-spread algorithm for such applications ("Viola-Jones" algorithm) achieves high detection rates at high computational efficiency. To what extent do the patterns that the algorithm mistakenly classifies as faces also fool humans? We selected three kinds of stimuli from real-life, first-person perspective movies based on the algorithm's output: correct detections ("real faces"), false positives ("illusory faces") and correctly rejected locations ("non faces"). Observers were shown pairs of these for 20 ms and had to direct their gaze to the location of the face. We found that illusory faces were mistaken for faces more frequently than non faces. In addition, rotation of the real face yielded more errors, while rotation of the illusory face yielded fewer errors. Using colored stimuli increases overall performance, but does not change the pattern of results. When replacing the eye movement by a manual response, however, the preference for illusory faces over non faces disappeared. Taken together, our data show that humans make similar face-detection errors as the Viola-Jones algorithm, when directing their gaze to briefly presented stimuli. In particular, the relative spatial arrangement of oriented filters seems of relevance. This suggests that efficient face detection in humans is likely to be pre-attentive and based on rather simple features as those encoded in the early visual system. PMID:21998653

  7. Modeling human faces with multi-image photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Apuzzo, Nicola

    2002-03-01

    Modeling and measurement of the human face have been increasing by importance for various purposes. Laser scanning, coded light range digitizers, image-based approaches and digital stereo photogrammetry are the used methods currently employed in medical applications, computer animation, video surveillance, teleconferencing and virtual reality to produce three dimensional computer models of the human face. Depending on the application, different are the requirements. Ours are primarily high accuracy of the measurement and automation in the process. The method presented in this paper is based on multi-image photogrammetry. The equipment, the method and results achieved with this technique are here depicted. The process is composed of five steps: acquisition of multi-images, calibration of the system, establishment of corresponding points in the images, computation of their 3-D coordinates and generation of a surface model. The images captured by five CCD cameras arranged in front of the subject are digitized by a frame grabber. The complete system is calibrated using a reference object with coded target points, which can be measured fully automatically. To facilitate the establishment of correspondences in the images, texture in the form of random patterns can be projected from two directions onto the face. The multi-image matching process, based on a geometrical constrained least squares matching algorithm, produces a dense set of corresponding points in the five images. Neighborhood filters are then applied on the matching results to remove the errors. After filtering the data, the three-dimensional coordinates of the matched points are computed by forward intersection using the results of the calibration process; the achieved mean accuracy is about 0.2 mm in the sagittal direction and about 0.1 mm in the lateral direction. The last step of data processing is the generation of a surface model from the point cloud and the application of smooth filters. Moreover, a

  8. Exome-Scale Discovery of Hotspot Mutation Regions in Human Cancer Using 3D Protein Structure.

    PubMed

    Tokheim, Collin; Bhattacharya, Rohit; Niknafs, Noushin; Gygax, Derek M; Kim, Rick; Ryan, Michael; Masica, David L; Karchin, Rachel

    2016-07-01

    The impact of somatic missense mutation on cancer etiology and progression is often difficult to interpret. One common approach for assessing the contribution of missense mutations in carcinogenesis is to identify genes mutated with statistically nonrandom frequencies. Even given the large number of sequenced cancer samples currently available, this approach remains underpowered to detect drivers, particularly in less studied cancer types. Alternative statistical and bioinformatic approaches are needed. One approach to increase power is to focus on localized regions of increased missense mutation density or hotspot regions, rather than a whole gene or protein domain. Detecting missense mutation hotspot regions in three-dimensional (3D) protein structure may also be beneficial because linear sequence alone does not fully describe the biologically relevant organization of codons. Here, we present a novel and statistically rigorous algorithm for detecting missense mutation hotspot regions in 3D protein structures. We analyzed approximately 3 × 10(5) mutations from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and identified 216 tumor-type-specific hotspot regions. In addition to experimentally determined protein structures, we considered high-quality structural models, which increase genomic coverage from approximately 5,000 to more than 15,000 genes. We provide new evidence that 3D mutation analysis has unique advantages. It enables discovery of hotspot regions in many more genes than previously shown and increases sensitivity to hotspot regions in tumor suppressor genes (TSG). Although hotspot regions have long been known to exist in both TSGs and oncogenes, we provide the first report that they have different characteristic properties in the two types of driver genes. We show how cancer researchers can use our results to link 3D protein structure and the biologic functions of missense mutations in cancer, and to generate testable hypotheses about driver mechanisms. Our results

  9. 3D measurement of the human body for apparel mass customization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bugao; Lin, Sheng; Chen, Tong

    2000-12-01

    An automatic body measurement system is essential for apparel mass customization. This paper introduces the development of a body-scanning system using the multi-line triangulation technique, and methods for body size extraction and body modeling. The scanning system can rapidly acquire the surface data of a body, provide accurate body dimensions, many of which are not measurable with conventional methods, and also construct a body form based on the scanned data as a digital model of the body for 3D garment design and for virtual try-on of a designed garment.

  10. From 2D to 3D--a New Dimension for Modelling the Effect of Natural Products on Human Tissue.

    PubMed

    Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; Fey, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Natural products, or their synthetic derivatives are a treasure trove to find potential candidates for novel drugs for human treatment. The selection of diamonds from the huge pile of worthless stone is a critical--and difficult--stage in the discovery pipeline. Of all the factors to be considered, perhaps the most important, is that the compound should have the desired effect on the tissue in vivo. Since it is not possible (or ethical) to test all compounds in vivo one must preselect using a surrogate assay system. While animal models have the advantage of being holistic and current 3D culture systems are reductionistic, they at least can be constructed from human cell types. In this review we will consider some of the evidence demonstrating that cells grown in 3D cultures have physiological performances that mimic functions seen in human tissues significantly better than cells grown using classical 2D culture systems. We will discuss advantages and disadvantages of these new culture technologies and highlight theoretical reasons for the differences. 3D cell culture technologies are more labour intensive than 2D culture systems and therefore their introduction is a trade-off between the value of obtaining data that is more relevant to the human condition against their through-put. It is already clear that future in vitro 3D systems will become more complex, using multiple cell types to more faithfully represent a particular tissue or even organ system. And one thing is sure - the diamonds are not easy to find! PMID:26429710

  11. VIRO 3D: fast three-dimensional full-body scanning for humans and other living objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Norbert; Minge, Bernhard

    1998-03-01

    The development of a family of partial and whole body scanners provides a complete technology for fully three-dimensional and contact-free scans on human bodies or other living objects within seconds. This paper gives insight into the design and the functional principles of the whole body scanner VIRO 3D operating on the basis of the laser split-beam method. The arrangement of up to 24 camera/laser combinations, thus dividing the area into different camera fields and an all- around sensor configuration travelling in vertical direction allow the complete 360-degree-scan of an object within 6 - 20 seconds. Due to a special calibration process the different sensors are matched and the measured data are combined. Up to 10 million 3D measuring points with a resolution of approximately 1 mm are processed in all coordinate axes to generate a 3D model. By means of high-performance processors in combination with real-time image processing chips the image data from almost any number of sensors can be recorded and evaluated synchronously in video real-time. VIRO 3D scanning systems have already been successfully implemented in various applications and will open up new perspectives in different other fields, ranging from industry, orthopaedic medicine, plastic surgery to art and photography.

  12. Laser 3D printing with sub-microscale resolution of porous elastomeric scaffolds for supporting human bone stem cells.

    PubMed

    Petrochenko, Peter E; Torgersen, Jan; Gruber, Peter; Hicks, Lucas A; Zheng, Jiwen; Kumar, Girish; Narayan, Roger J; Goering, Peter L; Liska, Robert; Stampfl, Jürgen; Ovsianikov, Aleksandr

    2015-04-01

    A reproducible method is needed to fabricate 3D scaffold constructs that results in periodic and uniform structures with precise control at sub-micrometer and micrometer length scales. In this study, fabrication of scaffolds by two-photon polymerization (2PP) of a biodegradable urethane and acrylate-based photoelastomer is demonstrated. This material supports 2PP processing with sub-micrometer spatial resolution. The high photoreactivity of the biophotoelastomer permits 2PP processing at a scanning speed of 1000 mm s(-1), facilitating rapid fabrication of relatively large structures (>5 mm(3)). These structures are custom printed for in vitro assay screening in 96-well plates and are sufficiently flexible to enable facile handling and transplantation. These results indicate that stable scaffolds with porosities of greater than 60% can be produced using 2PP. Human bone marrow stromal cells grown on 3D scaffolds exhibit increased growth and proliferation compared to smooth 2D scaffold controls. 3D scaffolds adsorb larger amounts of protein than smooth 2D scaffolds due to their larger surface area; the scaffolds also allow cells to attach in multiple planes and to completely infiltrate the porous scaffolds. The flexible photoelastomer material is biocompatible in vitro and is associated with facile handling, making it a viable candidate for further study of complex 3D-printed scaffolds. PMID:25522214

  13. A video, text, and speech-driven realistic 3-d virtual head for human-machine interface.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun; Wang, Zeng-Fu

    2015-05-01

    A multiple inputs-driven realistic facial animation system based on 3-D virtual head for human-machine interface is proposed. The system can be driven independently by video, text, and speech, thus can interact with humans through diverse interfaces. The combination of parameterized model and muscular model is used to obtain a tradeoff between computational efficiency and high realism of 3-D facial animation. The online appearance model is used to track 3-D facial motion from video in the framework of particle filtering, and multiple measurements, i.e., pixel color value of input image and Gabor wavelet coefficient of illumination ratio image, are infused to reduce the influence of lighting and person dependence for the construction of online appearance model. The tri-phone model is used to reduce the computational consumption of visual co-articulation in speech synchronized viseme synthesis without sacrificing any performance. The objective and subjective experiments show that the system is suitable for human-machine interaction. PMID:25122851

  14. Selecting best-fit models for estimating the body mass from 3D data of the human calcaneus.

    PubMed

    Jung, Go-Un; Lee, U-Young; Kim, Dong-Ho; Kwak, Dai-Soon; Ahn, Yong-Woo; Han, Seung-Ho; Kim, Yi-Suk

    2016-05-01

    Body mass (BM) estimation could facilitate the interpretation of skeletal materials in terms of the individual's body size and physique in forensic anthropology. However, few metric studies have tried to estimate BM by focusing on prominent biomechanical properties of the calcaneus. The purpose of this study was to prepare best-fit models for estimating BM from the 3D human calcaneus by two major linear regression analysis (the heuristic statistical and all-possible-regressions techniques) and validate the models through predicted residual sum of squares (PRESS) statistics. A metric analysis was conducted based on 70 human calcaneus samples (29 males and 41 females) taken from 3D models in the Digital Korean Database and 10 variables were measured for each sample. Three best-fit models were postulated by F-statistics, Mallows' Cp, and Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayes information criterion (BIC) for each available candidate models. Finally, the most accurate regression model yields lowest %SEE and 0.843 of R(2). Through the application of leave-one-out cross validation, the predictive power was indicated a high level of validation accuracy. This study also confirms that the equations for estimating BM using 3D models of human calcaneus will be helpful to establish identification in forensic cases with consistent reliability. PMID:26970867

  15. A virtual interface for interactions with 3D models of the human body.

    PubMed

    De Paolis, Lucio T; Pulimeno, Marco; Aloisio, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    The developed system is the first prototype of a virtual interface designed to avoid contact with the computer so that the surgeon is able to visualize 3D models of the patient's organs more effectively during surgical procedure or to use this in the pre-operative planning. The doctor will be able to rotate, to translate and to zoom in on 3D models of the patient's organs simply by moving his finger in free space; in addition, it is possible to choose to visualize all of the organs or only some of them. All of the interactions with the models happen in real-time using the virtual interface which appears as a touch-screen suspended in free space in a position chosen by the user when the application is started up. Finger movements are detected by means of an optical tracking system and are used to simulate touch with the interface and to interact by pressing the buttons present on the virtual screen. PMID:19377116

  16. Animal, but not human, faces engage the distributed face network in adolescents with autism.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Elisabeth M; Behrmann, Marlene; Minshew, Nancy J; Garcia, Natalie V; Scherf, K Suzanne

    2016-03-01

    Multiple hypotheses have been offered to explain the impaired face-processing behavior and the accompanying underlying disruptions in neural circuitry among individuals with autism. We explored the specificity of atypical face-processing activation and potential alterations to fusiform gyrus (FG) morphology as potential underlying mechanisms. Adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) and age-matched typically developing (TD) adolescents were scanned with sMRI and fMRI as they observed human and animal faces. In spite of exhibiting comparable face recognition behavior, the HFA adolescents evinced hypo-activation throughout the face-processing system in response to unfamiliar human, but not animal, faces. They also exhibited greater activation in affective regions of the face-processing network in response to animal, but not human, faces. Importantly, this atypical pattern of activation in response to human faces was not related to atypical structural properties of the FG. This atypical neural response to human faces in autism may stem from abnormalities in the ability to represent the reward value of social (i.e. conspecific) stimuli. PMID:25873084

  17. Atypical pyramidal cells in epileptic human cortex: CFLS and 3-D reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Belichencko, P; Dahlström, A; von Essen, C; Lindström, S; Nordborg, C; Sourander, P

    1992-09-01

    Epileptic temporal cortices, removed from 3 patients with intractable partial epilepsy (IPE) during neurosurgery, were studied. Pyramidal neurons (40-50 per slice) in laminae III, V and white matter, were injected with lucifer yellow. Samples were examined in a confocal laser scanning microscope (Biorad 600) and individual cells scanned at 0.1-1 microns incremental levels. 2-D maximal linear projection was used for overview. Frames (50-60) of scanned neurons were transformed into 3-D volumes, using VoxelView software on a Silicone Graphics workstation and rotated. All samples contained neurons with duplicated apical dendrites, additional basal dendrites or were misplaced in a horizontal position in the white matter. The relation between these preliminary observations and the disease is discussed. PMID:1421134

  18. 3D Simulation of Ultrasound in the Ultra-Distal Human Radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Jonathan J.; Luo, Gangming; Siffert, Robert S.

    The overall objective of this research is to develop an ultrasonic method for non-invasive assessment of the ultradistal radius (UDR). The specific objective of this study was to examine the propagation of ultrasound through the UDR and determine the relationships between bone mass and ultrasound, as well as the ability of ultrasound to discriminate between fracture and non-fracture cases. High-resolution peripheral-QCT (HR-pQCT) images were obtained from a set of 110 subjects that were part of a larger study on osteoporosis. Twenty-three of the subjects had experienced a UDR fracture within the past 2 years; the other 87 subjects served as controls. Each 3D image was used to simulate ultrasound measurements that would result from propagation through the UDR, from its anterior to its posterior surfaces. The simulation was carried out using Wave3000 (CyberLogic, Inc., New York, USA), which solves the full 3D viscoelastic wave equation using a finite difference time domain method. Bone mineral density associated with each radius was computed for each subject, and an ultrasound parameter known as net time delay (NTD) was evaluated. NTD has been shown to be highly correlated with total bone mass in both in vitro and clinical studies. Significant correlations were found between NTD and total bone mass (R2 = 0.91, p < 0.001). The data also showed a statistically significant difference in the NTD for the fracture and non-fracture cases (i.e., a decrease in mean NTD of 14% (P < 0.001), with a t-test statistic of 3.8). The study shows that ultrasound is correlated with bone mass at the UDR, as well as with fracture incidence. Therefore ultrasound may prove useful as a simple and convenient method for non-invasive assessment of osteoporosis and fracture risk. Work is ongoing to compare the simulated ultrasound data with clinical ultrasound measurements made on the same individuals.

  19. 3D models as a platform for urban analysis and studies on human perception of space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher-Gewirtzman, D.

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this work is to develop an integrated visual analysis and modelling for environmental and urban systems in respect to interior space layout and functionality. This work involves interdisciplinary research efforts that focus primarily on architecture design discipline, yet incorporates experts from other and different disciplines, such as Geoinformatics, computer sciences and environment-behavior studies. This work integrates an advanced Spatial Openness Index (SOI) model within realistic geovisualized Geographical Information System (GIS) environment and assessment using subjective residents' evaluation. The advanced SOI model measures the volume of visible space at any required view point practically, for every room or function. This model enables accurate 3D simulation of the built environment regarding built structure and surrounding vegetation. This paper demonstrates the work on a case study. A 3D model of Neve-Shaanan neighbourhood in Haifa was developed. Students that live in this neighbourhood had participated in this research. Their apartments were modelled in details and inserted into a general model, representing topography and the volumes of buildings. The visual space for each room in every apartment was documented and measured and at the same time the students were asked to answer questions regarding their perception of space and view from their residence. The results of this research work had shown potential contribution to professional users, such as researchers, designers and city planners. This model can be easily used by professionals and by non-professionals such as city dwellers, contractors and developers. This work continues with additional case studies having different building typologies and functions variety, using virtual reality tools.

  20. Use of 3-D magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography in detecting human cerebral stroke: a simulation study*

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Nuo; Zhu, Shan-an; He, Bin

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a new three dimensional (3-D) conductivity imaging approach and have used it to detect human brain conductivity changes corresponding to acute cerebral stroke. The proposed Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography (MREIT) approach is based on the J-Substitution algorithm and is expanded to imaging 3-D subject conductivity distribution changes. Computer simulation studies have been conducted to evaluate the present MREIT imaging approach. Simulations of both types of cerebral stroke, hemorrhagic stroke and ischemic stroke, were performed on a four-sphere head model. Simulation results showed that the correlation coefficient (CC) and relative error (RE) between target and estimated conductivity distributions were 0.9245±0.0068 and 8.9997%±0.0084%, for hemorrhagic stroke, and 0.6748±0.0197 and 8.8986%±0.0089%, for ischemic stroke, when the SNR (signal-to-noise radio) of added GWN (Gaussian White Noise) was 40. The convergence characteristic was also evaluated according to the changes of CC and RE with different iteration numbers. The CC increases and RE decreases monotonously with the increasing number of iterations. The present simulation results show the feasibility of the proposed 3-D MREIT approach in hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke detection and suggest that the method may become a useful alternative in clinical diagnosis of acute cerebral stroke in humans. PMID:15822161

  1. Living human face measurements using pulsed holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongartz, Jens; Giel, Dominik M.; Hering, Peter

    2000-10-01

    A method to measure precisely the 2D portrait of patients undergoing maxillofacial surgery based on holography is presented. We record holograms of patients with a pulsed Nd:YLF laser system on high resolution photographic glass plates. These images contain the 3D spatial information which, due to the extremely short recording time, is not affected at all by involuntary movements. The reconstructed real image of the hologram is sliced into a series of 2D projections by means of a screen. A first approach to reconstruct the patient's 3D surface information from the captured data set is presented.

  2. The human face of health disparities.

    PubMed

    Green, Alexander R

    2003-01-01

    In the last 20 years, the issue of disparities in health between racial/ethnic groups has moved from the realm of common sense and anecdote to the realm of science. Hard, cold data now force us to consider what many had long taken for granted. Not only does health differ by race/ethnicity, but our health care system itself is deeply biased. From lack of diversity in the leadership and workforce, to ethnocentric systems of care, to biased clinical decision-making, the American health care system is geared to treat the majority, while the minority suffers. The photos shown here are of patients and scenes that recall some of the important landmarks in research on racial/ethnic disparities in health. The purpose is to put faces and humanity onto the numbers. While we now have great bodies of evidence upon which to lobby for change, in the end, each statistic still represents a personal tragedy or an individual triumph. PMID:12815077

  3. Unique characteristics of human mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSC) pre-activated in 3D cultures under different conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ylostalo, Joni H.; Bartosh, Thomas J.; Tiblow, April; Prockop, Darwin J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are being employed in clinical trials, but the best protocol to prepare the cells for administration to patients remains unclear. We previously demonstrated that MSCs could be pre-activated to express therapeutic factors by culturing the cells in 3D. Here we compared the activation of MSCs in 3D in fetal bovine serum (FBS) containing medium and in multiple xeno-free media formulations. Methods MSC aggregation and sphere formation was studied using hanging drop cultures with medium containing FBS or with various commercially available stem cell media with or without human serum albumin (HSA). Activation of MSCs was studied with gene expression and protein secretion measurements and with functional studies using macrophages and cancer cells. Results MSCs did not condense into tight spheroids and express a full complement of therapeutic genes in MEMα or several commercial stem-cell media. However, we identified a chemically-defined xeno-free media that when supplemented with HSA from blood or recombinant HSA, resulted in compact spheres with high cell viability, together with high expression of anti-inflammatory (PGE2, TSG-6) and anti-cancer molecules (TRAIL, IL-24). Furthermore, spheres cultured in this medium showed potent anti-inflammatory effects in an LPS-stimulated macrophage system, and suppressed the growth of prostate cancer cells by promoting cell-cycle arrest and cell death. Discussion We demonstrated that cell activation in 3D depends critically on the culture medium. The conditions developed here for 3D culture of MSCs should be useful in further research on MSCs and their potential therapeutic applications. PMID:25231893

  4. Comparison of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Source Differentiation Toward Human Pediatric Aortic Valve Interstitial Cells within 3D Engineered Matrices.

    PubMed

    Duan, Bin; Hockaday, Laura A; Das, Shoshana; Xu, Charlie; Butcher, Jonathan T

    2015-08-01

    Living tissue-engineered heart valves (TEHV) would be a major benefit for children who require a replacement with the capacity for growth and biological integration. A persistent challenge for TEHV is accessible human cell source(s) that can mimic native valve cell phenotypes and matrix remodeling characteristics that are essential for long-term function. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow (BMMSC) or adipose tissue (ADMSC) are intriguing cell sources for TEHV, but they have not been compared with pediatric human aortic valve interstitial cells (pHAVIC) in relevant 3D environments. In this study, we compared the spontaneous and induced multipotency of ADMSC and BMMSC with that of pHAVIC using different induction media within three-dimensional (3D) bioactive hybrid hydrogels with material modulus comparable to that of aortic heart valve leaflets. pHAVIC possessed some multi-lineage differentiation capacity in response to induction media, but limited to the earliest stages and much less potent than either ADMSC or BMMSC. ADMSC expressed cell phenotype markers more similar to pHAVIC when conditioned in basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) containing HAVIC growth medium, while BMMSC generally expressed similar extracellular matrix remodeling characteristics to pHAVIC. Finally, we covalently attached bFGF to PEG monoacrylate linkers and further covalently immobilized in the 3D hybrid hydrogels. Immobilized bFGF upregulated vimentin expression and promoted the fibroblastic differentiation of pHAVIC, ADMSC, and BMMSC. These findings suggest that stem cells retain a heightened capacity for osteogenic differentiation in 3D culture, but can be shifted toward fibroblast differentiation through matrix tethering of bFGF. Such a strategy is likely important for utilizing stem cell sources in heart valve tissue engineering applications. PMID:25594437

  5. Faces in Places: Humans and Machines Make Similar Face Detection Errors

    PubMed Central

    't Hart, Bernard Marius; Abresch, Tilman Gerrit Jakob; Einhäuser, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    The human visual system seems to be particularly efficient at detecting faces. This efficiency sometimes comes at the cost of wrongfully seeing faces in arbitrary patterns, including famous examples such as a rock configuration on Mars or a toast's roast patterns. In machine vision, face detection has made considerable progress and has become a standard feature of many digital cameras. The arguably most wide-spread algorithm for such applications (“Viola-Jones” algorithm) achieves high detection rates at high computational efficiency. To what extent do the patterns that the algorithm mistakenly classifies as faces also fool humans? We selected three kinds of stimuli from real-life, first-person perspective movies based on the algorithm's output: correct detections (“real faces”), false positives (“illusory faces”) and correctly rejected locations (“non faces”). Observers were shown pairs of these for 20 ms and had to direct their gaze to the location of the face. We found that illusory faces were mistaken for faces more frequently than non faces. In addition, rotation of the real face yielded more errors, while rotation of the illusory face yielded fewer errors. Using colored stimuli increases overall performance, but does not change the pattern of results. When replacing the eye movement by a manual response, however, the preference for illusory faces over non faces disappeared. Taken together, our data show that humans make similar face-detection errors as the Viola-Jones algorithm, when directing their gaze to briefly presented stimuli. In particular, the relative spatial arrangement of oriented filters seems of relevance. This suggests that efficient face detection in humans is likely to be pre-attentive and based on rather simple features as those encoded in the early visual system. PMID:21998653

  6. Production of 3-D Airway Organoids From Primary Human Airway Basal Cells and Their Use in High-Throughput Screening.

    PubMed

    Hild, Marc; Jaffe, Aron B

    2016-01-01

    The ability of human airway basal cells to serve as progenitor cells in the conducting airway makes them an attractive target in a number of respiratory diseases associated with epithelial remodeling. This unit describes a protocol for the culture of 'bronchospheres', three-dimensional (3-D) organoids that are derived from primary human airway basal cells. Mature bronchospheres are composed of functional multi-ciliated cells, mucin-producing goblet cells, and airway basal cells. In contrast to existing methods used for the culture of well-differentiated human airway epithelial cells, bronchospheres do not require growth on a permeable support and can be cultured in 384-well assay plates. The system provides a mechanism for investigating the regulation of basal cell fate during airway epithelial morphogenesis, as well as a basis for studying the function of the human airway epithelium in high-throughput assays. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27171795

  7. Atlas-registration based image segmentation of MRI human thigh muscles in 3D space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Ezak; Yap, Moi Hoon; Degens, Hans; McPhee, Jamie S.

    2014-03-01

    Automatic segmentation of anatomic structures of magnetic resonance thigh scans can be a challenging task due to the potential lack of precisely defined muscle boundaries and issues related to intensity inhomogeneity or bias field across an image. In this paper, we demonstrate a combination framework of atlas construction and image registration methods to propagate the desired region of interest (ROI) between atlas image and the targeted MRI thigh scans for quadriceps muscles, femur cortical layer and bone marrow segmentations. The proposed system employs a semi-automatic segmentation method on an initial image in one dataset (from a series of images). The segmented initial image is then used as an atlas image to automate the segmentation of other images in the MRI scans (3-D space). The processes include: ROI labeling, atlas construction and registration, and morphological transform correspondence pixels (in terms of feature and intensity value) between the atlas (template) image and the targeted image based on the prior atlas information and non-rigid image registration methods.

