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Sample records for 3d hybrid kinetic

  1. Jovian Plasma Torus Interaction with Europa: 3D Hybrid Kinetic Simulation. First results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Cooper, J. F.; Paterson, W. R.; Sittler, E. C.; Hartle, R. E.; Simpson, D. G.

    2010-01-01

    The hybrid kinetic model supports comprehensive simulation of the interaction between different spatial and energetic elements of the Europa-moon-magnetosphere system with respect to variable upstream magnetic field and flux or density distributions of plasma and energetic ions, electrons, and neutral atoms. This capability is critical for improving the interpretation of the existing Europa flyby measurements from the Galileo orbiter mission, and for planning flyby and orbital measurements, (including the surface and atmospheric compositions) for future missions. The simulations are based on recent models of the atmosphere of Europa (Cassidy etal.,2007;Shematovichetal.,2005). In contrast to previous approaches with MHD simulations, the hybrid model allows us to fully take into account the finite gyro radius effect and electron pressure, and to correctly estimate the ion velocity distribution and the fluxes along the magnetic field (assuming an initial Maxwellian velocity distribution for upstream background ions).Non-thermal distributions of upstream plasma will be addressed in future work. Photoionization,electron-impact ionization, charge exchange and collisions between the ions and neutrals are also included in our model. We consider two models for background plasma:(a) with O(++) ions; (b) with O(++) and S(++) ions. The majority of O2 atmosphere is thermal with an extended cold population (Cassidyetal.,2007). A few first simulations already include an induced magnetic dipole; however, several important effects of induced magnetic fields arising from oceanic shell conductivity will be addressed in later work.

  2. Jovian's plasma torus interaction with Europa. E12 pass: 3D hybrid kinetic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Cooper, J. F.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Paterson, W. R.; Hartle, R. E.

    2012-09-01

    The hybrid kinetic model supports comprehensive simulation of the interaction between different spatial and energetic elements of the Europa moonmagnetosphere system with respect to variable upstream magnetic field and flux or density distributions of plasma and energetic ions, electrons, and neutral atoms. This capability is critical for improving the interpretation of the existing Europa flybymeasurements from Galileo orbital mission and for planning flyby and orbital measurements for future missions. The simulations are based on recent models of the atmosphere of Europa [1, 2, 3]. The upstream parameters have been chosen from the plasma and magnetic field Galileo E12 observations, [4, 5]. In contrast to previous approaches with MHD simulations, the hybrid model allows us to fully take into account the finite gyroradius effect and electron pressure, and to correctly estimate the ions velocity distribution and the fluxes along themagnetic field [6]. Photoionization, electron-impact ionization and charge exchange are included in our model. The temperature of the background electrons and pickup electrons was also included into the generalized Ohm's law. The background plasma contains heavy (Mi/Qi = 16) and light (Mi/Qi = 1) ions [4]. In our modeling we take into account only O+ ions for magnetospheric plasma. The pickup ions were created from the atmosphere. The majority of O2 atmosphere is thermal with an extended non-thermal population [1]. The moon is modeled in this initial work as a weakly conducting body. The critical point of E12 pass is the extremely high density in upstream plasma, e.g. n0 = 70-571 cm-3 for ions with Mi/Qi ratio equals 16. This density results in to the superAlfvénic flow and it will change the physics of the interaction between Jovianmagnetosphere and Europa. The modeling show the formation of the Mach cone instead of the Alfv'en wing which was observed in hybrid modeling of E4 pass [6]. The modeling shows that the effective size of the

  3. Effects of Kinetic Processes in Shaping Io's Global Plasma Environment: A 3D Hybrid Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, Alexander S.; Combi, Michael R.

    2006-01-01

    The global dynamics of the ionized and neutral gases in the environment of Io plays an important role in the interaction of Jupiter s corotating magnetospheric plasma with Io. Stationary simulations of this problem have already been done using the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and the electrodynamics approaches. One of the major results of recent simplified two-fluid model simulations [Saur, J., Neubauer, F.M., Strobel, D.F., Summers, M.E., 2002. J. Geophys. Res. 107 (SMP5), 1-18] was the production of the structure of the double-peak in the magnetic field signature of the Io flyby. These could not be explained before by standard MHD models. In this paper, we present a hybrid simulation for Io with kinetic ions and fluid electrons. This method employs a fluid description for electrons and neutrals, whereas for ions a particle approach is used. We also take into account charge-exchange and photoionization processes and solve self-consistently for electric and magnetic fields. Our model may provide a much more accurate description for the ion dynamics than previous approaches and allows us to account for the realistic anisotropic ion velocity distribution that cannot be done in fluid simulations with isotropic temperatures. The first results of such a simulation of the dynamics of ions in Io s environment are discussed in this paper. Comparison with the Galileo IO flyby results shows that this approach provides an accurate physical basis for the interaction and can therefore naturally reproduce all the observed salient features.

  4. Effects of Kinetic Processes in Shaping Io's Global Plasma Environment: A 3D Hybrid Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, Alexander S.; Combi, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The global dynamics of the ionized and neutral components in the environment of Io plays an important role in the interaction of Jupiter's corotating magnetospheric plasma with Io. The stationary simulation of this problem was done in the MHD and the electrodynamics approaches. One of the main significant results from the simplified two-fluid model simulations was a production of the structure of the double-peak in the magnetic field signature of the I0 flyby that could not be explained by standard MHD models. In this paper, we develop a method of kinetic ion simulation. This method employs the fluid description for electrons and neutrals whereas for ions multilevel, drift-kinetic and particle, approaches are used. We also take into account charge-exchange and photoionization processes. Our model provides much more accurate description for ion dynamics and allows us to take into account the realistic anisotropic ion distribution that cannot be done in fluid simulations. The first results of such simulation of the dynamics of ions in the Io's environment are discussed in this paper.

  5. 3D electrostatic gyrokinetic electron and fully kinetic ion simulation of lower-hybrid drift instability of Harris current sheet

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Zhenyu; Lin, Yu; Wang, Xueyi; Tummel, Kurt; Chen, Liu

    2016-07-07

    The eigenmode stability properties of three-dimensional lower-hybrid-drift-instabilities (LHDI) in a Harris current sheet with a small but finite guide magnetic field have been systematically studied by employing the gyrokinetic electron and fully kinetic ion (GeFi) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation model with a realistic ion-to-electron mass ratio mi/me. In contrast to the fully kinetic PIC simulation scheme, the fast electron cyclotron motion and plasma oscillations are systematically removed in the GeFi model, and hence one can employ the realistic mi/me. The GeFi simulations are benchmarked against and show excellent agreement with both the fully kinetic PIC simulation and the analytical eigenmode theory. Our studies indicate that, for small wavenumbers, ky, along the current direction, the most unstable eigenmodes are peaked at the location wheremore » $$\\vec{k}$$• $$\\vec{B}$$ =0, consistent with previous analytical and simulation studies. Here, $$\\vec{B}$$ is the equilibrium magnetic field and $$\\vec{k}$$ is the wavevector perpendicular to the nonuniformity direction. As ky increases, however, the most unstable eigenmodes are found to be peaked at $$\\vec{k}$$ •$$\\vec{B}$$ ≠0. Additionally, the simulation results indicate that varying mi/me, the current sheet width, and the guide magnetic field can affect the stability of LHDI. Simulations with the varying mass ratio confirm the lower hybrid frequency and wave number scalings.« less

  6. 3D electrostatic gyrokinetic electron and fully kinetic ion simulation of lower-hybrid drift instability of Harris current sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Lin, Yu; Wang, Xueyi; Tummel, Kurt; Chen, Liu

    2016-07-01

    The eigenmode stability properties of three-dimensional lower-hybrid-drift-instabilities (LHDI) in a Harris current sheet with a small but finite guide magnetic field have been systematically studied by employing the gyrokinetic electron and fully kinetic ion (GeFi) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation model with a realistic ion-to-electron mass ratio mi/me . In contrast to the fully kinetic PIC simulation scheme, the fast electron cyclotron motion and plasma oscillations are systematically removed in the GeFi model, and hence one can employ the realistic mi/me . The GeFi simulations are benchmarked against and show excellent agreement with both the fully kinetic PIC simulation and the analytical eigenmode theory. Our studies indicate that, for small wavenumbers, ky, along the current direction, the most unstable eigenmodes are peaked at the location where k →.B → =0 , consistent with previous analytical and simulation studies. Here, B → is the equilibrium magnetic field and k → is the wavevector perpendicular to the nonuniformity direction. As ky increases, however, the most unstable eigenmodes are found to be peaked at k →.B → ≠0 . In addition, the simulation results indicate that varying mi/me , the current sheet width, and the guide magnetic field can affect the stability of LHDI. Simulations with the varying mass ratio confirm the lower hybrid frequency and wave number scalings.

  7. Global effects of transmitted shock wave propagation through the Earth's inner magnetosphere: First results from 3-D hybrid kinetic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Sibeck, D. G.

    2016-09-01

    We use a new hybrid kinetic model to simulate the response of ring current, outer radiation belt, and plasmaspheric particle populations to impulsive interplanetary shocks. Since particle distributions attending the interplanetary shock waves and in the ring current and radiation belts are non-Maxwellian, wave-particle interactions play a crucial role in energy transport within the inner magnetosphere. Finite gyroradius effects become important in mass loading the shock waves with the background plasma in the presence of higher energy ring current and radiation belt ions and electrons. Initial results show that shocks cause strong deformations in the global structure of the ring current, radiation belt, and plasmasphere. The ion velocity distribution functions at the shock front, in the ring current, and in the radiation belt help us determine energy transport through the Earth's inner magnetosphere.

  8. Jovian Plasmas Torus Interaction with Europa. Plasma Wake Structure and Effect of Inductive Magnetic Field: 3D Hybrid Kinetic Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Cooper, J F.; Paterson, W. R.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Hartle, R. E.; Simpson, David G.

    2013-01-01

    The hybrid kinetic model supports comprehensive simulation of the interaction between different spatial and energetic elements of the Europa moon-magnetosphere system with respect to a variable upstream magnetic field and flux or density distributions of plasma and energetic ions, electrons, and neutral atoms. This capability is critical for improving the interpretation of the existing Europa flyby measurements from the Galileo Orbiter mission, and for planning flyby and orbital measurements (including the surface and atmospheric compositions) for future missions. The simulations are based on recent models of the atmosphere of Europa (Cassidy et al., 2007; Shematovich et al., 2005). In contrast to previous approaches with MHD simulations, the hybrid model allows us to fully take into account the finite gyroradius effect and electron pressure, and to correctly estimate the ion velocity distribution and the fluxes along the magnetic field (assuming an initial Maxwellian velocity distribution for upstream background ions). Photoionization, electron-impact ionization, charge exchange and collisions between the ions and neutrals are also included in our model. We consider the models with Oþ þ and Sþ þ background plasma, and various betas for background ions and electrons, and pickup electrons. The majority of O2 atmosphere is thermal with an extended non-thermal population (Cassidy et al., 2007). In this paper, we discuss two tasks: (1) the plasma wake structure dependence on the parameters of the upstream plasma and Europa's atmosphere (model I, cases (a) and (b) with a homogeneous Jovian magnetosphere field, an inductive magnetic dipole and high oceanic shell conductivity); and (2) estimation of the possible effect of an induced magnetic field arising from oceanic shell conductivity. This effect was estimated based on the difference between the observed and modeled magnetic fields (model II, case (c) with an inhomogeneous Jovian magnetosphere field, an inductive

  9. Dynamics of pickup ion velocity distribution function in Titan's plasma environment (TA encounter): 3D hybrid kinetic modeling and comparison with CAPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, D. G.; Lipatov, A. S.; Sittler, E. C.; Hartle, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Wave-particle interactions play a very important role in the plasma dynamics near Titan: mass loading, excitation of the low-frequency waves and the formation of the particle velocity distribution function, e.g. ring/shell-like distributions, etc. The kinetic approach is important for estimation of the collision processes e.g. a charge exchange. The particle velocity distribution function also plays a key role for understanding the observed particle fluxes. In this report we discuss the ion velocity distribution function dynamics from 3D hybrid modeling. The modeling is based on recent analysis of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) ion measurements during the TA flyby. In our model the background ions, all pickup ions, and ionospheric ions are considered as particles, whereas the electrons are described as a fluid. Inhomogeneous photoionization, electron-impact ionization and charge exchange are included in our model. The temperatures of the background electrons and pickup electrons were also included into the generalized Ohm's law. We also take into account the collisions between the ions and neutrals. We use Chamberlain profiles for the exosphere's components and include a simple ionosphere model with M=28 ions that were generated inside the ionosphere. The moon is considered as a weakly conducting body. Our modeling shows that interaction between background plasma and pickup ions H+, H2+, CH4+ and N2+ has a more complicated structure than was observed in the T9 flyby and modeling due to the large gyroradius of the background O+ ions [1,2,3,4]. Special attention will be paid to comparing the simulated pickup ion velocity distribution with CAPS TA observations. We also compare our kinetic modeling with other hybrid and MHD modeling of Titan's environment. References [1] Sittler, E.C., et al., Energy Deposition Processes in Titan's Upper Atmosphere and Its Induced Magnetosphere. In: Titan from Cassini-Huygens, Brown, R.H., Lebreton J.P., Waite, J.H., Eds

  10. Titan's plasma environment: 3D hybrid kinetic modeling of the TA flyby and comparison with CAPS-ELS and RPWS LP observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Sittler, E. C.; Hartle, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Simpson, D. G.

    2014-04-01

    In this report we discuss the global plasma environment of the TA flyby from the perspective of 3D hybrid modeling. In our model the background, pickup, and ionospheric ions are considered as particles, whereas the electrons are described as a fluid. Inhomogeneous photoionization, electron-impact ionization and charge exchange are included in our model. We also take into account the collisions between the ions and neutrals. Our modeling shows that mass loading of the background plasma (H+, O+) by pickup ions H2+, CH4+ and N2+ differs from the T9 encounter simulations when O+ ions are not introduced into the background plasma. In our hybrid modeling we use Chamberlain profiles for the atmospheric components. We also include a simple ionosphere model with average mass M=28 amu ions that were generated inside the ionosphere. Titan's interior is considered as a weakly conducting body. Special attention has been paid to comparing the simulated pickup ion density distribution with CAPS-ELS and with RPWS LP observations by the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft along the TA trajectory. Our modeling shows an asymmetry of the ion density distribution and the magnetic field, including the formation of Alfvén wing-like structures.

  11. Intermittent Dissipation and Heating in 3D Kinetic Plasma Turbulence.

    PubMed

    Wan, M; Matthaeus, W H; Roytershteyn, V; Karimabadi, H; Parashar, T; Wu, P; Shay, M

    2015-05-01

    High resolution, fully kinetic, three dimensional (3D) simulation of collisionless plasma turbulence shows the development of turbulence characterized by sheetlike current density structures spanning a range of scales. The nonlinear evolution is initialized with a long wavelength isotropic spectrum of fluctuations having polarizations transverse to an imposed mean magnetic field. We present evidence that these current sheet structures are sites for heating and dissipation, and that stronger currents signify higher dissipation rates. The analyses focus on quantities such as J·E, electron, and proton temperatures, and conditional averages of these quantities based on local electric current density. Evidently, kinetic scale plasma, like magnetohydrodynamics, becomes intermittent due to current sheet formation, leading to the expectation that heating and dissipation in astrophysical and space plasmas may be highly nonuniform. Comparison with previous results from 2D kinetic simulations, as well as high frequency solar wind observational data, are discussed. PMID:25978241

  12. Hybrid segmentation framework for 3D medical image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ting; Metaxas, Dimitri N.

    2003-05-01

    Medical image segmentation is the process that defines the region of interest in the image volume. Classical segmentation methods such as region-based methods and boundary-based methods cannot make full use of the information provided by the image. In this paper we proposed a general hybrid framework for 3D medical image segmentation purposes. In our approach we combine the Gibbs Prior model, and the deformable model. First, Gibbs Prior models are applied onto each slice in a 3D medical image volume and the segmentation results are combined to a 3D binary masks of the object. Then we create a deformable mesh based on this 3D binary mask. The deformable model will be lead to the edge features in the volume with the help of image derived external forces. The deformable model segmentation result can be used to update the parameters for Gibbs Prior models. These methods will then work recursively to reach a global segmentation solution. The hybrid segmentation framework has been applied to images with the objective of lung, heart, colon, jaw, tumor, and brain. The experimental data includes MRI (T1, T2, PD), CT, X-ray, Ultra-Sound images. High quality results are achieved with relatively efficient time cost. We also did validation work using expert manual segmentation as the ground truth. The result shows that the hybrid segmentation may have further clinical use.

  13. A generic 3D kinetic model of gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2012-04-01

    Recent experiments show that mRNAs and proteins can be localized both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. To describe such situations, I present a 3D mean-field kinetic model aimed primarily at gene expression in prokaryotic cells, including the formation of mRNA, its translation into protein, and slow diffusion of these species. Under steady-state conditions, the mRNA and protein spatial distribution is described by simple exponential functions. The protein concentration near the gene transcribed into mRNA is shown to depend on the protein and mRNA diffusion coefficients and degradation rate constants.

  14. Kinetic isotope effects of 12CH3D + OH and 13CH3D + OH from 278 to 313 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joelsson, L. M. T.; Schmidt, J. A.; Nilsson, E. J. K.; Blunier, T.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Ono, S.; Johnson, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    Methane is the second most important long-lived greenhouse gas and plays a central role in the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere. Nonetheless there are significant uncertainties in its source budget. Analysis of the isotopic composition of atmospheric methane, including the doubly substituted species 13CH3D, offers new insight into the methane budget as the sources and sinks have distinct isotopic signatures. The most important sink of atmospheric methane is oxidation by OH in the troposphere, which accounts for around 84 % of all methane removal. Here we present experimentally derived methane + OH kinetic isotope effects and their temperature dependence over the range of 278 to 313 K for CH3D and 13CH3D; the latter is reported here for the first time. We find kCH4/kCH3D = 1.31 ± 0.01 and kCH4/k13CH3D = 1.34 ± 0.03 at room temperature, implying that the methane + OH kinetic isotope effect is multiplicative such that (kCH4/k13CH4)(kCH4/kCH3D) = kCH4/k13CH3D, within the experimental uncertainty, given the literature value of kCH4/k13CH4 = 1.0039 ± 0.0002. In addition, the kinetic isotope effects were characterized using transition state theory with tunneling corrections. Good agreement between the experimental, quantum chemical, and available literature values was obtained. Based on the results we conclude that the OH reaction (the main sink of methane) at steady state can produce an atmospheric clumped isotope signal (Δ(13CH3D) = ln([CH4][13CH3D]/[13CH4][CH3D])) of 0.02 ± 0.02. This implies that the bulk tropospheric Δ(13CH3D) reflects the source signal with relatively small adjustment due to the sink signal (i.e., mainly OH oxidation).

  15. Hybrid additive manufacturing of 3D electronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Wasley, T.; Nguyen, T. T.; Ta, V. D.; Shephard, J. D.; Stringer, J.; Smith, P.; Esenturk, E.; Connaughton, C.; Kay, R.

    2016-10-01

    A novel hybrid additive manufacturing (AM) technology combining digital light projection (DLP) stereolithography (SL) with 3D micro-dispensing alongside conventional surface mount packaging is presented in this work. This technology overcomes the inherent limitations of individual AM processes and integrates seamlessly with conventional packaging processes to enable the deposition of multiple materials. This facilitates the creation of bespoke end-use products with complex 3D geometry and multi-layer embedded electronic systems. Through a combination of four-point probe measurement and non-contact focus variation microscopy, it was identified that there was no obvious adverse effect of DLP SL embedding process on the electrical conductivity of printed conductors. The resistivity maintained to be less than 4  ×  10-4 Ω · cm before and after DLP SL embedding when cured at 100 °C for 1 h. The mechanical strength of SL specimens with thick polymerized layers was also identified through tensile testing. It was found that the polymerization thickness should be minimised (less than 2 mm) to maximise the bonding strength. As a demonstrator a polymer pyramid with embedded triple-layer 555 LED blinking circuitry was successfully fabricated to prove the technical viability.

  16. Improved hybrid optimization algorithm for 3D protein structure prediction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changjun; Hou, Caixia; Wei, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Qiang

    2014-07-01

    A new improved hybrid optimization algorithm - PGATS algorithm, which is based on toy off-lattice model, is presented for dealing with three-dimensional protein structure prediction problems. The algorithm combines the particle swarm optimization (PSO), genetic algorithm (GA), and tabu search (TS) algorithms. Otherwise, we also take some different improved strategies. The factor of stochastic disturbance is joined in the particle swarm optimization to improve the search ability; the operations of crossover and mutation that are in the genetic algorithm are changed to a kind of random liner method; at last tabu search algorithm is improved by appending a mutation operator. Through the combination of a variety of strategies and algorithms, the protein structure prediction (PSP) in a 3D off-lattice model is achieved. The PSP problem is an NP-hard problem, but the problem can be attributed to a global optimization problem of multi-extremum and multi-parameters. This is the theoretical principle of the hybrid optimization algorithm that is proposed in this paper. The algorithm combines local search and global search, which overcomes the shortcoming of a single algorithm, giving full play to the advantage of each algorithm. In the current universal standard sequences, Fibonacci sequences and real protein sequences are certified. Experiments show that the proposed new method outperforms single algorithms on the accuracy of calculating the protein sequence energy value, which is proved to be an effective way to predict the structure of proteins. PMID:25069136

  17. Improving Semantic Updating Method on 3d City Models Using Hybrid Semantic-Geometric 3d Segmentation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkawi, K.-H.; Abdul-Rahman, A.

    2013-09-01

    to LoD4. The accuracy and structural complexity of the 3D objects increases with the LoD level where LoD0 is the simplest LoD (2.5D; Digital Terrain Model (DTM) + building or roof print) while LoD4 is the most complex LoD (architectural details with interior structures). Semantic information is one of the main components in CityGML and 3D City Models, and provides important information for any analyses. However, more often than not, the semantic information is not available for the 3D city model due to the unstandardized modelling process. One of the examples is where a building is normally generated as one object (without specific feature layers such as Roof, Ground floor, Level 1, Level 2, Block A, Block B, etc). This research attempts to develop a method to improve the semantic data updating process by segmenting the 3D building into simpler parts which will make it easier for the users to select and update the semantic information. The methodology is implemented for 3D buildings in LoD2 where the buildings are generated without architectural details but with distinct roof structures. This paper also introduces hybrid semantic-geometric 3D segmentation method that deals with hierarchical segmentation of a 3D building based on its semantic value and surface characteristics, fitted by one of the predefined primitives. For future work, the segmentation method will be implemented as part of the change detection module that can detect any changes on the 3D buildings, store and retrieve semantic information of the changed structure, automatically updates the 3D models and visualize the results in a userfriendly graphical user interface (GUI).

  18. 3D hybrid simulations with gyrokinetic particle ions and fluid electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Belova, E.V.; Park, W.; Fu, G.Y.; Strauss, H.R.; Sugiyama, L.E.

    1998-12-31

    The previous hybrid MHD/particle model (MH3D-K code) represented energetic ions as gyrokinetic (or drift-kinetic) particles coupled to MHD equations using the pressure or current coupling scheme. A small energetic to bulk ion density ratio was assumed, n{sub h}/n{sub b} {much_lt} 1, allowing the neglect of the energetic ion perpendicular inertia in the momentum equation and the use of MHD Ohm`s law E = {minus}v{sub b} {times} B. A generalization of this model in which all ions are treated as gyrokinetic/drift-kinetic particles and fluid description is used for the electron dynamics is considered in this paper.

  19. 3D kinetic simulations of the global interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaya, Jorge; Maneva, Yana; Deca, Jan; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    We performed three dimensional simulations of the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere, using the self-consistent fully kinetic code iPic3D. The main objective of our simulations is to link the global interaction phenomena to the local turbulence and reconnection processes in the magnetosphere. Other numerical approaches have been used before to study this problem, including MHD, hybrid and Vlasov codes. However, only particle-in-cell codes offer the possibility to study the kinetic effects of the diffusion regions of the Earth environment that drive the energy transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere. Previous attempts to perform such kinds of simulations were limited to unphysical thermal velocities of the ion and electron species, small simulation boxes or cell sizes that do not capture the local kinetic effects at the magnetopause. Using the implicit moment Particle-in-Cell approach we performed simulations that can capture these small scale effects and, at the same time, allow to study large scale phenomena such as the bow shock and the development of the magnetotail. We expect that these results will be used to maximize the impact of future space missions, such as THOR, MMS and BepiColombo, by improving our understanding of the planetary environment, from the conditions observed in the solar wind to the turbulence and reconnection processes downstream of the bow shock.

  20. Effects of Na+ and He+ pickup ions on the lunar plasma environment: 3D hybrid modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Cooper, J. F.; Sittler, E. C.; Hartle, R. E.; Sarantos, M.

    2011-12-01

    The hybrid kinetic model used here supports comprehensive simulation of the interaction between different spatial and energetic elements of the moon-solar wind-magnetosphere of the Earth system. There is a set of MHD,kinetic, hybrid, drift kinetic, electrostatic and full kinetic modeling of the lunar plasma environment [1]. However, observations show the existence of several species of the neutrals and pickup ions like Na, He, K, O etc., (see e.g., [2,3,4]). The solar wind parameters are chosen from the ARTEMIS observations [5]. The Na+, He+ lunar exosphere's parameters are chosen from [6,7]. The hybrid kinetic model allows us to take into account the finite gyroradius effects of pickup ions and to correctly estimate the ions velocity distribution and the fluxes along the magnetic field, and on the lunar surface. Modeling shows the formation of the asymmetric Mach cone, the structuring of the pickup ion tails, and presents another type of lunar-solar wind interaction. We will compare the results of our modeling with observed distributions. References [1] Lipatov, A.S., and Cooper, J.F., Hybrid kinetic modeling of the Lunar plasma environment: Past, present and future. In: Lunar Dust, Plasma and Atmosphere: The Next Steps, January 27-29, 2010, Boulder, Colorado, Abstracts/lpa2010.colorado.edu/. [2] Potter, A.E., and Morgan, T.H., Discovery of sodium and potassium vapor in the atmosphere of the Moon, Science, 241, 675-680, doi:10.1126/science.241.4866.675, 1988. [3] Tyler, A.L., et al., Observations of sodium in the tenuous lunar atmosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 15(10), 1141-1144, doi:10.1029/GL015i010p01141, 1988. [4] Tanaka, T., et al., First in situ observation of the Moon-originating ions in the Earth's Magnetosphere by MAP-PACE on SELENE (KAGUYA), Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L22106, doi:10.1029/2009GL040682, 2009. [5] Wiehle, S., et al., First Lunar Wake Passage of ARTEMIS: Discrimination of Wake Effects and Solar Wind Fluctuations by 3D Hybrid Simulations, Planet

  1. RETRAN-3D MOD003 Peach Bottom Turbine Trip 2 Multidimensional Kinetics Analysis Models and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Michitsugu; Ogura, Katsunori; Gose, Garry C.; Wu, J.-Y

    2003-04-15

    An analysis of the Peach Bottom Unit 2 Turbine Trip Test 2 (PB2/TT2) has been performed using RETRAN-3D MOD003. The purpose of the analysis was to investigate the PB2/TT2 overpressurization transient using the RETRAN-3D multidimensional kinetics model.

  2. 3D magnetospheric parallel hybrid multi-grid method applied to planet-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclercq, L.; Modolo, R.; Leblanc, F.; Hess, S.; Mancini, M.

    2016-03-01

    We present a new method to exploit multiple refinement levels within a 3D parallel hybrid model, developed to study planet-plasma interactions. This model is based on the hybrid formalism: ions are kinetically treated whereas electrons are considered as a inertia-less fluid. Generally, ions are represented by numerical particles whose size equals the volume of the cells. Particles that leave a coarse grid subsequently entering a refined region are split into particles whose volume corresponds to the volume of the refined cells. The number of refined particles created from a coarse particle depends on the grid refinement rate. In order to conserve velocity distribution functions and to avoid calculations of average velocities, particles are not coalesced. Moreover, to ensure the constancy of particles' shape function sizes, the hybrid method is adapted to allow refined particles to move within a coarse region. Another innovation of this approach is the method developed to compute grid moments at interfaces between two refinement levels. Indeed, the hybrid method is adapted to accurately account for the special grid structure at the interfaces, avoiding any overlapping grid considerations. Some fundamental test runs were performed to validate our approach (e.g. quiet plasma flow, Alfven wave propagation). Lastly, we also show a planetary application of the model, simulating the interaction between Jupiter's moon Ganymede and the Jovian plasma.

  3. Hybrid 3D printing: a game-changer in personalized cardiac medicine?

    PubMed

    Kurup, Harikrishnan K N; Samuel, Bennett P; Vettukattil, Joseph J

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing in congenital heart disease has the potential to increase procedural efficiency and patient safety by improving interventional and surgical planning and reducing radiation exposure. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography are usually the source datasets to derive 3D printing. More recently, 3D echocardiography has been demonstrated to derive 3D-printed models. The integration of multiple imaging modalities for hybrid 3D printing has also been shown to create accurate printed heart models, which may prove to be beneficial for interventional cardiologists, cardiothoracic surgeons, and as an educational tool. Further advancements in the integration of different imaging modalities into a single platform for hybrid 3D printing and virtual 3D models will drive the future of personalized cardiac medicine.

  4. Hybrid 3D printing: a game-changer in personalized cardiac medicine?

    PubMed

    Kurup, Harikrishnan K N; Samuel, Bennett P; Vettukattil, Joseph J

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing in congenital heart disease has the potential to increase procedural efficiency and patient safety by improving interventional and surgical planning and reducing radiation exposure. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography are usually the source datasets to derive 3D printing. More recently, 3D echocardiography has been demonstrated to derive 3D-printed models. The integration of multiple imaging modalities for hybrid 3D printing has also been shown to create accurate printed heart models, which may prove to be beneficial for interventional cardiologists, cardiothoracic surgeons, and as an educational tool. Further advancements in the integration of different imaging modalities into a single platform for hybrid 3D printing and virtual 3D models will drive the future of personalized cardiac medicine. PMID:26465262

  5. 3-D Hybrid Kinetic Modeling of the Interaction Between the Solar Wind and Lunar-like Exospheric Pickup Ions in Case of Oblique/ Quasi-Parallel/Parallel Upstream Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Farrell, W. M.; Cooper, J. F.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Hartle, R. E.

    2015-01-01

    The interactions between the solar wind and Moon-sized objects are determined by a set of the solar wind parameters and plasma environment of the space objects. The orientation of upstream magnetic field is one of the key factors which determines the formation and structure of bow shock wave/Mach cone or Alfven wing near the obstacle. The study of effects of the direction of the upstream magnetic field on lunar-like plasma environment is the main subject of our investigation in this paper. Photoionization, electron-impact ionization and charge exchange are included in our hybrid model. The computational model includes the self-consistent dynamics of the light (hydrogen (+), helium (+)) and heavy (sodium (+)) pickup ions. The lunar interior is considered as a weakly conducting body. Our previous 2013 lunar work, as reported in this journal, found formation of a triple structure of the Mach cone near the Moon in the case of perpendicular upstream magnetic field. Further advances in modeling now reveal the presence of strong wave activity in the upstream solar wind and plasma wake in the cases of quasiparallel and parallel upstream magnetic fields. However, little wave activity is found for the opposite case with a perpendicular upstream magnetic field. The modeling does not show a formation of the Mach cone in the case of theta(Sub B,U) approximately equal to 0 degrees.

  6. Mobile 3D quality of experience evaluation: a hybrid data collection and analysis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utriainen, Timo; Häyrynen, Jyrki; Jumisko-Pyykkö, Satu; Boev, Atanas; Gotchev, Atanas; Hannuksela, Miska M.

    2011-02-01

    The paper presents a hybrid approach to study the user's experienced quality of 3D visual content on mobile autostereoscopic displays. It combines extensive subjective tests with collection and objective analysis of eye-tracked data. 3D cues which are significant for mobiles are simulated in the generated 3D test content. The methodology for conducting subjective quality evaluation includes hybrid data-collection of quantitative quality preferences, qualitative impressions, and binocular eye-tracking. We present early results of the subjective tests along with eye movement reaction times, areas of interest and heatmaps obtained from raw eye-tracked data after statistical analysis. The study contributes to the question what is important to be visualized on portable auto-stereoscopic displays and how to maintain and visually enhance the quality of 3D content for such displays.

  7. Kinetic turbulence in 3D collisionless magnetic reconnection with a guide magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alejandro Munoz Sepulveda, Patricio; Kilian, Patrick; Jain, Neeraj; Büchner, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    The features of kinetic plasma turbulence developed during non-relativistic 3D collisionless magnetic reconnection are still not fully understood. This is specially true under the influence of a strong magnetic guide field, a scenario common in space plasmas such as in the solar corona and also in laboratory experiments such as MRX or VINETA II. Therefore, we study the mechanisms and micro-instabilities leading to the development of turbulence during 3D magnetic reconnection with a fully kinetic PIC code, emphasizing the role of the guide field with an initial setup suitable for the aforementioned environments. We also clarify the relations between these processes and the generation of non-thermal populations and particle acceleration.

  8. Measuring a hidden coordinate: Rate-exchange kinetics from 3D correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Mark A.; Darvin, Jason R.

    2016-08-01

    Nonexponential kinetics imply the existence of at least one slow variable other than the observable, that is, the system has a "hidden" coordinate. We develop a simple, but general, model that allows multidimensional correlation functions to be calculated for these systems. Homogeneous and heterogeneous mechanisms are both included, and slow exchange of the rates is allowed. This model shows that 2D and 3D correlation functions of the observable measure the distribution and kinetics of the hidden coordinate controlling the rate exchange. Both the mean exchange time and the shape of the exchange relaxation are measurable. However, complications arise because higher correlation functions are sums of multiple "pathways," each of which measures different dynamics. Only one 3D pathway involves exchange dynamics. Care must be used to extract exchange dynamics without contamination from other processes.

  9. Linking 3D and 2D binding kinetics of membrane proteins by multiscale simulations

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhong-Ru; Chen, Jiawen; Wu, Yinghao

    2014-01-01

    Membrane proteins are among the most functionally important proteins in cells. Unlike soluble proteins, they only possess two translational degrees of freedom on cell surfaces, and experience significant constraints on their rotations. As a result, it is currently challenging to characterize the in situ binding of membrane proteins. Using the membrane receptors CD2 and CD58 as a testing system, we developed a multiscale simulation framework to study the differences of protein binding kinetics between 3D and 2D environments. The association and dissociation processes were implemented by a coarse-grained Monte-Carlo algorithm, while the dynamic properties of proteins diffusing on lipid bilayer were captured from all-atom molecular dynamic simulations. Our simulations show that molecular diffusion, linker flexibility and membrane fluctuations are important factors in adjusting binding kinetics. Moreover, by calibrating simulation parameters to the measurements of 3D binding, we derived the 2D binding constant which is quantitatively consistent with the experimental data, indicating that the method is able to capture the difference between 3D and 2D binding environments. Finally, we found that the 2D dissociation between CD2 and CD58 is about 100-fold slower than the 3D dissociation. In summary, our simulation framework offered a generic approach to study binding mechanisms of membrane proteins. PMID:25271078

  10. Applications of three-dimensional (3D) printing for microswimmers and bio-hybrid robotics.

    PubMed

    Stanton, M M; Trichet-Paredes, C; Sánchez, S

    2015-04-01

    This article will focus on recent reports that have applied three-dimensional (3D) printing for designing millimeter to micrometer architecture for robotic motility. The utilization of 3D printing has rapidly grown in applications for medical prosthetics and scaffolds for organs and tissue, but more recently has been implemented for designing mobile robotics. With an increase in the demand for devices to perform in fragile and confined biological environments, it is crucial to develop new miniaturized, biocompatible 3D systems. Fabrication of materials at different scales with different properties makes 3D printing an ideal system for creating frameworks for small-scale robotics. 3D printing has been applied for the design of externally powered, artificial microswimmers and studying their locomotive capabilities in different fluids. Printed materials have also been incorporated with motile cells for bio-hybrid robots capable of functioning by cell contraction and swimming. These 3D devices offer new methods of robotic motility for biomedical applications requiring miniature structures. Traditional 3D printing methods, where a structure is fabricated in an additive process from a digital design, and non-traditional 3D printing methods, such as lithography and molding, will be discussed.

  11. Applications of three-dimensional (3D) printing for microswimmers and bio-hybrid robotics.

    PubMed

    Stanton, M M; Trichet-Paredes, C; Sánchez, S

    2015-04-01

    This article will focus on recent reports that have applied three-dimensional (3D) printing for designing millimeter to micrometer architecture for robotic motility. The utilization of 3D printing has rapidly grown in applications for medical prosthetics and scaffolds for organs and tissue, but more recently has been implemented for designing mobile robotics. With an increase in the demand for devices to perform in fragile and confined biological environments, it is crucial to develop new miniaturized, biocompatible 3D systems. Fabrication of materials at different scales with different properties makes 3D printing an ideal system for creating frameworks for small-scale robotics. 3D printing has been applied for the design of externally powered, artificial microswimmers and studying their locomotive capabilities in different fluids. Printed materials have also been incorporated with motile cells for bio-hybrid robots capable of functioning by cell contraction and swimming. These 3D devices offer new methods of robotic motility for biomedical applications requiring miniature structures. Traditional 3D printing methods, where a structure is fabricated in an additive process from a digital design, and non-traditional 3D printing methods, such as lithography and molding, will be discussed. PMID:25632887

  12. 3D graphene-based hybrid materials: synthesis and applications in energy storage and conversion.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qiurong; Cha, Younghwan; Song, Yang; Lee, Jung-In; Zhu, Chengzhou; Li, Xiaoyu; Song, Min-Kyu; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-08-25

    Porous 3D graphene-based hybrid materials (3D GBHMs) are currently attractive nanomaterials employed in the field of energy. Heteroatom-doped 3D graphene and metal, metal oxide, and polymer-decorated 3D graphene with modified electronic and atomic structures provide promising performance as electrode materials in energy storage and conversion. Numerous synthesis methods such as self-assembly, templating, electrochemical deposition, and supercritical CO2, pave the way to mass production of 3D GBHMs in the commercialization of energy devices. This review summarizes recent advances in the fabrication of 3D GBHMs with well-defined architectures such as finely controlled pore sizes, heteroatom doping types and levels. Moreover, current progress toward applications in fuel cells, supercapacitors and batteries employing 3D GBHMs is also highlighted, along with the detailed mechanisms of the enhanced electrochemical performance. Furthermore, current critical issues, challenges and future prospects with respect to applications of 3D GBHMs in practical devices are discussed at the end of this review. PMID:27531643

  13. Hybrid helical magnetic microrobots obtained by 3D template-assisted electrodeposition.

    PubMed

    Zeeshan, Muhammad A; Grisch, Roman; Pellicer, Eva; Sivaraman, Kartik M; Peyer, Kathrin E; Sort, Jordi; Özkale, Berna; Sakar, Mahmut S; Nelson, Bradley J; Pané, Salvador

    2014-04-01

    Hybrid helical magnetic microrobots are achieved by sequential electrodeposition of a CoNi alloy and PPy inside a photoresist template patterned by 3D laser lithography. A controlled actuation of the microrobots by a rotating magnetic field is demonstrated in a fluidic environment.

  14. A hybrid approach for addressing ring flexibility in 3D database searching.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, J

    1997-01-01

    A hybrid approach for flexible 3D database searching is presented that addresses the problem of ring flexibility. It combines the explicit storage of up to 25 multiple conformations of rings, with up to eight atoms, generated by the 3D structure generator CORINA with the power of a torsional fitting technique implemented in the 3D database system UNITY. A comparison with the original UNITY approach, using a database with about 130,000 entries and five different pharmacophore queries, was performed. The hybrid approach scored, on an average, 10-20% more hits than the reference run. Moreover, specific problems with unrealistic hit geometries produced by the original approach can be excluded. In addition, the influence of the maximum number of ring conformations per molecule was investigated. An optimal number of 10 conformations per molecule is recommended.

  15. Hybrid atlas-based and image-based approach for segmenting 3D brain MRIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, Gloria; Musse, Olivier; Heitz, Fabrice; Armspach, Jean-Paul

    2001-07-01

    This work is a contribution to the problem of localizing key cerebral structures in 3D MRIs and its quantitative evaluation. In pursuing it, the cooperation between an image-based segmentation method and a hierarchical deformable registration approach has been considered. The segmentation relies on two main processes: homotopy modification and contour decision. The first one is achieved by a marker extraction stage where homogeneous 3D regions of an image, I(s), from the data set are identified. These regions, M(I), are obtained combining information from deformable atlas, achieved by the warping of eight previous labeled maps on I(s). Then, the goal of the decision stage is to precisely locate the contours of the 3D regions set by the markers. This contour decision is performed by a 3D extension of the watershed transform. The anatomical structures taken into consideration and embedded into the atlas are brain, ventricles, corpus callosum, cerebellum, right and left hippocampus, medulla and midbrain. The hybrid method operates fully automatically and in 3D, successfully providing segmented brain structures. The quality of the segmentation has been studied in terms of the detected volume ratio by using kappa statistic and ROC analysis. Results of the method are shown and validated on a 3D MRI phantom. This study forms part of an on-going long term research aiming at the creation of a 3D probabilistic multi-purpose anatomical brain atlas.

  16. 3D high-density localization microscopy using hybrid astigmatic/ biplane imaging and sparse image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Min, Junhong; Holden, Seamus J; Carlini, Lina; Unser, Michael; Manley, Suliana; Ye, Jong Chul

    2014-11-01

    Localization microscopy achieves nanoscale spatial resolution by iterative localization of sparsely activated molecules, which generally leads to a long acquisition time. By implementing advanced algorithms to treat overlapping point spread functions (PSFs), imaging of densely activated molecules can improve the limited temporal resolution, as has been well demonstrated in two-dimensional imaging. However, three-dimensional (3D) localization of high-density data remains challenging since PSFs are far more similar along the axial dimension than the lateral dimensions. Here, we present a new, high-density 3D imaging system and algorithm. The hybrid system is implemented by combining astigmatic and biplane imaging. The proposed 3D reconstruction algorithm is extended from our state-of-the art 2D high-density localization algorithm. Using mutual coherence analysis of model PSFs, we validated that the hybrid system is more suitable than astigmatic or biplane imaging alone for 3D localization of high-density data. The efficacy of the proposed method was confirmed via simulation and real data of microtubules. Furthermore, we also successfully demonstrated fluorescent-protein-based live cell 3D localization microscopy with a temporal resolution of just 3 seconds, capturing fast dynamics of the endoplasmic recticulum.

  17. 2D-3D hybrid stabilized finite element method for tsunami runup simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takase, S.; Moriguchi, S.; Terada, K.; Kato, J.; Kyoya, T.; Kashiyama, K.; Kotani, T.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional (2D)-three-dimensional (3D) hybrid stabilized finite element method that enables us to predict a propagation process of tsunami generated in a hypocentral region, which ranges from offshore propagation to runup to urban areas, with high accuracy and relatively low computational costs. To be more specific, the 2D shallow water equation is employed to simulate the propagation of offshore waves, while the 3D Navier-Stokes equation is employed for the runup in urban areas. The stabilized finite element method is utilized for numerical simulations for both of the 2D and 3D domains that are independently discretized with unstructured meshes. The multi-point constraint and transmission methods are applied to satisfy the continuity of flow velocities and pressures at the interface between the resulting 2D and 3D meshes, since neither their spatial dimensions nor node arrangements are consistent. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed hybrid method to simulate tsunami behavior, including offshore propagation and runup to urban areas, with substantially lower computation costs in comparison with full 3D computations.

  18. Development of discrete gas kinetic scheme for simulation of 3D viscous incompressible and compressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L. M.; Shu, C.; Wang, Y.; Sun, Y.

    2016-08-01

    The sphere function-based gas kinetic scheme (GKS), which was presented by Shu and his coworkers [23] for simulation of inviscid compressible flows, is extended to simulate 3D viscous incompressible and compressible flows in this work. Firstly, we use certain discrete points to represent the spherical surface in the phase velocity space. Then, integrals along the spherical surface for conservation forms of moments, which are needed to recover 3D Navier-Stokes equations, are approximated by integral quadrature. The basic requirement is that these conservation forms of moments can be exactly satisfied by weighted summation of distribution functions at discrete points. It was found that the integral quadrature by eight discrete points on the spherical surface, which forms the D3Q8 discrete velocity model, can exactly match the integral. In this way, the conservative variables and numerical fluxes can be computed by weighted summation of distribution functions at eight discrete points. That is, the application of complicated formulations resultant from integrals can be replaced by a simple solution process. Several numerical examples including laminar flat plate boundary layer, 3D lid-driven cavity flow, steady flow through a 90° bending square duct, transonic flow around DPW-W1 wing and supersonic flow around NACA0012 airfoil are chosen to validate the proposed scheme. Numerical results demonstrate that the present scheme can provide reasonable numerical results for 3D viscous flows.

  19. 3D Kinetic Simulation of Plasma Jet Penetration in Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, Sergei A.; Bogatu, I. N.; Kim, J. S.

    2009-11-01

    A high velocity plasmoid penetration through a magnetic barrier is a problem of a great experimental and theoretical interest. Our LSP PIC code 3D fully kinetic numerical simulations of high density (10^16 cm-3) high velocity (30-140 km/sec) plasma jet/bullet, penetrating through the transversal magnetic field, demonstrate three different regimes: reflection by field, penetration by magnetic field expulsion and penetration by magnetic self-polarization. The behavior depends on plasma jet parameters and its composition: hydrogen, carbon (A=12) and C60-fullerene (A=720) plasmas were investigated. The 3D simulation of two plasmoid head-on injections along uniform magnetic field lines is analyzed. Mini rail plasma gun (accelerator) modeling is also presented and discussed.

  20. Enhanced hybrid search algorithm for protein structure prediction using the 3D-HP lattice model.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changjun; Hou, Caixia; Zhang, Qiang; Wei, Xiaopeng

    2013-09-01

    The problem of protein structure prediction in the hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice model is the prediction of protein tertiary structure. This problem is usually referred to as the protein folding problem. This paper presents a method for the application of an enhanced hybrid search algorithm to the problem of protein folding prediction, using the three dimensional (3D) HP lattice model. The enhanced hybrid search algorithm is a combination of the particle swarm optimizer (PSO) and tabu search (TS) algorithms. Since the PSO algorithm entraps local minimum in later evolution extremely easily, we combined PSO with the TS algorithm, which has properties of global optimization. Since the technologies of crossover and mutation are applied many times to PSO and TS algorithms, so enhanced hybrid search algorithm is called the MCMPSO-TS (multiple crossover and mutation PSO-TS) algorithm. Experimental results show that the MCMPSO-TS algorithm can find the best solutions so far for the listed benchmarks, which will help comparison with any future paper approach. Moreover, real protein sequences and Fibonacci sequences are verified in the 3D HP lattice model for the first time. Compared with the previous evolutionary algorithms, the new hybrid search algorithm is novel, and can be used effectively to predict 3D protein folding structure. With continuous development and changes in amino acids sequences, the new algorithm will also make a contribution to the study of new protein sequences. PMID:23824509

  1. Testing the hybrid-3D Hillslope Hydrological Model in a Real-World Controlled Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazenberg, P.; Broxton, P. D.; Gochis, D. J.; Niu, G. Y.; Pelletier, J. D.; Troch, P. A. A.; Zeng, X.

    2015-12-01

    Hillslopes play an important role for converting rainfall into runoff, and as such, influence theterrestrial dynamics of the Earth's climate system. Recently, we have developed a hybrid-3D (h3D) hillslope hydrological model that couples a 1D vertical soil column model with a lateral pseudo-2D saturated zone and overland flow model. The h3D model gives similar results as the CATchment HYdrological model (CATHY), which simulates the subsurface movement of water with the 3D Richards equation, though the runtime efficiency of the h3D model is about 2-3 orders of magnitude faster. In the current work, the ability of the h3D model to predict real-world hydrological dynamics is assessed using a number of recharge-drainage experiments within the Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO) at the Biosphere 2 near Tucson, Arizona, USA. LEO offers accurate and high-resolution (both temporally and spatially) observations of the inputs, outputs and storage dynamics of several hillslopes. The level of detail of these observations is generally not possible with real-world hillslope studies. Therefore, LEO offers an optimal environment to test the h3D model. The h3D model captures the observed storage, baseflow, and overland flow dynamics of both a larger and a smaller hillslope. Furthermore, it simulates overland flow better than CATHY. The h3D model has difficulties correctly representing the height of the saturated zone close to the seepage face of the smaller hillslope, though. There is a gravel layer near this seepage face, and the numerical boundary condition of the h3D model is insufficient to capture the hydrological dynamics within this region. In addition, the h3D model is used to test the hypothesis that model parameters change through time due to the migration of soil particles during the recharge-drainage experiments. An in depth calibration of the h3D model parameters reveals that the best results are obtained by applying an event-based optimization procedure as compared

  2. Simulation of 3-D Magnetic Reconnection by Gyrokinetic Electron and Fully Kinetic Ion Particle Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Lin, Y.; Chen, L.

    2015-12-01

    3-D collisionless magnetic reconnection is investigated using the gyrokinetic electron and fully-kinetic ion (GeFi) particle simulation model. The simulation is carried out for cases with various finite guide field BG in a current sheet as occurring in space and laboratory plasmas. Turbulence power spectrum of magenetic field is found in the reconnection current sheet, with a clear k-5/3 dependence. The wave properties are analyzed. The anomalous resistivity in the electron diffusion region is estimated. The Dependence of the reconnection physics on the ion-to-electron mass ratio mi/me, beta values, and the half-width of the current sheet are also investigated.

  3. Flight tests of a hybrid-centered integrated 3D perspective-view primary flight display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Gang; Feyereisen, Thea; Wilson, Blake; Wyatt, Sandy; Engels, Jary

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes flight tests of a Honeywell Synthetic Vision System (SVS) prototype operating in a hybrid-centered mode on a Primus Epic TM large format display. This novel hybrid mode effectively resolves some cognitive and perceptual human factors issues associated with traditional heading-up or track-up display modes. By integrating synthetic 3D perspective view with advanced Head-Up Display (HUD) symbology in this mode, the test results demonstrate that the hybrid display mode provides clear indications of current track and crab conditions, and is effective in overcoming flight guidance symbology collision and resultant ambiguity. The hybrid-centering SVS display concept is shown to be effective in all phases of flight and is particularly valuable during landing operations with a strong cross-wind. The recorded flight test data from Honeywell's prototype SVS concept at Reno, Nevada on board Honeywell Citation V aircraft will be discussed.

  4. Nanoscale Analysis of a Hierarchical Hybrid Solar Cell in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Divitini, Giorgio; Stenzel, Ole; Ghadirzadeh, Ali; Guarnera, Simone; Russo, Valeria; Casari, Carlo S; Bassi, Andrea Li; Petrozza, Annamaria; Di Fonzo, Fabio; Schmidt, Volker; Ducati, Caterina

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative method for the characterization of nanoscale 3D morphology is applied to the investigation of a hybrid solar cell based on a novel hierarchical nanostructured photoanode. A cross section of the solar cell device is prepared by focused ion beam milling in a micropillar geometry, which allows a detailed 3D reconstruction of the titania photoanode by electron tomography. It is found that the hierarchical titania nanostructure facilitates polymer infiltration, thus favoring intermixing of the two semiconducting phases, essential for charge separation. The 3D nanoparticle network is analyzed with tools from stochastic geometry to extract information related to the charge transport in the hierarchical solar cell. In particular, the experimental dataset allows direct visualization of the percolation pathways that contribute to the photocurrent. PMID:25834481

  5. Fluorescence in situ hybridization on 3D cultures of tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Meaburn, Karen J

    2010-01-01

    Genomes are spatially highly organized within interphase nuclei. Spatial genome organization is increasingly linked to genome function. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) allows the visualization of specific regions of the genome for spatial mapping. While most gene localization studies have been performed on cultured cells, genome organization is likely to be different in the context of tissues. Three-dimensional (3D) culture model systems provide a powerful tool to study the contribution of tissue organization to gene expression and organization. However, FISH on 3D cultures is technically more challenging than on monocultures. Here, we describe an optimized protocol for interphase DNA FISH on 3D cultures of the breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A.B2, which forms breast acini and can be used as a model for early breast cancer. PMID:20809324

  6. Interactive and Stereoscopic Hybrid 3D Viewer of Radar Data with Gesture Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goenetxea, Jon; Moreno, Aitor; Unzueta, Luis; Galdós, Andoni; Segura, Álvaro

    This work presents an interactive and stereoscopic 3D viewer of weather information coming from a Doppler radar. The hybrid system shows a GIS model of the regional zone where the radar is located and the corresponding reconstructed 3D volume weather data. To enhance the immersiveness of the navigation, stereoscopic visualization has been added to the viewer, using a polarized glasses based system. The user can interact with the 3D virtual world using a Nintendo Wiimote for navigating through it and a Nintendo Wii Nunchuk for giving commands by means of hand gestures. We also present a dynamic gesture recognition procedure that measures the temporal advance of the performed gesture postures. Experimental results show how dynamic gestures are effectively recognized so that a more natural interaction and immersive navigation in the virtual world is achieved.

  7. Fabrication of 3D high aspect ratio PDMS microfluidic networks with a hybrid stamp.

    PubMed

    Kung, Yu-Chun; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Fan, Yu-Jui; Chiou, Pei-Yu

    2015-04-21

    We report a novel methodology for fabricating large-area, multilayer, thin-film, high aspect ratio, 3D microfluidic structures with through-layer vias and open channels that can be bonded between hard substrates. It is realized by utilizing a hybrid stamp with a thin plastic sheet embedded underneath a PDMS surface. This hybrid stamp solves an important edge protrusion issue during PDMS molding while maintaining necessary stamp elasticity to ensure the removal of PDMS residues at through-layer regions. Removing edge protrusion is a significant progress toward fabricating 3D structures since high aspect ratio PDMS structures with flat interfaces can be realized to facilitate multilayer stacking and bonding to hard substrates. Our method also allows for the fabrication of 3D deformable channels, which can lead to profound applications in electrokinetics, optofluidics, inertial microfluidics, and other fields where the shape of the channel cross section plays a key role in device physics. To demonstrate, as an example, we have fabricated a microfluidic channel by sandwiching two 20 μm wide, 80 μm tall PDMS membranes between two featureless ITO glass substrates. By applying electrical bias to the two ITO substrates and pressure to deform the thin membrane sidewalls, strong electric field enhancement can be generated in the center of a channel to enable 3D sheathless dielectrophoretic focusing of biological objects including mammalian cells and bacteria at a flow speed up to 14 cm s(-1).

