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Sample records for 3d hydrodynamic focusing

  1. 3D hydrodynamic focusing microfluidics for emerging sensing technologies.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Michael A; Boyd, Darryl A; Mott, David R; Ligler, Frances S

    2015-05-15

    While the physics behind laminar flows has been studied for 200 years, understanding of how to use parallel flows to augment the capabilities of microfluidic systems has been a subject of study primarily over the last decade. The use of one flow to focus another within a microfluidic channel has graduated from a two-dimensional to a three-dimensional process and the design principles are only now becoming established. This review explores the underlying principles for hydrodynamic focusing in three dimensions (3D) using miscible fluids and the application of these principles for creation of biosensors, separation of cells and particles for sample manipulation, and fabrication of materials that could be used for biosensors. Where sufficient information is available, the practicality of devices implementing fluid flows directed in 3D is evaluated and the advantages and limitations of 3D hydrodynamic focusing for the particular application are highlighted.

  2. Size-Controlled Fabrication of Polyaniline Microfibers Based on 3D Hydrodynamic Focusing Approach.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Imsung; Song, Simon; Uh, Kyungchan; Lee, Chan Woo; Kim, Jong-Man

    2015-07-01

    Owing to the relatively high conductivity and unique redox behavior, polyaniline (PANI) has been one of the most technologically promising conducting polymers. Although various methodologies have been developed, fabrication of PANI microfibers has been a challenging task owing to the poor solubility in most organic solvents. By taking advantage of a microfluidic technology and organic soluble acid labile t-Boc-protected PANI (t-Boc-PANI) as the conducting polymer precursor, fabrication of PANI microfibers in a size-controlled manner is possible. Introduction of a THF solution containing t-Boc-PANI, and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) as a core flow, and water as a sheath flow into a microfluidic channel with a 3D hydrodynamic focusing effect results in crystallization of the polymer fiber. By changing the flow rate, linear PANI microfibers that range from 16.2 to 39.4 μm in diameter are readily obtained.

  3. One-layer microfluidic device for hydrodynamic 3D self-flow-focusing operating in low flow speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daghighi, Yasaman; Gnyawali, Vaskar; Strohm, Eric M.; Tsai, Scott S. H.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2016-03-01

    Hydrodynamic 3D flow-focusing techniques in microfluidics are categorized as (a) sheathless techniques which require high flow rates and long channels, resulting in high operating cost and high flow rates which are inappropriate for applications with flow rate limitations, and (b) sheath-flow based techniques which usually require excessive sheath flow rate to achieve hydrodynamic 3D flow-focusing. Many devices based on these principles use complicated fabrication methods to create multi-layer microchannels. We have developed a sheath-flow based microfluidic device that is capable of hydrodynamic 3D self-flow-focusing. In this device the main flow (black ink) in a low speed, and a sheath flow, enter through two inlets and enter a 180 degree curved channel (300 × 300 μm cross-section). Main flow migrates outwards into the sheath-flow due to centrifugal effects and consequently, vertical focusing is achieved at the end of the curved channel. Then, two other sheath flows horizontally confine the main flow to achieve horizontal focusing. Thus, the core flow is three-dimensionally focused at the center of the channel at the downstream. Using centrifugal force for 3D flow-focusing in a single-layer fabricated microchannel has been previously investigated by few groups. However, their demonstrated designs required high flow speed (>1 m/s) which is not suitable for many applications that live biomedical specie are involved. Here, we introduce a new design which is operational in low flow speed (<0.05 m/s) and is suitable for applications involving live cells. This microfluidic device can be used in detecting, counting and isolating cells in many biomedical applications.

  4. DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.; Englemann, B.E. )

    1993-11-30

    DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

  5. A microfluidic opto-caloric switch for sorting of particles by using 3D-hydrodynamic focusing based on SLE fabrication capabilities.