  8. Human and tree classification based on a model using 3D ladar in a GPS-denied environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kuk; Baeg, Seung-Ho; Park, Sangdeok

    2013-05-01

    This study explained a method to classify humans and trees by extraction their geometric and statistical features in data obtained from 3D LADAR. In a wooded GPS-denied environment, it is difficult to identify the location of unmanned ground vehicles and it is also difficult to properly recognize the environment in which these vehicles move. In this study, using the point cloud data obtained via 3D LADAR, a method to extract the features of humans, trees, and other objects within an environment was implemented and verified through the processes of segmentation, feature extraction, and classification. First, for the segmentation, the radially bounded nearest neighbor method was applied. Second, for the feature extraction, each segmented object was divided into three parts, and then their geometrical and statistical features were extracted. A human was divided into three parts: the head, trunk and legs. A tree was also divided into three parts: the top, middle, and bottom. The geometric features were the variance of the x-y data for the center of each part in an object, using the distance between the two central points for each part, using K-mean clustering. The statistical features were the variance of each of the parts. In this study, three, six and six features of data were extracted, respectively, resulting in a total of 15 features. Finally, after training the extracted data via an artificial network, new data were classified. This study showed the results of an experiment that applied an algorithm proposed with a vehicle equipped with 3D LADAR in a thickly forested area, which is a GPS-denied environment. A total of 5,158 segments were obtained and the classification rates for human and trees were 82.9% and 87.4%, respectively.

  9. High-resolution, low-dose phase contrast X-ray tomography for 3D diagnosis of human breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunzhe; Brun, Emmanuel; Coan, Paola; Huang, Zhifeng; Sztrókay, Aniko; Diemoz, Paul Claude; Liebhardt, Susanne; Mittone, Alberto; Gasilov, Sergei; Miao, Jianwei; Bravin, Alberto

    2012-11-01

    Mammography is the primary imaging tool for screening and diagnosis of human breast cancers, but ~10-20% of palpable tumors are not detectable on mammograms and only about 40% of biopsied lesions are malignant. Here we report a high-resolution, low-dose phase contrast X-ray tomographic method for 3D diagnosis of human breast cancers. By combining phase contrast X-ray imaging with an image reconstruction method known as equally sloped tomography, we imaged a human breast in three dimensions and identified a malignant cancer with a pixel size of 92 μm and a radiation dose less than that of dual-view mammography. According to a blind evaluation by five independent radiologists, our method can reduce the radiation dose and acquisition time by ~74% relative to conventional phase contrast X-ray tomography, while maintaining high image resolution and image contrast. These results demonstrate that high-resolution 3D diagnostic imaging of human breast cancers can, in principle, be performed at clinical compatible doses. PMID:23091003

  10. Human wagering behavior depends on opponents' faces.

    PubMed

    Schlicht, Erik J; Shimojo, Shinsuke; Camerer, Colin F; Battaglia, Peter; Nakayama, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Research in competitive games has exclusively focused on how opponent models are developed through previous outcomes and how peoples' decisions relate to normative predictions. Little is known about how rapid impressions of opponents operate and influence behavior in competitive economic situations, although such subjective impressions have been shown to influence cooperative decision-making. This study investigates whether an opponent's face influences players' wagering decisions in a zero-sum game with hidden information. Participants made risky choices in a simplified poker task while being presented opponents whose faces differentially correlated with subjective impressions of trust. Surprisingly, we find that threatening face information has little influence on wagering behavior, but faces relaying positive emotional characteristics impact peoples' decisions. Thus, people took significantly longer and made more mistakes against emotionally positive opponents. Differences in reaction times and percent correct were greatest around the optimal decision boundary, indicating that face information is predominantly used when making decisions during medium-value gambles. Mistakes against emotionally positive opponents resulted from increased folding rates, suggesting that participants may have believed that these opponents were betting with hands of greater value than other opponents. According to these results, the best "poker face" for bluffing may not be a neutral face, but rather a face that contains emotional correlates of trustworthiness. Moreover, it suggests that rapid impressions of an opponent play an important role in competitive games, especially when people have little or no experience with an opponent. PMID:20657772

  11. Parameters of the human 3D gaze while observing portable autostereoscopic display: a model and measurement results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boev, Atanas; Hanhela, Marianne; Gotchev, Atanas; Utirainen, Timo; Jumisko-Pyykkö, Satu; Hannuksela, Miska

    2012-02-01

    We present an approach to measure and model the parameters of human point-of-gaze (PoG) in 3D space. Our model considers the following three parameters: position of the gaze in 3D space, volume encompassed by the gaze and time for the gaze to arrive on the desired target. Extracting the 3D gaze position from binocular gaze data is hindered by three problems. The first problem is the lack of convergence - due to micro saccadic movements the optical lines of both eyes rarely intersect at a point in space. The second problem is resolution - the combination of short observation distance and limited comfort disparity zone typical for a mobile 3D display does not allow the depth of the gaze position to be reliably extracted. The third problem is measurement noise - due to the limited display size, the noise range is close to the range of properly measured data. We have developed a methodology which allows us to suppress most of the measurement noise. This allows us to estimate the typical time which is needed for the point-of-gaze to travel in x, y or z direction. We identify three temporal properties of the binocular PoG. The first is reaction time, which is the minimum time that the vision reacts to a stimulus position change, and is measured as the time between the event and the time the PoG leaves the proximity of the old stimulus position. The second is the travel time of the PoG between the old and new stimulus position. The third is the time-to-arrive, which is the time combining the reaction time, travel time, and the time required for the PoG to settle in the new position. We present the method for filtering the PoG outliers, for deriving the PoG center from binocular eye-tracking data and for calculating the gaze volume as a function of the distance between PoG and the observer. As an outcome from our experiments we present binocular heat maps aggregated over all observers who participated in a viewing test. We also show the mean values for all temporal

  12. Preservation of protein fluorescence in embedded human dendritic cells for targeted 3D light and electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Höhn, K; Fuchs, J; Fröber, A; Kirmse, R; Glass, B; Anders-Össwein, M; Walther, P; Kräusslich, H-G; Dietrich, C

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we present a correlative microscopy workflow to combine detailed 3D fluorescence light microscopy data with ultrastructural information gained by 3D focused ion beam assisted scanning electron microscopy. The workflow is based on an optimized high pressure freezing/freeze substitution protocol that preserves good ultrastructural detail along with retaining the fluorescence signal in the resin embedded specimens. Consequently, cellular structures of interest can readily be identified and imaged by state of the art 3D confocal fluorescence microscopy and are precisely referenced with respect to an imprinted coordinate system on the surface of the resin block. This allows precise guidance of the focused ion beam assisted scanning electron microscopy and limits the volume to be imaged to the structure of interest. This, in turn, minimizes the total acquisition time necessary to conduct the time consuming ultrastructural scanning electron microscope imaging while eliminating the risk to miss parts of the target structure. We illustrate the value of this workflow for targeting virus compartments, which are formed in HIV-pulsed mature human dendritic cells. PMID:25786567

  13. A 3D sphere culture system containing functional polymers for large-scale human pluripotent stem cell production.

    PubMed

    Otsuji, Tomomi G; Bin, Jiang; Yoshimura, Azumi; Tomura, Misayo; Tateyama, Daiki; Minami, Itsunari; Yoshikawa, Yoshihiro; Aiba, Kazuhiro; Heuser, John E; Nishino, Taito; Hasegawa, Kouichi; Nakatsuji, Norio

    2014-05-01

    Utilizing human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in cell-based therapy and drug discovery requires large-scale cell production. However, scaling up conventional adherent cultures presents challenges of maintaining a uniform high quality at low cost. In this regard, suspension cultures are a viable alternative, because they are scalable and do not require adhesion surfaces. 3D culture systems such as bioreactors can be exploited for large-scale production. However, the limitations of current suspension culture methods include spontaneous fusion between cell aggregates and suboptimal passaging methods by dissociation and reaggregation. 3D culture systems that dynamically stir carrier beads or cell aggregates should be refined to reduce shearing forces that damage hPSCs. Here, we report a simple 3D sphere culture system that incorporates mechanical passaging and functional polymers. This setup resolves major problems associated with suspension culture methods and dynamic stirring systems and may be optimal for applications involving large-scale hPSC production. PMID:24936458

  14. Occluded human recognition for a leader following system using 3D range and image data in forest environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kuk; Ilyas, Muhammad; Baeg, Seung-Ho; Park, Sangdeok

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the occluded target recognition and tracking method for a leader-following system by fusing 3D range and image data acquired from 3D light detection and ranging (LIDAR) and a color camera installed on an autonomous vehicle in forest environment. During 3D data processing, the distance-based clustering method has an instinctive problem in close encounters. In the tracking phase, we divide an object tracking process into three phases based on occlusion scenario; before an occlusion (BO) phase, a partially or fully occlusion phase and after an occlusion (AO) phase. To improve the data association performance, we use camera's rich information to find correspondence among objects during above mentioned three phases of occlusion. In this paper, we solve a correspondence problem using the color features of human objects with the sum of squared distance (SSD) and the normalized cross correlation (NCC). The features are integrated with derived windows from Harris corner. The experimental results for a leader following on an autonomous vehicle are shown with LIDAR and camera for improving a data association problem in a multiple object tracking system.

  15. Preservation of protein fluorescence in embedded human dendritic cells for targeted 3D light and electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    HÖHN, K.; FUCHS, J.; FRÖBER, A.; KIRMSE, R.; GLASS, B.; ANDERS‐ÖSSWEIN, M.; WALTHER, P.; KRÄUSSLICH, H.‐G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this study, we present a correlative microscopy workflow to combine detailed 3D fluorescence light microscopy data with ultrastructural information gained by 3D focused ion beam assisted scanning electron microscopy. The workflow is based on an optimized high pressure freezing/freeze substitution protocol that preserves good ultrastructural detail along with retaining the fluorescence signal in the resin embedded specimens. Consequently, cellular structures of interest can readily be identified and imaged by state of the art 3D confocal fluorescence microscopy and are precisely referenced with respect to an imprinted coordinate system on the surface of the resin block. This allows precise guidance of the focused ion beam assisted scanning electron microscopy and limits the volume to be imaged to the structure of interest. This, in turn, minimizes the total acquisition time necessary to conduct the time consuming ultrastructural scanning electron microscope imaging while eliminating the risk to miss parts of the target structure. We illustrate the value of this workflow for targeting virus compartments, which are formed in HIV‐pulsed mature human dendritic cells. PMID:25786567

  16. Biologic variability of human foreskin fibroblasts in 2D and 3D culture: implications for a wound healing model

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The fibroblast-populated 3D collagen matrix is a model of tissue and healing which has been used since the 1980's. It was hypothesized that anchorage disruption of the collagen matrix would produce p53-dependent apoptosis in the embedded fibroblasts, but results of hypothesis testing were variant. Findings The response of p53 to anchorage disruption in 3D culture or to UV irradiation in 2D culture was influenced both by fibroblast strain and culture conditions. It also was determined that data scatter in a collagen matrix contraction assay was related to fibroblast strain and possibly to technical factors, such as cell culture technician and/or number of matrices utilized. Subsequent analysis suggested that phenotypic drift and/or inter-strain genetic variability may have been responsible for the data scatter. In addition, several technical factors were identified that may have contributed to the scatter. Conclusion Experimentation with human foreskin fibroblasts in both 2D and 3D culture can produce variant data. The underlying cause of the data scatter appears to be partially due to the biologic variability of the fibroblast. PMID:19922655

  17. Human L3L4 intervertebral disc mean 3D shape, modes of variation, and their relationship to degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Peloquin, John M.; Yoder, Jonathon H.; Jacobs, Nathan T.; Moon, Sung M.; Wright, Alexander C.; Vresilovic, Edward J.; Elliott, Dawn M.

    2014-01-01

    Intervertebral disc mechanics are affected by both disc shape and disc degeneration, which in turn each affect the other; disc mechanics additionally have a role in the etiology of disc degeneration. Finite element analysis (FEA) is a favored tool to investigate these relationships, but limited data for intervertebral disc 3D shape has forced the use of simplified or single-subject geometries, with the effect of inter-individual shape variation investigated only in specialized studies. Similarly, most data on disc shape variation with degeneration is based on 2D mid-sagittal images, which incompletely define 3D shape changes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantify inter-individual disc shape variation in 3D, classify this variation into independently-occurring modes using a statistical shape model, and identify correlations between disc shape and degeneration. Three-dimensional disc shapes were obtained from MRI of 13 human male cadaver L3L4 discs. An average disc shape and four major modes of shape variation (representing 90% of the variance) were identified. The first mode represented disc axial area and was significantly correlated to degeneration (R2 = 0.44), indicating larger axial area in degenerate discs. Disc height variation occurred in three distinct modes, each also involving non-height variation. The statistical shape model provides an average L3L4 disc shape for FEA that is fully defined in 3D, and makes it convenient to generate a set of shapes with which to represent aggregate inter-individual variation. Degeneration grade-specific shapes can also be generated. To facilitate application, the model is included in this paper’s supplemental content. PMID:24792581

  18. Automated quantitative analysis of 3D morphology and mean corpuscular hemoglobin in human red blood cells stored in different periods.

    PubMed

    Moon, Inkyu; Yi, Faliu; Lee, Yeon H; Javidi, Bahram; Boss, Daniel; Marquet, Pierre

    2013-12-16

    Quantitative phase (QP) images of red blood cells (RBCs), which are obtained by off-axis digital holographic microscopy, can provide quantitative information about three-dimensional (3D) morphology of human RBCs and the characteristic properties such as mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and MCH surface density (MCHSD). In this paper, we investigate modifications of the 3D morphology and MCH in RBCs induced by the period of storage time for the purpose of classification of RBCs with different periods of storage by using off-axis digital holographic microscopy. The classification of RBCs based on the duration of storage is highly relevant because a long storage of blood before transfusion may alter the functionality of RBCs and, therefore, cause complications in patients. To analyze any changes in the 3D morphology and MCH of RBCs due to storage, we use data sets from RBC samples stored for 8, 13, 16, 23, 27, 30, 34, 37, 40, 47, and 57 days, respectively. The data sets consist of more than 3,300 blood cells in eleven classes, with more than 300 blood cells per class. The classes indicate the storage period of RBCs and are listed in chronological order. Using the RBCs donated by healthy persons, the off-axis digital holographic microscopy reconstructs several quantitative phase images of RBC samples stored for eleven different periods. We employ marker-controlled watershed transform to remove the background in the RBC quantitative phase images obtained by the off-axis digital holographic microscopy. More than 300 single RBCs are extracted from the segmented quantitative phase images for each class. Such a large number of RBC samples enable us to obtain statistical distributions of the characteristic properties of RBCs after a specific period of storage. Experimental results show that the 3D morphology of the RBCs, in contrast to MCH, is essentially related to the aging of the RBCs. PMID:24514667

  19. Combining 3D human in vitro methods for a 3Rs evaluation of novel titanium surfaces in orthopaedic applications

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, G.; Rehman, S.; Draper, E.; Hernández‐Nava, E.; Hunt, J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, we report on a group of complementary human osteoblast in vitro test methods for the preclinical evaluation of 3D porous titanium surfaces. The surfaces were prepared by additive manufacturing (electron beam melting [EBM]) and plasma spraying, allowing the creation of complex lattice surface geometries. Physical properties of the surfaces were characterized by SEM and profilometry and 3D in vitro cell culture using human osteoblasts. Primary human osteoblast cells were found to elicit greater differences between titanium sample surfaces than an MG63 osteoblast‐like cell line, particularly in terms of cell survival. Surface morphology was associated with higher osteoblast metabolic activity and mineralization on rougher titanium plasma spray coated surfaces than smoother surfaces. Differences in osteoblast survival and metabolic activity on titanium lattice structures were also found, despite analogous surface morphology at the cellular level. 3D confocal microscopy identified osteoblast organization within complex titanium surface geometries, adhesion, spreading, and alignment to the biomaterial strut geometries. Mineralized nodule formation throughout the lattice structures was also observed, and indicative of early markers of bone in‐growth on such materials. Testing methods such as those presented are not traditionally considered by medical device manufacturers, but we suggest have value as an increasingly vital tool in efficiently translating pre‐clinical studies, especially in balance with current regulatory practice, commercial demands, the 3Rs, and the relative merits of in vitro and in vivo studies. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1586–1599. © 2015 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26702609

  20. A fully defined and scalable 3D culture system for human pluripotent stem cell expansion and differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yuguo; Schaffer, David V.

    2013-12-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, are promising for numerous biomedical applications, such as cell replacement therapies, tissue and whole-organ engineering, and high-throughput pharmacology and toxicology screening. Each of these applications requires large numbers of cells of high quality; however, the scalable expansion and differentiation of hPSCs, especially for clinical utilization, remains a challenge. We report a simple, defined, efficient, scalable, and good manufacturing practice-compatible 3D culture system for hPSC expansion and differentiation. It employs a thermoresponsive hydrogel that combines easy manipulation and completely defined conditions, free of any human- or animal-derived factors, and entailing only recombinant protein factors. Under an optimized protocol, the 3D system enables long-term, serial expansion of multiple hPSCs lines with a high expansion rate (∼20-fold per 5-d passage, for a 1072-fold expansion over 280 d), yield (∼2.0 × 107 cells per mL of hydrogel), and purity (∼95% Oct4+), even with single-cell inoculation, all of which offer considerable advantages relative to current approaches. Moreover, the system enabled 3D directed differentiation of hPSCs into multiple lineages, including dopaminergic neuron progenitors with a yield of ∼8 × 107 dopaminergic progenitors per mL of hydrogel and ∼80-fold expansion by the end of a 15-d derivation. This versatile system may be useful at numerous scales, from basic biological investigation to clinical development.

  1. Combining 3D human in vitro methods for a 3Rs evaluation of novel titanium surfaces in orthopaedic applications.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, G; Rehman, S; Draper, E; Hernández-Nava, E; Hunt, J; Haycock, J W

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we report on a group of complementary human osteoblast in vitro test methods for the preclinical evaluation of 3D porous titanium surfaces. The surfaces were prepared by additive manufacturing (electron beam melting [EBM]) and plasma spraying, allowing the creation of complex lattice surface geometries. Physical properties of the surfaces were characterized by SEM and profilometry and 3D in vitro cell culture using human osteoblasts. Primary human osteoblast cells were found to elicit greater differences between titanium sample surfaces than an MG63 osteoblast-like cell line, particularly in terms of cell survival. Surface morphology was associated with higher osteoblast metabolic activity and mineralization on rougher titanium plasma spray coated surfaces than smoother surfaces. Differences in osteoblast survival and metabolic activity on titanium lattice structures were also found, despite analogous surface morphology at the cellular level. 3D confocal microscopy identified osteoblast organization within complex titanium surface geometries, adhesion, spreading, and alignment to the biomaterial strut geometries. Mineralized nodule formation throughout the lattice structures was also observed, and indicative of early markers of bone in-growth on such materials. Testing methods such as those presented are not traditionally considered by medical device manufacturers, but we suggest have value as an increasingly vital tool in efficiently translating pre-clinical studies, especially in balance with current regulatory practice, commercial demands, the 3Rs, and the relative merits of in vitro and in vivo studies. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1586-1599. © 2015 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26702609

  2. Human versus Non-Human Face Processing: Evidence from Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Andreia; Rosset, Delphine; Deruelle, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Increased motivation towards social stimuli in Williams syndrome (WS) led us to hypothesize that a face's human status would have greater impact than face's orientation on WS' face processing abilities. Twenty-nine individuals with WS were asked to categorize facial emotion expressions in real, human cartoon and non-human cartoon faces presented…

  3. Modelling temporal networks of human face-to-face contacts with public activity and individual reachability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi-Qing; Cui, Jing; Zhang, Shu-Min; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xiang

    2016-02-01

    Modelling temporal networks of human face-to-face contacts is vital both for understanding the spread of airborne pathogens and word-of-mouth spreading of information. Although many efforts have been devoted to model these temporal networks, there are still two important social features, public activity and individual reachability, have been ignored in these models. Here we present a simple model that captures these two features and other typical properties of empirical face-to-face contact networks. The model describes agents which are characterized by an attractiveness to slow down the motion of nearby people, have event-triggered active probability and perform an activity-dependent biased random walk in a square box with periodic boundary. The model quantitatively reproduces two empirical temporal networks of human face-to-face contacts which are testified by their network properties and the epidemic spread dynamics on them.

  4. Physics-based Simulation of Human Posture Using 3D Whole Body Scanning Technology for Astronaut Space Suit Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Kyu-Jung

    2005-01-01

    Over the past few years high precision three-dimensional (3D) full body laser scanners have been developed to be used as a powerful anthropometry tool for quantification of the morphology of the human body. The full body scanner can quickly extract body characteristics in non-contact fashion. It is required for the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) to have capabilities for kinematics simulation of a digital human at various postures whereas the laser scanner only allows capturing a single static posture at each time. During this summer fellowship period a theoretical study has been conducted to estimate an arbitrary posture with a series of example postures through finite element (FE) approximation and found that four-point isoparametric FE approximation would result in reasonable maximum position errors less than 5%. Subsequent pilot scan experiments demonstrated that a bead marker with a nominal size of 6 mm could be used as a marker for digitizing 3-D coordinates of anatomical landmarks for further kinematic analysis. Two sessions of human subject testing were conducted for reconstruction of an arbitrary postures from a set of example postures for each joint motion for the forearm/hand complex and the whole upper extremity.

  5. A Survey on Model Based Approaches for 2D and 3D Visual Human Pose Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Sala, Xavier; Escalera, Sergio; Angulo, Cecilio; Gonzàlez, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Human Pose Recovery has been studied in the field of Computer Vision for the last 40 years. Several approaches have been reported, and significant improvements have been obtained in both data representation and model design. However, the problem of Human Pose Recovery in uncontrolled environments is far from being solved. In this paper, we define a general taxonomy to group model based approaches for Human Pose Recovery, which is composed of five main modules: appearance, viewpoint, spatial relations, temporal consistence, and behavior. Subsequently, a methodological comparison is performed following the proposed taxonomy, evaluating current SoA approaches in the aforementioned five group categories. As a result of this comparison, we discuss the main advantages and drawbacks of the reviewed literature. PMID:24594613

  6. Monitoring time course of human whole blood coagulation using a microfluidic dielectric sensor with a 3D capacitive structure.

    PubMed

    Maji, Debnath; Suster, Michael A; Stavrou, Evi; Gurkan, Umut A; Mohseni, Pedram

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports on the design, fabrication, and testing of a microfluidic sensor for dielectric spectroscopy (DS) of human whole blood during coagulation. The sensor employs a three-dimensional (3D), parallel-plate, capacitive sensing structure with a floating electrode integrated into a microfluidic channel. Using an impedance analyzer and after a 5-point calibration, the sensor is shown to measure the real part of complex relative dielectric permittivity of human whole blood in a frequency range of 10kHz to 100MHz. The temporal variation of dielectric permittivity at 1MHz for human whole blood from three different healthy donors shows a peak in permittivity at ~ 4 to 5 minutes, which also corresponds to the onset of CaCl2-initiated coagulation of the blood sample verified visually. PMID:26737635

  7. Fabrication and evaluation of electrohydrodynamic jet 3D printed polycaprolactone/chitosan cell carriers using human embryonic stem cell-derived fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yang; Sriram, Gopu; Fawzy, Amr S; Fuh, Jerry Yh; Rosa, Vinicius; Cao, Tong; Wong, Yoke San

    2016-08-01

    Biological function of adherent cells depends on the cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions in three-dimensional space. To understand the behavior of cells in 3D environment and their interactions with neighboring cells and matrix requires 3D culture systems. Here, we present a novel 3D cell carrier scaffold that provides an environment for routine 3D cell growth in vitro We have developed thin, mechanically stable electrohydrodynamic jet (E-jet) 3D printed polycaprolactone and polycaprolactone/Chitosan macroporous scaffolds with precise fiber orientation for basic 3D cell culture application. We have evaluated the application of this technology by growing human embryonic stem cell-derived fibroblasts within these 3D scaffolds. Assessment of cell viability and proliferation of cells seeded on polycaprolactone and polycaprolactone/Chitosan 3D-scaffolds show that the human embryonic stem cell-derived fibroblasts could adhere and proliferate on the scaffolds over time. Further, using confocal microscopy we demonstrate the ability to use fluorescence-labelled cells that could be microscopically monitored in real-time. Hence, these 3D printed polycaprolactone and polycaprolactone/Chitosan scaffolds could be used as a cell carrier for in vitro 3D cell culture-, bioreactor- and tissue engineering-related applications in the future. PMID:27252227

  8. Genotoxicity assessment of reactive and disperse textile dyes using human dermal equivalent (3D cell culture system).

    PubMed

    Leme, Daniela Morais; Primo, Fernando Lucas; Gobo, Graciely Gomides; da Costa, Cleber Rafael Vieira; Tedesco, Antonio Claudio; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of dyes are marketed daily for different purposes, including textile dyeing. However, there are several studies reporting attributing to dyes deleterious human effects such as DNA damage. Humans may be exposed to toxic dyes through either ingestion of contaminated waters or dermal contact with colored garments. With respect to dermal exposure, human skin equivalents are promising tools to assess in vitro genotoxicity of dermally applied chemicals using a three-dimensional (3D) model to mimic tissue behavior. This study investigated the sensitivity of an in-house human dermal equivalent (DE) for detecting genotoxicity of textile dyes. Two azo (reactive green 19 [RG19] and disperse red 1[DR1]) dyes and one anthraquinone (reactive blue 2 [RB2]) dye were analyzed. RG19 was genotoxic for DE in a dose-responsive manner, whereas RB2 and DR1 were nongenotoxic under the conditions tested. These findings are not in agreement with previous genotoxicological assessment of these dyes carried out using two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures, which showed that DR1 was genotoxic in human hepatoma cells (HepG2) and RG19 was nongenotoxic for normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). These discrepant results probably may be due to differences between metabolic activities of each cell type (organ-specific genotoxicity, HepG2 and fibroblasts) and the test setup systems used in each study (fibroblasts cultured at 2D and three-dimensional [3D] culture systems). Genotoxicological assessment of textile dyes in context of organ-specific genotoxicity and using in vitro models that more closely resemble in vivo tissue architecture and physiology may provide more reliable estimates of genotoxic potential of these chemicals. PMID:25785560

  9. The biodigital human: a web-based 3D platform for medical visualization and education.

    PubMed

    Qualter, John; Sculli, Frank; Oliker, Aaron; Napier, Zachary; Lee, Sabrina; Garcia, Julio; Frenkel, Sally; Harnik, Victoria; Triola, Marc

    2012-01-01

    NYU School of Medicine's Division of Educational Informatics in collaboration with BioDigital Systems LLC (New York, NY) has created a virtual human body dataset that is being used for visualization, education and training and is accessible over modern web browsers. PMID:22357018