  8. Development of hybrid 3-D hydrological modeling for the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM)

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Xubin; Troch, Peter; Pelletier, Jon; Niu, Guo-Yue; Gochis, David

    2015-11-15

    This is the Final Report of our four-year (3-year plus one-year no cost extension) collaborative project between the University of Arizona (UA) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The overall objective of our project is to develop and evaluate the first hybrid 3-D hydrological model with a horizontal grid spacing of 1 km for the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM).

  9. Properties of lower-hybrid range wave activity at reconnection jet edge: 3D PIC simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divin, Andrey; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Vaivads, Andris; Andre, Mats; Lapenta, Giovanni; Markidis, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Reconnection fronts are areas of intense currents and enhanced wave activity, since magnetic flux and plasma are piled up there when the accelerated flow encounters denser ambient current sheet. Observations and numerical simulations show that the fronts generate a variety of waves ranging from MHD frequencies up to lower hybrid frequency and above. In the present study we use 2D and 3D Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations to investigate the properties of the lower hybrid range waves developing at hot reconnected plasma - current sheet interface. Calculations are performed using implicit parallel code iPIC3D starting from conventional Harris current sheet. Initial evolution of the jet is simulated using 2D approach to save computational time, but 3D calculations are implemented at later stages in order to observe instability linear stage, saturation and transition to turbulence. Properties of the linear stage match closely theoretical predictions for the lower hybrid drift instability. During saturation, the mode produces intense electric fields (several Alfvén in electric fields normalized unit) that can provide an additional mechanism of electron heating at reconnection jet fronts.

  10. Study of the internal magnetic field of Mercury through 3D hybrid simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclercq, Ludivine; Marcel Chanteur, Gerard; Modolo, Ronan; Leblanc, Francois; Schmidt, Carl; Langlais, Benoît; Thebault, Erwan

    2016-10-01

    In 1974, Mariner 10 discovered the intrinsic magnetic field of Mercury which interacts with the solar wind, leading to the formation of a magnetosphere. In spite of the recent MESSENGER observations, this magnetosphere remains quite unknown, especially in the Southern hemisphere. In order to improve our understanding of the Hermean magnetosphere, and to prepare the Bepi-Colombo mission (ESA/JAXA), we simulated the magnetized environment of Mercury using the model named LatHyS (LATMOS Hybrid Simulation). LatHyS is a 3D parallel multi-species hybrid code which has been applied to Mars, Titan and Ganymede, which has recently be improved by the implementation of a multi-grid method allowing to refine the spatial resolution near the planetary object (40 km in the case of Mercury). In order to investigate the Hermean environment, several hybrid simulations have been performed considering different internal field models, and results are compared with MESSENGER observations.

  11. Hybrid C-nanotubes/Si 3D nanostructures by one-step growth in a dual-plasma reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toschi, Francesco; Orlanducci, Silvia; Guglielmotti, Valeria; Cianchetta, Ilaria; Magni, Corrado; Terranova, Maria Letizia; Pasquali, Matteo; Tamburri, Emanuela; Matassa, Roberto; Rossi, Marco

    2012-06-01

    Hybrid nanostructures consisting of Si polycrystalline nanocones, with an anemone-like termination coated with C-nanotubes bundles, have been generated on a (1 0 0) Si substrate in a dual mode microwave/radio-frequency plasma reactor. The substrate is both heated and bombarded by energetic H ions during the synthesis process. The nanocones growth is explained considering pull of the growing Si nanocrystalline phase along the lines of the electrical field, likely via a molten/recrystallization mechanism. The one-step building of the achieved complex 3D architectures is described in terms of dynamic competition between Si and C nanotubes growth under the peculiar conditions of kinetically driven processes.

  12. Optimization of a Hybrid Magnetic Bearing for a Magnetically Levitated Blood Pump via 3-D FEA

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shanbao; Olles, Mark W.; Burger, Aaron F.; Day, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of a magnetically levitated (maglev) axial flow blood pump, three-dimensional (3-D) finite element analysis (FEA) was used to optimize the design of a hybrid magnetic bearing (HMB). Radial, axial, and current stiffness of multiple design variations of the HMB were calculated using a 3-D FEA package and verified by experimental results. As compared with the original design, the optimized HMB had twice the axial stiffness with the resulting increase of negative radial stiffness partially compensated for by increased current stiffness. Accordingly, the performance of the maglev axial flow blood pump with the optimized HMBs was improved: the maximum pump speed was increased from 6000 rpm to 9000 rpm (50%). The radial, axial and current stiffness of the HMB was found to be linear at nominal operational position from both 3-D FEA and empirical measurements. Stiffness values determined by FEA and empirical measurements agreed well with one another. The magnetic flux density distribution and flux loop of the HMB were also visualized via 3-D FEA which confirms the designers’ initial assumption about the function of this HMB. PMID:22065892

  13. Billion-atom synchronous parallel kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of critical 3D Ising systems

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, E.; Monasterio, P.R.; Marian, J.

    2011-02-20

    An extension of the synchronous parallel kinetic Monte Carlo (spkMC) algorithm developed by Martinez et al. [J. Comp. Phys. 227 (2008) 3804] to discrete lattices is presented. The method solves the master equation synchronously by recourse to null events that keep all processors' time clocks current in a global sense. Boundary conflicts are resolved by adopting a chessboard decomposition into non-interacting sublattices. We find that the bias introduced by the spatial correlations attendant to the sublattice decomposition is within the standard deviation of serial calculations, which confirms the statistical validity of our algorithm. We have analyzed the parallel efficiency of spkMC and find that it scales consistently with problem size and sublattice partition. We apply the method to the calculation of scale-dependent critical exponents in billion-atom 3D Ising systems, with very good agreement with state-of-the-art multispin simulations.

  14. Secondary reconnection, energisation and turbulence in dipolarisation fronts: results of a 3D kinetic simulation campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapenta, Giovanni; Goldman, Martin; Newman, David; olshevskyi, Vyacheslav; Markidis, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Dipolarization fronts (DF) are formed by reconnection outflows interacting with the pre-existing environment. These regions are host of important energy exchanges [1], particle acceleration [2] and a complex structure and evolution [3]. Our recent work has investigated these regions via fully kinetic 3D simulations [4]. As reported recently on Nature Physics [3], based on 3D fully kinetic simulations started with a well defined x-line, we observe that in the DF reconnection transitions towards a more chaotic regime. In the fronts an instability devel- ops caused by the local gradients of the density and by the unfavourable acceleration and field line curvature. The consequence is the break up of the fronts in a fashion similar to the classical fluid Rayleigh-Taylor instability with the formation of "fingers" of plasma and embedded magnetic fields. These fingers interact and produce secondary reconnection sites. We present several different diagnostics that prove the existence of these secondary reconnection sites. Each site is surrounded by its own electron diffusion region. At the fronts the ions are generally not magnetized and considerable ion slippage is present. The discovery we present is that electrons are also slipping, forming localized diffusion regions near secondary reconnection sites [1]. The consequence of this discovery is twofold. First, the instability in the fronts has strong energetic implications. We observe that the energy transfer locally is very strong, an order of magnitude stronger than in the "X" line. However, this energy transfer is of both signs as it is natural for a wavy rippling with regions of magnetic to kinetic and regions of kinetic to magnetic energy conversion. Second, and most important for this session, is that MMS should not limit the search for electron diffusion regions to the location marked with X in all reconnection cartoons. Our simulations predict more numerous and perhaps more easily measurable electron diffusion

  15. Hybrid Three-Dimensional (3-D) Woven Thick Composite Architectures in Bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankow, Mark; Quabili, Ashiq; Yen, Chian-Fong

    2013-11-01

    In this study, three 3-dimensional (3-D) woven composite materials were examined to determine how yarn tow configurations affect the flexural response of the structure. Woven fabric preforms were manufactured with a Z-fiber architecture in 2-3 in. thicknesses. These preforms contained S-2 Glass (AGY, Aiken, SC, USA), carbon, and Twaron (Teijin Aramid, Arnhem, The Netherlands) yarns in different architectures creating a hybrid material system. Due to the thickness of the material, these samples required a significant span length (30 in.). The results showed a change in the strength and degradation after failure with the addition of carbon layers in tension.

  16. Optical design of wavelength selective CPVT system with 3D/2D hybrid concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, N.; Ijiro, T.; Yamada, N.; Kawaguchi, T.; Maemura, T.; Ohashi, H.

    2012-10-01

    Optical design of a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal (CPVT) system is carried out. Using wavelength-selective optics, the system demonstrates 3-D concentration onto a solar cell and 2-D concentration onto a thermal receiver. Characteristics of the two types of concentrator systems are examined with ray-tracing analysis. The first system is a glazed mirror-based concentrator system mounted on a 2-axis pedestal tracker. The size of the secondary optical element is minimized to decrease the cost of the system, and it has a wavelength-selective function for performing 3-D concentration onto a solar cell and 2-D concentration onto a thermal receiver. The second system is a non-glazed beamdown concentrator system containing parabolic mirrors in the lower part. The beam-down selective mirror performs 3-D concentration onto a solar cell placed above the beam-down selective mirror, and 2-D concentration down to a thermal receiver placed at the bottom level. The system is mounted on a two-axis carousel tracker. A parametric study is performed for those systems with different geometrical 2-D/3-D concentration ratios. Wavelength-selective optics such as hot/cold mirrors and spectrum-splitting technologies are taken into account in the analysis. Results show reduced heat load on the solar cell and increased total system efficiency compared to a non-selective CPV system. Requirements for the wavelength-selective properties are elucidated. It is also shown that the hybrid concept with 2-D concentration onto a thermal receiver and 3-D concentration onto a solar cell has an advantageous geometry because of the high total system efficiency and compatibility with the piping arrangement of the thermal receiver.

  17. Testing the hybrid-3-D hillslope hydrological model in a controlled environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazenberg, P.; Broxton, P.; Gochis, D.; Niu, G.-Y.; Pangle, L. A.; Pelletier, J. D.; Troch, P. A.; Zeng, X.

    2016-02-01

    Hillslopes are important for converting rainfall into runoff, influencing the terrestrial dynamics of the Earth's climate system. Recently, we developed a hybrid-3-D (h3D) hillslope hydrological model that gives similar results as a full 3-D hydrological model but is up to 2-3 orders of magnitude faster computationally. Here h3D is assessed using a number of recharge-drainage experiments within the Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO) with accurate and high-resolution (both temporally and spatially) observations of the inputs, outputs, and storage dynamics of several hillslopes. Such detailed measurements are generally not available for real-world hillslopes. Results show that the h3D model captures the observed storage, base flow, and overland flow dynamics of both the larger LEO and the smaller miniLEO hillslopes very well. Sensitivity tests are also performed to understand h3Ds difficulty in representing the height of the saturated zone close to the seepage face of the miniLEO hillslope. Results reveal that a temporally constant parameters set is able to simulate the response of the miniLEO for each individual event. However, when one focuses on the saturated zone dynamics at 0.15 m from the seepage face, a stepwise evolution of the optimal model parameter for the saturated lateral conductivity parameter of the gravel layer occurs. This evolution might be related to the migration of soil particles within the hillslope. However, it is currently unclear whether and where this takes place (in the seepage face or within the parts of the loamy sand soil).

  18. Finite Gyroradius Effects in the Plasma Environment Near Titan: 3D Hybrid Modeling of the T5 Encounter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, D. G.; Lipatov, A. S.; Sittler, E. C.; Cooper, J. F.; Hartle, R. E.; Sarantos, M.

    2012-12-01

    In this report we discuss the results of a 3D hybrid modeling of the interaction between Saturn's magnetosphere and Titan's atmosphere/ionosphere for the T5 encounter. The T5 flyby is the only encounter when the two main ionizing sources of Titan's atmosphere, solar radiation and corotating plasma, align quasi-anti-parallel. The model is based on recent analysis of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) and the Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements during the T5 flyby through Titan's ram-side and polar ionosphere [1,2]. Magnetic field data was used from the MAG instrument [3]. In our model the background ions (O+, H+), all pickup ions, and ionospheric ions are considered as a particles, whereas the electrons are described as a fluid (see e.g. [4]). Inhomogeneous photoionization (in the dayside ionosphere), electron-impact ionization, and charge exchange are included in our model. The temperature of the background electrons and pickup electrons was also incorporated into the generalized Ohm's law. We also take into account collisions between ions and neutrals. In our hybrid simulations we use Chamberlain profiles for the exosphere's components. The moon is considered as a weakly conducting body. The first results of our hybrid modeling show a strong asymmetry in the background (H+, O+) and pickup (H2+, N2+, CH4+) ion density profiles. Such strong asymmetry cannot be explained by a single-fluid multi-species 3D MHD model [5], which includes complex chemistry but does not produce finite gyroradius and kinetic effects. References [1] Sittler, et al., Energy Deposition Processes in Titan's Atmosphere and Its Induced Magnetosphere. In: Titan from Cassini-Huygens, Brown, R.H., Lebreton, J.P., Waite, J.H., Eds., Springer, (Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London, New York), pp. 393-455, 2010. [2] Agren, K., et al., On magnetosphere electron impact ionization and dynamics in Titan's ram-side and polar ionosphere -- a Cassini case study, Ann. Geophys., 25, 2359

  19. The Use of Atomic Force Microscopy for 3D Analysis of Nucleic Acid Hybridization on Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Dubrovin, E. V.; Presnova, G. V.; Rubtsova, M. Yu.; Egorov, A. M.; Grigorenko, V. G.; Yaminsky, I. V.

    2015-01-01

    Oligonucleotide microarrays are considered today to be one of the most efficient methods of gene diagnostics. The capability of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to characterize the three-dimensional morphology of single molecules on a surface allows one to use it as an effective tool for the 3D analysis of a microarray for the detection of nucleic acids. The high resolution of AFM offers ways to decrease the detection threshold of target DNA and increase the signal-to-noise ratio. In this work, we suggest an approach to the evaluation of the results of hybridization of gold nanoparticle-labeled nucleic acids on silicon microarrays based on an AFM analysis of the surface both in air and in liquid which takes into account of their three-dimensional structure. We suggest a quantitative measure of the hybridization results which is based on the fraction of the surface area occupied by the nanoparticles. PMID:26085952

  20. Initial Results From the 3D Hybrid Heliospheric Modeling System With Pickup Protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detman, T. R.; Intriligator, D.; Dryer, M.; Sun, W.; Deehr, C.; Intriligator, J.

    2008-12-01

    Interstellar neutral hydrogen flows into the heliosphere and becomes ionized by photoionization and by charge exchange with solar wind protons. These "pickup" protons cause a slowing and heating of the solar wind flow in the outer heliosphere. We are adding the physics of these processes to our time-dependent 3D Hybrid Heliospheric Modeling System. We plan to present initial results for the "Halloween" 2003 events, and to show comparisons with both ACE and Ulysses observations and with our previous results (without pickup protons). This work is sponsored by NASA Grant NNX08AE40G and by Carmel Research Center. Detman et al., 2006, A hybrid heliospheric modeling system: Background solar wind, J. Geophys. Res., V 111, doi:10.1029/2005JA011340

  1. Localizing Protein in 3D Neural Stem Cell Culture: a Hybrid Visualization Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Fai, Stephen; Bennett, Steffany A.L.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of 3-dimensional (3D) topography in influencing neural stem and progenitor cell (NPC) phenotype is widely acknowledged yet challenging to study. When dissociated from embryonic or post-natal brain, single NPCs will proliferate in suspension to form neurospheres. Daughter cells within these cultures spontaneously adopt distinct developmental lineages (neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes) over the course of expansion despite being exposed to the same extracellular milieu. This progression recapitulates many of the stages observed over the course of neurogenesis and gliogenesis in post-natal brain and is often used to study basic NPC biology within a controlled environment. Assessing the full impact of 3D topography and cellular positioning within these cultures on NPC fate is, however, difficult. To localize target proteins and identify NPC lineages by immunocytochemistry, free-floating neurospheres must be plated on a substrate or serially sectioned. This processing is required to ensure equivalent cell permeabilization and antibody access throughout the sphere. As a result, 2D epifluorescent images of cryosections or confocal reconstructions of 3D Z-stacks can only provide spatial information about cell position within discrete physical or digital 3D slices and do not visualize cellular position in the intact sphere. Here, to reiterate the topography of the neurosphere culture and permit spatial analysis of protein expression throughout the entire culture, we present a protocol for isolation, expansion, and serial sectioning of post-natal hippocampal neurospheres suitable for epifluorescent or confocal immunodetection of target proteins. Connexin29 (Cx29) is analyzed as an example. Next, using a hybrid of graphic editing and 3D modelling softwares rigorously applied to maintain biological detail, we describe how to re-assemble the 3D structural positioning of these images and digitally map labelled cells within the complete neurosphere. This

  2. An innovative hybrid 3D analytic-numerical model for air breathing parallel channel counter-flow PEM fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Tavčar, Gregor; Katrašnik, Tomaž

    2014-01-01

    The parallel straight channel PEM fuel cell model presented in this paper extends the innovative hybrid 3D analytic-numerical (HAN) approach previously published by the authors with capabilities to address ternary diffusion systems and counter-flow configurations. The model's core principle is modelling species transport by obtaining a 2D analytic solution for species concentration distribution in the plane perpendicular to the cannel gas-flow and coupling consecutive 2D solutions by means of a 1D numerical pipe-flow model. Electrochemical and other nonlinear phenomena are coupled to the species transport by a routine that uses derivative approximation with prediction-iteration. The latter is also the core of the counter-flow computation algorithm. A HAN model of a laboratory test fuel cell is presented and evaluated against a professional 3D CFD simulation tool showing very good agreement between results of the presented model and those of the CFD simulation. Furthermore, high accuracy results are achieved at moderate computational times, which is owed to the semi-analytic nature and to the efficient computational coupling of electrochemical kinetics and species transport.

  3. An innovative hybrid 3D analytic-numerical model for air breathing parallel channel counter-flow PEM fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Tavčar, Gregor; Katrašnik, Tomaž

    2014-01-01

    The parallel straight channel PEM fuel cell model presented in this paper extends the innovative hybrid 3D analytic-numerical (HAN) approach previously published by the authors with capabilities to address ternary diffusion systems and counter-flow configurations. The model's core principle is modelling species transport by obtaining a 2D analytic solution for species concentration distribution in the plane perpendicular to the cannel gas-flow and coupling consecutive 2D solutions by means of a 1D numerical pipe-flow model. Electrochemical and other nonlinear phenomena are coupled to the species transport by a routine that uses derivative approximation with prediction-iteration. The latter is also the core of the counter-flow computation algorithm. A HAN model of a laboratory test fuel cell is presented and evaluated against a professional 3D CFD simulation tool showing very good agreement between results of the presented model and those of the CFD simulation. Furthermore, high accuracy results are achieved at moderate computational times, which is owed to the semi-analytic nature and to the efficient computational coupling of electrochemical kinetics and species transport. PMID:25125112

  4. 3-D Full-kinetic Simulations of the Solar Wind Interaction with Lunar Magnetic Anomalies: Particle Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deca, J.; Divin, A. V.; Wang, X.; Lembege, B.; Markidis, S.; Lapenta, G.; Horanyi, M.

    2015-12-01

    We present three-dimensional full-kinetic electromagnetic simulations of the solar wind interaction with lunar crustal magnetic anomalies (LMAs). Using the implicit particle-in-cell code iPic3D, we confirm that LMAs may indeed be strong enough to stand off the solar wind from directly impacting the lunar surface forming a mini-magnetosphere, as suggested by spacecraft observations and theory. In contrast to earlier MHD and hybrid simulations, the full-kinetic nature of iPic3D allows to self-consistently investigate space charge effects, and in particular the electron dynamics dominating the near-surface lunar plasma environment. We describe the general mechanism of the interaction of both a horizontal and vertical dipole model embedded just below the lunar surface focussing on the ion and electron kinetic behaviour of the system. It is shown that the configurations are largely dominated by electron motion, because the LMA scale size is small with respect to the gyro-radius of the solar wind ions. The formation of mini-magnetospheres is an electrostatic effect. Additionally, we discuss typical particle trajectories as well as complete particle distribution functions covering thermal and suprathermal energies, within the interaction region and on viable spacecraft altitudes. Our work opens new frontiers of research toward a deeper understanding of LMAs and is ideally suited to be compared with field or particle observations from spacecraft such as Kaguya (SELENE), Lunar Prospector or ARTEMIS. The ability to evaluate the implications for future lunar exploration as well as lunar science in general hinges on a better understanding of LMAs.This research has received funding from the European Commission's FP7 Program with the grant agreement EHEROES (project 284461, www.eheroes.eu). The simulations were conducted on the computational resources provided by the PRACE Tier-0 project 2013091928 (SuperMUC). This research was supported by the Swedish National Space Board

  5. Implementation of 3D wave forcing terms in the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ody, Cédric; Filipot, Jean-François; Pichon, Annick; Lathuilière, Cyril; Baraille, Rémy

    2013-04-01

    Waves may influence the circulation in coastal regions at temporal and spatial scales that are larger than the periods and wavelengths of the waves respectively. The setup of the mean sea surface level or longshore currents are two examples of coastal processes that are generated by the mean effects of waves. Although simple models have been shown to provide reasonable estimates of setup and mean currents, the prediction of such wave-induced mechanisms has been improved since the recent development of theories on 3D wave-current interactions. Amongst these theories, the works of Ardhuin et al. (2008) and Mc Williams et al. (2004) give rise to forcing terms that may be used in existing circulation models. Under some assumptions on the shear of the mean current, the two previous works derive similar expressions for the wave forcing terms. In this talk, we will detail and discuss the implementation of these 3D terms in the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM, Bleck 2002). We will focus in particular on the hybrid and layered features of the code. The hybrid coordinate, which allows to use distinct vertical coordinates in a same simulation, requires to reformulate the wave forcing terms with a generalised vertical coordinate. Then, these terms must be averaged on each layer of the water column. Two academic tests are investigated to validate the numerical implementation : the gently sloping bottom of Ardhuin (2008) and the plane beach of Haas and Warner (2009). Forcing terms are calculated with simple numerical methods under classical assumptions on conservation of wave properties. The results obtained with distinct configurations are shown to agree with the analytical or numerical known solutions. To conclude, we will discuss the impact of wetting and drying in numerical simulations.

  6. Connecting Global Measures of 3D Magnetic Reconnection to Local Kinetic Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Daughton, William Scott

    2015-07-16

    After giving the motivation for the work, slides present the topic under the following headings: Description of LAPD experiment; Actual simulation setup; Simple kinetic theory of ined-tied tearing; Diagnostics to characterizing 3D reconnection; Example #1 - short-tied system; and Example #2 - long line-tied system. Colorful simulations are shown for quasipotential vs field line exponentiation, field line integrated Ohms Law, and correlation with agyrotopy & energy conversion for example #1; and evolution of current density for largest case, field exponentiation vs quasi-potential, and time evolution of magnetic field lines for example #2. To satisfy line-tied boundary conditions, there is need for superposition of oblique modes--the simple two-mode approximation works surprisingly well. For force-free layers with bg >1, the fastest growing periodic modes are oblique with kxλ ~0.5. This implies a minimum length of Ly > 2πλbg. There are strong correlations between σ → Ξ → A0e (observable with spacecraft). Electron pressure tensor is the dominant non-ideal term.

  7. 3D analysis of bainite morphologies and kinetics in alloy steels

    SciTech Connect

    Hackenberg, R. E.; Nordstrom, D. P.; Shiflet, G. J.

    2002-01-01

    Serial sectioning and 3D reconstruction of austenite decomposition products were undertaken in bay-forming ternary steels to better understand their true morphologies in the bay region of their TTT diagrams. Jagged growth interfaces are revealed in allotriomorphic bainite formed at the bay in Fe-0.24C-4M0, contrasting with the idealized geometries often assumed when formulating growth models. This also has implications for experimental thickening kinetics measurments. Examination of the so-called 'degenerate' ferrite formed below the bay in Fe-Ox-6.3 W reveals that it is not degenerate at all, but rather has a Widmanstatten rod morphology which gives the appearance of degeneracy due to the multiplicity of ways that they can intersect a randomly-oriented plane of polish. Furthermore, these rods are grouped in packets posessing a common elongation direction, highlighting the crystallographic nature of their formation. The impact of these findings on the understanding of austenite decomposition in bayforming steels will be discussed.

  8. 3D networked graphene-ferromagnetic hybrids for fast shape memory polymers with enhanced mechanical stiffness and thermal conductivity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Heon; Jung, Jung-Hwan; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2014-10-15

    A novel 3D networked graphene-ferromagnetic hybrid can be easily fabricated using one-step microwave irradiation. By incorporating this hybrid material into shape memory polymers, the synergistic effects of fast speed and the enhancement of thermal conductivity and mechanical stiffness can be achieved. This can be broadly applicable to designing magneto-responsive shape memory polymers for multifunction applications.

  9. QUASI-OPTICAL 3-dB HYBRID FOR FUTURE HIGH-ENERGY ACCELERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2005-12-15

    Phase-controlled wave combiners-commutators and isolators for protecting rf sources against reflection from the accelerating structure can be built using a 3-dB hybrid built around a metallic grating used in a ''magic-Y'' configuration. Models of the magic-Y were designed and tested, both at 34.272 GHz using the Omega-P Ka-band magnicon, and at 11.424 GHz using the Omega-P/NRL X-band magnicon. All elements of the magic-Y were optimized analytically and numerically. A non-vacuum 34 GHz model of the magic Y was built and tested experimentally at a low power. An engineering design for the high power (vacuum) compressor was configured. Similar steps were taken for the 11-GHz version.

  10. Variational formulation of hybrid problems for fully 3-D transonic flow with shocks in rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Gao-Lian

    1991-01-01

    Based on previous research, the unified variable domain variational theory of hybrid problems for rotor flow is extended to fully 3-D transonic rotor flow with shocks, unifying and generalizing the direct and inverse problems. Three variational principles (VP) families were established. All unknown boundaries and flow discontinuities (such as shocks, free trailing vortex sheets) are successfully handled via functional variations with variable domain, converting almost all boundary and interface conditions, including the Rankine Hugoniot shock relations, into natural ones. This theory provides a series of novel ways for blade design or modification and a rigorous theoretical basis for finite element applications and also constitutes an important part of the optimal design theory of rotor bladings. Numerical solutions to subsonic flow by finite elements with self-adapting nodes given in Refs., show good agreement with experimental results.

  11. ASICs in nanometer and 3D technologies for readout of hybrid pixel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maj, Piotr; Grybos, Pawel; Kmon, Piotr; Szczygiel, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors working in a single photon counting mode are very attractive solutions for material science and medical X-ray imaging applications. Readout electronics of these detectors has to match the geometry of pixel detectors with an area of readout channel of 100 μm × 100 μm (or even less) and very small power consumption (a few tens of μW). New solutions of readout ASICs are going into directions of better spatial resolutions, higher data throughput and more advanced functionality. We report on the design and measurement results of two pixel prototype ASICs in nanometer technology and 3D technology which offer fast signal processing, low noise performance and advanced functionality per single readout pixel cell.

  12. 3D Ag/ZnO hybrids for sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chenyue; Xu, Chunxiang; Lu, Junfeng; Li, Zhaohui; Tian, Zhengshan

    2016-03-01

    To combine the surface plasma resonance of metal and local field enhancement in metal/semiconductor interface, Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were assembled on a ZnO nanorod array which was grown by hydrothermally on carbon fibers. The construction of dimensional (3D) Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) substrate is used for the sensitive detection of organic pollutants with the advantages such as facile synthesis, short detection time and low cost. The hybrid substrate was manifested a high sensitivity to phenol red at a lower concentration of 1 × 10-9 M and a higher enhancement factor of 3.18 × 109. Moreover, the ZnO nanostructures decorated with Ag NPs were demonstrated self-cleaning function under UV irradiation via photocatalytic degradation of the analytic molecules. The fabrication process of the materials and sensors, optimization of the SERS behaviors for different sized Ag NPs, the mechanism of SERS and recovery were presented with a detailed discussion.

  13. Analysis of hybrid dielectric-plasmonic slot waveguide structures with 3D Fourier Modal Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ctyroky, J.; Kwiecien, P.; Richter, I.

    2013-03-01

    Recently, plasmonic waveguides have been intensively studied as promising basic building blocks for the construction of extremely compact photonic devices with subwavelength characteristic dimensions. A number of different types of plasmonic waveguide structures have been recently proposed, theoretically analyzed, and their properties experimentally verified. The fundamental trade-off in the design of plasmonic waveguides for potential application in information technologies lies in the contradiction between their mode field confinement and propagation loss: the higher confinement, the higher loss, and vice versa. Various definitions of figures of merit of plasmonic waveguides have been also introduced for the characterization of their properties with a single quantity. In this contribution, we theoretically analyze one specific type of a plasmonic waveguide - the hybrid dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide, or - as we call it in this paper - the hybrid dielectric-plasmonic slot waveguide, which exhibits very strong field confinement combined with acceptable losses allowing their application in some integrated plasmonic devices. In contrast to the structures analyzed previously, our structure makes use of a single low-index dielectric only. We first define the effective area of this waveguide type, and using waveguide parameters close to the optimum we analyze several waveguide devices as directional couplers, multimode interference couplers (MMI), and the Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on the MMI couplers. For the full-vector 3D analysis of these structures, we use modelling tools developed in-house on the basis of the Fourier Modal Method (FMM). Our results thus serve to a dual purpose: they confirm that (i) these structures represent promising building blocks of plasmonic devices, and (ii) our FMM codes are capable of efficient 3D vector modelling of plasmonic waveguide devices.

  14. Single-Particle Cryo-EM and 3D Reconstruction of Hybrid Nanoparticles with Electron-Dense Components.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guimei; Yan, Rui; Zhang, Chuan; Mao, Chengde; Jiang, Wen

    2015-10-01

    Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), accompanied with 3D reconstruction, is a broadly applicable tool for the structural characterization of macromolecules and nanoparticles. Recently, the cryo-EM field has pushed the limits of this technique to higher resolutions and samples of smaller molecular mass, however, some samples still present hurdles to this technique. Hybrid particles with electron-dense components, which have been studied using single-particle cryo-EM yet with limited success in 3D reconstruction due to the interference caused by electron-dense elements, constitute one group of such challenging samples. To process such hybrid particles, a masking method is developed in this work to adaptively remove pixels arising from electron-dense portions in individual projection images while maintaining maximal biomass signals for subsequent 2D alignment, 3D reconstruction, and iterative refinements. As demonstrated by the success in 3D reconstruction of an octahedron DNA/gold hybrid particle, which has been previously published without a 3D reconstruction, the devised strategy that combines adaptive masking and standard single-particle 3D reconstruction approach has overcome the hurdle of electron-dense elements interference, and is generally applicable to cryo-EM structural characterization of most, if not all, hybrid nanomaterials with electron-dense components.

  15. Fully Kinetic 3D Simulations of the Interaction of the Solar Wind with Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaya, J.; Deca, J.; Lembege, B.; Lapenta, G.

    2015-12-01

    The planet Mercury has been studied by the space mission Mariner 10, in the 1970's, and by the MESSENGER mission launched in 2004. Interest in the first planet of the Solar System has now been renewed by the launch in 2017 of the BepiColombo mission. MESSENGER and BepiColombo give access to information about the local conditions of the magnetosphere of Mercury. This data must be evaluated in the context of the global interaction between the solar wind and the planet's magnetosphere. Global scale simulations of the planet's environment are necessary to fully understand the data gathered from in-situ measurements. We use three-dimensional simulations to support the scientific goals of the two missions. In contrast with the results based on MHD (Kabin et al., 2000) and hybrid codes (Kallio et Janhumen, 2003; Travnicek et al., 2007, 2010; Richer et al., 2012), the present work is based on the implicit moment Particle-in-Cell (PiC) method, which allows to use large time and space steps, while granting access to the dynamics of the smaller electron scales in the plasma. The purpose of these preliminary PIC simulations is to retrieve the top-level features of Mercury's magnetosphere and its frontiers. We compare the results obtained with the implicit moment PiC method against 3D hybrid simulations. We perform simulations of the global plasma environment of Mercury using the solar wind conditions measured by MESSENGER. We show that complex flows form around the planet, including the development of Kelvin-Helmoltz instabilities at the flanks. We evaluate the dynamics of the shock, magnetosheath, magnetopause, the reconnection areas, the formation of plasma sheet and magnetotail, and the variation of ion/electron plasma flows when crossing these frontiers. The simulations also give access to detailed information about the particle dynamics and their velocity distribution at locations that can be used for comparison with data from MESSENGER and later on with the forthcoming

  16. Earthscape, a Multi-Purpose Interactive 3d Globe Viewer for Hybrid Data Visualization and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarthou, A.; Mas, S.; Jacquin, M.; Moreno, N.; Salamon, A.

    2015-08-01

    The hybrid visualization and interaction tool EarthScape is presented here. The software is able to display simultaneously LiDAR point clouds, draped videos with moving footprint, volume scientific data (using volume rendering, isosurface and slice plane), raster data such as still satellite images, vector data and 3D models such as buildings or vehicles. The application runs on touch screen devices such as tablets. The software is based on open source libraries, such as OpenSceneGraph, osgEarth and OpenCV, and shader programming is used to implement volume rendering of scientific data. The next goal of EarthScape is to perform data analysis using ENVI Services Engine, a cloud data analysis solution. EarthScape is also designed to be a client of Jagwire which provides multisource geo-referenced video fluxes. When all these components will be included, EarthScape will be a multi-purpose platform that will provide at the same time data analysis, hybrid visualization and complex interactions. The software is available on demand for free at france@exelisvis.com.

  17. A hybrid method for the computation of quasi-3D seismograms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Yder; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    The development of powerful computer clusters and efficient numerical computation methods, such as the Spectral Element Method (SEM) made possible the computation of seismic wave propagation in a heterogeneous 3D earth. However, the cost of theses computations is still problematic for global scale tomography that requires hundreds of such simulations. Part of the ongoing research effort is dedicated to the development of faster modeling methods based on the spectral element method. Capdeville et al. (2002) proposed to couple SEM simulations with normal modes calculation (C-SEM). Nissen-Meyer et al. (2007) used 2D SEM simulations to compute 3D seismograms in a 1D earth model. Thanks to these developments, and for the first time, Lekic et al. (2011) developed a 3D global model of the upper mantle using SEM simulations. At the local and continental scale, adjoint tomography that is using a lot of SEM simulation can be implemented on current computers (Tape, Liu et al. 2009). Due to their smaller size, these models offer higher resolution. They provide us with images of the crust and the upper part of the mantle. In an attempt to teleport such local adjoint tomographic inversions into the deep earth, we are developing a hybrid method where SEM computation are limited to a region of interest within the earth. That region can have an arbitrary shape and size. Outside this region, the seismic wavefield is extrapolated to obtain synthetic data at the Earth's surface. A key feature of the method is the use of a time reversal mirror to inject the wavefield induced by distant seismic source into the region of interest (Robertsson and Chapman 2000). We compute synthetic seismograms as follow: Inside the region of interest, we are using regional spectral element software RegSEM to compute wave propagation in 3D. Outside this region, the wavefield is extrapolated to the surface by convolution with the Green's functions from the mirror to the seismic stations. For now, these

  18. 3D Higher Order Modeling in the BEM/FEM Hybrid Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, P. W.; Wilton, D. R.

    2000-01-01

    Higher order divergence- and curl-conforming bases have been shown to provide significant benefits, in both convergence rate and accuracy, in the 2D hybrid finite element/boundary element formulation (P. Fink and D. Wilton, National Radio Science Meeting, Boulder, CO, Jan. 2000). A critical issue in achieving the potential for accuracy of the approach is the accurate evaluation of all matrix elements. These involve products of high order polynomials and, in some instances, singular Green's functions. In the 2D formulation, the use of a generalized Gaussian quadrature method was found to greatly facilitate the computation and to improve the accuracy of the boundary integral equation self-terms. In this paper, a 3D, hybrid electric field formulation employing higher order bases and higher order elements is presented. The improvements in convergence rate and accuracy, compared to those resulting from lower order modeling, are established. Techniques developed to facilitate the computation of the boundary integral self-terms are also shown to improve the accuracy of these terms. Finally, simple preconditioning techniques are used in conjunction with iterative solution procedures to solve the resulting linear system efficiently. In order to handle the boundary integral singularities in the 3D formulation, the parent element- either a triangle or rectangle-is subdivided into a set of sub-triangles with a common vertex at the singularity. The contribution to the integral from each of the sub-triangles is computed using the Duffy transformation to remove the singularity. This method is shown to greatly facilitate t'pe self-term computation when the bases are of higher order. In addition, the sub-triangles can be further divided to achieve near arbitrary accuracy in the self-term computation. An efficient method for subdividing the parent element is presented. The accuracy obtained using higher order bases is compared to that obtained using lower order bases when the number

  19. Global Effects of the Interplanetary Shock Propagation through the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere: 3D Hybrid Kinetic ModelingA.S. Lipatov {1}, D.G. Sibeck {2}{1} GPHI UMBC/NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA {2} NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Sibeck, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    We use a new hybrid kinetic model to simulate the response of ring current, outer radiation belt, and plasmasphere particle populations to impulsive interplanetary shocks. Since particle distributions attending the interplanetary shock waves and in the ring current and radiation belts are non-Maxwellian, wave-particle interactions play a crucial role in energy transport within the inner magnetosphere. Finite gyroradius effects become important in mass loading the shock waves with the background plasma in the presence of higher energy ring current and radiation belt ions and electrons. Initial results show that the shock causes strong deformations in the global structure of the ring current, radiation belt, and plasmasphere. The ion velocity distribution functions at the shock front, in the ring current, and in the radiation belt help us to determine energy transport through the Earth's inner magnetosphere. We compare our predictions with THEMIS and Van Allen Probes spacecraft observations.

  20. Development of hybrid 3-D hydrological modeling for the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM)

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Xubin; Troch, Peter; Pelletier, Jon; Niu, Guo-Yue; Gochis, David

    2015-11-15

    This is the Final Report of our four-year (3-year plus one-year no cost extension) collaborative project between the University of Arizona (UA) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The overall objective of our project is to develop and evaluate the first hybrid 3-D hydrological model with a horizontal grid spacing of 1 km for the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM). We have made substantial progress in model development and evaluation, computational efficiencies and software engineering, and data development and evaluation, as discussed in Sections 2-4. Section 5 presents our success in data dissemination, while Section 6 discusses the scientific impacts of our work. Section 7 discusses education and mentoring success of our project, while Section 8 lists our relevant DOE services. All peer-reviewed papers that acknowledged this project are listed in Section 9. Highlights of our achievements include: • We have finished 20 papers (most published already) on model development and evaluation, computational efficiencies and software engineering, and data development and evaluation • The global datasets developed under this project have been permanently archived and publicly available • Some of our research results have already been implemented in WRF and CLM • Patrick Broxton and Michael Brunke have received their Ph.D. • PI Zeng has served on DOE proposal review panels and DOE lab scientific focus area (SFA) review panels

  1. Tissue in Cube: In Vitro 3D Culturing Platform with Hybrid Gel Cubes for Multidirectional Observations.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Masaya; Kawahara, Tomohiro; Nobata, Rina

    2016-07-01

    An in vitro 3D culturing platform enabling multidirectional observations of 3D biosamples is presented. The 3D structure of biosamples can be recognized without fluorescence. The cubic platform employs two types of hydrogels that are compatible with conventional culture dishes or well plates, facilitating growth in culture, ease of handling, and viewing at multiple angles. PMID:27128576

  2. Tissue in Cube: In Vitro 3D Culturing Platform with Hybrid Gel Cubes for Multidirectional Observations.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Masaya; Kawahara, Tomohiro; Nobata, Rina

    2016-07-01

    An in vitro 3D culturing platform enabling multidirectional observations of 3D biosamples is presented. The 3D structure of biosamples can be recognized without fluorescence. The cubic platform employs two types of hydrogels that are compatible with conventional culture dishes or well plates, facilitating growth in culture, ease of handling, and viewing at multiple angles.

  3. Phosphonate-functionalized large pore 3-D cubic mesoporous (KIT-6) hybrid as highly efficient actinide extracting agent.

    PubMed

    Lebed, Pablo J; de Souza, Kellen; Bilodeau, François; Larivière, Dominic; Kleitz, Freddy

    2011-11-01

    A new type of radionuclide extraction material is reported based on phosphonate functionalities covalently anchored on the mesopore surface of 3-D cubic mesoporous silica (KIT-6). The easily prepared nanoporous hybrid shows largely superior performance in selective sorption of uranium and thorium as compared to the U/TEVA commercial resin and 2-D hexagonal SBA-15 equivalent.

  4. Two-photon polymerization of 3-D zirconium oxide hybrid scaffolds for long-term stem cell growth.

    PubMed

    Skoog, Shelby A; Nguyen, Alexander K; Kumar, Girish; Zheng, Jiwen; Goering, Peter L; Koroleva, Anastasia; Chichkov, Boris N; Narayan, Roger J

    2014-06-01

    Two-photon polymerization is a technique that involves simultaneous absorption of two photons from a femtosecond laser for selective polymerization of a photosensitive material. In this study, two-photon polymerization was used for layer-by-layer fabrication of 3-D scaffolds composed of an inorganic-organic zirconium oxide hybrid material. Four types of scaffold microarchitectures were created, which exhibit layers of parallel line features at various orientations as well as pores between the line features. Long-term cell culture studies involving human bone marrow stromal cells were conducted using these 3-D scaffolds. Cellular adhesion and proliferation were demonstrated on all of the scaffold types; tissuelike structure was shown to span the pores. This study indicates that two-photon polymerization may be used to create microstructured scaffolds out of an inorganic-organic zirconium oxide hybrid material for use in 3-D tissue culture systems.

  5. Ultra-fast hybrid CPU-GPU multiple scatter simulation for 3-D PET.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Sang; Son, Young Don; Cho, Zang Hee; Ra, Jong Beom; Ye, Jong Chul

    2014-01-01

    Scatter correction is very important in 3-D PET reconstruction due to a large scatter contribution in measurements. Currently, one of the most popular methods is the so-called single scatter simulation (SSS), which considers single Compton scattering contributions from many randomly distributed scatter points. The SSS enables a fast calculation of scattering with a relatively high accuracy; however, the accuracy of SSS is dependent on the accuracy of tail fitting to find a correct scaling factor, which is often difficult in low photon count measurements. To overcome this drawback as well as to improve accuracy of scatter estimation by incorporating multiple scattering contribution, we propose a multiple scatter simulation (MSS) based on a simplified Monte Carlo (MC) simulation that considers photon migration and interactions due to photoelectric absorption and Compton scattering. Unlike the SSS, the MSS calculates a scaling factor by comparing simulated prompt data with the measured data in the whole volume, which enables a more robust estimation of a scaling factor. Even though the proposed MSS is based on MC, a significant acceleration of the computational time is possible by using a virtual detector array with a larger pitch by exploiting that the scatter distribution varies slowly in spatial domain. Furthermore, our MSS implementation is nicely fit to a parallel implementation using graphic processor unit (GPU). In particular, we exploit a hybrid CPU-GPU technique using the open multiprocessing and the compute unified device architecture, which results in 128.3 times faster than using a single CPU. Overall, the computational time of MSS is 9.4 s for a high-resolution research tomograph (HRRT) system. The performance of the proposed MSS is validated through actual experiments using an HRRT.

  6. 3D hybrid-porous carbon derived from carbonization of metal organic frameworks for high performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Weizhai; Mondal, Anjon Kumar; Xu, Jing; Wang, Chengyin; Su, Dawei; Wang, Guoxiu

    2016-09-01

    We report a rational design and synthesis of 3D hybrid-porous carbon with a hierarchical pore architecture for high performance supercapacitors. It contains micropores (<2 nm diameter) and mesopores (2-4 nm), derived from carbonization of unique porous metal organic frameworks (MOFs). Owning to the synergistic effect of micropores and mesopores, the hybrid-porous carbon has exceptionally high ion-accessible surface area and low ion diffusion resistance, which is desired for supercapacitor applications. When applied as electrode materials in supercapacitors, 3D hybrid-porous carbon demonstrates a specific capacitance of 332 F g-1 at a constant charge/discharge current of 500 mA g-1. The supercapacitors can endure more than 10,000 cycles without degradation of capacitance.

  7. Hybridization kinetics and thermodynamics of molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Tsourkas, Andrew; Behlke, Mark A; Rose, Scott D; Bao, Gang

    2003-02-15

    Molecular beacons are increasingly being used in many applications involving nucleic acid detection and quantification. The stem-loop structure of molecular beacons provides a competing reaction for probe-target hybridization that serves to increase probe specificity, which is particularly useful when single-base discrimination is desired. To fully realize the potential of molecular beacons, it is necessary to optimize their structure. Here we report a systematic study of the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters that describe the molecular beacon structure-function relationship. Both probe and stem lengths are shown to have a significant impact on the binding specificity and hybridization kinetic rates of molecular beacons. Specifically, molecular beacons with longer stem lengths have an improved ability to discriminate between targets over a broader range of temperatures. However, this is accompanied by a decrease in the rate of molecular beacon-target hybridization. Molecular beacons with longer probe lengths tend to have lower dissociation constants, increased kinetic rate constants, and decreased specificity. Molecular beacons with very short stems have a lower signal-to-background ratio than molecular beacons with longer stems. These features have significant implications for the design of molecular beacons for various applications.

  8. Kinetic depth effect and optic flow--I. 3D shape from Fourier motion.

    PubMed

    Dosher, B A; Landy, M S; Sperling, G

    1989-01-01

    Fifty-three different 3D shapes were defined by sequences of 2D views (frames) of dots on a rotating 3D surface. (1) Subjects' accuracy of shape identifications dropped from over 90% to less than 10% when either the polarity of the stimulus dots was alternated from light-on-gray to dark-on-gray on successive frames or when neutral gray interframe intervals were interposed. Both manipulations interfere with motion extraction by spatio-temporal (Fourier) and gradient first-order detectors. Second-order (non-Fourier) detectors that use full-wave rectification are unaffected by alternating-polarity but disrupted by interposed gray frames. (2) To equate the accuracy of two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) planar direction-of-motion discrimination in standard and polarity-alternated stimuli, standard contrast was reduced. 3D shape discrimination survived contrast reduction in standard stimuli whereas it failed completely with polarity-alternation even at full contrast. (3) When individual dots were permitted to remain in the image sequence for only two frames, performance showed little loss compared to standard displays where individual dots had an expected lifetime of 20 frames, showing that 3D shape identification does not require continuity of stimulus tokens. (4) Performance in all discrimination tasks is predicted (up to a monotone transformation) by considering the quality of first-order information (as given by a simple computation on Fourier power) and the number of locations at which motion information is required. Perceptual first-order analysis of optic flow is the primary substrate for structure-from-motion computations in random dot displays because only it offers sufficient quality of perceptual motion at a sufficient number of locations.

  9. 3D Tissue Culturing: Tissue in Cube: In Vitro 3D Culturing Platform with Hybrid Gel Cubes for Multidirectional Observations (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 13/2016).

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Masaya; Kawahara, Tomohiro; Nobata, Rina

    2016-07-01

    An in vitro 3D culturing platform enabling multidirectional observations of 3D biosamples is presented by M. Hagiwara and co-workers on page 1566. 3D recognition of a sample structure can be achieved by facilitating multi-directional views using a standard microscope without a laser system. The cubic platform has the potential to promote 3D culture studies, offering easy handling and compatibility with commercial culture plates at a low price tag. PMID:27384934

  10. 3D Tissue Culturing: Tissue in Cube: In Vitro 3D Culturing Platform with Hybrid Gel Cubes for Multidirectional Observations (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 13/2016).

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Masaya; Kawahara, Tomohiro; Nobata, Rina

    2016-07-01

    An in vitro 3D culturing platform enabling multidirectional observations of 3D biosamples is presented by M. Hagiwara and co-workers on page 1566. 3D recognition of a sample structure can be achieved by facilitating multi-directional views using a standard microscope without a laser system. The cubic platform has the potential to promote 3D culture studies, offering easy handling and compatibility with commercial culture plates at a low price tag.

  11. Plane shear flows of frictionless spheres: Kinetic theory and 3D soft-sphere discrete element method simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Vescovi, D.; Berzi, D.; Richard, P.

    2014-05-15

    We use existing 3D Discrete Element simulations of simple shear flows of spheres to evaluate the radial distribution function at contact that enables kinetic theory to correctly predict the pressure and the shear stress, for different values of the collisional coefficient of restitution. Then, we perform 3D Discrete Element simulations of plane flows of frictionless, inelastic spheres, sheared between walls made bumpy by gluing particles in a regular array, at fixed average volume fraction and distance between the walls. The results of the numerical simulations are used to derive boundary conditions appropriated in the cases of large and small bumpiness. Those boundary conditions are, then, employed to numerically integrate the differential equations of Extended Kinetic Theory, where the breaking of the molecular chaos assumption at volume fraction larger than 0.49 is taken into account in the expression of the dissipation rate. We show that the Extended Kinetic Theory is in very good agreement with the numerical simulations, even for coefficients of restitution as low as 0.50. When the bumpiness is increased, we observe that some of the flowing particles are stuck in the gaps between the wall spheres. As a consequence, the walls are more dissipative than expected, and the flows resemble simple shear flows, i.e., flows of rather constant volume fraction and granular temperature.

  12. 3D hybrid simulations of the interaction of a magnetic cloud with a bow shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turc, L.; Fontaine, D.; Savoini, P.; Modolo, R.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the interaction of a magnetic cloud (MC) with a planetary bow shock using hybrid simulations. It is the first time to our knowledge that this interaction is studied using kinetic simulations which include self-consistently both the ion foreshock and the shock wave dynamics. We show that when the shock is in a quasi-perpendicular configuration, the MC's magnetic structure in the magnetosheath remains similar to that in the solar wind, whereas it is strongly altered downstream of a quasi-parallel shock. The latter can result in a reversal of the magnetic field north-south component in some parts of the magnetosheath. We also investigate how the MC affects in turn the outer parts of the planetary environment, i.e., from the foreshock to the magnetopause. We find the following: (i) The decrease of the Alfvén Mach number at the MC's arrival causes an attenuation of the foreshock region because of the weakening of the bow shock. (ii) The foreshock moves along the bow shock's surface, following the rotation of the MC's magnetic field. (iii) Owing to the low plasma beta, asymmetric flows arise inside the magnetosheath, due to the magnetic tension force which accelerates the particles in some parts of the magnetosheath and slows them down in others. (iv) The quasi-parallel region forms a depression in the shock's surface. Other deformations of the magnetopause and the bow shock are also highlighted. All these effects can contribute to significantly modify the solar wind/magnetosphere coupling during MC events.

  13. Fabrication of chitosan-silver nanoparticle hybrid 3D porous structure as a SERS substrate for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Gyeong-Bok; Kim, Ji-Hye; Burm, Jin Sik; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2013-05-01

    We propose a simple, low-cost, large-area, and functional surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate for biomedical applications. The SERS substrate with chitosan-silver nanoparticles (chitosan-Ag NPs) hybrid 3D porous structure was fabricated simply by a one-step method. The chitosan was used as a template for the Ag NPs deposition. SERS enhancement by the chitosan-Ag NPs substrate was experimentally verified using rhodamine B as an analyte. Thiolated single stranded DNA was also measured for atopic dermatitis genetic markers (chemokines CCL17) at a low concentration of 5 pM. We successfully designed a novel SERS substrate with silver nanoparticle hybridized 3D porous chitosan that has the potential to become a highly sensitive and selective tool for biomedical applications.

  14. Robust 2D/3D registration for fast-flexion motion of the knee joint using hybrid optimization.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Takashi; Suzuki, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Naomoto, Shinji; Sukegawa, Tomoyuki; Nawata, Atsushi; Haneishi, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we proposed a 2D/3D registration method that uses Powell's algorithm to obtain 3D motion of a knee joint by 3D computed-tomography and bi-plane fluoroscopic images. The 2D/3D registration is performed consecutively and automatically for each frame of the fluoroscopic images. This method starts from the optimum parameters of the previous frame for each frame except for the first one, and it searches for the next set of optimum parameters using Powell's algorithm. However, if the flexion motion of the knee joint is fast, it is likely that Powell's algorithm will provide a mismatch because the initial parameters are far from the correct ones. In this study, we applied a hybrid optimization algorithm (HPS) combining Powell's algorithm with the Nelder-Mead simplex (NM-simplex) algorithm to overcome this problem. The performance of the HPS was compared with the separate performances of Powell's algorithm and the NM-simplex algorithm, the Quasi-Newton algorithm and hybrid optimization algorithm with the Quasi-Newton and NM-simplex algorithms with five patient data sets in terms of the root-mean-square error (RMSE), target registration error (TRE), success rate, and processing time. The RMSE, TRE, and the success rate of the HPS were better than those of the other optimization algorithms, and the processing time was similar to that of Powell's algorithm alone.

  15. Kinetic inductance driven nanoscale 2D and 3D THz transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, S. Hossein; Williamson, Ian A. D.; Wang, Zheng

    2016-05-01

    We examine the unusual dispersion and attenuation of transverse electromagnetic waves in the few-THz regime on nanoscale graphene and copper transmission lines. Conventionally, such propagation has been considered to be highly dispersive, due to the RC time constant-driven voltage diffusion below 1 THz and plasmonic effects at higher optical frequencies. Our numerical modeling across the microwave, THz, and optical frequency ranges reveals that the conductor kinetic inductance creates an ultra-broadband linear-dispersion and constant-attenuation region in the THz regime. This so-called LC region is an ideal characteristic that is known to be absent in macro-scale transmission lines. The kinetic-LC frequency range is dictated by the structural dimensionality and the free-carrier scattering rate of the conductor material. Moreover, up to 40x wavelength reduction is observed in graphene transmission lines.