    PubMed

    Meineke, G; Hermans, M; Klos, J; Lenenbach, A; Noll, R

    2016-03-01

    In a miniaturised flow switch fluid flows are controlled by reducing the local viscosity via absorption of laser radiation. Through this, the local flow rates are increased to switch the outlet port of a fluid flow carrying the analyte. The microfluidic chip is fabricated using Selective Laser-Induced Etching (SLE). SLE allows novel 3D-hydrodynamic focusing, realising circular shaped channel cross-sections and adapting interaction volume geometries to the profile of the laser radiation for optimised absorption. The performance of the switch is validated experimentally with a dyed analyte and video image processing. The ability to sort particles like cells is demonstrated at 8 Hz using polystyrene beads having a diameter of 8 μm.

  6. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, includingmore » frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.« less

  7. 3-D HYDRODYNAMIC MODELING IN A GEOSPATIAL FRAMEWORK

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, J; Alfred Garrett, A; Larry Koffman, L; David Hayes, D

    2006-08-24

    3-D hydrodynamic models are used by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to simulate the transport of thermal and radionuclide discharges in coastal estuary systems. Development of such models requires accurate bathymetry, coastline, and boundary condition data in conjunction with the ability to rapidly discretize model domains and interpolate the required geospatial data onto the domain. To facilitate rapid and accurate hydrodynamic model development, SRNL has developed a pre- and post-processor application in a geospatial framework to automate the creation of models using existing data. This automated capability allows development of very detailed models to maximize exploitation of available surface water radionuclide sample data and thermal imagery.

  8. Regularity criterion for the 3D Hall-magneto-hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Mimi

    2016-07-01

    This paper studies the regularity problem for the 3D incompressible resistive viscous Hall-magneto-hydrodynamic (Hall-MHD) system. The Kolmogorov 41 phenomenological theory of turbulence [14] predicts that there exists a critical wavenumber above which the high frequency part is dominated by the dissipation term in the fluid equation. Inspired by this idea, we apply an approach of splitting the wavenumber combined with an estimate of the energy flux to obtain a new regularity criterion. The regularity condition presented here is weaker than conditions in the existing criteria (Prodi-Serrin type criteria) for the 3D Hall-MHD system.

  9. 3D hydrodynamical and radiative transfer modeling of η Carinae's colliding winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, T. I.; Clementel, N.; Gull, T. R.; Kruip, C. J. H.; Paardekooper, J.-P.; Icke, V.

    We present results of full 3D hydrodynamical and radiative transfer simulations of the colliding stellar winds in the massive binary system η Carinae. We accomplish this by applying the SimpleX algorithm for 3D radiative transfer on an unstructured Voronoi-Delaunay grid to recent 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of the binary colliding winds. We use SimpleX to obtain detailed ionization fractions of hydrogen and helium, in 3D, at the resolution of the original SPH simulations. We investigate several computational domain sizes and Luminous Blue Variable primary star mass-loss rates. We furthermore present new methods of visualizing and interacting with output from complex 3D numerical simulations, including 3D interactive graphics and 3D printing. While we initially focus on η Car, the methods employed can be applied to numerous other colliding wind (WR 140, WR 137, WR 19) and dusty `pinwheel' (WR 104, WR 98a) binary systems. Coupled with 3D hydrodynamical simulations, SimpleX simulations have the potential to help determine the regions where various observed time-variable emission and absorption lines form in these unique objects.

  10. 3D flow focusing for microfluidic flow cytometry with ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnyawali, Vaskar; Strohm, Eric M.; Daghighi, Yasaman; van de Vondervoort, Mia; Kolios, Michael C.; Tsai, Scott S. H.

    2015-11-01

    We are developing a flow cytometer that detects unique acoustic signature waves generated from single cells due to interactions between the cells and ultrasound waves. The generated acoustic waves depend on the size and biomechanical properties of the cells and are sufficient for identifying cells in the medium. A microfluidic system capable of focusing cells through a 10 x 10 μm ultrasound beam cross section was developed to facilitate acoustic measurements of single cells. The cells are streamlined in a hydro-dynamically 3D focused flow in a 300 x 300 μm channel made using PDMS. 3D focusing is realized by lateral sheath flows and an inlet needle (inner diameter 100 μm). The accuracy of the 3D flow focusing is measured using a dye and detecting its localization using confocal microscopy. Each flowing cell would be probed by an ultrasound pulse, which has a center frequency of 375 MHz and bandwidth of 250 MHz. The same probe would also be used for recording the scattered waves from the cells, which would be processed to distinguish the physical and biomechanical characteristics of the cells, eventually identifying them. This technique has potential applications in detecting circulating tumor cells, blood cells and blood-related diseases.