  10. Establishment of 3D organotypic cultures using human neonatal epidermal cells.

    PubMed

    Gangatirkar, Pradnya; Paquet-Fifield, Sophie; Li, Amy; Rossi, Ralph; Kaur, Pritinder

    2007-01-01

    This protocol describes an ex vivo three-dimensional coculture system optimized to study the skin regenerative ability of primary human keratinocytes grown at the air-liquid interface on collagen matrices embedded with human dermal fibroblasts. An option for enrichment of keratinocyte stem cells and their progeny using fluorescence-activated cell sorting is also provided. Initially, dermal equivalents, comprising human passaged fibroblasts seeded in a collagen matrix, are grown on porous filters (3 mum) placed in transwells. After 1 week, primary human keratinocytes are seeded on this base. One week later, an air-lift transition is performed, leading to the differentiation of the keratinocytes, which are macroscopically visible as artificial skin after a couple of days. The cultures can be harvested 1 week after the air-lift and processed for immunohistochemistry or gene expression analysis. The overall procedure can be completed in 3 weeks, including the preparation of the dermal equivalent and the seeding of the primary keratinocytes. PMID:17401352

  11. Production, Characterization and Potential Uses of a 3D Tissue-engineered Human Esophageal Mucosal Model.

    PubMed

    Green, Nicola H; Corfe, Bernard M; Bury, Jonathan P; MacNeil, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of both esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor, Barrett's Metaplasia, are rising rapidly in the western world. Furthermore esophageal adenocarcinoma generally has a poor prognosis, with little improvement in survival rates in recent years. These are difficult conditions to study and there has been a lack of suitable experimental platforms to investigate disorders of the esophageal mucosa. A model of the human esophageal mucosa has been developed in the MacNeil laboratory which, unlike conventional 2D cell culture systems, recapitulates the cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions present in vivo and produces a mature, stratified epithelium similar to that of the normal human esophagus. Briefly, the model utilizes non-transformed normal primary human esophageal fibroblasts and epithelial cells grown within a porcine-derived acellular esophageal scaffold. Immunohistochemical characterization of this model by CK4, CK14, Ki67 and involucrin staining demonstrates appropriate recapitulation of the histology of the normal human esophageal mucosa. This model provides a robust, biologically relevant experimental model of the human esophageal mucosa. It can easily be manipulated to investigate a number of research questions including the effectiveness of pharmacological agents and the impact of exposure to environmental factors such as alcohol, toxins, high temperature or gastro-esophageal refluxate components. The model also facilitates extended culture periods not achievable with conventional 2D cell culture, enabling, inter alia, the study of the impact of repeated exposure of a mature epithelium to the agent of interest for up to 20 days. Furthermore, a variety of cell lines, such as those derived from esophageal tumors or Barrett's Metaplasia, can be incorporated into the model to investigate processes such as tumor invasion and drug responsiveness in a more biologically relevant environment. PMID:26067284

  12. Toward a 3D model of human brain development for studying gene/environment interactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This project aims to establish and characterize an in vitro model of the developing human brain for the purpose of testing drugs and chemicals. To accurately assess risk, a model needs to recapitulate the complex interactions between different types of glial cells and neurons in a three-dimensional platform. Moreover, human cells are preferred over cells from rodents to eliminate cross-species differences in sensitivity to chemicals. Previously, we established conditions to culture rat primary cells as three-dimensional aggregates, which will be humanized and evaluated here with induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The use of iPSCs allows us to address gene/environment interactions as well as the potential of chemicals to interfere with epigenetic mechanisms. Additionally, iPSCs afford us the opportunity to study the effect of chemicals during very early stages of brain development. It is well recognized that assays for testing toxicity in the developing brain must consider differences in sensitivity and susceptibility that arise depending on the time of exposure. This model will reflect critical developmental processes such as proliferation, differentiation, lineage specification, migration, axonal growth, dendritic arborization and synaptogenesis, which will probably display differences in sensitivity to different types of chemicals. Functional endpoints will evaluate the complex cell-to-cell interactions that are affected in neurodevelopment through chemical perturbation, and the efficacy of drug intervention to prevent or reverse phenotypes. The model described is designed to assess developmental neurotoxicity effects on unique processes occurring during human brain development by leveraging human iPSCs from diverse genetic backgrounds, which can be differentiated into different cell types of the central nervous system. Our goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of the personalized model using iPSCs derived from individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders

  13. Face-to-Face versus Online Tutoring Support in Humanities Courses in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John T. E.

    2009-01-01

    The experiences of students taking the same courses in the humanities by distance learning were compared when tutorial support was provided conventionally (using limited face-to-face sessions with some contact by telephone and email) or online (using a combination of computer-mediated conferencing and email). The Course Experience Questionnaire…

  14. Depth-kymography: high-speed calibrated 3D imaging of human vocal fold vibration dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Nibu A.; de Mul, Frits F. M.; Qiu, Qingjun; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Schutte, Harm K.

    2008-05-01

    We designed and developed a laser line-triangulation endoscope compatible with any standard high-speed camera for a complete three-dimensional profiling of human vocal fold vibration dynamics. With this novel device we are able to measure absolute values of vertical and horizontal vibration amplitudes, length and width of vocal folds as well as the opening and closing velocities from a single in vivo measurement. We have studied, for the first time, the generation and propagation of mucosal waves by locating the position of its maximum vertical position and the propagation velocity. Precise knowledge about the absolute dimensions of human vocal folds and their vibration parameters has significant importance in clinical diagnosis and treatment as well as in fundamental research in voice. The new device can be used to investigate different kinds of pathological conditions including periodic or aperiodic vibrations. Consequently, the new device has significant importance in investigating vocal fold paralysis and in phonosurgical applications.

  15. Using Fuzzy Gaussian Inference and Genetic Programming to Classify 3D Human Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoury, Mehdi; Liu, Honghai

    This research introduces and builds on the concept of Fuzzy Gaussian Inference (FGI) (Khoury and Liu in Proceedings of UKCI, 2008 and IEEE Workshop on Robotic Intelligence in Informationally Structured Space (RiiSS 2009), 2009) as a novel way to build Fuzzy Membership Functions that map to hidden Probability Distributions underlying human motions. This method is now combined with a Genetic Programming Fuzzy rule-based system in order to classify boxing moves from natural human Motion Capture data. In this experiment, FGI alone is able to recognise seven different boxing stances simultaneously with an accuracy superior to a GMM-based classifier. Results seem to indicate that adding an evolutionary Fuzzy Inference Engine on top of FGI improves the accuracy of the classifier in a consistent way.

  16. 3-D Cytoarchitectonic parcellation of human orbitofrontal cortex. Correlation with postmortem MRI

    PubMed Central

    Uylings, Harry B.M.; Sanz-Arigita, Ernesto J.; de Vos, Koos; Pool, Chris W.; Evers, Paul; Rajkowska, Grazyna

    2010-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is located on the basal surface of the frontal lobe and is distinguished by its unique anatomical and functional features. Clinical and postmortem studies suggest the involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex in psychiatric disorders. However, the exact parcellation of this cortical region is still a matter of debate. Therefore, the goal of this study is to provide a detailed description of the extent of borders of individual orbitofrontal cortical areas using cytoarchitectonic criteria in a large sample of human brains, which could be applied by independent neuroanatomists. To make this microscopic parcellation useful to neuroimaging studies, magnetic resonance images of postmortem brains in the coronal plane were collected prior to the preparation of coronal histological sections from the same brains. A complete series of coronal sections from 6 normal human brains and partial sections from the frontal cortex of 21 normal human brains were stained with general histological and immunohistochemical methods specific for different cell-types, These sections were examined microscopically by two independent neuroanatomists (HBMU and GR) to achieve reproducible delineations. After the borders were determined, the tissue sections were superimposed on corresponding MR images. Based on our cytoarchitectonical criteria, Brodmann's areas 47 and 11 were included in the human orbitofrontal cortex. Area 47 was further subdivided into three medial (located on the medial, anterior and posterior orbital gyri) and two lateral (located on the lateral orbital gyrus) subareas. In addition, we observed an anterior-posterior gradient in the cytoarchitecture of areas 11 and 47. The transverse orbital sulcus corresponds roughly to the transition between the subregions of the anterior and posterior OFC. Finally, the present delineation is contrasted with an overview of the different published nomenclatures for the OFC parcellation. PMID:20538437

  17. Ultrastructure Organization of Human Trabeculae Assessed by 3D sSAXS and Relation to Bone Microarchitecture.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, Marios; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Gschwend, Oliver; Hangartner, Peter; Bunk, Oliver; Müller, Ralph; Schneider, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Although the organization of bone ultrastructure, i.e. the orientation and arrangement of the mineralized collagen fibrils, has been in the focus of research for many years for cortical bone, and many models on the osteonal arrangement have been proposed, limited attention has been paid to trabecular bone ultrastructure. This is surprising because trabeculae play a crucial role for the mechanical strength of several bone sites, including the vertebrae and the femoral head. On this account, we first validated a recently developed method (3D sSAXS or 3D scanning small-angle X-ray scattering) for investigating bone ultrastructure in a quantitative and spatially resolved way, using conventional linearly polarized light microscopy as a gold standard. While both methods are used to analyze thin tissue sections, in contrast to polarized light microscopy, 3D sSAXS has the important advantage that it provides 3D information on the orientation and arrangement of bone ultrastructure. In this first study of its kind, we used 3D sSAXS to investigate the ultrastructural organization of 22 vertebral trabeculae of different alignment, types and sizes, obtained from 4 subjects of different ages. Maps of ultrastructure orientation and arrangement of the trabeculae were retrieved by stacking information from consecutive 20-μm-thick bone sections. The organization of the ultrastructure was analyzed in relation to trabecular microarchitecture obtained from computed tomography and to relevant parameters such as distance to trabecular surface, local curvature or local bone mineralization. We found that (i) ultrastructure organization is similar for all investigated trabeculae independent of their particular characteristics, (ii) bone ultrastructure exhibiting a high degree of orientation was arranged in domains, (iii) highly oriented ultrastructural areas were located closer to the bone surface, (iv) the ultrastructure of the human trabecular bone specimens followed the

  18. Ultrastructure Organization of Human Trabeculae Assessed by 3D sSAXS and Relation to Bone Microarchitecture

    PubMed Central

    Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Gschwend, Oliver; Hangartner, Peter; Bunk, Oliver; Müller, Ralph; Schneider, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Although the organization of bone ultrastructure, i.e. the orientation and arrangement of the mineralized collagen fibrils, has been in the focus of research for many years for cortical bone, and many models on the osteonal arrangement have been proposed, limited attention has been paid to trabecular bone ultrastructure. This is surprising because trabeculae play a crucial role for the mechanical strength of several bone sites, including the vertebrae and the femoral head. On this account, we first validated a recently developed method (3D sSAXS or 3D scanning small-angle X-ray scattering) for investigating bone ultrastructure in a quantitative and spatially resolved way, using conventional linearly polarized light microscopy as a gold standard. While both methods are used to analyze thin tissue sections, in contrast to polarized light microscopy, 3D sSAXS has the important advantage that it provides 3D information on the orientation and arrangement of bone ultrastructure. In this first study of its kind, we used 3D sSAXS to investigate the ultrastructural organization of 22 vertebral trabeculae of different alignment, types and sizes, obtained from 4 subjects of different ages. Maps of ultrastructure orientation and arrangement of the trabeculae were retrieved by stacking information from consecutive 20-μm-thick bone sections. The organization of the ultrastructure was analyzed in relation to trabecular microarchitecture obtained from computed tomography and to relevant parameters such as distance to trabecular surface, local curvature or local bone mineralization. We found that (i) ultrastructure organization is similar for all investigated trabeculae independent of their particular characteristics, (ii) bone ultrastructure exhibiting a high degree of orientation was arranged in domains, (iii) highly oriented ultrastructural areas were located closer to the bone surface, (iv) the ultrastructure of the human trabecular bone specimens followed the

  19. An investigation of matching symmetry in the human pinnae with possible implications for 3D ear recognition and sound localization.

    PubMed

    Claes, Peter; Reijniers, Jonas; Shriver, Mark D; Snyders, Jonatan; Suetens, Paul; Nielandt, Joachim; De Tré, Guy; Vandermeulen, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The human external ears, or pinnae, have an intriguing shape and, like most parts of the human external body, bilateral symmetry is observed between left and right. It is a well-known part of our auditory sensory system and mediates the spatial localization of incoming sounds in 3D from monaural cues due to its shape-specific filtering as well as binaural cues due to the paired bilateral locations of the left and right ears. Another less broadly appreciated aspect of the human pinna shape is its uniqueness from one individual to another, which is on the level of what is seen in fingerprints and facial features. This makes pinnae very useful in human identification, which is of great interest in biometrics and forensics. Anatomically, the type of symmetry observed is known as matching symmetry, with structures present as separate mirror copies on both sides of the body, and in this work we report the first such investigation of the human pinna in 3D. Within the framework of geometric morphometrics, we started by partitioning ear shape, represented in a spatially dense way, into patterns of symmetry and asymmetry, following a two-factor anova design. Matching symmetry was measured in all substructures of the pinna anatomy. However, substructures that 'stick out' such as the helix, tragus, and lobule also contained a fair degree of asymmetry. In contrast, substructures such as the conchae, antitragus, and antihelix expressed relatively stronger degrees of symmetric variation in relation to their levels of asymmetry. Insights gained from this study were injected into an accompanying identification setup exploiting matching symmetry where improved performance is demonstrated. Finally, possible implications of the results in the context of ear recognition as well as sound localization are discussed. PMID:25382291

  20. Human face recognition by Euclidean distance and neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pornpanomchai, Chomtip; Inkuna, Chittrapol

    2010-02-01

    The idea of this project development is to improve the concept of human face recognition that has been studied in order to apply it for a more precise and effective recognition of human faces, and offered an alternative to agencies with respect to their access-departure control system. To accomplish this, a technique of calculation of distances between face features, including efficient face recognition though a neural network, is used. The system uses a technique of image processing consisting of 3 major processes: 1) preprocessing or preparation of images, 2) feature extraction from images of eyes, ears, nose and mouth, used for a calculation of Euclidean distances between each organ; and 3) face recognition using a neural network method. Based on the experimental results from reading image of a total of 200 images from 100 human faces, the system can correctly recognize 96 % with average access time of 3.304 sec per image.

  1. Preference for attractive faces in human infants extends beyond conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, David J.; Lee, Kang; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M.

    2008-01-01

    Human infants, just a few days of age, are known to prefer attractive human faces. We examined whether this preference is human-specific. Three- to 4-month-olds preferred attractive over unattractive domestic and wild cat (tiger) faces (Experiments 1 and 3). The preference was not observed when the faces were inverted, suggesting that it did not arise from low-level image differences (Experiments 2 and 3). In addition, the spontaneous preference for attractive tiger faces influenced performance in a recognition memory task involving attractive versus unattractive tiger face pairings (Experiment 4). The findings suggest that infant preference for attractive faces reflects the activity of general processing mechanisms rather than a specific adaptation to mate choice. PMID:18171370

  2. Bioprinting 3D cell-laden hydrogel microarray for screening human periodontal ligament stem cell response to extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yufei; Ji, Yuan; Huang, Guoyou; Ling, Kai; Zhang, Xiaohui; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease negatively affecting up to 15% of adults worldwide. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) hold great promises for periodontal tissue regeneration, where it is necessary to find proper extracellular matrix (ECM) materials (e.g., composition, concentration). In this study, we proposed a bioprinting-based approach to generate nano-liter sized three-dimensional (3D) cell-laden hydrogel array with gradient of ECM components, through controlling the volume ratio of two hydrogels, such as gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) dimethacrylate. The resulting cell-laden array with a gradient of GelMA/PEG composition was used to screen human PDLSC response to ECM. The behavior (e.g., cell viability, spreading) of human PDLSCs in GelMA/PEG array were found to be depended on the volume ratios of GelMA/PEG, with cell viability and spreading area decreased along with increasing the ratio of PEG. The developed approach would be useful for screening cell-biomaterial interaction in 3D and promoting regeneration of functional tissue. PMID:26696269

  3. gp140, the C3d receptor of human B lymphocytes, is also the Epstein-Barr virus receptor.

    PubMed

    Frade, R; Barel, M; Ehlin-Henriksson, B; Klein, G

    1985-03-01

    The relationship between gp140, the membrane C3d receptor (CR2) of human B lymphocytes, and the Epstein-Barr virus receptor (EBVR) was analyzed by using the polyclonal anti-gp140, previously prepared by immunizing rabbits with highly purified gp140 (isolated by some of us) from CR2/EBVR-positive Raji cells. Polyclonal anti-gp72, a C3-binding membrane component, not related to the EBVR but also expressed on the Raji cell surface, was used as a control. Binding of rabbit IgG and EBV on cells was assessed by using immunofluorescence techniques with analysis by flow cytofluorometry. A semiquantitative bioassay was also used to measure the EBV binding. Polyclonal monospecific anti-gp140 IgG inhibits directly the binding of EBV to Raji cells at the same concentration that inhibits the binding of EC3d on cells, whereas a 35 times higher concentration of anti-gp72 IgG or preimmune serum IgG does not. Anti-gp140 IgG treatment also inhibits the induction of EBV-determined nuclear antigen in normal tonsil B lymphocytes or in EBV-negative Ramos cells, whereas high concentrations of anti-gp72 IgG or preimmune serum IgG have no effect. These data strongly suggest that gp140, the CR2 of human B lymphocytes, is also the EBVR. PMID:2983347

  4. Targets For Three-Dimensional (3-D) Tracking Of Human Impact Test Subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzzy, William H.; Prell, Arthur M.

    1982-02-01

    Lightweight targets mounted on the head and neck of human volunteers are photographed by high-speed cameras during impact acceleration tests. The targets must be capable of being tracked through a wide angular motion by at least two cameras to obtain three-dimens-ional displacement and orientation. Because the targets are tracked and digitized by a computerized photodigitizer, their pattern must be selected to maximize recognition and minimize crossover confusion. This pater discusses the target construction, orientation on the accelerometer mount, pattern selection, and paint scheme.

  5. Integration of genomic and medical data into a 3D atlas of human anatomy.

    PubMed

    Turinsky, Andrei L; Fanea, Elena; Trinh, Quang; Dong, Xiaoli; Stromer, Julie N; Shu, Xueling; Wat, Stephen; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Hill, Jonathan W; Edwards, Carol; Grosenick, Brenda; Yajima, Masumi; Sensen, Christoph W

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a framework for the visual integration and exploration of multi-scale biomedical data, which includes anatomical and molecular components. We have also created a Java-based software system that integrates molecular information, such as gene expression data, into a three-dimensional digital atlas of the male adult human anatomy. Our atlas is structured according to the Terminologia Anatomica. The underlying data-indexing mechanism uses open standards and semantic ontology-processing tools to establish the associations between heterogeneous data types. The software system makes an extensive use of virtual reality visualization. PMID:18391362

  6. Human iPSC-derived osteoblasts and osteoclasts together promote bone regeneration in 3D biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Ok Hee; Panicker, Leelamma M.; Lu, Qiaozhi; Chae, Jeremy J.; Feldman, Ricardo A.; Elisseeff, Jennifer H.

    2016-01-01

    Bone substitutes can be designed to replicate physiological structure and function by creating a microenvironment that supports crosstalk between bone and immune cells found in the native tissue, specifically osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) represent a powerful tool for bone regeneration because they are a source of patient-specific cells that can differentiate into all specialized cell types residing in bone. We show that osteoblasts and osteoclasts can be differentiated from hiPSC-mesenchymal stem cells and macrophages when co-cultured on hydroxyapatite-coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/poly(L-lactic acid) (HA–PLGA/PLLA) scaffolds. Both cell types seeded on the PLGA/PLLA especially with 5% w/v HA recapitulated the tissue remodeling process of human bone via coupling signals coordinating osteoblast and osteoclast activity and finely tuned expression of inflammatory molecules, resulting in accelerated in vitro bone formation. Following subcutaneous implantation in rodents, co-cultured hiPSC-MSC/-macrophage on such scaffolds showed mature bone-like tissue formation. These findings suggest the importance of coupling matrix remodeling through osteoblastic matrix deposition and osteoclastic tissue resorption and immunomodulation for tissue development. PMID:27225733

  7. Unmixing chromophores in human skin with a 3D multispectral optoacoustic mesoscopy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Mathias; Aguirre, Juan; Soliman, Dominik; Buehler, Andreas; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-03-01

    The absorption of visible light by human skin is governed by a number of natural chromophores: Eumelanin, pheomelanin, oxyhemoglobin, and deoxyhemoglobin are the major absorbers in the visible range in cutaneous tissue. Label-free quantification of these tissue chromophores is an important step of optoacoustic (photoacoustic) imaging towards clinical application, since it provides relevant information in diseases. In tumor cells, for instance, there are metabolic changes (Warburg effect) compared to healthy cells, leading to changes in oxygenation in the environment of tumors. In malignant melanoma changes in the absorption spectrum have been observed compared to the spectrum of nonmalignant nevi. So far, optoacoustic imaging has been applied to human skin mostly in single-wavelength mode, providing anatomical information but no functional information. In this work, we excited the tissue by a tunable laser source in the spectral range from 413-680 nm with a repetition rate of 50 Hz. The laser was operated in wavelengthsweep mode emitting consecutive pulses at various wavelengths that allowed for automatic co-registration of the multispectral datasets. The multispectral raster-scan optoacoustic mesoscopy (MSOM) system provides a lateral resolution of <60 μm independent of wavelength. Based on the known absorption spectra of melanin, oxyhemoglobin, and deoxyhemoglobin, three-dimensional absorption maps of all three absorbers were calculated from the multispectral dataset.

  8. 3D Reconstruction of the Human Airway Mucosa In Vitro as an Experimental Model to Study NTHi Infections

    PubMed Central

    Marrazzo, Pasquale; Maccari, Silvia; Taddei, Annarita; Bevan, Luke; Telford, John; Soriani, Marco; Pezzicoli, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    We have established an in vitro 3D system which recapitulates the human tracheo-bronchial mucosa comprehensive of the pseudostratified epithelium and the underlying stromal tissue. In particular, we reported that the mature model, entirely constituted of primary cells of human origin, develops key markers proper of the native tissue such as the mucociliary differentiation of the epithelial sheet and the formation of the basement membrane. The infection of the pseudo-tissue with a strain of NonTypeable Haemophilus influenzae results in bacteria association and crossing of the mucus layer leading to an apparent targeting of the stromal space where they release large amounts of vesicles and form macro-structures. In summary, we propose our in vitro model as a reliable and potentially customizable system to study mid/long term host-pathogen processes. PMID:27101006

  9. Discrimination of human faces by archerfish (Toxotes chatareus).

    PubMed

    Newport, Cait; Wallis, Guy; Reshitnyk, Yarema; Siebeck, Ulrike E

    2016-01-01

    Two rival theories of how humans recognize faces exist: (i) recognition is innate, relying on specialized neocortical circuitry, and (ii) recognition is a learned expertise, relying on general object recognition pathways. Here, we explore whether animals without a neocortex, can learn to recognize human faces. Human facial recognition has previously been demonstrated for birds, however they are now known to possess neocortex-like structures. Also, with much of the work done in domesticated pigeons, one cannot rule out the possibility that they have developed adaptations for human face recognition. Fish do not appear to possess neocortex-like cells, and given their lack of direct exposure to humans, are unlikely to have evolved any specialized capabilities for human facial recognition. Using a two-alternative forced-choice procedure, we show that archerfish (Toxotes chatareus) can learn to discriminate a large number of human face images (Experiment 1, 44 faces), even after controlling for colour, head-shape and brightness (Experiment 2, 18 faces). This study not only demonstrates that archerfish have impressive pattern discrimination abilities, but also provides evidence that a vertebrate lacking a neocortex and without an evolutionary prerogative to discriminate human faces, can nonetheless do so to a high degree of accuracy. PMID:27272551

  10. Discrimination of human faces by archerfish (Toxotes chatareus)

    PubMed Central

    Newport, Cait; Wallis, Guy; Reshitnyk, Yarema; Siebeck, Ulrike E.