  16. Kinetic inductance driven nanoscale 2D and 3D THz transmission lines

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, S. Hossein; Williamson, Ian A. D.; Wang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    We examine the unusual dispersion and attenuation of transverse electromagnetic waves in the few-THz regime on nanoscale graphene and copper transmission lines. Conventionally, such propagation has been considered to be highly dispersive, due to the RC time constant-driven voltage diffusion below 1 THz and plasmonic effects at higher optical frequencies. Our numerical modeling across the microwave, THz, and optical frequency ranges reveals that the conductor kinetic inductance creates an ultra-broadband linear-dispersion and constant-attenuation region in the THz regime. This so-called LC region is an ideal characteristic that is known to be absent in macro-scale transmission lines. The kinetic-LC frequency range is dictated by the structural dimensionality and the free-carrier scattering rate of the conductor material. Moreover, up to 40x wavelength reduction is observed in graphene transmission lines. PMID:27137628

  17. Kinetic inductance driven nanoscale 2D and 3D THz transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, S Hossein; Williamson, Ian A D; Wang, Zheng

    2016-05-03

    We examine the unusual dispersion and attenuation of transverse electromagnetic waves in the few-THz regime on nanoscale graphene and copper transmission lines. Conventionally, such propagation has been considered to be highly dispersive, due to the RC time constant-driven voltage diffusion below 1 THz and plasmonic effects at higher optical frequencies. Our numerical modeling across the microwave, THz, and optical frequency ranges reveals that the conductor kinetic inductance creates an ultra-broadband linear-dispersion and constant-attenuation region in the THz regime. This so-called LC region is an ideal characteristic that is known to be absent in macro-scale transmission lines. The kinetic-LC frequency range is dictated by the structural dimensionality and the free-carrier scattering rate of the conductor material. Moreover, up to 40x wavelength reduction is observed in graphene transmission lines.

  18. Kinetic inductance driven nanoscale 2D and 3D THz transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, S Hossein; Williamson, Ian A D; Wang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    We examine the unusual dispersion and attenuation of transverse electromagnetic waves in the few-THz regime on nanoscale graphene and copper transmission lines. Conventionally, such propagation has been considered to be highly dispersive, due to the RC time constant-driven voltage diffusion below 1 THz and plasmonic effects at higher optical frequencies. Our numerical modeling across the microwave, THz, and optical frequency ranges reveals that the conductor kinetic inductance creates an ultra-broadband linear-dispersion and constant-attenuation region in the THz regime. This so-called LC region is an ideal characteristic that is known to be absent in macro-scale transmission lines. The kinetic-LC frequency range is dictated by the structural dimensionality and the free-carrier scattering rate of the conductor material. Moreover, up to 40x wavelength reduction is observed in graphene transmission lines. PMID:27137628

  19. 3-D kinetics simulations of the NRU reactor using the DONJON code

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, T. C.; Atfield, M. D.; Koclas, J.

    2006-07-01

    The NRU reactor is highly heterogeneous, heavy-water cooled and moderated, with online refuelling capability. It is licensed to operate at a maximum power of 135 MW, with a peak thermal flux of approximately 4.0 x 10{sup 18} n.m{sup -2} . s{sup -1}. In support of the safe operation of NRU, three-dimensional kinetics calculations for reactor transients have been performed using the DONJON code. The code was initially designed to perform space-time kinetics calculations for the CANDU{sup R} power reactors. This paper describes how the DONJON code can be applied to perform neutronic simulations for the analysis of reactor transients in NRU, and presents calculation results for some transients. (authors)

  20. A kinetic model for subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Milner, J J; Cecchini, E; Dominy, P J

    1995-01-01

    Nucleic acid sequences that differ in abundance between two populations (target sequences) can be cloned by multiple rounds of subtractive hybridization and amplification by PCR. These sequences can be cDNAs representing up-regulated mRNAs, or genomic DNAs from deletion mutants. We have derived an equation that describes the recovery of such sequences, and have used this to simulate the outcome of up to 10 rounds of subtractive hybridization and PCR amplification. When the model was tested by comparing its predictions with the published results from genomic and cDNA subtractions, the predictions of the model were generally in good agreement with the published data. We have modelled the outcomes of genomic subtractions, for a variety of genomes, and have used it to compare various strategies for enriching targets. The model predicts that for genomes of less than 5 x 10(8) bp, deletions of as small as 1 kbp should represent > 99% of the DNA after three to six rounds of hybridization (depending on the enrichment procedure). As genomes increase in size, the kinetics of hybridization become an important limiting factor. However, even for genomes as large as 3 x 10(9) bp, it should be possible to isolate deletions of 5 kbp using the appropriate conditions. These simulations suggest that such methods offer a realistic alternative to chromosome walking for identifying genomic deletions for which there are known phenotypes, thereby considerably reducing time and effort. For cDNA subtractive hybridization, the model predicts that after six rounds of hybridization, sequences that do not differ in abundance between the tester and driver populations (the background) will represent < 1% of the subtracted population, and even quite modestly upregulated cDNAs should be successfully enriched. Where several up-regulated cDNAs are present, the predicted final representation is dependent on both the initial abundance and the degree of up-regulation. PMID:7870584

  1. A Hybrid Antenna Array Design for 3-D Direction of Arrival Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Saqib, Najam-Us; Khan, Imdad

    2015-01-01

    A 3-D beam scanning antenna array design is proposed that gives a whole 3-D spherical coverage and also suitable for various radar and body-worn devices in the Body Area Networks applications. The Array Factor (AF) of the proposed antenna is derived and its various parameters like directivity, Half Power Beam Width (HPBW) and Side Lobe Level (SLL) are calculated by varying the size of the proposed antenna array. Simulations were carried out in MATLAB 2012b. The radiators are considered isotropic and hence mutual coupling effects are ignored. The proposed array shows a considerable improvement against the existing cylindrical and coaxial cylindrical arrays in terms of 3-D scanning, size, directivity, HPBW and SLL. PMID:25790103

  2. A hybrid antenna array design for 3-d direction of arrival estimation.

    PubMed

    Saqib, Najam-Us; Khan, Imdad

    2015-01-01

    A 3-D beam scanning antenna array design is proposed that gives a whole 3-D spherical coverage and also suitable for various radar and body-worn devices in the Body Area Networks applications. The Array Factor (AF) of the proposed antenna is derived and its various parameters like directivity, Half Power Beam Width (HPBW) and Side Lobe Level (SLL) are calculated by varying the size of the proposed antenna array. Simulations were carried out in MATLAB 2012b. The radiators are considered isotropic and hence mutual coupling effects are ignored. The proposed array shows a considerable improvement against the existing cylindrical and coaxial cylindrical arrays in terms of 3-D scanning, size, directivity, HPBW and SLL.

  3. Code System for 2-Group, 3D Neutronic Kinetics Calculations Coupled to Core Thermal Hydraulics.

    2000-05-12

    Version 00 QUARK is a combined computer program comprising a revised version of the QUANDRY three-dimensional, two-group neutron kinetics code and an upgraded version of the COBRA transient core analysis code (COBRA-EN). Starting from either a critical steady-state (k-effective or critical dilute Boron problem) or a subcritical steady-state (fixed source problem) in a PWR plant, the code allows one to simulate the neutronic and thermal-hydraulic core transient response to reactivity accidents initiated both inside themore » vessel (such as a control rod ejection) and outside the vessel (such as the sudden change of the Boron concentration in the coolant). QUARK output can be used as input to PSR-470/NORMA-FP to perform a subchannel analysis from converged coarse-mesh nodal solutions.« less

  4. Strontium eluting graphene hybrid nanoparticles augment osteogenesis in a 3D tissue scaffold.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sachin; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this work was to prepare hybrid nanoparticles of graphene sheets decorated with strontium metallic nanoparticles and demonstrate their advantages in bone tissue engineering. Strontium-decorated reduced graphene oxide (RGO_Sr) hybrid nanoparticles were synthesized by the facile reduction of graphene oxide and strontium nitrate. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy revealed that the hybrid particles were composed of RGO sheets decorated with 200-300 nm metallic strontium particles. Thermal gravimetric analysis further confirmed the composition of the hybrid particles as 22 wt% of strontium. Macroporous tissue scaffolds were prepared by incorporating RGO_Sr particles in poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). The PCL/RGO_Sr scaffolds were found to elute strontium ions in aqueous medium. Osteoblast proliferation and differentiation was significantly higher in the PCL scaffolds containing the RGO_Sr particles in contrast to neat PCL and PCL/RGO scaffolds. The increased biological activity can be attributed to the release of strontium ions from the hybrid nanoparticles. This study demonstrates that composites prepared using hybrid nanoparticles that elute strontium ions can be used to prepare multifunctional scaffolds with good mechanical and osteoinductive properties. These findings have important implications for designing the next generation of biomaterials for use in tissue regeneration. PMID:25553731

  5. Strontium eluting graphene hybrid nanoparticles augment osteogenesis in a 3D tissue scaffold.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sachin; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this work was to prepare hybrid nanoparticles of graphene sheets decorated with strontium metallic nanoparticles and demonstrate their advantages in bone tissue engineering. Strontium-decorated reduced graphene oxide (RGO_Sr) hybrid nanoparticles were synthesized by the facile reduction of graphene oxide and strontium nitrate. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy revealed that the hybrid particles were composed of RGO sheets decorated with 200-300 nm metallic strontium particles. Thermal gravimetric analysis further confirmed the composition of the hybrid particles as 22 wt% of strontium. Macroporous tissue scaffolds were prepared by incorporating RGO_Sr particles in poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). The PCL/RGO_Sr scaffolds were found to elute strontium ions in aqueous medium. Osteoblast proliferation and differentiation was significantly higher in the PCL scaffolds containing the RGO_Sr particles in contrast to neat PCL and PCL/RGO scaffolds. The increased biological activity can be attributed to the release of strontium ions from the hybrid nanoparticles. This study demonstrates that composites prepared using hybrid nanoparticles that elute strontium ions can be used to prepare multifunctional scaffolds with good mechanical and osteoinductive properties. These findings have important implications for designing the next generation of biomaterials for use in tissue regeneration.

  6. Dynamic mineral clouds on HD 189733b. I. 3D RHD with kinetic, non-equilibrium cloud formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, G.; Dobbs-Dixon, I.; Helling, Ch.; Bognar, K.; Woitke, P.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Observations of exoplanet atmospheres have revealed the presence of cloud particles in their atmospheres. 3D modelling of cloud formation in atmospheres of extrasolar planets coupled to the atmospheric dynamics has long been a challenge. Aims: We investigate the thermo-hydrodynamic properties of cloud formation processes in the atmospheres of hot Jupiter exoplanets. Methods: We simulate the dynamic atmosphere of HD 189733b with a 3D model that couples 3D radiative-hydrodynamics with a kinetic, microphysical mineral cloud formation module designed for RHD/GCM exoplanet atmosphere simulations. Our simulation includes the feedback effects of cloud advection and settling, gas phase element advection and depletion/replenishment and the radiative effects of cloud opacity. We model the cloud particles as a mix of mineral materials which change in size and composition as they travel through atmospheric thermo-chemical environments. All local cloud properties such as number density, grain size and material composition are time-dependently calculated. Gas phase element depletion as a result of cloud formation is included in the model. In situ effective medium theory and Mie theory is applied to calculate the wavelength dependent opacity of the cloud component. Results: We present a 3D cloud structure of a chemically complex, gaseous atmosphere of the hot Jupiter HD 189733b. Mean cloud particle sizes are typically sub-micron (0.01-0.5 μm) at pressures less than 1 bar with hotter equatorial regions containing the smallest grains. Denser cloud structures occur near terminator regions and deeper (~1 bar) atmospheric layers. Silicate materials such as MgSiO3[s] are found to be abundant at mid-high latitudes, while TiO2[s] and SiO2[s] dominate the equatorial regions. Elements involved in the cloud formation can be depleted by several orders of magnitude. Conclusions: The interplay between radiative-hydrodynamics and cloud kinetics leads to an inhomogeneous, wavelength

  7. 3D printing of high-resolution PLA-based structures by hybrid electrohydrodynamic and fused deposition modeling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Seong, Baekhoon; Nguyen, VuDat; Byun, Doyoung

    2016-02-01

    Recently, the three-dimensional (3D) printing technique has received much attention for shape forming and manufacturing. The fused deposition modeling (FDM) printer is one of the various 3D printers available and has become widely used due to its simplicity, low-cost, and easy operation. However, the FDM technique has a limitation whereby its patterning resolution is too low at around 200 μm. In this paper, we first present a hybrid mechanism of electrohydrodynamic jet printing with the FDM technique, which we name E-FDM. We then develop a novel high-resolution 3D printer based on the E-FDM process. To determine the optimal condition for structuring, we also investigated the effect of several printing parameters, such as temperature, applied voltage, working height, printing speed, flow-rate, and acceleration on the patterning results. This method was capable of fabricating both high resolution 2D and 3D structures with the use of polylactic acid (PLA). PLA has been used to fabricate scaffold structures for tissue engineering, which has different hierarchical structure sizes. The fabrication speed was up to 40 mm/s and the pattern resolution could be improved to 10 μm.

  8. A hybrid experimental-numerical technique for determining 3D velocity fields from planar 2D PIV data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, A.; Sigurdson, M.; Mezić, I.; Meinhart, C. D.

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge of 3D, three component velocity fields is central to the understanding and development of effective microfluidic devices for lab-on-chip mixing applications. In this paper we present a hybrid experimental-numerical method for the generation of 3D flow information from 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV) experimental data and finite element simulations of an alternating current electrothermal (ACET) micromixer. A numerical least-squares optimization algorithm is applied to a theory-based 3D multiphysics simulation in conjunction with 2D PIV data to generate an improved estimation of the steady state velocity field. This 3D velocity field can be used to assess mixing phenomena more accurately than would be possible through simulation alone. Our technique can also be used to estimate uncertain quantities in experimental situations by fitting the gathered field data to a simulated physical model. The optimization algorithm reduced the root-mean-squared difference between the experimental and simulated velocity fields in the target region by more than a factor of 4, resulting in an average error less than 12% of the average velocity magnitude.

  9. Ship-in-a-bottle integration by hybrid femtosecond laser technology for fabrication of true 3D biochips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sima, Felix; Wu, Dong; Xu, Jian; Midorikawa, Katsumi; Sugioka, Koji

    2015-03-01

    We propose herein the "ship-in-a-bottle" integration of three-dimensional (3D) polymeric sinusoidal ridges inside photosensitive glass microfluidic channel by a hybrid subtractive - additive femtosecond laser processing method. It consists of Femtosecond Laser Assisted Wet Etching (FLAE) of a photosensitive Foturan glass followed by Two-Photon Polymerization (TPP) of a SU-8 negative epoxy-resin. Both subtractive and additive processes are carried out using the same set-up with the change of laser focusing objective only. A 522 nm wavelength of the second harmonic generation from an amplified femtosecond Yb-fiber laser (FCPA µJewel D-400, IMRA America, 1045 nm; pulse width 360 fs, repetition rate 200 kHz) was employed for irradiation. The new method allows lowering the size limit of 3D objects created inside channels to smaller details down to the dimensions of a cell, and improve the structure stability. Sinusoidal periodic patterns and ridges are of great use as base scaffolds for building up new structures on their top or for modulating cell migration, guidance and orientation while created interspaces can be exploited for microfluidic applications. The glass microchannel offers robustness and appropriate dynamic flow conditions for cellular studies while the integrated patterns are reducing the size of structure to the level of cells responsiveness. Taking advantage of the ability to directly fabricate 3D complex shapes, both glass channels and polymeric integrated patterns enable us to 3D spatially design biochips for specific applications.

  10. Novel fabrication technique of hybrid structure lens array for 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Junsik; Kim, Junoh; Kim, Cheoljoong; Shin, Dooseub; Koo, Gyohyun; Won, Yong Hyub

    2016-03-01

    Tunable liquid lens arrays can produce three dimensional images by using electrowetting principle that alters surface tensions by applying voltage. This method has advantages of fast response time and low power consumption. However, it is challenging to fabricate a high fill factor liquid lens array and operate three dimensional images which demand high diopter. This study describes a hybrid structure lens array which has not only a liquid lens array but a solid lens array. A concave-shape lens array is unavoidable when using only the liquid lens array and some voltages are needed to make the lens flat. By placing the solid lens array on the liquid lens array, initial diopter can be positive. To fabricate the hybrid structure lens array, a conventional lithographic process in semiconductor manufacturing is needed. A negative photoresist SU-8 was used as chamber master molds. PDMS and UV adhesive replica molding are done sequentially. Two immiscible liquids, DI water and dodecane, are injected in the fabricated chamber, followed by sealing. The fabricated structure has a 20 by 20 pattern of cylindrical shaped circle array and the aperture size of each lens is 1mm. The thickness of the overall hybrid structure is about 2.8mm. Hybrid structure lens array has many advantages. Solid lens array has almost 100% fill factor and allow high efficiency. Diopter can be increased by more than 200 and negative diopter can be shifted to the positive region. This experiment showed several properties of the hybrid structure and demonstrated its superiority.

  11. Gas phase synthesis and field emission properties of 3D aligned double walled carbon nanotube/anatase hybrid architectures.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Ravi K; Engstler, Jörg; Navitski, Aliaksandr; Sakharuk, Vitali; Müller, Günter; Schneider, Jörg J

    2011-08-01

    A 3D hybrid architecture composed of macroscopic, vertically aligned CNT blocks which are formed via a metal catalyzed CVD process followed by deposition of TiO(2) on the CNT side walls in nanocrystalline or amorphous form is presented. The morphology of the deposited TiO(2) can be tailored by the deposition method employed. Depositing TiO(2) from the gas phase by employing the organometallic precursor Ti[OCH(CH(3))(2)](4) leads to formation of nanocrystalline anatase or rutile particles with a dense coverage on the surface and within the 3D CNT scaffold. Phase pure TiO(2) (anatase) is formed between 500 and 700 °C, while higher temperatures resulted in rutile modification of TiO(2). Below 500 °C, TiO(2) forms an amorphous oxide layer. At higher temperatures such initially formed TiO(2) layers segregate into particles which tend to crystallize. In contrast, when generating TiO(2) by oxidation of Ti metal which is deposited by vaporization onto the 3D CNT block array, and subsequently oxidized in air or controlled O(2) atmosphere this leads to a porous layer with a particular nanostructure on top of the CNT blocks. First studies of the fabrication and field emission of the new 3D CNT/TiO(2) hybrid cathodes display good and stable FE characteristics with onset fields for current density of 1 μA cm(-2) of 1.7 to 1.9 V μm(-1), while the average field enhancement factor is in the range between 2000 and 2500 depending on the O(2) base pressure during the measurements.

  12. Growth and Transfer of Seamless 3D Graphene-Nanotube Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Dong; Li, Yilun; Wang, Gunuk; Fan, Xiujun; Jiang, Jinlong; Li, Lei; Ji, Yongsung; Ruan, Gedeng; Hauge, Robert H; Tour, James M

    2016-02-10

    Seamlessly connected graphene and carbon nanotube hybrids (GCNTs) have great potential as carbon platform structures in electronics due to their high conductivity and high surface area. Here, we introduce a facile method for making patterned GCNTs and their intact transfer onto other substrates. The mechanism for selective growth of vertically aligned CNTs (VA-CNTs) on the patterned graphene is discussed. The complete transfer of the GCNT pattern onto other substrates is possible because of the mechanical strength of the GCNT hybrids. Electrical conductivity measurements of the transferred GCNT structures show Ohmic contact through the VA-CNTs to graphene--evidence of its integrity after the transfer process.

  13. Hybrid nickel manganese oxide nanosheet-3D metallic dendrite percolation network electrodes for high-rate electrochemical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Tuyen; Eugénio, Sónia; Boudard, Michel; Rapenne, Laetitia; Carmezim, M. João; Silva, Teresa M.; Montemor, M. Fátima

    2015-07-01

    This work reports the fabrication, by electrodeposition and post-thermal annealing, of hybrid electrodes for high rate electrochemical energy storage composed of nickel manganese oxide (Ni0.86Mn0.14O) nanosheets over 3D open porous dendritic NiCu foams. The hybrid electrodes are made of two different percolation networks of nanosheets and dendrites, and exhibit a specific capacitance value of 848 F g-1 at 1 A g-1. The electrochemical tests revealed that the electrodes display an excellent rate capability, characterized by capacitance retention of approximately 83% when the applied current density increases from 1 A g-1 to 20 A g-1. The electrodes also evidenced high charge-discharge cycling stability, which attained 103% after 1000 cycles.

  14. Curing behavior and reaction kinetics of binder resins for 3D-printing investigated by dielectric analysis (DEA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möginger, B.; Kehret, L.; Hausnerova, B.; Steinhaus, J.

    2016-05-01

    3D-Printing is an efficient method in the field of additive manufacturing. In order to optimize the properties of manufactured parts it is essential to adapt the curing behavior of the resin systems with respect to the requirements. Thus, effects of resin composition, e.g. due to different additives such as thickener and curing agents, on the curing behavior have to be known. As the resin transfers from a liquid to a solid glass the time dependent ion viscosity was measured using DEA with flat IDEX sensors. This allows for a sensitive measurement of resin changes as the ion viscosity changes two to four decades. The investigated resin systems are based on the monomers styrene and HEMA. To account for the effects of copolymerization in the calculation of the reaction kinetics it was assumed that the reaction can be considered as a homo-polymerization having a reaction order n≠1. Then the measured ion viscosity curves are fitted with the solution of the reactions kinetics - the time dependent degree of conversion (DC-function) - for times exceeding the initiation phase representing the primary curing. The measured ion viscosity curves can nicely be fitted with the DC-function and the determined fit parameters distinguish distinctly between the investigated resin compositions.

  15. Characterizing microscale aluminum composite layer properties on silicon solar cells with hybrid 3D scanning force measurements

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sung-Kuk; Choi, Beomjoon; Chung, Haseung; Shin, Seungwon; Song, Hee-eun; Seo, Jung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a novel technique to estimate the mechanical properties of the aluminum composite layer on silicon solar cells by using a hybrid 3-dimensional laser scanning force measurement (3-D LSFM) system. The 3-D LSFM system measures the material properties of sub-layers constituting a solar cell. This measurement is critical for realizing high-efficient ultra-thin solar cells. The screen-printed aluminum layer, which significantly affects the bowing phenomenon, is separated from the complete solar cell by removing the silicon (Si) layer with deep reactive ion etching. An elastic modulus of ~15.1 GPa and a yield strength of ~35.0 MPa for the aluminum (Al) composite layer were obtained by the 3-D LSFM system. In experiments performed for 6-inch Si solar cells, the bowing distances decreased from 12.02 to 1.18 mm while the Si layer thicknesses increased from 90 to 190 μm. These results are in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions for ultra-thin Si thickness (90 μm) based on the obtained Al composite layer properties. PMID:26948248

  16. Electrochemically formed 3D hierarchical thin films of cobalt-manganese (Co-Mn) hexacyanoferrate hybrids for electrochemical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam Venugopal, Narendra Kumar; Joseph, James

    2016-02-01

    Here we report the feasibility of forming 3D nanostructured hexacyanoferates of Cobalt and Manganese (Co-MnHCF) on GC surface by a facile electrochemical method. This 3D architecture on glassy carbon electrode characterised systematically by voltammetry and other physical characterisation techniques like Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) etc,. Electrochemical Quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) studies helped out to calculate the total mass change during Co-MnHCF formation. Electrochemical studies reveal that the formal redox potentials of both Co and MnHCF films remained close to that of newly formed Co-MnHCF hybrid films. These 3D modified films were successfully applied for two different electrochemical applications i) For pseudocapacitor studies in KNO3 medium ii) Investigated the electrocatalytic behaviour of redox film towards water oxidation reaction in alkaline medium. Electrochemical performances of newly formed Co-MnHCF are compared with their individual transition metal (Co, Mn) hexacyanoferrates. The resulting material shows a specific capacitance of 350 F g-1 through its fast reversible redox reaction of electrochemically formed Co-MnHCF modified film. Interestingly we showed the overpotential of 450 mV (from its thermodynamic voltage 1.2 V) to attain its optimum current density of 10 mA cm-2 for O2 evolution in alkaline medium.

  17. Characterizing microscale aluminum composite layer properties on silicon solar cells with hybrid 3D scanning force measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Sung-Kuk; Choi, Beomjoon; Chung, Haseung; Shin, Seungwon; Song, Hee-Eun; Seo, Jung Hwan

    2016-03-01

    This article presents a novel technique to estimate the mechanical properties of the aluminum composite layer on silicon solar cells by using a hybrid 3-dimensional laser scanning force measurement (3-D LSFM) system. The 3-D LSFM system measures the material properties of sub-layers constituting a solar cell. This measurement is critical for realizing high-efficient ultra-thin solar cells. The screen-printed aluminum layer, which significantly affects the bowing phenomenon, is separated from the complete solar cell by removing the silicon (Si) layer with deep reactive ion etching. An elastic modulus of ~15.1 GPa and a yield strength of ~35.0 MPa for the aluminum (Al) composite layer were obtained by the 3-D LSFM system. In experiments performed for 6-inch Si solar cells, the bowing distances decreased from 12.02 to 1.18 mm while the Si layer thicknesses increased from 90 to 190 μm. These results are in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions for ultra-thin Si thickness (90 μm) based on the obtained Al composite layer properties.

  18. Characterizing microscale aluminum composite layer properties on silicon solar cells with hybrid 3D scanning force measurements.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sung-Kuk; Choi, Beomjoon; Chung, Haseung; Shin, Seungwon; Song, Hee-eun; Seo, Jung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a novel technique to estimate the mechanical properties of the aluminum composite layer on silicon solar cells by using a hybrid 3-dimensional laser scanning force measurement (3-D LSFM) system. The 3-D LSFM system measures the material properties of sub-layers constituting a solar cell. This measurement is critical for realizing high-efficient ultra-thin solar cells. The screen-printed aluminum layer, which significantly affects the bowing phenomenon, is separated from the complete solar cell by removing the silicon (Si) layer with deep reactive ion etching. An elastic modulus of ~15.1 GPa and a yield strength of ~35.0 MPa for the aluminum (Al) composite layer were obtained by the 3-D LSFM system. In experiments performed for 6-inch Si solar cells, the bowing distances decreased from 12.02 to 1.18 mm while the Si layer thicknesses increased from 90 to 190 μm. These results are in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions for ultra-thin Si thickness (90 μm) based on the obtained Al composite layer properties. PMID:26948248

  19. Characterizing microscale aluminum composite layer properties on silicon solar cells with hybrid 3D scanning force measurements.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sung-Kuk; Choi, Beomjoon; Chung, Haseung; Shin, Seungwon; Song, Hee-eun; Seo, Jung Hwan

    2016-03-07

    This article presents a novel technique to estimate the mechanical properties of the aluminum composite layer on silicon solar cells by using a hybrid 3-dimensional laser scanning force measurement (3-D LSFM) system. The 3-D LSFM system measures the material properties of sub-layers constituting a solar cell. This measurement is critical for realizing high-efficient ultra-thin solar cells. The screen-printed aluminum layer, which significantly affects the bowing phenomenon, is separated from the complete solar cell by removing the silicon (Si) layer with deep reactive ion etching. An elastic modulus of ~15.1 GPa and a yield strength of ~35.0 MPa for the aluminum (Al) composite layer were obtained by the 3-D LSFM system. In experiments performed for 6-inch Si solar cells, the bowing distances decreased from 12.02 to 1.18 mm while the Si layer thicknesses increased from 90 to 190 μm. These results are in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions for ultra-thin Si thickness (90 μm) based on the obtained Al composite layer properties.

  20. Antigenic and 3D structural characterization of soluble X4 and hybrid X4-R5 HIV-1 Env trimers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV-1 is decorated with trimeric glycoprotein spikes that enable infection by engaging CD4 and a chemokine coreceptor, either CCR5 or CXCR4. The variable loop 3 (V3) of the HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) is the main determinant for coreceptor usage. The predominant CCR5 using (R5) HIV-1 Env has been intensively studied in function and structure, whereas the trimeric architecture of the less frequent, but more cytopathic CXCR4 using (X4) HIV-1 Env is largely unknown, as are the consequences of sequence changes in and near V3 on antigenicity and trimeric Env structure. Results Soluble trimeric gp140 Env constructs were used as immunogenic mimics of the native spikes to analyze their antigenic properties in the context of their overall 3D structure. We generated soluble, uncleaved, gp140 trimers from a prototypic T-cell line-adapted (TCLA) X4 HIV-1 strain (NL4-3) and a hybrid (NL4-3/ADA), in which the V3 spanning region was substituted with that from the primary R5 isolate ADA. Compared to an ADA (R5) gp140, the NL4-3 (X4) construct revealed an overall higher antibody accessibility, which was most pronounced for the CD4 binding site (CD4bs), but also observed for mAbs against CD4 induced (CD4i) epitopes and gp41 mAbs. V3 mAbs showed significant binding differences to the three constructs, which were refined by SPR analysis. Of interest, the NL4-3/ADA construct with the hybrid NL4-3/ADA CD4bs showed impaired CD4 and CD4bs mAb reactivity despite the presence of the essential elements of the CD4bs epitope. We obtained 3D reconstructions of the NL4-3 and the NL4-3/ADA gp140 trimers via electron microscopy and single particle analysis, which indicates that both constructs inherit a propeller-like architecture. The first 3D reconstruction of an Env construct from an X4 TCLA HIV-1 strain reveals an open conformation, in contrast to recently published more closed structures from R5 Env. Exchanging the X4 V3 spanning region for that of R5 ADA did not alter the open

  1. Development and testing of stable, invariant, isoparametric curvilinear 2- and 3-D hybrid-stress elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Punch, E. F.; Atluri, S. N.

    1984-01-01

    Linear and quadratic Serendipity hybrid-stress elements are examined in respect of stability, coordinate invariance, and optimality. A formulation based upon symmetry group theory successfully addresses these issues in undistorted geometries and is fully detailed for plane elements. The resulting least-order stable invariant stress polynomials can be applied as astute approximations in distorted cases through a variety of tensor components and variational principles. A distortion sensitivity study for two- and three-dimensional elements provides favorable numerical comparisons with the assumed displacement method.

  2. Robotic deposition and in vitro characterization of 3D gelatin-bioactive glass hybrid scaffolds for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chunxia; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Gao, Qiang; Teramoto, Akira; Abe, Koji

    2013-07-01

    The development of inorganic-organic hybrid scaffolds with controllable degradation and bioactive properties is receiving considerable interest for bone and tissue regeneration. The objective of this study was to create hybrid scaffolds of gelatin and bioactive glass (BG) with a controlled, three-dimensional (3D) architecture by a combined sol-gel and robotic deposition (robocasting) method and evaluate their mechanical response, bioactivity, and response to cells in vitro. Inks for robotic deposition of the scaffolds were prepared by dissolving gelatin in a sol-gel precursor solution of the bioactive glass (70SiO2 -25CaO-5P2 O5 ; mol%) and aging the solution to form a gel with the requisite viscosity. After drying and crosslinking, the gelatin-BG scaffolds, with a grid-like architecture (filament diameter ∼350 µm; pore width ∼550 µm), showed an elasto-plastic response, with a compressive strength of 5.1 ± 0.6 MPa, in the range of values for human trabecular bone (2-12 MPa). When immersed in phosphate-buffered saline, the crosslinked scaffolds rapidly absorbed water (∼440% of its dry weight after 2 h) and showed an elastic response at deformations up to ∼60%. Immersion of the scaffolds in a simulated body fluid resulted in the formation of a hydroxyapatite-like surface layer within 5 days, indicating their bioactivity in vitro. The scaffolds supported the proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization of osteogenic MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro, showing their biocompatibility. Altogether, the results indicate that these gelatin-BG hybrid scaffolds with a controlled, 3D architecture of inter-connected pores have potential for use as implants for bone regeneration.

  3. Fabrication of 3D porous SF/β-TCP hybrid scaffolds for bone tissue reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Jung; Min, Kyung Dan; Lee, Min Chae; Kim, Soo Hyeon; Lee, Ok Joo; Ju, Hyung Woo; Moon, Bo Mi; Lee, Jung Min; Park, Ye Ri; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Ju Yeon; Park, Chan Hum

    2016-07-01

    Bio-ceramic is a biomaterial actively studied in the field of bone tissue engineering. But, only certain ceramic materials can resolve the corrosion problem and possess the biological affinity of conventional metal biomaterials. Therefore, the recent development of composites of hybrid composites and polymers has been widely studied. In this study, we aimed to select the best scaffold of silk fibroin and β-TCP hybrid for bone tissue engineering. We fabricated three groups of scaffold such as SF (silk fibroin scaffold), GS (silk fibroin/small granule size of β-TCP scaffold) and GM (silk fibroin/medium granule size of β-TCP scaffold), and we compared the characteristics of each group. During characterization of the scaffold, we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for structural analysis. We compared the physiological properties of the scaffold regarding the swelling ratio, water uptake and porosity. To evaluate the mechanical properties, we examined the compressive strength of the scaffold. During in vitro testing, we evaluated cell attachment and cell proliferation (CCK-8). Finally, we confirmed in vivo new bone regeneration from the implanted scaffolds using histological staining and micro-CT. From these evaluations, the fabricated scaffold demonstrated high porosity with good inter-pore connectivity, showed good biocompatibility and high compressive strength and modulus. In particular, the present study indicates that the GM scaffold using β-TCP accelerates new bone regeneration of implanted scaffolds. Accordingly, our scaffold is expected to act a useful application in the field of bone tissue engineering. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1779-1787, 2016. PMID:26999521

  4. 1D-3D hybrid modeling-from multi-compartment models to full resolution models in space and time.

    PubMed

    Grein, Stephan; Stepniewski, Martin; Reiter, Sebastian; Knodel, Markus M; Queisser, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Investigation of cellular and network dynamics in the brain by means of modeling and simulation has evolved into a highly interdisciplinary field, that uses sophisticated modeling and simulation approaches to understand distinct areas of brain function. Depending on the underlying complexity, these models vary in their level of detail, in order to cope with the attached computational cost. Hence for large network simulations, single neurons are typically reduced to time-dependent signal processors, dismissing the spatial aspect of each cell. For single cell or networks with relatively small numbers of neurons, general purpose simulators allow for space and time-dependent simulations of electrical signal processing, based on the cable equation theory. An emerging field in Computational Neuroscience encompasses a new level of detail by incorporating the full three-dimensional morphology of cells and organelles into three-dimensional, space and time-dependent, simulations. While every approach has its advantages and limitations, such as computational cost, integrated and methods-spanning simulation approaches, depending on the network size could establish new ways to investigate the brain. In this paper we present a hybrid simulation approach, that makes use of reduced 1D-models using e.g., the NEURON simulator-which couples to fully resolved models for simulating cellular and sub-cellular dynamics, including the detailed three-dimensional morphology of neurons and organelles. In order to couple 1D- and 3D-simulations, we present a geometry-, membrane potential- and intracellular concentration mapping framework, with which graph- based morphologies, e.g., in the swc- or hoc-format, are mapped to full surface and volume representations of the neuron and computational data from 1D-simulations can be used as boundary conditions for full 3D simulations and vice versa. Thus, established models and data, based on general purpose 1D-simulators, can be directly coupled to the

  5. 1D-3D hybrid modeling—from multi-compartment models to full resolution models in space and time

    PubMed Central

    Grein, Stephan; Stepniewski, Martin; Reiter, Sebastian; Knodel, Markus M.; Queisser, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Investigation of cellular and network dynamics in the brain by means of modeling and simulation has evolved into a highly interdisciplinary field, that uses sophisticated modeling and simulation approaches to understand distinct areas of brain function. Depending on the underlying complexity, these models vary in their level of detail, in order to cope with the attached computational cost. Hence for large network simulations, single neurons are typically reduced to time-dependent signal processors, dismissing the spatial aspect of each cell. For single cell or networks with relatively small numbers of neurons, general purpose simulators allow for space and time-dependent simulations of electrical signal processing, based on the cable equation theory. An emerging field in Computational Neuroscience encompasses a new level of detail by incorporating the full three-dimensional morphology of cells and organelles into three-dimensional, space and time-dependent, simulations. While every approach has its advantages and limitations, such as computational cost, integrated and methods-spanning simulation approaches, depending on the network size could establish new ways to investigate the brain. In this paper we present a hybrid simulation approach, that makes use of reduced 1D-models using e.g., the NEURON simulator—which couples to fully resolved models for simulating cellular and sub-cellular dynamics, including the detailed three-dimensional morphology of neurons and organelles. In order to couple 1D- and 3D-simulations, we present a geometry-, membrane potential- and intracellular concentration mapping framework, with which graph- based morphologies, e.g., in the swc- or hoc-format, are mapped to full surface and volume representations of the neuron and computational data from 1D-simulations can be used as boundary conditions for full 3D simulations and vice versa. Thus, established models and data, based on general purpose 1D-simulators, can be directly coupled to

  6. 3D Bridged Carbon Nanoring/Graphene Hybrid Paper as a High-Performance Lateral Heat Spreader.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianwei; Shi, Gang; Jiang, Cai; Ju, Su; Jiang, Dazhi

    2015-12-01

    Graphene paper (GP) has attracted great attention as a heat dissipation material due to its unique thermal transfer property exceeding the limit of graphite. However, the relatively poor thermal transfer properties in the normal direction of GP restricts its wider applications in thermal management. In this work, a 3D bridged carbon nanoring (CNR)/graphene hybrid paper is constructed by the intercalation of polymer carbon source and metal catalyst particles, and the subsequent in situ growth of CNRs in the confined intergallery spaces between graphene sheets through thermal annealing. Further investigation demonstrates that the CNRs are covalently bonded to the graphene sheets and highly improve the thermal transport in the normal direction of the CNR/graphene hybrid paper. This full-carbon architecture shows excellent heat dissipation ability and is much more efficient in removing hot spots than the reduced GP without CNR bridges. This highly thermally conductive CNR/graphene hybrid paper can be easily integrated into next generation commercial high-power electronics and stretchable/foldable devices as high-performance lateral heat spreader materials. This full-carbon architecture also has a great potential in acting as electrodes in supercapacitors or hydrogen storage devices due to the high surface area. PMID:26476622

  7. A computationally efficient hybrid 2D/3D thin film dislocation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrafan, Siavash

    Substantial research has been devoted to attempting to understand how dislocation structures evolve and how they affect device properties. However, current dislocation simulation methods are only able to model highly idealized systems accurately. The three-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics models, in particular, are too computationally intensive for modelling high dislocation densities and their resultant deformations that are observed in some real applications. In this thesis, we propose a novel method to exploit the quasi-two-dimensional nature of three-dimensional dislocation loops in a thin film to model their behaviors. For most film configurations, simulation performance can be greatly enhanced by implementing a hybrid two-dimensional/three-dimensional model without losing significant fidelity. In this technique, misfits stress fields are modeled by superposing multiple two-dimensional models. Threads are modeled with a more traditional three-dimensional implementation as they move through the misfit stress field. Using this innovative technique, much higher strains and/or dislocation densities could be studied.

  8. Sequence-dependent theory of oligonucleotide hybridization kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Marimuthu, Karthikeyan; Chakrabarti, Raj E-mail: rajc@andrew.cmu.edu

    2014-05-07

    A theoretical approach to the prediction of the sequence and temperature-dependent rate constants for oligonucleotide hybridization reactions has been developed based on the theory of relaxation kinetics. One-sided and two-sided melting reaction mechanisms for oligonucleotide hybridization reactions have been considered, analyzed, modified, and compared to select a physically consistent as well as robust model for prediction of the relaxation times of DNA hybridization reactions that agrees with the experimental evidence. The temperature- and sequence-dependent parameters of the proposed model have been estimated using available experimental data. The relaxation time model that we developed has been combined with the nearest neighbor model of hybridization thermodynamics to estimate the temperature- and sequence-dependent rate constants of an oligonucleotide hybridization reaction. The model-predicted rate constants are compared to experimentally determined rate constants for the same oligonucleotide hybridization reactions. Finally, we consider a few important applications of kinetically controlled DNA hybridization reactions.

  9. Study of human body: Kinematics and kinetics of a martial arts (Silat) performers using 3D-motion capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, Ahmad Afiq Sabqi Awang; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; Azraai, Nur Zaidi

    2015-04-01

    The Interest in this studies of human kinematics goes back very far in human history drove by curiosity or need for the understanding the complexity of human body motion. To find new and accurate information about the human movement as the advance computing technology became available for human movement that can perform. Martial arts (silat) were chose and multiple type of movement was studied. This project has done by using cutting-edge technology which is 3D motion capture to characterize and to measure the motion done by the performers of martial arts (silat). The camera will detect the markers (infrared reflection by the marker) around the performer body (total of 24 markers) and will show as dot in the computer software. The markers detected were analyzing using kinematic kinetic approach and time as reference. A graph of velocity, acceleration and position at time,t (seconds) of each marker was plot. Then from the information obtain, more parameters were determined such as work done, momentum, center of mass of a body using mathematical approach. This data can be used for development of the effectiveness movement in martial arts which is contributed to the people in arts. More future works can be implemented from this project such as analysis of a martial arts competition.

  10. Piezoresistive Sensor with High Elasticity Based on 3D Hybrid Network of Sponge@CNTs@Ag NPs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Nishuang; Shi, Yuling; Liu, Weijie; Yue, Yang; Wang, Siliang; Ma, Yanan; Wen, Li; Li, Luying; Long, Fei; Zou, Zhengguang; Gao, Yihua

    2016-08-31

    Pressure sensors with high elasticity are in great demand for the realization of intelligent sensing, but there is a need to develope a simple, inexpensive, and scalable method for the manufacture of the sensors. Here, we reported an efficient, simple, facile, and repeatable "dipping and coating" process to manufacture a piezoresistive sensor with high elasticity, based on homogeneous 3D hybrid network of carbon nanotubes@silver nanoparticles (CNTs@Ag NPs) anchored on a skeleton sponge. Highly elastic, sensitive, and wearable sensors are obtained using the porous structure of sponge and the synergy effect of CNTs/Ag NPs. Our sensor was also tested for over 2000 compression-release cycles, exhibiting excellent elasticity and cycling stability. Sensors with high performance and a simple fabrication process are promising devices for commercial production in various electronic devices, for example, sport performance monitoring and man-machine interfaces. PMID:27482721

  11. Piezoresistive Sensor with High Elasticity Based on 3D Hybrid Network of Sponge@CNTs@Ag NPs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Nishuang; Shi, Yuling; Liu, Weijie; Yue, Yang; Wang, Siliang; Ma, Yanan; Wen, Li; Li, Luying; Long, Fei; Zou, Zhengguang; Gao, Yihua

    2016-08-31

    Pressure sensors with high elasticity are in great demand for the realization of intelligent sensing, but there is a need to develope a simple, inexpensive, and scalable method for the manufacture of the sensors. Here, we reported an efficient, simple, facile, and repeatable "dipping and coating" process to manufacture a piezoresistive sensor with high elasticity, based on homogeneous 3D hybrid network of carbon nanotubes@silver nanoparticles (CNTs@Ag NPs) anchored on a skeleton sponge. Highly elastic, sensitive, and wearable sensors are obtained using the porous structure of sponge and the synergy effect of CNTs/Ag NPs. Our sensor was also tested for over 2000 compression-release cycles, exhibiting excellent elasticity and cycling stability. Sensors with high performance and a simple fabrication process are promising devices for commercial production in various electronic devices, for example, sport performance monitoring and man-machine interfaces.

  12. A low order flow/acoustics interaction method for the prediction of sound propagation using 3D adaptive hybrid grids

    SciTech Connect

    Kallinderis, Yannis; Vitsas, Panagiotis A.; Menounou, Penelope

    2012-07-15

    A low-order flow/acoustics interaction method for the prediction of sound propagation and diffraction in unsteady subsonic compressible flow using adaptive 3-D hybrid grids is investigated. The total field is decomposed into the flow field described by the Euler equations, and the acoustics part described by the Nonlinear Perturbation Equations. The method is shown capable of predicting monopole sound propagation, while employment of acoustics-guided adapted grid refinement improves the accuracy of capturing the acoustic field. Interaction of sound with solid boundaries is also examined in terms of reflection, and diffraction. Sound propagation through an unsteady flow field is examined using static and dynamic flow/acoustics coupling demonstrating the importance of the latter.

  13. Thiol–ene-based biological/synthetic hybrid biomatrix for 3-D living cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kedi; Fu, Yao; Chung, WeiJu; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Cui, Yujia; Hsu, Ian C.; Kao, Weiyuan John

    2013-01-01

    Although various cell encapsulation materials are available commercially for a wide range of potential therapeutic cells, their combined clinical impact remains inconsistent. Synthetic materials such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels are mechanically robust and have been extensively explored but lack natural biofunctionality. Naturally derived materials including collagen, fibrin and alginate-chitosan are often labile and mechanically weak. In this paper we report the development of a hybrid biomatrix based on the thiol-ene reaction of PEG diacrylate (PEGdA) and cysteine/PEG-modified gelatin (gel-PEG-Cys). We hypothesized that covalent crosslinking decreases gelatin dissolution thus increasing gelatin resident time within the matrix and the duration of its biofunctionality; at the same time the relative ratio of PEGdA to gel-PEG-Cys in the matrix formulation directly affects hydrogel bulk and local microenvironment properties. Bulk viscoelastic properties were highly dependent on PEGdA concentration and total water content, while gel-PEG-Cys concentration was more critical to swelling profiles. Microviscoelastic properties were related to polymer concentration. The covalently crosslinked gel-PEG-Cys with PEGdA decreased gelatin dissolution out of the matrix and collagenase-mediated degradation. Fibroblasts and keratinocyte increased adhesion density and formed intercellular connections on stiffer hydrogel surfaces, while cells exhibited more cytoplasmic spreading and proliferation when entrapped within softer hydrogels. Hence, this material system contains multiparametric factors that can easily be controlled to modulate the chemical, physical and biological properties of the biomatrix for soft tissue scaffolding and cell presentation to reconstruct lost tissue architecture and physical functionality. PMID:22484717

  14. In vitro characterization of design and compressive properties of 3D-biofabricated/decellularized hybrid grafts for tracheal tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christopher; Sheshadri, Priyanka; Ketchum, Jessica M; Narayanan, Lokesh K; Weinberger, Paul M; Shirwaiker, Rohan A

    2016-06-01

    Infection or damage to the trachea, a thin walled and cartilage reinforced conduit that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, leads to serious respiratory medical conditions which can often prove fatal. Current clinical strategies for complex tracheal reconstruction are of limited availability and efficacy, but tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches may provide viable alternatives. In this study, we have developed a new "hybrid graft" approach that utilizes decellularized tracheal tissue along with a resorbable polymer scaffold, and holds promise for potential clinical applications. First, we evaluated the effect of our decellularization process on the compression properties of porcine tracheal segments, and noted approximately 63% decrease in resistance to compression following decellularization. Next we developed four C-shape scaffold designs by varying the base geometry and thickness, and fabricated polycaprolactone scaffolds using a combination of 3D-Bioplotting and thermally-assisted forming. All scaffolds designs were evaluated in vitro under three different environmental testing conditions to determine the design that offered the best resistance to compression. These were further studied to determine the effect of gamma radiation sterilization and cyclic compression loading. Finally, hybrid grafts were developed by securing these optimal design scaffolds to decellularized tracheal segments and evaluated in vitro under physiological testing conditions. Results show that the resistance to compression offered by the hybrid grafts created using gamma radiation sterilized scaffolds was comparable to that of fresh tracheal segments. Given that current clinical attempts at tracheal transplantation using decellularized tissue have been fraught with luminal collapse and complications, our data support the possibility that future embodiments using a hybrid graft approach may reduce the need for intraluminal stenting in tracheal transplant

  15. Hybrid Metrology and 3D-AFM Enhancement for CD Metrology Dedicated to 28 nm Node and Below Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Foucher, J.; Faurie, P.; Dourthe, L.

    2011-11-10

    The measurement accuracy is becoming one of the major components that have to be controlled in order to guarantee sufficient production yield. Already at the R and D level, we have to come up with the accurate measurements of sub-40 nm dense trenches and contact holes coming from 193 immersion lithography or E-Beam lithography. Current production CD (Critical Dimension) metrology techniques such as CD-SEM (CD-Scanning Electron Microscope) and OCD (Optical Critical Dimension) are limited in relative accuracy for various reasons (i.e electron proximity effect, outputs parameters correlation, stack influence, electron interaction with materials...). Therefore, time for R and D is increasing, process windows degrade and finally production yield can decrease because you cannot manufactured correctly if you are unable to measure correctly. A new high volume manufacturing (HVM) CD metrology solution has to be found in order to improve the relative accuracy of production environment otherwise current CD Metrology solution will very soon get out of steam.In this paper, we will present a potential Hybrid CD metrology solution that smartly tuned 3D-AFM (3D-Atomic Force Microscope) and CD-SEM data in order to add accuracy both in R and D and production. The final goal for 'chip makers' is to improve yield and save R and D and production costs through real-time feedback loop implement on CD metrology routines. Such solution can be implemented and extended to any kind of CD metrology solution. In a 2{sup nd} part we will discuss and present results regarding a new AFM3D probes breakthrough with the introduction of full carbon tips made will E-Beam Deposition process. The goal is to overcome the current limitations of conventional flared silicon tips which are definitely not suitable for sub-32 nm nodes production.

  16. CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW modeling of the temporal dynamics of NSTX NBI+HHFW discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R. W.; Petrov, Yu. V.; Liu, D.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Taylor, G.; Bonoli, P. T.

    2014-02-12

    The CQL3D Fokker-Planck code[1] has been upgraded to include physics of finite-orbit-width (FOW) guiding-center orbits[2,3], as compared with the previous zero-orbit-width (ZOW) model, and a recent first-order orbit calculation[2]. The Fast Ion Diagnostic FIDA[4,5] signal resulting from neutral beam (NBI) and high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) RF power injected into the NSTX spherical tokamak can now be modeled quite accurately, using ion distributions from the CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW code, a rapidly executing variant that includes FOW+gyro-orbit losses to the plasma edge, FOW effects on NBI injection and HHFW diffusion, but does not include neoclassical radial diffusion. Accurate simulation of prompt fast ion (FI) losses is a key feature of the marked modeling improvement relative to previous ZOW results. By comparing NBI-only and NBI+HHFW shots, independent confirmation of the usual 35% edge loss of HHFW in NSTX is obtained. Further, HHFW prompt losses from the plasma core are shown to be 3X as large (>25%) as the NBI-only case. The modulated NBI and time-dependent background plasma variations and charge exchange losses of fast ions are accounted for, and the temporal neutron variation is in approximate agreement with NSTX observations.

  17. CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW modeling of the temporal dynamics of NSTX NBI+HHFW discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, R. W.; Petrov, Yu. V.; Liu, D.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Taylor, G.; Bonoli, P. T.

    2014-02-01

    The CQL3D Fokker-Planck code[1] has been upgraded to include physics of finite-orbit-width (FOW) guiding-center orbits[2,3], as compared with the previous zero-orbit-width (ZOW) model, and a recent first-order orbit calculation[2]. The Fast Ion Diagnostic FIDA[4,5] signal resulting from neutral beam (NBI) and high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) RF power injected into the NSTX spherical tokamak can now be modeled quite accurately, using ion distributions from the CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW code, a rapidly executing variant that includes FOW+gyro-orbit losses to the plasma edge, FOW effects on NBI injection and HHFW diffusion, but does not include neoclassical radial diffusion. Accurate simulation of prompt fast ion (FI) losses is a key feature of the marked modeling improvement relative to previous ZOW results. By comparing NBI-only and NBI+HHFW shots, independent confirmation of the usual 35% edge loss of HHFW in NSTX is obtained. Further, HHFW prompt losses from the plasma core are shown to be 3X as large (>25%) as the NBI-only case. The modulated NBI and time-dependent background plasma variations and charge exchange losses of fast ions are accounted for, and the temporal neutron variation is in approximate agreement with NSTX observations.

  18. Automatic C-arm pose estimation via 2D/3D hybrid registration of a radiographic fiducial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moult, E.; Burdette, E. C.; Song, D. Y.; Abolmaesumi, P.; Fichtinger, G.; Fallavollita, P.

    2011-03-01

    Motivation: In prostate brachytherapy, real-time dosimetry would be ideal to allow for rapid evaluation of the implant quality intra-operatively. However, such a mechanism requires an imaging system that is both real-time and which provides, via multiple C-arm fluoroscopy images, clear information describing the three-dimensional position of the seeds deposited within the prostate. Thus, accurate tracking of the C-arm poses proves to be of critical importance to the process. Methodology: We compute the pose of the C-arm relative to a stationary radiographic fiducial of known geometry by employing a hybrid registration framework. Firstly, by means of an ellipse segmentation algorithm and a 2D/3D feature based registration, we exploit known FTRAC geometry to recover an initial estimate of the C-arm pose. Using this estimate, we then initialize the intensity-based registration which serves to recover a refined and accurate estimation of the C-arm pose. Results: Ground-truth pose was established for each C-arm image through a published and clinically tested segmentation-based method. Using 169 clinical C-arm images and a +/-10° and +/-10 mm random perturbation of the ground-truth pose, the average rotation and translation errors were 0.68° (std = 0.06°) and 0.64 mm (std = 0.24 mm). Conclusion: Fully automated C-arm pose estimation using a 2D/3D hybrid registration scheme was found to be clinically robust based on human patient data.

  19. Ectopic bone formation by 3D porous calcium phosphate-Ti6Al4V hybrids produced by perfusion electrodeposition.

    PubMed

    Chai, Yoke Chin; Kerckhofs, Greet; Roberts, Scott J; Van Bael, Simon; Schepers, Evert; Vleugels, Jozef; Luyten, Frank P; Schrooten, Jan

    2012-06-01

    Successful clinical repair of non-healing skeletal defects requires the use of bone substitutes with robust bone inductivity and excellent biomechanical stability. Thus, three-dimensionally functionalised porous calcium phosphate-Ti6Al4V (CaP-Ti) hybrids were produced by perfusion electrodeposition, and the in vitro and in vivo biological performances were evaluated using human periosteum derived cells (hPDCs). By applying various current densities at the optimised deposition conditions, CaP coatings with sub-micrometer to nano-scale porous crystalline structures and different ion dissolution kinetics were deposited on the porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds. These distinctive physicochemical properties caused a significant impact on in vitro proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and matrix mineralisation of hPDCs. This includes a potential role of hPDCs in mediating osteoclastogenesis for the resorption of CaP coatings, as indicated by a significant down-regulation of osteoprotegerin (OPG) gene expression and by the histological observation of abundant multi-nucleated giant cells near to the coatings. By subcutaneous implantation, the produced hybrids induced ectopic bone formation, which was highly dependent on the physicochemical properties of the CaP coating (including the Ca(2+) dissolution kinetics and coating surface topography), in a cell density-dependent manner. This study provided further insight on stem cell-CaP biomaterial interactions, and the feasibility to produced bone reparative units that are predictively osteoinductive in vivo by perfusion electrodeposition technology.