    2016-01-01

    Two rival theories of how humans recognize faces exist: (i) recognition is innate, relying on specialized neocortical circuitry, and (ii) recognition is a learned expertise, relying on general object recognition pathways. Here, we explore whether animals without a neocortex, can learn to recognize human faces. Human facial recognition has previously been demonstrated for birds, however they are now known to possess neocortex-like structures. Also, with much of the work done in domesticated pigeons, one cannot rule out the possibility that they have developed adaptations for human face recognition. Fish do not appear to possess neocortex-like cells, and given their lack of direct exposure to humans, are unlikely to have evolved any specialized capabilities for human facial recognition. Using a two-alternative forced-choice procedure, we show that archerfish (Toxotes chatareus) can learn to discriminate a large number of human face images (Experiment 1, 44 faces), even after controlling for colour, head-shape and brightness (Experiment 2, 18 faces). This study not only demonstrates that archerfish have impressive pattern discrimination abilities, but also provides evidence that a vertebrate lacking a neocortex and without an evolutionary prerogative to discriminate human faces, can nonetheless do so to a high degree of accuracy. PMID:27272551

  11. Sub-nm 3D observation of human hair melanin by high-voltage STEM.

    PubMed

    Imai, Takehito; Higuchi, Kimitaka; Yamamoto, Yuta; Arai, Shigeo; Nakano, Takashi; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2016-04-01

    The ultrastructure of melanin granules in human hair was studied using 1,000 kV high-voltage scanning transmission electron microscopy to successfully reconstruct three-dimensional images of the whole melanin granule. It was revealed that the melanin granule was composed of a membrane-like outer structure that included many spherical vesicles, and an inner matrix containing a sheet-like structure in the elongated direction of the melanin granule and a sheet-like arrays structure in the cross direction. The outer structure of the melanin granule was maintained even after exposure to hair-bleaching agents to decompose the melanin granule, suggesting that the outer structure was a highly robust structure and composition compared with the inner matrix . PMID:26705324

  12. A 3D map of the islet routes throughout the healthy human pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Ionescu-Tirgoviste, Constantin; Gagniuc, Paul A.; Gubceac, Elvira; Mardare, Liliana; Popescu, Irinel; Dima, Simona; Militaru, Manuella

    2015-01-01

    Islets of Langerhans are fundamental in understanding diabetes. A healthy human pancreas from a donor has been used to asses various islet parameters and their three-dimensional distribution. Here we show that islets are spread gradually from the head up to the tail section of the pancreas in the form of contracted or dilated islet routes. We also report a particular anatomical structure, namely the cluster of islets. Our observations revealed a total of 11 islet clusters which comprise of small islets that surround large blood vessels. Additional observations in the peripancreatic adipose tissue have shown lymphoid-like nodes and blood vessels captured in a local inflammatory process. Our observations are based on regional slice maps of the pancreas, comprising of 5,423 islets. We also devised an index of sphericity which briefly indicates various islet shapes that are dominant throughout the pancreas. PMID:26417671

  13. A 3D map of the islet routes throughout the healthy human pancreas.

    PubMed

    Ionescu-Tirgoviste, Constantin; Gagniuc, Paul A; Gubceac, Elvira; Mardare, Liliana; Popescu, Irinel; Dima, Simona; Militaru, Manuella

    2015-01-01

    Islets of Langerhans are fundamental in understanding diabetes. A healthy human pancreas from a donor has been used to asses various islet parameters and their three-dimensional distribution. Here we show that islets are spread gradually from the head up to the tail section of the pancreas in the form of contracted or dilated islet routes. We also report a particular anatomical structure, namely the cluster of islets. Our observations revealed a total of 11 islet clusters which comprise of small islets that surround large blood vessels. Additional observations in the peripancreatic adipose tissue have shown lymphoid-like nodes and blood vessels captured in a local inflammatory process. Our observations are based on regional slice maps of the pancreas, comprising of 5,423 islets. We also devised an index of sphericity which briefly indicates various islet shapes that are dominant throughout the pancreas. PMID:26417671

  14. Cross-correlative 3D micro-structural investigation of human bone processed into bone allografts.

    PubMed

    Singh, Atul Kumar; Gajiwala, Astrid Lobo; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Khan, Mohd Parvez; Singh, Chandan; Barbhuyan, Tarun; Vijayalakshmi, S; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Sinha, Neeraj; Kumar, Ashutosh; Bellare, Jayesh R

    2016-05-01

    Bone allografts (BA) are a cost-effective and sustainable alternative in orthopedic practice as they provide a permanent solution for preserving skeletal architecture and function. Such BA however, must be processed to be disease free and immunologically safe as well as biologically and clinically useful. Here, we have demonstrated a processing protocol for bone allografts and investigated the micro-structural properties of bone collected from osteoporotic and normal human donor samples. In order to characterize BA at different microscopic levels, a combination of techniques such as Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), micro-computed tomography (μCT) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used for delineating the ultra-structural property of bone. ssNMR revealed the extent of water, collagen fine structure and crystalline order in the bone. These were greatly perturbed in the bone taken from osteoporotic bone donor. Among the processing methods analyzed, pasteurization at 60 °C and radiation treatment appeared to substantially alter the bone integrity. SEM study showed a reduction in Ca/P ratio and non-uniform distribution of elements in osteoporotic bones. μ-CT and MIMICS (Materialize Interactive Medical Image Control System) demonstrated that pasteurization and radiation treatment affects the BA morphology and cause a shift in the HU unit. However, the combination of all these processes restored all-important parameters that are critical for BA integrity and sustainability. Cross-correlation between the various probes we used quantitatively demonstrated differences in morphological and micro-structural properties between BA taken from normal and osteoporotic human donor. Such details could also be instrumental in designing an appropriate bone scaffold. For the best restoration of bone microstructure and to be used as a biomaterial allograft, a step-wise processing method is recommended that preserves all

  15. Numerical simulation of inhaled aerosol particle deposition within 3D realistic human upper respiratory tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Fan, J. R.; Zheng, Y. Q.; Hu, G. L.; Pan, D.

    2010-03-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of airflow and particle deposition in the upper respiratory tract (URT) were conducted in this paper. Based on the CT (Computerized Tomography) scanned images of a 19-years-old healthy boy, a realistic geometric model of URT from oral cavity to the upper six-generation bronchial is rebuilt. To investigate airflow and particle deposition in the obtained realistic human upper respiratory tract, RNG k-ɛ turbulence model was used to describe the primary flow and particle deposition under three breathing intensity such as 15 L/min, 30 L/min and 60 L/min. The particle is tracked and analyzed in the Lagrangian frame. The velocity fields of airflow under different airflow rates were computed and discussed. In order to study the characteristics of particles movement and the effect of particles diameter on the deposition pattern, eleven kinds of sphere particles with different diameters are selected as research object. The diameters of selected particles as follows: 0.1 μm, 0.5 μm, 1 μm, 2.5 μm, 3 μm, 3.5 μm, 4 μm, 4.5 μm, 5 μm, 6.5 μm and 8 μm. The variation of inhalable particles deposition in realistic human upper respiratory tract with respiratory intensity and particle size was researched and compared. Furthermore, the more real inhalable particles with Rosin-Rammler mass distribution are used to study the effect of particles size. The deposition rate of particles with the different diameter scope in the different part of upper respiratory tract was summarized. The geometrical model based images technology promises to provide more real results of airflow field and particle deposition in the URT.

  16. Creation of North-East Indian face database for human face identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Kankan; Saha, Priya; Bhowmik, Mrinal K.; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Nasipuri, Mita

    2013-02-01

    Due to the various factors like illumination, expression, and pose variation etc., human face seem different in multiple occasions. To determine the efficiency of the different face recognition algorithms, it requires benchmark face images. This paper presents a comprehensive study of the available 2D face databases and also introduces the creation of a visual face database, North-East Indian (NEI) Face Database, which is under development in the Biometrics Laboratory of Tripura University, India. It contains high quality face images of 292 individuals of different tribe and non-tribe people of Mongolian origin collected from the North-Eastern states of India. The database contains four different types of illumination variations, eight different expressions, faces wearing glasses and each of these variations are being clicked concurrently from five different angles to provide pose variation using five CMOS sensor cameras, in a controlled indoor environment. Three different resolutions are being used for capturing the database images. Some baseline face recognition algorithms have also been tested using the Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifier on the NEI face database, which may be used as the control algorithm performance score by other researchers.

  17. Discrimination of familiar human faces in dogs (Canis familiaris)

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Ludwig; Racca, Anaïs; Scaf, Billy; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

    2013-01-01

    Faces are an important visual category for many taxa, and the human face is no exception to this. Because faces differ in subtle ways and possess many idiosyncratic features, they provide a rich source of perceptual cues. A fair amount of those cues are learned through social interactions and are used for future identification of individual humans. These effects of individual experience can be studied particularly well in hetero-specific face perception. Domestic dogs represent a perfect model in this respect, due to their proved ability to extract important information from the human face in socio-communicative interactions. There is also suggestive evidence that dogs can identify their owner or other familiar human individuals by using visual information from the face. However, most studies have used only dogs’ looking behavior to examine their visual processing of human faces and it has been demonstrated only that dogs can differentiate between familiar and unknown human faces. Here, we examined the dog's ability to discriminate the faces of two familiar persons by active choice (approach and touch). Furthermore, in successive stages of the experiment we investigated how well dogs discriminate humans in different representations by systematically reducing the informational richness and the quality of the stimuli. We found a huge inter-individual and inter-stage variance in performance, indicating differences across dogs in their learning ability as well as their selection of discriminative cues. On a group level, the performance of dogs significantly decreased when they were presented with pictures of human heads after having learned to discriminate the real heads, and when – after relearning – confronted with the same pictures showing only the inner parts of the heads. However, as two dogs quickly mastered all stages, we conclude that dogs are in principle able to discriminate people on the basis of visual information from their faces and by making active

  18. Discrimination of familiar human faces in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Huber, Ludwig; Racca, Anaïs; Scaf, Billy; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

    2013-11-01

    Faces are an important visual category for many taxa, and the human face is no exception to this. Because faces differ in subtle ways and possess many idiosyncratic features, they provide a rich source of perceptual cues. A fair amount of those cues are learned through social interactions and are used for future identification of individual humans. These effects of individual experience can be studied particularly well in hetero-specific face perception. Domestic dogs represent a perfect model in this respect, due to their proved ability to extract important information from the human face in socio-communicative interactions. There is also suggestive evidence that dogs can identify their owner or other familiar human individuals by using visual information from the face. However, most studies have used only dogs' looking behavior to examine their visual processing of human faces and it has been demonstrated only that dogs can differentiate between familiar and unknown human faces. Here, we examined the dog's ability to discriminate the faces of two familiar persons by active choice (approach and touch). Furthermore, in successive stages of the experiment we investigated how well dogs discriminate humans in different representations by systematically reducing the informational richness and the quality of the stimuli. We found a huge inter-individual and inter-stage variance in performance, indicating differences across dogs in their learning ability as well as their selection of discriminative cues. On a group level, the performance of dogs significantly decreased when they were presented with pictures of human heads after having learned to discriminate the real heads, and when - after relearning - confronted with the same pictures showing only the inner parts of the heads. However, as two dogs quickly mastered all stages, we conclude that dogs are in principle able to discriminate people on the basis of visual information from their faces and by making active

  19. Observed Human Errors in Interpreting 3D visualizations: implications for Teaching Students how to Comprehend Geological Block Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemis, K. G.; Pirl, E.; Chiang, J.; Tremaine, M.

    2009-12-01

    Block diagrams are commonly used to communicate three dimensional geological structures and other phenomena relevant to geological science (e.g., water bodies in the ocean). However, several recent studies have suggested that these 3D visualizations create difficulties for individuals with low to moderate spatial abilities. We have therefore initiated a series of studies to understand what it is about the 3D structures that make them so difficult for some people and also to determine if we can improve people’s understanding of these structures through web-based training not related to geology or other underlying information. Our first study examined what mistakes subjects made in a set of 3D block diagrams designed to represent progressively more difficult internal structures. Each block was shown bisected by a plane either perpendicular or at an angle to the block sides. Five low to medium spatial subjects were asked to draw the features that would appear on the bisecting plane. They were asked to talk aloud as they solved the problem. Each session was videotaped. Using the time it took subjects to solve the problems, the subject verbalizations of their problem solving and the drawings that were found to be in error, we have been able to find common patterns in the difficulties the subjects had with the diagrams. We have used these patterns to generate a set of strategies the subjects used in solving the problems. From these strategies, we are developing methods of teaching. A problem found in earlier work on geology structures was not observed in our study, that is, one of subjects failing to recognize the 2D representation of the block as 3D and drawing the cross-section as a combined version of the visible faces of the object. We attribute this to our experiment introduction, suggesting that even this simple training needs to be carried out with students encountering 3D block diagrams. Other problems subjects had included difficulties in perceptually

  20. Study of human body: Kinematics and kinetics of a martial arts (Silat) performers using 3D-motion capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, Ahmad Afiq Sabqi Awang; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; Azraai, Nur Zaidi

    2015-04-01

    The Interest in this studies of human kinematics goes back very far in human history drove by curiosity or need for the understanding the complexity of human body motion. To find new and accurate information about the human movement as the advance computing technology became available for human movement that can perform. Martial arts (silat) were chose and multiple type of movement was studied. This project has done by using cutting-edge technology which is 3D motion capture to characterize and to measure the motion done by the performers of martial arts (silat). The camera will detect the markers (infrared reflection by the marker) around the performer body (total of 24 markers) and will show as dot in the computer software. The markers detected were analyzing using kinematic kinetic approach and time as reference. A graph of velocity, acceleration and position at time,t (seconds) of each marker was plot. Then from the information obtain, more parameters were determined such as work done, momentum, center of mass of a body using mathematical approach. This data can be used for development of the effectiveness movement in martial arts which is contributed to the people in arts. More future works can be implemented from this project such as analysis of a martial arts competition.

  1. Genome-Wide Prediction and Analysis of 3D-Domain Swapped Proteins in the Human Genome from Sequence Information

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Atul Kumar; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    3D-domain swapping is one of the mechanisms of protein oligomerization and the proteins exhibiting this phenomenon have many biological functions. These proteins, which undergo domain swapping, have acquired much attention owing to their involvement in human diseases, such as conformational diseases, amyloidosis, serpinopathies, proteionopathies etc. Early realisation of proteins in the whole human genome that retain tendency to domain swap will enable many aspects of disease control management. Predictive models were developed by using machine learning approaches with an average accuracy of 78% (85.6% of sensitivity, 87.5% of specificity and an MCC value of 0.72) to predict putative domain swapping in protein sequences. These models were applied to many complete genomes with special emphasis on the human genome. Nearly 44% of the protein sequences in the human genome were predicted positive for domain swapping. Enrichment analysis was performed on the positively predicted sequences from human genome for their domain distribution, disease association and functional importance based on Gene Ontology (GO). Enrichment analysis was also performed to infer a better understanding of the functional importance of these sequences. Finally, we developed hinge region prediction, in the given putative domain swapped sequence, by using important physicochemical properties of amino acids. PMID:27467780

  2. Dynamics and cortical distribution of neural responses to 2D and 3D motion in human

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Suzanne P.; Norcia, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    The perception of motion-in-depth is important for avoiding collisions and for the control of vergence eye-movements and other motor actions. Previous psychophysical studies have suggested that sensitivity to motion-in-depth has a lower temporal processing limit than the perception of lateral motion. The present study used functional MRI-informed EEG source-imaging to study the spatiotemporal properties of the responses to lateral motion and motion-in-depth in human visual cortex. Lateral motion and motion-in-depth displays comprised stimuli whose only difference was interocular phase: monocular oscillatory motion was either in-phase in the two eyes (lateral motion) or in antiphase (motion-in-depth). Spectral analysis was used to break the steady-state visually evoked potentials responses down into even and odd harmonic components within five functionally defined regions of interest: V1, V4, lateral occipital complex, V3A, and hMT+. We also characterized the responses within two anatomically defined regions: the inferior and superior parietal cortex. Even harmonic components dominated the evoked responses and were a factor of approximately two larger for lateral motion than motion-in-depth. These responses were slower for motion-in-depth and were largely independent of absolute disparity. In each of our regions of interest, responses at odd-harmonics were relatively small, but were larger for motion-in-depth than lateral motion, especially in parietal cortex, and depended on absolute disparity. Taken together, our results suggest a plausible neural basis for reduced psychophysical sensitivity to rapid motion-in-depth. PMID:24198326

  3. Face Recognition Using ALLE and SIFT for Human Robot Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yaozhang; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; He, Hongsheng

    Face recognition is a very important aspect in developing human-robot interaction (HRI) for social robots. In this paper, an efficient face recognition algorithm is introduced for building intelligent robot vision system to recognize human faces. Dimension deduction algorithms locally linear embedding (LLE) and adaptive locally linear embedding (ALLE) and feature extraction algorithm scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) are combined to form new methods called LLE-SIFT and ALLE-SIFT for finding compact and distinctive descriptors for face images. The new feature descriptors are demonstrated to have better performance in face recognition applications than standard SIFT descriptors, which shows that the proposed method is promising for developing robot vision system of face recognition.

  4. Controllable Production of Transplantable Adult Human High-Passage Dermal Papilla Spheroids Using 3D Matrigel Culture

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yong; Sun, Ya Bin; Liu, Bing Cheng; Jiang, Jin Dou

    2014-01-01

    We have succeeded in culturing human dermal papilla (DP) cell spheroids and developed a three-dimensional (3D) Matrigel (basement membrane matrix) culture technique that can enhance and restore DP cells unique characteristics in vitro. When 1×104 DP cells were cultured on the 96-well plates precoated with Matrigel for 5 days, both passage 2 and passage 8 DP cells formed spheroidal microtissues with a diameter of 150–250 μm in an aggregative and proliferative manner. We transferred and recultured these DP spheroids onto commercial plates. Cells within DP spheres could disaggregate and migrate out, which was similar to primary DP. Moreover, we examined the expression of several genes and proteins associated with hair follicle inductivity of DP cells, such as NCAM, Versican, and α-smooth muscle actin, and confirmed that their expression level was elevated in the spheres compared with the dissociated DP cells. To examine the hair-inducing ability of DP spheres, hair germinal matrix cells (HGMCs) and DP spheres were mixed and cultured on Matrigel. Unlike the dissociated DP cells and HGMCs cocultured in two dimensions, HGMCs can differentiate into hair-like fibers under the induction of the DP spheres made from the high-passage cells (passage 8) in vitro. We are the first to show that passage 3 human HGMCs differentiate into hair-like fibers in the presence of human DP spheroids. These results suggest that the 3D Matrigel culture technique is an ideal culture model for forming DP spheroids and that sphere formation partially models the intact DP, resulting in hair induction, even by high-passage DP cells. PMID:24528213

  5. Treatment Paradigms for Retinal and Macular Diseases Using 3-D Retina Cultures Derived From Human Reporter Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Kaewkhaw, Rossukon; Swaroop, Manju; Homma, Kohei; Nakamura, Jutaro; Brooks, Matthew; Kaya, Koray Dogan; Chaitankar, Vijender; Michael, Sam; Tawa, Gregory; Zou, Jizhong; Rao, Mahendra; Zheng, Wei; Cogliati, Tiziana; Swaroop, Anand

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the use of pluripotent stem cell lines carrying fluorescent reporters driven by retinal promoters to derive three-dimensional (3-D) retina in culture and how this system can be exploited for elucidating human retinal biology, creating disease models in a dish, and designing targeted drug screens for retinal and macular degeneration. Furthermore, we realize that stem cell investigations are labor-intensive and require extensive resources. To expedite scientific discovery by sharing of resources and to avoid duplication of efforts, we propose the formation of a Retinal Stem Cell Consortium. In the field of vision, such collaborative approaches have been enormously successful in elucidating genetic susceptibility associated with age-related macular degeneration. PMID:27116668

  6. Laser-wakefield accelerators as hard x-ray sources for 3D medical imaging of human bone.

    PubMed

    Cole, J M; Wood, J C; Lopes, N C; Poder, K; Abel, R L; Alatabi, S; Bryant, J S J; Jin, A; Kneip, S; Mecseki, K; Symes, D R; Mangles, S P D; Najmudin, Z

    2015-01-01

    A bright μm-sized source of hard synchrotron x-rays (critical energy Ecrit > 30 keV) based on the betatron oscillations of laser wakefield accelerated electrons has been developed. The potential of this source for medical imaging was demonstrated by performing micro-computed tomography of a human femoral trabecular bone sample, allowing full 3D reconstruction to a resolution below 50 μm. The use of a 1 cm long wakefield accelerator means that the length of the beamline (excluding the laser) is dominated by the x-ray imaging distances rather than the electron acceleration distances. The source possesses high peak brightness, which allows each image to be recorded with a single exposure and reduces the time required for a full tomographic scan. These properties make this an interesting laboratory source for many tomographic imaging applications. PMID:26283308

  7. Laser-wakefield accelerators as hard x-ray sources for 3D medical imaging of human bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, J. M.; Wood, J. C.; Lopes, N. C.; Poder, K.; Abel, R. L.; Alatabi, S.; Bryant, J. S. J.; Jin, A.; Kneip, S.; Mecseki, K.; Symes, D. R.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Najmudin, Z.

    2015-08-01

    A bright μm-sized source of hard synchrotron x-rays (critical energy Ecrit > 30 keV) based on the betatron oscillations of laser wakefield accelerated electrons has been developed. The potential of this source for medical imaging was demonstrated by performing micro-computed tomography of a human femoral trabecular bone sample, allowing full 3D reconstruction to a resolution below 50 μm. The use of a 1 cm long wakefield accelerator means that the length of the beamline (excluding the laser) is dominated by the x-ray imaging distances rather than the electron acceleration distances. The source possesses high peak brightness, which allows each image to be recorded with a single exposure and reduces the time required for a full tomographic scan. These properties make this an interesting laboratory source for many tomographic imaging applications.

  8. Automated analysis of 3D morphology of human red blood cells via off-axis digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Inkyu

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we overview an automated method for the analysis of clinical parameters of human red blood cells (RBCs). The digital holograms of mature RBCs are recorded by CCD camera with off-axis interferometry setup and the quantitative phase images of RBCs are formed by a numerical reconstruction technique. For automated investigation of the 3D morphology and mean corpuscular hemoglobin of RBCs, the unnecessary background in the RBCs phase images are removed by marker-controlled watershed segmentation algorithm. Then, characteristic properties of each RBC such as projected cell surface, average phase, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and (MCH) surface density is quantitatively measured. Finally, the equality of covariance matrixes and mean vectors of these features for different kinds of RBCs are experimentally analyzed using statistical test scheme. Results show that these characteristic parameters of RBCs can be used as feature pattern to discriminate between RBC populations that differ in shape and hemoglobin content.

  9. Mini-pillar array for hydrogel-supported 3D culture and high-content histologic analysis of human tumor spheroids.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jihoon; Lee, Dong Woo; Hwang, Hyun Ju; Yeon, Sang-Eun; Lee, Moo-Yeal; Kuh, Hyo-Jeong

    2016-06-21

    Three-dimensional (3D) cancer cell culture models mimic the complex 3D organization and microenvironment of human solid tumor tissue and are thus considered as highly predictive models representing avascular tumor regions. Confocal laser scanning microscopy is useful for monitoring drug penetration and therapeutic responses in 3D tumor models; however, photonic attenuation at increasing imaging depths and limited penetration of common fluorescence tracers are significant technical challenges to imaging. Immunohistological staining would be a good alternative, but the preparation of tissue sections from rather fragile spheroids through fixing and embedding procedures is challenging. Here we introduce a novel 3 × 3 mini-pillar array chip that can be utilized for 3D cell culturing and sectioning for high-content histologic analysis. The mini-pillar array chip facilitated the generation of 3D spheroids of human cancer cells within hydrogels such as alginate, collagen, and Matrigel. As expected, visualization of the 3D distribution of calcein AM and doxorubicin by optical sectioning was limited by photonic attenuation and dye penetration. The integrity of the 3D microtissue section was confirmed by immunostaining on paraffin sections and cryo-sections. The applicability of the mini-pillar array for drug activity evaluation was tested by measuring viability changes in spheroids exposed to anti-cancer agents, 5-fluorouracil and tirapazamine. Thus, our novel mini-pillar array platform can potentially promote high-content histologic analysis of 3D cultures and can be further optimized for field-specific needs. PMID:27194205

  10. A new dynamic 3D virtual methodology for teaching the mechanics of atrial septation as seen in the human heart.

    PubMed

    Schleich, Jean-Marc; Dillenseger, Jean-Louis; Houyel, Lucile; Almange, Claude; Anderson, Robert H

    2009-01-01

    Learning embryology remains difficult, since it requires understanding of many complex phenomena. The temporal evolution of developmental events has classically been illustrated using cartoons, which create difficulty in linking spatial and temporal aspects, such correlation being the keystone of descriptive embryology. We synthesized the bibliographic data from recent studies of atrial septal development. On the basis of this synthesis, consensus on the stages of atrial septation as seen in the human heart has been reached by a group of experts in cardiac embryology and pediatric cardiology. This has permitted the preparation of three-dimensional (3D) computer graphic objects for the anatomical components involved in the different stages of normal human atrial septation. We have provided a virtual guide to the process of normal atrial septation, the animation providing an appreciation of the temporal and morphologic events necessary to separate the systemic and pulmonary venous returns. We have shown that our animations of normal human atrial septation increase significantly the teaching of the complex developmental processes involved, and provide a new dynamic for the process of learning. PMID:19363807

  11. Unsteady Analysis of Particle Transport and Deposition in the Human Lung: A Hybrid 3D/0D Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haworth, Daniel C.; Kunz, Robert F.; Leemhuis, Laura S.; Banks, Syreeta S.; Kriete, Andres

    2003-11-01

    Three-dimensional CFD meshes including up the sixteenth generation of branching in a human tracheo-bronchial tree have been generated from surface data extracted using novel high-resolution bio-medical imaging and rendering methods. A zero-dimensional model for the deeper generations has been coupled with the three-dimensional model at each of the truncated branches. The 0D model imposes a time-varying volume to simulate realistic breathing cycles; it also includes a simple model for particle deposition. The resulting hybrid 3D/0D model has been exercised to compute the transport and deposition rates of particles of different sizes through full breathing cycles. Results are compared to earlier steady-flow CFD results, to results obtained using one-dimensional functional models of the human lung, and to experimental and modeling results for idealized branching-duct configurations. The aim of the research is to develop a virtual human respiratory system that can be used to address issues in pulmonary health in

  12. Human face processing is tuned to sexual age preferences

    PubMed Central

    Ponseti, J.; Granert, O.; van Eimeren, T.; Jansen, O.; Wolff, S.; Beier, K.; Deuschl, G.; Bosinski, H.; Siebner, H.

    2014-01-01

    Human faces can motivate nurturing behaviour or sexual behaviour when adults see a child or an adult face, respectively. This suggests that face processing is tuned to detecting age cues of sexual maturity to stimulate the appropriate reproductive behaviour: either caretaking or mating. In paedophilia, sexual attraction is directed to sexually immature children. Therefore, we hypothesized that brain networks that normally are tuned to mature faces of the preferred gender show an abnormal tuning to sexual immature faces in paedophilia. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test directly for the existence of a network which is tuned to face cues of sexual maturity. During fMRI, participants sexually attracted to either adults or children were exposed to various face images. In individuals attracted to adults, adult faces activated several brain regions significantly more than child faces. These brain regions comprised areas known to be implicated in face processing, and sexual processing, including occipital areas, the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and, subcortically, the putamen and nucleus caudatus. The same regions were activated in paedophiles, but with a reversed preferential response pattern. PMID:24850896

  13. Human face processing is tuned to sexual age preferences.

    PubMed

    Ponseti, J; Granert, O; van Eimeren, T; Jansen, O; Wolff, S; Beier, K; Deuschl, G; Bosinski, H; Siebner, H

    2014-05-01

    Human faces can motivate nurturing behaviour or sexual behaviour when adults see a child or an adult face, respectively. This suggests that face processing is tuned to detecting age cues of sexual maturity to stimulate the appropriate reproductive behaviour: either caretaking or mating. In paedophilia, sexual attraction is directed to sexually immature children. Therefore, we hypothesized that brain networks that normally are tuned to mature faces of the preferred gender show an abnormal tuning to sexual immature faces in paedophilia. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test directly for the existence of a network which is tuned to face cues of sexual maturity. During fMRI, participants sexually attracted to either adults or children were exposed to various face images. In individuals attracted to adults, adult faces activated several brain regions significantly more than child faces. These brain regions comprised areas known to be implicated in face processing, and sexual processing, including occipital areas, the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and, subcortically, the putamen and nucleus caudatus. The same regions were activated in paedophiles, but with a reversed preferential response pattern. PMID:24850896

  14. Effect of catheter placement on 3-D velocity profiles in curved tubes resembling the human coronary system.

    PubMed

    Krams, R; Wentzel, J J; Cespedes, I; Vinke, R; Carlier, S; van der Steen, A F; Lancee, C T; Slager, C J

    1999-06-01

    Novel measurement techniques based on intravenous ultrasound (IVUS) technology ('IVUS-Flowmetry') require the location of a catheter inside the coronary bed. The present study quantifies disturbances in the 3-D velocity profile induced by catheter placement inside a tube, applying computational fluid dynamics. Two curved, circular meshes (radius K = 0.025 m and K = 0.035 m) with and without a catheter inside the lumen were applied. The catheter was located at the inner curve, the outer curve and at the top position. Boundary conditions were: no slip on the wall, zero stress at the outlet, uniform inflow with entrance velocities of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 m/s. Curvature-associated centrifugal forces shifted the maximal velocity to the outer curve and introduced two symmetrical vortices. Additional catheter placement redistributed the 3-D axial velocity field away from the catheter, which was accompanied by the appearance of multiple low-strength vortices. In addition, peak axial velocity increased, peak secondary velocities decreased, axial pressure drop increased and shear stress increased. Flow calculations simulated to resemble IVUS-based flowmetry changed by only 1% after considering secondary velocity. In conclusion, placement of a catheter inside a curved tube resembling the human coronary system changes the velocity field and reduces secondary patterns. The present study supports the usefulness of catheter-based flowmetry during resting flow conditions. During hyperemic flow conditions, flow measurements might be accompanied by large axial pressure drops because the catheter, itself, might act as a significant stenosis. PMID:10414897

  15. Investigating the neuroglial differentiation effect of neuroblastoma conditioned medium in human endometrial stem cells cultured on 3D nanofibrous scaffold.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh; Hoveizi, Elham; Norouzi Javidan, Abbas; Ai, Jafar

    2015-08-01

    Neural tissue engineering is an important area of research in the field of tissue-engineering especially for neurodegenerative disease such as spinal cord injury. The differentiation capacity of human endometrial stem cells (hEnSCs) into neuronal cells has yet to be elucidated. Here, the major aim of the present study was to investigate the differentiation ability of hEnSCs cultured on polylactic acid/chitosan (PLA/CS) nanofibrous scaffold into neuroglial cells in response to conditioned medium of BE(2)-C human neuroblastoma cells and growth factors. Here we investigated the use PLA/CS scaffold as a three dimensional (3D) system that increased neuro-glial cells differentiation. Human EnSCs after three passages were differentiated in neuro-glial like cells under neuroblastoma conditioned medium with FGF2/PDGF-AA on PLA/CS scaffold. By day 18, differentiated cells were analyzed for expression of neuroglial markers by qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence. The results revealed that hEnSCs attach, grow and differentiation on the nanofibrous PLA/CS scaffold. Additionally, our study showed the expression of neural and glial lineage markers such as Nestin, NF-L, MAP2, PDGFRa, CNP, Olig2, MBP, and GFAP in the level of mRNA and MAP2, Tuj-1, and NF-L in the protein level after 18 days. Our results demonstrate that hEnSCs cultured on PLA/CS nanofibrous scaffold have the potential to differentiate in neuronal and glial cells in presence of neuroblastoma conditioned medium on PLA/CS scaffold. The result of this study may have impact in tissue engineering and cells-base therapy of neurodegenerative diseases and have a great potential for wide application. PMID:25611196

  16. Putting A Human Face on Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glickstein, Neil

    2005-03-01

    A short biography of chemist Fritz Haber is used to personalize the abstract concepts of equilibrium chemistry for high school students in an introductory course. In addition to giving the Haber Bosch process an historic, an economic, and a scientific background the reading and subsequent discussion allows students for whom the human perspective is of paramount importance a chance to investigate the irony of balance or equilibrium in Haber's life story. Since the inclusion of the Haber biography, performance in the laboratory and on examinations for those students who are usually only partially engaged has dramatically improved.

  17. E-Cadherin Suppression Directs Cytoskeletal Rearrangement and Intraepithelial Tumor Cell Migration in 3D Human Skin Equivalents

    PubMed Central

    Alt-Holland, Addy; Shamis, Yulia; Riley, Kathleen N.; DesRochers, Teresa M.; Fusenig, Norbert E.; Herman, Ira M.; Garlick, Jonathan A.

    2010-01-01

    The link between loss of cell–cell adhesion, the activation of cell migration, and the behavior of intraepithelial (IE) tumor cells during the early stages of skin cancer progression is not well understood. The current study characterized the migratory behavior of a squamous cell carcinoma cell line (HaCaT-II-4) upon E-cadherin suppression in both 2D, monolayer cultures and within human skin equivalents that mimic premalignant disease. The migratory behavior of tumor cells was first analyzed in 3D tissue context by developing a model that mimics transepithelial tumor cell migration. We show that loss of cell adhesion enabled migration of single, IE tumor cells between normal keratinocytes as a prerequisite for stromal invasion. To further understand this migratory behavior, E-cadherin-deficient cells were analyzed in 2D, monolayer cultures and displayed altered cytoarchitecture and enhanced membrane protrusive activity that was associated with circumferential actin organization and induction of the nonmuscle, β actin isoform. These features were associated with increased motility and random, individual cell migration in response to scrape-wounding. Thus, loss of E-cadherin-mediated adhesion led to the acquisition of phenotypic properties that augmented cell motility and directed the transition from the precancer to cancer in skin-like tissues. PMID:18528437

  18. The Development and Characterization of a Human Mesothelioma In Vitro 3D Model to Investigate Immunotoxin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Mingqian; Nagashima, Kunio; Zhang, Jingli; Broaddus, V. Courtney; Hassan, Raffit; FitzGerald, David; Ho, Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    Background Tumor microenvironments present significant barriers to penetration by antibodies and immunoconjugates. Tumor microenvironments, however, are difficult to study in vitro. Cells cultured as monolayers exhibit less resistance to therapy than those grown in vivo and an alternative research model more representative of the in vivo tumor is more desirable. SS1P is an immunotoxin composed of the Fv portion of a mesothelin-specific antibody fused to a bacterial toxin that is presently undergoing clinical trials in mesothelioma. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we examined how the tumor microenvironment affects the penetration and killing activity of SS1P in a new three-dimensional (3D) spheroid model cultured in vitro using the human mesothelioma cell line (NCI-H226) and two primary cell lines isolated from the ascites of malignant mesothelioma patients. Mesothelioma cells grown as monolayers or as spheroids expressed comparable levels of mesothelin; however, spheroids were at least 100 times less affected by SS1P. To understand this disparity in cytotoxicity, we made fluorescence-labeled SS1P molecules and used confocal microscopy to examine the time course of SS1P penetration within spheroids. The penetration was limited after 4 hours. Interestingly, we found a significant increase in the number of tight junctions in the core area of spheroids by electron microscopy. Expression of E-Cadherin, a protein involved in the assembly and sealing of tight junctions and highly expressed in malignant mesothelioma, was found significantly increased in spheroids as compared to monolayers. Moreover, we found that siRNA silencing and antibody inhibition targeting E-Cadherin could enhance SS1P immunotoxin therapy in vitro. Conclusion/Significance This work is one of the first to investigate immunotoxins in 3D tumor spheroids in vitro. This initial description of an in vitro tumor model may offer a simple and more representative model of in vivo tumors and will allow for

  19. Pneumococcal polysaccharides complexed with C3d bind to human B lymphocytes via complement receptor type 2.

    PubMed Central

    Griffioen, A W; Rijkers, G T; Janssens-Korpela, P; Zegers, B J

    1991-01-01

    The immunoregulatory function of the complement system has been the focus of many investigations. In particular, fragments of complement factor C3 have been shown to play a role in B-lymphocyte activation and proliferation, lymphokine production, and the generation of in vitro antibody production. Purified pneumococcal polysaccharides (PS) can induce direct activation of C3 via the alternative pathway. Using sera of C1q-deficient patients and healthy subjects, we demonstrated that C3d, a split product of C3 that is generated after degradation of iC3b, can be bound to PS antigens. The binding of C3d to PS can occur in the absence of specific antibodies. Subsequently, we showed that PS complexed with C3d can be recognized by complement receptor type 2 that is expressed on B cells. Treatment of B cells with a monoclonal antibody recognizing the C3d-binding site of complement receptor type 2 reduces the binding of PS-C3d to the cells. In addition, we showed that PS4 complexed with C3d exerted an increased immunogenicity compared with free PS4. Our results show that the complement system plays a role in the activation of PS-specific B cells, carrying membrane receptors for C3d. Consequently, the complement system plays a regulatory role in the antibody response to T-cell-independent type 2 antigens such as PS. PMID:1826897

  20. Compartment modeling anslysis of C-11 flumazenil kinetics in human brain using dynamic 2D and 3D PET

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Y.; Simpson, N.; Townsend, D.W.

    1994-05-01

    We examined the feasibility of compartment modeling analysis and the numerical accuracy of model parameters of radioligand delivery and binding in the brain using 2D and 3D PET. Two subjects were injected with C-11 flumazenil (FMZ) i.v., and imaged over the brain with a dynamic sequence of 6x20 s, 2x30 s, 4x90 s, 4x180 s, 2x300 s, 2x600 s, and 2x1200 s frames. Different scatter correction methods were applied to the 3D data: No scatter correction (NOC), dual-energy window subtraction (DEW) and convolution-subtraction (CON). The kinetic data for regions listed below were fitted to a 2-compartment, 2-parameter model. Both 2D and 3D results are similar and within the expected range. The 3D %SE was less than 2D despite the smaller dose. The effect of the scatter in 3D parameter estimates appears to be small. These preliminary data indicate temporally sufficient kinetic data can be acquired in 3D mode to perform compartmental analysis of C-11 FMZ. Improved sensitivity in 3D may allow more accurate receptor characterization especially in small structures or in low specific binding areas.

  1. Hinge-loop mutation can be used to control 3D domain swapping and amyloidogenesis of human cystatin C.

    PubMed

    Orlikowska, Marta; Jankowska, Elżbieta; Kołodziejczyk, Robert; Jaskólski, Mariusz; Szymańska, Aneta

    2011-02-01

    Cystatins are natural inhibitors of cysteine proteases, enzymes that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Human cystatin C (hCC) has been also recognized as an aggregating protein directly involved in the formation of pathological amyloid fibrils, and these amyloidogenic properties greatly increase in a naturally occurring L68Q hCC variant. For a long time only dimeric structure of wild-type hCC has been known. The dimer is created through 3D domain swapping process, in which two parts of the cystatin structure become separated from each other and next exchanged between two molecules. Important role in the domain swapping plays the L1 loop, which connects the exchanging segments and, upon dimerization, transforms from a β-turn into a part of a long β-strand. In the very recently published first monomeric structure of human cystatin C (hCC-stab1), dimerization was abrogated due to clasping of the β-strands from the swapping domains by an engineered disulfide bridge. We have designed and constructed another mutated cystatin C with the smallest possible structural intervention, that is a single-point mutation replacing hydrophobic V57 from the L1 loop by polar asparagine, known as a stabilizer of a β-turn motif. V57N hCC mutant occurred to be stable in its monomeric form and crystallized as a monomer, revealing typical cystatin fold with a five-stranded antiparallel β-sheet wrapped around an α-helix. Here we report a 2.04 Å resolution crystal structure of V57N hCC and discuss the architecture of the protein in comparison to chicken cystatin, hCC-stab1 and dimeric hCC. PMID:21074623

  2. HIF-2α Expression Regulates Sprout Formation into 3D Fibrin Matrices in Prolonged Hypoxia in Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nauta, Tessa D.; Duyndam, Monique C. A.; Weijers, Ester M.; van Hinsbergh, Victor M. W.; Koolwijk, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Background During short-term hypoxia, Hypoxia Inducible Factors (particular their subunits HIF-1α and HIF-2α) regulate the expression of many genes including the potent angiogenesis stimulator VEGF. However, in some pathological conditions chronic hypoxia occurs and is accompanied by reduced angiogenesis. Objectives We investigated the effect of prolonged hypoxia on the proliferation and sprouting ability of human microvascular endothelial cells and the involvement of the HIFs and Dll4/Notch signaling. Methods and Results Human microvascular endothelial cells (hMVECs), cultured at 20% oxygen for 14 days and seeded on top of 3D fibrin matrices, formed sprouts when stimulated with VEGF-A/TNFα. In contrast, hMVECs precultured at 1% oxygen for 14 days were viable and proliferative, but did not form sprouts into fibrin upon VEGF-A/TNFα stimulation at 1% oxygen. Silencing of HIF-2α with si-RNA partially restored the inhibition of endothelial sprouting, whereas HIF-1α or HIF-3α by si-RNA had no effect. No involvement of Dll4/Notch pathway in the inhibitory effect on endothelial sprouting by prolonged hypoxia was found. In addition, hypoxia decreased the production of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), needed for migration and invasion, without a significant effect on its inhibitor PAI-1. This was independent of HIF-2α, as si-HIF-2α did not counteract uPA reduction. Conclusion Prolonged culturing of hMVECs at 1% oxygen inhibited endothelial sprouting into fibrin. Two independent mechanisms contribute. Silencing of HIF-2α with si-RNA partially restored the inhibition of endothelial sprouting pointing to a HIF-2α-dependent mechanism. In addition, reduction of uPA contributed to reduced endothelial tube formation in a fibrin matrix during prolonged hypoxia. PMID:27490118

  3. 3D modeling of human cancer: A PEG-fibrin hydrogel system to study the role of tumor microenvironment and recapitulate the in vivo effect of oncolytic adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Del Bufalo, Francesca; Manzo, Teresa; Hoyos, Valentina; Yagyu, Shigeki; Caruana, Ignazio; Jacot, Jeffrey; Benavides, Omar; Rosen, Daniel; Brenner, Malcolm K

    2016-04-01

    Interactions between malignant and stromal cells and the 3D spatial architecture of the tumor both substantially modify tumor behavior, including the responses to small molecule drugs and biological therapies. Conventional 2D culture systems cannot replicate this complexity. To overcome these limitations and more accurately model solid tumors, we developed a highly versatile 3D PEG-fibrin hydrogel model of human lung adenocarcinoma. Our model relevantly recapitulates the effect of oncolytic adenovirus; tumor responses in this setting nearly reproduce those observed in vivo. We have also validated the use of this model for complex, long-term, 3D cultures of cancer cells and their stroma (fibroblasts and endothelial cells). Both tumor proliferation and invasiveness were enhanced in the presence of stromal components. These results validate our 3D hydrogel model as a relevant platform to study cancer biology and tumor responses to biological treatments. PMID:26826297

  4. Facing freeze: social threat induces bodily freeze in humans.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, Karin; Hagenaars, Muriel A; Stins, John

    2010-11-01

    Freezing is a common defensive response in animals threatened by predators. It is characterized by reduced body motion and decreased heart rate (bradycardia). However, despite the relevance of animal defense models in human stress research, studies have not shown whether social threat cues elicit similar freeze-like responses in humans. We investigated body sway and heart rate in 50 female participants while they were standing on a stabilometric force platform and viewing cues that were socially threatening, socially neutral, and socially affiliative (angry, neutral, and happy faces, respectively). Posturographic analyses showed that angry faces (compared with neutral faces and happy faces) induced significant reductions in body sway. In addition, the reduced body sway for angry faces was accompanied by bradycardia and correlated significantly with subjective anxiety. Together, these findings indicate that spontaneous body responses to social threat cues involve freeze-like behavior in humans that mimics animal freeze responses. These findings open avenues for studying human freeze responses in relation to various sociobiological markers and social-affective disorders. PMID:20876881

  5. Maximizing modern distribution of complex anatomical spatial information: 3D reconstruction and rapid prototype production of anatomical corrosion casts of human specimens.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianyi; Nie, Lanying; Li, Zeyu; Lin, Lijun; Tang, Lei; Ouyang, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Anatomical corrosion casts of human specimens are useful teaching aids. However, their use is limited due to ethical dilemmas associated with their production, their lack of perfect reproducibility, and their consumption of original specimens in the process of casting. In this study, new approaches with modern distribution of complex anatomical spatial information were explored to overcome these limitations through the digitalization of anatomical casts of human specimens through three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction, rapid prototype production, and Web-based 3D atlas construction. The corrosion cast of a lung, along with its associated arteries, veins, trachea, and bronchial tree was CT-scanned, and the data was then processed by Mimics software. Data from the lung casts were then reconstructed into 3D models using a hybrid method, utilizing both "image threshold" and "region growing." The fine structures of the bronchial tree, arterial, and venous network of the lung were clearly displayed and demonstrated their distinct relationships. The multiple divisions of bronchi and bronchopulmonary segments were identified. The 3D models were then uploaded into a rapid prototype 3D printer to physically duplicate the cast. The physically duplicated model of the lung was rescanned by CT and reconstructed to detect its production accuracy. Gross observation and accuracy detection were used to evaluate the duplication and few differences were found. Finally, Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) was used to edit the 3D casting models to construct a Web-based 3D atlas accessible through Internet Explorer with 3D display and annotation functions. PMID:22653786

  6. Modelling staphylococcal pneumonia in a human 3D lung tissue model system delineates toxin-mediated pathology

    PubMed Central

    Mairpady Shambat, Srikanth; Chen, Puran; Nguyen Hoang, Anh Thu; Bergsten, Helena; Vandenesch, Francois; Siemens, Nikolai; Lina, Gerard; Monk, Ian R.; Foster, Timothy J.; Arakere, Gayathri; Svensson, Mattias; Norrby-Teglund, Anna

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus necrotizing pneumonia is recognized as a toxin-mediated disease, yet the tissue-destructive events remain elusive, partly as a result of lack of mechanistic studies in human lung tissue. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) tissue model composed of human lung epithelial cells and fibroblasts was used to delineate the role of specific staphylococcal exotoxins in tissue pathology associated with severe pneumonia. To this end, the models were exposed to the mixture of exotoxins produced by S. aureus strains isolated from patients with varying severity of lung infection, namely necrotizing pneumonia or lung empyema, or to purified toxins. The necrotizing pneumonia strains secreted high levels of α-toxin and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), and triggered high cytotoxicity, inflammation, necrosis and loss of E-cadherin from the lung epithelium. In contrast, the lung empyema strain produced moderate levels of PVL, but negligible amounts of α-toxin, and triggered limited tissue damage. α-toxin had a direct damaging effect on the epithelium, as verified using toxin-deficient mutants and pure α-toxin. Moreover, PVL contributed to pathology through the lysis of neutrophils. A combination of α-toxin and PVL resulted in the most severe epithelial injury. In addition, toxin-induced release of pro-inflammatory mediators from lung tissue models resulted in enhanced neutrophil migration. Using a collection of 31 strains from patients with staphylococcal pneumonia revealed that strains producing high levels of α-toxin and PVL were cytotoxic and associated with fatal outcome. Also, the strains that produced the highest toxin levels induced significantly greater epithelial disruption. Of importance, toxin-mediated lung epithelium destruction could be inhibited by polyspecific intravenous immunoglobulin containing antibodies against α-toxin and PVL. This study introduces a novel model system for study of staphylococcal pneumonia in a human

  7. Recognizing Age-Separated Face Images: Humans and Machines

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Daksha; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank; Noore, Afzel

    2014-01-01

    Humans utilize facial appearance, gender, expression, aging pattern, and other ancillary information to recognize individuals. It is interesting to observe how humans perceive facial age. Analyzing these properties can help in understanding the phenomenon of facial aging and incorporating the findings can help in designing effective algorithms. Such a study has two components - facial age estimation and age-separated face recognition. Age estimation involves predicting the age of an individual given his/her facial image. On the other hand, age-separated face recognition consists of recognizing an individual given his/her age-separated images. In this research, we investigate which facial cues are utilized by humans for estimating the age of people belonging to various age groups along with analyzing the effect of one's gender, age, and ethnicity on age estimation skills. We also analyze how various facial regions such as binocular and mouth regions influence age estimation and recognition capabilities. Finally, we propose an age-invariant face recognition algorithm that incorporates the knowledge learned from these observations. Key observations of our research are: (1) the age group of newborns and toddlers is easiest to estimate, (2) gender and ethnicity do not affect the judgment of age group estimation, (3) face as a global feature, is essential to achieve good performance in age-separated face recognition, and (4) the proposed algorithm yields improved recognition performance compared to existing algorithms and also outperforms a commercial system in the young image as probe scenario. PMID:25474200

  8. Recognizing age-separated face images: humans and machines.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Daksha; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank; Noore, Afzel

    2014-01-01

    Humans utilize facial appearance, gender, expression, aging pattern, and other ancillary information to recognize individuals. It is interesting to observe how humans perceive facial age. Analyzing these properties can help in understanding the phenomenon of facial aging and incorporating the findings can help in designing effective algorithms. Such a study has two components--facial age estimation and age-separated face recognition. Age estimation involves predicting the age of an individual given his/her facial image. On the other hand, age-separated face recognition consists of recognizing an individual given his/her age-separated images. In this research, we investigate which facial cues are utilized by humans for estimating the age of people belonging to various age groups along with analyzing the effect of one's gender, age, and ethnicity on age estimation skills. We also analyze how various facial regions such as binocular and mouth regions influence age estimation and recognition capabilities. Finally, we propose an age-invariant face recognition algorithm that incorporates the knowledge learned from these observations. Key observations of our research are: (1) the age group of newborns and toddlers is easiest to estimate, (2) gender and ethnicity do not affect the judgment of age group estimation, (3) face as a global feature, is essential to achieve good performance in age-separated face recognition, and (4) the proposed algorithm yields improved recognition performance compared to existing algorithms and also outperforms a commercial system in the young image as probe scenario. PMID:25474200

  9. Mitigation of Lethal Radiation Syndrome in Mice by Intramuscular Injection of 3D Cultured Adherent Human Placental Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Gaberman, Elena; Pinzur, Lena; Levdansky, Lilia; Tsirlin, Maria; Netzer, Nir; Aberman, Zami; Gorodetsky, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to high lethal dose of ionizing radiation results in acute radiation syndrome with deleterious systemic effects to different organs. A primary target is the highly sensitive bone marrow and the hematopoietic system. In the current study C3H/HeN mice were total body irradiated by 7.7 Gy. Twenty four hrs and 5 days after irradiation 2×10(6) cells from different preparations of human derived 3D expanded adherent placental stromal cells (PLX) were injected intramuscularly. Treatment with batches consisting of pure maternal cell preparations (PLX-Mat) increased the survival of the irradiated mice from ∼27% to 68% (P<0.001), while cell preparations with a mixture of maternal and fetal derived cells (PLX-RAD) increased the survival to ∼98% (P<0.0001). The dose modifying factor of this treatment for both 50% and 37% survival (DMF50 and DMF37) was∼1.23. Initiation of the more effective treatment with PLX-RAD injection could be delayed for up to 48 hrs after irradiation with similar effect. A delayed treatment by 72 hrs had lower, but still significantly effect (p<0.05). A faster recovery of the BM and improved reconstitution of all blood cell lineages in the PLX-RAD treated mice during the follow-up explains the increased survival of the cells treated irradiated mice. The number of CD45+/SCA1+ hematopoietic progenitor cells within the fast recovering population of nucleated BM cells in the irradiated mice was also elevated in the PLX-RAD treated mice. Our study suggests that IM treatment with PLX-RAD cells may serve as a highly effective "off the shelf" therapy to treat BM failure following total body exposure to high doses of radiation. The results suggest that similar treatments may be beneficial also for clinical conditions associated with severe BM aplasia and pancytopenia. PMID:23823334

  10. Mitigation of Lethal Radiation Syndrome in Mice by Intramuscular Injection of 3D Cultured Adherent Human Placental Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gaberman, Elena; Pinzur, Lena; Levdansky, Lilia; Tsirlin, Maria; Netzer, Nir; Aberman, Zami; Gorodetsky, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to high lethal dose of ionizing radiation results in acute radiation syndrome with deleterious systemic effects to different organs. A primary target is the highly sensitive bone marrow and the hematopoietic system. In the current study C3H/HeN mice were total body irradiated by 7.7 Gy. Twenty four hrs and 5 days after irradiation 2×106 cells from different preparations of human derived 3D expanded adherent placental stromal cells (PLX) were injected intramuscularly. Treatment with batches consisting of pure maternal cell preparations (PLX-Mat) increased the survival of the irradiated mice from ∼27% to 68% (P<0.001), while cell preparations with a mixture of maternal and fetal derived cells (PLX-RAD) increased the survival to ∼98% (P<0.0001). The dose modifying factor of this treatment for both 50% and 37% survival (DMF50 and DMF37) was∼1.23. Initiation of the more effective treatment with PLX-RAD injection could be delayed for up to 48 hrs after irradiation with similar effect. A delayed treatment by 72 hrs had lower, but still significantly effect (p<0.05). A faster recovery of the BM and improved reconstitution of all blood cell lineages in the PLX-RAD treated mice during the follow-up explains the increased survival of the cells treated irradiated mice. The number of CD45+/SCA1+ hematopoietic progenitor cells within the fast recovering population of nucleated BM cells in the irradiated mice was also elevated in the PLX-RAD treated mice. Our study suggests that IM treatment with PLX-RAD cells may serve as a highly effective “off the shelf” therapy to treat BM failure following total body exposure to high doses of radiation. The results suggest that similar treatments may be beneficial also for clinical conditions associated with severe BM aplasia and pancytopenia. PMID:23823334

  11. Spatial augmented reality based high accuracy human face projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong; Xie, Jinghui; Li, Yufeng; Weng, Dongdong; Liu, Yue

    2015-08-01

    This paper discusses the imaging principles and the technical difficulties of spatial augmented reality based human face projection. A novel geometry correction method is proposed to realize fast, high-accuracy face model projection. Using a depth camera to reconstruct the projected object, the relative position from the rendered model to the projector can be accessed and the initial projection image is generated. Then the projected image is distorted by using Bezier interpolation to guarantee that the projected texture matches with the object surface. The proposed method is under a simple process flow and can achieve high perception registration of virtual and real object. In addition, this method has a good performance in the condition that the reconstructed model is not exactly same with the rendered virtual model which extends its application area in the spatial augmented reality based human face projection.