  20. Multi-sensor super-resolution for hybrid range imaging with application to 3-D endoscopy and open surgery.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Thomas; Haase, Sven; Bauer, Sebastian; Wasza, Jakob; Kilgus, Thomas; Maier-Hein, Lena; Stock, Christian; Hornegger, Joachim; Feußner, Hubertus

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a multi-sensor super-resolution framework for hybrid imaging to super-resolve data from one modality by taking advantage of additional guidance images of a complementary modality. This concept is applied to hybrid 3-D range imaging in image-guided surgery, where high-quality photometric data is exploited to enhance range images of low spatial resolution. We formulate super-resolution based on the maximum a-posteriori (MAP) principle and reconstruct high-resolution range data from multiple low-resolution frames and complementary photometric information. Robust motion estimation as required for super-resolution is performed on photometric data to derive displacement fields of subpixel accuracy for the associated range images. For improved reconstruction of depth discontinuities, a novel adaptive regularizer exploiting correlations between both modalities is embedded to MAP estimation. We evaluated our method on synthetic data as well as ex-vivo images in open surgery and endoscopy. The proposed multi-sensor framework improves the peak signal-to-noise ratio by 2 dB and structural similarity by 0.03 on average compared to conventional single-sensor approaches. In ex-vivo experiments on porcine organs, our method achieves substantial improvements in terms of depth discontinuity reconstruction.

  1. Free-space coherent optical communication with orbital angular, momentum multiplexing/demultiplexing using a hybrid 3D photonic integrated circuit.

    PubMed

    Guan, Binbin; Scott, Ryan P; Qin, Chuan; Fontaine, Nicolas K; Su, Tiehui; Ferrari, Carlo; Cappuzzo, Mark; Klemens, Fred; Keller, Bob; Earnshaw, Mark; Yoo, S J B

    2014-01-13

    We demonstrate free-space space-division-multiplexing (SDM) with 15 orbital angular momentum (OAM) states using a three-dimensional (3D) photonic integrated circuit (PIC). The hybrid device consists of a silica planar lightwave circuit (PLC) coupled to a 3D waveguide circuit to multiplex/demultiplex OAM states. The low excess loss hybrid device is used in individual and two simultaneous OAM states multiplexing and demultiplexing link experiments with a 20 Gb/s, 1.67 b/s/Hz quadrature phase shift keyed (QPSK) signal, which shows error-free performance for 379,960 tested bits for all OAM states.

  2. 2D and 3D alkaline earth metal carboxyphosphonate hybrids: Anti-corrosion coatings for metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Demadis, Konstantinos D. Papadaki, Maria; Raptis, Raphael G.; Zhao, Hong

    2008-03-15

    Reactions of Mg{sup 2+} (1), Ca{sup 2+} (2), Sr{sup 2+} (3), or Ba{sup 2+} (4) salts with hydroxyphosphonoacetic acid (HPAA) at a 1:1 ratio yield M-HPAA layered coordination polymers. The crystal structures of 3 (two phases) and 4 have been determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. Both stereoisomers (R and S) of HPAA are incorporated in the metal-HPAA materials. Synergistic combinations of Sr{sup 2+} or Ba{sup 2+} and HPAA at pH 7.3 are effective corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel, but are ineffective at pH 2.0. - Graphical abstract: Syntheses, characterization and crystal structures of metal-hydroxyphosphonoacetate hybrids are reported (Metal=Sr, Ba). 2D and 3D materials were prepared. Their anti-corrosion effects were studied at pH 2.0 and 7.3. It was found that anti-corrosion efficiency was demonstrated only at pH 7.3.

  3. First Lunar Wake Passage of ARTEMIS: Discrimination of Wake Effects and Solar Wind Fluctuations by 3D Hybrid Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiehle, S.; Plaschke, F.; Motschmann, U.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Auster, H. U.; Angelopoulos, V.; Mueller, J.; Kriegel, H.; Georgescu, E.; Halekas, J.; Sibeck, D. G.; McFadden, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    The spacecraft P1 of the new ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun) mission passed the lunar wake for the first time on February 13, 2010. We present magnetic field and plasma data of this event and results of 3D hybrid simulations. As the solar wind magnetic field was highly dynamic during the passage, a simulation with stationary solar wind input cannot distinguish whether distortions were caused by these solar wind variations or by the lunar wake; therefore, a dynamic real-time simulation of the flyby has been performed. The input values of this simulation are taken from NASA OMNI data and adapted to the P1 data, resulting in a good agreement between simulation and measurements. Combined with the stationary simulation showing non-transient lunar wake structures, a separation of solar wind and wake effects is achieved. An anisotropy in the magnitude of the plasma bulk flow velocity caused by a non-vanishing magnetic field component parallel to the solar wind flow and perturbations created by counterstreaming ions in the lunar wake are observed in data and simulations. The simulations help to interpret the data granting us the opportunity to examine the entire lunar plasma environment and, thus, extending the possibilities of measurements alone: A comparison of a simulation cross section to theoretical predictions of MHD wave propagation shows that all three basic MHD modes are present in the lunar wake and that their expansion governs the lunar wake refilling process.

  4. Unsteady Analysis of Particle Transport and Deposition in the Human Lung: A Hybrid 3D/0D Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haworth, Daniel C.; Kunz, Robert F.; Leemhuis, Laura S.; Banks, Syreeta S.; Kriete, Andres

    2003-11-01

    Three-dimensional CFD meshes including up the sixteenth generation of branching in a human tracheo-bronchial tree have been generated from surface data extracted using novel high-resolution bio-medical imaging and rendering methods. A zero-dimensional model for the deeper generations has been coupled with the three-dimensional model at each of the truncated branches. The 0D model imposes a time-varying volume to simulate realistic breathing cycles; it also includes a simple model for particle deposition. The resulting hybrid 3D/0D model has been exercised to compute the transport and deposition rates of particles of different sizes through full breathing cycles. Results are compared to earlier steady-flow CFD results, to results obtained using one-dimensional functional models of the human lung, and to experimental and modeling results for idealized branching-duct configurations. The aim of the research is to develop a virtual human respiratory system that can be used to address issues in pulmonary health in

  5. Mixed-hybrid and vertex-discontinuous-Galerkin finite element modeling of multiphase compositional flow on 3D unstructured grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moortgat, Joachim; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2016-06-01

    Problems of interest in hydrogeology and hydrocarbon resources involve complex heterogeneous geological formations. Such domains are most accurately represented in reservoir simulations by unstructured computational grids. Finite element methods accurately describe flow on unstructured meshes with complex geometries, and their flexible formulation allows implementation on different grid types. In this work, we consider for the first time the challenging problem of fully compositional three-phase flow in 3D unstructured grids, discretized by any combination of tetrahedra, prisms, and hexahedra. We employ a mass conserving mixed hybrid finite element (MHFE) method to solve for the pressure and flux fields. The transport equations are approximated with a higher-order vertex-based discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization. We show that this approach outperforms a face-based implementation of the same polynomial order. These methods are well suited for heterogeneous and fractured reservoirs, because they provide globally continuous pressure and flux fields, while allowing for sharp discontinuities in compositions and saturations. The higher-order accuracy improves the modeling of strongly non-linear flow, such as gravitational and viscous fingering. We review the literature on unstructured reservoir simulation models, and present many examples that consider gravity depletion, water flooding, and gas injection in oil saturated reservoirs. We study convergence rates, mesh sensitivity, and demonstrate the wide applicability of our chosen finite element methods for challenging multiphase flow problems in geometrically complex subsurface media.

  6. 3D Interdigital Au/MnO2 /Au Stacked Hybrid Electrodes for On-Chip Microsupercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Haibo; Pei, Zhibin; Fan, Hongjin; Ye, Changhui

    2016-06-01

    On-chip microsupercapacitors (MSCs) have application in powering microelectronic devices. Most of previous MSCs are made from carbon materials, which have high power but low energy density. In this work, 3D interdigital Au/MnO2 /Au stacked MSCs have been fabricated based on laser printed flexible templates. This vertical-stacked electrode configuration can effectively increase the contact area between MnO2 active layer and Au conductive layer, and thus improve the electron transport and electrolyte ion diffusion, resulting in enhanced pseudocapacitive performance of MnO2 . The stacked electrode can achieve an areal capacitance up to 11.9 mF cm(-2) . Flexible and all-solid-state MSCs are assembled based on the sandwich hybrid electrodes and PVA/LiClO4 gel electrolyte and show outstanding high-rate capacity and mechanical flexibility. The laser printing technique in this work combined with the physical sputtering and electrodeposition allows fabrication of MSC array with random sizes and patterns, making them promising power sources for small-scale flexible microelectronic energy storage systems (e.g., next-generation smart phones). PMID:27116677

  7. 3D Interdigital Au/MnO2 /Au Stacked Hybrid Electrodes for On-Chip Microsupercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Haibo; Pei, Zhibin; Fan, Hongjin; Ye, Changhui

    2016-06-01

    On-chip microsupercapacitors (MSCs) have application in powering microelectronic devices. Most of previous MSCs are made from carbon materials, which have high power but low energy density. In this work, 3D interdigital Au/MnO2 /Au stacked MSCs have been fabricated based on laser printed flexible templates. This vertical-stacked electrode configuration can effectively increase the contact area between MnO2 active layer and Au conductive layer, and thus improve the electron transport and electrolyte ion diffusion, resulting in enhanced pseudocapacitive performance of MnO2 . The stacked electrode can achieve an areal capacitance up to 11.9 mF cm(-2) . Flexible and all-solid-state MSCs are assembled based on the sandwich hybrid electrodes and PVA/LiClO4 gel electrolyte and show outstanding high-rate capacity and mechanical flexibility. The laser printing technique in this work combined with the physical sputtering and electrodeposition allows fabrication of MSC array with random sizes and patterns, making them promising power sources for small-scale flexible microelectronic energy storage systems (e.g., next-generation smart phones).

  8. A 3D hybrid praseodymium-antimony-oxochloride compound: single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation and photocatalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Zou, Guo-Dong; Zhang, Gui-Gang; Hu, Bing; Li, Jian-Rong; Feng, Mei-Ling; Wang, Xin-Chen; Huang, Xiao-Ying

    2013-11-01

    A 3D organic-inorganic hybrid compound, (2-MepyH)3[{Fe(1,10-phen)3}3][{Pr4Sb12O18(OH)Cl(11.5)}(TDC)(4.5)({Pr4Sb12O18(OH)Cl(9.5)} Cl)]·3(2-Mepy)·28H2O (1; 2-Mepy=2-methylpyridine, 1,10-phen=1,10-phenanthroline, H2TDC=thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid), was hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Unusually, two kinds of high-nuclearity clusters, namely [(Pr4Sb12O18(OH)Cl11)(COO)5](5-) and [(Pr4Sb12O18(OH)Cl9)Cl(COO)5](4-), coexist in the structure of compound 1; two of the latter clusters are doubly bridged by two μ2-Cl(-) moieties to form a new centrosymmetric dimeric cluster. An unprecedented spontaneous and reversible single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation was observed, which simultaneously involved a notable organic-ligand movement between the metal ions and an alteration of the bridging ion in the dimeric cluster, induced by guest-release/re-adsorption, thereby giving rise to the interconversion between compound 1 and the compound (2-MepyH)3[{Fe(1,10-phen)3}3][{Pr4Sb12O18(OH)Cl(11.5)}(TDC)4({Pr4Sb12O18Cl(10.5)(TDC)(0.5)(H2O)(1.5)}O(0.5))]·25H2O (1'). The mechanism of this transformation has also been discussed in great detail. Photocatalytic H2-evolution activity was observed for compound 1' under UV light with Pt as a co-catalyst and MeOH as a sacrificial electron donor.

  9. A 3D hybrid praseodymium-antimony-oxochloride compound: single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation and photocatalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Zou, Guo-Dong; Zhang, Gui-Gang; Hu, Bing; Li, Jian-Rong; Feng, Mei-Ling; Wang, Xin-Chen; Huang, Xiao-Ying

    2013-11-01

    A 3D organic-inorganic hybrid compound, (2-MepyH)3[{Fe(1,10-phen)3}3][{Pr4Sb12O18(OH)Cl(11.5)}(TDC)(4.5)({Pr4Sb12O18(OH)Cl(9.5)} Cl)]·3(2-Mepy)·28H2O (1; 2-Mepy=2-methylpyridine, 1,10-phen=1,10-phenanthroline, H2TDC=thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid), was hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Unusually, two kinds of high-nuclearity clusters, namely [(Pr4Sb12O18(OH)Cl11)(COO)5](5-) and [(Pr4Sb12O18(OH)Cl9)Cl(COO)5](4-), coexist in the structure of compound 1; two of the latter clusters are doubly bridged by two μ2-Cl(-) moieties to form a new centrosymmetric dimeric cluster. An unprecedented spontaneous and reversible single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation was observed, which simultaneously involved a notable organic-ligand movement between the metal ions and an alteration of the bridging ion in the dimeric cluster, induced by guest-release/re-adsorption, thereby giving rise to the interconversion between compound 1 and the compound (2-MepyH)3[{Fe(1,10-phen)3}3][{Pr4Sb12O18(OH)Cl(11.5)}(TDC)4({Pr4Sb12O18Cl(10.5)(TDC)(0.5)(H2O)(1.5)}O(0.5))]·25H2O (1'). The mechanism of this transformation has also been discussed in great detail. Photocatalytic H2-evolution activity was observed for compound 1' under UV light with Pt as a co-catalyst and MeOH as a sacrificial electron donor. PMID:24114981

  10. Novel assembly and electrochemical properties of anatase TiO2-graphene aerogel 3D hybrids as lithium-ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingjie; Zhou, Yizhuo; Zheng, Guangping; Huang, Qiuying; Zheng, Xiucheng; Liu, Pu; Zhang, Jianmin; Guan, Xinxin

    2016-10-01

    TiO2-graphene aerogel (TiO2-GA) 3D hybrids were directly assembled via a one-pot hydrothermal process followed by freeze-drying without using any structure-directing agent. The hybrids with a hierarchical structure exhibited large surface area (SBET = 283.6 m2 g-1) and high pore volume (Vp = 0.278 cm3 g-1), in which the ultradispersed TiO2 nanoparticles were in a single crystal phase of anatase. When used as the anodes for lithium ion battery, the TiO2-GA hybrids exhibited higher reversible capacity, more stable cycling performance and better rate-capability than TiO2 ascribed to the unique 3D nanoporous structure and the synergistic interaction of GA and TiO2.

  11. Mars-solar wind interaction: LatHyS, an improved parallel 3-D multispecies hybrid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modolo, Ronan; Hess, Sebastien; Mancini, Marco; Leblanc, Francois; Chaufray, Jean-Yves; Brain, David; Leclercq, Ludivine; Esteban-Hernández, Rosa; Chanteur, Gerard; Weill, Philippe; González-Galindo, Francisco; Forget, Francois; Yagi, Manabu; Mazelle, Christian

    2016-07-01

    In order to better represent Mars-solar wind interaction, we present an unprecedented model achieving spatial resolution down to 50 km, a so far unexplored resolution for global kinetic models of the Martian ionized environment. Such resolution approaches the ionospheric plasma scale height. In practice, the model is derived from a first version described in Modolo et al. (2005). An important effort of parallelization has been conducted and is presented here. A better description of the ionosphere was also implemented including ionospheric chemistry, electrical conductivities, and a drag force modeling the ion-neutral collisions in the ionosphere. This new version of the code, named LatHyS (Latmos Hybrid Simulation), is here used to characterize the impact of various spatial resolutions on simulation results. In addition, and following a global model challenge effort, we present the results of simulation run for three cases which allow addressing the effect of the suprathermal corona and of the solar EUV activity on the magnetospheric plasma boundaries and on the global escape. Simulation results showed that global patterns are relatively similar for the different spatial resolution runs, but finest grid runs provide a better representation of the ionosphere and display more details of the planetary plasma dynamic. Simulation results suggest that a significant fraction of escaping O+ ions is originated from below 1200 km altitude.

  12. Kinetic mechanisms in morpholino-DNA surface hybridization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yatao; Irving, Damion; Qiao, Wanqiong; Ge, Dongbiao; Levicky, Rastislav

    2011-08-01

    Morpholinos (MOs) are DNA analogues whose uncharged nature can bring fundamental advantages to surface hybridization technologies such as DNA microarrays, by using MOs as the immobilized, or "probe", species. Advancement of MO-based diagnostics, however, is challenged by limited understanding of the surface organization of MO molecules and of how this organization impacts hybridization kinetics and thermodynamics. The present study focuses on hybridization kinetics between monolayers of MO probes and DNA targets as a function of the instantaneous extent of hybridization (i.e., duplex coverage), total probe coverage, and ionic strength. Intriguingly, these experiments reveal distinct kinetic stages, none of which are consistent with Langmuir kinetics. The initial stage, in which duplex coverage remains relatively sparse, indicates confluence of two effects: blockage of target access to unhybridized probes by previously formed duplexes and deactivation of the solid support due to consumption of probe molecules. This interpretation is consistent with a surface organization in which unhybridized MO probes localize near the solid support, underneath a layer of MO-DNA duplexes. As duplex coverage builds, provided saturation is not reached first, the initial stage can transition to an unusual regime characterized by near independence of hybridization rate on duplex coverage, followed by a prolonged approach to equilibrium. The possible origins of these more complex latter behaviors are discussed. Comparison with published data for DNA and peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes is carried out to look for universal trends in kinetics. This comparison reveals qualitative similarities when comparable surface organization of probes is expected. In addition, MO monolayers are found capable of a broad range of reactivities that span reported values for PNA and DNA probes. PMID:21699181

  13. Kinetic Mechanisms in Morpholino-DNA Surface Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yatao; Irving, Damion; Qiao, Wanqiong; Ge, Dongbiao

    2011-01-01

    Morpholinos (MOs) are DNA analogues whose uncharged nature can bring fundamental advantages to surface hybridization technologies such as DNA microarrays, by using MOs as the immobilized, or “probe”, species. Advancement of MO-based diagnostics, however, is challenged by limited understanding of the surface organization of MO molecules and of how this organization impacts hybridization kinetics and thermodynamics. The present study focuses on hybridization kinetics between monolayers of MO probes and DNA targets as a function of the instantaneous extent of hybridization (i.e. duplex coverage), total probe coverage, and ionic strength. Intriguingly, these experiments reveal distinct kinetic stages, none of which are consistent with Langmuir kinetics. The initial stage, in which duplex coverage remains relatively sparse, indicates confluence of two effects: blockage of target access to unhybridized probes by previously formed duplexes, and deactivation of the solid support due to consumption of probe molecules. This interpretation is consistent with a surface organization in which unhybridized MO probes localize near the solid support, underneath a layer of MO-DNA duplexes. As duplex coverage builds, provided saturation is not reached first, the initial stage can transition to an unusual regime characterized by near independence of hybridization rate on duplex coverage, followed by a prolonged approach to equilibrium. The possible origins of these more complex latter behaviors are discussed. Comparison with published data for DNA and peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes is carried out to look for universal trends in kinetics. This comparison reveals qualitative similarities when comparable surface organization of probes is expected. In addition, MO monolayers are found capable of a broad range of reactivities that span reported values for PNA and DNA probes. PMID:21699181

  14. Two highly connected POM-based hybrids varying from 2D to 3D: The use of the isomeric ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Chunjing; Pang Haijun; Hu Mixia; Li Jia; Chen Yaguang

    2009-07-15

    Through employing two isomeric ligands, isonicotinic acid (HINA) and nicotinic acid (HNA), with different electron delocalization nature, two high-dimensional hybrids based on highly connected alpha-metatungstate clusters, [Na{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}Ag{sub 2}(HINA){sub 3}(INA)][Na(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}Ag{sub 2}(HINA){sub 4}(H{sub 2}W{sub 12}O{sub 40})].2H{sub 2}O (1) and [Na{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}Ag{sub 6}(HNA){sub 2}(NA){sub 2}(H{sub 2}W{sub 12}O{sub 40})].8H{sub 2}O (2), have been conventionally synthesized and structurally characterized. 1 exhibits an unusual 1D-in-2D pseudo-polyrotaxane entangled structure, namely, the 2D sheets [Na(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}Ag{sub 2}(HINA){sub 4}(H{sub 2}W{sub 12}O{sub 40})]{sub n}{sup 3n-} are penetrated by enantiomorphous meso-helical chains [Na{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}Ag{sub 2}(HINA){sub 3}(INA)]{sub n}{sup 3n+}. In the 2D sheets, each [H{sub 2}W{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 6-} cluster is surrounded by six Ag and two Na atoms. 2 exhibits a 3D (4, 6)-net structure with (3{sup 2}6{sup 2}7{sup 2})(3{sup 2}4{sup 4}5{sup 4}6{sup 4}7)(3{sup 2}4{sup 4}6{sup 8}7) topology, in which each [H{sub 2}W{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 6-} cluster is connected with ten Ag atoms. These facts indicate that the isomeric ligands play a key role in the formation of final structures. From 1 to 2, the connection number of the [H{sub 2}W{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 6-} cluster changes from 8 to 10 and the dimensionality increases from 2 to 3. Moreover, 1 and 2 display photoluminescent properties in the blue range at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Two high-dimensional and highly connected alpha-metatungstate-compounds modified by Ag{sup I}-HINA/HNA TMCs were successful obtained and the effect of isomeric organic ligands on the structures was systematically elucidated.

  15. Hybrid MV-kV 3D respiratory motion tracking during radiation therapy with low imaging dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Huagang; Li, Haiyun; Liu, Zhixiang; Nath, Ravinder; Liu, Wu

    2012-12-01

    A novel real-time adaptive MV-kV imaging framework for image-guided radiation therapy is developed to reduce the thoracic and abdominal tumor targeting uncertainty caused by respiration-induced intrafraction motion with ultra-low patient imaging dose. In our method, continuous stereoscopic MV-kV imaging is used at the beginning of a radiation therapy delivery for several seconds to measure the implanted marker positions. After this stereoscopic imaging period, the kV imager is switched off except for the times when no fiducial marker is detected in the cine-MV images. The 3D time-varying marker positions are estimated by combining the MV 2D projection data and the motion correlations between directional components of marker motion established from the stereoscopic imaging period and updated afterwards; in particular, the most likely position is assumed to be the position on the projection line that has the shortest distance to the first principal component line segment constructed from previous trajectory points. An adaptive windowed auto-regressive prediction is utilized to predict the marker position a short time later (310 ms and 460 ms in this study) to allow for tracking system latency. To demonstrate the feasibility and evaluate the accuracy of the proposed method, computer simulations were performed for both arc and fixed-gantry deliveries using 66 h of retrospective tumor motion data from 42 patients treated for thoracic or abdominal cancers. The simulations reveal that using our hybrid approach, a smaller than 1.2 mm or 1.5 mm root-mean-square tracking error can be achieved at a system latency of 310 ms or 460 ms, respectively. Because the kV imaging is only used for a short period of time in our method, extra patient imaging dose can be reduced by an order of magnitude compared to continuous MV-kV imaging, while the clinical tumor targeting accuracy for thoracic or abdominal cancers is maintained. Furthermore, no additional hardware is required with the

  16. 3D porous and ultralight carbon hybrid nanostructure fabricated from carbon foam covered by monolayer of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for high performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shuijian; Hou, Haoqing; Chen, Wei

    2015-04-01

    3D porous and self-supported carbon hybrids are promising electrode materials for supercapacitor application attributed to their prominent properties such as binder-free electrode fabrication process, excellent electric conductivity and high power density etc. We present here a facile chemical vapor deposition method to fabricate a novel 3D flexible carbon hybrid nanostructure by growing a monolayer of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes on the skeleton of carbon foam (N-CNTs/CF) with Fe nanoparticle as catalyst. With such 3D porous, flexible and ultralight carbon nanostructure as binder-free electrode material, large surface area is available and fast ionic transport is facilitated. Moreover, the carbon-based network can provide excellent electronic conductivity. The electrochemical studies demonstrate that the supercapacitor constructed from the N-CNTs/CF hybrid exhibit high power density of 69.3 kW kg-1 and good stability with capacitance retention ration above 95% after cycled at 50 A g-1 for 5000 cycles. Therefore, the prepared porous N-CNTs/CF nanostructure is expected to be a type of excellent electrode material for electrical double layer capacitors.

  17. Mapping the 3D distribution of CdSe nanocrystals in highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid P3HT-CdSe films grown by directional epitaxial crystallization.

    PubMed

    Roiban, L; Hartmann, L; Fiore, A; Djurado, D; Chandezon, F; Reiss, P; Legrand, J-F; Doyle, S; Brinkmann, M; Ersen, O

    2012-11-21

    Highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid thin films made of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and colloidal CdSe nanocrystals are prepared by a zone melting method using epitaxial growth on 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene oriented crystals. The structure of the films has been analyzed by X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation, electron diffraction and 3D electron tomography to afford a multi-scale structural and morphological description of the highly structured hybrid films. A quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volumes based on electron tomography is used to establish a 3D map of the distribution of the CdSe nanocrystals in the bulk of the films. In particular, the influence of the P3HT-CdSe ratio on the 3D structure of the hybrid layers has been analyzed. In all cases, a bi-layer structure was observed. It is made of a first layer of pure oriented semi-crystalline P3HT grown epitaxially on the TCB substrate and a second P3HT layer containing CdSe nanocrystals uniformly distributed in the amorphous interlamellar zones of the polymer. The thickness of the P3HT layer containing CdSe nanoparticles increases gradually with increasing content of NCs in the films. A growth model is proposed to explain this original transversal organization of CdSe NCs in the oriented matrix of P3HT.

  18. Local hybrid functionals: An assessment for thermochemical kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Kaupp, Martin; Bahmann, Hilke; Arbuznikov, Alexei V.

    2007-11-21

    Local hybrid functionals with position-dependent exact-exchange admixture are a new class of exchange-correlation functionals in density functional theory that promise to advance the available accuracy in many areas of application. Local hybrids with different local mixing functions (LMFs) governing the position dependence are validated for the heats of formation of the extended G3/99 set, and for two sets of barriers of hydrogen-transfer and heavy-atom transfer reactions (HTBH38 and NHTBH38 databases). A simple local hybrid Lh-SVWN with only Slater and exact exchange plus local correlation and a one-parameter LMF, g(r)=b({tau}{sub W}(r)/{tau}(r)), performs best and provides overall mean absolute errors for thermochemistry and kinetics that are a significant improvement over standard state-of-the-art global hybrid functionals. In particular, this local hybrid functional does not suffer from the systematic deterioration that standard functionals exhibit for larger molecules. In contrast, local hybrids based on generalized gradient approximation exchange tend to give rise to nonintuitive LMFs, and no improved functionals have been obtained along this route. The LMF is a real-space function and thus can be analyzed in detail. We use, in particular, graphical analyses to rationalize the performance of different local hybrids for thermochemistry and reaction barriers.

  19. Instability due to a two recirculation pump trip in a BWR using RAMONA-4B computer code with 3D neutron kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.S.; Rohatgi, U.S.

    1993-06-01

    An investigation was made of the potential for thermal-hydraulic instabilities coupled to neutronic feedback in a BWR due to a two recirculation pump trip event using the RAMONA-4B computer code with 3D neutron kinetics. It is concluded that a high-power (100%) and low-flow (75%) initial condition would most likely lead to in-phase density wave oscillations after the tripping of both recirculation pumps, and that RAMONA-4B is capable of predicting such thermal-hydraulic instabilities coupled to neutronic feedback in BWR and in SBWR.

  20. 3D kinetic picture of magnetotail explosions and characteristic auroral features prior to and after substorm onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitnov, M. I.; Merkin, V. G.; Motoba, T.

    2015-12-01

    Recent findings in theory, observations and 3D particle-in-cell simulations of magnetotail explosions reveal a complex picture of reconnection, buoyancy and flapping motions, which have interesting correlations with the auroral morphology. First, the formation of the tailward Bz gradient as a theoretical prerequisite for tearing, ballooning/interchange and flapping instabilities is consistent with the structure of the pre-onset quiet arc and the associated deep minimum of Bz. Another distinctive pre-onset feature, equatorward extension of the auroral oval in the late growth phase, is conventionally associated with earthward motion of the inner edge of the plasma sheet. However, if open magnetic flux saturates in the late growth phase, it may also be treated as a signature of magnetic flux accumulation tailward of the Bz minimum, which is also favorable for the tail plasma sheet instabilities. 3D PIC simulations of similar magnetotail equilibria with a tailward Bz gradient show spontaneous formation of earthward flows led by dipolarization fronts. They are structured in the dawn-dusk direction on the ion inertial scale, consistent with the minimum scales of the observed auroral beads. At the same time, simulations show the formation of a new X-line in the wake of the dipolarization front with no significant spatial modulation in the dawn-dusk direction suggesting smooth profiles of the substorm current wedge as well as poleward parts of auroral streamers. Flapping motions, which also grow at the dipolarization front, extend beyond it, up to the new X-line region. To understand auroral manifestations of tail structures in our simulations we investigate the plasma moments at the plasma sheet boundary.

  1. Synthesis of 3D Printable Cu-Ag Core-Shell Materials: Kinetics of CuO Film Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seongik; Kim, Namsoo

    2015-03-01

    In this research, Cu-Ag core-shell particles were synthesized as a functional and 3D printable material. Using the solid-liquid method, Cu-Ag core-shell particles were simply synthesized, and different particle sizes of 100 nm and 2 μm were used to confirm the size effect in the synthesis and reaction control of the Cu-Ag core-shell particles. In addition, highly viscous Cu-Ag core-shell particle paste was also prepared, and its electrical conductivity was measured. As a result, the reaction rate in the case of the 2 μm Cu particles was controlled by film diffusion, whereas for the 100 nm Cu particles, the reaction rate was controlled by CuO film produced before reacting with Ag ions in solution, and limited by chemical reaction control. Through the solid-liquid method, dendrite-shaped Cu-Ag core-shell particles were formed. Also, the electrical conductivity increased with increasing sintering temperature and core-shell particle concentration.

  2. A hybrid framework of multiple active appearance models and global registration for 3D prostate segmentation in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghose, Soumya; Oliver, Arnau; Martí, Robert; Lladó, Xavier; Freixenet, Jordi; Mitra, Jhimli; Vilanova, Joan C.; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2012-02-01

    Real-time fusion of Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Trans Rectal Ultra Sound (TRUS) images aid in the localization of malignant tissues in TRUS guided prostate biopsy. Registration performed on segmented contours of the prostate reduces computational complexity and improves the multimodal registration accuracy. However, accurate and computationally efficient 3D segmentation of the prostate in MR images could be a challenging task due to inter-patient shape and intensity variability of the prostate gland. In this work, we propose to use multiple statistical shape and appearance models to segment the prostate in 2D and a global registration framework to impose shape restriction in 3D. Multiple mean parametric models of the shape and appearance corresponding to the apex, central and base regions of the prostate gland are derived from principal component analysis (PCA) of prior shape and intensity information of the prostate from the training data. The estimated parameters are then modified with the prior knowledge of the optimization space to achieve segmentation in 2D. The 2D segmented slices are then rigidly registered with the average 3D model produced by affine registration of the ground truth of the training datasets to minimize pose variations and impose 3D shape restriction. The proposed method achieves a mean Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) value of 0.88+/-0.11, and mean Hausdorff distance (HD) of 3.38+/-2.81 mm when validated with 15 prostate volumes of a public dataset in leave-one-out validation framework. The results achieved are better compared to some of the works in the literature.

  3. The hybridizations of cobalt 3 d bands with the electron band structure of the graphene/cobalt interface on a tungsten substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jinwoong; Hwang, Choongyu; Chung, Nak-Kwan; N'Diaye, A. D.; Schmid, A. K.; Denlinger, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    The interface between graphene and a ferromagnetic substrate has attracted recent research interests due to its potential for spintronic applications. We report an angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy study on the interface between graphene and cobalt epitaxially grown on a tungsten substrate. We find that the electron band structure of the interface exhibits clear discontinuities at the crossing points with cobalt 3 d bands. These observations indicate strong hybridizations between the electronic states in the interface and provide an important clue to understand the intriguing electromagnetic properties of the graphene/ferromagnet interface.

  4. Ideal and non-ideal MHD regimes of wire array implosion obtained in 3D hybrid simulations and observed during experiments at NTF.

    SciTech Connect

    Sotnikov, Vladimir Isaakovich; Fiala, V.; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Ivanov, Vladimir V.; LePell, Paul David; Fedin, Dmitry; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Kantsyrev, Victor Leonidovich; Coverdale, Christine Anne; Travnicek, P.; Hellinger, P.; Deeney, Christopher; Jones, Brent Manley; Safronova, Alla S.; Leboeuf, J. N.; Cowan, Thomas E.

    2004-11-01

    Recent 3D hybrid simulation of a plasma current-carrying column revealed two regimes of sausage and kink instability development. In the first regime, with small Hall parameter, development of instabilities leads to appearance of large-scale axial perturbations and eventually to the bending of the plasma column. In the second regime, with five times larger Hall parameter, small-scale perturbations dominated and no bending of the plasma column was observed. Simulation results are compared to recent experimental data, including laser probing, x-ray spectroscopy and time-gated x-ray imaging during wire array implosions at NTF.

  5. Strong and fast-recovery organic/inorganic hybrid AuNPs-supramolecular gels based on loofah-like 3D networks.

    PubMed

    He, Huiwen; Chen, Si; Tong, Xiaoqian; Chen, Yining; Wu, Bozhen; Ma, Meng; Wang, Xiaosong; Wang, Xu

    2016-01-21

    Super strong and fast-recovery organic/inorganic hybrid gold nanoparticle (AuNPs)-supramolecular gels based on a three-dimensional loofah-like nanoscale network self-assembled by polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) core supramolecular gelators are reported for the first time. Two series of POSS core organic/inorganic hybrid gelators, POSS-BOC-l-Homophenylalanine (POSS-Hpy) and POSS-Boc-Cys(Bzl)-OH (POSS-Cys), with two types of peripherals having different abilities for driving the self-assembly of AuNPs in gels were designed and synthesized, both of which self-assembled into three-dimensional loofah-like nanoscale gel networks producing hybrid physical gels with fast-recovery behaviors. The mechanical properties of the resultant hybrid gels were dramatically increased by as much as 100 times in the system of sulfur containing POSS-Cys gelators without destroying the fast-recovery behaviors, with the addition of AuNPs, which had direct interaction with AuNPs to give S-Au non-covalent driving force to lead AuNPs self-assemble onto the 3D loofah-like network nanofibres in the supramolecular hybrid gel system. However, in the POSS-Hpy gelator system without sulfur, no strong interaction with AuNPs existed and the POSS-Hpy nanocomposites showed no clear changes in morphology, thermal stability or rheological properties, confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), tube-inversion and rotational rheometer measurements. This indicated that the organic/inorganic hybrid gelator POSS-Cys could be applied to the formation of soft materials in which AuNPs were self-assembled and closely arranged into three-dimensional nanoscale networks. This hybrid material has great potential for applications in self-recovery, nano- and micron-scale electronic devices, because it has both a large mechanical strength and a fast-recovery capability. PMID:26568047

  6. Towards a fully kinetic 3D electromagnetic particle-in-cell model of streamer formation and dynamics in high-pressure electronegative gases

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.; Clark, R. E.; Thoma, C.; Zimmerman, W. R.; Bruner, N.; Rambo, P. K.; Atherton, B. W.

    2011-09-15

    Streamer and leader formation in high pressure devices is dynamic process involving a broad range of physical phenomena. These include elastic and inelastic particle collisions in the gas, radiation generation, transport and absorption, and electrode interactions. Accurate modeling of these physical processes is essential for a number of applications, including high-current, laser-triggered gas switches. Towards this end, we present a new 3D implicit particle-in-cell simulation model of gas breakdown leading to streamer formation in electronegative gases. The model uses a Monte Carlo treatment for all particle interactions and includes discrete photon generation, transport, and absorption for ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation. Central to the realization of this fully kinetic particle treatment is an algorithm that manages the total particle count by species while preserving the local momentum distribution functions and conserving charge [D. R. Welch, T. C. Genoni, R. E. Clark, and D. V. Rose, J. Comput. Phys. 227, 143 (2007)]. The simulation model is fully electromagnetic, making it capable of following, for example, the evolution of a gas switch from the point of laser-induced localized breakdown of the gas between electrodes through the successive stages of streamer propagation, initial electrode current connection, and high-current conduction channel evolution, where self-magnetic field effects are likely to be important. We describe the model details and underlying assumptions used and present sample results from 3D simulations of streamer formation and propagation in SF{sub 6}.

  7. Facile Self-Cross-Linking Synthesis of 3D Nanoporous Co3O4/Carbon Hybrid Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Liu, Qinglei; Kang, Danmiao; Gu, Jiajun; Zhang, Wang; Zhang, Di

    2016-06-29

    A hybrid electrode material with ultrafine Co3O4 nanoparticles embedded throughout a hierarchically nanoporous graphitic carbon matrix has been obtained via a facile self-cross-linking route. Sodium alginate, a biopolymer with an ability of cross-linking with multivalent cobalt cations to form ordered microcrystalline zones, is used as a carbon source to produce nanoporous carbon frameworks of the hybrids. Ultrafine Co3O4 nanoparticles with tunable particle size (3-30 nm) are in situ grown within the nanoporous graphitic carbon frameworks by a simple carbonization of Co-cross-linked alginate. The obtained hybrid electrodes exhibit high specific capacitance of 645, 548, 486, and 347 F/g at scan rates of 5, 10, 20, and 50 mV/s, respectively, and excellent cycle performance with only 1% fading in capacitance after 10 000 cycles at a high current density of 20 A/g. Such excellent capacitive performance is ascribed to the collaborative contributions of well-dispersed ultrafine Co3O4 nanoparticles and conductive nanoporous carbon frameworks. PMID:27266717

  8. Saturn's Magnetosphere Interaction with Titan for T9 Encounter: 3D Hybrid Modeling and Comparison with CAPS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Hartle, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Simpson, D. G.

    2011-01-01

    Global dynamics of ionized and neutral gases in the environment of Titan plays an important role in the interaction of Saturn s magnetosphere with Titan. Several hybrid simulations of this problem have already been done (Brecht et al., 2000; Kallio et al., 2004; Modolo et al., 2007a; Simon et al., 2007a, 2007b; Modolo and Chanteur, 2008). Observational data from CAPS for the T9 encounter (Sittler et al., 2009) indicates an absence of O(+) heavy ions in the upstream that change the models of interaction which were discussed in current publications (Kallio et al., 2004; Modolo et al., 2007a; Simon et al., 2007a, 2007b; Ma et al., 2007; Szego et al., 2007). Further analysis of the CAPS data shows very low density or even an absence of H(+) ions in upstream. In this paper we discuss two models of the interaction of Saturn s magnetosphere with Titan: (A) high density of H(+) ions in the upstream flow (0.1/cu cm), and (B) low density of H(+) ions in the upstream flow (0.02/cu cm). The hybrid model employs a fluid description for electrons and neutrals, whereas a particle approach is used for ions. We also take into account charge-exchange and photoionization processes and solve self-consistently for electric and magnetic fields. The model atmosphere includes exospheric H(+), H(2+), N(2+)and CH(4+) pickup ion production as well as an immobile background ionosphere and a shell distribution for active ionospheric ions (M(sub i)=28 amu). The hybrid model allows us to account for the realistic anisotropic ion velocity distribution that cannot be done in fluid simulations with isotropic temperatures. Our simulation shows an asymmetry of the ion density distribution and the magnetic field, including the formation of Alfven wing-like structures. The results of the ion dynamics in Titan s environment are compared with Cassini T9 encounter data (CAPS).

  9. Construction of a 3D rGO-collagen hybrid scaffold for enhancement of the neural differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Weibo; Wang, Shu; Yu, Xin; Qiu, Jichuan; Li, Jianhua; Tang, Wei; Li, Zhou; Mou, Xiaoning; Liu, Hong; Wang, Zhonglin

    2016-01-01

    The cell-material interface is one of the most important considerations in designing a high-performance tissue engineering scaffold because the surface of the scaffold can determine the fate of stem cells. A conductive surface is required for a scaffold to direct stem cells toward neural differentiation. However, most conductive polymers are toxic and not amenable to biological degradation, which restricts the design of neural tissue engineering scaffolds. In this study, we used a bioactive three-dimensional (3D) porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM), which is mainly composed of type I collagen, as a basic material and successfully assembled a layer of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets on the surface of the PADM channels to obtain a porous 3D, biodegradable, conductive and biocompatible PADM-rGO hybrid neural tissue engineering scaffold. Compared with the PADM scaffold, assembling the rGO into the scaffold did not induce a significant change in the microstructure but endowed the PADM-rGO hybrid scaffold with good conductivity. A comparison of the neural differentiation of rat bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was performed by culturing the MSCs on PADM and PADM-rGO scaffolds in neuronal culture medium, followed by the determination of gene expression and immunofluorescence staining. The results of both the gene expression and protein level assessments suggest that the rGO-assembled PADM scaffold may promote the differentiation of MSCs into neuronal cells with higher protein and gene expression levels after 7 days under neural differentiation conditions. This study demonstrated that the PADM-rGO hybrid scaffold is a promising scaffold for neural tissue engineering; this scaffold can not only support the growth of MSCs at a high proliferation rate but also enhance the differentiation of MSCs into neural cells.The cell-material interface is one of the most important considerations in designing a high-performance tissue engineering scaffold

  10. Construction of a 3D rGO-collagen hybrid scaffold for enhancement of the neural differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Weibo; Wang, Shu; Yu, Xin; Qiu, Jichuan; Li, Jianhua; Tang, Wei; Li, Zhou; Mou, Xiaoning; Liu, Hong; Wang, Zhonglin

    2016-01-28

    The cell-material interface is one of the most important considerations in designing a high-performance tissue engineering scaffold because the surface of the scaffold can determine the fate of stem cells. A conductive surface is required for a scaffold to direct stem cells toward neural differentiation. However, most conductive polymers are toxic and not amenable to biological degradation, which restricts the design of neural tissue engineering scaffolds. In this study, we used a bioactive three-dimensional (3D) porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM), which is mainly composed of type I collagen, as a basic material and successfully assembled a layer of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets on the surface of the PADM channels to obtain a porous 3D, biodegradable, conductive and biocompatible PADM-rGO hybrid neural tissue engineering scaffold. Compared with the PADM scaffold, assembling the rGO into the scaffold did not induce a significant change in the microstructure but endowed the PADM-rGO hybrid scaffold with good conductivity. A comparison of the neural differentiation of rat bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was performed by culturing the MSCs on PADM and PADM-rGO scaffolds in neuronal culture medium, followed by the determination of gene expression and immunofluorescence staining. The results of both the gene expression and protein level assessments suggest that the rGO-assembled PADM scaffold may promote the differentiation of MSCs into neuronal cells with higher protein and gene expression levels after 7 days under neural differentiation conditions. This study demonstrated that the PADM-rGO hybrid scaffold is a promising scaffold for neural tissue engineering; this scaffold can not only support the growth of MSCs at a high proliferation rate but also enhance the differentiation of MSCs into neural cells. PMID:26750302

  11. Construction of a 3D rGO-collagen hybrid scaffold for enhancement of the neural differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Weibo; Wang, Shu; Yu, Xin; Qiu, Jichuan; Li, Jianhua; Tang, Wei; Li, Zhou; Mou, Xiaoning; Liu, Hong; Wang, Zhonglin

    2016-01-28

    The cell-material interface is one of the most important considerations in designing a high-performance tissue engineering scaffold because the surface of the scaffold can determine the fate of stem cells. A conductive surface is required for a scaffold to direct stem cells toward neural differentiation. However, most conductive polymers are toxic and not amenable to biological degradation, which restricts the design of neural tissue engineering scaffolds. In this study, we used a bioactive three-dimensional (3D) porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM), which is mainly composed of type I collagen, as a basic material and successfully assembled a layer of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets on the surface of the PADM channels to obtain a porous 3D, biodegradable, conductive and biocompatible PADM-rGO hybrid neural tissue engineering scaffold. Compared with the PADM scaffold, assembling the rGO into the scaffold did not induce a significant change in the microstructure but endowed the PADM-rGO hybrid scaffold with good conductivity. A comparison of the neural differentiation of rat bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was performed by culturing the MSCs on PADM and PADM-rGO scaffolds in neuronal culture medium, followed by the determination of gene expression and immunofluorescence staining. The results of both the gene expression and protein level assessments suggest that the rGO-assembled PADM scaffold may promote the differentiation of MSCs into neuronal cells with higher protein and gene expression levels after 7 days under neural differentiation conditions. This study demonstrated that the PADM-rGO hybrid scaffold is a promising scaffold for neural tissue engineering; this scaffold can not only support the growth of MSCs at a high proliferation rate but also enhance the differentiation of MSCs into neural cells.

  12. Global magnetosphere-like 3D structure formation in kinetics by hot magnetized plasma flow characterized by shape of the particle distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubchenko, Vladimir

    The task was to provide an analytical elementary magnetosphere-like model in kinetics for verification of the 3D EM PIC codes created for space/aerospace and HED plasmas applications. Kinetic approach versus cold MHD approach takes into account different behavior in the EM fields of resonant and non resonant particles in the velocity phase space, which appears via shape characteristics of the particle velocity distribution function (PVDF) and via the spatial dispersion effect forming the collisionless dissipation in the EM fields. The external flow is a hot collisionless plasma characterized by the particle velocity distribution function (PVDF) with different shapes: Maxwellian, kappa, etc. The flow is in a “hot regime”: it can be supersonic but its velocity remains less the thermal velocity of the electrons. The “internal” part of the magnetosphere formed by trapped particles is the prescribed 3D stationary magnetization considered as a spherical “quasiparticle” with internal magnetodipole and toroidal moments represented as a broadband EM driver. We obtain after the linearization of Vlasov/Maxwell equations a self-consistent 3D large scale kinetic solution of the classic problem. Namely, we: model the “outer” part of the magnetosphere formed by external hot plasma flow of the flyby particles. Solution of the Vlasov equation expressed via a tensor of dielectric permittivity of nonmagnetized and magnetized flowing plasma. Here, we obtain the direct kinetic dissipative effect of the magnetotail formation and the opposite diamagnetic effect of the magnetosphere “dipolization”. We get MHD wave cone in flow magnetized by external guiding magnetic (GM) field. Magnetosphere in our consideration is a 3D dissipative “wave” package structure of the skinned EM fields formed by the “waves” excited at frequency bands where we obtain negative values and singularities (resonances) of squared EM refractive index of the cold plasma. The hot regime

  13. Representing surface and subsurface hydrology at hyperresolution for Earth system models: Development of a hybrid 3-D approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazenberg, P.; Broxton, P. D.; Brunke, M.; Gochis, D. J.; Lawrence, D. M.; Niu, G. Y.; Pelletier, J. D.; Troch, P. A. A.; Zeng, X.

    2014-12-01

    Traditionally, LSMs for use in Earth system models (ESMs) only account for one-dimensional (1-D) vertical hydrological processes at very coarse resolutions (~100 km). Recently, there has been interest in simulating lateral exchange of surface and subsurface water, as the grid resolution of ESMs increases (currently towards ~20 km) due to advances in computational power.In the current work, we present a new physically-based hydrological model capable of simulating lateral flow at a hyperresolution (1 km pixels) coupled with the vertical soil column of the Community Land Model (CLM), which has a much coarser resolution. Our new approach also uses sub-pixel topographic information to represent small scale lateral-flow processes. As input to our model, we use 1 km data of required surface and subsurface information, such depth to bedrock, hillslope width functions, fractional coverage of hillslopes/wetlands/riparian zones within each 1 km pixel, and a river network. Such data are largely derived from higher-resolution (30 m) topographic data, and will be made available to the community as global products.We have tested our model against measurements over a well instrumented, artificial hillslope at the University of Arizona's Biosphere 2 and found that both our approach and a full 3-D physically-based hydrological model can realistically simulate hydrological states and fluxes. However, computationally, our approach is 2 - 3 orders of magnitude faster than the latter. We are currently testing it for an ESM grid box that covers much of southeastern New York State, which includes the headwaters of the Delaware River, the Susquehana River, and parts of the Mohawk River Basin. Our approach improves upon the 1-D hydrological representation in CLM by representing the subgrid topographic and geomorphological variability in the grid box. The impact of representing such subgrid variability on surface water and energy fluxes will be discussed in our presentation.

  14. Critical factors affecting the 3D microstructural formation in hybrid conductive adhesive materials studied by X-ray nano-tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen-Wiegart, Yu-Chen Karen; Figueroa-Santos, Miriam Aileen; Petrash, Stanislas; Garcia-Miralles, Jose; Wang, Jun

    2014-12-01

    Conductive adhesives are found favorable in a wide range of applications including a lead-free solder in micro-chips, flexible and printable electronics and enhancing the performance of energy storage devices. Composite materials comprised of metallic fillers and a polymer matrix are of great interest to be implemented as hybrid conductive adhesives. Here we investigated a cost-effective conductive adhesive material consisting of silver-coated copper as micro-fillers using synchrotron-based three-dimensional (3D) X-ray nano-tomography. The key factors affecting the quality and performance of the material were quantitatively studied in 3D on the nanometer scale for the first time. A critical characteristic parameter, defined as a shape-factor, was determined to yield a high-quality silver coating, leading to satisfactory performance. A `stack-and-screen' mechanism was proposed to elaborate such a phenomenon. The findings and the technique developed in this work will facilitate the future advancement of conductive adhesives to have a great impact in micro-electronics and other applications.Conductive adhesives are found favorable in a wide range of applications including a lead-free solder in micro-chips, flexible and printable electronics and enhancing the performance of energy storage devices. Composite materials comprised of metallic fillers and a polymer matrix are of great interest to be implemented as hybrid conductive adhesives. Here we investigated a cost-effective conductive adhesive material consisting of silver-coated copper as micro-fillers using synchrotron-based three-dimensional (3D) X-ray nano-tomography. The key factors affecting the quality and performance of the material were quantitatively studied in 3D on the nanometer scale for the first time. A critical characteristic parameter, defined as a shape-factor, was determined to yield a high-quality silver coating, leading to satisfactory performance. A `stack-and-screen' mechanism was proposed to

  15. A hybrid method for hydrodynamic-kinetic flow - Part II - Coupling of hydrodynamic and kinetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaia, Alessandro; Puppo, Gabriella

    2012-06-01

    In this work we present a non stationary domain decomposition algorithm for multiscale hydrodynamic-kinetic problems, in which the Knudsen number may span from equilibrium to highly rarefied regimes. Our approach is characterized by using the full Boltzmann equation for the kinetic regime, the Compressible Euler equations for equilibrium, with a buffer zone in which the BGK-ES equation is used to represent the transition between fully kinetic to equilibrium flows. In this fashion, the Boltzmann solver is used only when the collision integral is non-stiff, and the mean free path is of the same order as the mesh size needed to capture variations in macroscopic quantities. Thus, in principle, the same mesh size and time steps can be used in the whole computation. Moreover, the time step is limited only by convective terms. Since the Boltzmann solver is applied only in wholly kinetic regimes, we use the reduced noise DSMC scheme we have proposed in Part I of the present work. This ensures a smooth exchange of information across the different domains, with a natural way to construct interface numerical fluxes. Several tests comparing our hybrid scheme with full Boltzmann DSMC computations show the good agreement between the two solutions, on a wide range of Knudsen numbers.

  16. Development of a hybrid 3-D hydrological model to simulate hillslopes and the regional unconfined aquifer system in Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazenberg, P.; Broxton, P. D.; Brunke, M.; Gochis, D.; Niu, G. Y.; Pelletier, J. D.; Troch, P. A. A.; Zeng, X.

    2015-12-01

    The terrestrial hydrological system, including surface and subsurface water, is an essential component of the Earth's climate system. Over the past few decades, land surface modelers have built one-dimensional (1D) models resolving the vertical flow of water through the soil column for use in Earth system models (ESMs). These models generally have a relatively coarse model grid size (~25-100 km) and only account for sub-grid lateral hydrological variations using simple parameterization schemes. At the same time, hydrologists have developed detailed high-resolution (~0.1-10 km grid size) three dimensional (3D) models and showed the importance of accounting for the vertical and lateral redistribution of surface and subsurface water on soil moisture, the surface energy balance and ecosystem dynamics on these smaller scales. However, computational constraints have limited the implementation of the high-resolution models for continental and global scale applications. The current work presents a hybrid-3D hydrological approach is presented, where the 1D vertical soil column model (available in many ESMs) is coupled with a high-resolution lateral flow model (h2D) to simulate subsurface flow and overland flow. H2D accounts for both local-scale hillslope and regional-scale unconfined aquifer responses (i.e. riparian zone and wetlands). This approach was shown to give comparable results as those obtained by an explicit 3D Richards model for the subsurface, but improves runtime efficiency considerably. The h3D approach is implemented for the Delaware river basin, where Noah-MP land surface model (LSM) is used to calculated vertical energy and water exchanges with the atmosphere using a 10km grid resolution. Noah-MP was coupled within the WRF-Hydro infrastructure with the lateral 1km grid resolution h2D model, for which the average depth-to-bedrock, hillslope width function and soil parameters were estimated from digital datasets. The ability of this h3D approach to simulate

  17. A 3D Hybrid Model for Tissue Growth: The Interplay between Cell Population and Mass Transport Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Gang; Markenscoff, Pauline; Zygourakis, Kyriacos

    2009-01-01

    Abstract To provide theoretical guidance for the design and in vitro cultivation of bioartificial tissues, we have developed a multiscale computational model that can describe the complex interplay between cell population and mass transport dynamics that governs the growth of tissues in three-dimensional scaffolds. The model has three components: a transient partial differential equation for the simultaneous diffusion and consumption of a limiting nutrient; a cellular automaton describing cell migration, proliferation, and collision; and equations that quantify how the varying nutrient concentration modulates cell division and migration. The hybrid discrete-continuous model was parallelized and solved on a distributed-memory multicomputer to study how transport limitations affect tissue regeneration rates under conditions encountered in typical bioreactors. Simulation results show that the severity of transport limitations can be estimated by the magnitude of two dimensionless groups: the Thiele modulus and the Biot number. Key parameters including the initial seeding mode, cell migration speed, and the hydrodynamic conditions in the bioreactor are shown to affect not only the overall rate, but also the pattern of tissue growth. This study lays the groundwork for more comprehensive models that can handle mixed cell cultures, multiple nutrients and growth factors, and other cellular processes, such as cell death. PMID:19619455

  18. 3D fiber-based hybrid nanogenerator for energy harvesting and as a self-powered pressure sensor.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuhan; Lin, Zong-Hong; Cheng, Gang; Wen, Xiaonan; Liu, Ying; Niu, Simiao; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-10-28

    In the past years, scientists have shown that development of a power suit is no longer a dream by integrating the piezoelectric nanogenerator (PENG) or triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) with commercial carbon fiber cloth. However, there is still no design applying those two kinds of NG together to collect the mechanical energy more efficiently. In this paper, we demonstrate a fiber-based hybrid nanogenerator (FBHNG) composed of TENG and PENG to collect the mechanical energy in the environment. The FBHNG is three-dimensional and can harvest the energy from all directions. The TENG is positioned in the core and covered with PENG as a coaxial core/shell structure. The PENG design here not only enhances the collection efficiency of mechanical energy by a single carbon fiber but also generates electric output when the TENG is not working. We also show the potential that the FBHNG can be weaved into a smart cloth to harvest the mechanical energy from human motions and act as a self-powered strain sensor. The instantaneous output power density of TENG and PENG can achieve 42.6 and 10.2 mW/m(2), respectively. And the rectified output of FBHNG has been applied to charge the commercial capacitor and drive light-emitting diodes, which are also designed as a self-powered alert system. PMID:25268317

  19. 3D fiber-based hybrid nanogenerator for energy harvesting and as a self-powered pressure sensor.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuhan; Lin, Zong-Hong; Cheng, Gang; Wen, Xiaonan; Liu, Ying; Niu, Simiao; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-10-28

    In the past years, scientists have shown that development of a power suit is no longer a dream by integrating the piezoelectric nanogenerator (PENG) or triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) with commercial carbon fiber cloth. However, there is still no design applying those two kinds of NG together to collect the mechanical energy more efficiently. In this paper, we demonstrate a fiber-based hybrid nanogenerator (FBHNG) composed of TENG and PENG to collect the mechanical energy in the environment. The FBHNG is three-dimensional and can harvest the energy from all directions. The TENG is positioned in the core and covered with PENG as a coaxial core/shell structure. The PENG design here not only enhances the collection efficiency of mechanical energy by a single carbon fiber but also generates electric output when the TENG is not working. We also show the potential that the FBHNG can be weaved into a smart cloth to harvest the mechanical energy from human motions and act as a self-powered strain sensor. The instantaneous output power density of TENG and PENG can achieve 42.6 and 10.2 mW/m(2), respectively. And the rectified output of FBHNG has been applied to charge the commercial capacitor and drive light-emitting diodes, which are also designed as a self-powered alert system.

  20. Hybrid Macro-Porous Titanium Ornamented by Degradable 3D Gel/nHA Micro-Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Bo; Ma, Pei; Chen, Jun; Wang, Hai; Wu, Gui; Li, Bo; Li, Qiang; Huang, Zhifeng; Qiu, Guixing; Wu, Zhihong

    2016-01-01

    Porous titanium is a kind of promising material for bone substitution, while its bio-inert property results in demand of modifications to improve the osteointegration capacity. In this study, gelatin (Gel) and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) were used to construct 3D micro-scaffolds in the pores of porous titanium in the ratios of Gel:nHA = 1:0, Gel:nHA = 1:1, and Gel:nHA = 1:3, respectively. Cell attachment and proliferation, and gene and protein expression levels of osteogenic markers were evaluated in MC3T3-E1 cells, followed by bone regeneration assessment in a rabbit radius defect model. All hybrid scaffolds with different composition ratio were found to have significant promotional effects in cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation, in which the group with Gel:nHA = 1:1 showed the best performance in vitro, as well as the most bone regeneration volume in vivo. This 3D micro-scaffolds modification may be an innovative method for porous titanium ornamentation and shows potential application values in clinic. PMID:27092492

  1. Accurate and Fully Automatic Hippocampus Segmentation Using Subject-Specific 3D Optimal Local Maps Into a Hybrid Active Contour Model

    PubMed Central

    Gkontra, Polyxeni; Daras, Petros; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the structural integrity of the hippocampus (HC) is an essential step toward prevention, diagnosis, and follow-up of various brain disorders due to the implication of the structural changes of the HC in those disorders. In this respect, the development of automatic segmentation methods that can accurately, reliably, and reproducibly segment the HC has attracted considerable attention over the past decades. This paper presents an innovative 3-D fully automatic method to be used on top of the multiatlas concept for the HC segmentation. The method is based on a subject-specific set of 3-D optimal local maps (OLMs) that locally control the influence of each energy term of a hybrid active contour model (ACM). The complete set of the OLMs for a set of training images is defined simultaneously via an optimization scheme. At the same time, the optimal ACM parameters are also calculated. Therefore, heuristic parameter fine-tuning is not required. Training OLMs are subsequently combined, by applying an extended multiatlas concept, to produce the OLMs that are anatomically more suitable to the test image. The proposed algorithm was tested on three different and publicly available data sets. Its accuracy was compared with that of state-of-the-art methods demonstrating the efficacy and robustness of the proposed method. PMID:27170866

  2. Critical factors affecting the 3D microstructural formation in hybrid conductive adhesive materials studied by X-ray nano-tomography.

    PubMed

    Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Figueroa-Santos, Miriam Aileen; Petrash, Stanislas; Garcia-Miralles, Jose; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-21

    Conductive adhesives are found favorable in a wide range of applications including a lead-free solder in micro-chips, flexible and printable electronics and enhancing the performance of energy storage devices. Composite materials comprised of metallic fillers and a polymer matrix are of great interest to be implemented as hybrid conductive adhesives. Here we investigated a cost-effective conductive adhesive material consisting of silver-coated copper as micro-fillers using synchrotron-based three-dimensional (3D) X-ray nano-tomography. The key factors affecting the quality and performance of the material were quantitatively studied in 3D on the nanometer scale for the first time. A critical characteristic parameter, defined as a shape-factor, was determined to yield a high-quality silver coating, leading to satisfactory performance. A 'stack-and-screen' mechanism was proposed to elaborate such a phenomenon. The findings and the technique developed in this work will facilitate the future advancement of conductive adhesives to have a great impact in micro-electronics and other applications. PMID:25474162

  3. Time-Dependent Distribution Functions in C-Mod Calculated with the CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW, AORSA Full-Wave, and DC Lorentz Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, R. W. (Bob); Petrov, Yu. V.; Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A.; Bonoli, P. T.; Bader, A.

    2015-11-01

    A time-dependent simulation of C-Mod pulsed ICRF power is made calculating minority hydrogen ion distribution functions with the CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW finite-orbit-width Fokker-Planck code. ICRF fields are calculated with the AORSA full wave code, and RF diffusion coefficients are obtained from these fields using the DC Lorentz gyro-orbit code. Prior results with a zero-banana-width simulation using the CQL3D/AORSA/DC time-cycles showed a pronounced enhancement of the H distribution in the perpendicular velocity direction compared to results obtained from Stix's quasilinear theory, in general agreement with experiment. The present study compares the new FOW results, including relevant gyro-radius effects, to determine the importance of these effects on the the NPA synthetic diagnostic time-dependence. The new NPA results give increased agreement with experiment, particularly in the ramp-down time after the ICRF pulse. Funded, through subcontract with Massachusetts Institute of Technology, by USDOE sponsored SciDAC Center for Simulation of Wave-Plasma Interactions.

  4. Left-ventricle segmentation in real-time 3D echocardiography using a hybrid active shape model and optimal graph search approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Honghai; Abiose, Ademola K.; Campbell, Dwayne N.; Sonka, Milan; Martins, James B.; Wahle, Andreas

    2010-03-01

    Quantitative analysis of the left ventricular shape and motion patterns associated with left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony (LVMD) is essential for diagnosis and treatment planning in congestive heart failure. Real-time 3D echocardiography (RT3DE) used for LVMD analysis is frequently limited by heavy speckle noise or partially incomplete data, thus a segmentation method utilizing learned global shape knowledge is beneficial. In this study, the endocardial surface of the left ventricle (LV) is segmented using a hybrid approach combining active shape model (ASM) with optimal graph search. The latter is used to achieve landmark refinement in the ASM framework. Optimal graph search translates the 3D segmentation into the detection of a minimum-cost closed set in a graph and can produce a globally optimal result. Various information-gradient, intensity distributions, and regional-property terms-are used to define the costs for the graph search. The developed method was tested on 44 RT3DE datasets acquired from 26 LVMD patients. The segmentation accuracy was assessed by surface positioning error and volume overlap measured for the whole LV as well as 16 standard LV regions. The segmentation produced very good results that were not achievable using ASM or graph search alone.

  5. Hybrid Macro-Porous Titanium Ornamented by Degradable 3D Gel/nHA Micro-Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yin, Bo; Ma, Pei; Chen, Jun; Wang, Hai; Wu, Gui; Li, Bo; Li, Qiang; Huang, Zhifeng; Qiu, Guixing; Wu, Zhihong

    2016-04-15

    Porous titanium is a kind of promising material for bone substitution, while its bio-inert property results in demand of modifications to improve the osteointegration capacity. In this study, gelatin (Gel) and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) were used to construct 3D micro-scaffolds in the pores of porous titanium in the ratios of Gel:nHA = 1:0, Gel:nHA = 1:1, and Gel:nHA = 1:3, respectively. Cell attachment and proliferation, and gene and protein expression levels of osteogenic markers were evaluated in MC3T3-E1 cells, followed by bone regeneration assessment in a rabbit radius defect model. All hybrid scaffolds with different composition ratio were found to have significant promotional effects in cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation, in which the group with Gel:nHA = 1:1 showed the best performance in vitro, as well as the most bone regeneration volume in vivo. This 3D micro-scaffolds modification may be an innovative method for porous titanium ornamentation and shows potential application values in clinic.

  6. The Interaction of the Solar Wind with Solar Probe Plus - 3D Hybrid Simulation. Report 1; The Study for the Distance 4.5Rs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, Alexander S.; Sittler, Edward C.; Hartle, Richard E.; Cooper, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Our report devotes a 3D numerical hybrid model of the interaction of the solar wind with the Solar Probe spacecraft. The SPP model includes 3 main parts, namely, a non-conducting heat shield, a support system, and cylindrical section or spacecraft bus that contains the particle analysis devices and antenna. One observes an excitation of the low frequency Alfven and whistler type wave directed by the magnetic field with an amplitude of about (0.06-0.6) V/m. The compression waves and the jumps in an electric field with an amplitude of about (0.15-0.7) V/m were also observed. The wave amplitudes are comparable to or greater than previously estimated max wave amplitudes that SPP is expected to measure. The results of our hybrid simulation will be useful for understanding the plasma environment near the SPP spacecraft at the distance 4.5 Rs. Future simulation will take into account the charging of the spacecraft, the charge separation effects, an outgassing from heat shield, a photoionization and an electron impact ionization effects near the spacecraft.

  7. The Interaction of the Solar Wind with Solar Probe Plus - 3D Hybrid Simulation. Report 1; The Study for the Distance 4.5Rs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, Alexander S.; Sittler, Edward C.; Hartle, Richard E.; Cooper, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Our report devotes a 3D numerical hybrid model of the interaction of the solar wind with the Solar Probe spacecraft. The Solar Probe Plus (SPP) model includes 3 main parts, namely, a non-conducting heat shield, a support system, and cylindrical section or spacecraft bus that contains the particle analysis devices and antenna. One observes an excitation of the low frequency Alfven and whistler type wave directed by the magnetic field with an amplitude of about (0.06-0.6) V/m. The compression waves and the jumps in an electric field with an amplitude of about (0.15-0.7) V/m were also observed. The wave amplitudes are comparable to or greater than previously estimated max wave amplitudes that SPP is expected to measure. The results of our hybrid simulation will be useful for understanding the plasma environment near the SPP spacecraft at the distance 4.5 Rs. Future simulation will take into account the charging of the spacecraft, the charge separation effects, an outgassing from heat shield, a photoionization and an electron impact ionization effects near the spacecraft.

  8. Background and Pickup Ion Velocity Distribution Dynamics in Titan's Plasma Environment: 3D Hybrid Simulation and Comparison with CAPS T9 Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Hartle, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Simpson, D. G.

    2011-01-01

    In this report we discuss the ion velocity distribution dynamics from the 3D hybrid simulation. In our model the background, pickup, and ionospheric ions are considered as a particles, whereas the electrons are described as a fluid. Inhomogeneous photoionization, electron-impact ionization and charge exchange are included in our model. We also take into account the collisions between the ions and neutrals. The current simulation shows that mass loading by pickup ions H(+); H2(+), CH4(+) and N2(+) is stronger than in the previous simulations when O+ ions are introduced into the background plasma. In our hybrid simulations we use Chamberlain profiles for the atmospheric components. We also include a simple ionosphere model with average mass M = 28 amu ions that were generated inside the ionosphere. The moon is considered as a weakly conducting body. Special attention will be paid to comparing the simulated pickup ion velocity distribution with CAPS T9 observations. Our simulation shows an asymmetry of the ion density distribution and the magnetic field, including the formation of the Alfve n wing-like structures. The simulation also shows that the ring-like velocity distribution for pickup ions relaxes to a Maxwellian core and a shell-like halo.

  9. The role of the hybridization between Mn 3d and O 2p orbitals in the existence of the Griffiths phase in La0.85Ca0.15MnO3.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-guang; Shi, Jiang-jian; Li, Yong-tao; Dong, Xue-guang; Ge, Xiao-peng; Liu, Hao; Hou, Qing-teng; Li, Qi; Tang, Yan-kun

    2014-04-01

    Favourable conditions for the existence of the Griffiths phase in the La0.85Ca0.15MnO3 compound are experimentally investigated in terms of electronic and lattice structure by temperature-dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy, valence band photoemission spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction experiments. The chemical shifts of Mn L-edge and O K-edge x-ray absorption lines in the Griffiths phase are understood to be related to the hybridization between Mn 3d and O 2p states instead of the variation of Mn valence states. Valence band spectra also indicate that the hybridization of O 2p with Mn 3d is enhanced in the Griffiths phase. From a 2D diluted Ising ferromagnet model, this hybridization between Mn 3d and O 2p orbitals surely enhances the Griffiths phase feature. PMID:24637382

  10. Study of morphology effects on magnetic interactions and band gap variations for 3d late transition metal bi-doped ZnO nanostructures by hybrid DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Soumendu; Kaphle, Gopi Chandra; Baral, Sayan; Mookerjee, Abhijit

    2015-08-01

    Using density functional theory (DFT) based electronic structure calculations, the effects of morphology of semiconducting nanostructures on the magnetic interaction between two magnetic dopant atoms as well as a possibility of tuning band gaps have been studied in the case of the bi-doped (ZnO)24 nanostructures with the impurity dopant atoms of the 3d late transition metals—Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu. To explore the morphology effect, three different structures of the host (ZnO)24 nano-system, having different degrees of spatial confinement, have been considered: a two dimensional nanosheet, a one dimensional nanotube, and a finite cage-shaped nanocluster. The present study employs hybrid density functional theory to accurately describe the electronic structure of all the systems. It is shown here that the magnetic coupling between the two dopant atoms remains mostly anti-ferromagnetic in the course of changing the morphology from the sheet geometry to the cage-shaped geometry of the host systems, except for the case of energetically most stable bi-Mn doping, which shows a transition from ferromagnetic to anti-ferromagnetic coupling with decreasing aspect ratio of the host system. The effect of the shape change, however, has a significant effect on the overall band gap variations of both the pristine as well as all the bi-doped systems, irrespective of the nature of the dopant atoms and provides a means for easy tunability of their optoelectronic properties.

  11. Study of morphology effects on magnetic interactions and band gap variations for 3d late transition metal bi-doped ZnO nanostructures by hybrid DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Datta, Soumendu; Kaphle, Gopi Chandra; Baral, Sayan; Mookerjee, Abhijit

    2015-08-28

    Using density functional theory (DFT) based electronic structure calculations, the effects of morphology of semiconducting nanostructures on the magnetic interaction between two magnetic dopant atoms as well as a possibility of tuning band gaps have been studied in the case of the bi-doped (ZnO)24 nanostructures with the impurity dopant atoms of the 3d late transition metals-Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu. To explore the morphology effect, three different structures of the host (ZnO)24 nano-system, having different degrees of spatial confinement, have been considered: a two dimensional nanosheet, a one dimensional nanotube, and a finite cage-shaped nanocluster. The present study employs hybrid density functional theory to accurately describe the electronic structure of all the systems. It is shown here that the magnetic coupling between the two dopant atoms remains mostly anti-ferromagnetic in the course of changing the morphology from the sheet geometry to the cage-shaped geometry of the host systems, except for the case of energetically most stable bi-Mn doping, which shows a transition from ferromagnetic to anti-ferromagnetic coupling with decreasing aspect ratio of the host system. The effect of the shape change, however, has a significant effect on the overall band gap variations of both the pristine as well as all the bi-doped systems, irrespective of the nature of the dopant atoms and provides a means for easy tunability of their optoelectronic properties.

  12. High-performance hybrid supercapacitor with 3D hierarchical porous flower-like layered double hydroxide grown on nickel foam as binder-free electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Luojiang; Hui, Kwun Nam; San Hui, Kwan; Lee, Haiwon

    2016-06-01

    The synthesis of layered double hydroxide (LDH) as electroactive material has been well reported; however, fabricating an LDH electrode with excellent electrochemical performance at high current density remains a challenge. In this paper, we report a 3D hierarchical porous flower-like NiAl-LDH grown on nickel foam (NF) through a liquid-phase deposition method as a high-performance binder-free electrode for energy storage. With large ion-accessible surface area as well as efficient electron and ion transport pathways, the prepared LDH-NF electrode achieves high specific capacity (1250 C g-1 at 2 A g-1 and 401 C g-1 at 50 A g-1) after 5000 cycles of activation at 20 A g-1 and high cycling stability (76.7% retention after another 5000 cycles at 50 A g-1), which is higher than those of most previously reported NiAl-LDH-based materials. Moreover, a hybrid supercapacitor with LDH-NF as the positive electrode and porous graphene nanosheet coated on NF (GNS-NF) as the negative electrode, delivers high energy density (30.2 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 800 W kg-1) and long cycle life, which outperforms the other devices reported in the literature. This study shows that the prepared LDH-NF electrode offers great potential in energy storage device applications.

  13. Study of morphology effects on magnetic interactions and band gap variations for 3d late transition metal bi-doped ZnO nanostructures by hybrid DFT calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Soumendu Baral, Sayan; Mookerjee, Abhijit; Kaphle, Gopi Chandra

    2015-08-28

    Using density functional theory (DFT) based electronic structure calculations, the effects of morphology of semiconducting nanostructures on the magnetic interaction between two magnetic dopant atoms as well as a possibility of tuning band gaps have been studied in the case of the bi-doped (ZnO){sub 24} nanostructures with the impurity dopant atoms of the 3d late transition metals—Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu. To explore the morphology effect, three different structures of the host (ZnO){sub 24} nano-system, having different degrees of spatial confinement, have been considered: a two dimensional nanosheet, a one dimensional nanotube, and a finite cage-shaped nanocluster. The present study employs hybrid density functional theory to accurately describe the electronic structure of all the systems. It is shown here that the magnetic coupling between the two dopant atoms remains mostly anti-ferromagnetic in the course of changing the morphology from the sheet geometry to the cage-shaped geometry of the host systems, except for the case of energetically most stable bi-Mn doping, which shows a transition from ferromagnetic to anti-ferromagnetic coupling with decreasing aspect ratio of the host system. The effect of the shape change, however, has a significant effect on the overall band gap variations of both the pristine as well as all the bi-doped systems, irrespective of the nature of the dopant atoms and provides a means for easy tunability of their optoelectronic properties.

  14. Study of morphology effects on magnetic interactions and band gap variations for 3d late transition metal bi-doped ZnO nanostructures by hybrid DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Datta, Soumendu; Kaphle, Gopi Chandra; Baral, Sayan; Mookerjee, Abhijit

    2015-08-28

    Using density functional theory (DFT) based electronic structure calculations, the effects of morphology of semiconducting nanostructures on the magnetic interaction between two magnetic dopant atoms as well as a possibility of tuning band gaps have been studied in the case of the bi-doped (ZnO)24 nanostructures with the impurity dopant atoms of the 3d late transition metals-Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu. To explore the morphology effect, three different structures of the host (ZnO)24 nano-system, having different degrees of spatial confinement, have been considered: a two dimensional nanosheet, a one dimensional nanotube, and a finite cage-shaped nanocluster. The present study employs hybrid density functional theory to accurately describe the electronic structure of all the systems. It is shown here that the magnetic coupling between the two dopant atoms remains mostly anti-ferromagnetic in the course of changing the morphology from the sheet geometry to the cage-shaped geometry of the host systems, except for the case of energetically most stable bi-Mn doping, which shows a transition from ferromagnetic to anti-ferromagnetic coupling with decreasing aspect ratio of the host system. The effect of the shape change, however, has a significant effect on the overall band gap variations of both the pristine as well as all the bi-doped systems, irrespective of the nature of the dopant atoms and provides a means for easy tunability of their optoelectronic properties. PMID:26328845

  15. Verification of electromagnetic fluid-kinetic hybrid electron model in global gyrokinetic particle simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holod, I.; Lin, Z.

    2013-03-01

    The fluid-kinetic hybrid electron model is verified in global gyrokinetic particle simulation of linear electromagnetic drift-Alfvénic instabilities in tokamak. In particular, we have recovered the β-stabilization of the ion temperature gradient mode, transition to collisionless trapped electron mode, and the onset of kinetic ballooning mode as βe (ratio of electron kinetic pressure to magnetic pressure) increases.

  16. Towards 3D multi-scale teleseismic and gravity data inversion using hybrid DSM/SPECFEM technique : application to the Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Roland; Monteiller, Vadim; Chevrot, Sébastien; Wang, Yi; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Dufréchou, Grégory

    2015-04-01

    We describe here a method of inversion applied to seismic data sets constrained by gravity data at the regional scale. This will allow us to obtain robust models of P and S wave velocities but also of density, providing key constraints on the composition and thermal state of the lithosphere. Our approach relies on teleseimic waves, which illuminate the medium from below. We have developped a hybrid method in which a wave propagation method at the global scale (DSM/Direct solution method) is coupled with a spectral element method at the regional scale (Monteiller et al. 2013). With the spectral element method, we are able to model the 3D wave propagation effects in a computational domain of 400km long x 400km wide and 200 km deep, for an incident teleseismic wavefront introduced at the boundaries of this domain with periods as short as 2 s. The DSM global method allows to compute this incident field for a spherical Earth model. We use a multi-scale joint inversion of both gravity and seismic waveform data, accounting for the long wavelengths of the gravity field taken from a global model. In terms of inversion technique, we have validated an adjoint method for the inversion of seismic waveforms. An optimized BFGS inversion technique is used to minimize the difference between observed and computed full waveforms. The gradient of the misfit function gives the direction over which the model must be perturbed to minimize this difference. At each step of the inversion procedure we choose an optimal step length that accelerates the minimization. This is the crucial ingredient that allows us to build an efficient iterative full waveform inversion. We have extended this method by incorporating gravity data provided by the BGI/Bureau Gravimétrique International into the inversion. If the waveforms allow us to constrain the seismic velocities, they are less sensitive to the structure in density, which gives independent and crucial information to constrain the nature of rocks

  17. Hybrid fluid/kinetic model for parallel heat conduction

    SciTech Connect

    Callen, J.D.; Hegna, C.C.; Held, E.D.

    1998-12-31

    It is argued that in order to use fluid-like equations to model low frequency ({omega} < {nu}) phenomena such as neoclassical tearing modes in low collisionality ({nu} < {omega}{sub b}) tokamak plasmas, a Chapman-Enskog-like approach is most appropriate for developing an equation for the kinetic distortion (F) of the distribution function whose velocity-space moments lead to the needed fluid moment closure relations. Further, parallel heat conduction in a long collision mean free path regime can be described through a combination of a reduced phase space Chapman-Enskog-like approach for the kinetics and a multiple-time-scale analysis for the fluid and kinetic equations.

  18. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  19. Hybrid simulations of magnetic reconnection with kinetic ions and fluid electron pressure anisotropy

    DOE PAGES

    Le, A.; Daughton, W.; Karimabadi, H.; Egedal, J.

    2016-03-16

    We present the first hybrid simulations with kinetic ions and recently developed equations of state for the electron fluid appropriate for reconnection with a guide field. The equations of state account for the main anisotropy of the electron pressure tensor.Magnetic reconnection is studied in two systems, an initially force-free current sheet and a Harris sheet. The hybrid model with the equations of state is compared to two other models, hybrid simulations with isothermal electrons and fully kinetic simulations. Including the anisotropicequations of state in the hybrid model provides a better match to the fully kinetic model. In agreement with fullymore » kinetic results, the main feature captured is the formation of an electron current sheet that extends several ion inertial lengths. This electron current sheet modifies the Hall magnetic field structure near the X-line, and it is not observed in the standard hybrid model with isotropic electrons. The saturated reconnection rate in this regime nevertheless remains similar in all three models. Here, implications for global modeling are discussed.« less

  20. Determination of kinetic constants of hybrid textile wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Sandhya, S; Sarayu, K; Swaminathan, K

    2008-09-01

    The present study is related to treatment of textile wastewater in microaerophilic-aerobic hybrid reactor. The study showed the effectiveness of biological treatment of wastewater involving appropriate microorganism and suitable reactors. COD and color were reduced to 82-94%, and 99% respectively for textile wastewater. The reactor was operated at highest loading of 16.4 g COD g l(-1)d(-1) and obtained 80% COD and 72% color removal. Biokinetic models were applied to data obtained from experimental studies in continuously operated hybrid reactor. Treatment efficiencies of the reactor were investigated at different hydraulic retention times (2.3-9.1d) and organic loading rates (2.6-16.4 g COD l(-1)d(-1)). Second-order and a Stover-Kincannon models were best fitted to the hybrid column reactor. The second-order substrate removal rate constant (k(2(S))) was found as 41.44 d(-1) for hybrid reactor. Applying the modified Stover-Kincannon model to the hybrid reactor, the maximum removal rate constant (U(max)) and saturation value constant (K(B)) were found to be 212 g l(-1)d(-1) and 22.89 g l(-1)d(-1), respectively.

  1. One-dimensional hybrid-direct kinetic simulation of the discharge plasma in a Hall thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, Kentaro; Boyd, Iain D.; Kolobov, Vladimir I.

    2012-11-15

    In order to model the non-equilibrium plasma within the discharge region of a Hall thruster, the velocity distribution functions (VDFs) must be obtained accurately. A direct kinetic (DK) simulation method that directly solves the plasma Boltzmann equation can achieve better resolution of VDFs in comparison to particle simulations, such as the particle-in-cell (PIC) method that inherently include statistical noise. In this paper, a one-dimensional hybrid-DK simulation, which uses a DK simulation for heavy species and a fluid model for electrons, is developed and compared to a hybrid-PIC simulation. Time-averaged results obtained from the hybrid-DK simulation are in good agreement with hybrid-PIC results and experimental data. It is shown from a comparison of using a kinetic simulation and solving the continuity equation that modeling of the neutral atoms plays an important role for simulations of the Hall thruster discharge plasma. In addition, low and high frequency plasma oscillations are observed. Although the kinetic nature of electrons is not resolved due to the use of a fluid model, the hybrid-DK model provides spatially and temporally well-resolved plasma properties and an improved resolution of VDFs for heavy species with less statistical noise in comparison to the hybrid-PIC method.

  2. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  3. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  4. Kinetics of hybridization on surface oligonucleotide microchips: theory, experiment, and comparison with hybridization on gel-based microchips.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, N V; Chechetkin, V R; Pan'kov, S V; Somova, O G; Livshits, M A; Donnikov, M Y; Turygin, A Y; Barsky, V E; Zasedatelev, A S

    2006-08-01

    The optimal design of oligonucleotide microchips and efficient discrimination between perfect and mismatch duplexes strongly depend on the external transport of target DNA to the cells with immobilized probes as well as on respective association and dissociation rates at the duplex formation. In this paper we present the relevant theory for hybridization of DNA fragments with oligonucleotide probes immobilized in the cells on flat substrate. With minor modifications, our theory also is applicable to reaction-diffusion hybridization kinetics for the probes immobilized on the surface of microbeads immersed in hybridization solution. The main theoretical predictions are verified with control experiments. Besides that, we compared the characteristics of the surface and gel-based oligonucleotide microchips. The comparison was performed for the chips printed with the same pin robot, for the signals measured with the same devices and processed by the same technique, and for the same hybridization conditions. The sets of probe oligonucleotides and the concentrations of probes in respective solutions used for immobilization on each platform were identical as well. We found that, despite the slower hybridization kinetics, the fluorescence signals and mutation discrimination efficiency appeared to be higher for the gel-based microchips with respect to their surface counterparts even for the relatively short hybridization time about 0.5-1 hour. Both the divergence between signals for perfects and the difference in mutation discrimination efficiency for the counterpart platforms rapidly grow with incubation time. In particular, for hybridization during 3 h the signals for gel-based microchips surpassed their surface counterparts in 5-20 times, while the ratios of signals for perfect-mismatch pairs for gel microchips exceeded the corresponding ratios for surface microchips in 2-4 times. These effects may be attributed to the better immobilization efficiency and to the higher

  5. Theoretical analysis of the kinetics of DNA hybridization with gel-immobilized oligonucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Livshits, M A; Mirzabekov, A D

    1996-01-01

    A new method of DNA sequencing by hybridization using a microchip containing a set of immobilized oligonucleotides is being developed. A theoretical analysis is presented of the kinetics of DNA hybridization with deoxynucleotide molecules chemically tethered in a polyacrylamide gel layer. The analysis has shown that long-term evolution of the spatial distribution and of the amount of DNA bound in a hybridization cell is governed by "retarded diffusion," i.e., diffusion of the DNA interrupted by repeated association and dissociation with immobile oligonucleotide molecules. Retarded diffusion determines the characteristic time of establishing a final equilibrium state in a cell, i.e., the state with the maximum quantity and a uniform distribution of bound DNA. In the case of cells with the most stable, perfect duplexes, the characteristic time of retarded diffusion (which is proportional to the equilibrium binding constant and to the concentration of binding sites) can be longer than the duration of the real hybridization procedure. This conclusion is indirectly confirmed by the observation of nonuniform fluorescence of labeled DNA in perfect-match hybridization cells (brighter at the edges). For optimal discrimination of perfect duplexes from duplexes with mismatches the hybridization process should be brought to equilibrium under low-temperature nonsaturation conditions for all cells. The kinetic differences between perfect and nonperfect duplexes in the gel allow further improvement in the discrimination through additional washing at low temperature after hybridization. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8913616

  6. Comparison of 3D kinetic and hydrodynamic models to ROSINA-COPS measurements of the neutral coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieler, Andre; Altwegg, Kathrin; Balsiger, Hans; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Calmonte, Ursina; Combi, Michael; De Keyser, Johan; Fiethe, Björn; Fougere, Nicolas; Fuselier, Stephen; Gasc, Sébastien; Gombosi, Tamas; Hansen, Kenneth; Hässig, Myrtha; Huang, Zhenguang; Jäckel, Annette; Jia, Xianzhe; Le Roy, Lena; Mall, Urs A.; Rème, Henri; Rubin, Martin; Tenishev, Valeriy; Tóth, Gábor; Tzou, Chia-Yu; Wurz, Peter

    2015-11-01

    67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) is a Jupiter-family comet and the object of investigation of the European Space Agency mission Rosetta. This report presents the first full 3D simulation results of 67P's neutral gas coma. In this study we include results from a direct simulation Monte Carlo method, a hydrodynamic code, and a purely geometric calculation which computes the total illuminated surface area on the nucleus. All models include the triangulated 3D shape model of 67P as well as realistic illumination and shadowing conditions. The basic concept is the assumption that these illumination conditions on the nucleus are the main driver for the gas activity of the comet. As a consequence, the total production rate of 67P varies as a function of solar insolation. The best agreement between the model and the data is achieved when gas fluxes on the night side are in the range of 7% to 10% of the maximum flux, accounting for contributions from the most volatile components. To validate the output of our numerical simulations we compare the results of all three models to in situ gas number density measurements from the ROSINA COPS instrument. We are able to reproduce the overall features of these local neutral number density measurements of ROSINA COPS for the time period between early August 2014 and January 1 2015 with all three models. Some details in the measurements are not reproduced and warrant further investigation and refinement of the models. However, the overall assumption that illumination conditions on the nucleus are at least an important driver of the gas activity is validated by the models. According to our simulation results we find the total production rate of 67P to be constant between August and November 2014 with a value of about 1 × 1026 molecules s-1.

  7. Creating and Using Interactive, 3D-Printed Models to Improve Student Comprehension of the Bohr Model of the Atom, Bond Polarity, and Hybridization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiar, Karen; Mendez, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular model kits have been used in chemistry classrooms for decades but have seen very little recent innovation. Using 3D printing, three sets of physical models were created for a first semester, introductory chemistry course. Students manipulated these interactive models during class activities as a supplement to existing teaching tools for…

  8. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  9. Quantifying floral shape variation in 3D using microcomputed tomography: a case study of a hybrid line between actinomorphic and zygomorphic flowers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun-Neng; Hsu, Hao-Chun; Wang, Cheng-Chun; Lee, Tzu-Kuei; Kuo, Yan-Fu

    2015-01-01

    The quantification of floral shape variations is difficult because flower structures are both diverse and complex. Traditionally, floral shape variations are quantified using the qualitative and linear measurements of two-dimensional (2D) images. The 2D images cannot adequately describe flower structures, and thus lead to unsatisfactory discrimination of the flower shape. This study aimed to acquire three-dimensional (3D) images by using microcomputed tomography (μCT) and to examine the floral shape variations by using geometric morphometrics (GM). To demonstrate the advantages of the 3D-μCT-GM approach, we applied the approach to a second-generation population of florist's gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa) crossed from parents of zygomorphic and actinomorphic flowers. The flowers in the population considerably vary in size and shape, thereby served as good materials to test the applicability of the proposed phenotyping approach. Procedures were developed to acquire 3D volumetric flower images using a μCT scanner, to segment the flower regions from the background, and to select homologous characteristic points (i.e., landmarks) from the flower images for the subsequent GM analysis. The procedures identified 95 landmarks for each flower and thus improved the capability of describing and illustrating the flower shapes, compared with typically lower number of landmarks in 2D analyses. The GM analysis demonstrated that flower opening and dorsoventral symmetry were the principal shape variations of the flowers. The degrees of flower opening and corolla asymmetry were then subsequently quantified directly from the 3D flower images. The 3D-μCT-GM approach revealed shape variations that could not be identified using typical 2D approaches and accurately quantified the flower traits that presented a challenge in 2D images. The approach opens new avenues to investigate floral shape variations. PMID:26442038

  10. An automated image-based method of 3D subject-specific body segment parameter estimation for kinetic analyses of rapid movements.

    PubMed

    Sheets, Alison L; Corazza, Stefano; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2010-01-01

    Accurate subject-specific body segment parameters (BSPs) are necessary to perform kinetic analyses of human movements with large accelerations, or no external contact forces or moments. A new automated topographical image-based method of estimating segment mass, center of mass (CM) position, and moments of inertia is presented. Body geometry and volume were measured using a laser scanner, then an automated pose and shape registration algorithm segmented the scanned body surface, and identified joint center (JC) positions. Assuming the constant segment densities of Dempster, thigh and shank masses, CM locations, and moments of inertia were estimated for four male subjects with body mass indexes (BMIs) of 19.7-38.2. The subject-specific BSP were compared with those determined using Dempster and Clauser regression equations. The influence of BSP and BMI differences on knee and hip net forces and moments during a running swing phase were quantified for the subjects with the smallest and largest BMIs. Subject-specific BSP for 15 body segments were quickly calculated using the image-based method, and total subject masses were overestimated by 1.7-2.9%.When compared with the Dempster and Clauser methods, image-based and regression estimated thigh BSP varied more than the shank parameters. Thigh masses and hip JC to thigh CM distances were consistently larger, and each transverse moment of inertia was smaller using the image-based method. Because the shank had larger linear and angular accelerations than the thigh during the running swing phase, shank BSP differences had a larger effect on calculated intersegmental forces and moments at the knee joint than thigh BSP differences did at the hip. It was the net knee kinetic differences caused by the shank BSP differences that were the largest contributors to the hip variations. Finally, BSP differences produced larger kinetic differences for the subject with larger segment masses, suggesting that parameter accuracy is more

  11. An automated image-based method of 3D subject-specific body segment parameter estimation for kinetic analyses of rapid movements.

    PubMed

    Sheets, Alison L; Corazza, Stefano; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2010-01-01

    Accurate subject-specific body segment parameters (BSPs) are necessary to perform kinetic analyses of human movements with large accelerations, or no external contact forces or moments. A new automated topographical image-based method of estimating segment mass, center of mass (CM) position, and moments of inertia is presented. Body geometry and volume were measured using a laser scanner, then an automated pose and shape registration algorithm segmented the scanned body surface, and identified joint center (JC) positions. Assuming the constant segment densities of Dempster, thigh and shank masses, CM locations, and moments of inertia were estimated for four male subjects with body mass indexes (BMIs) of 19.7-38.2. The subject-specific BSP were compared with those determined using Dempster and Clauser regression equations. The influence of BSP and BMI differences on knee and hip net forces and moments during a running swing phase were quantified for the subjects with the smallest and largest BMIs. Subject-specific BSP for 15 body segments were quickly calculated using the image-based method, and total subject masses were overestimated by 1.7-2.9%.When compared with the Dempster and Clauser methods, image-based and regression estimated thigh BSP varied more than the shank parameters. Thigh masses and hip JC to thigh CM distances were consistently larger, and each transverse moment of inertia was smaller using the image-based method. Because the shank had larger linear and angular accelerations than the thigh during the running swing phase, shank BSP differences had a larger effect on calculated intersegmental forces and moments at the knee joint than thigh BSP differences did at the hip. It was the net knee kinetic differences caused by the shank BSP differences that were the largest contributors to the hip variations. Finally, BSP differences produced larger kinetic differences for the subject with larger segment masses, suggesting that parameter accuracy is more

  12. Solar-wind turbulence at kinetic wavelengths: hybrid-Vlasov simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentini, F.; Califano, F.; Veltri, P.

    2010-12-01

    The cooling of the expanding solar wind is less efficient than expected. Scientists pointed out that the reason of this empirical evidence is related to the turbulent character of the solar wind plasma. The identification of the physical mechanism replacing "energy dissipation" in a collisionless magnetized plasma and establishing the link between macroscopic and microscopic scales would open a new scenario of broad importance in the field of turbulence and would have far-reaching implications in the problem of space plasma heating. Turbulent heating consists both in a progressive energy degradation and disorder increasing, going from large to small scales. The increase of disorder results into the production, through nonlinear interaction, of small-scale fluctuations involving not only the kinetic energy, as in the case of heat, but also the potential energy associated with electric and magnetic field fluctuations. To numerically analyze the kinetic effects on the evolution of the turbulent spectra in the solar wind, we make use of a recently developed numerical hybrid-Vlasov code [1], where the Vlasov equation is solved for the proton distribution function, while the electron response is taken into account through a generalized Ohm law that retains Hall effects and electron inertia terms. By performing multi-dimensional phase space simulations (1D or 2D in space and 3D in velocity) [2-5] on the last generation of supercomputers, we show that newly identified electrostatic (acoustic-like) modes, in longitudinal propagation with respect to the average magnetic field and driven by particle distribution functions far from local thermodynamic equilibrium, represent a privileged channel for turbulence to carry the energy towards small disordered scales. The system dynamics is analyzed for different electron to ion temperature ratios. Our numerical results provide a qualitative interpretation of a complex phenomenology ubiquitously recovered in many solar

  13. An in vivo study of hindfoot 3D kinetics in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) flatfoot based on weight-bearing CT scan

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y.; Xu, J.; Wang, X.; Huang, J.; Zhang, C.; Chen, L.; Wang, C.; Ma, X.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the rotation and translation of each joint in the hindfoot and compare the load response in healthy feet with that in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) flatfoot by analysing the reconstructive three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) image data during simulated weight-bearing. Methods CT scans of 15 healthy feet and 15 feet with stage II PTTD flatfoot were taken first in a non-weight-bearing condition, followed by a simulated full-body weight-bearing condition. The images of the hindfoot bones were reconstructed into 3D models. The ‘twice registration’ method in three planes was used to calculate the position of the talus relative to the calcaneus in the talocalcaneal joint, the navicular relative to the talus in talonavicular joint, and the cuboid relative to the calcaneus in the calcaneocuboid joint. Results From non- to full-body-weight-bearing condition, the difference in the talus position relative to the calcaneus in the talocalcaneal joint was 0.6° more dorsiflexed (p = 0.032), 1.4° more everted (p = 0.026), 0.9 mm more anterior (p = 0.031) and 1.0 mm more proximal (p = 0.004) in stage II PTTD flatfoot compared with that in a healthy foot. The navicular position difference relative to the talus in the talonavicular joint was 3° more everted (p = 0.012), 1.3 mm more lateral (p = 0.024), 0.8 mm more anterior (p = 0.037) and 2.1 mm more proximal (p = 0.017). The cuboid position difference relative to the calcaneus in the calcaneocuboid joint did not change significantly in rotation and translation (all p ≥ 0.08). Conclusion Referring to a previous study regarding both the cadaveric foot and the live foot, joint instability occurred in the hindfoot in simulated weight-bearing condition in patients with stage II PTTD flatfoot. The method used in this study might be applied to clinical analysis of the aetiology and evolution of PTTD flatfoot, and may inform biomechanical

  14. Hybrid 3-D rocket trajectory program. Part 1: Formulation and analysis. Part 2: Computer programming and user's instruction. [computerized simulation using three dimensional motion analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, L. C. P.; Cook, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Models utilizing various sub-sets of the six degrees of freedom are used in trajectory simulation. A 3-D model with only linear degrees of freedom is especially attractive, since the coefficients for the angular degrees of freedom are the most difficult to determine and the angular equations are the most time consuming for the computer to evaluate. A computer program is developed that uses three separate subsections to predict trajectories. A launch rail subsection is used until the rocket has left its launcher. The program then switches to a special 3-D section which computes motions in two linear and one angular degrees of freedom. When the rocket trims out, the program switches to the standard, three linear degrees of freedom model.

  15. Design of the 1.5 MW, 30-96 MHz ultra-wideband 3 dB high power hybrid coupler for Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) heating in fusion grade reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Rana Pratap; Kumar, Sunil; Kulkarni, S. V.

    2016-01-01

    Design and developmental procedure of strip-line based 1.5 MW, 30-96 MHz, ultra-wideband high power 3 dB hybrid coupler has been presented and its applicability in ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) in tokamak is discussed. For the high power handling capability, spacing between conductors and ground need to very high. Hence other structural parameters like strip-width, strip thickness coupling gap, and junction also become large which can be gone upto optimum limit where various constrains like fabrication tolerance, discontinuities, and excitation of higher TE and TM modes become prominent and significantly deteriorates the desired parameters of the coupled lines system. In designed hybrid coupler, two 8.34 dB coupled lines are connected in tandem to get desired coupling of 3 dB and air is used as dielectric. The spacing between ground and conductors are taken as 0.164 m for 1.5 MW power handling capability. To have the desired spacing, each of 8.34 dB segments are designed with inner dimension of 3.6 × 1.0 × 40 cm where constraints have been significantly realized, compensated, and applied in designing of 1.5 MW hybrid coupler and presented in paper.

  16. Design of the 1.5 MW, 30-96 MHz ultra-wideband 3 dB high power hybrid coupler for Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) heating in fusion grade reactor.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rana Pratap; Kumar, Sunil; Kulkarni, S V

    2016-01-01

    Design and developmental procedure of strip-line based 1.5 MW, 30-96 MHz, ultra-wideband high power 3 dB hybrid coupler has been presented and its applicability in ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) in tokamak is discussed. For the high power handling capability, spacing between conductors and ground need to very high. Hence other structural parameters like strip-width, strip thickness coupling gap, and junction also become large which can be gone upto optimum limit where various constrains like fabrication tolerance, discontinuities, and excitation of higher TE and TM modes become prominent and significantly deteriorates the desired parameters of the coupled lines system. In designed hybrid coupler, two 8.34 dB coupled lines are connected in tandem to get desired coupling of 3 dB and air is used as dielectric. The spacing between ground and conductors are taken as 0.164 m for 1.5 MW power handling capability. To have the desired spacing, each of 8.34 dB segments are designed with inner dimension of 3.6 × 1.0 × 40 cm where constraints have been significantly realized, compensated, and applied in designing of 1.5 MW hybrid coupler and presented in paper.

  17. A hybrid model describing ion induced kinetic electron emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanke, S.; Duvenbeck, A.; Heuser, C.; Weidtmann, B.; Wucher, A.

    2015-06-01

    We present a model to describe the kinetic internal and external electron emission from an ion bombarded metal target. The model is based upon a molecular dynamics treatment of the nuclear degree of freedom, the electronic system is assumed as a quasi-free electron gas characterized by its Fermi energy, electron temperature and a characteristic attenuation length. In a series of previous works we have employed this model, which includes the local kinetic excitation as well as the rapid spread of the generated excitation energy, in order to calculate internal and external electron emission yields within the framework of a Richardson-Dushman-like thermionic emission model. However, this kind of treatment turned out to fail in the realistic prediction of experimentally measured internal electron yields mainly due to the restriction of the treatment of electronic transport to a diffusive manner. Here, we propose a slightly modified approach additionally incorporating the contribution of hot electrons which are generated in the bulk material and undergo ballistic transport towards the emitting interface.

  18. Strong light scattering and broadband (UV to IR) photoabsorption in stretchable 3D hybrid architectures based on Aerographite decorated by ZnO nanocrystallites.

    PubMed

    Tiginyanu, Ion; Ghimpu, Lidia; Gröttrup, Jorit; Postolache, Vitalie; Mecklenburg, Matthias; Stevens-Kalceff, Marion A; Ursaki, Veaceslav; Payami, Nader; Feidenhansl, Robert; Schulte, Karl; Adelung, Rainer; Mishra, Yogendra Kumar

    2016-09-12

    In present work, the nano- and microscale tetrapods from zinc oxide were integrated on the surface of Aerographite material (as backbone) in carbon-metal oxide hybrid hierarchical network via a simple and single step magnetron sputtering process. The fabricated hybrid networks are characterized for morphology, microstructural and optical properties. The cathodoluminescence investigations revealed interesting luminescence features related to carbon impurities and inherent host defects in zinc oxide. Because of the wide bandgap of zinc oxide and its intrinsic defects, the hybrid network absorbs light in the UV and visible regions, however, this broadband photoabsorption behavior extends to the infrared (IR) region due to the dependence of the optical properties of ZnO architectures upon size and shape of constituent nanostructures and their doping by carbon impurities. Such a phenomenon of broadband photoabsorption ranging from UV to IR for zinc oxide based hybrid materials is novel. Additionally, the fabricated network exhibits strong visible light scattering behavior. The developed Aerographite/nanocrystalline ZnO hybrid network materials, equipped with broadband photoabsorption and strong light scattering, are very promising candidates for optoelectronic technologies.

  19. Strong light scattering and broadband (UV to IR) photoabsorption in stretchable 3D hybrid architectures based on Aerographite decorated by ZnO nanocrystallites.

    PubMed

    Tiginyanu, Ion; Ghimpu, Lidia; Gröttrup, Jorit; Postolache, Vitalie; Mecklenburg, Matthias; Stevens-Kalceff, Marion A; Ursaki, Veaceslav; Payami, Nader; Feidenhansl, Robert; Schulte, Karl; Adelung, Rainer; Mishra, Yogendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In present work, the nano- and microscale tetrapods from zinc oxide were integrated on the surface of Aerographite material (as backbone) in carbon-metal oxide hybrid hierarchical network via a simple and single step magnetron sputtering process. The fabricated hybrid networks are characterized for morphology, microstructural and optical properties. The cathodoluminescence investigations revealed interesting luminescence features related to carbon impurities and inherent host defects in zinc oxide. Because of the wide bandgap of zinc oxide and its intrinsic defects, the hybrid network absorbs light in the UV and visible regions, however, this broadband photoabsorption behavior extends to the infrared (IR) region due to the dependence of the optical properties of ZnO architectures upon size and shape of constituent nanostructures and their doping by carbon impurities. Such a phenomenon of broadband photoabsorption ranging from UV to IR for zinc oxide based hybrid materials is novel. Additionally, the fabricated network exhibits strong visible light scattering behavior. The developed Aerographite/nanocrystalline ZnO hybrid network materials, equipped with broadband photoabsorption and strong light scattering, are very promising candidates for optoelectronic technologies. PMID:27616632

  20. Strong light scattering and broadband (UV to IR) photoabsorption in stretchable 3D hybrid architectures based on Aerographite decorated by ZnO nanocrystallites

    PubMed Central

    Tiginyanu, Ion; Ghimpu, Lidia; Gröttrup, Jorit; Postolache, Vitalie; Mecklenburg, Matthias; Stevens-Kalceff, Marion A.; Ursaki, Veaceslav; Payami, Nader; Feidenhansl, Robert; Schulte, Karl; Adelung, Rainer; Mishra, Yogendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In present work, the nano- and microscale tetrapods from zinc oxide were integrated on the surface of Aerographite material (as backbone) in carbon-metal oxide hybrid hierarchical network via a simple and single step magnetron sputtering process. The fabricated hybrid networks are characterized for morphology, microstructural and optical properties. The cathodoluminescence investigations revealed interesting luminescence features related to carbon impurities and inherent host defects in zinc oxide. Because of the wide bandgap of zinc oxide and its intrinsic defects, the hybrid network absorbs light in the UV and visible regions, however, this broadband photoabsorption behavior extends to the infrared (IR) region due to the dependence of the optical properties of ZnO architectures upon size and shape of constituent nanostructures and their doping by carbon impurities. Such a phenomenon of broadband photoabsorption ranging from UV to IR for zinc oxide based hybrid materials is novel. Additionally, the fabricated network exhibits strong visible light scattering behavior. The developed Aerographite/nanocrystalline ZnO hybrid network materials, equipped with broadband photoabsorption and strong light scattering, are very promising candidates for optoelectronic technologies. PMID:27616632

  1. Strong light scattering and broadband (UV to IR) photoabsorption in stretchable 3D hybrid architectures based on Aerographite decorated by ZnO nanocrystallites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiginyanu, Ion; Ghimpu, Lidia; Gröttrup, Jorit; Postolache, Vitalie; Mecklenburg, Matthias; Stevens-Kalceff, Marion A.; Ursaki, Veaceslav; Payami, Nader; Feidenhansl, Robert; Schulte, Karl; Adelung, Rainer; Mishra, Yogendra Kumar

    2016-09-01

    In present work, the nano- and microscale tetrapods from zinc oxide were integrated on the surface of Aerographite material (as backbone) in carbon-metal oxide hybrid hierarchical network via a simple and single step magnetron sputtering process. The fabricated hybrid networks are characterized for morphology, microstructural and optical properties. The cathodoluminescence investigations revealed interesting luminescence features related to carbon impurities and inherent host defects in zinc oxide. Because of the wide bandgap of zinc oxide and its intrinsic defects, the hybrid network absorbs light in the UV and visible regions, however, this broadband photoabsorption behavior extends to the infrared (IR) region due to the dependence of the optical properties of ZnO architectures upon size and shape of constituent nanostructures and their doping by carbon impurities. Such a phenomenon of broadband photoabsorption ranging from UV to IR for zinc oxide based hybrid materials is novel. Additionally, the fabricated network exhibits strong visible light scattering behavior. The developed Aerographite/nanocrystalline ZnO hybrid network materials, equipped with broadband photoabsorption and strong light scattering, are very promising candidates for optoelectronic technologies.

  2. RELAP5-3D User Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Riemke, Richard Allan

    2002-09-01

    The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability1 (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics2 and 3D neutron kinetics3,4. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature5,6,7,8,9,10. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution.

  3. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  4. Utilization of rotor kinetic energy storage for hybrid vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.

    2011-05-03

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine, the power system comprises an electric machine (12) further comprising a first excitation source (47), a permanent magnet rotor (28) and a magnetic coupling rotor (26) spaced from the permanent magnet rotor and at least one second excitation source (43), the magnetic coupling rotor (26) also including a flywheel having an inertial mass to store kinetic energy during an initial acceleration to an operating speed; and wherein the first excitation source is electrically connected to the second excitation source for power cycling such that the flywheel rotor (26) exerts torque on the permanent magnet rotor (28) to assist braking and acceleration of the permanent magnet rotor (28) and consequently, the vehicle. An axial gap machine and a radial gap machine are disclosed and methods of the invention are also disclosed.

  5. Shock-drift acceleration of interstellar pickup protons at the solar wind termination shock: Self-consistent 3D kinetic-gasdynamic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalov, Sergei; Malama, Yury; Alexashov, Dmitry; Izmodenov, Vladislav; Izmodenov, Vladislav

    The numerical model of the shock-drift acceleration of interstellar pickup protons at the three-dimensional solar wind termination shock is presented. The model takes into account multiple reflections of the particles at and passing through the shock in the forward and reverse directions. The processes of the multiple interactions with the shock are possible due to pitch-angle scattering of protons in the upstream and downstream parts of the plasma flow. The model takes into account variations of the magnetic field direction in a vicinity of the shock connected with passing of the sector structure of the interplanetary magnetic field through the shock front at low ecliptic latitudes. The main advantage of the model is the self-consistent treatment of protons and interstellar hydrogen atoms, which are described kinetically and interact with protons through the resonant charge exchange process. The shock-drift acceleration can explain the fluxes of energetic protons measured at the Voyager~1/2 spacecraft after the termination shock crossings. No any pre-acceleration in the supersonic solar wind is needed to explain the data. The results of the model can be used to interpret the interstellar atom fluxes measured at the IBEX spacecraft.