  12. A Quantitative Comparison of Human HT-1080 Fibrosarcoma Cells and Primary Human Dermal Fibroblasts Identifies a 3D Migration Mechanism with Properties Unique to the Transformed Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Michael P.; Rogers, Robert E.; Singh, Samir P.; Lee, Justin Y.; Loveland, Samuel G.; Koepsel, Justin T.; Witze, Eric S.; Montanez-Sauri, Sara I.; Sung, Kyung E.; Tokuda, Emi Y.; Sharma, Yasha; Everhart, Lydia M.; Nguyen, Eric H.; Zaman, Muhammad H.; Beebe, David J.; Ahn, Natalie G.; Murphy, William L.; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we describe an engineering approach to quantitatively compare migration, morphologies, and adhesion for tumorigenic human fibrosarcoma cells (HT-1080s) and primary human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs) with the aim of identifying distinguishing properties of the transformed phenotype. Relative adhesiveness was quantified using self-assembled monolayer (SAM) arrays and proteolytic 3-dimensional (3D) migration was investigated using matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-degradable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels (“synthetic extracellular matrix” or “synthetic ECM”). In synthetic ECM, hDFs were characterized by vinculin-containing features on the tips of protrusions, multipolar morphologies, and organized actomyosin filaments. In contrast, HT-1080s were characterized by diffuse vinculin expression, pronounced β1-integrin on the tips of protrusions, a cortically-organized F-actin cytoskeleton, and quantitatively more rounded morphologies, decreased adhesiveness, and increased directional motility compared to hDFs. Further, HT-1080s were characterized by contractility-dependent motility, pronounced blebbing, and cortical contraction waves or constriction rings, while quantified 3D motility was similar in matrices with a wide range of biochemical and biophysical properties (including collagen) despite substantial morphological changes. While HT-1080s were distinct from hDFs for each of the 2D and 3D properties investigated, several features were similar to WM239a melanoma cells, including rounded, proteolytic migration modes, cortical F-actin organization, and prominent uropod-like structures enriched with β1-integrin, F-actin, and melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM/CD146/MUC18). Importantly, many of the features observed for HT-1080s were analogous to cellular changes induced by transformation, including cell rounding, a disorganized F-actin cytoskeleton, altered organization of focal adhesion proteins, and a weakly adherent phenotype. Based on our results

  13. Appearance of Symmetry, Beauty, and Health in Human Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidel, D.W.; Aarde, S.M.; Baig, K.

    2005-01-01

    Symmetry is an important concept in biology, being related to mate selection strategies, health, and survival of species. In human faces, the relevance of left-right symmetry to attractiveness and health is not well understood. We compared the appearance of facial attractiveness, health, and symmetry in three separate experiments. Participants…

  14. A New Human 3D-Liver Model Unravels the Role of Galectins in Liver Infection by the Parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Petropolis, Debora B.; Faust, Daniela M.; Deep Jhingan, Gagan; Guillen, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of human parasitic diseases depend on the availability of appropriate in vivo animal models and ex vivo experimental systems, and are particularly difficult for pathogens whose exclusive natural hosts are humans, such as Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan parasite responsible for amoebiasis. This common infectious human disease affects the intestine and liver. In the liver sinusoids E. histolytica crosses the endothelium and penetrates into the parenchyma, with the concomitant initiation of inflammatory foci and subsequent abscess formation. Studying factors responsible for human liver infection is hampered by the complexity of the hepatic environment and by the restrictions inherent to the use of human samples. Therefore, we built a human 3D-liver in vitro model composed of cultured liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and hepatocytes in a 3D collagen-I matrix sandwich. We determined the presence of important hepatic markers and demonstrated that the cell layers function as a biological barrier. E. histolytica invasion was assessed using wild-type strains and amoebae with altered virulence or different adhesive properties. We showed for the first time the dependence of endothelium crossing upon amoebic Gal/GalNAc lectin. The 3D-liver model enabled the molecular analysis of human cell responses, suggesting for the first time a crucial role of human galectins in parasite adhesion to the endothelial cells, which was confirmed by siRNA knockdown of galectin-1. Levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, including galectin-1 and -3, were highly increased upon contact of E. histolytica with the 3D-liver model. The presence of galectin-1 and -3 in the extracellular medium stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokine release, suggesting a further role for human galectins in the onset of the hepatic inflammatory response. These new findings are relevant for a better understanding of human liver infection by E. histolytica. PMID:25211477

  15. Our Faces in the Dog's Brain: Functional Imaging Reveals Temporal Cortex Activation during Perception of Human Faces

    PubMed Central

    Cuaya, Laura V.; Hernández-Pérez, Raúl; Concha, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Dogs have a rich social relationship with humans. One fundamental aspect of it is how dogs pay close attention to human faces in order to guide their behavior, for example, by recognizing their owner and his/her emotional state using visual cues. It is well known that humans have specific brain regions for the processing of other human faces, yet it is unclear how dogs’ brains process human faces. For this reason, our study focuses on describing the brain correlates of perception of human faces in dogs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We trained seven domestic dogs to remain awake, still and unrestrained inside an MRI scanner. We used a visual stimulation paradigm with block design to compare activity elicited by human faces against everyday objects. Brain activity related to the perception of faces changed significantly in several brain regions, but mainly in the bilateral temporal cortex. The opposite contrast (i.e., everyday objects against human faces) showed no significant brain activity change. The temporal cortex is part of the ventral visual pathway, and our results are consistent with reports in other species like primates and sheep, that suggest a high degree of evolutionary conservation of this pathway for face processing. This study introduces the temporal cortex as candidate to process human faces, a pillar of social cognition in dogs. PMID:26934715

  16. Our Faces in the Dog's Brain: Functional Imaging Reveals Temporal Cortex Activation during Perception of Human Faces.

    PubMed

    Cuaya, Laura V; Hernández-Pérez, Raúl; Concha, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Dogs have a rich social relationship with humans. One fundamental aspect of it is how dogs pay close attention to human faces in order to guide their behavior, for example, by recognizing their owner and his/her emotional state using visual cues. It is well known that humans have specific brain regions for the processing of other human faces, yet it is unclear how dogs' brains process human faces. For this reason, our study focuses on describing the brain correlates of perception of human faces in dogs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We trained seven domestic dogs to remain awake, still and unrestrained inside an MRI scanner. We used a visual stimulation paradigm with block design to compare activity elicited by human faces against everyday objects. Brain activity related to the perception of faces changed significantly in several brain regions, but mainly in the bilateral temporal cortex. The opposite contrast (i.e., everyday objects against human faces) showed no significant brain activity change. The temporal cortex is part of the ventral visual pathway, and our results are consistent with reports in other species like primates and sheep, that suggest a high degree of evolutionary conservation of this pathway for face processing. This study introduces the temporal cortex as candidate to process human faces, a pillar of social cognition in dogs. PMID:26934715

  17. The Morphometrics of “Masculinity” in Human Faces

    PubMed Central

    Mitteroecker, Philipp; Windhager, Sonja; Müller, Gerd B.; Schaefer, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    In studies of social inference and human mate preference, a wide but inconsistent array of tools for computing facial masculinity has been devised. Several of these approaches implicitly assumed that the individual expression of sexually dimorphic shape features, which we refer to as maleness, resembles facial shape features perceived as masculine. We outline a morphometric strategy for estimating separately the face shape patterns that underlie perceived masculinity and maleness, and for computing individual scores for these shape patterns. We further show how faces with different degrees of masculinity or maleness can be constructed in a geometric morphometric framework. In an application of these methods to a set of human facial photographs, we found that shape features typically perceived as masculine are wide faces with a wide inter-orbital distance, a wide nose, thin lips, and a large and massive lower face. The individual expressions of this combination of shape features—the masculinity shape scores—were the best predictor of rated masculinity among the compared methods (r = 0.5). The shape features perceived as masculine only partly resembled the average face shape difference between males and females (sexual dimorphism). Discriminant functions and Procrustes distances to the female mean shape were poor predictors of perceived masculinity. PMID:25671667

  18. Emotion identification method using RGB information of human face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, Shinya; Mita, Akira

    2015-03-01

    Recently, the number of single households is drastically increased due to the growth of the aging society and the diversity of lifestyle. Therefore, the evolution of building spaces is demanded. Biofied Building we propose can help to avoid this situation. It helps interaction between the building and residents' conscious and unconscious information using robots. The unconscious information includes emotion, condition, and behavior. One of the important information is thermal comfort. We assume we can estimate it from human face. There are many researchs about face color analysis, but a few of them are conducted in real situations. In other words, the existing methods were not used with disturbance such as room lumps. In this study, Kinect was used with face-tracking. Room lumps and task lumps were used to verify that our method could be applicable to real situation. In this research, two rooms at 22 and 28 degrees C were prepared. We showed that the transition of thermal comfort by changing temperature can be observed from human face. Thus, distinction between the data of 22 and 28 degrees C condition from face color was proved to be possible.

  19. Neurophysiological correlates of face gender processing in humans.

    PubMed

    Mouchetant-Rostaing, Y; Giard, M H; Bentin, S; Aguera, P E; Pernier, J

    2000-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while subjects were involved in three gender-processing tasks based on human faces and on human hands. In one condition all stimuli were only of one gender, preventing any gender discrimination. In a second condition, faces (or hands) of men and women were intermixed but the gender was irrelevant for the subject's task; hence gender discrimination was assumed to be incidental. In the third condition, the task required explicit gender discrimination; gender processing was therefore assumed to be intentional. Gender processing had no effect on the occipito-temporal negative potential at approximately 170 ms after stimulation (N170 component of the ERP), suggesting that the neural mechanisms involved in the structural encoding of faces are different from those involved in the extraction of gender-related facial features. In contrast, incidental and intentional processing of face (but not hand) gender affected the ERPs between 145 and 185 ms from stimulus onset at more anterior scalp locations. This effect was interpreted as evidence for the direct visual processing of faces as described in Bruce and Young's model [Bruce, V. & Young, A. (1986) Br. J. Psychol., 77, 305-327]. Additional gender discrimination effects were observed for both faces and hands at mid-parietal sites around 45-85 ms latency, in the incidental task only. This difference was tentatively assumed to reflect an early mechanism of coarse visual categorization. Finally, intentional (but not incidental) gender processing affected the ERPs during a later epoch starting from approximately 200 ms and ending at approximately 250 ms for faces, and approximately 350 ms for hands. This later effect might be related to attention-based gender categorization or to a more general categorization activity. PMID:10651885

  20. Analyzing the 3D Structure of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II and Its Mutants Using Deep View and the Protein Data Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ship, Noam J.; Zamble, Deborah B.

    2005-01-01

    The self directed study of a 3D image of a biomolecule stresses the complex nature of the intra- and intermolecular interactions that come together to define its structure. This is made up of a series of in vitro experiments with a wild-type and mutants forms of human carbonic anhydrase II (hCAII) that examine the structure function relationship…

  1. Evaluation of potential human health effects associated with the agricultural uses of 1,3-D: Spatial and temporal stochastic risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Driver, Jeffrey H; Price, Paul S; Van Wesenbeeck, Ian; Ross, John H; Gehen, Sean; Holden, Larry R; Landenberger, Bryce; Hastings, Kerry; Yan, Zhongyu June; Rasoulpour, Reza

    2016-11-15

    Dow AgroSciences (DAS) markets and sells 1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-D), the active ingredient in Telone®, which is used as a pre-plant soil fumigant nematicide in economically important crops in California. 1,3-D has been regulated as a "probable human carcinogen" and the California Department of Pesticide Regulation limits use of 1,3-D based on human health risk assessments for bystanders. This paper presents a risk characterization for bystanders based on advances in the assessment of both exposure and hazard. The revised bystander risk assessment incorporates significant advances: 1) new data on residency duration and mobility in communities where 1,3-D is in high demand; 2) new information on spatial and temporal concentrations of 1,3-D in air based on multi-year modeling using a validated model; and 3) a new stochastic spatial and temporal model of long-term exposures. Predicted distributions of long-term, chronic exposures indicate that current, and anticipated uses of 1,3-D would result in lifetime average daily doses lower than 0.002mg/kg/d, a dose associated with theoretical lifetime excess cancer risk of <10(-5) to >95% of the local population based on a non-threshold risk assessment approach. Additionally, examination of 1,3-D toxicity studies including new chronic toxicity data and mechanism of action supports the use of a non-linear, threshold based risk assessment approach. The estimated maximum annual average daily dose of <0.0016mg/kg/d derived from the updated exposure assessment was then compared with a threshold point of departure. The calculated margin of exposure is >1000-fold, a clear indication of acceptable risk for human health. In summary, the best available science supports 1,3-D's threshold nature of hazard and the revised exposure assessment supports that current agricultural uses of 1,3-D are associated with reasonable certainty of no harm, i.e., estimated long-term exposures pose insignificant health risks to bystanders even when the

  2. 3D cryo-electron reconstruction of BmrA, a bacterial multidrug ABC transporter in an inward-facing conformation and in a lipidic environment.

    PubMed

    Fribourg, Pierre Frederic; Chami, Mohamed; Sorzano, Carlos Oscar S; Gubellini, Francesca; Marabini, Roberto; Marco, Sergio; Jault, Jean-Michel; Lévy, Daniel

    2014-05-15

    ABC (ATP-binding cassette) membrane exporters are efflux transporters of a wide diversity of molecule across the membrane at the expense of ATP. A key issue regarding their catalytic cycle is whether or not their nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) are physically disengaged in the resting state. To settle this controversy, we obtained structural data on BmrA, a bacterial multidrug homodimeric ABC transporter, in a membrane-embedded state. BmrA in the apostate was reconstituted in lipid bilayers forming a mixture of ring-shaped structures of 24 or 39 homodimers. Three-dimensional models of the ring-shaped structures of 24 or 39 homodimers were calculated at 2.3 nm and 2.5 nm resolution from cryo-electron microscopy, respectively. In these structures, BmrA adopts an inward-facing open conformation similar to that found in mouse P-glycoprotein structure with the NBDs separated by 3 nm. Both lipidic leaflets delimiting the transmembrane domains of BmrA were clearly resolved. In planar membrane sheets, the NBDs were even more separated. BmrA in an ATP-bound conformation was determined from two-dimensional crystals grown in the presence of ATP and vanadate. A projection map calculated at 1.6 nm resolution shows an open outward-facing conformation. Overall, the data are consistent with a mechanism of drug transport involving large conformational changes of BmrA and show that a bacterial ABC exporter can adopt at least two open inward conformations in lipid membrane. PMID:24630999

  3. A multiscale approach for the reconstruction of the fiber architecture of the human brain based on 3D-PLI.

    PubMed

    Reckfort, Julia; Wiese, Hendrik; Pietrzyk, Uwe; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin; Axer, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Structural connectivity of the brain can be conceptionalized as a multiscale organization. The present study is built on 3D-Polarized Light Imaging (3D-PLI), a neuroimaging technique targeting the reconstruction of nerve fiber orientations and therefore contributing to the analysis of brain connectivity. Spatial orientations of the fibers are derived from birefringence measurements of unstained histological sections that are interpreted by means of a voxel-based analysis. This implies that a single fiber orientation vector is obtained for each voxel, which reflects the net effect of all comprised fibers. We have utilized two polarimetric setups providing an object space resolution of 1.3 μm/px (microscopic setup) and 64 μm/px (macroscopic setup) to carry out 3D-PLI and retrieve fiber orientations of the same tissue samples, but at complementary voxel sizes (i.e., scales). The present study identifies the main sources which cause a discrepancy of the measured fiber orientations observed when measuring the same sample with the two polarimetric systems. As such sources the differing optical resolutions and diverging retardances of the implemented waveplates were identified. A methodology was implemented that enables the compensation of measured different systems' responses to the same birefringent sample. This opens up new ways to conduct multiscale analysis in brains by means of 3D-PLI and to provide a reliable basis for the transition between different scales of the nerve fiber architecture. PMID:26388744

  4. A multiscale approach for the reconstruction of the fiber architecture of the human brain based on 3D-PLI

    PubMed Central

    Reckfort, Julia; Wiese, Hendrik; Pietrzyk, Uwe; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin; Axer, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Structural connectivity of the brain can be conceptionalized as a multiscale organization. The present study is built on 3D-Polarized Light Imaging (3D-PLI), a neuroimaging technique targeting the reconstruction of nerve fiber orientations and therefore contributing to the analysis of brain connectivity. Spatial orientations of the fibers are derived from birefringence measurements of unstained histological sections that are interpreted by means of a voxel-based analysis. This implies that a single fiber orientation vector is obtained for each voxel, which reflects the net effect of all comprised fibers. We have utilized two polarimetric setups providing an object space resolution of 1.3 μm/px (microscopic setup) and 64 μm/px (macroscopic setup) to carry out 3D-PLI and retrieve fiber orientations of the same tissue samples, but at complementary voxel sizes (i.e., scales). The present study identifies the main sources which cause a discrepancy of the measured fiber orientations observed when measuring the same sample with the two polarimetric systems. As such sources the differing optical resolutions and diverging retardances of the implemented waveplates were identified. A methodology was implemented that enables the compensation of measured different systems' responses to the same birefringent sample. This opens up new ways to conduct multiscale analysis in brains by means of 3D-PLI and to provide a reliable basis for the transition between different scales of the nerve fiber architecture. PMID:26388744

  5. Decrease of reactive oxygen species-related biomarkers in the tissue-mimic 3D spheroid culture of human lung cells exposed to zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjoo; Jeon, Won Bae; Kim, Soonhyun; Lee, Soo-Keun

    2014-05-01

    Common 2-dimensional (2D) cell cultures do not adequately represent cell-cell and cell-matrix signaling and substantially different diffusion/transport pathways. To obtain tissue-mimic information on nanoparticle toxicity from in vitro cell tests, we used a 3-dimensional (3D) culture of human lung cells (A549) prepared with elastin-like peptides modified with an arginine-glycine-aspartate motif. The 3D cells showed different cellular phenotypes, gene expression profiles, and functionalities compared to the 2D cultured cells. In gene array analysis, 3D cells displayed the induced extracellular matrix (ECM)-related biological functions such as cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, cellular function and maintenance, connective tissue development and function, molecular transport, and tissue morphology. Additionally, the expression of ECM-related molecules, such as laminin, fibronectin, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), was simultaneously induced at both mRNA and protein levels. When 0.08-50 microg/ml zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) were administered to 2D and 3D cells, the cell proliferation was not significantly changed. The level of molecular markers for oxidative stress, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), Bcl-2, ATP synthase, and Complex IV (cytochrome C oxidase), was significantly reduced in 2D culture when exposed to 10 microg/ml ZnO-NPs, but no significant decrease was detected in 3D culture when exposed to the same concentration of ZnO-NPs. In conclusion, the tissue-mimic phenotype and functionality of 3D cells could be achieved through the elevated expression of ECM components. The 3D cells were expected to help to better predict the nanotoxicity of ZnO-NPs at tissue-level by increased cell-cell and cell-ECM adhesion and signaling. The tissue-mimic morphology would also be useful to simulate the diffusion/transport of the nanoparticles in vitro. PMID:24734552

  6. Local and systemic activation of the whole complement cascade in human leukocytoclastic cutaneous vasculitis; C3d,g and terminal complement complex as sensitive markers.

    PubMed Central

    Dauchel, H; Joly, P; Delpech, A; Thomine, E; Sauger, F; Le Loet, X; Lauret, P; Tron, F; Fontaine, M; Ripoche, J

    1993-01-01

    We have studied complement activation both in plasma samples and in lesional skin from patients with leukocytoclastic cutaneous vasculitis (LCV). Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) quantification of the complement activation markers, C3d,g and the terminal complement complex (TCC) in plasma, showed that their levels were significantly increased in 66% and 55% of the patients, respectively (n = 29) compared with healthy controls, whereas the standard measurements of C3, factor B, C1q, C4 and C2 were generally within normal range. Elevations of C3d,g and TCC levels in plasma were significantly correlated. Importantly, a significant correlation was found between the severity of the vasculitis and both C3d,g and TCC plasma levels. Immunofluorescence studies of skin biopsy specimens demonstrated simultaneous presence of perivascular dermal deposits of C3d,g and TCC in lesional skin from 96% and 80% respectively of the patients (n = 25). There was a significant correlation between the intensity of the deposits of both markers. Clusterin, a TCC inhibitory protein, was always found at the same sites of perivascular TCC deposits. Immunofluorescence studies at the epidermal basement membrane zone (BMZ) revealed in each case deposits of C3d,g which were accompanied by TCC deposits in 52% of the biopsy specimens. These data demonstrate that there is a local and systemic activation of the whole complement cascade in human LCV. The presence of both C3d,g and clusterin-associated TCC perivascular deposits suggests an intervention of a regulatory mechanism of local complement activation in LCV. Finally, measurement of plasma C3d,g and TCC appears to be a sensitive indicator of systemic complement activation and disease severity in LCV. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8485913

  7. Human Lumbar Ligamentum Flavum Anatomy for Epidural Anesthesia: Reviewing a 3D MR-Based Interactive Model and Postmortem Samples.

    PubMed

    Reina, Miguel A; Lirk, Philipp; Puigdellívol-Sánchez, Anna; Mavar, Marija; Prats-Galino, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    The ligamentum flavum (LF) forms the anatomic basis for the loss-of-resistance technique essential to the performance of epidural anesthesia. However, the LF presents considerable interindividual variability, including the possibility of midline gaps, which may influence the performance of epidural anesthesia. We devise a method to reconstruct the anatomy of the digitally LF based on magnetic resonance images to clarify the exact limits and edges of LF and its different thickness, depending on the area examined, while avoiding destructive methods, as well as the dissection processes. Anatomic cadaveric cross sections enabled us to visually check the definition of the edges along the entire LF and compare them using 3D image reconstruction methods. Reconstruction was performed in images obtained from 7 patients. Images from 1 patient were used as a basis for the 3D spinal anatomy tool. In parallel, axial cuts, 2 to 3 cm thick, were performed in lumbar spines of 4 frozen cadavers. This technique allowed us to identify the entire ligament and its exact limits, while avoiding alterations resulting from cutting processes or from preparation methods. The LF extended between the laminas of adjacent vertebrae at all vertebral levels of the patients examined, but midline gaps are regularly encountered. These anatomical variants were reproduced in a 3D portable document format. The major anatomical features of the LF were reproduced in the 3D model. Details of its structure and variations of thickness in successive sagittal and axial slides could be visualized. Gaps within LF previously studied in cadavers have been identified in our interactive 3D model, which may help to understand their nature, as well as possible implications for epidural techniques. PMID:26891398

  8. A specialized face-processing model inspired by the organization of monkey face patches explains several face-specific phenomena observed in humans

    PubMed Central

    Farzmahdi, Amirhossein; Rajaei, Karim; Ghodrati, Masoud; Ebrahimpour, Reza; Khaligh-Razavi, Seyed-Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Converging reports indicate that face images are processed through specialized neural networks in the brain –i.e. face patches in monkeys and the fusiform face area (FFA) in humans. These studies were designed to find out how faces are processed in visual system compared to other objects. Yet, the underlying mechanism of face processing is not completely revealed. Here, we show that a hierarchical computational model, inspired by electrophysiological evidence on face processing in primates, is able to generate representational properties similar to those observed in monkey face patches (posterior, middle and anterior patches). Since the most important goal of sensory neuroscience is linking the neural responses with behavioral outputs, we test whether the proposed model, which is designed to account for neural responses in monkey face patches, is also able to predict well-documented behavioral face phenomena observed in humans. We show that the proposed model satisfies several cognitive face effects such as: composite face effect and the idea of canonical face views. Our model provides insights about the underlying computations that transfer visual information from posterior to anterior face patches. PMID:27113635

  9. A specialized face-processing model inspired by the organization of monkey face patches explains several face-specific phenomena observed in humans.

    PubMed

    Farzmahdi, Amirhossein; Rajaei, Karim; Ghodrati, Masoud; Ebrahimpour, Reza; Khaligh-Razavi, Seyed-Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Converging reports indicate that face images are processed through specialized neural networks in the brain -i.e. face patches in monkeys and the fusiform face area (FFA) in humans. These studies were designed to find out how faces are processed in visual system compared to other objects. Yet, the underlying mechanism of face processing is not completely revealed. Here, we show that a hierarchical computational model, inspired by electrophysiological evidence on face processing in primates, is able to generate representational properties similar to those observed in monkey face patches (posterior, middle and anterior patches). Since the most important goal of sensory neuroscience is linking the neural responses with behavioral outputs, we test whether the proposed model, which is designed to account for neural responses in monkey face patches, is also able to predict well-documented behavioral face phenomena observed in humans. We show that the proposed model satisfies several cognitive face effects such as: composite face effect and the idea of canonical face views. Our model provides insights about the underlying computations that transfer visual information from posterior to anterior face patches. PMID:27113635

  10. A 3D co-culture of three human cell lines to model the inflamed intestinal mucosa for safety testing of nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Susewind, Julia; de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz, Cristiane; Repnik, Urska; Collnot, Eva-Maria; Schneider-Daum, Nicole; Griffiths, Gareth Wyn; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Oral exposure to nanomaterials is a current concern, asking for innovative biological test systems to assess their safety, especially also in conditions of inflammatory disorders. Aim of this study was to develop a 3D intestinal model, consisting of Caco-2 cells and two human immune cell lines, suitable to assess nanomaterial toxicity, in either healthy or diseased conditions. Human macrophages (THP-1) and human dendritic cells (MUTZ-3) were embedded in a collagen scaffold and seeded on the apical side of transwell inserts. Caco-2 cells were seeded on top of this layer, forming a 3D model of the intestinal mucosa. Toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (NM101 TiO2, NM300 Ag, Au) was evaluated in non-inflamed and inflamed co-cultures, and also compared to non-inflamed Caco-2 monocultures. Inflammation was elicited by IL-1β, and interactions with engineered NPs were addressed by different endpoints. The 3D co-culture showed well preserved ultrastructure and significant barrier properties. Ag NPs were found to be more toxic than TiO2 or Au NPs. But once inflamed with IL-1β, the co-cultures released higher amounts of IL-8 compared to Caco-2 monocultures. However, the cytotoxicity of Ag NPs was higher in Caco-2 monocultures than in 3D co-cultures. The naturally higher IL-8 production in the co-cultures was enhanced even further by the Ag NPs. This study shows that it is possible to mimic inflamed conditions in a 3D co-culture model of the intestinal mucosa. The fact that it is based on three easily available human cell lines makes this model valuable to study the safety of nanomaterials in the context of inflammation. PMID:25738417

  11. Demographic Estimation from Face Images: Human vs. Machine Performance.

    PubMed

    Han, Hu; Otto, Charles; Liu, Xiaoming; Jain, Anil K

    2015-06-01

    Demographic estimation entails automatic estimation of age, gender and race of a person from his face image, which has many potential applications ranging from forensics to social media. Automatic demographic estimation, particularly age estimation, remains a challenging problem because persons belonging to the same demographic group can be vastly different in their facial appearances due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this paper, we present a generic framework for automatic demographic (age, gender and race) estimation. Given a face image, we first extract demographic informative features via a boosting algorithm, and then employ a hierarchical approach consisting of between-group classification, and within-group regression. Quality assessment is also developed to identify low-quality face images that are difficult to obtain reliable demographic estimates. Experimental results on a diverse set of face image databases, FG-NET (1K images), FERET (3K images), MORPH II (75K images), PCSO (100K images), and a subset of LFW (4K images), show that the proposed approach has superior performance compared to the state of the art. Finally, we use crowdsourcing to study the human perception ability of estimating demographics from face images. A side-by-side comparison of the demographic estimates from crowdsourced data and the proposed algorithm provides a number of insights into this challenging problem. PMID:26357339

  12. Distinct Contributions of Astrocytes and Pericytes to Neuroinflammation Identified in a 3D Human Blood-Brain Barrier on a Chip

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, Edward A.; Park, Tae-Eun; Sleeboom, Jelle J. F.; Ingber, Donald E.