  6. Converting 2D inorganic-organic ZnSe-DETA hybrid nanosheets into 3D hierarchical nanosheet-based ZnSe microspheres with enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xuan; Xu, Rui; Zhu, Rongjiao; Wu, Rui; Zhang, Bin

    2015-05-01

    Engineering two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets into three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structures is one of the great challenges in nanochemistry and materials science. We report a facile and simple chemical conversion route to fabricate 3D hierarchical nanosheet-based ZnSe microspheres by using 2D inorganic-organic hybrid ZnSe-DETA (DETA = diethylenetriamine) nanosheets as the starting precursors. The conversion mechanism involves the controlled depletion of the organic-component (DETA) from the hybrid precursors and the subsequent self-assembly of the remnant inorganic-component (ZnSe). The transformation reaction of ZnSe-DETA nanosheets is mainly influenced by the concentration of DETA in the reaction solution. We demonstrated that this organic-component depletion method could be extended to the synthesis of other hierarchical structures of metal sulfides. In addition, the obtained hierarchical nanosheet-based ZnSe microspheres exhibited outstanding performance in visible light photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange and were highly active for photocatalytic H2 production.Engineering two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets into three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structures is one of the great challenges in nanochemistry and materials science. We report a facile and simple chemical conversion route to fabricate 3D hierarchical nanosheet-based ZnSe microspheres by using 2D inorganic-organic hybrid ZnSe-DETA (DETA = diethylenetriamine) nanosheets as the starting precursors. The conversion mechanism involves the controlled depletion of the organic-component (DETA) from the hybrid precursors and the subsequent self-assembly of the remnant inorganic-component (ZnSe). The transformation reaction of ZnSe-DETA nanosheets is mainly influenced by the concentration of DETA in the reaction solution. We demonstrated that this organic-component depletion method could be extended to the synthesis of other hierarchical structures of metal sulfides. In addition, the obtained

  7. Validation of a hybrid two-site gamma model for naphthalene desorption kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, I.S.; Lion, L.W.; Shuler, M.L.

    1999-09-15

    Three models for sorption/desorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminants from soil were compared for their ability to predict the transport of PAH in soil: a gamma model, a two-site/two-region nonequilibrium model, and a hybrid model. In the hybrid model, soil organic matter was conceptually divided into two compartments; a fraction with rapid sorption/desorption kinetics and a compartment with mass-transfer-limited kinetics. Contaminant sorbed in the rapid compartment was assumed to be in instantaneous equilibrium with the aqueous phase, while the release of contaminant from the slow fraction was assumed to be governed by a gamma distribution of rate coefficients. The hybrid model successfully described the initial rapid release of a model PAH contaminant, naphthalene, from a sieved soil sample of moderate organic content ({approx_equal} 2.3%) as well as the following slow release observed over 25 days in batch desorption experiments. Other necessary model parameters, such as the hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient of naphthalene and the macropore porosity, were evaluated in separate experiments. A transport model incorporating the hybrid model for naphthalene sorption/desorption successfully predicted the elution profile of naphthalene in independent soil-column experiments with no adjustable parameters. The success of the hybrid model suggests that a wide array of rate controls govern PAH desorption. This conclusion is consistent with the view of soils as consisting of a mix of different sorptive constituents and heterogeneous physical constraints on PAH release.

  8. A new 3D multi-fluid model: a study of kinetic effects and variations of physical conditions in the cometary coma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shou, Yinsi; Combi, Michael R.; Toth, Gabor; Huang, Zhenguang; Jia, Xianzhe; Fougere, Nicolas; Tenishev, Valeriy; Gombosi, T. I.; Hansen, Kenneth C.; Bieler, Andre

    2016-10-01

    Physics-based numerical coma models are desirable whether to interpret the spacecraft observations of the inner coma or to compare with the ground-based observations of the outer coma. In this work, we develop a multi-neutral-fluid model based on BATS-R-US in the University of Michigan's SWMF (Space Weather Modeling Framework), which is capable of computing both the inner and the outer coma and simulating time-variable phenomena. It treats H2O, OH, H2, O, and H as separate fluids and each fluid has its own velocity and temperature, with collisions coupling all fluids together. The self-consistent collisional interactions decrease the velocity differences, re-distribute the excess energy deposited by chemical reactions among all species, and account for the varying heating efficiency under various physical conditions. Recognizing that the fluid approach has limitations in capturing all of the correct physics for certain applications, especially for very low density environment, we applied our multi-fluid coma model to comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko (CG) at various heliocentric distances and demonstrated that it is able to yield comparable results as the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) model, which is based on a kinetic approach that is valid under these conditions. Therefore, our model may be a powerful alternative to the particle-based model, especially for some computationally intensive simulations. In addition, by running the model with several combinations of production rates and heliocentric distances, we can characterize the cometary H2O expansion speeds and demonstrate the nonlinear effect of production rates or photochemical heating. Our results are also compared to previous modeling work (e.g., Bockelee-Morvan & Crovisier 1987) and remote observations (e.g., Tseng et al. 2007), which serve as further validation of our model. This work has been partially supported by grant NNX14AG84G from the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program, and US Rosetta

  9. Ultra-long Pt nanolawns supported on TiO2-coated carbon fibers as 3D hybrid catalyst for methanol oxidation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this study, TiO2 thin film photocatalyst on carbon fibers was used to synthesize ultra-long single crystalline Pt nanowires via a simple photoreduction route (thermally activated photoreduction). It also acted as a co-catalytic material with Pt. Taking advantage of the high-aspect ratio of the Pt nanostructure as well as the excellent catalytic activity of TiO2, this hybrid structure has the great potential as the active anode in direct methanol fuel cells. The electrochemical results indicate that TiO2 is capable of transforming CO-like poisoning species on the Pt surface during methanol oxidation and contributes to a high CO tolerance of this Pt nanowire/TiO2 hybrid structure. PMID:22546416

  10. Novel utilization of 3D technology and the hybrid operating theatre: Peri-operative assessment of posterior sterno-clavicular dislocation using cone beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Crowhurst, James A; Campbell, Douglas; Whitby, Mark; Pathmanathan, Pavthrun

    2013-06-15

    A patient with a medial and posterior dislocation of the right sterno-clavicular (SC) joint and displacement of the trachea and brachiocephalic artery by the medial head of the clavicle underwent general anaesthetic in the operating theatre for an open reduction procedure. The surgeon initially attempted a closed reduction, but this required imaging to check SC alignment. The patient was transferred to an adjacent hybrid operating theatre for imaging. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was performed, which successfully demonstrated a significant reduction in the dislocation of the SC joint. The trachea and brachiocephalic artery were no longer compressed or displaced. This case study demonstrates an alternative to the patient being transferred to the medical imaging department for multi-slice CT. It also describes a novel use of the hybrid operating theatre and its CBCT capabilities.

  11. [Kinetics of the lactone-carboxylate transition of hybrid camptothecin-netropsin molecules].

    PubMed

    Oleĭnikov, V A; Ustinova, O A; Mochalov, K E; Ermishov, M A; Grokhovskiĭ, S L; Zhuze, A L; Sukhanova, A V; Nabiev, I R

    2003-01-01

    The kinetics of the hydrolysis of the lactone ring of a hybrid molecule containing the molecules of the antitumor drug camptothecin and a derivative of the antibiotic netropsines, which is highly affine and specific to the DNA A-T sequences was investigated. It was shown that intramolecular interaction significantly slows down the rate of hydrolysis but does not change the equilibrium ratio of concentrations of the lactone and carboxylate forms of the camptothecin fragment of the hybrid molecule, which corresponds to the pH value. The use of intramolecular interaction for controlling the kinetics of the lactone/carboxylate transition makes it possible to create the drugs of the camptothecin family, which preserve the biologically active lactone form under the physiological conditions for a longer time and, therefore, are more effective as anticancer agents. PMID:12815854

  12. Fundamental Studies of Novel Zwitterionic Hybrid Membranes: Kinetic Model and Mechanism Insights into Strontium Removal

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wen; Li, Meng

    2014-01-01

    A series of zwitterionic hybrid membranes were prepared via the ring opening of 1,3-propanesultone with the amine groups in the chains of TMSPEDA and a subsequent sol-gel process. Their kinetic models for strontium removal were investigated using three two-parameter kinetic equations (i.e., Lagergren pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, and Elovich models). Adsorption mechanism was evaluated using intraparticle diffusion model, diffusion-chemisorption model, and Boyd equation. It was found that the adsorption of strontium ions on these zwitterionic hybrid membranes fitted well with the Lagergren pseudo-second order model. Mechanism insights suggested that diffusion-chemisorption was one of the main adsorption mechanisms. Boyd equation exhibited that film-diffusion mechanism might be the control process during the starting period. These findings are very useful in strontium removal from the stimulated radioactive wastewater. PMID:25405224

  13. 3D TiO2@Ni(OH)2 Core-shell Arrays with Tunable Nanostructure for Hybrid Supercapacitor Application

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Qingqing; Zheng, Minrui; Liu, Huajun; Guan, Cao; Mao, Lu; Wang, John

    2015-01-01

    Three dimensional hierarchical nanostructures have attracted great attention for electrochemical energy storage applications. In this work, self-supported TiO2@Ni(OH)2 core-shell nanowire arrays are prepared on carbon fiber paper via the combination of hydrothermal synthesis and chemical bath deposition. In this core-shell hybrid, the morphology and wall size of the interconnected nanoflake shell of Ni(OH)2 can be tuned through adjusting the concentration of ammonia solution. Heterogeneous nucleation and subsequent oriented crystal growth are identified to be the synthesis mechanism affecting the nanostructure of the shell material, which consequently determines the electrochemical performance in both energy storage and charge transfer. Superior capabilities of 264 mAhg−1 at 1 A g−1 and 178 mAh g−1 at 10 A g−1 are achieved with the core-shell hybrids of the optimized structure. The asymmetric supercapacitor prototype, comprising of TiO2@Ni(OH)2 as the anode and mesoporous carbons (MCs) as the cathode, is shown to exhibit superior electrochemical performance with high energy and power densities. The present work provides a clear illustration of the structure-property relationship in nanocrystal synthesis and offers a potential strategy to enhance the battery type Ni(OH)2 electrode in a hybrid supercapacitor device. PMID:26353970

  14. The Interaction of the Solar Wind with Solar Probe Plus - 3D Hybrid Simulation. Report 2: The Study for the Distance 9.5Rs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, Alexander S.; Sittler, Edward C.; Hartle, Richard E.; Cooper, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Our paper is a 2.5D and 3D numerical plasma models of the interaction of the solar wind (SW) with the Solar Probe Plus spacecraft (SPPSC). These results should be interpreted as a basic plasma model for which the derived SW interaction with spacecraft (SC) could have consequences for both plasma wave and electron plasma measurements on board SC in the inner heliosphere. We observe an excitation of the low frequency Alfven and whistler type wave directed by the magnetic field with an amplitude of the electromagnetic field oscillation about of (0.015-0.06) V/m. The compression waves and the jumps in an electric field with an amplitude of about 1.5 V/m and (12-18) V/m were also observed. The observed strong electromagnetic perturbations may be a crucial point in the electromagnetic measurements, which were planned in future Solar Probe Plus mission.

  15. Time-dependent distribution functions and resulting synthetic NPA spectra in C-Mod calculated with the CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW, AORSA full-wave, and DC Lorentz codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, R. W.; Petrov, Yu.; Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A.; Bonoli, P. T.; Bader, A.

    2015-12-01

    A time-dependent simulation of C-Mod pulsed TCRF power is made obtaining minority hydrogen ion distributions with the CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW finite-orbit-width Fokker-Planck code. Cyclotron-resonant TCRF fields are calculated with the AORSA full wave code. The RF diffusion coefficients used in CQL3D are obtained with the DC Lorentz gyro-orbit code for perturbed particle trajectories in the combined equilibrium and TCRF electromagnetic fields. Prior results with a zero-banana-width simulation using the CQL3D/AORSA/DC time-cycles showed a pronounced enhancement of the H distribution in the perpendicular velocity direction compared to results obtained from Stix's quasilinear theory, and this substantially increased the rampup rate of the observed vertically-viewed neutral particle analyzer (NPA) flux, in general agreement with experiment. However, ramp down of the NPA flux after the pulse, remained long compared to the experiment. The present study compares the new FOW results, including relevant gyro-radius effects, to determine the importance of these new effects on the the NPA time-dependence.

  16. Converting 2D inorganic-organic ZnSe-DETA hybrid nanosheets into 3D hierarchical nanosheet-based ZnSe microspheres with enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic performances.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuan; Xu, Rui; Zhu, Rongjiao; Wu, Rui; Zhang, Bin

    2015-06-01

    Engineering two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets into three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structures is one of the great challenges in nanochemistry and materials science. We report a facile and simple chemical conversion route to fabricate 3D hierarchical nanosheet-based ZnSe microspheres by using 2D inorganic-organic hybrid ZnSe-DETA (DETA = diethylenetriamine) nanosheets as the starting precursors. The conversion mechanism involves the controlled depletion of the organic-component (DETA) from the hybrid precursors and the subsequent self-assembly of the remnant inorganic-component (ZnSe). The transformation reaction of ZnSe-DETA nanosheets is mainly influenced by the concentration of DETA in the reaction solution. We demonstrated that this organic-component depletion method could be extended to the synthesis of other hierarchical structures of metal sulfides. In addition, the obtained hierarchical nanosheet-based ZnSe microspheres exhibited outstanding performance in visible light photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange and were highly active for photocatalytic H2 production.

  17. Nano-spatial parameters from 3D to 2D lattice dimensionality by organic variant in [ZnCl4]- [R]+ hybrid materials: Structure, architecture-lattice dimensionality, microscopy, optical Eg and PL correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajit; Verma, Sanjay K.; Alvi, P. A.; Jasrotia, Dinesh

    2016-04-01

    The nanospatial morphological features of [ZnCl]- [C5H4NCH3]+ hybrid derivative depicts 28 nm granular size and 3D spreader shape packing pattern as analyzed by FESEM and single crystal XRD structural studies. The organic moiety connect the inorganic components through N-H+…Cl- hydrogen bond to form a hybrid composite, the replacement of organic derivatives from 2-methylpyridine to 2-Amino-5-choloropyridine results the increase in granular size from 28nm to 60nm and unit cell packing pattern from 3D-2D lattice dimensionality along ac plane. The change in optical energy direct band gap value from 3.01eV for [ZnCl]- [C5H4NCH3]+ (HM1) to 3.42eV for [ZnCl]- [C5H5ClN2]+ (HM2) indicates the role of organic moiety in optical properties of hybrid materials. The photoluminescence emission spectra is observed in the wavelength range of 370 to 600 nm with maximum peak intensity of 9.66a.u. at 438 nm for (HM1) and 370 to 600 nm with max peak intensity of 9.91 a.u. at 442 nm for (HM2), indicating that the emission spectra lies in visible range. PL excitation spectra depicts the maximum excitation intensity [9.8] at 245.5 nm for (HM1) and its value of 9.9 a.u. at 294 nm, specify the excitation spectra lies in UV range. Photoluminescence excitation spectra is observed in the wavelength range of 280 to 350 nm with maximum peak intensity of 9.4 a.u. at 285.5 nm and 9.9 a.u. at 294 and 297 nm, indicating excitation in the UV spectrum. Single crystal growth process and detailed physiochemical characterization such as XRD, FESEM image analysis photoluminescence property reveals the structure stability with non-covalent interactions, lattice dimensionality (3D-2D) correlations interweaving into the design of inorganic-organic hybrid materials.

  18. Bifurcation of resistive wall mode dynamics predicted by magnetohydrodynamic-kinetic hybrid theory

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S. X.; Wang, Z. X.; Wang, S.; Hao, G. Z. Song, X. M.; Wang, A. K.; Liu, Y. Q.

    2015-09-15

    The magnetohydrodynamic-kinetic hybrid theory has been extensively and successfully applied for interpreting experimental observations of macroscopic, low frequency instabilities, such as the resistive wall mode, in fusion plasmas. In this work, it is discovered that an analytic version of the hybrid formulation predicts a bifurcation of the mode dynamics while varying certain physical parameters of the plasma, such as the thermal particle collisionality or the ratio of the thermal ion to electron temperatures. This bifurcation can robustly occur under reasonably large parameter spaces as well as with different assumptions, for instance, on the particle collision model. Qualitatively similar bifurcation features are also observed in full toroidal computations presented in this work, based on a non-perturbative hybrid formulation.

  19. Evaluation of microfluidic biosensor development using microscopic analysis of molecular beacon hybridization kinetics.

    PubMed

    Xi, Chuanwu; Raskin, Lutgarde; Boppart, Stephen A

    2005-03-01

    Molecular beacons, oligonucleotide probes that fluoresce upon hybridization to a target nucleic acid, can be used in microfluidic devices to detect and quantify nucleic acids in solution as well as inside bacterial cells. Three essential steps towards the development of such devices as integrated microfluidic biosensors using molecular beacons were investigated in the present study. First, experiments using real-time confocal microscopy indicated that diffusion of DNA molecular beacons across a 100-mum diameter microfluidic channel took less than one minute after the flow of reagents was stopped. Second, experiments to evaluate hybridization kinetics of DNA molecular beacons with target nucleic acids in solution showed that DNA molecular beacons can be used to characterize hybridization kinetics in real time in microfluidic channels and that hybridization signals approached their maximum in approximately three minutes. Finally, it was demonstrated that peptide nucleic acid molecular beacons can be used to detect bacterial cells in microfluidic devices. These results suggest that the use of microfluidic devices to detect nucleic acids in solution and in bacterial cells is promising and that further development of an integrated microfluidic biosensor for bacterial detection based on this concept is warranted.

  20. An efficient hybrid MLFMA-FFT solver for the volume integral equation in case of sparse 3D inhomogeneous dielectric scatterers

    SciTech Connect

    Zaeytijd, J. de Bogaert, I.; Franchois, A.

    2008-07-01

    Electromagnetic scattering problems involving inhomogeneous objects can be numerically solved by applying a Method of Moments discretization to the volume integral equation. For electrically large problems, the iterative solution of the resulting linear system is expensive, both computationally and in memory use. In this paper, a hybrid MLFMA-FFT method is presented, which combines the fast Fourier transform (FFT) method and the High Frequency Multilevel Fast Multipole Algorithm (MLFMA) in order to reduce the cost of the matrix-vector multiplications needed in the iterative solver. The method represents the scatterers within a set of possibly disjoint identical cubic subdomains, which are meshed using a uniform cubic grid. This specific mesh allows for the application of FFTs to calculate the near interactions in the MLFMA and reduces the memory cost considerably, since the aggregation and disaggregation matrices of the MLFMA can be reused. Additional improvements to the general MLFMA framework, such as an extention of the FFT interpolation scheme of Sarvas et al. from the scalar to the vectorial case in combination with a more economical representation of the radiation patterns on the lowest level in vector spherical harmonics, are proposed and the choice of the subdomain size is discussed. The hybrid method performs better in terms of speed and memory use on large sparse configurations than both the FFT method and the HF MLFMA separately and it has lower memory requirements on general large problems. This is illustrated on a number of representative numerical test cases.

  1. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  2. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.

    2009-05-01

    This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

  3. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    DOE PAGES

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  4. Decoding 3D reach and grasp from hybrid signals in motor and premotor cortices: spikes, multiunit activity, and local field potentials.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Arjun K; Truccolo, Wilson; Vargas-Irwin, Carlos E; Donoghue, John P

    2012-03-01

    Neural activity in motor cortex during reach and grasp movements shows modulations in a broad range of signals from single-neuron spiking activity (SA) to various frequency bands in broadband local field potentials (LFPs). In particular, spatiotemporal patterns in multiband LFPs are thought to reflect dendritic integration of local and interareal synaptic inputs, attentional and preparatory processes, and multiunit activity (MUA) related to movement representation in the local motor area. Nevertheless, the relationship between multiband LFPs and SA, and their relationship to movement parameters and their relative value as brain-computer interface (BCI) control signals, remain poorly understood. Also, although this broad range of signals may provide complementary information channels in primary (MI) and ventral premotor (PMv) areas, areal differences in information have not been systematically examined. Here, for the first time, the amount of information in SA and multiband LFPs was compared for MI and PMv by recording from dual 96-multielectrode arrays while monkeys made naturalistic reach and grasp actions. Information was assessed as decoding accuracy for 3D arm end point and grip aperture kinematics based on SA or LFPs in MI and PMv, or combinations of signal types across areas. In contrast with previous studies with ≤16 simultaneous electrodes, here ensembles of >16 units (on average) carried more information than multiband, multichannel LFPs. Furthermore, reach and grasp information added by various LFP frequency bands was not independent from that in SA ensembles but rather typically less than and primarily contained within the latter. Notably, MI and PMv did not show a particular bias toward reach or grasp for this task or for a broad range of signal types. For BCIs, our results indicate that neuronal ensemble spiking is the preferred signal for decoding, while LFPs and combined signals from PMv and MI can add robustness to BCI control. PMID:22157115

  5. Effect of nonlinearity in hybrid kinetic Monte Carlo-continuum models.

    PubMed

    Balter, Ariel; Lin, Guang; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M

    2012-01-01

    Recently there has been interest in developing efficient ways to model heterogeneous surface reactions with hybrid computational models that couple a kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) model for a surface to a finite-difference model for bulk diffusion in a continuous domain. We consider two representative problems that validate a hybrid method and show that this method captures the combined effects of nonlinearity and stochasticity. We first validate a simple deposition-dissolution model with a linear rate showing that the KMC-continuum hybrid agrees with both a fully deterministic model and its analytical solution. We then study a deposition-dissolution model including competitive adsorption, which leads to a nonlinear rate, and show that in this case the KMC-continuum hybrid and fully deterministic simulations do not agree. However, we are able to identify the difference as a natural result of the stochasticity coming from the KMC surface process. Because KMC captures inherent fluctuations, we consider it to be more realistic than a purely deterministic model. Therefore, we consider the KMC-continuum hybrid to be more representative of a real system.

  6. Comparison between hybrid and fully kinetic models of asymmetric magnetic reconnection: Coplanar and guide field configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Aunai, Nicolas; Hesse, Michael; Kuznetsova, Maria; Black, Carrie; Evans, Rebekah; Zenitani, Seiji; Smets, Roch

    2013-02-15

    Magnetic reconnection occurring in collisionless environments is a multi-scale process involving both ion and electron kinetic processes. Because of their small mass, the electron scales are difficult to resolve in numerical and satellite data, it is therefore critical to know whether the overall evolution of the reconnection process is influenced by the kinetic nature of the electrons, or is unchanged when assuming a simpler, fluid, electron model. This paper investigates this issue in the general context of an asymmetric current sheet, where both the magnetic field amplitude and the density vary through the discontinuity. A comparison is made between fully kinetic and hybrid kinetic simulations of magnetic reconnection in coplanar and guide field systems. The models share the initial condition but differ in their electron modeling. It is found that the overall evolution of the system, including the reconnection rate, is very similar between both models. The best agreement is found in the guide field system, which confines particle better than the coplanar one, where the locality of the moments is violated by the electron bounce motion. It is also shown that, contrary to the common understanding, reconnection is much faster in the guide field system than in the coplanar one. Both models show this tendency, indicating that the phenomenon is driven by ion kinetic effects and not electron ones.

  7. A new hybrid kinetic electron model for full-f gyrokinetic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idomura, Y.

    2016-05-01

    A new hybrid kinetic electron model is developed for electrostatic full-f gyrokinetic simulations of the ion temperature gradient driven trapped electron mode (ITG-TEM) turbulence at the ion scale. In the model, a full kinetic electron model is applied to the full-f gyrokinetic equation, the multi-species linear Fokker-Planck collision operator, and an axisymmetric part of the gyrokinetic Poisson equation, while in a non-axisymmetric part of the gyrokinetic Poisson equation, turbulent fluctuations are determined only by kinetic trapped electrons responses. By using this approach, the so-called ωH mode is avoided with keeping important physics such as the ITG-TEM, the neoclassical transport, the ambipolar condition, and particle trapping and detrapping processes. The model enables full-f gyrokinetic simulations of ITG-TEM turbulence with a reasonable computational cost. Comparisons between flux driven ITG turbulence simulations with kinetic and adiabatic electrons are presented. Although the similar ion temperature gradients with nonlinear upshift from linear critical gradients are sustained in quasi-steady states, parallel flows and radial electric fields are qualitatively different with kinetic electrons.

  8. Venus in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaut, J. J.

    1993-08-01

    Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.

  9. 3D reservoir visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Van, B.T.; Pajon, J.L.; Joseph, P. )

    1991-11-01

    This paper shows how some simple 3D computer graphics tools can be combined to provide efficient software for visualizing and analyzing data obtained from reservoir simulators and geological simulations. The animation and interactive capabilities of the software quickly provide a deep understanding of the fluid-flow behavior and an accurate idea of the internal architecture of a reservoir.

  10. Syntheses, structures and photocatalytic properties of five new praseodymium-antimony oxochlorides: from discrete clusters to 3D inorganic-organic hybrid racemic compounds.

    PubMed

    Zou, Guo-Dong; Wang, Ze-Ping; Song, Ying; Hu, Bing; Huang, Xiao-Ying

    2014-07-14

    Five novel praseodymium-antimony oxochloride (Pr-Sb-O-Cl) cluster-based compounds, namely (2-MepyH)2[Fe(1,10-phen)3]2[Pr4Sb12O18Cl14.6(OH)2.4(Hsal)]·H2O (1), (2-MepyH)2[Fe(1,10-phen)3]4{[Pr4Sb12O18Cl13.5(OH)0.5](bcpb)2[Pr4Sb12O18Cl13.5(OH)0.5]}·42H2O (2), (3-MepyH)2[Fe(1,10-phen)3]{[Pr4Sb12O18Cl13(H2O)2](bcpb)}·2(3-Mepy)·3H2O (3), [Fe(1,10-phen)3]2{[Pr4Sb12O18Cl10(H2O)2](bcpb)2}·3(3-Mepy)·13H2O (4), and (2-MepyH)6[Fe(1,10-phen)3]10{[Pr4Sb12O18Cl13(OH)2]2[Pr4Sb12O18Cl9][Pr4Sb12O18Cl9(OH)2]2(Hpdc)10(pdc)2}·110H2O (5) (2-Mepy = 2-methylpyridine, 3-Mepy = 3-methylpyridine, 1,10-phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, H2sal = salicylic acid, H3bcpb = 3,5-bis(4-carboxyphenoxy)benzoic acid, H3pdc = 3,5-pyrazoledicarboxylic acid) have been solvothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Compound 1 is the first zero-dimensional (0D) Pr-Sb-O-Cl cluster decorated by an organic ligand. Compounds 2-4 are constructed from the same H3bcpb ligands but adopt different structures: 2 represents a rare example of a one-dimensional (1D) nanotubular structure based on high-nuclearity clusters; 3 exhibits a two-dimensional (2D) mono-layered structure, in which left-handed and right-handed helical chains are alternately arranged, while 4 features a double-layered structure with an unprecedented (3,3,6)-connected 3-nodal topological net. Compound 5 is a unique three-dimensional (3D) 2-fold interpenetrating racemic compound, simultaneously containing three kinds of Pr-Sb-O-Cl-pdc clusters. UV-light photocatalytic H2 evolution activity was observed for compound 3 with Pt as a co-catalyst and MeOH as a sacrificial electron donor. In addition, the magnetic properties of compounds 1 and 5 are also studied.

  11. Syntheses, structures and photocatalytic properties of five new praseodymium-antimony oxochlorides: from discrete clusters to 3D inorganic-organic hybrid racemic compounds.

    PubMed

    Zou, Guo-Dong; Wang, Ze-Ping; Song, Ying; Hu, Bing; Huang, Xiao-Ying

    2014-07-14

    Five novel praseodymium-antimony oxochloride (Pr-Sb-O-Cl) cluster-based compounds, namely (2-MepyH)2[Fe(1,10-phen)3]2[Pr4Sb12O18Cl14.6(OH)2.4(Hsal)]·H2O (1), (2-MepyH)2[Fe(1,10-phen)3]4{[Pr4Sb12O18Cl13.5(OH)0.5](bcpb)2[Pr4Sb12O18Cl13.5(OH)0.5]}·42H2O (2), (3-MepyH)2[Fe(1,10-phen)3]{[Pr4Sb12O18Cl13(H2O)2](bcpb)}·2(3-Mepy)·3H2O (3), [Fe(1,10-phen)3]2{[Pr4Sb12O18Cl10(H2O)2](bcpb)2}·3(3-Mepy)·13H2O (4), and (2-MepyH)6[Fe(1,10-phen)3]10{[Pr4Sb12O18Cl13(OH)2]2[Pr4Sb12O18Cl9][Pr4Sb12O18Cl9(OH)2]2(Hpdc)10(pdc)2}·110H2O (5) (2-Mepy = 2-methylpyridine, 3-Mepy = 3-methylpyridine, 1,10-phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, H2sal = salicylic acid, H3bcpb = 3,5-bis(4-carboxyphenoxy)benzoic acid, H3pdc = 3,5-pyrazoledicarboxylic acid) have been solvothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Compound 1 is the first zero-dimensional (0D) Pr-Sb-O-Cl cluster decorated by an organic ligand. Compounds 2-4 are constructed from the same H3bcpb ligands but adopt different structures: 2 represents a rare example of a one-dimensional (1D) nanotubular structure based on high-nuclearity clusters; 3 exhibits a two-dimensional (2D) mono-layered structure, in which left-handed and right-handed helical chains are alternately arranged, while 4 features a double-layered structure with an unprecedented (3,3,6)-connected 3-nodal topological net. Compound 5 is a unique three-dimensional (3D) 2-fold interpenetrating racemic compound, simultaneously containing three kinds of Pr-Sb-O-Cl-pdc clusters. UV-light photocatalytic H2 evolution activity was observed for compound 3 with Pt as a co-catalyst and MeOH as a sacrificial electron donor. In addition, the magnetic properties of compounds 1 and 5 are also studied. PMID:24869770

  12. Analytical finite element matrix elements and global matrix assembly for hierarchical 3-D vector basis functions within the hybrid finite element boundary integral method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Wang, K.; Li, H.; Eibert, T. F.

    2014-11-01

    A hybrid higher-order finite element boundary integral (FE-BI) technique is discussed where the higher-order FE matrix elements are computed by a fully analytical procedure and where the gobal matrix assembly is organized by a self-identifying procedure of the local to global transformation. This assembly procedure applys to both, the FE part as well as the BI part of the algorithm. The geometry is meshed into three-dimensional tetrahedra as finite elements and nearly orthogonal hierarchical basis functions are employed. The boundary conditions are implemented in a strong sense such that the boundary values of the volume basis functions are directly utilized within the BI, either for the tangential electric and magnetic fields or for the asssociated equivalent surface current densities by applying a cross product with the unit surface normals. The self-identified method for the global matrix assembly automatically discerns the global order of the basis functions for generating the matrix elements. Higher order basis functions do need more unknowns for each single FE, however, fewer FEs are needed to achieve the same satisfiable accuracy. This improvement provides a lot more flexibility for meshing and allows the mesh size to raise up to λ/3. The performance of the implemented system is evaluated in terms of computation time, accuracy and memory occupation, where excellent results with respect to precision and computation times of large scale simulations are found.

  13. Segmentation of 3D microPET images of the rat brain via the hybrid gaussian mixture method with kernel density estimation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tai-Been; Chen, Jyh-Cheng; Lu, Henry Horng-Shing

    2012-01-01

    Segmentation of positron emission tomography (PET) is typically achieved using the K-Means method or other approaches. In preclinical and clinical applications, the K-Means method needs a prior estimation of parameters such as the number of clusters and appropriate initialized values. This work segments microPET images using a hybrid method combining the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) with kernel density estimation. Segmentation is crucial to registration of disordered 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) accumulation locations with functional diagnosis and to estimate standardized uptake values (SUVs) of region of interests (ROIs) in PET images. Therefore, simulation studies are conducted to apply spherical targets to evaluate segmentation accuracy based on Tanimoto's definition of similarity. The proposed method generates a higher degree of similarity than the K-Means method. The PET images of a rat brain are used to compare the segmented shape and area of the cerebral cortex by the K-Means method and the proposed method by volume rendering. The proposed method provides clearer and more detailed activity structures of an FDG accumulation location in the cerebral cortex than those by the K-Means method. PMID:22948355

  14. High-Pressure Single-Crystal Structures of 3D Lead-Halide Hybrid Perovskites and Pressure Effects on their Electronic and Optical Properties.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Adam; Lin, Yu; Beavers, Christine M; Voss, Johannes; Mao, Wendy L; Karunadasa, Hemamala I

    2016-04-27

    We report the first high-pressure single-crystal structures of hybrid perovskites. The crystalline semiconductors (MA)PbX3 (MA = CH3NH3 (+), X = Br(-) or I(-)) afford us the rare opportunity of understanding how compression modulates their structures and thereby their optoelectronic properties. Using atomic coordinates obtained from high-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction we track the perovskites' precise structural evolution upon compression. These structural changes correlate well with pressure-dependent single-crystal photoluminescence (PL) spectra and high-pressure bandgaps derived from density functional theory. We further observe dramatic piezochromism where the solids become lighter in color and then transition to opaque black with compression. Indeed, electronic conductivity measurements of (MA)PbI3 obtained within a diamond-anvil cell show that the material's resistivity decreases by 3 orders of magnitude between 0 and 51 GPa. The activation energy for conduction at 51 GPa is only 13.2(3) meV, suggesting that the perovskite is approaching a metallic state. Furthermore, the pressure response of mixed-halide perovskites shows new luminescent states that emerge at elevated pressures. We recently reported that the perovskites (MA)Pb(Br x I1-x )3 (0.2 < x < 1) reversibly form light-induced trap states, which pin their PL to a low energy. This may explain the low voltages obtained from solar cells employing these absorbers. Our high-pressure PL data indicate that compression can mitigate this PL redshift and may afford higher steady-state voltages from these absorbers. These studies show that pressure can significantly alter the transport and thermodynamic properties of these technologically important semiconductors. PMID:27163050

  15. High-Pressure Single-Crystal Structures of 3D Lead-Halide Hybrid Perovskites and Pressure Effects on their Electronic and Optical Properties

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We report the first high-pressure single-crystal structures of hybrid perovskites. The crystalline semiconductors (MA)PbX3 (MA = CH3NH3+, X = Br– or I–) afford us the rare opportunity of understanding how compression modulates their structures and thereby their optoelectronic properties. Using atomic coordinates obtained from high-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction we track the perovskites’ precise structural evolution upon compression. These structural changes correlate well with pressure-dependent single-crystal photoluminescence (PL) spectra and high-pressure bandgaps derived from density functional theory. We further observe dramatic piezochromism where the solids become lighter in color and then transition to opaque black with compression. Indeed, electronic conductivity measurements of (MA)PbI3 obtained within a diamond-anvil cell show that the material’s resistivity decreases by 3 orders of magnitude between 0 and 51 GPa. The activation energy for conduction at 51 GPa is only 13.2(3) meV, suggesting that the perovskite is approaching a metallic state. Furthermore, the pressure response of mixed-halide perovskites shows new luminescent states that emerge at elevated pressures. We recently reported that the perovskites (MA)Pb(BrxI1–x)3 (0.2 < x < 1) reversibly form light-induced trap states, which pin their PL to a low energy. This may explain the low voltages obtained from solar cells employing these absorbers. Our high-pressure PL data indicate that compression can mitigate this PL redshift and may afford higher steady-state voltages from these absorbers. These studies show that pressure can significantly alter the transport and thermodynamic properties of these technologically important semiconductors. PMID:27163050

  16. High-Pressure Single-Crystal Structures of 3D Lead-Halide Hybrid Perovskites and Pressure Effects on their Electronic and Optical Properties.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Adam; Lin, Yu; Beavers, Christine M; Voss, Johannes; Mao, Wendy L; Karunadasa, Hemamala I

    2016-04-27

    We report the first high-pressure single-crystal structures of hybrid perovskites. The crystalline semiconductors (MA)PbX3 (MA = CH3NH3 (+), X = Br(-) or I(-)) afford us the rare opportunity of understanding how compression modulates their structures and thereby their optoelectronic properties. Using atomic coordinates obtained from high-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction we track the perovskites' precise structural evolution upon compression. These structural changes correlate well with pressure-dependent single-crystal photoluminescence (PL) spectra and high-pressure bandgaps derived from density functional theory. We further observe dramatic piezochromism where the solids become lighter in color and then transition to opaque black with compression. Indeed, electronic conductivity measurements of (MA)PbI3 obtained within a diamond-anvil cell show that the material's resistivity decreases by 3 orders of magnitude between 0 and 51 GPa. The activation energy for conduction at 51 GPa is only 13.2(3) meV, suggesting that the perovskite is approaching a metallic state. Furthermore, the pressure response of mixed-halide perovskites shows new luminescent states that emerge at elevated pressures. We recently reported that the perovskites (MA)Pb(Br x I1-x )3 (0.2 < x < 1) reversibly form light-induced trap states, which pin their PL to a low energy. This may explain the low voltages obtained from solar cells employing these absorbers. Our high-pressure PL data indicate that compression can mitigate this PL redshift and may afford higher steady-state voltages from these absorbers. These studies show that pressure can significantly alter the transport and thermodynamic properties of these technologically important semiconductors.

  17. 3D rapid mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaksson, Folke; Borg, Johan; Haglund, Leif

    2008-04-01

    In this paper the performance of passive range measurement imaging using stereo technique in real time applications is described. Stereo vision uses multiple images to get depth resolution in a similar way as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) uses multiple measurements to obtain better spatial resolution. This technique has been used in photogrammetry for a long time but it will be shown that it is now possible to do the calculations, with carefully designed image processing algorithms, in e.g. a PC in real time. In order to get high resolution and quantitative data in the stereo estimation a mathematical camera model is used. The parameters to the camera model are settled in a calibration rig or in the case of a moving camera the scene itself can be used for calibration of most of the parameters. After calibration an ordinary TV camera has an angular resolution like a theodolite, but to a much lower price. The paper will present results from high resolution 3D imagery from air to ground. The 3D-results from stereo calculation of image pairs are stitched together into a large database to form a 3D-model of the area covered.

  18. A linear dispersion relation for the hybrid kinetic-ion/fluid-electron model of plasma physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Told, D.; Cookmeyer, J.; Astfalk, P.; Jenko, F.

    2016-07-01

    A dispersion relation for a commonly used hybrid model of plasma physics is developed, which combines fully kinetic ions and a massless-electron fluid description. Although this model and variations of it have been used to describe plasma phenomena for about 40 years, to date there exists no general dispersion relation to describe the linear wave physics contained in the model. Previous efforts along these lines are extended here to retain arbitrary wave propagation angles, temperature anisotropy effects, as well as additional terms in the generalized Ohm’s law which determines the electric field. A numerical solver for the dispersion relation is developed, and linear wave physics is benchmarked against solutions of a full Vlasov-Maxwell dispersion relation solver. This work opens the door to a more accurate interpretation of existing and future wave and turbulence simulations using this type of hybrid model.

  19. A hybrid model for coupling kinetic corrections of fusion reactivity to hydrodynamic implosion simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xian-Zhu; McDevitt, C. J.; Guo, Zehua; Berk, H. L.

    2014-03-01

    Inertial confinement fusion requires an imploded target in which a central hot spot is surrounded by a cold and dense pusher. The hot spot/pusher interface can take complicated shape in three dimensions due to hydrodynamic mix. It is also a transition region where the Knudsen and inverse Knudsen layer effect can significantly modify the fusion reactivity in comparison with the commonly used value evaluated with background Maxwellians. Here, we describe a hybrid model that couples the kinetic correction of fusion reactivity to global hydrodynamic implosion simulations. The key ingredient is a non-perturbative treatment of the tail ions in the interface region where the Gamow ion Knudsen number approaches or surpasses order unity. The accuracy of the coupling scheme is controlled by the precise criteria for matching the non-perturbative kinetic model to perturbative solutions in both configuration space and velocity space.

  20. Estimation of gene reiteration from hybridization kinetics in moderate deoxyribonucleic acid excess.

    PubMed Central

    Muto, M

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical calculations were carried out to clarify how the DNA/RNA or the DNA/cDNA (complementary DNA) ratio in the hybridization reaction mixture affects the kinetics of DNA-RNA or DNA-cDNA reassociation, and theoretical formulae were derived as a function of these ratios. From these formulae, it was found that the DNA/RNA of the DNA/cDNA ratio did not much affect the initial reaction rates of hybridization, but greatly affected the terminal value for the extent of hybrid formation. Therefore the results obtained when one normalizes the experimental data for hydridization and derives the reiteration frequency from a number called the 'half Cot' (Cot 1/2) are not accurate, especially in the presence of a moderate excess of DNA. A simple method for the estimation of gene reiteration was demonstrated that did not use the half Cot value in the determination. This simple method is useful even if DNA-RNA or DNA/cDNA hybridization are done with a moderate excess of DNA. With mouse myeloma cells as a model system, the gene reiteration of the 28S rRNA cristron was determined. PMID:889572

  1. Taming supersymmetric defects in 3d-3d correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Dongmin; Kim, Nakwoo; Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-07-01

    We study knots in 3d Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group {SL}(N,{{C}}), in the context of its relation with 3d { N }=2 theory (the so-called 3d-3d correspondence). The defect has either co-dimension 2 or co-dimension 4 inside the 6d (2,0) theory, which is compactified on a 3-manifold \\hat{M}. We identify such defects in various corners of the 3d-3d correspondence, namely in 3d {SL}(N,{{C}}) CS theory, in 3d { N }=2 theory, in 5d { N }=2 super Yang-Mills theory, and in the M-theory holographic dual. We can make quantitative checks of the 3d-3d correspondence by computing partition functions at each of these theories. This Letter is a companion to a longer paper [1], which contains more details and more results.

  2. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  3. Start-up of membrane bioreactor and hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor: kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Díaz, J C; Poyatos, J M

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor (hybrid MBBR-MBR) system was studied as an alternative solution to conventional activated sludge processes and membrane bioreactors. This paper shows the results obtained from three laboratory-scale wastewater treatment plants working in parallel in the start-up and steady states. The first wastewater treatment plant was a MBR, the second one was a hybrid MBBR-MBR system containing carriers both in anoxic and aerobic zones of the bioreactor (hybrid MBBR-MBRa), and the last one was a hybrid MBBR-MBR system which contained carriers only in the aerobic zone (hybrid MBBR-MBRb). The reactors operated with a hydraulic retention time of 30.40 h. A kinetic study for characterizing heterotrophic biomass was carried out and organic matter and nutrients removals were evaluated. The heterotrophic biomass of the hybrid MBBR-MBRb showed the best kinetic performance in the steady state, with yield coefficient for heterotrophic biomass=0.30246 mg volatile suspended solids per mg chemical oxygen demand, maximum specific growth rate for heterotrophic biomass=0.00308 h(-1) and half-saturation coefficient for organic matter=3.54908 mg O2 L(-1). The removal of organic matter was supported by the kinetic study of heterotrophic biomass.

  4. Hydrogel-based reinforcement of 3D bioprinted constructs.

    PubMed

    Melchels, Ferry P W; Blokzijl, Maarten M; Levato, Riccardo; Peiffer, Quentin C; Ruijter, Mylène de; Hennink, Wim E; Vermonden, Tina; Malda, Jos

    2016-07-19

    Progress within the field of biofabrication is hindered by a lack of suitable hydrogel formulations. Here, we present a novel approach based on a hybrid printing technique to create cellularized 3D printed constructs. The hybrid bioprinting strategy combines a reinforcing gel for mechanical support with a bioink to provide a cytocompatible environment. In comparison with thermoplastics such as [Formula: see text]-polycaprolactone, the hydrogel-based reinforcing gel platform enables printing at cell-friendly temperatures, targets the bioprinting of softer tissues and allows for improved control over degradation kinetics. We prepared amphiphilic macromonomers based on poloxamer that form hydrolysable, covalently cross-linked polymer networks. Dissolved at a concentration of 28.6%w/w in water, it functions as reinforcing gel, while a 5%w/w gelatin-methacryloyl based gel is utilized as bioink. This strategy allows for the creation of complex structures, where the bioink provides a cytocompatible environment for encapsulated cells. Cell viability of equine chondrocytes encapsulated within printed constructs remained largely unaffected by the printing process. The versatility of the system is further demonstrated by the ability to tune the stiffness of printed constructs between 138 and 263 kPa, as well as to tailor the degradation kinetics of the reinforcing gel from several weeks up to more than a year.

  5. The kinetics of force-dependent hybridization and strand-peeling of short DNA fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, ZhouJie; Yuan, GuoHua; Zhai, WeiLi; Yan, Jie; Chen, Hu

    2016-08-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) carries the genetic information in all living organisms. It consists of two interwound single-stranded (ss) strands, forming a double-stranded (ds) DNA with a right-handed double-helical conformation. The two strands are held together by highly specific basepairing interactions and are further stabilized by stacking between adjacent basepairs. A transition from a dsDNA to two separated ssDNA is called melting and the reverse transition is called hybridization. Applying a tensile force to a dsDNA can result in a particular type of DNA melting, during which one ssDNA strand is peeled away from the other. In this work, we studied the kinetics of strand-peeling and hybridization of short DNA under tensile forces. Our results show that the force-dependent strand-peeling and hybridization can be described with a simple two-state model. Importantly, detailed analysis of the force-dependent transition rates revealed that the transition state consists of several basepairs dsDNA.

  6. Subproton-scale Cascades in Solar Wind Turbulence: Driven Hybrid-kinetic Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerri, S. S.; Califano, F.; Jenko, F.; Told, D.; Rincon, F.

    2016-05-01

    A long-lasting debate in space plasma physics concerns the nature of subproton-scale fluctuations in solar wind (SW) turbulence. Over the past decade, a series of theoretical and observational studies were presented in favor of either kinetic Alfvén wave (KAW) or whistler turbulence. Here, we investigate numerically the nature of the subproton-scale turbulent cascade for typical SW parameters by means of unprecedented high-resolution simulations of forced hybrid-kinetic turbulence in two real-space and three velocity-space dimensions. Our analysis suggests that small-scale turbulence in this model is dominated by KAWs at β ≳ 1 and by magnetosonic/whistler fluctuations at lower β. The spectral properties of the turbulence appear to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions. A tentative interpretation of this result in terms of relative changes in the damping rates of the different waves is also presented. Overall, the results raise interesting new questions about the properties and variability of subproton-scale turbulence in the SW, including its possible dependence on the plasma β, and call for detailed and extensive parametric explorations of driven kinetic turbulence in three dimensions.

  7. 3D integrated hybrid silicon laser.

    PubMed

    Song, Bowen; Stagarescu, Cristian; Ristic, Sasa; Behfar, Alex; Klamkin, Jonathan

    2016-05-16

    Lasers were realized on silicon by flip-chip bonding of indium phosphide (InP) devices containing total internal reflection turning mirrors for surface emission. Light is coupled to the silicon waveguides through surface grating couplers. With this technique, InP lasers were integrated on silicon. Laser cavities were also formed by coupling InP reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers to microring resonator filters and distributed Bragg reflector mirrors. Single-mode continuous wave lasing was demonstrated with a side mode suppression ratio of 30 dB. Up to 2 mW of optical power was coupled to the silicon waveguide. Thermal simulations were also performed to evaluate the low thermal impedance afforded by this architecture and potential for high wall-plug efficiency. PMID:27409867

  8. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  9. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  10. Martian terrain - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This area of terrain near the Sagan Memorial Station was taken on Sol 3 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  11. Hybrid electrodynamics and kinetics simulation for electromagnetic wave propagation in weakly ionized hydrogen plasmas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Chen, Bin

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, a hybrid electrodynamics and kinetics numerical model based on the finite-difference time-domain method and lattice Boltzmann method is presented for electromagnetic wave propagation in weakly ionized hydrogen plasmas. In this framework, the multicomponent Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision model considering both elastic and Coulomb collisions and the multicomponent force model based on the Guo model are introduced, which supply a hyperfine description on the interaction between electromagnetic wave and weakly ionized plasma. Cubic spline interpolation and mean filtering technique are separately introduced to solve the multiscalar problem and enhance the physical quantities, which are polluted by numerical noise. Several simulations have been implemented to validate our model. The numerical results are consistent with a simplified analytical model, which demonstrates that this model can obtain satisfying numerical solutions successfully.

  12. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer

    1992-02-01

    TOPAZ3D is a three-dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ3D can be used to solve for the steady-state or transient temperature field on three-dimensional geometries. Material properties may be temperature-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functionalmore » representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. TOPAZ3D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.« less

  13. Three-Dimensional Kinetic Simulation of the Nonlinear Evolution of Lower-Hybrid Waves in the Auroral Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra

    2000-01-01

    Under this grant we have done research on the following topics. 1) Development of Parallel PIC Codes (PPIC); 2) Evolution of Lower-Hybrid Pump Waves; 3) Electron-beam Driven Plasma Electrodynamics; and 4) Studies on Inertial and Kinetic Alfven Waves. A brief summary of our findings and resulting publications are given.

  14. 3D ultrafast laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2013-03-01

    Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.

  15. Thermomechanical properties of 3d transition metals

    SciTech Connect

    Karaoglu, B.; Rahman, S.M.M. . Dept. of Physics)

    1994-05-15

    The authors have investigated the density variation of the Einstein temperatures and elastic constants of the 3d transition metals. In this respect they have employed the transition metal (TM) pair potentials involving the sp contribution with an appropriate exchange and correlation function, the d-band broadening contribution and the d-band hybridization term. These calculations are aimed at testing the TM pair potentials in generating the quasilocal and local thermomechanical properties.

  16. Physics of the Dayside Magnetosphere: New Results From a Hybrid Kinetic Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siebeck, D. G.; Omidi, N.

    2007-01-01

    We use a global hybrid code kinetic model to demonstrate how kinetic processes at the bow shock and within the foreshock can dramatically modify the solar wind just before its interaction with the magnetosphere. During periods of steady radial interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation, the foreshock fills with a diffuse population of suprathermal ions. The ions generate cavities marked by enhanced temperatures, depressed densities, and diminished magnetic field strengths that convect antisunward into the bow shock with the solar wind flow. Tangential discontinuities marked by inward-pointing electric fields and normals transverse to the Sun-Earth line generate hot flow anomalies marked by hot tenuous plasmas bounded by outward propagating shocks. When the motional electric field in the magnetosheath points inward towards the Earth, a solitary bow shock appears. For typical IMF orientations, the solitary shocks should appear at poorly sampled high latitudes, but for strongly northward or southward IMF orientations the solitary shocks should appear on the flanks of the magnetosphere. Although quasi-perpendicular, solitary shocks should be marked by turbulent magnetosheath flows, often directed towards the Sun-Earth line, and abrupt spike-like enhancements in the density and magnetic field strength at the shock. Finally,we show how flux transfer events generated between parallel subsolar reconnection lines are destroyed upon encountering the magnetopause at latitudes above the cusp.

  17. Kinetic hybrid models composed of mechanistic and simplified enzymatic rate laws--a promising method for speeding up the kinetic modelling of complex metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Bulik, Sascha; Grimbs, Sergio; Huthmacher, Carola; Selbig, Joachim; Holzhütter, Hermann G

    2009-01-01

    Kinetic modelling of complex metabolic networks - a central goal of computational systems biology - is currently hampered by the lack of reliable rate equations for the majority of the underlying biochemical reactions and membrane transporters. On the basis of biochemically substantiated evidence that metabolic control is exerted by a narrow set of key regulatory enzymes, we propose here a hybrid modelling approach in which only the central regulatory enzymes are described by detailed mechanistic rate equations, and the majority of enzymes are approximated by simplified(non mechanistic) rate equations (e.g. mass action, LinLog, Michaelis-Menten and power law) capturing only a few basic kinetic features and hence containing only a small number of parameters to be experimentally determined. To check the reliability of this approach, we have applied it to two different metabolic networks, the energy and redox metabolism of red blood cells, and the purine metabolism of hepatocytes, using in both cases available comprehensive mechanistic models as reference standards. Identification of the central regulatory enzymes was performed by employing only information on network topology and the metabolic data for a single reference state of the network [Grimbs S, Selbig J, Bulik S, Holzhutter HG & Steuer R (2007) Mol Syst Biol 3, 146, doi:10.1038/msb4100186].Calculations of stationary and temporary states under various physiological challenges demonstrate the good performance of the hybrid models. We propose the hybrid modelling approach as a means to speed up the development of reliable kinetic models for complex metabolic networks.

  18. A hybrid input-output approach to model metabolic systems: an application to intracellular thiamine kinetics.

    PubMed

    Bellazzi, R; Guglielmann, R; Ironi, L; Patrini, C

    2001-08-01

    Models of the dynamics of complex metabolic systems offer potential benefits to the deep comprehension of the system under study as well as for the performance of certain tasks. Unfortunately, dynamic modeling of a great deal of metabolic systems may be problematic due to the incompleteness of the available knowledge about the underlying mechanisms and to the lack of an adequate observational data set. In theory, a valid alternative to classical structural modeling through ordinary differential equations could be represented by input-output approaches. But, in practice, such methods, which learn the nonlinear dynamics of the system from input-output data, fail when the experimental data set is poor either in size or in quality. Such a situation is not rare in the case of metabolic systems. This paper deals with a hybrid approach which aims at overcoming the problems addressed above. More specifically, it allows us to solve the identification problems of the intracellular thiamine kinetics in the intestine tissue. The method, which is half way between the structural and input-output approach, uses the outcomes of the simulation of a qualitative structural model to build a good initialization of a fuzzy system identifier. Such an initialization allows us to efficiently cope with both the incompleteness of knowledge and the inadequacy of the available data set, and to derive an input-output model of the intracellular thiamine kinetics in the intestine tissue. The comparison of the predictions of the intracellular thiamine kinetics obtained by the application of such a model with those obtained by traditional approaches, namely compartmental models, neural networks, and fuzzy systems, highlighted a better performance of our model. As the structural assumptions are relaxed, we obtained a model slightly less informative than a purely structural one but robust enough to be used as a simulator. The paper also discusses the interpretative potential offered by such a model

  19. 3-D Particle Simulation of Current Sheet Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Lin, Yu; Wang, Xueyi; Tummel, Kurt; Chen, Liu

    2015-11-01

    The electrostatic (ES) and electromagnetic (EM) instabilities of a Harris current sheet are investigated using a 3-D linearized (δf) gyrokinetic (GK) electron and fully kinetic (FK) ion (GeFi) particle simulation code. The equilibrium magnetic field consists of an asymptotic anti-parallel Bx 0 and a guide field BG. The ES simulations show the excitation of lower-hybrid drift instability (LHDI) at the current sheet edge. The growth rate of the 3-D LHDI is scanned through the (kx ,ky) space. The most unstable modes are found to be at k∥ = 0 for smaller ky. As ky increases, the growth rate shows two peaks at k∥ ≠ 0 , consistent with analytical GK theory. The eigenmode structure and growth rate of LHDI obtained from the GeFi simulation agree well with those obtained from the FK PIC simulation. Decreasing BG, the asymptotic βe 0, or background density can destabilize the LHDI. In the EM simulation, tearing mode instability is dominant in the cases with ky kx , there exist two unstable modes: a kink-like (LHDI) mode at the current sheet edge and a sausage-like mode at the sheet center. The results are compared with the GK eigenmode theory and the FK simulation.

  20. Evaluation of a hybrid kinetics/mixing-controlled combustion model for turbulent premixed and diffusion combustion using KIVA-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, H. Lee; Wey, Ming-Jyh

    1990-01-01

    Two dimensional calculations were made of spark ignited premixed-charge combustion and direct injection stratified-charge combustion in gasoline fueled piston engines. Results are obtained using kinetic-controlled combustion submodel governed by a four-step global chemical reaction or a hybrid laminar kinetics/mixing-controlled combustion submodel that accounts for laminar kinetics and turbulent mixing effects. The numerical solutions are obtained by using KIVA-2 computer code which uses a kinetic-controlled combustion submodel governed by a four-step global chemical reaction (i.e., it assumes that the mixing time is smaller than the chemistry). A hybrid laminar/mixing-controlled combustion submodel was implemented into KIVA-2. In this model, chemical species approach their thermodynamics equilibrium with a rate that is a combination of the turbulent-mixing time and the chemical-kinetics time. The combination is formed in such a way that the longer of the two times has more influence on the conversion rate and the energy release. An additional element of the model is that the laminar-flame kinetics strongly influence the early flame development following ignition.

  1. Evaluation of a hybrid kinetics/mixing-controlled combustion model for turbulent premixed and diffusion combustion using KIVA-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, H. Lee; Wey, Ming-Jyh

    1990-01-01

    Two-dimensional calculations were made of spark ignited premixed-charge combustion and direct injection stratified-charge combustion in gasoline fueled piston engines. Results are obtained using kinetic-controlled combustion submodel governed by a four-step global chemical reaction or a hybrid laminar kinetics/mixing-controlled combustion submodel that accounts for laminar kinetics and turbulent mixing effects. The numerical solutions are obtained by using KIVA-2 computer code which uses a kinetic-controlled combustion submodel governed by a four-step global chemical reaction (i.e., it assumes that the mixing time is smaller than the chemistry). A hybrid laminar/mixing-controlled combustion submodel was implemented into KIVA-2. In this model, chemical species approach their thermodynamics equilibrium with a rate that is a combination of the turbulent-mixing time and the chemical-kinetics time. The combination is formed in such a way that the longer of the two times has more influence on the conversion rate and the energy release. An additional element of the model is that the laminar-flame kinetics strongly influence the early flame development following ignition.

  2. M3D project for simulation studies of plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Park, W.; Belova, E.V.; Fu, G.Y.; Strauss, H.R.; Sugiyama, L.E.

    1998-12-31

    The M3D (Multi-level 3D) project carries out simulation studies of plasmas of various regimes using multi-levels of physics, geometry, and mesh schemes in one code package. This paper and papers by Strauss, Sugiyama, and Belova in this workshop describe the project, and present examples of current applications. The currently available physics models of the M3D project are MHD, two-fluids, gyrokinetic hot particle/MHD hybrid, and gyrokinetic particle ion/two-fluid hybrid models. The code can be run with both structured and unstructured meshes.

  3. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  4. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  5. A hybrid computer program for rapidly solving flowing or static chemical kinetic problems involving many chemical species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclain, A. G.; Rao, C. S. R.

    1976-01-01

    A hybrid chemical kinetic computer program was assembled which provides a rapid solution to problems involving flowing or static, chemically reacting, gas mixtures. The computer program uses existing subroutines for problem setup, initialization, and preliminary calculations and incorporates a stiff ordinary differential equation solution technique. A number of check cases were recomputed with the hybrid program and the results were almost identical to those previously obtained. The computational time saving was demonstrated with a propane-oxygen-argon shock tube combustion problem involving 31 chemical species and 64 reactions. Information is presented to enable potential users to prepare an input data deck for the calculation of a problem.

  6. 3D genome tuner: compare multiple circular genomes in a 3D context.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Liang, Qun; Zhang, Xiuqing

    2009-09-01

    Circular genomes, being the largest proportion of sequenced genomes, play an important role in genome analysis. However, traditional 2D circular map only provides an overview and annotations of genome but does not offer feature-based comparison. For remedying these shortcomings, we developed 3D Genome Tuner, a hybrid of circular map and comparative map tools. Its capability of viewing comparisons between multiple circular maps in a 3D space offers great benefits to the study of comparative genomics. The program is freely available (under an LGPL licence) at http://sourceforge.net/projects/dgenometuner.

  7. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  8. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  9. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  10. LLNL-Earth3D

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  11. [3-D ultrasound in gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Zoller, W G; Liess, H

    1994-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a 3D effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate 3D presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of 3D images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of 3D images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal 3D presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the 3D imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. 3D ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible.

  12. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  13. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435

  14. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  15. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  16. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  17. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  18. Equivalence of optical and electrical noise equivalent power of hybrid NbTiN-Al microwave kinetic inductance detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, R. M. J.; Endo, A.; Visser, P. J. de; Klapwijk, T. M.; Baselmans, J. J. A.

    2014-11-10

    We have measured and compared the response of hybrid NbTiN-Al Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) to changes in bath temperature and illumination by sub-mm radiation. We show that these two stimulants have an equivalent effect on the resonance feature of hybrid MKIDs. We determine an electrical noise equivalent power (NEP) from the measured temperature responsivity, quasiparticle recombination time, superconducting transition temperature, and noise spectrum, all of which can be measured in a dark environment. For the two hybrid NbTiN-Al MKIDs studied in detail, the electrical NEP is within a factor of two of the optical NEP, which is measured directly using a blackbody source.

  19. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  20. A kinetic study on the potential of a hybrid reaction mechanism for prediction of NOx formation in biomass grate furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahirović, Selma; Scharler, Robert; Kilpinen, Pia; Obernberger, Ingwald

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents the verification of a hybrid reaction mechanism (28 species, 104 reactions) by means of a kinetic study with a view to its application for the CFD-based prediction of gas phase combustion and NOx formation in biomass grate furnaces. The mechanism is based on a skeletal kinetic scheme that includes the subsets for H2, CO, NH3 and HCN oxidation derived from the detailed Kilpinen 97 reaction mechanism. To account for the CH4 breakdown two related reactions from the 4-step global mechanism for hydrocarbons oxidation by Jones and Lindstedt were adopted. The hybrid mechanism was compared to the global mechanism and validated against the detailed Kilpinen 97 mechanism. For that purpose plug flow reactor simulations at conditions relevant to biomass combustion (atmospheric pressure, 1200-1600 K) for approximations of the flue gases in a grate furnace at fuel lean and fuel rich conditions were carried out. The hybrid reaction mechanism outperformed the global one at all conditions investigated. The most striking differences obtained in predictions by the hybrid and the detailed mechanism at the residence times prior to ignition were attributed to the simplified description of the CH4 oxidation in the case of the former. The overall agreement regarding both combustion and NOx chemistry between the hybrid and the detailed mechanism was better at fuel lean conditions than at fuel rich conditions. However, also at fuel rich conditions, the agreement was improving with increasing temperature. Moreover, it was shown that an improvement in the prediction of NOx formation by the N-subset of the hybrid reaction mechanism can be achieved by replacing its C-H-O subset with that of the detailed one.

  1. Spatially resolved 3D noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haefner, David P.; Preece, Bradley L.; Doe, Joshua M.; Burks, Stephen D.

    2016-05-01

    When evaluated with a spatially uniform irradiance, an imaging sensor exhibits both spatial and temporal variations, which can be described as a three-dimensional (3D) random process considered as noise. In the 1990s, NVESD engineers developed an approximation to the 3D power spectral density (PSD) for noise in imaging systems known as 3D noise. In this correspondence, we describe how the confidence intervals for the 3D noise measurement allows for determination of the sampling necessary to reach a desired precision. We then apply that knowledge to create a smaller cube that can be evaluated spatially across the 2D image giving the noise as a function of position. The method presented here allows for both defective pixel identification and implements the finite sampling correction matrix. In support of the reproducible research effort, the Matlab functions associated with this work can be found on the Mathworks file exchange [1].

  2. Autofocus for 3D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Elkin, Forest

    2008-04-01

    Three dimensional (3D) autofocus remains a significant challenge for the development of practical 3D multipass radar imaging. The current 2D radar autofocus methods are not readily extendable across sensor passes. We propose a general framework that allows a class of data adaptive solutions for 3D auto-focus across passes with minimal constraints on the scene contents. The key enabling assumption is that portions of the scene are sparse in elevation which reduces the number of free variables and results in a system that is simultaneously solved for scatterer heights and autofocus parameters. The proposed method extends 2-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) methods to an arbitrary number of passes allowing the consideration of scattering from multiple height locations. A specific case from the proposed autofocus framework is solved and demonstrates autofocus and coherent multipass 3D estimation across the 8 passes of the "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set" X-Band radar data.

  3. Accepting the T3D

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.

    1994-10-01

    In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

  4. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  5. Generation of ion temperature anisotropy in kinetic hybrid-Vlasov simulations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, D.; Valentini, F.; Servidio, S.; Dalena, S.; Veltri, P.

    2013-12-01

    The interplanetary medium is a multi-component and weakly collisional system generally observed to be in a fully turbulent regime [1,2]. The system dynamics at short spatial scales appears to be dominated by kinetic effects that drive the interstellar gas far from the configuration of thermodynamic equilibrium [3-5]. We present a numerical analysis of a turbulent plasma composed of kinetic ions (protons and alpha particles) and fluid electrons in the typical conditions of the solar-wind environment, developed by using a low-noise hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell code [6,7] in a five dimensional phase space configuration (two dimensions in physical space and three dimensions in velocity space) [8]. The ion dynamics at short spatial scales (shorter than the proton skin depth) display several interesting aspects, mainly consisting in the departure of the distribution functions from the typical Maxwellian configuration, which has been systematically quantified through the evalutation of the temperature anisotropy ratio (perpendicular to parallel temperature ratio) with respect to the local magnetic field. This temperature anisotropy appears to be a direct effect of the turbulent nature of the system dynamics. Moreover, the turbulent activity leads to the generation of coherent structures, such as vortices and current sheets. Conditioned ion temperature distributions suggest heating associated with coherent structures; the distribution of ion temperatures moves towards higher values with increasing PVI threshold for the upper inertial range in the turbulent spectra. This behavior is more evident for alpha particles than for protons. The physical phenomenology recovered in these numerical simulations reproduces very common features recovered in 'in situ' measurements in the turbulent solar wind [9-11], suggesting that the multi-ion Vlasov model represents a valid approach to the understanding of the nature of complex kinetic effects in astrophysical plasmas. [1] R. Bruno and V

  6. LASTRAC.3d: Transition Prediction in 3D Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2004-01-01

    Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) is a general-purpose, physics-based transition prediction code released by NASA for laminar flow control studies and transition research. This paper describes the LASTRAC extension to general three-dimensional (3D) boundary layers such as finite swept wings, cones, or bodies at an angle of attack. The stability problem is formulated by using a body-fitted nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system constructed on the body surface. The nonorthogonal coordinate system offers a variety of marching paths and spanwise waveforms. In the extreme case of an infinite swept wing boundary layer, marching with a nonorthogonal coordinate produces identical solutions to those obtained with an orthogonal coordinate system using the earlier release of LASTRAC. Several methods to formulate the 3D parabolized stability equations (PSE) are discussed. A surface-marching procedure akin to that for 3D boundary layer equations may be used to solve the 3D parabolized disturbance equations. On the other hand, the local line-marching PSE method, formulated as an easy extension from its 2D counterpart and capable of handling the spanwise mean flow and disturbance variation, offers an alternative. A linear stability theory or parabolized stability equations based N-factor analysis carried out along the streamline direction with a fixed wavelength and downstream-varying spanwise direction constitutes an efficient engineering approach to study instability wave evolution in a 3D boundary layer. The surface-marching PSE method enables a consistent treatment of the disturbance evolution along both streamwise and spanwise directions but requires more stringent initial conditions. Both PSE methods and the traditional LST approach are implemented in the LASTRAC.3d code. Several test cases for tapered or finite swept wings and cones at an angle of attack are discussed.

  7. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  8. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  9. Remote 3D Medical Consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

    Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

  10. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  11. A hybrid method for hydrodynamic-kinetic flow Part I: A particle-grid method for reducing stochastic noise in kinetic regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Alaia, Alessandro; Puppo, Gabriella

    2011-06-20

    In this work we present a hybrid particle-grid Monte Carlo method for the Boltzmann equation, which is characterized by a significant reduction of the stochastic noise in the kinetic regime. The hybrid method is based on a first order splitting in time to separate the transport from the relaxation step. The transport step is solved by a deterministic scheme, while a hybrid DSMC-based method is used to solve the collision step. Such a hybrid scheme is based on splitting the solution in a collisional and a non-collisional part at the beginning of the collision step, and the DSMC method is used to solve the relaxation step for the collisional part of the solution only. This is accomplished by sampling only the fraction of particles candidate for collisions from the collisional part of the solution, performing collisions as in a standard DSMC method, and then projecting the particles back onto a velocity grid to compute a piecewise constant reconstruction for the collisional part of the solution. The latter is added to a piecewise constant reconstruction of the non-collisional part of the solution, which in fact remains unchanged during the relaxation step. Numerical results show that the stochastic noise is significantly reduced at large Knudsen numbers with respect to the standard DSMC method. Indeed in this algorithm, the particle scheme is applied only on the collisional part of the solution, so only this fraction of the solution is affected by stochastic fluctuations. But since the collisional part of the solution reduces as the Knudsen number increases, stochastic noise reduces as well at large Knudsen numbers.

  12. 3D-Printed Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony K; Huynh, Wilson; Horowitz, Lisa F; Folch, Albert

    2016-03-14

    The advent of soft lithography allowed for an unprecedented expansion in the field of microfluidics. However, the vast majority of PDMS microfluidic devices are still made with extensive manual labor, are tethered to bulky control systems, and have cumbersome user interfaces, which all render commercialization difficult. On the other hand, 3D printing has begun to embrace the range of sizes and materials that appeal to the developers of microfluidic devices. Prior to fabrication, a design is digitally built as a detailed 3D CAD file. The design can be assembled in modules by remotely collaborating teams, and its mechanical and fluidic behavior can be simulated using finite-element modeling. As structures are created by adding materials without the need for etching or dissolution, processing is environmentally friendly and economically efficient. We predict that in the next few years, 3D printing will replace most PDMS and plastic molding techniques in academia.

  13. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  14. Kinetic and kinematic responses of post mortem human surrogates and the Hybrid III ATD in high-speed frontal sled tests.

    PubMed

    Beeman, Stephanie M; Kemper, Andrew R; Madigan, Michael L; Duma, Stefan M

    2013-06-01

    Despite improvements in vehicle design and safety technologies, frontal automotive collisions continue to result in a substantial number of injuries and fatalities each year. Although a considerable amount of research has been performed on PMHSs and ATDs, matched dynamic whole-body frontal testing with PMHSs and the current ATD aimed at quantifying both kinetic and kinematic data in a single controlled study is lacking in the literature. Therefore, a total of 4 dynamic matched frontal sled tests were performed with three male PMHSs and a Hybrid III 50th percentile male ATD (28.6g, Δv=40 kph). Each subject was restrained using a 4 kN load limiting, driver-side, 3-point seatbelt. Belt force was measured for the lap belt and shoulder belt. Reaction forces were measured at the seat pan, seat back, independent foot plates, and steering column. Linear head acceleration, angular head acceleration, and pelvic acceleration were measured for all subjects. Acceleration of C7, T7, T12, both femurs, and both tibias were also measured for the PMHSs. A Vicon motion analysis system, consisting of 12 MX-T20 2 megapixel cameras, was used to quantify subject 3D motion (±1 mm) at a rate of 1 kHz. Excursions of select anatomical regions were normalized to their respective initial positions and compared by test condition and between subject types. Notable discrepancies were observed in the responses of the PMHSs and the ATD. The reaction forces and belt loading for the ATD, particularly foot plate, seat back, steering column, and lap belt forces, were not in agreement with those of the PMHSs. The forward excursions of the ATD were consistently within those of the PMHSs with the exception of the left upper extremity. This could potentially be due to the known limitations of the Hybrid III ATD shoulder and chest. The results presented herein demonstrate that there are some limitations to the current Hybrid III ATD under the loading conditions evaluated in the current study. Overall

  15. 3-D visualization of ensemble weather forecasts - Part 1: The visualization tool Met.3D (version 1.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenhaus, M.; Kern, M.; Schäfler, A.; Westermann, R.

    2015-02-01

    We present Met.3D, a new open-source tool for the interactive 3-D visualization of numerical ensemble weather predictions. The tool has been developed to support weather forecasting during aircraft-based atmospheric field campaigns, however, is applicable to further forecasting, research and teaching activities. Our work approaches challenging topics related to the visual analysis of numerical atmospheric model output - 3-D visualization, ensemble visualization, and how both can be used in a meaningful way suited to weather forecasting. Met.3D builds a bridge from proven 2-D visualization methods commonly used in meteorology to 3-D visualization by combining both visualization types in a 3-D context. We address the issue of spatial perception in the 3-D view and present approaches to using the ensemble to allow the user to assess forecast uncertainty. Interactivity is key to our approach. Met.3D uses modern graphics technology to achieve interactive visualization on standard consumer hardware. The tool supports forecast data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts and can operate directly on ECMWF hybrid sigma-pressure level grids. We describe the employed visualization algorithms, and analyse the impact of the ECMWF grid topology on computing 3-D ensemble statistical quantitites. Our techniques are demonstrated with examples from the T-NAWDEX-Falcon 2012 campaign.

  16. Met.3D - a new open-source tool for interactive 3D visualization of ensemble weather forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenhaus, Marc; Kern, Michael; Schäfler, Andreas; Westermann, Rüdiger

    2015-04-01

    We introduce Met.3D, a new open-source tool for the interactive 3D visualization of numerical ensemble weather predictions. The tool has been developed to support weather forecasting during aircraft-based atmospheric field campaigns, however, is applicable to further forecasting, research and teaching activities. Our work approaches challenging topics related to the visual analysis of numerical atmospheric model output -- 3D visualisation, ensemble visualization, and how both can be used in a meaningful way suited to weather forecasting. Met.3D builds a bridge from proven 2D visualization methods commonly used in meteorology to 3D visualization by combining both visualization types in a 3D context. It implements methods that address the issue of spatial perception in the 3D view as well as approaches to using the ensemble in order to assess forecast uncertainty. Interactivity is key to the Met.3D approach. The tool uses modern graphics hardware technology to achieve interactive visualization of present-day numerical weather prediction datasets on standard consumer hardware. Met.3D supports forecast data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts and operates directly on ECMWF hybrid sigma-pressure level grids. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the software --illustrated with short video examples--, and give information on its availability.

  17. 3D-Pathology: a real-time system for quantitative diagnostic pathology and visualisation in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottrup, Christian; Beckett, Mark G.; Hager, Henrik; Locht, Peter

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents the results of the 3D-Pathology project conducted under the European EC Framework 5. The aim of the project was, through the application of 3D image reconstruction and visualization techniques, to improve the diagnostic and prognostic capabilities of medical personnel when analyzing pathological specimens using transmitted light microscopy. A fully automated, computer-controlled microscope system has been developed to capture 3D images of specimen content. 3D image reconstruction algorithms have been implemented and applied to the acquired volume data in order to facilitate the subsequent 3D visualization of the specimen. Three potential application fields, immunohistology, cromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and cytology, have been tested using the prototype system. For both immunohistology and CISH, use of the system furnished significant additional information to the pathologist.

  18. Assembly of DNA-functionalized nanoparticles in alcoholic solvents reveals opposite thermodynamic and kinetic trends for DNA hybridization.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brendan D; Liu, Juewen

    2010-05-12

    DNA has been a key molecule in biotechnology and nanotechnology. To date, the majority of the experiments involving DNA have been performed in aqueous solutions, which may be related to the perception that DNA hybridization is slower and less stable in organic solvents. All studies on the effect of organic solvents have focused on thermodynamic properties such as DNA melting temperature and the B-to-A form transition for very long DNAs, but not on the hybridization kinetics of short synthetic DNAs. We employed DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a model system and found that if the alcohol content is less than approximately 30%, more alcohol leads to a faster DNA hybridization, although with a decreased melting temperature. The generality of this observation was independently verified with two molecular beacon systems (in the absence of AuNPs) using fluorophore and quencher-labeled DNAs. With 25% ethanol, the hybridization rates are three to four times faster than in the case with water. This discovery will extend the application of DNA bio- and nanotechnology to organic solvents with improved performance.

  19. 3D Printing of Conductive Complex Structures with In Situ Generation of Silver Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fantino, Erika; Chiappone, Annalisa; Roppolo, Ignazio; Manfredi, Diego; Bongiovanni, Roberta; Pirri, Candido Fabrizio; Calignano, Flaviana

    2016-05-01

    Coupling the photoreduction of a metal precursor with 3D-printing technology is shown to allow the fabrication of conductive 3D hybrid structures consisting of metal nanoparticles and organic polymers shaped in complex multilayered architectures. 3D conductive structures are fabricated incorporating silver nitrate into a photocurable oligomer in the presence of suitable photoinitiators and exposing them to a digital light system.

  20. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  1. SNL3dFace

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmore » of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.« less

  2. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  3. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  4. From a hybrid model to a fully kinetic model: On the modeling of planetary plasma environments by a fully kinetic electromagnetic global model HYB-em

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohjola, Valter; Kallio, Esa; Jarvinen, Riku

    We have developed a fully kinetic electromagnetic model to study instabilities and waves in planetary plasma environments. In the particle-in-a-cell (PIC) model both ions and electrons are modeled as particles. An important feature of the developed global kinetic model, called HYB-em, compared to other electromagnetic codes is that it is built up on an earlier quasi-neutral hybrid simulation platform called HYB and that it can be used in conjunction with earlier hybrid models. The HYB models have been used during the past ten years to study globally the flowing plasma interaction with various Solar System objects: Mercury, Venus, the Moon, Mars, Saturnian moon Titan and asteroids. The new model enables us to (1) study the stability of various planetary plasma regions in three dimensional space, (2) analyze the propa-gation of waves in a plasma environment derived from the other global HYB models. All particle processes in a multi-ion plasma which are implemented on the HYB platform(e.g. ion-neutral collisions, chemical processes, particle loss and production processes) are also automatically included in HYB-em model. In this presentation we study the developed approach by analyzing the propagation of high frequency electromagnetic waves in non-magnetized plasma in two cases: We study (1) expan-sion of a spherical wave generated from a point source and (2) propagation of a plane wave in plasma. We demonstrate that the HYB-em model is capable of describing these space plasma situations successfully. The analysis suggests the potential of the developed model to study both high density-high magnetic field plasma environments, such as Mercury, and low density-low magnetic field plasma environments, such as Venus and Mars.

  5. From a hybrid model to a fully kinetic model: On the modeling of planetary plasma environments by a fully kinetic electromagnetic global model HYB-em

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohjola, Valter; Kallio, Esa

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a fully kinetic electromagnetic model to study instabilities and waves in planetary plasma environments. In the particle-in-a-cell (PIC) model both ions and electrons are modeled as particles. An important feature of the developed global kinetic model, called HYB-em, compared to other electromagnetic codes is that it is built up on an earlier quasi-neutral hybrid simulation platform called HYB and that it can be used in conjunction with earlier hybrid models. The HYB models have been used during the past ten years to study globally the flowing plasma interaction with various Solar System objects: Mercury, Venus, the Moon, Mars, Saturnian moon Titan and asteroids. The new model enables us to (1) study the stability of various planetary plasma regions in three dimensional space, (2) analyze the propagation of waves in a plasma environment derived from the other global HYB models. All particle processes in a multi-ion plasma which are implemented on the HYB platform (e.g. ion-neutral-collisions, chemical processes, particle loss and production processes) are also automatically included in HYB-em model. In this presentation we study the developed approach by analyzing the propagation of high frequency electromagnetic waves in non-magnetized plasma in two cases: We study (1) expansion of a spherical wave generated from a point source and (2) propagation of a plane wave in plasma. We demonstrate that the HYB-em model is capable of describing these space plasma situations successfully. The analysis suggests the potential of the developed model to study both high density-high magnetic field plasma environments, such as Mercury, and low density-low magnetic field plasma environments, such as Venus and Mars.

  6. 3-D magnetic field calculations for wiggglers using MAGNUS-3D

    SciTech Connect

    Pissanetzky, S.; Tompkins, P.

    1988-01-01

    The recent but steady trend toward increased magnetic and geometric complexity in the design of wigglers and undulators, of which tapered wigglers, hybrid structures, laced electromagnetic wigglers, magnetic cladding, twisters and magic structures are examples, has caused a need for reliable 3-D computer models and a better understanding of the behavior of magnetic systems in three dimensions. The capabilities of the MAGNUS-3D Group of Programs are ideally suited to solve this class of problems and provide insight into 3-D effects. MAGNUS-3D can solve any problem of Magnetostatics involving permanent magnets, linear or nonlinear ferromagnetic materials and electric conductors of any shape in space. The magnetic properties of permanent magnets are described by the complete nonlinear demagnetization curve as provided by the manufacturer, or, at the user's choice, by a simpler approximation involving the coercive force, the residual induction and the direction of magnetization. The ferromagnetic materials are described by a magnetization table and an accurate interpolation relation. An internal library with properties of common industrial steels is available. The conductors are independent of the mesh and are described in terms of conductor elements from an internal library.

  7. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  8. Identifying novel sequence variants of RNA 3D motifs

    PubMed Central

    Zirbel, Craig L.; Roll, James; Sweeney, Blake A.; Petrov, Anton I.; Pirrung, Meg; Leontis, Neocles B.

    2015-01-01

    Predicting RNA 3D structure from sequence is a major challenge in biophysics. An important sub-goal is accurately identifying recurrent 3D motifs from RNA internal and hairpin loop sequences extracted from secondary structure (2D) diagrams. We have developed and validated new probabilistic models for 3D motif sequences based on hybrid Stochastic Context-Free Grammars and Markov Random Fields (SCFG/MRF). The SCFG/MRF models are constructed using atomic-resolution RNA 3D structures. To parameterize each model, we use all instances of each motif found in the RNA 3D Motif Atlas and annotations of pairwise nucleotide interactions generated by the FR3D software. Isostericity relations between non-Watson–Crick basepairs are used in scoring sequence variants. SCFG techniques model nested pairs and insertions, while MRF ideas handle crossing interactions and base triples. We use test sets of randomly-generated sequences to set acceptance and rejection thresholds for each motif group and thus control the false positive rate. Validation was carried out by comparing results for four motif groups to RMDetect. The software developed for sequence scoring (JAR3D) is structured to automatically incorporate new motifs as they accumulate in the RNA 3D Motif Atlas when new structures are solved and is available free for download. PMID:26130723

  9. Enhanced electron transfer kinetics through hybrid graphene-carbon nanotube films

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Philémon A.; Raut, Akshay S.; Ubnoske, Stephen M.; Parker, Charles B.; Glass, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    We report the first study of the electrochemical reactivity of a graphenated carbon nanotube (g-CNT) film. The electron transfer kinetics of the ferri-ferrocyanide couple were examined for a g-CNT film and compared to the kinetics to standard carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The g-CNT film exhibited much higher catalytic activity, with a heterogeneous electron-transfer rate constant, k0, approximately two orders of magnitude higher than for standard CNTs. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to correlate the higher electron transfer kinetics with the higher edge-density of the g-CNT film. PMID:25309121

  10. Electromagnetic self-consistent field initialization and fluid advance techniques for hybrid-kinetic PWFA code Architect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massimo, F.; Marocchino, A.; Rossi, A. R.

    2016-09-01

    The realization of Plasma Wakefield Acceleration experiments with high quality of the accelerated bunches requires an increasing number of numerical simulations to perform first-order assessments for the experimental design and online-analysis of the experimental results. Particle in Cell codes are the state-of-the-art tools to study the beam-plasma interaction mechanism, but due to their requirements in terms of number of cores and computational time makes them unsuitable for quick parametric scans. Considerable interest has been shown thus in methods which reduce the computational time needed for the simulation of plasma acceleration. Such methods include the use of hybrid kinetic-fluid models, which treat the relativistic bunches as in a PIC code and the background plasma electrons as a fluid. A technique to properly initialize the bunch electromagnetic fields in the time explicit hybrid kinetic-fluid code Architect is presented, as well the implementation of the Flux Corrected Transport scheme for the fluid equations integrated in the code.

  11. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  12. 3D Printable Graphene Composite.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-08

    In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  13. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  14. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  15. 3D light scanning macrography.

    PubMed

    Huber, D; Keller, M; Robert, D

    2001-08-01

    The technique of 3D light scanning macrography permits the non-invasive surface scanning of small specimens at magnifications up to 200x. Obviating both the problem of limited depth of field inherent to conventional close-up macrophotography and the metallic coating required by scanning electron microscopy, 3D light scanning macrography provides three-dimensional digital images of intact specimens without the loss of colour, texture and transparency information. This newly developed technique offers a versatile, portable and cost-efficient method for the non-invasive digital and photographic documentation of small objects. Computer controlled device operation and digital image acquisition facilitate fast and accurate quantitative morphometric investigations, and the technique offers a broad field of research and educational applications in biological, medical and materials sciences. PMID:11489078

  16. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  17. [Real time 3D echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Bauer, F; Shiota, T; Thomas, J D

    2001-07-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:11494630

  18. DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.; Englemann, B.E. )

    1993-11-30

    DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

  19. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer themore » second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.« less

  20. Alfvénic Turbulence and Kinetic Instabilities in the Expanding Solar Wind: Two-Dimensional Hybrid Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteini, L.; Hellinger, P.; Landi, S.; Franci, L.; Verdini, A.; Travnicek, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Couplings between large and small scales in solar wind turbulence are further complicated by the expansion, which acts at all scales and directly influences the particle thermodynamics. We present 2-D hybrid simulations of kinetic turbulence, including the effects of radial expansion by means of the hybrid expanding model (HEB). We investigate properties of the cascade first in standard hybrid simulations and then we analyze the effects of a slow expansion on the turbulent spectrum (spectral break, residual energy, cross-helicity). Incoherent spectra of balanced and inbalanced counter-propagating Alfvén waves are taken as initial conditions and the dependence on the plasma beta and the amplitude of fluctuations is investigated. We focus on the properties of the ion parallel and perpendicular heating driven by the turbulence, and on how this is modulated by the expansion. Turbulence shapes the properties of the plasma, generating local temperature anisotropy in the distribution functions, however the associated perpendicular heating and parallel cooling are not strong enough to counteract the expansion-driven anisotropic cooling. As a consequence, the plasma is driven towards the fire hose instability threshold with increasing heliocentric distance, in agreement with solar wind observations. Once the plasma enters into the fire hose unstable region, electromagnetic fluctuations driven by the ion temperature anisotropy are generated on top of the background turbulence. Despite the configuration of our simulations - out-of-plane mean magnetic field - which allows for the growth of only a subset of fire hose fluctuations, these waves are able to locally scatter the protons and partially reduce their unstable temperature anisotropy. Our findings show that kinetic instabilities driven by anisotropic distributions, like fire hose, can play a role also in turbulent and inhomogeneous plasmas, and suggest that these mechanisms are at work in the solar wind expansion.

  1. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  2. Performance of hybrid NbTiN-Al microwave kinetic inductance detectors as direct detectors for sub-millimeter astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, R. M. J.; Baselmans, J. J. A.; Endo, A.; Ferrari, L.; Yates, S. J. C.; Baryshev, A. M.; Klapwijk, T. M.

    2014-07-01

    In the next decades millimeter and sub-mm astronomy requires large format imaging arrays and broad-band spectrometers to complement the high spatial and spectral resolution of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. The desired sensors for these instruments should have a background limited sensitivity and a high optical efficiency and enable arrays thousands of pixels in size. Hybrid microwave kinetic inductance detectors consisting of NbTiN and Al have shown to satisfy these requirements. We present the second generation hybrid NbTiN-Al MKIDs, which are photon noise limited in both phase and amplitude readout for loading levels P850GHz < 10 fW. Thanks to the increased responsivity, the photon noise level achieved in phase allows us to simultaneously read out approximately 8000 pixels using state-of-the-art electronics. In addition, the choice of superconducting materials and the use of a Si lens in combination with a planar antenna gives these resonators the flexibility to operate within the frequency range 0:09 < v < 1:1 THz. Given these specifications, hybrid NbTiN-Al MKIDs will enable astronomically usable kilopixel arrays for sub-mm imaging and moderate resolution spectroscopy.

  3. Kinetic-MHD hybrid equilibrium model using a Monte-Carlo calculation of runaway electron distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, Akinobu; Aiba, Nobuyuki; Yagi, Masatoshi

    2015-11-01

    An axisymmetric MHD equilibrium model is studied to allow the inclusion of both beam inertia and energy spectrum for runaway electron beam. Following kinetic-MHD hybrid approach, we evaluate the RE beam current from the integrals of the RE distribution function. The distribution function is here evaluated by a relativistic guiding-center trace code ETC-Rel, where we have implemented the effects of collisions, radiations, and exponential growth into the code. Because to directly treat the Dreicer mechanism in particle simulations is time consuming, the primary RE source is modeled by a Monte-Carlo weighing scheme taking into account the instantaneous generation rate. This paper applies ETC-Rel to the parametric study of the MHD equilibrium with different RE beam parameters. Kinetic effects on the MHD equilibrium appears, e.g., as enhanced Shafranov shifts due to the inertia of highly relativistic electrons. A kinetic modification to the equilibrium becomes significant if the contribution of the beam inertia - being increased with the total electron mass of multi-MeV RE populations - becomes large enough to affect the radial force balance. This work was supported in part by MEXT KAKENHI Grant No. 23561009 and 26820404.

  4. Segmentation and detection of fluorescent 3D spots.

    PubMed

    Ram, Sundaresh; Rodríguez, Jeffrey J; Bosco, Giovanni

    2012-03-01

    The 3D spatial organization of genes and other genetic elements within the nucleus is important for regulating gene expression. Understanding how this spatial organization is established and maintained throughout the life of a cell is key to elucidating the many layers of gene regulation. Quantitative methods for studying nuclear organization will lead to insights into the molecular mechanisms that maintain gene organization as well as serve as diagnostic tools for pathologies caused by loss of nuclear structure. However, biologists currently lack automated and high throughput methods for quantitative and qualitative global analysis of 3D gene organization. In this study, we use confocal microscopy and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) as a cytogenetic technique to detect and localize the presence of specific DNA sequences in 3D. FISH uses probes that bind to specific targeted locations on the chromosomes, appearing as fluorescent spots in 3D images obtained using fluorescence microscopy. In this article, we propose an automated algorithm for segmentation and detection of 3D FISH spots. The algorithm is divided into two stages: spot segmentation and spot detection. Spot segmentation consists of 3D anisotropic smoothing to reduce the effect of noise, top-hat filtering, and intensity thresholding, followed by 3D region-growing. Spot detection uses a Bayesian classifier with spot features such as volume, average intensity, texture, and contrast to detect and classify the segmented spots as either true or false spots. Quantitative assessment of the proposed algorithm demonstrates improved segmentation and detection accuracy compared to other techniques.

  5. Dynamic contrast-enhanced 3D photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Philip; Kosik, Ivan; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.

    2013-03-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is a hybrid imaging modality that integrates the strengths from both optical imaging and acoustic imaging while simultaneously overcoming many of their respective weaknesses. In previous work, we reported on a real-time 3D PAI system comprised of a 32-element hemispherical array of transducers. Using the system, we demonstrated the ability to capture photoacoustic data, reconstruct a 3D photoacoustic image, and display select slices of the 3D image every 1.4 s, where each 3D image resulted from a single laser pulse. The present study aimed to exploit the rapid imaging speed of an upgraded 3D PAI system by evaluating its ability to perform dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging. The contrast dynamics can provide rich datasets that contain insight into perfusion, pharmacokinetics and physiology. We captured a series of 3D PA images of a flow phantom before and during injection of piglet and rabbit blood. Principal component analysis was utilized to classify the data according to its spatiotemporal information. The results suggested that this technique can be used to separate a sequence of 3D PA images into a series of images representative of main features according to spatiotemporal flow dynamics.

  6. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  7. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  8. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  9. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie

    2015-01-09

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  10. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  11. 3D acoustic atmospheric tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.

  12. Gravitation in 3D Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubenstein, John; Cockream, Kandi

    2009-05-01

    3D spacetime was developed by the IWPD Scale Metrics (SM) team using a coordinate system that translates n dimensions to n-1. 4-vectors are expressed in 3D along with a scaling factor representing time. Time is not orthogonal to the three spatial dimensions, but rather in alignment with an object's axis-of-motion. We have defined this effect as the object's ``orientation'' (X). The SM orientation (X) is equivalent to the orientation of the 4-velocity vector positioned tangent to its worldline, where X-1=θ+1 and θ is the angle of the 4-vector relative to the axis-of -motion. Both 4-vectors and SM appear to represent valid conceptualizations of the relationship between space and time. Why entertain SM? Scale Metrics gravity is quantized and may suggest a path for the full unification of gravitation with quantum theory. SM has been tested against current observation and is in agreement with the age of the universe, suggests a physical relationship between dark energy and dark matter, is in agreement with the accelerating expansion rate of the universe, contributes to the understanding of the fine-structure constant and provides a physical explanation of relativistic effects.

  13. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  14. 3D medical thermography device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Peyman

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.

  15. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  16. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  17. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  18. M3D-K simulations of sawteeth and energetic particle transport in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Wei; Sheng, Zheng-Mao; Fu, G. Y.; Breslau, J. A.; Wang, Feng

    2014-09-15

    Nonlinear simulations of sawteeth and related energetic particle transport are carried out using the kinetic/magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) hybrid code M3D-K. MHD simulations show repeated sawtooth cycles for a model tokamak equilibrium. Furthermore, test particle simulations are carried out to study the energetic particle transport due to a sawtooth crash. The results show that energetic particles are redistributed radially in the plasma core, depending on pitch angle and energy. For trapped particles, the redistribution occurs for particle energy below a critical value in agreement with existing theories. For co-passing particles, the redistribution is strong with little dependence on particle energy. In contrast, the redistribution level of counter-passing particles decreases with increasing particle energy.

  19. 3D Printing: 3D Printing of Conductive Complex Structures with In Situ Generation of Silver Nanoparticles (Adv. Mater. 19/2016).

    PubMed

    Fantino, Erika; Chiappone, Annalisa; Roppolo, Ignazio; Manfredi, Diego; Bongiovanni, Roberta; Pirri, Candido Fabrizio; Calignano, Flaviana

    2016-05-01

    On page 3712, E. Fantino, A. Chiappone, and co-workers fabricate conductive 3D hybrid structures by coupling the photo-reduction of metal precursors with 3D printing technology. The generated structures consist of metal nanoparticles embedded in a polymer matrix shaped into complex multilayered architectures. 3D conductive structures are fabricated with a digital light-processing printer incorporating silver salt into photocurable formulations. PMID:27167030

  20. 3D Printing: 3D Printing of Conductive Complex Structures with In Situ Generation of Silver Nanoparticles (Adv. Mater. 19/2016).

    PubMed

    Fantino, Erika; Chiappone, Annalisa; Roppolo, Ignazio; Manfredi, Diego; Bongiovanni, Roberta; Pirri, Candido Fabrizio; Calignano, Flaviana

    2016-05-01

    On page 3712, E. Fantino, A. Chiappone, and co-workers fabricate conductive 3D hybrid structures by coupling the photo-reduction of metal precursors with 3D printing technology. The generated structures consist of metal nanoparticles embedded in a polymer matrix shaped into complex multilayered architectures. 3D conductive structures are fabricated with a digital light-processing printer incorporating silver salt into photocurable formulations.

  1. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

    2004-09-01

    The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data

  2. Peptide Directed 3D Assembly of Nanoparticles through Biomolecular Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Prerna

    The current challenge of the 'bottom up' process is the programmed self-assembly of nanoscale building blocks into complex and larger-scale superstructures with unique properties that can be integrated as components in solar cells, microelectronics, meta materials, catalysis, and sensors. Recent trends in the complexity of device design demand the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) superstructures from multi-nanomaterial components in precise configurations. Bio mimetic assembly is an emerging technique for building hybrid materials because living organisms are efficient, inexpensive, and environmentally benign material generators, allowing low temperature fabrication. Using this approach, a novel peptide-directed nanomaterial assembly technology based on bio molecular interaction of streptavidin and biotin is presented for assembling nanomaterials with peptides for the construction of 3D peptide-inorganic superlattices with defined 3D shape. We took advantage of robust natural collagen triple-helix peptides and used them as nanowire building blocks for 3D peptide-gold nanoparticles superlattice generation. The type of 3D peptide superlattice assembly with hybrid NP building blocks described herein shows potential for the fabrication of complex functional device which demands precise long-range arrangement and periodicity of NPs.

  3. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.

  4. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction. PMID:26861680

  5. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  6. 3D Elastic Wavefield Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guasch, L.; Warner, M.; Stekl, I.; Umpleby, A.; Shah, N.

    2010-12-01

    Wavefield tomography, or waveform inversion, aims to extract the maximum information from seismic data by matching trace by trace the response of the solid earth to seismic waves using numerical modelling tools. Its first formulation dates from the early 80's, when Albert Tarantola developed a solid theoretical basis that is still used today with little change. Due to computational limitations, the application of the method to 3D problems has been unaffordable until a few years ago, and then only under the acoustic approximation. Although acoustic wavefield tomography is widely used, a complete solution of the seismic inversion problem requires that we account properly for the physics of wave propagation, and so must include elastic effects. We have developed a 3D tomographic wavefield inversion code that incorporates the full elastic wave equation. The bottle neck of the different implementations is the forward modelling algorithm that generates the synthetic data to be compared with the field seismograms as well as the backpropagation of the residuals needed to form the direction update of the model parameters. Furthermore, one or two extra modelling runs are needed in order to calculate the step-length. Our approach uses a FD scheme explicit time-stepping by finite differences that are 4th order in space and 2nd order in time, which is a 3D version of the one developed by Jean Virieux in 1986. We chose the time domain because an explicit time scheme is much less demanding in terms of memory than its frequency domain analogue, although the discussion of wich domain is more efficient still remains open. We calculate the parameter gradients for Vp and Vs by correlating the normal and shear stress wavefields respectively. A straightforward application would lead to the storage of the wavefield at all grid points at each time-step. We tackled this problem using two different approaches. The first one makes better use of resources for small models of dimension equal

  7. Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes

    PubMed Central

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Castillo-León, Jaime; Emnéus, Jenny; Svendsen, Winnie E.

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements. PMID:22163508

  8. ShowMe3D

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  9. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  10. Coumarin-Chalcone Hybrids as Peroxyl Radical Scavengers: Kinetics and Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mazzone, Gloria; Galano, Annia; Alvarez-Idaboy, Juan R; Russo, Nino

    2016-04-25

    The primary antioxidant activity of coumarin-chalcone hybrids has been investigated using the density functional and the conventional transition state theories. Their peroxyl radical scavenging ability was studied in solvents of different polarity and taking into account different reaction mechanisms. It was found that the activity of the hybrids increases with the polarity of the environment and the number of phenolic sites. In addition, their peroxyl radical scavenging activity is larger than those of the corresponding nonhybrid coumarin and chalcone molecules. This finding is in line with previous experimental evidence. All the investigated molecules were found to react faster than Trolox with (•)OOH, regardless of the polarity of the environment. The role of deprotonation on the overall activity of the studied compounds was assessed. The rate constants and branching ratios for the reactions of all the studied compounds with (•)OOH are reported for the first time.

  11. Development of a hybrid deterministic/stochastic method for 1D nuclear reactor kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Terlizzi, Stefano; Dulla, Sandra; Ravetto, Piero; Rahnema, Farzad; Zhang, Dingkang

    2015-12-31

    A new method has been implemented for solving the time-dependent neutron transport equation efficiently and accurately. This is accomplished by coupling the hybrid stochastic-deterministic steady-state coarse-mesh radiation transport (COMET) method [1,2] with the new predictor-corrector quasi-static method (PCQM) developed at Politecnico di Torino [3]. In this paper, the coupled method is implemented and tested in 1D slab geometry.

  12. Development of a hybrid deterministic/stochastic method for 1D nuclear reactor kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terlizzi, Stefano; Rahnema, Farzad; Zhang, Dingkang; Dulla, Sandra; Ravetto, Piero

    2015-12-01

    A new method has been implemented for solving the time-dependent neutron transport equation efficiently and accurately. This is accomplished by coupling the hybrid stochastic-deterministic steady-state coarse-mesh radiation transport (COMET) method [1,2] with the new predictor-corrector quasi-static method (PCQM) developed at Politecnico di Torino [3]. In this paper, the coupled method is implemented and tested in 1D slab geometry.

  13. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  14. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  15. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-21

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K(+) channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44(+) EGFR(+) KV1.1(+) MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44(-) EGFR(-) KV1.1(+) 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third

  16. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  17. Doubly hybrid density functional for accurate descriptions of nonbond interactions, thermochemistry, and thermochemical kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Xu, Xin; Goddard, William A.

    2009-01-01

    We develop and validate a density functional, XYG3, based on the adiabatic connection formalism and the Görling–Levy coupling-constant perturbation expansion to the second order (PT2). XYG3 is a doubly hybrid functional, containing 3 mixing parameters. It has a nonlocal orbital-dependent component in the exchange term (exact exchange) plus information about the unoccupied Kohn–Sham orbitals in the correlation part (PT2 double excitation). XYG3 is remarkably accurate for thermochemistry, reaction barrier heights, and nonbond interactions of main group molecules. In addition, the accuracy remains nearly constant with system size. PMID:19276116

  18. 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Maria

    The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.

  19. Locomotive wheel 3D reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xin; Luo, Zhisheng; Gao, Xiaorong; Wu, Jianle

    2010-08-01

    In the article, a system, which is used to reconstruct locomotive wheels, is described, helping workers detect the condition of a wheel through a direct view. The system consists of a line laser, a 2D camera, and a computer. We use 2D camera to capture the line-laser light reflected by the object, a wheel, and then compute the final coordinates of the structured light. Finally, using Matlab programming language, we transform the coordinate of points to a smooth surface and illustrate the 3D view of the wheel. The article also proposes the system structure, processing steps and methods, and sets up an experimental platform to verify the design proposal. We verify the feasibility of the whole process, and analyze the results comparing to standard date. The test results show that this system can work well, and has a high accuracy on the reconstruction. And because there is still no such application working in railway industries, so that it has practical value in railway inspection system.

  20. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  1. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  2. Domain topology and domain switching kinetics in a hybrid improper ferroelectric.

    PubMed

    Huang, F-T; Xue, F; Gao, B; Wang, L H; Luo, X; Cai, W; Lu, X-Z; Rondinelli, J M; Chen, L Q; Cheong, S-W

    2016-05-24

    Charged polar interfaces such as charged ferroelectric walls or heterostructured interfaces of ZnO/(Zn,Mg)O and LaAlO3/SrTiO3, across which the normal component of electric polarization changes suddenly, can host large two-dimensional conduction. Charged ferroelectric walls, which are energetically unfavourable in general, were found to be mysteriously abundant in hybrid improper ferroelectric (Ca,Sr)3Ti2O7 crystals. From the exploration of antiphase boundaries in bilayer-perovskites, here we discover that each of four polarization-direction states is degenerate with two antiphase domains, and these eight structural variants form a Z4 × Z2 domain structure with Z3 vortices and five distinct types of domain walls, whose topology is directly relevant to the presence of abundant charged walls. We also discover a zipper-like nature of antiphase boundaries, which are the reversible creation/annihilation centres of pairs of two types of ferroelectric walls (and also Z3-vortex pairs) in 90° and 180° polarization switching. Our results demonstrate the unexpectedly rich nature of hybrid improper ferroelectricity.

  3. Domain topology and domain switching kinetics in a hybrid improper ferroelectric

    PubMed Central

    Huang, F. -T.; Xue, F.; Gao, B.; Wang, L. H.; Luo, X.; Cai, W.; Lu, X. -Z.; Rondinelli, J. M.; Chen, L. Q.; Cheong, S. -W.

    2016-01-01

    Charged polar interfaces such as charged ferroelectric walls or heterostructured interfaces of ZnO/(Zn,Mg)O and LaAlO3/SrTiO3, across which the normal component of electric polarization changes suddenly, can host large two-dimensional conduction. Charged ferroelectric walls, which are energetically unfavourable in general, were found to be mysteriously abundant in hybrid improper ferroelectric (Ca,Sr)3Ti2O7 crystals. From the exploration of antiphase boundaries in bilayer-perovskites, here we discover that each of four polarization-direction states is degenerate with two antiphase domains, and these eight structural variants form a Z4 × Z2 domain structure with Z3 vortices and five distinct types of domain walls, whose topology is directly relevant to the presence of abundant charged walls. We also discover a zipper-like nature of antiphase boundaries, which are the reversible creation/annihilation centres of pairs of two types of ferroelectric walls (and also Z3-vortex pairs) in 90° and 180° polarization switching. Our results demonstrate the unexpectedly rich nature of hybrid improper ferroelectricity. PMID:27215944

  4. Encapsulation and 3D culture of human adipose-derived stem cells in an in-situ crosslinked hybrid hydrogel composed of PEG-based hyperbranched copolymer and hyaluronic acid

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cell therapy using adipose-derived stem cells has been reported to improve chronic wounds via differentiation and paracrine effects. One such strategy is to deliver stem cells in hydrogels, which are studied increasingly as cell delivery vehicles for therapeutic healing and inducing tissue regeneration. This study aimed to determine the behaviour of encapsulated adipose-derived stem cells and identify the secretion profile of suitable growth factors for wound healing in a newly developed thermoresponsive PEG–hyaluronic acid (HA) hybrid hydrogel to provide a novel living dressing system. Methods In this study, human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) were encapsulated in situ in a water-soluble, thermoresponsive hyperbranched PEG-based copolymer (PEGMEMA–MEO2MA–PEGDA) with multiple acrylate functional groups in combination with thiolated HA, which was developed via deactivated enhanced atom transfer radical polymerisation of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMEMA, Mn = 475), 2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethyl methacrylate (MEO2MA) and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate PEGDA (Mn = 258). hADSCs embedded in the PEGMEMA–MEO2MA–PEGDA and HA hybrid hydrogel system (P-SH-HA) were monitored and analysed for their cell viability, cell proliferation and secretion of growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor beta and placental-derived growth factor) and cytokines (IFNγ, IL-2 and IL-10) under three-dimensional culture conditions via the ATP activity assay, alamarBlue® assay, LIVE/DEAD® assay and multiplex ELISA, respectively. Results hADSCs were successfully encapsulated in situ with high cell viability for up to 7 days in hydrogels. Although cellular proliferation was inhibited, cellular secretion of growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor and placental-derived growth factor production increased over 7 days, whereas IL-2 and IFNγ release were unaffected. Conclusion This study indicates

  5. Forward ramp in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder's forward rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This ramp was not used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. When this image was taken, Sojourner was still latched to one of the lander's petals, waiting for the command sequence that would execute its descent off of the lander's petal.

    The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine whether to deploy the rover using the forward or backward ramps and the nature of the first rover traverse. The metallic object at the lower left of the image is the lander's low-gain antenna. The square at the end of the ramp is one of the spacecraft's magnetic targets. Dust that accumulates on the magnetic targets will later be examined by Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer instrument for chemical analysis. At right, a lander petal is visible.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  6. 3D grain boundary migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J. K.; Bons, P. D.

    2009-04-01

    Microstructures of rocks play an important role in determining rheological properties and help to reveal the processes that lead to their formation. Some of these processes change the microstructure significantly and may thus have the opposite effect in obliterating any fabrics indicative of the previous history of the rocks. One of these processes is grain boundary migration (GBM). During static recrystallisation, GBM may produce a foam texture that completely overprints a pre-existing grain boundary network and GBM actively influences the rheology of a rock, via its influence on grain size and lattice defect concentration. We here present a new numerical simulation software that is capable of simulating a whole range of processes on the grain scale (it is not limited to grain boundary migration). The software is polyhedron-based, meaning that each grain (or phase) is represented by a polyhedron that has discrete boundaries. The boundary (the shell) of the polyhedron is defined by a set of facets which in turn is defined by a set of vertices. Each structural entity (polyhedron, facets and vertices) can have an unlimited number of parameters (depending on the process to be modeled) such as surface energy, concentration, etc. which can be used to calculate changes of the microstructre. We use the processes of grain boundary migration of a "regular" and a partially molten rock to demonstrate the software. Since this software is 3D, the formation of melt networks in a partially molten rock can also be studied. The interconnected melt network is of fundamental importance for melt segregation and migration in the crust and mantle and can help to understand the core-mantle differentiation of large terrestrial planets.

  7. Designing 3D Multihierarchical Heteronanostructures for High-Performance On-Chip Hybrid Supercapacitors: Poly(3,4-(ethylenedioxy)thiophene)-Coated Diamond/Silicon Nanowire Electrodes in an Aprotic Ionic Liquid.

    PubMed

    Aradilla, David; Gao, Fang; Lewes-Malandrakis, Georgia; Müller-Sebert, Wolfgang; Gentile, Pascal; Boniface, Maxime; Aldakov, Dmitry; Iliev, Boyan; Schubert, Thomas J S; Nebel, Christoph E; Bidan, Gérard

    2016-07-20

    A versatile and robust hierarchically multifunctionalized nanostructured material made of poly(3,4-(ethylenedioxy)thiophene) (PEDOT)-coated diamond@silicon nanowires has been demonstrated to be an excellent capacitive electrode for supercapacitor devices. Thus, the electrochemical deposition of nanometric PEDOT films on diamond-coated silicon nanowire (SiNW) electrodes using N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)imide ionic liquid displayed a specific capacitance value of 140 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 1 mV s(-1). The as-grown functionalized electrodes were evaluated in a symmetric planar microsupercapacitor using butyltrimethylammonium bis((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)imide aprotic ionic liquid as the electrolyte. The device exhibited extraordinary energy and power density values of 26 mJ cm(-2) and 1.3 mW cm(-2) within a large voltage cell of 2.5 V, respectively. In addition, the system was able to retain 80% of its initial capacitance after 15 000 galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles at a high current density of 1 mA cm(-2) while maintaining a Coulombic efficiency around 100%. Therefore, this multifunctionalized hybrid device represents one of the best electrochemical performances concerning coated SiNW electrodes for a high-energy advanced on-chip supercapacitor. PMID:27348192

  8. Designing 3D Multihierarchical Heteronanostructures for High-Performance On-Chip Hybrid Supercapacitors: Poly(3,4-(ethylenedioxy)thiophene)-Coated Diamond/Silicon Nanowire Electrodes in an Aprotic Ionic Liquid.