    2016-01-01

    Neurovascular inflammation is a major contributor to many neurological disorders, but modeling these processes in vitro has proven to be difficult. Here, we microengineered a three-dimensional (3D) model of the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) within a microfluidic chip by creating a cylindrical collagen gel containing a central hollow lumen inside a microchannel, culturing primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells on the gel’s inner surface, and flowing medium through the lumen. Studies were carried out with the engineered microvessel containing endothelium in the presence or absence of either primary human brain pericytes beneath the endothelium or primary human brain astrocytes within the surrounding collagen gel to explore the ability of this simplified model to identify distinct contributions of these supporting cells to the neuroinflammatory response. This human 3D BBB-on-a-chip exhibited barrier permeability similar to that observed in other in vitro BBB models created with non-human cells, and when stimulated with the inflammatory trigger, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), different secretion profiles for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were observed depending on the presence of astrocytes or pericytes. Importantly, the levels of these responses detected in the 3D BBB chip were significantly greater than when the same cells were co-cultured in static Transwell plates. Thus, as G-CSF and IL-6 have been reported to play important roles in neuroprotection and neuroactivation in vivo, this 3D BBB chip potentially offers a new method to study human neurovascular function and inflammation in vitro, and to identify physiological contributions of individual cell types. PMID:26930059

  13. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition. PMID:26061553

  14. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition. PMID:26061553

  15. 3D Printing of Human Tissue Mimics via Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Polymer/Hydrogel Biopapers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringeisen, Bradley

    2015-03-01

    The foundations of tissue engineering were built on two fundamental areas of research: cells and scaffolds. Multipotent cells and their derivatives are traditionally randomly seeded into sophisticated polymer or hydrogel scaffolds, ultimately with the goal of forming a tissue-like material through cell differentiation and cell-material interactions. One problem with this approach is that no matter how complex or biomimetic the scaffold is, the cells are still homogeneously distributed throughout this three dimensional (3D) material. Natural tissue is inherently heterogeneous on both a microscopic and macroscopic level. It also contains different types of cells in close proximity, extracellular matrix, voids, and a complex vascularized network. Recently developed 3D cell and organ printers may be able to enhance traditional tissue engineering experiments by building scaffolds layer-by-layer that are crafted to mimic the microscopic and macroscopic structure of natural tissue or organs. Over the past decade, my laboratory has developed a capillary-free, live cell printer termed biological laser printing, or BioLP. We find that printed cells do not express heat shock protein and retain >99% viability. Printed cells also incur no DNA strand fracture and preserve their ability to differentiate. Recent work has used a layer-by-layer approach, stacking sheets of hybrid polymer/hydrogel biopapers in conjunction with live cell printing to create 3D tissue structures. Our specific work is now focused on the blood-brain-barrier and air-lung interface and will be described during the presentation.

  16. Novel 3D light microscopic analysis of IUGR placentas points to a morphological correlate of compensated ischemic placental disease in humans

    PubMed Central

    Haeussner, Eva; Schmitz, Christoph; Frank, Hans-Georg; Edler von Koch, Franz

    2016-01-01

    The villous tree of the human placenta is a complex three-dimensional (3D) structure with branches and nodes at the feto-maternal border in the key area of gas and nutrient exchange. Recently we introduced a novel, computer-assisted 3D light microscopic method that enables 3D topological analysis of branching patterns of the human placental villous tree. In the present study we applied this novel method to the 3D architecture of peripheral villous trees of placentas from patients with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR placentas), a severe obstetric syndrome. We found that the mean branching angle of branches in terminal positions of the villous trees was significantly different statistically between IUGR placentas and clinically normal placentas. Furthermore, the mean tortuosity of branches of villous trees in directly preterminal positions was significantly different statistically between IUGR placentas and clinically normal placentas. We show that these differences can be interpreted as consequences of morphological adaptation of villous trees between IUGR placentas and clinically normal placentas, and may have important consequences for the understanding of the morphological correlates of the efficiency of the placental villous tree and their influence on fetal development. PMID:27045698

  17. Novel 3D light microscopic analysis of IUGR placentas points to a morphological correlate of compensated ischemic placental disease in humans.

    PubMed

    Haeussner, Eva; Schmitz, Christoph; Frank, Hans-Georg; Edler von Koch, Franz

    2016-01-01

    The villous tree of the human placenta is a complex three-dimensional (3D) structure with branches and nodes at the feto-maternal border in the key area of gas and nutrient exchange. Recently we introduced a novel, computer-assisted 3D light microscopic method that enables 3D topological analysis of branching patterns of the human placental villous tree. In the present study we applied this novel method to the 3D architecture of peripheral villous trees of placentas from patients with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR placentas), a severe obstetric syndrome. We found that the mean branching angle of branches in terminal positions of the villous trees was significantly different statistically between IUGR placentas and clinically normal placentas. Furthermore, the mean tortuosity of branches of villous trees in directly preterminal positions was significantly different statistically between IUGR placentas and clinically normal placentas. We show that these differences can be interpreted as consequences of morphological adaptation of villous trees between IUGR placentas and clinically normal placentas, and may have important consequences for the understanding of the morphological correlates of the efficiency of the placental villous tree and their influence on fetal development. PMID:27045698

  18. Three-dimensional X-ray absorptiometry (3D-XA): a method for reconstruction of human bones using a dual X-ray absorptiometry device.

    PubMed

    Kolta, S; Le Bras, A; Mitton, D; Bousson, V; de Guise, J A; Fechtenbaum, J; Laredo, J D; Roux, C; Skalli, W

    2005-08-01

    Three-dimensional accurate evaluation of the geometry of the proximal femur may be helpful for hip fracture risk evaluation. The purpose of this study was to apply and validate a stereo-radiographic 3D reconstruction method of the proximal femur, using contours identification from biplanar DXA images. Twenty-five excised human proximal femurs were investigated using a standard DXA unit. Three-dimensional personalized models were reconstructed using a dedicated non-stereo corresponding contours (NSCC) algorithm. Three-dimensional CT-scan reconstructions obtained on a clinical CT-scan unit were defined as geometric references for the comparison protocol, in order to assess accuracy and reproducibility of the 3D stereo-radiographic reconstructions. The precision of a set of 3D geometric parameters (femoral-neck axis length, mid-neck cross-section area, neck-shaft angle), obtained from stereo-radiographic models was also evaluated. This study shows that the NSCC method may be applied to obtain 3D reconstruction from biplanar DXA acquisitions. Applied to the proximal femur, this method showed good accuracy as compared with high-resolution personalized CT-scan models (mean error = 0.8 mm). Moreover, precision study for the set of 3D parameters yielded coefficients of variation lower than 5%. This is the first study providing 3D geometric parameters from standard 2D DXA images using the NSCC method. It has good accuracy and reproducibility in the present study on cadaveric femurs. In vivo prospective studies are needed to evaluate its discriminating potential on hip fracture risk prediction. PMID:15599494

  19. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  20. Segmentation of human face using gradient-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskan, Selin; Bulut, M. Mete; Atalay, Volkan

    2001-04-01

    This paper describes a method for automatic segmentation of facial features such as eyebrows, eyes, nose, mouth and ears in color images. This work is an initial step for wide range of applications based on feature-based approaches, such as face recognition, lip-reading, gender estimation, facial expression analysis, etc. Human face can be characterized by its skin color and nearly elliptical shape. For this purpose, face detection is performed using color and shape information. Uniform illumination is assumed. No restrictions on glasses, make-up, beard, etc. are imposed. Facial features are extracted using the vertically and horizontally oriented gradient projections. The gradient of a minimum with respect to its neighbor maxima gives the boundaries of a facial feature. Each facial feature has a different horizontal characteristic. These characteristics are derived by extensive experimentation with many face images. Using fuzzy set theory, the similarity between the candidate and the feature characteristic under consideration is calculated. Gradient-based method is accompanied by the anthropometrical information, for robustness. Ear detection is performed using contour-based shape descriptors. This method detects the facial features and circumscribes each facial feature with the smallest rectangle possible. AR database is used for testing. The developed method is also suitable for real-time systems.

  1. The promotion of hepatic maturation of human pluripotent stem cells in 3D co-culture using type I collagen and Swiss 3T3 cell sheets.

    PubMed

    Nagamoto, Yasuhito; Tashiro, Katsuhisa; Takayama, Kazuo; Ohashi, Kazuo; Kawabata, Kenji; Sakurai, Fuminori; Tachibana, Masashi; Hayakawa, Takao; Furue, Miho Kusuda; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2012-06-01

    Hepatocyte-like cells differentiated from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are known to be a useful cell source for drug screening. We recently developed an efficient hepatic differentiation method from hESCs and hiPSCs by sequential transduction of FOXA2 and HNF1α. It is known that the combination of three-dimensional (3D) culture and co-culture, namely 3D co-culture, can maintain the functions of primary hepatocytes. However, hepatic maturation of hESC- or hiPSC-derived hepatocyte-like cells (hEHs or hiPHs, respectively) by 3D co-culture systems has not been examined. Therefore, we utilized a cell sheet engineering technology to promote hepatic maturation. The gene expression levels of hepatocyte-related markers (such as cytochrome P450 enzymes and conjugating enzymes) and the amount of albumin secretion in the hEHs or hiPHs, which were 3D co-cultured with the Swiss 3T3 cell sheet, were significantly up-regulated in comparison with those in the hEHs or hiPHs cultured in a monolayer. Furthermore, we found that type I collagen synthesized in Swiss 3T3 cells plays an important role in hepatic maturation. The hEHs or hiPHs that were 3D co-cultured with the Swiss 3T3 cell sheet would be powerful tools for medical applications, such as drug screening. PMID:22445253

  2. Neuromagnetic evidence that the right fusiform face area is essential for human face awareness: An intermittent binocular rivalry study.

    PubMed

    Kume, Yuko; Maekawa, Toshihiko; Urakawa, Tomokazu; Hironaga, Naruhito; Ogata, Katsuya; Shigyo, Maki; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2016-08-01

    When and where the awareness of faces is consciously initiated is unclear. We used magnetoencephalography to probe the brain responses associated with face awareness under intermittent pseudo-rivalry (PR) and binocular rivalry (BR) conditions. The stimuli comprised three pictures: a human face, a monkey face and a house. In the PR condition, we detected the M130 component, which has been minimally characterized in previous research. We obtained a clear recording of the M170 component in the fusiform face area (FFA), and found that this component had an earlier response time to faces compared with other objects. The M170 occurred predominantly in the right hemisphere in both conditions. In the BR condition, the amplitude of the M130 significantly increased in the right hemisphere irrespective of the physical characteristics of the visual stimuli. Conversely, we did not detect the M170 when the face image was suppressed in the BR condition, although this component was clearly present when awareness for the face was initiated. We also found a significant difference in the latency of the M170 (humanface stimuli are imperative for evoking the M170 and that the right FFA plays a critical role in human face awareness. PMID:26907522

  3. The Human Face as a Dynamic Tool for Social Communication.

    PubMed

    Jack, Rachael E; Schyns, Philippe G

    2015-07-20

    As a highly social species, humans frequently exchange social information to support almost all facets of life. One of the richest and most powerful tools in social communication is the face, from which observers can quickly and easily make a number of inferences - about identity, gender, sex, age, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, physical health, attractiveness, emotional state, personality traits, pain or physical pleasure, deception, and even social status. With the advent of the digital economy, increasing globalization and cultural integration, understanding precisely which face information supports social communication and which produces misunderstanding is central to the evolving needs of modern society (for example, in the design of socially interactive digital avatars and companion robots). Doing so is challenging, however, because the face can be thought of as comprising a high-dimensional, dynamic information space, and this impacts cognitive science and neuroimaging, and their broader applications in the digital economy. New opportunities to address this challenge are arising from the development of new methods and technologies, coupled with the emergence of a modern scientific culture that embraces cross-disciplinary approaches. Here, we briefly review one such approach that combines state-of-the-art computer graphics, psychophysics and vision science, cultural psychology and social cognition, and highlight the main knowledge advances it has generated. In the light of current developments, we provide a vision of the future directions in the field of human facial communication within and across cultures. PMID:26196493

  4. Faciotopy-A face-feature map with face-like topology in the human occipital face area.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Linda; Mur, Marieke; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2015-11-01

    The occipital face area (OFA) and fusiform face area (FFA) are brain regions thought to be specialized for face perception. However, their intrinsic functional organization and status as cortical areas with well-defined boundaries remains unclear. Here we test these regions for "faciotopy", a particular hypothesis about their intrinsic functional organisation. A faciotopic area would contain a face-feature map on the cortical surface, where cortical patches represent face features and neighbouring patches represent features that are physically neighbouring in a face. The faciotopy hypothesis is motivated by the idea that face regions might develop from a retinotopic protomap and acquire their selectivity for face features through natural visual experience. Faces have a prototypical configuration of features, are usually perceived in a canonical upright orientation, and are frequently fixated in particular locations. To test the faciotopy hypothesis, we presented images of isolated face features at fixation to subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The responses in V1 were best explained by low-level image properties of the stimuli. OFA, and to a lesser degree FFA, showed evidence for faciotopic organization. When a single patch of cortex was estimated for each face feature, the cortical distances between the feature patches reflected the physical distance between the features in a face. Faciotopy would be the first example, to our knowledge, of a cortical map reflecting the topology, not of a part of the organism itself (its retina in retinotopy, its body in somatotopy), but of an external object of particular perceptual significance. PMID:26235800

  5. Stem Cell Bioprinting: Functional 3D Neural Mini-Tissues from Printed Gel-Based Bioink and Human Neural Stem Cells (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 12/2016).

    PubMed

    Gu, Qi; Tomaskovic-Crook, Eva; Lozano, Rodrigo; Chen, Yu; Kapsa, Robert M; Zhou, Qi; Wallace, Gordon G; Crook, Jeremy M

    2016-06-01

    On page 1429 G. G. Wallace, J. M. Crook, and co-workers report the first example of fabricating neural tissue by 3D bioprinting human neural stem cells. A novel polysaccharide based bioink preserves stem cell viability and function within the printed construct, enabling self-renewal and differentiation to neurons and supporting neuroglia. Neurons are predominantly GABAergic, establish networks, are spontaneously active, and show a bicuculline induced increased calcium response. PMID:27333401

  6. Genotoxic Effects of Low- and High-LET Radiation on Human Epithelial Cells Grown in 2-D Versus 3-D Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Z. S.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Huff, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Risk estimation for radiation-induced cancer relies heavily on human epidemiology data obtained from terrestrial irradiation incidents from sources such as medical and occupational exposures as well as from the atomic bomb survivors. No such data exists for exposures to the types and doses of high-LET radiation that will be encountered during space travel; therefore, risk assessment for space radiation requires the use of data derived from cell culture and animal models. The use of experimental models that most accurately replicate the response of human tissues is critical for precision in risk projections. This work compares the genotoxic effects of radiation on normal human epithelial cells grown in standard 2-D monolayer culture compared to 3-D organotypic co-culture conditions. These 3-D organotypic models mimic the morphological features, differentiation markers, and growth characteristics of fully-differentiated normal human tissue and are reproducible using defined components. Cultures were irradiated with 2 Gy low-LET gamma rays or varying doses of high-LET particle radiation and genotoxic damage was measured using a modified cytokinesis block micronucleus assay. Our results revealed a 2-fold increase in residual damage in 2 Gy gamma irradiated cells grown under organotypic culture conditions compared to monolayer culture. Irradiation with high-LET particle radiation gave similar results, while background levels of damage were comparable under both scenarios. These observations may be related to the phenomenon of "multicellular resistance" where cancer cells grown as 3-D spheroids or in vivo exhibit an increased resistance to killing by chemotherapeutic agents compared to the same cells grown in 2-D culture. A variety of factors are likely involved in mediating this process, including increased cell-cell communication, microenvironment influences, and changes in cell cycle kinetics that may promote survival of damaged cells in 3-D culture that would

  7. The predicted 3D structure of the human D2 dopamine receptor and the binding site and binding affinities for agonists and antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalani, M. Yashar S.; Vaidehi, Nagarajan; Hall, Spencer E.; Trabanino, Rene J.; Freddolino, Peter L.; Kalani, Maziyar A.; Floriano, Wely B.; Tak Kam, Victor Wai; Goddard, William A., III

    2004-03-01

    Dopamine neurotransmitter and its receptors play a critical role in the cell signaling process responsible for information transfer in neurons functioning in the nervous system. Development of improved therapeutics for such disorders as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia would be significantly enhanced with the availability of the 3D structure for the dopamine receptors and of the binding site for dopamine and other agonists and antagonists. We report here the 3D structure of the long isoform of the human D2 dopamine receptor, predicted from primary sequence using first-principles theoretical and computational techniques (i.e., we did not use bioinformatic or experimental 3D structural information in predicting structures). The predicted 3D structure is validated by comparison of the predicted binding site and the relative binding affinities of dopamine, three known dopamine agonists (antiparkinsonian), and seven known antagonists (antipsychotic) in the D2 receptor to experimentally determined values. These structures correctly predict the critical residues for binding dopamine and several antagonists, identified by mutation studies, and give relative binding affinities that correlate well with experiments. The predicted binding site for dopamine and agonists is located between transmembrane (TM) helices 3, 4, 5, and 6, whereas the best antagonists bind to a site involving TM helices 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7 with minimal contacts to TM helix 5. We identify characteristic differences between the binding sites of agonists and antagonists.

  8. Measuring dynamic cell–material interactions and remodeling during 3D human mesenchymal stem cell migration in hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Kelly M.; Kyburz, Kyle A.; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterials that mimic aspects of the extracellular matrix by presenting a 3D microenvironment that cells can locally degrade and remodel are finding increased applications as wound-healing matrices, tissue engineering scaffolds, and even substrates for stem cell expansion. In vivo, cells do not simply reside in a static microenvironment, but instead, they dynamically reengineer their surroundings. For example, cells secrete proteases that degrade extracellular components, attach to the matrix through adhesive sites, and can exert traction forces on the local matrix, causing its spatial reorganization. Although biomaterials scaffolds provide initially well-defined microenvironments for 3D culture of cells, less is known about the changes that occur over time, especially local matrix remodeling that can play an integral role in directing cell behavior. Here, we use microrheology as a quantitative tool to characterize dynamic cellular remodeling of peptide-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels that degrade in response to cell-secreted matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). This technique allows measurement of spatial changes in material properties during migration of encapsulated cells and has a sensitivity that identifies regions where cells simply adhere to the matrix, as well as the extent of local cell remodeling of the material through MMP-mediated degradation. Collectively, these microrheological measurements provide insight into microscopic, cellular manipulation of the pericellular region that gives rise to macroscopic tracks created in scaffolds by migrating cells. This quantitative and predictable information should benefit the design of improved biomaterial scaffolds for medically relevant applications. PMID:26150508

  9. Synthesis, biological evaluation and 3D-QSAR studies of new chalcone derivatives as inhibitors of human P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Zahida; Brunhofer, Gerda; Jabeen, Ishrat; Erker, Thomas; Chiba, Peter; Ecker, Gerhard F

    2014-04-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP-dependent multidrug resistance efflux transporter that plays an important role in anticancer drug resistance and in pharmacokinetics of medicines. Despite a large number of structurally and functionally diverse compounds, also flavonoids and chalcones have been reported as inhibitors of P-gp. The latter share some similarity with the well studied class of propafenones, but do not contain a basic nitrogen atom. Furthermore, due to their rigidity, they are suitable candidates for 3D-QSAR studies. In this study, a set of 22 new chalcone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated in a daunomycin efflux inhibition assay using the CCRF.CEM.VCR1000 cell line. The compound 10 showed the highest activity (IC50=42nM), which is one order of magnitude higher than the activity for an equilipohillic propafenone analogue. 2D- and 3D-QSAR studies indicate the importance of H-bond acceptors, methoxy groups, hydrophobic groups as well as the number of rotatable bonds as pharmacophoric features influencing P-gp inhibitory activity. PMID:24613626

  10. Human preferences for sexually dimorphic faces may be evolutionarily novel.

    PubMed

    Scott, Isabel M; Clark, Andrew P; Josephson, Steven C; Boyette, Adam H; Cuthill, Innes C; Fried, Ruby L; Gibson, Mhairi A; Hewlett, Barry S; Jamieson, Mark; Jankowiak, William; Honey, P Lynne; Huang, Zejun; Liebert, Melissa A; Purzycki, Benjamin G; Shaver, John H; Snodgrass, J Josh; Sosis, Richard; Sugiyama, Lawrence S; Swami, Viren; Yu, Douglas W; Zhao, Yangke; Penton-Voak, Ian S

    2014-10-01

    A large literature proposes that preferences for exaggerated sex typicality in human faces (masculinity/femininity) reflect a long evolutionary history of sexual and social selection. This proposal implies that dimorphism was important to judgments of attractiveness and personality in ancestral environments. It is difficult to evaluate, however, because most available data come from large-scale, industrialized, urban populations. Here, we report the results for 12 populations with very diverse levels of economic development. Surprisingly, preferences for exaggerated sex-specific traits are only found in the novel, highly developed environments. Similarly, perceptions that masculine males look aggressive increase strongly with development and, specifically, urbanization. These data challenge the hypothesis that facial dimorphism was an important ancestral signal of heritable mate value. One possibility is that highly developed environments provide novel opportunities to discern relationships between facial traits and behavior by exposing individuals to large numbers of unfamiliar faces, revealing patterns too subtle to detect with smaller samples. PMID:25246593

  11. Face representation in the human primary somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Binh T; Tran, Tuan D; Hoshiyama, Minoru; Inui, Koji; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2004-10-01

    To investigate the representation of facial skin areas in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), we recorded magnetic fields evoked by air pressure-induced tactile stimulation applied to six points on the face, lower lip and thumb. The thumb area in the SI was located more medial and superior to the lip area, which was consistent with Penfield's homunculus. However, the representations of all skin-covered areas including forehead, cheek, nose and chin in the SI were located between the thumb and lower lip area. There was no significant difference in location among the six facial points. Our results imply that lips occupy a large area of the face representation in the SI, whereas only a small area located between the thumb and lip areas is devoted to skin-covered surfaces. This is the first study showing that the facial skin areas in the human SI are located between the thumb and lower lip areas and close together. PMID:15380330

  12. Human preferences for sexually dimorphic faces may be evolutionarily novel

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Isabel M.; Clark, Andrew P.; Josephson, Steven C.; Boyette, Adam H.; Cuthill, Innes C.; Fried, Ruby L.; Gibson, Mhairi A.; Hewlett, Barry S.; Jamieson, Mark; Jankowiak, William; Honey, P. Lynne; Huang, Zejun; Liebert, Melissa A.; Purzycki, Benjamin G.; Shaver, John H.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Sosis, Richard; Sugiyama, Lawrence S.; Swami, Viren; Yu, Douglas W.; Zhao, Yangke; Penton-Voak, Ian S.