    PubMed

    Aradilla, David; Gao, Fang; Lewes-Malandrakis, Georgia; Müller-Sebert, Wolfgang; Gentile, Pascal; Boniface, Maxime; Aldakov, Dmitry; Iliev, Boyan; Schubert, Thomas J S; Nebel, Christoph E; Bidan, Gérard

    2016-07-20

    A versatile and robust hierarchically multifunctionalized nanostructured material made of poly(3,4-(ethylenedioxy)thiophene) (PEDOT)-coated diamond@silicon nanowires has been demonstrated to be an excellent capacitive electrode for supercapacitor devices. Thus, the electrochemical deposition of nanometric PEDOT films on diamond-coated silicon nanowire (SiNW) electrodes using N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)imide ionic liquid displayed a specific capacitance value of 140 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 1 mV s(-1). The as-grown functionalized electrodes were evaluated in a symmetric planar microsupercapacitor using butyltrimethylammonium bis((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)imide aprotic ionic liquid as the electrolyte. The device exhibited extraordinary energy and power density values of 26 mJ cm(-2) and 1.3 mW cm(-2) within a large voltage cell of 2.5 V, respectively. In addition, the system was able to retain 80% of its initial capacitance after 15 000 galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles at a high current density of 1 mA cm(-2) while maintaining a Coulombic efficiency around 100%. Therefore, this multifunctionalized hybrid device represents one of the best electrochemical performances concerning coated SiNW electrodes for a high-energy advanced on-chip supercapacitor.

  9. 3-D Experimental Fracture Analysis at High Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Jackson; Albert S. Kobayashi

    2001-09-14

    T*e, which is an elastic-plastic fracture parameter based on incremental theory of plasticity, was determined numerically and experimentally. The T*e integral of a tunneling crack in 2024-T3 aluminum, three point bend specimen was obtained through a hybrid analysis of moire interferometry and 3-D elastic-plastic finite element analysis. The results were verified by the good agreement between the experimentally and numerically determined T*e on the specimen surface.

  10. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  11. Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.

    2012-07-01

    It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.

  12. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology.

  13. Beowulf 3D: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Rob

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.

  14. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  15. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  16. 3D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code

    1998-09-23

    E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output.

  17. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  18. 3D-stacked Ag nanowires for efficient plasmonic light absorbers and SERS sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Mun, ChaeWon; Lee, MinKyoung; Park, Sung-Gyu

    2016-04-01

    We report new 3D hybrid plasmonic nanostructures exhibiting highly sensitive SERS-based sensing performance, utilizing efficient plasmonic light absorption and analyte-enrichment effect. The hybrid plasmonic nanostructures composed of 3D-stacked Ag NWs and NPs separated by a thin hydrophobic dielectric interlayer. A hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) interlayer provides dielectric nanogap between Ag NWs and NPs, and analyte-enrichment effect due to the inhibition of drop spreading. The 3D hybrid PDMS-interlayered Ag nanostructures showed hydrophobicity with initial contact angle of 137.6°. Utilizing the analyte-enrichment strategy, the PDMS-interlayered Ag nanostructures exhibited an enhanced sensitivity of methylene blue molecules by a factor of 10 (limit of detection, LOD of 1.5 nM), compared to the alumina-separated 3D hybrid Ag nanostructures.

  19. Integration of real-time 3D capture, reconstruction, and light-field display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Pei, Renjing; Liu, Yongchun; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-03-01

    Effective integration of 3D acquisition, reconstruction (modeling) and display technologies into a seamless systems provides augmented experience of visualizing and analyzing real objects and scenes with realistic 3D sensation. Applications can be found in medical imaging, gaming, virtual or augmented reality and hybrid simulations. Although 3D acquisition, reconstruction, and display technologies have gained significant momentum in recent years, there seems a lack of attention on synergistically combining these components into a "end-to-end" 3D visualization system. We designed, built and tested an integrated 3D visualization system that is able to capture in real-time 3D light-field images, perform 3D reconstruction to build 3D model of the objects, and display the 3D model on a large autostereoscopic screen. In this article, we will present our system architecture and component designs, hardware/software implementations, and experimental results. We will elaborate on our recent progress on sparse camera array light-field 3D acquisition, real-time dense 3D reconstruction, and autostereoscopic multi-view 3D display. A prototype is finally presented with test results to illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed integrated 3D visualization system.

  20. 3D Printing of Conductive Complex Structures with In Situ Generation of Silver Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fantino, Erika; Chiappone, Annalisa; Roppolo, Ignazio; Manfredi, Diego; Bongiovanni, Roberta; Pirri, Candido Fabrizio; Calignano, Flaviana

    2016-05-01

    Coupling the photoreduction of a metal precursor with 3D-printing technology is shown to allow the fabrication of conductive 3D hybrid structures consisting of metal nanoparticles and organic polymers shaped in complex multilayered architectures. 3D conductive structures are fabricated incorporating silver nitrate into a photocurable oligomer in the presence of suitable photoinitiators and exposing them to a digital light system. PMID:26992060

  1. Enabling Breakthrough Kinetic Simulations of the Magnetosphere Using Petascale Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, H. X.; Karimabadi, H.; Omelchenko, Y.; Tatineni, M.; Majumdar, A.; Krauss-Varban, D.; Dorelli, J.

    2009-12-01

    Currently global magnetospheric simulations are predominantly based on single-fluid magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). MHD simulations have proven useful in studies of the global dynamics of the magnetosphere with the goal of predicting eminent features of substorms and other global events. But it is well known that the magnetosphere is dominated by ion kinetic effects, which is ignored in MHD simulations, and many key aspects of the magnetosphere relating to transport and structure of boundaries await global kinetic simulations. We are using our recent innovations in hybrid (electron fluid, kinetic ions) simulations, as being developed in our Hybrid3D (H3D) code, and the power of massively parallel machines to make, breakthrough 3D global kinetic simulations of the magnetosphere. The innovations include (i) multi-zone (asynchronous) algorithm, (ii) dynamic load balancing, and (iii) code adaptation and optimization to large number of processors. In this presentation we will show preliminary results of our progress to date using from 512 to over 8192 cores. In particular, we focus on what we believe to be the first demonstration of the formation of a flux rope in 3D global hybrid simulations. As in the MHD simulations, the resulting flux rope has a very complex structure, wrapping up field lines from different regions and appears to be connected on at least one end to Earth. Magnetic topology of the FTE is examined to reveal the existence of several separators (3D X-lines). The formation and growth of this structure will be discussed and spatial profile of the magnetic and plasma variables will be compared with those from MHD simulations.

  2. Reactor transient analyses with KIN3D/PARTISN

    SciTech Connect

    Gabrielli, F.; Rineiski, A.; Maschek, W.; Marchetti, M.

    2013-07-01

    Efforts are going on at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) to extend the kinetics capability of the PARTISN code in order to run in parallel two- and three-dimensional transient analyses with the quasistatic method, while taking into account delayed neutrons. In the original code version, time-dependent transport problems are solved by employing a semi-implicit direct kinetics option, the delayed neutrons being not taken into account. The PARTISN 5.97 code has been extended and then coupled with KIN3D, a time-dependent model embedded in the ERANOS code system. In the coupled code, PARTISN 5.97 is used as neutron transport solver to perform transient analyses while employing direct and quasi-static kinetics options of KIN3D. The coupled code can be also applied for first-order and exact perturbation theory calculations. In the paper, the PARTISN 5.97 extensions and coupling procedure are described and the performances of the KIN3D/PARTISN coupled code are investigated by analyzing transients induced by a source-jerk in a three-dimensional ADS model driven by an external source. (authors)

  3. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  4. Generation of kinetic Alfven waves in the high-latitude near-Earth magnetotail: A global hybrid simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhifang; Hong, Minghua; Lin, Yu; Du, Aimin; Wang, Xueyi; Wu, Mingyu; Lu, Quanming

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, effects of a fast flow in the tail plasma sheet on the generation of kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) in the high-latitude of the near-Earth magnetotail are investigated by performing a two-dimensional (2-D) global-scale hybrid simulation, where the plasma flow is initialized by the E ×B drift near the equatorial plane due to the existence of the dawn-dusk convection electric field. It is found that firstly, the plasma sheet becomes thinned and the dipolarization of magnetic field appears around (x ,z ) =(-10.5 RE,0.3 RE) , where RE is the radius of the Earth. Then, shear Alfven waves are excited in the plasma sheet, and the strong earthward flow is braked by the dipole-like magnetic field. These waves propagate along the magnetic field lines toward the polar regions later. Subsequently, KAWs with k⊥≫k∥ are generated in the high-latitude magnetotail due to the existence of the non-uniformity of the magnetic field and density in the polar regions. The ratio of the electric field to the magnetic field in these waves is found to obey the relation (δEz)/(δBy )˜ω/k∥ of KAWs. Our simulation provides a mechanism for the generation of the observed low-frequency shear Alfven waves in the plasma sheet and kinetic Alfven waves in the high-latitude near-Earth magnetotail, whose source is suggested to be the flow braking in the low-latitude plasma sheet.

  5. Generation of kinetic Alfven waves in the high-latitude near-Earth magnetotail: A global hybrid simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Zhifang; Hong, Minghua; Du, Aimin; Lin, Yu; Wang, Xueyi; Wu, Mingyu; Lu, Quanming

    2015-02-15

    In this paper, effects of a fast flow in the tail plasma sheet on the generation of kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) in the high-latitude of the near-Earth magnetotail are investigated by performing a two-dimensional (2-D) global-scale hybrid simulation, where the plasma flow is initialized by the E×B drift near the equatorial plane due to the existence of the dawn-dusk convection electric field. It is found that firstly, the plasma sheet becomes thinned and the dipolarization of magnetic field appears around (x,z)=(−10.5R{sub E},0.3R{sub E}), where R{sub E} is the radius of the Earth. Then, shear Alfven waves are excited in the plasma sheet, and the strong earthward flow is braked by the dipole-like magnetic field. These waves propagate along the magnetic field lines toward the polar regions later. Subsequently, KAWs with k{sub ⊥}≫k{sub ∥} are generated in the high-latitude magnetotail due to the existence of the non-uniformity of the magnetic field and density in the polar regions. The ratio of the electric field to the magnetic field in these waves is found to obey the relation (δE{sub z})/(δB{sub y} )∼ω/k{sub ∥} of KAWs. Our simulation provides a mechanism for the generation of the observed low-frequency shear Alfven waves in the plasma sheet and kinetic Alfven waves in the high-latitude near-Earth magnetotail, whose source is suggested to be the flow braking in the low-latitude plasma sheet.

  6. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  7. 3D laptop for defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David

    2012-06-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.

  8. Modeling the reaction kinetics of a hydrogen generator onboard a fuel cell -- Electric hybrid motorcycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, Karthik

    Owing to the perceived decline of the fossil fuel reserves in the world and environmental issues like pollution, conventional fuels may be replaced by cleaner alternative fuels. The potential of hydrogen as a fuel in vehicular applications is being explored. Hydrogen as an energy carrier potentially finds applications in internal combustion engines and fuel cells because it is considered a clean fuel and has high specific energy. However, at 6 to 8 per kilogram, not only is hydrogen produced from conventional methods like steam reforming expensive, but also there are storage and handling issues, safety concerns and lack of hydrogen refilling stations across the country. The purpose of this research is to suggest a cheap and viable system that generates hydrogen on demand through a chemical reaction between an aluminum-water slurry and an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution to power a 2 kW fuel cell on a fuel cell hybrid motorcycle. This reaction is essentially an aluminum-water reaction where sodium hydroxide acts as a reaction promoter or catalyst. The Horizon 2000 fuel cell used for this purpose has a maximum hydrogen intake rate of 28 lpm. The study focuses on studying the exothermic reaction between the reactants and proposes a rate law that best describes the rate of generation of hydrogen in connection to the surface area of aluminum available for the certain reaction and the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution. Further, the proposed rate law is used in the simulation model of the chemical reactor onboard the hybrid motorcycle to determine the hydrogen flow rate to the fuel cell with time. Based on the simulated rate of production of hydrogen from the chemical system, its feasibility of use on different drive cycles is analyzed. The rate of production of hydrogen with a higher concentration of sodium hydroxide and smaller aluminum powder size was found to enable the installation of the chemical reactor on urban cycles with frequent stops and starts

  9. Multivariate 3D modelling of Scottish soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggio, Laura; Gimona, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Information regarding soil properties across landscapes at national or continental scales is critical for better soil and environmental management and for climate regulation and adaptation policy. The prediction of soil properties variation in space and time and their uncertainty is an important part of environmental modelling. Soil properties, and in particular the 3 fractions of soil texture, exhibit strong co-variation among themselves and therefore taking into account this correlation leads to spatially more accurate results. In this study the continuous vertical and lateral distributions of relevant soil properties in Scottish soils were modelled with a multivariate 3D-GAM+GS approach. The approach used involves 1) modelling the multivariate trend with full 3D spatial correlation, i.e., exploiting the values of the neighbouring pixels in 3D-space, and 2) 3D kriging to interpolate the residuals. The values at each cell for each of the considered depth layers were defined using a hybrid GAM-geostatistical 3D model, combining the fitting of a GAM (generalised Additive Models) to estimate multivariate trend of the variables, using a 3D smoother with related covariates. Gaussian simulations of the model residuals were used as spatial component to account for local details. A dataset of about 26,000 horizons (7,800 profiles) was used for this study. A validation set was randomly selected as 25% of the full dataset. Numerous covariates derived from globally available data, such as MODIS and SRTM, are considered. The results of the 3D-GAM+kriging showed low RMSE values, good R squared and an accurate reproduction of the spatial structure of the data for a range of soil properties. The results have an out-of-sample RMSE between 10 to 15% of the observed range when taking into account the whole profile. The approach followed allows the assessment of the uncertainty of both the trend and the residuals.

  10. Three-dimensional hybrid simulation study of anisotropic turbulence in the proton kinetic regime

    SciTech Connect

    Vasquez, Bernard J.; Markovskii, Sergei A.; Chandran, Benjamin D. G. E-mail: sergei.markovskii@unh.edu

    2014-06-20

    Three-dimensional numerical hybrid simulations with particle protons and quasi-neutralizing fluid electrons are conducted for a freely decaying turbulence that is anisotropic with respect to the background magnetic field. The turbulence evolution is determined by both the combined root-mean-square (rms) amplitude for fluctuating proton bulk velocity and magnetic field and by the ratio of perpendicular to parallel wavenumbers. This kind of relationship had been considered in the past with regard to interplanetary turbulence. The fluctuations nonlinearly evolve to a turbulent phase whose net wave vector anisotropy is usually more perpendicular than the initial one, irrespective of the initial ratio of perpendicular to parallel wavenumbers. Self-similar anisotropy evolution is found as a function of the rms amplitude and parallel wavenumber. Proton heating rates in the turbulent phase vary strongly with the rms amplitude but only weakly with the initial wave vector anisotropy. Even in the limit where wave vectors are confined to the plane perpendicular to the background magnetic field, the heating rate remains close to the corresponding case with finite parallel wave vector components. Simulation results obtained as a function of proton plasma to background magnetic pressure ratio β {sub p} in the range 0.1-0.5 show that the wave vector anisotropy also weakly depends on β {sub p}.

  11. Online adaptive decoding of intended movements with a hybrid kinetic and kinematic brain machine interface.

    PubMed

    Suminski, Aaron J; Fagg, Andrew H; Willett, Francis R; Bodenhamer, Matthew; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G

    2013-01-01

    Traditional brain machine interfaces for control of a prosthesis have typically focused on the kinematics of movement, rather than the dynamics. BMI decoders that extract the forces and/or torques to be applied by a prosthesis have the potential for giving the patient a much richer level of control across different dynamic scenarios or even scenarios in which the dynamics of the limb/environment are changing. However, it is a challenge to train a decoder that is able to capture this richness given the small amount of calibration data that is usually feasible to collect a priori. In this work, we propose that kinetic decoders should be continuously calibrated based on how they are used by the subject. Both intended hand position and joint torques are decoded simultaneously as a monkey performs a random target pursuit task. The deviation between intended and actual hand position is used as an estimate of error in the recently decoded joint torques. In turn, these errors are used to drive a gradient descent algorithm for improving the torque decoder parameters. We show that this approach is able to quickly restore the functionality of a torque decoder following substantial corruption with Gaussian noise.

  12. Iminothiazoline-Sulfonamide Hybrids as Jack Bean Urease Inhibitors; Synthesis, Kinetic Mechanism and Computational Molecular Modeling.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Aamer; Mahmood, Shams-Ul; Rafiq, Muhammad; Ashraf, Zaman; Jabeen, Farukh; Seo, Sung-Yum

    2016-03-01

    The present work reports the synthesis of several 2-iminothiazoline derivatives of sulfanilamide (3a-j) as inhibitors of jack bean ureases. The title compounds were synthesized by the heterocyclization of sulfanilamide thioureas with propragyl bromide in dry ethanol in the presence of 1,8-Diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene as a base. All of the compounds showed higher urease inhibitory activity than the standard thiourea. The compounds (3h) and (3i) exhibited excellent enzyme inhibitory activity with IC50 0.064 and 0.058 μm, respectively, while IC50 of thiourea is 20.9 μm. The kinetic mechanism analyzed by Dixon plot showed that compound (3h) is a mixed-type inhibitor while (3i) is a competitive one. Docking studies suggested that Asp633, Ala636, His492, Ala440, Lue523, Asp494 and Arg439 are the major interacting residues in the binding site of the protein and may have an instrumental role in the inhibition of enzyme's function. 2-iminothiazoline analogues (3a-j) showed good docking score (-10.6466 to -8.7215 Kcal/mol) and binding energy (London dG ranging from -14.4825 to -10.4087 Kcal/mol) which is far better than the standard thiourea (binding score in S field -4.5790 Kcal/mol London dG -4.7726 Kcal/mol). Our results inferred compound (3i) may serve as a structural model for the design of most potent urease inhibitors. PMID:26496515

  13. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  14. Automatic 3D video format detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Zhe; Zhai, Jiefu; Doyen, Didier

    2011-03-01

    Many 3D formats exist and will probably co-exist for a long time even if 3D standards are today under definition. The support for multiple 3D formats will be important for bringing 3D into home. In this paper, we propose a novel and effective method to detect whether a video is a 3D video or not, and to further identify the exact 3D format. First, we present how to detect those 3D formats that encode a pair of stereo images into a single image. The proposed method detects features and establishes correspondences between features in the left and right view images, and applies the statistics from the distribution of the positional differences between corresponding features to detect the existence of a 3D format and to identify the format. Second, we present how to detect the frame sequential 3D format. In the frame sequential 3D format, the feature points are oscillating from frame to frame. Similarly, the proposed method tracks feature points over consecutive frames, computes the positional differences between features, and makes a detection decision based on whether the features are oscillating. Experiments show the effectiveness of our method.

  15. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  16. Kinetics of Coloration in Photochromic Tungsten(VI) Oxide/Silicon Oxycarbide/Silica Hybrid Xerogel: Insight into Cation Self-diffusion Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Kenta; Tokushige, Masataka; Omata, Kaoru; Yamazaki, Suzuko; Iwadate, Yoshiaki

    2016-06-01

    Silicon oxycarbide/silica composites with well-dispersed tungsten(VI) oxide (WO3) nanoparticles were obtained as transparent hybrid xerogels via an acid-catalyzed sol-gel process (hydrolysis/condensation polymerization) of 3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TESPMA) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). The self-diffusion mechanism of alkali-metal cations and the kinetics of the photochromic coloration process in the WO3/TESPMA/TEOS hybrid xerogel systems have been systematically investigated. Under continuous UV illumination, a gradual color change (colorless → blue) corresponding to the reduction of W(6+) into W(5+) states in WO3 nanoparticles can be confirmed from the WO3/TESPMA/TEOS hybrid xerogels containing alkali-metal sulfates, although no coloration of the hybrid xerogel without alkali-metal sulfate was observed. The coloration behavior depended exclusively on a variety of alkali-metal cations present in the hybrid xerogel system. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of the self-diffusion mechanism confirmed that the alkali-metal cations electrostatically interact with a layer of unreacted silanol groups on the TESPMA/TEOS matrix surface, and subsequently pass through the interconnected pore network of the hybrid xerogel. More interestingly, in the context of an Arrhenius analysis, we found a good coincidence between the activation energies for alkali-metal cation self-diffusion and UV-induced coloration in the WO3/TESPMA/TEOS hybrid xerogel system containing the corresponding alkali-metal sulfate. It is experimentally obvious that the photochromic properties are dominated by the diffusion process of alkali-metal cations in the WO3/TESPMA/TEOS hybrid xerogel system. Such hybrid materials with cation-controlled photochromic properties will show promising prospects in applications demanding energy-efficient "smart windows" and "smart glasses". PMID:27159661

  17. Toward 3D graphene oxide gels based adsorbents for high-efficient water treatment via the promotion of biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chong Sage; Deng, Jie; Lei, Bei; He, Ai; Zhang, Xiang; Ma, Lang; Li, Shuang; Zhao, Changsheng

    2013-12-15

    Recent studies showed that graphene oxide (GO) presented high adsorption capacities to various water contaminants. However, the needed centrifugation after adsorption and the potential biological toxicity of GO restricted its applications in wastewater treatment. In this study, a facile method is provided by using biopolymers to mediate and synthesize 3D GO based gels. The obtained hybrid gels present well-defined and interconnected 3D porous network, which allows the adsorbate molecules to diffuse easily into the adsorbent. The adsorption experiments indicate that the obtained porous GO-biopolymer gels can efficiently remove cationic dyes and heavy metal ions from wastewater. Methylene blue (MB) and methyl violet (MV), two cationic dyes, are chosen as model adsorbates to investigate the adsorption capability and desorption ratio; meanwhile, the influence of contacting time, initial concentration, and pH value on the adsorption capacity of the prepared GO-biopolymer gels are also studied. The GO-biopolymer gels displayed an adsorption capacity as high as 1100 mg/g for MB dye and 1350 mg/g for MV dye, respectively. Furthermore, the adsorption kinetics and isotherms of the MB were studied in details. The experimental data of MB adsorption fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm, and the results indicated that the adsorption process was controlled by the intraparticle diffusion. Moreover, the adsorption data revealed that the porous GO-biopolymer gels showed good selective adsorbability to cationic dyes and metal ions.

  18. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  19. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-03-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The current paper describes the modern stereo 3-D technologies that are applicable to various tasks in teaching physics in schools, colleges, and universities. Examples of stereo 3-D simulations developed by the author can be observed on online.

  20. Software for 3D radiotherapy dosimetry. Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Karwowski, Andrzej C.

    2014-08-01

    The subject of this work is polyGeVero® software (GeVero Co., Poland), which has been developed to fill the requirements of fast calculations of 3D dosimetry data with the emphasis on polymer gel dosimetry for radiotherapy. This software comprises four workspaces that have been prepared for: (i) calculating calibration curves and calibration equations, (ii) storing the calibration characteristics of the 3D dosimeters, (iii) calculating 3D dose distributions in irradiated 3D dosimeters, and (iv) comparing 3D dose distributions obtained from measurements with the aid of 3D dosimeters and calculated with the aid of treatment planning systems (TPSs). The main features and functions of the software are described in this work. Moreover, the core algorithms were validated and the results are presented. The validation was performed using the data of the new PABIGnx polymer gel dosimeter. The polyGeVero® software simplifies and greatly accelerates the calculations of raw 3D dosimetry data. It is an effective tool for fast verification of TPS-generated plans for tumor irradiation when combined with a 3D dosimeter. Consequently, the software may facilitate calculations by the 3D dosimetry community. In this work, the calibration characteristics of the PABIGnx obtained through four calibration methods: multi vial, cross beam, depth dose, and brachytherapy, are discussed as well.

  1. [3D reconstructions in radiotherapy planning].

    PubMed

    Schlegel, W

    1991-10-01

    3D Reconstructions from tomographic images are used in the planning of radiation therapy to study important anatomical structures such as the body surface, target volumes, and organs at risk. The reconstructed anatomical models are used to define the geometry of the radiation beams. In addition, 3D voxel models are used for the calculation of the 3D dose distributions with an accuracy, previously impossible to achieve. Further uses of 3D reconstructions are in the display and evaluation of 3D therapy plans, and in the transfer of treatment planning parameters to the irradiation situation with the help of digitally reconstructed radiographs. 3D tomographic imaging with subsequent 3D reconstruction must be regarded as a completely new basis for the planning of radiation therapy, enabling tumor-tailored radiation therapy of localized target volumes with increased radiation doses and improved sparing of organs at risk. 3D treatment planning is currently being evaluated in clinical trials in connection with the new treatment techniques of conformation radiotherapy. Early experience with 3D treatment planning shows that its clinical importance in radiotherapy is growing, but will only become a standard radiotherapy tool when volumetric CT scanning, reliable and user-friendly treatment planning software, and faster and cheaper PACS-integrated medical work stations are accessible to radiotherapists.

  2. Kinetic and pharmacological properties of the M-current in rodent neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, J; Trouslard, J; Marsh, S J; Brown, D A

    1992-01-01

    1. The M-like current IK(M,ng) in differentiated NG108-15 mouse neuroblastoma x rat glioma hybrid cells has been studied using tight-seal, whole-cell patch-clamp recording. 2. When calculated from steady-state current-voltage curves, the conductance underlying IK(M,ng) showed a Boltzmann dependence on voltage with half-activation voltage Vo = -44 mV (in 3 mM [K+]) and slope factor (a) = 8.1 mV/e-fold increase in conductance. In 12 mM [K+] Vo = -38 mV and a = 6.9 mV. The deactivation reciprocal time constant accelerated with hyperpolarization with slope factor 17 mV/e-fold voltage change. 3. The reversal potential for deactivation tail currents varied with external [K+] as if PNa/PK were 0.005. 4. Steady-state current was increased on removing external Ca2+. In the presence of external Ca2+, reactivation of IK(M, ng) after a hyperpolarizing step was delayed. This delay was preceded by an inward Ca2+ current, and coincided with an increase in intracellular [Ca2+] as measured with Indo-1 fluorescence. Elevation of intracellular [Ca2+] with caffeine also reduced IK(M, ng). 5. IK(M, ng) was inhibited by external divalent cations in decreasing order of potency (mM IC50 in parentheses): Zn2+ (0.011) greater than Cu2+ (0.018) greater than Cd2+ (0.070) greater than Ni2+ (0.44) greater than Ba2+ (0.47) greater than Fe2+ (0.69) greater than Mn2+ (0.86) greater than Co2+ (0.92) greater than Ca2+ (5.6) greater than Mg2+ (16) greater than Sr2+ (33). This was not secondary to inhibition of ICa since: (i) inhibition persisted in Ca(2+)-free solution; (ii) La3+ did not inhibit IK(M, ng) at concentrations which inhibited ICa; and (iii) organic Ca2+ channel blockers were ineffective. Inhibition comprised both depression of the maximum conductance and a positive shift of the activation curve. Addition of Ca2+ (10 microM free [Ca2+]) or Ba2+ (1 mM total [Ba2+]) to the pipette solution did not significantly change IK(M, ng). 6. IK(M, ng) was reduced by 9-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine

  3. Drug Release Kinetics, Cell Uptake, and Tumor Toxicity of Hybrid VVVVVVKK Peptide-Assembled Polylactide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jabbari, Esmaiel; Yang, Xiaoming; Moeinzadeh, Seyedsina; He, Xuezhong

    2013-01-01

    An exciting approach to tumor delivery is encapsulation of the drug in self-assembled polymer-peptide nanoparticles. The objective of this work was to synthesize a conjugate of low molecular weight polylactide (LMW PLA) and V6K2 peptide, and investigate self-assembly, drug release kinetics, cell uptake and toxicity, drug pharmacokinetics, and tumor cell invasion with Doxorubicin (DOX) or paclitaxel (PTX). The results for PLA-V6K2 self-assembled NPs were compared with those of polyethylene glycol stabilized PLA (PLA-EG) NPs. The size of PLA-V6K2 and PLA-EG NPs were 100±20 and 130±50 nm, respectively, with polydispersity index of 1.04 and 1.14. The encapsulation efficiency of DOX in PLA-V6K2 and PLA-EG NPs was 44±9% and 55±5%, respectively, and that of PTX was >90 for both NP types. The release of DOX and PTX from PLA-V6K2 was slower than that of PLA-EG and the release rate was relatively constant with time. Based on molecular dynamic simulation, the less hydrophobic DOX was distributed in the lactide core as well as the peptide shell while the hydrophobic PTX was localized mainly to the lactide core. PLA-V6K2 NPs had significantly higher cell uptake by 4T1 mouse breast carcinoma cells compared to PLA-EG NPs, which was attributed to the electrostatic interactions between the peptide and negatively charged moieties on the cell membrane. PLA-V6K2 NPs showed no toxicity to marrow stromal cells. DOX loaded PLA-V6K2 NPs showed higher toxicity to 4T1 cells and the DNA damage response and apoptosis was delayed compared to the free DOX. DOX or PTX encapsulated in PLA-V6K2 NPs significantly reduced invasion of 4T1 cells compared to those cells treated with the drug in PLA-EG NPs. Invasion of 4T1 cells treated with DOX in PLA-V6K2 and PLA-EG NPs was 5±1% and 30±5%, respectively, and that of PTX was 11±2% and 40±7%. The AUC of DOX in PLA-V6K2 NPs was 67% and 21% higher than those of free DOX and PLA-EG NPs, respectively. DOX loaded PLA-V6K2 NPs injected in C3He

  4. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  5. 3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

  6. Cooling of 3D Granular Gases: Experiments in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harth, Kirsten; Wegner, Sandra; Trittel, Torsten; Stannarius, Ralf

    Granular gases are ensembles of macroscopic grains, which move randomly and interact through inelastic collisions. This non-equilibrium statistical system is easy to picture, but still insufficiently understood. Numerous theoretical treatments have been performed, favorably with spherical grains and periodic boundaries, starting from a homogeneous state. Experimentally, such a gas in 3D can only be realized with strong external forcing or in microgravity. We have recently demonstrated that the use of elongated grains facilitates the realization of 3D experiments beyond the Knudsen regime (1). Main findings in a sounding rocket experiment were non-Gaussian velocity distributions and a violation of the equipartition of kinetic energy in the steady state. Rotational degrees of freedom are under-excited. When the excitation is stopped, energy is dissipated, the granular gas is ''cooling''. We present the first quantitative study of the cooling of a granular gas, based on a 3D data evaluation, from drop tower experiments. The evolution of the kinetic energy in translational and rotational degrees of freedom is compared to Haff's law and recent numerical studies. Additionally, we analyze velocity and density distributions.(1) K. Harth et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 144102 (2013) This research was funded by German Aerospace Center DLR Grants 50WM1241 and 50WB1344 and by DFG Grant STA-425/34-1.

  7. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability.

  8. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  9. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  10. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  11. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  12. 3D, or Not to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  13. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  14. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  15. 3D elastic control for mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Hachet, Martin; Pouderoux, Joachim; Guitton, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    To increase the input space of mobile devices, the authors developed a proof-of-concept 3D elastic controller that easily adapts to mobile devices. This embedded device improves the completion of high-level interaction tasks such as visualization of large documents and navigation in 3D environments. It also opens new directions for tomorrow's mobile applications.

  16. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    1996-07-15

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  17. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  18. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  19. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, W. W.; Stevenson, Graig; Patel, Ketan; Wang, Jun

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  20. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D…

  1. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  2. A Massively Parallel Hybrid Dusty-Gasdynamics and Kinetic Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Model for Planetary Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Combi, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    In order to understand the global structure, dynamics, and physical and chemical processes occurring in the upper atmospheres, exospheres, and ionospheres of the Earth, the other planets, comets and planetary satellites and their interactions with their outer particles and fields environs, it is often necessary to address the fundamentally non-equilibrium aspects of the physical environment. These are regions where complex chemistry, energetics, and electromagnetic field influences are important. Traditional approaches are based largely on hydrodynamic or magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) formulations and are very important and highly useful. However, these methods often have limitations in rarefied physical regimes where the molecular collision rates and ion gyrofrequencies are small and where interactions with ionospheres and upper neutral atmospheres are important. At the University of Michigan we have an established base of experience and expertise in numerical simulations based on particle codes which address these physical regimes. The Principal Investigator, Dr. Michael Combi, has over 20 years of experience in the development of particle-kinetic and hybrid kinetichydrodynamics models and their direct use in data analysis. He has also worked in ground-based and space-based remote observational work and on spacecraft instrument teams. His research has involved studies of cometary atmospheres and ionospheres and their interaction with the solar wind, the neutral gas clouds escaping from Jupiter s moon Io, the interaction of the atmospheres/ionospheres of Io and Europa with Jupiter s corotating magnetosphere, as well as Earth s ionosphere. This report describes our progress during the year. The contained in section 2 of this report will serve as the basis of a paper describing the method and its application to the cometary coma that will be continued under a research and analysis grant that supports various applications of theoretical comet models to understanding the

  3. Clinical applications of 3-D dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuu, Cheng-Shie

    2015-01-01

    Both 3-D gels and radiochromic plastic dosimeters, in conjunction with dose image readout systems (MRI or optical-CT), have been employed to measure 3-D dose distributions in many clinical applications. The 3-D dose maps obtained from these systems can provide a useful tool for clinical dose verification for complex treatment techniques such as IMRT, SRS/SBRT, brachytherapy, and proton beam therapy. These complex treatments present high dose gradient regions in the boundaries between the target and surrounding critical organs. Dose accuracy in these areas can be critical, and may affect treatment outcome. In this review, applications of 3-D gels and PRESAGE dosimeter are reviewed and evaluated in terms of their performance in providing information on clinical dose verification as well as commissioning of various treatment modalities. Future interests and clinical needs on studies of 3-D dosimetry are also discussed.

  4. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  5. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  6. 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  7. The psychology of the 3D experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  8. Low-cost 3D rangefinder system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bor-Tow; Lou, Wen-Shiou; Chen, Chia-Chen; Lin, Hsien-Chang

    1998-06-01

    Nowadays, 3D data are popularly performed in computer, and 3D browsers manipulate 3D model in the virtual world. Yet, till now, 3D digitizer is still a high-cost product and not a familiar equipment. In order to meet the requirement of 3D fancy world, in this paper, the concept of a low-cost 3D digitizer system is proposed to catch 3D range data from objects. The specified optical design of the 3D extraction is effective to depress the size, and the processing software of the system is compatible with PC to promote its portable capability. Both features contribute a low-cost system in PC environment in contrast to a large system bundled in an expensive workstation platform. In the structure of 3D extraction, laser beam and CCD camera are adopted to construct a 3D sensor. Instead of 2 CCD cameras for capturing laser lines twice before, a 2-in-1 system is proposed to merge 2 images in one CCD which still retains the information of two fields of views to inhibit occlusion problems. Besides, optical paths of two camera views are reflected by mirror in order that the volume of the system can be minified with one rotary axis only. It makes a portable system be more possible to work. Combined with the processing software executable in PC windows system, the proposed system not only saves hardware cost but also processing time of software. The system performance achieves 0.05 mm accuracy. It shows that a low- cost system is more possible to be high-performance.

  9. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  10. 3D Printing of Biocompatible Supramolecular Polymers and their Composites.

    PubMed

    Hart, Lewis R; Li, Siwei; Sturgess, Craig; Wildman, Ricky; Jones, Julian R; Hayes, Wayne

    2016-02-10

    A series of polymers capable of self-assembling into infinite networks via supramolecular interactions have been designed, synthesized, and characterized for use in 3D printing applications. The biocompatible polymers and their composites with silica nanoparticles were successfully utilized to deposit both simple cubic structures, as well as a more complex twisted pyramidal feature. The polymers were found to be not toxic to a chondrogenic cell line, according to ISO 10993-5 and 10993-12 standard tests and the cells attached to the supramolecular polymers as demonstrated by confocal microscopy. Silica nanoparticles were then dispersed within the polymer matrix, yielding a composite material which was optimized for inkjet printing. The hybrid material showed promise in preliminary tests to facilitate the 3D deposition of a more complex structure.

  11. 3D Printing of Biocompatible Supramolecular Polymers and their Composites.

    PubMed

    Hart, Lewis R; Li, Siwei; Sturgess, Craig; Wildman, Ricky; Jones, Julian R; Hayes, Wayne

    2016-02-10

    A series of polymers capable of self-assembling into infinite networks via supramolecular interactions have been designed, synthesized, and characterized for use in 3D printing applications. The biocompatible polymers and their composites with silica nanoparticles were successfully utilized to deposit both simple cubic structures, as well as a more complex twisted pyramidal feature. The polymers were found to be not toxic to a chondrogenic cell line, according to ISO 10993-5 and 10993-12 standard tests and the cells attached to the supramolecular polymers as demonstrated by confocal microscopy. Silica nanoparticles were then dispersed within the polymer matrix, yielding a composite material which was optimized for inkjet printing. The hybrid material showed promise in preliminary tests to facilitate the 3D deposition of a more complex structure. PMID:26766139

  12. Minimizing DNA microarrays to a single molecule per spot: using zero-mode waveguide technology to obtain kinetic data for a large number of short oligonucleotide hybridization reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobek, Jens; Rehrauer, Hubert; Kuhn, Gerrit; Schlapbach, Ralph

    2016-03-01

    We have shown recently that the hybridization of short oligonucleotides can be studied in a zero-mode waveguide nanostructure (ZMW) chip using a modified DNA sequencer.[1] Here we present an extension of this method enabling the parallel measurement of kinetic constants of a large number of hybridization reactions on a single chip. This can be achieved by immobilization of a mixture of oligonucleotides, which leads to a statistical and random distribution of single molecules in the 150'000 ZMWs of a SMRT™ cell. This setup is comparable to a classical microarray with ZMWs in place of spots but unknown allocation of probes. The probe surface density is reduced by a factor of ~1010 allowing the study of hybridization in the absence of interactions with neighboring probes. Hybridization with a dye labelled oligonucleotide results in trains of fluorescence pulses from which interpulse durations (IPDs) and pulse widths (PWs) can be extracted. Since the identity of a probe in a ZMW is unknown, the immobilized oligonucleotide is sequenced in a subsequent step. After mapping the fluorescence traces to the sequence, the association and dissociation rate constant for each oligonucleotide can be calculated. By selecting suitable probes, the method can be used to determine rate constants of hybridization for a large number of mismatch oligonucleotides in a single measurement and at single-molecule level.

  13. 3D Human cartilage surface characterization by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brill, Nicolai; Riedel, Jörn; Schmitt, Robert; Tingart, Markus; Truhn, Daniel; Pufe, Thomas; Jahr, Holger; Nebelung, Sven

    2015-10-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of cartilage degeneration is of high clinical interest. Loss of surface integrity is considered one of the earliest and most reliable signs of degeneration, but cannot currently be evaluated objectively. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an arthroscopically available light-based non-destructive real-time imaging technology that allows imaging at micrometre resolutions to millimetre depths. As OCT-based surface evaluation standards remain to be defined, the present study investigated the diagnostic potential of 3D surface profile parameters in the comprehensive evaluation of cartilage degeneration. To this end, 45 cartilage samples of different degenerative grades were obtained from total knee replacements (2 males, 10 females; mean age 63.8 years), cut to standard size and imaged using a spectral-domain OCT device (Thorlabs, Germany). 3D OCT datasets of 8  ×  8, 4  ×  4 and 1  ×  1 mm (width  ×  length) were obtained and pre-processed (image adjustments, morphological filtering). Subsequent automated surface identification algorithms were used to obtain the 3D primary profiles, which were then filtered and processed using established algorithms employing ISO standards. The 3D surface profile thus obtained was used to calculate a set of 21 3D surface profile parameters, i.e. height (e.g. Sa), functional (e.g. Sk), hybrid (e.g. Sdq) and segmentation-related parameters (e.g. Spd). Samples underwent reference histological assessment according to the Degenerative Joint Disease classification. Statistical analyses included calculation of Spearman’s rho and assessment of inter-group differences using the Kruskal Wallis test. Overall, the majority of 3D surface profile parameters revealed significant degeneration-dependent differences and correlations with the exception of severe end-stage degeneration and were of distinct diagnostic value in the assessment of surface integrity. None of the 3D

  14. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  15. 3D facial expression modeling for recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaoguang; Jain, Anil K.; Dass, Sarat C.

    2005-03-01

    Current two-dimensional image based face recognition systems encounter difficulties with large variations in facial appearance due to the pose, illumination and expression changes. Utilizing 3D information of human faces is promising for handling the pose and lighting variations. While the 3D shape of a face does not change due to head pose (rigid) and lighting changes, it is not invariant to the non-rigid facial movement and evolution, such as expressions and aging effect. We propose a facial surface matching framework to match multiview facial scans to a 3D face model, where the (non-rigid) expression deformation is explicitly modeled for each subject, resulting in a person-specific deformation model. The thin plate spline (TPS) is applied to model the deformation based on the facial landmarks. The deformation is applied to the 3D neutral expression face model to synthesize the corresponding expression. Both the neutral and the synthesized 3D surface models are used to match a test scan. The surface registration and matching between a test scan and a 3D model are achieved by a modified Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate that the proposed expression modeling and recognition-by-synthesis schemes improve the 3D matching accuracy.

  16. Digital relief generation from 3D models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meili; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Hongming; Qian, Kun; Chang, Jian; He, Dongjian

    2016-09-01

    It is difficult to extend image-based relief generation to high-relief generation, as the images contain insufficient height information. To generate reliefs from three-dimensional (3D) models, it is necessary to extract the height fields from the model, but this can only generate bas-reliefs. To overcome this problem, an efficient method is proposed to generate bas-reliefs and high-reliefs directly from 3D meshes. To produce relief features that are visually appropriate, the 3D meshes are first scaled. 3D unsharp masking is used to enhance the visual features in the 3D mesh, and average smoothing and Laplacian smoothing are implemented to achieve better smoothing results. A nonlinear variable scaling scheme is then employed to generate the final bas-reliefs and high-reliefs. Using the proposed method, relief models can be generated from arbitrary viewing positions with different gestures and combinations of multiple 3D models. The generated relief models can be printed by 3D printers. The proposed method provides a means of generating both high-reliefs and bas-reliefs in an efficient and effective way under the appropriate scaling factors.

  17. NUBEAM developments and 3d halo modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkova, M. V.; Medley, S. S.; Kaye, S. M.

    2012-10-01

    Recent developments related to the 3D halo model in NUBEAM code are described. To have a reliable halo neutral source for diagnostic simulation, the TRANSP/NUBEAM code has been enhanced with full implementation of ADAS atomic physic ground state and excited state data for hydrogenic beams and mixed species plasma targets. The ADAS codes and database provide the density and temperature dependence of the atomic data, and the collective nature of the state excitation process. To be able to populate 3D halo output with sufficient statistical resolution, the capability to control the statistics of fast ion CX modeling and for thermal halo launch has been added to NUBEAM. The 3D halo neutral model is based on modification and extension of the ``beam in box'' aligned 3d Cartesian grid that includes the neutral beam itself, 3D fast neutral densities due to CX of partially slowed down fast ions in the beam halo region, 3D thermal neutral densities due to CX deposition and fast neutral recapture source. More details on the 3D halo simulation design will be presented.

  18. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26562233

  19. Perception of detail in 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heynderickx, Ingrid; Kaptein, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    A lot of current 3D displays suffer from the fact that their spatial resolution is lower compared to their 2D counterparts. One reason for this is that the multiple views needed to generate 3D are often spatially multiplexed. Besides this, imperfect separation of the left- and right-eye view leads to blurring or ghosting, and therefore to a decrease in perceived sharpness. However, people watching stereoscopic videos have reported that the 3D scene contained more details, compared to the 2D scene with identical spatial resolution. This is an interesting notion, that has never been tested in a systematic and quantitative way. To investigate this effect, we had people compare the amount of detail ("detailedness") in pairs of 2D and 3D images. A blur filter was applied to one of the two images, and the blur level was varied using an adaptive staircase procedure. In this way, the blur threshold for which the 2D and 3D image contained perceptually the same amount of detail could be found. Our results show that the 3D image needed to be blurred more than the 2D image. This confirms the earlier qualitative findings that 3D images contain perceptually more details than 2D images with the same spatial resolution.

  20. 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology. PMID:25093879

  1. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist

    PubMed Central

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26562233

  2. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Norman A.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  3. FUN3D Manual: 12.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  4. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  5. FUN3D Manual: 12.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  6. FUN3D Manual: 12.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  7. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  8. FUN3D Manual: 12.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  9. FUN3D Manual: 12.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  10. VALIDATION OF IMPROVED 3D ATR MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Soon Sam Kim; Bruce G. Schnitzler

    2005-11-01

    A full-core Monte Carlo based 3D model of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) was previously developed. [1] An improved 3D model has been developed by the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) to eliminate homogeneity of fuel plates of the old model, incorporate core changes into the new model, and to validate against a newer, more complicated core configuration. This new 3D model adds capability for fuel loading design and azimuthal power peaking studies of the ATR fuel elements.

  11. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, includingmore » frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.« less

  12. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models.

  13. How We 3D-Print Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-23

    A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.

  14. FIT3D: Fitting optical spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; González, J. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Cano-Díaz, M.; López-Cobá, C.; Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Mollá, M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.

    2016-09-01

    FIT3D fits optical spectra to deblend the underlying stellar population and the ionized gas, and extract physical information from each component. FIT3D is focused on the analysis of Integral Field Spectroscopy data, but is not restricted to it, and is the basis of Pipe3D, a pipeline used in the analysis of datasets like CALIFA, MaNGA, and SAMI. It can run iteratively or in an automatic way to derive the parameters of a large set of spectra.

  15. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  16. Investigations in massive 3D gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Accioly, Antonio; Helayeel-Neto, Jose; Morais, Jefferson; Turcati, Rodrigo; Scatena, Eslley

    2011-05-15

    Some interesting gravitational properties of the Bergshoeff-Hohm-Townsend model (massive 3D gravity), such as the presence of a short-range gravitational force in the nonrelativistic limit and the existence of an impact-parameter-dependent gravitational deflection angle, are studied. Interestingly enough, these phenomena have no counterpart in the usual Einstein 3D gravity. In order to better understand the two aforementioned gravitational properties, they are also analyzed in the framework of 3D higher-derivative gravity with the Einstein-Hilbert term with the 'wrong sign'.

  17. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-07-29

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  18. 3D simulation of the Cluster-Cluster Aggregation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Xiong, Hailing

    2014-12-01

    We write a program to implement the Cluster-Cluster Aggregation (CCA) model with java programming language. By using the simulation program, the fractal aggregation growth process can be displayed dynamically in the form of a three-dimensional (3D) figure. Meanwhile, the related kinetics data of aggregation simulation can be also recorded dynamically. Compared to the traditional programs, the program has better real-time performance and is more helpful to observe the fractal growth process, which contributes to the scientific study in fractal aggregation. Besides, because of adopting java programming language, the program has very good cross-platform performance.

  19. Interactive 3D visualisation of ECMWF ensemble weather forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenhaus, Marc; Grams, Christian M.; Schäfler, Andreas; Westermann, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the feasibility of interactive 3D visualisation of ensemble weather predictions in a way suited for weather forecasting during aircraft-based atmospheric field campaigns. The study builds upon our previous work on web-based, 2D visualisation of numerical weather prediction data for the purpose of research flight planning (Rautenhaus et al., Geosci. Model Dev., 5, 55-71, 2012). Now we explore how interactive 3D visualisation of ensemble forecasts can be used to quickly identify atmospheric features relevant to a flight and to assess their uncertainty. We use data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Ensemble Prediction System (EPS) and present techniques to interactively visualise the forecasts on a commodity desktop PC with a state-of-the-art graphics card. Major objectives of this study are: (1) help the user transition from the ``familiar'' 2D views (horizontal maps and vertical cross-sections) to 3D visualisation by putting interactive 2D views into a 3D context and enriching them with 3D elements, at the same time (2) maintain a high degree of quantitativeness in the visualisation to facilitate easy interpretation; (3) exploitation of the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) for maximum interactivity; (4) investigation of how visualisation can be performed directly from datasets on ECMWF hybrid model levels; (5) development of a basic forecasting tool that provides synchronized navigation through forecast base and lead times, as well as through the ensemble dimension and (6) interactive computation and visualisation of ensemble-based quantities. A prototype of our tool was used for weather forecasting during the aircraft-based T-NAWDEX-Falcon field campaign, which took place in October 2012 at the German Aerospace Centre's (DLR) Oberpfaffenhofen base. We reconstruct the forecast of a warm conveyor belt situation that occurred during the campaign and discuss challenges and opportunities posed by employing three

  20. JAR3D Webserver: Scoring and aligning RNA loop sequences to known 3D motifs

    PubMed Central

    Roll, James; Zirbel, Craig L.; Sweeney, Blake; Petrov, Anton I.; Leontis, Neocles

    2016-01-01

    Many non-coding RNAs have been identified and may function by forming 2D and 3D structures. RNA hairpin and internal loops are often represented as unstructured on secondary structure diagrams, but RNA 3D structures show that most such loops are structured by non-Watson–Crick basepairs and base stacking. Moreover, different RNA sequences can form the same RNA 3D motif. JAR3D finds possible 3D geometries for hairpin and internal loops by matching loop sequences to motif groups from the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, by exact sequence match when possible, and by probabilistic scoring and edit distance for novel sequences. The scoring gauges the ability of the sequences to form the same pattern of interactions observed in 3D structures of the motif. The JAR3D webserver at http://rna.bgsu.edu/jar3d/ takes one or many sequences of a single loop as input, or else one or many sequences of longer RNAs with multiple loops. Each sequence is scored against all current motif groups. The output shows the ten best-matching motif groups. Users can align input sequences to each of the motif groups found by JAR3D. JAR3D will be updated with every release of the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, and so its performance is expected to improve over time. PMID:27235417

  1. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing. PMID:24808080

  2. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  3. TRMM 3-D Flyby of Ingrid

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Ingrid's rainfall was created from TRMM satellite data for Sept. 16. Heaviest rainfall appears in red towers over the Gulf of Mexico, while moderate rainfall stretc...

  4. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset.

    PubMed

    Tafti, Ahmad P; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B; Holz, Jessica D; Owen, Heather A; Yu, Zeyun

    2016-03-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples. PMID:26779561

  5. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset

    PubMed Central

    Tafti, Ahmad P.; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B.; Holz, Jessica D.; Owen, Heather A.; Yu, Zeyun

    2015-01-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples. PMID:26779561

  6. Tropical Cyclone Jack in Satellite 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby from NASA's TRMM satellite of Tropical Cyclone Jack on April 21 shows that some of the thunderstorms were shown by TRMM PR were still reaching height of at least 17 km (10.5 miles). ...

  7. An Augmented Reality based 3D Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Ryo; Kishimoto, Katsumi

    This paper presents a 3D catalog system that uses Augmented Reality technology. The use of Web-based catalog systems that present products in 3D form is increasing in various fields, along with the rapid and widespread adoption of Electronic Commerce. However, 3D shapes could previously only be seen in a virtual space, and it was difficult to understand how the products would actually look in the real world. To solve this, we propose a method that combines the virtual and real worlds simply and intuitively. The method applies Augmented Reality technology, and the system developed based on the method enables users to evaluate 3D virtual products in a real environment.

  8. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F

    2016-07-15

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  9. Cyclone Rusty's Landfall in 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D image derived from NASA's TRMM satellite Precipitation Radar data on February 26, 2013 at 0654 UTC showed that the tops of some towering thunderstorms in Rusty's eye wall were reaching hei...

  10. 3-D Animation of Typhoon Bopha

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D animation of NASA's TRMM satellite data showed Typhoon Bopha tracking over the Philippines on Dec. 3 and moving into the Sulu Sea on Dec. 4, 2012. TRMM saw heavy rain (red) was falling at ...

  11. Palacios field: A 3-D case history

    SciTech Connect

    McWhorter, R.; Torguson, B.

    1994-12-31

    In late 1992, Mitchell Energy Corporation acquired a 7.75 sq mi (20.0 km{sup 2}) 3-D seismic survey over Palacios field. Matagorda County, Texas. The company shot the survey to help evaluate the field for further development by delineating the fault pattern of the producing Middle Oligocene Frio interval. They compare the mapping of the field before and after the 3-D survey. This comparison shows that the 3-D volume yields superior fault imaging and interpretability compared to the dense 2-D data set. The problems with the 2-D data set are improper imaging of small and oblique faults and insufficient coverage over a complex fault pattern. Whereas the 2-D data set validated a simple fault model, the 3-D volume revealed a more complex history of faulting that includes three different fault systems. This discovery enabled them to reconstruct the depositional and structural history of Palacios field.

  12. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  13. 3-D TRMM Flyby of Hurricane Amanda

    NASA Video Gallery

    The TRMM satellite flew over Hurricane Amanda on Tuesday, May 27 at 1049 UTC (6:49 a.m. EDT) and captured rainfall rates and cloud height data that was used to create this 3-D simulated flyby. Cred...

  14. Eyes on the Earth 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

    2013-01-01

    Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

  15. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication. PMID:26869728

  16. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset.

    PubMed

    Tafti, Ahmad P; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B; Holz, Jessica D; Owen, Heather A; Yu, Zeyun

    2016-03-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples.

  17. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F

    2016-07-15

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices. PMID:27250897

  18. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  19. 3-D Flyover Visualization of Veil Nebula

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D visualization flies across a small portion of the Veil Nebula as photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope. This region is a small part of a huge expanding remnant from a star that explod...

  20. Future Engineers 3-D Print Timelapse

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Challenges K-12 students to create a model of a container for space using 3-D modeling software. Astronauts need containers of all kinds - from advanced containers that can study fruit flies t...