    2014-01-01

    A large literature proposes that preferences for exaggerated sex typicality in human faces (masculinity/femininity) reflect a long evolutionary history of sexual and social selection. This proposal implies that dimorphism was important to judgments of attractiveness and personality in ancestral environments. It is difficult to evaluate, however, because most available data come from large-scale, industrialized, urban populations. Here, we report the results for 12 populations with very diverse levels of economic development. Surprisingly, preferences for exaggerated sex-specific traits are only found in the novel, highly developed environments. Similarly, perceptions that masculine males look aggressive increase strongly with development and, specifically, urbanization. These data challenge the hypothesis that facial dimorphism was an important ancestral signal of heritable mate value. One possibility is that highly developed environments provide novel opportunities to discern relationships between facial traits and behavior by exposing individuals to large numbers of unfamiliar faces, revealing patterns too subtle to detect with smaller samples. PMID:25246593

  13. Serotonin receptor diversity in the human colon: Expression of serotonin type 3 receptor subunits 5-HT3C, 5-HT3D, and 5-HT3E

    PubMed Central

    Kapeller, Johannes; Möller, Dorothee; Lasitschka, Felix; Autschbach, Frank; Hovius, Ruud; Rappold, Gudrun; Brüss, Michael; Gershon, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Since the first description of 5-HT3 receptors more than 50 years ago, there has been speculation about the molecular basis of their receptor heterogeneity. We have cloned the genes encoding novel 5-HT3 subunits 5-HT3C, 5-HT3D, and 5-HT3E and have shown that these subunits are able to form functional heteromeric receptors when coexpressed with the 5-HT3A subunit. However, whether these subunits are actually expressed in human tissue remained to be confirmed. In the current study, we performed immunocytochemistry to locate the 5-HT3A as well as the 5-HT3C, 5-HT3D, and 5-HT3E subunits within the human colon. Western blot analysis was used to confirm subunit expression, and RT-PCR was employed to detect transcripts encoding 5-HT3 receptor subunits in microdissected tissue samples. This investigation revealed, for the first time, that 5-HT3C, 5-HT3D, and 5-HT3E subunits are coexpressed with 5-HT3A in cell bodies of myenteric neurons. Furthermore, 5-HT3A and 5-HT3D were found to be expressed in submucosal plexus of the human large intestine. These data provide a strong basis for future studies of the roles that specific 5-HT3 receptor subtypes play in the function of the enteric and central nervous systems and the contribution that specific 5-HT3 receptors make to the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome and dyspepsia. PMID:21192076

  14. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  15. Defining Face Perception Areas in the Human Brain: A Large-Scale Factorial fMRI Face Localizer Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossion, Bruno; Hanseeuw, Bernard; Dricot, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    A number of human brain areas showing a larger response to faces than to objects from different categories, or to scrambled faces, have been identified in neuroimaging studies. Depending on the statistical criteria used, the set of areas can be overextended or minimized, both at the local (size of areas) and global (number of areas) levels. Here…

  16. Establishment of 3D Co-Culture Models from Different Stages of Human Tongue Tumorigenesis: Utility in Understanding Neoplastic Progression

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Sharada; Dongre, Harsh; Singh, Archana Kumari; Joshi, Shriya; Costea, Daniela Elena; Mahadik, Snehal; Ahire, Chetan; Makani, Vidhi; Dange, Prerana; Sharma, Shilpi; Chaukar, Devendra; Vaidya, Milind

    2016-01-01

    To study multistep tumorigenesis process, there is a need of in-vitro 3D model simulating in-vivo tissue. Present study aimed to reconstitute in-vitro tissue models comprising various stages of neoplastic progression of tongue tumorigenesis and to evaluate the utility of these models to investigate the role of stromal fibroblasts in maintenance of desmosomal anchoring junctions using transmission electron microscopy. We reconstituted in-vitro models representing normal, dysplastic, and malignant tissues by seeding primary keratinocytes on either fibroblast embedded in collagen matrix or plain collagen matrix in growth factor-free medium. The findings of histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy analyses of the three types of 3D cultures showed that the stratified growth, cell proliferation, and differentiation were comparable between co-cultures and their respective native tissues; however, they largely differed in cultures grown without fibroblasts. The immunostaining intensity of proteins, viz., desmoplakin, desmoglein, and plakoglobin, was reduced as the disease stage increased in all co-cultures as observed in respective native tissues. Desmosome-like structures were identified using immunogold labeling in these cultures. Moreover, electron microscopic observations revealed that the desmosome number and their length were significantly reduced and intercellular spaces were increased in cultures grown without fibroblasts when compared with their co-culture counterparts. Our results showed that the major steps of tongue tumorigenesis can be reproduced in-vitro. Stromal fibroblasts play a role in regulation of epithelial thickness, cell proliferation, differentiation, and maintenance of desmosomalanchoring junctions in in-vitro grown tissues. The reconstituted co-culture models could help to answer various biological questions especially related to tongue tumorigenesis. PMID:27501241

  17. Faciotopy—A face-feature map with face-like topology in the human occipital face area

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, Linda; Mur, Marieke; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    The occipital face area (OFA) and fusiform face area (FFA) are brain regions thought to be specialized for face perception. However, their intrinsic functional organization and status as cortical areas with well-defined boundaries remains unclear. Here we test these regions for “faciotopy”, a particular hypothesis about their intrinsic functional organisation. A faciotopic area would contain a face-feature map on the cortical surface, where cortical patches represent face features and neighbouring patches represent features that are physically neighbouring in a face. The faciotopy hypothesis is motivated by the idea that face regions might develop from a retinotopic protomap and acquire their selectivity for face features through natural visual experience. Faces have a prototypical configuration of features, are usually perceived in a canonical upright orientation, and are frequently fixated in particular locations. To test the faciotopy hypothesis, we presented images of isolated face features at fixation to subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The responses in V1 were best explained by low-level image properties of the stimuli. OFA, and to a lesser degree FFA, showed evidence for faciotopic organization. When a single patch of cortex was estimated for each face feature, the cortical distances between the feature patches reflected the physical distance between the features in a face. Faciotopy would be the first example, to our knowledge, of a cortical map reflecting the topology, not of a part of the organism itself (its retina in retinotopy, its body in somatotopy), but of an external object of particular perceptual significance. PMID:26235800

  18. A novel keratan sulphate domain preferentially expressed on the large aggregating proteoglycan from human articular cartilage is recognized by the monoclonal antibody 3D12/H7.

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, D C; Haubeck, H D; Eich, K; Kolbe-Busch, S; Stöcker, G; Stuhlsatz, H W; Greiling, H

    1996-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were prepared against aggrecan which has been isolated from human articular cartilage and purified by several chromatographic steps. One of these mAbs, the aggrecan-specific mAb 3D12/H7, was selected for further characterization. The data presented indicate that this mAb recognizes a novel domain of keratan sulphate chains from aggrecan: (1) immunochemical staining of aggrecan is abolished by treatment with keratanase/keratanase II, but not with keratanase or chondroitin sulphate lyase AC/ABC; (2) after chemical deglycosylation of aggrecan no staining of the core-protein was observed; (3) different immunochemical reactivity was observed against keratan sulphates from articular cartilage, intervertebral disc and cornea for the mAbs 3D12/H7 and 5D4. For further characterization of the epitope, reduced and 3H-labelled keratan sulphate chains were prepared. In an IEF-gel-shift assay it was shown that the 3H-labelled oligosaccharides obtained after keratanase digestion of reduced and 3H-labelled keratan sulphate chains were recognized by the mAb 3D12/H7. Thus it can be concluded that the mAb 3D12/H7 recognizes an epitope in the linkage region present in, at least some, keratan sulphate chains of the large aggregating proteoglycan from human articular cartilage. Moreover, this domain seems to be expressed preferentially on those keratan sulphate chains which occur in the chondroitin sulphate-rich region of aggrecan, since the antibody does not recognize the keratan sulphate-rich region obtained after combined chondroitinase AC/ABC and trypsin digestion of aggrecan. PMID:8836155

  19. A novel keratan sulphate domain preferentially expressed on the large aggregating proteoglycan from human articular cartilage is recognized by the monoclonal antibody 3D12/H7.

    PubMed

    Fischer, D C; Haubeck, H D; Eich, K; Kolbe-Busch, S; Stöcker, G; Stuhlsatz, H W; Greiling, H

    1996-09-15

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were prepared against aggrecan which has been isolated from human articular cartilage and purified by several chromatographic steps. One of these mAbs, the aggrecan-specific mAb 3D12/H7, was selected for further characterization. The data presented indicate that this mAb recognizes a novel domain of keratan sulphate chains from aggrecan: (1) immunochemical staining of aggrecan is abolished by treatment with keratanase/keratanase II, but not with keratanase or chondroitin sulphate lyase AC/ABC; (2) after chemical deglycosylation of aggrecan no staining of the core-protein was observed; (3) different immunochemical reactivity was observed against keratan sulphates from articular cartilage, intervertebral disc and cornea for the mAbs 3D12/H7 and 5D4. For further characterization of the epitope, reduced and 3H-labelled keratan sulphate chains were prepared. In an IEF-gel-shift assay it was shown that the 3H-labelled oligosaccharides obtained after keratanase digestion of reduced and 3H-labelled keratan sulphate chains were recognized by the mAb 3D12/H7. Thus it can be concluded that the mAb 3D12/H7 recognizes an epitope in the linkage region present in, at least some, keratan sulphate chains of the large aggregating proteoglycan from human articular cartilage. Moreover, this domain seems to be expressed preferentially on those keratan sulphate chains which occur in the chondroitin sulphate-rich region of aggrecan, since the antibody does not recognize the keratan sulphate-rich region obtained after combined chondroitinase AC/ABC and trypsin digestion of aggrecan. PMID:8836155

  20. Pet Face: Mechanisms Underlying Human-Animal Relationships.

    PubMed

    Borgi, Marta; Cirulli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating behavioral and neurophysiological studies support the idea of infantile (cute) faces as highly biologically relevant stimuli rapidly and unconsciously capturing attention and eliciting positive/affectionate behaviors, including willingness to care. It has been hypothesized that the presence of infantile physical and behavioral features in companion (or pet) animals (i.e., dogs and cats) might form the basis of our attraction to these species. Preliminary evidence has indeed shown that the human attentional bias toward the baby schema may extend to animal facial configurations. In this review, the role of facial cues, specifically of infantile traits and facial signals (i.e., eyes gaze) as emotional and communicative signals is highlighted and discussed as regulating the human-animal bond, similarly to what can be observed in the adult-infant interaction context. Particular emphasis is given to the neuroendocrine regulation of the social bond between humans and animals through oxytocin secretion. Instead of considering companion animals as mere baby substitutes for their owners, in this review we highlight the central role of cats and dogs in human lives. Specifically, we consider the ability of companion animals to bond with humans as fulfilling the need for attention and emotional intimacy, thus serving similar psychological and adaptive functions as human-human friendships. In this context, facial cuteness is viewed not just as a releaser of care/parental behavior, but, more in general, as a trait motivating social engagement. To conclude, the impact of this information for applied disciplines is briefly described, particularly in consideration of the increasing evidence of the beneficial effects of contacts with animals for human health and wellbeing. PMID:27014120

  1. Pet Face: Mechanisms Underlying Human-Animal Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Borgi, Marta; Cirulli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating behavioral and neurophysiological studies support the idea of infantile (cute) faces as highly biologically relevant stimuli rapidly and unconsciously capturing attention and eliciting positive/affectionate behaviors, including willingness to care. It has been hypothesized that the presence of infantile physical and behavioral features in companion (or pet) animals (i.e., dogs and cats) might form the basis of our attraction to these species. Preliminary evidence has indeed shown that the human attentional bias toward the baby schema may extend to animal facial configurations. In this review, the role of facial cues, specifically of infantile traits and facial signals (i.e., eyes gaze) as emotional and communicative signals is highlighted and discussed as regulating the human-animal bond, similarly to what can be observed in the adult-infant interaction context. Particular emphasis is given to the neuroendocrine regulation of the social bond between humans and animals through oxytocin secretion. Instead of considering companion animals as mere baby substitutes for their owners, in this review we highlight the central role of cats and dogs in human lives. Specifically, we consider the ability of companion animals to bond with humans as fulfilling the need for attention and emotional intimacy, thus serving similar psychological and adaptive functions as human-human friendships. In this context, facial cuteness is viewed not just as a releaser of care/parental behavior, but, more in general, as a trait motivating social engagement. To conclude, the impact of this information for applied disciplines is briefly described, particularly in consideration of the increasing evidence of the beneficial effects of contacts with animals for human health and wellbeing. PMID:27014120

  2. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  3. Detection of human genome mutations associated with pregnancy complications using 3-D microarray based on macroporous polymer monoliths.

    PubMed

    Glotov, A S; Sinitsyna, E S; Danilova, M M; Vashukova, E S; Walter, J G; Stahl, F; Baranov, V S; Vlakh, E G; Tennikova, T B

    2016-01-15

    Analysis of variations in DNA structure using a low-density microarray technology for routine diagnostic in evidence-based medicine is still relevant. In this work the applicability of 3-D macroporous monolithic methacrylate-based platforms for detection of different pathogenic genomic substitutions was studied. The detection of nucleotide replacements in F5 (Leiden G/A, rs6025), MTHFR (C/T, rs1801133) and ITGB3 (T/C, rs5918), involved in coagulation, and COMT (C/G, rs4818), TPH2 (T/A, rs11178997), PON1 (T/A rs854560), AGTR2 (C/A, rs11091046) and SERPINE1 (5G/4G, rs1799889), associated with pregnancy complications, was performed. The effect of such parameters as amount and type of oligonucleotide probe, amount of PCR product on signal-to-noise ratio, as well as mismatch discrimination was analyzed. Sensitivity and specificity of mutation detections were coincided and equal to 98.6%. The analysis of SERPINE1 and MTHFR genotypes by both NGS and developed microarray was performed and compared. PMID:26592644

  4. Quantification of perspective-induced shape change of clavicles at radiography and 3D scanning to assist human identification.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Carl N; Guyomarc'h, Pierre

    2014-03-01

    Change in perspective between antemortem and postmortem imaging sessions (radiograph to radiograph and surface scan to radiograph) may cause different 2D renderings of the same osseous element complicating comparisons for identification. In this study, clavicle shape changes due to radiographic positioning and 3D laser scanning were examined in 20 right-side specimens, as pertinent to chest radiograph comparisons. Results indicate substantial changes in clavicle form with short source-to-image receptor distance, elevation of the element from the image receptor, and movement of the element away from the center beam (10% mean square for shape). Although quantitative shape differences were small when the clavicle was in close opposition to the image receptor (3% mean square), important qualitative differences remained with large distances from the center beam (e.g., conoid tubercle presence/absence). The significance of these results for image superimposition and computer-automated-shape-based searches of radiographic libraries to find matching candidates is discussed. PMID:24313366

  5. Identification of a 145,000 Mr membrane protein as the C3d receptor (CR2) of human B lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Weis, J J; Tedder, T F; Fearon, D T

    1984-01-01

    The C3d receptor (CR2) of human B lymphocytes mediates the binding to these cells of immune complexes that have activated the complement system and bear the fragments of C3, iC3b, C3d,g, and C3d. A 145,000 Mr membrane protein previously described as being recognized by the monoclonal antibody HB-5 and shown to be expressed only by B lymphocytes and B lymphoblastoid cell lines, such as Raji, was assessed for its possible identity as CR2. Treatment of Raji cells with HB-5 and goat F(ab')2 anti-mouse IgG (GaM) diminished the capacity of these cells to form rosettes with sheep erythrocyte (E) intermediates bearing 130,000 molecules of iC3b or C3d, whereas treatment with the monoclonal antibody alone had no effect. The capacity of peripheral blood B lymphocytes to bind EC3d was similarly inhibited by the combination of HB-5 and GaM. The possibility that HB-5 may interact with a site on CR2 that is distinct from the ligand binding site permitted the direct analysis of the capacity of the HB-5 antigen to bind to the C3 fragments. Protein A-containing Staphylococcus aureus particles to which HB-5 had been bound were incubated with detergent lysates of Raji cells and B lymphocytes under conditions that had been shown to be associated only with the binding of the 145,000 Mr antigen. These particles bearing HB-5 and antigen derived from either cell type were shown to adhere specifically to EiC3b and EC3d, demonstrating that transfer of the HB-5 antigen from CR2-bearing cells to S. aureus particles led to the acquisition of CR2 function by the particles. The additional findings that the relatively weak capacity of Raji cells to form rosettes with EC3b was inhibited by HB-5 and that the S. aureus particles bearing immunoadsorbed HB-5 antigen bound to EC3b indicated that the C3b-binding function of the CR1-negative Raji cell resides in CR2, rather than in other membrane proteins. Images PMID:6230668

  6. 3D cell culture and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells plated onto jet-sprayed or electrospun micro-fiber scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Meadhbh Á; Renaud, Audrey; Gamblin, Anne-Laure; D'Arros, Cyril; Nedellec, Steven; Trichet, Valerie; Layrolle, Pierre

    2015-08-01

    A major limitation of the 2D culture systems is that they fail to recapitulate the in vivo 3D cellular microenvironment whereby cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions occur. In this paper, a biomaterial scaffold that mimics the structure of collagen fibers was produced by jet-spraying. This micro-fiber polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold was evaluated for 3D culture of human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in comparison with a commercially available electrospun scaffold. The jet-sprayed scaffolds had larger pore diameters, greater porosity, smaller diameter fibers, and more heterogeneous fiber diameter size distribution compared to the electrospun scaffolds. Cells on jet-sprayed constructs exhibited spread morphology with abundant cytoskeleton staining, whereas MSCs on electrospun scaffolds appeared less extended with fewer actin filaments. MSC proliferation and cell infiltration occurred at a faster rate on jet-sprayed compared to electrospun scaffolds. Osteogenic differentiation of MSCs and ECM production as measured by ALP, collagen and calcium deposition was superior on jet-sprayed compared to electrospun scaffolds. The jet-sprayed scaffold which mimics the native ECM and permits homogeneous cell infiltration is important for 3D in vitro applications such as bone cellular interaction studies or drug testing, as well as bone tissue engineering strategies. PMID:26238732

  7. Comparison of the Expression of Hepatic Genes by Human Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells Cultured in 2D and 3D Collagen Culture Systems

    PubMed Central

    Khodabandeh, Zahra; Vojdani, Zahra; Talaei-Khozani, Tahereh; Jaberipour, Mansoureh; Hosseini, Ahmad; Bahmanpour, Soghra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells (HWJMSCs) express liver-specific markers such as albumin, alpha-fetoprotein, cytokeratin-19, cytokeratin-18, and glucose-6-phosphatase. Therefore, they can be considered as a good source for cell replacement therapy for liver diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of various culture systems on the hepatocyte-specific gene expression pattern of naïve HWJMSCs. Methods: HWJMSCs were characterized as MSCs by detecting the surface CD markers and capability to differentiate toward osteoblast and adipocyte. HWJMSCs were cultured in 2D collagen films and 3D collagen scaffolds for 21 days and were compared to control cultures. Real time RT-PCR was used to evaluate the expression of liver-specific genes. Results: The HWJMSCs which were grown on non-coated culture plates expressed cytokeratin-18 and -19, alpha-fetoprotein, albumin, glucose-6-phosphatase, and claudin. The expression of the hepatic nuclear factor 4 (HNF4) was very low. The cells showed a significant increase in caludin expression when they cultured in 3D collagen scaffolds compared to the conventional monolayer culture and 2D collagen scaffold. Conclusion: Various culture systems did not influence on hepatocyte specific marker expression by HWJMSCs, except for claudin. The expression of claudin showed that 3D collagen scaffold provided the extracellular matrix for induction of the cells to interconnect with each other. PMID:26722142

  8. Coexistence of adrenergic and cholinergic nerves in the inferior hypogastric plexus: anatomical and immunohistochemical study with 3D reconstruction in human male fetus

    PubMed Central

    Alsaid, Bayan; Bessede, Thomas; Karam, Ibrahim; Abd-Alsamad, Issam; Uhl, Jean-Francois; Benoît, Gérard; Droupy, Stéphane; Delmas, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Classic anatomical methods have failed to determine the precise location, origin and nature of nerve fibres in the inferior hypogastric plexus (IHP). The purpose of this study was to identify the location and nature (adrenergic and/or cholinergic) of IHP nerve fibres and to provide a three-dimensional (3D) representation of pelvic nerves and their relationship to other anatomical structures. Serial transverse sections of the pelvic portion of two human male fetuses (16 and 17 weeks’ gestation) were studied histologically and immunohistochemically, digitized and reconstructed three-dimensionally. 3D reconstruction allowed a ‘computer-assisted dissection’, identifying the precise location and distribution of the pelvic nerve elements. Proximal (supra-levator) and distal (infra-levator) communications between the pudendal nerve and IHP were observed. By determining the nature of the nerve fibres using immunostaining, we were able to demonstrate that the hypogastric nerves and pelvic splanchnic nerves, which are classically considered purely sympathetic and parasympathetic, respectively, contain both adrenergic and cholinergic nerve fibres. The pelvic autonomic nervous system is more complex than previously thought, as adrenergic and cholinergic fibres were found to co-exist in both ‘sympathetic’ and ‘parasympathetic’ nerves. This study is the first step to a 3D cartography of neurotransmitter distribution which could help in the selection of molecules to be used in the treatment of incontinence, erectile dysfunction and ejaculatory disorders. PMID:19438760

  9. Numerical 3D modeling of heat transfer in human tissues for microwave radiometry monitoring of brown fat metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Dario B.; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Salahi, Sara; Colebeck, Erin; Topsakal, Erdem; Pereira, Pedro J. S.; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Stauffer, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in whole body metabolism and could potentially mediate weight gain and insulin sensitivity. Although some imaging techniques allow BAT detection, there are currently no viable methods for continuous acquisition of BAT energy expenditure. We present a non-invasive technique for long term monitoring of BAT metabolism using microwave radiometry. Methods A multilayer 3D computational model was created in HFSS™ with 1.5 mm skin, 3–10 mm subcutaneous fat, 200 mm muscle and a BAT region (2–6 cm3) located between fat and muscle. Based on this model, a log-spiral antenna was designed and optimized to maximize reception of thermal emissions from the target (BAT). The power absorption patterns calculated in HFSS™ were combined with simulated thermal distributions computed in COMSOL® to predict radiometric signal measured from an ultra-low-noise microwave radiometer. The power received by the antenna was characterized as a function of different levels of BAT metabolism under cold and noradrenergic stimulation. Results The optimized frequency band was 1.5–2.2 GHz, with averaged antenna efficiency of 19%. The simulated power received by the radiometric antenna increased 2–9 mdBm (noradrenergic stimulus) and 4–15 mdBm (cold stimulus) corresponding to increased 15-fold BAT metabolism. Conclusions Results demonstrated the ability to detect thermal radiation from small volumes (2–6 cm3) of BAT located up to 12 mm deep and to monitor small changes (0.5 °C) in BAT metabolism. As such, the developed miniature radiometric antenna sensor appears suitable for non-invasive long term monitoring of BAT metabolism. PMID:24244831

  10. Numerical 3D modeling of heat transfer in human tissues for microwave radiometry monitoring of brown fat metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Dario B.; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Salahi, Sara; Colebeck, Erin; Topsakal, Erdem; Pereira, Pedro J. S.; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Stauffer, Paul R.

    2013-02-01

    Background: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in whole body metabolism and could potentially mediate weight gain and insulin sensitivity. Although some imaging techniques allow BAT detection, there are currently no viable methods for continuous acquisition of BAT energy expenditure. We present a non-invasive technique for long term monitoring of BAT metabolism using microwave radiometry. Methods: A multilayer 3D computational model was created in HFSSTM with 1.5 mm skin, 3-10 mm subcutaneous fat, 200 mm muscle and a BAT region (2-6 cm3) located between fat and muscle. Based on this model, a log-spiral antenna was designed and optimized to maximize reception of thermal emissions from the target (BAT). The power absorption patterns calculated in HFSSTM were combined with simulated thermal distributions computed in COMSOL® to predict radiometric signal measured from an ultra-low-noise microwave radiometer. The power received by the antenna was characterized as a function of different levels of BAT metabolism under cold and noradrenergic stimulation. Results: The optimized frequency band was 1.5-2.2 GHz, with averaged antenna efficiency of 19%. The simulated power received by the radiometric antenna increased 2-9 mdBm (noradrenergic stimulus) and 4-15 mdBm (cold stimulus) corresponding to increased 15-fold BAT metabolism. Conclusions: Results demonstrated the ability to detect thermal radiation from small volumes (2-6 cm3) of BAT located up to 12 mm deep and to monitor small changes (0.5 °C) in BAT metabolism. As such, the developed miniature radiometric antenna sensor appears suitable for non-invasive long term monitoring of BAT metabolism.

  11. Imaging the Aqueous Humor Outflow Pathway in Human Eyes by Three-dimensional Micro-computed Tomography (3D micro-CT)

    SciTech Connect

    C Hann; M Bentley; A Vercnocke; E Ritman; M Fautsch

    2011-12-31

    The site of outflow resistance leading to elevated intraocular pressure in primary open-angle glaucoma is believed to be located in the region of Schlemm's canal inner wall endothelium, its basement membrane and the adjacent juxtacanalicular tissue. Evidence also suggests collector channels and intrascleral vessels may have a role in intraocular pressure in both normal and glaucoma eyes. Traditional imaging modalities limit the ability to view both proximal and distal portions of the trabecular outflow pathway as a single unit. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of three-dimensional micro-computed tomography (3D micro-CT) as a potential method to view the trabecular outflow pathway. Two normal human eyes were used: one immersion fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and one with anterior chamber perfusion at 10 mmHg followed by perfusion fixation in 4% paraformaldehyde/2% glutaraldehyde. Both eyes were postfixed in 1% osmium tetroxide and scanned with 3D micro-CT at 2 {mu}m or 5 {mu}m voxel resolution. In the immersion fixed eye, 24 collector channels were identified with an average orifice size of 27.5 {+-} 5 {mu}m. In comparison, the perfusion fixed eye had 29 collector channels with a mean orifice size of 40.5 {+-} 13 {mu}m. Collector channels were not evenly dispersed around the circumference of the eye. There was no significant difference in the length of Schlemm's canal in the immersed versus the perfused eye (33.2 versus 35.1 mm). Structures, locations and size measurements identified by 3D micro-CT were confirmed by correlative light microscopy. These findings confirm 3D micro-CT can be used effectively for the non-invasive examination of the trabecular meshwork, Schlemm's canal, collector channels and intrascleral vasculature that comprise the distal outflow pathway. This imaging modality will be useful for non-invasive study of the role of the trabecular outflow pathway as a whole unit.

  12. Enhanced Metabolizing Activity of Human ES Cell-Derived Hepatocytes Using a 3D Culture System with Repeated Exposures to Xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Jang, Yu Jin; An, Su Yeon; Son, Jeongsang; Lee, Jaehun; Lee, Gyunggyu; Park, Ji Young; Park, Han-Jin; Hwang, Dong-Youn; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Han, Jiyou

    2015-09-01

    Highly homogeneous and functional stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) are considered a promising option in the cell-based therapy of liver disease and the development of effective in vitro toxicity screening tools. However, the purity of cells and expression and/or activity of drug metabolizing enzymes in stem cell-derived HLCs are usually too low to be useful for clinical or in vitro applications. Here, we describe a highly optimized hepatic differentiation protocol, which produces >90% (BGO1 and CHA15) albumin-positive HLCs with no purification process from human embryonic stem cell lines. In addition, we show that hepatic enzyme gene expressions and activities were significantly improved by generating 3D spheroidal aggregate of HLCs, compared with 2D HLCs. The 3D differentiation method increased expression of nuclear receptors (NRs) that regulate the proper expression of key hepatic enzymes. Furthermore, significantly increased hepatic functions such as albumin and urea secretion were observed in 3D hepatic spheroids, compared with 2D HLCs. HLCs in the spheroid exhibited morphological and ultrastructural features of normal hepatocytes. Importantly, we show that repeated exposures to xenobiotics facilitated further functional maturation of HLC, as confirmed by increased expression of genes for drug metabolizing enzymes and transcription factors. In conclusion, the 3D culture system with repeated exposures to xenobiotics may be a new strategy for enhancing hepatic metabolizing ability of stem cell-derived HLCs as a cell source for in vitro high-throughput hepatotoxicity models. PMID:26089346

  13. Comparison of Changes in Immunological Parameters in Human Lymphocytes in 2D Versus 3D Clinostats-Goal Towards Microgravity Analog Calibration for Future Space Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaresan, Alamelu; Russomano, Thais; Pellis, Neal R.

    2008-06-01

    Exposure to microgravity may produce changes in the performance of the immunological system at the cellular level as well as in the major physiological systems of the body. Studies in true spaceflight and similar studies in 2D clinostats (Rotating wall vessels) related to decreased immune function in astronaut blood and normal human lymphocytes indicate a decrease in cell proliferation, T cell activation, locomotion and altered lymphocyte signal transduction (Sundaresan and Pellis, 2008, Sundaresan et al., 2004). The present study was designed to investigate whether the proliferation and viability of lymphocytes are reduced by exposure to rotation in a 3D-Clinostat, which is used to simulate microgravity for cells.

  14. Changes in dissolved iron deposition to the oceans driven by human activity: a 3-D global modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myriokefalitakis, S.; Daskalakis, N.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Baker, A. R.; Nenes, A.; Kanakidou, M.

    2015-03-01

    The global atmospheric iron (Fe) cycle is parameterized in