  11. 3D Hydrodynamical and Radiative Transfer Modeling of Eta Carinae's Colliding Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, Thomas Ignatius; Clementel, Nicola; Gull, Theodore R.; Kruip, Chael J. H.; Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter; Icke, Vincent

    2015-08-01

    We present the results of full 3D hydrodynamical and radiative transfer simulations of the colliding stellar winds in the massive binary system Eta Carinae (Clementel, Madura, et al. 2014, MNRAS, 443, 2475 and Clementel, Madura, et al. 2015, MNRAS, 447, 2445). We accomplish this by applying the SimpleX algorithm for 3D radiative transfer on an unstructured Voronoi-Delaunay grid to 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of the binary colliding winds. We use SimpleX to obtain detailed ionization fractions of hydrogen and helium in 3D. We investigate several computational domain sizes and Luminous Blue Variable primary-star mass-loss rates. We show how the SimpleX simulations can be used to generate synthetic spectral data cubes for comparison to data obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph as part of a multi-cycle program to map changes in Eta Carinae's spatially extended interacting wind structures across one binary cycle. Comparison of the HST observations to the SimpleX models can help lead to more accurate constraints on the orbital, stellar, and wind parameters of the Eta Carinae system, such as the LBV primary's mass-loss rate and the companion star's temperature and luminosity. We furthermore present new methods of visualizing and interacting with output from complex 3D numerical simulations, including 3D interactive graphics and 3D printing (Madura et al. 2015, arXiv:1503.00716). While we initially focus specifically on Eta Carinae, the methods employed can be applied to numerous other colliding wind (WR 140, WR 137, WR 19) and dusty ‘pinwheel’ (WR 112, WR 104, WR 98a) binary systems. Coupled with 3D hydrodynamical simulations, SimpleX simulations have the potential to help determine the regions where dust can form and survive in these unique objects.

  12. Parton shower evolution in a 3D hydrodynamical medium

    SciTech Connect

    Renk, Thorsten

    2008-09-15

    We present a Monte Carlo simulation of the perturbative quantum chromodynamics shower developing after a hard process embedded in a heavy-ion collision. The main assumption is that the cascade of branching partons traverses a medium that (consistent with standard radiative energy loss pictures) is characterized by a local transport coefficient q-circumflex that measures the virtuality per unit length transferred to a parton that propagates in this medium. This increase in parton virtuality alters the development of the shower and in essence leads to extra induced radiation and hence a softening of the momentum distribution in the shower. After hadronization, this leads to the concept of a medium-modified fragmentation function. On the level of observables, this is manifest as the suppression of high-transverse-momentum (P{sub T}) hadron spectra. We simulate the soft medium created in heavy-ion collisions by a 3D hydrodynamical evolution and average the medium-modified fragmentation function over this evolution to compare with data on single inclusive hadron suppression and extract the q-circumflex that characterizes the medium. Finally, we discuss possible uncertainties of the model formulation and argue that the data in a soft momentum show evidence of qualitatively different physics that presumably cannot be described by a medium-modified parton shower.

  13. Photospheric Emission from Collapsar Jets in 3D Relativistic Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hirotaka; Matsumoto, Jin; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Warren, Donald C.; Barkov, Maxim V.

    2015-12-01

    We explore the photospheric emission from a relativistic jet breaking out from a massive stellar envelope based on relativistic hydrodynamical simulations and post-process radiation transfer calculations in three dimensions. To investigate the impact of three-dimensional (3D) dynamics on the emission, two models of injection conditions are considered for the jet at the center of the progenitor star: one with periodic precession and another without precession. We show that structures developed within the jet due to the interaction with the stellar envelope, as well as due to the precession, have a significant imprint on the resulting emission. Particularly, we find that the signature of precession activity by the central engine is not smeared out and can be directly observed in the light curve as a periodic signal. We also show that non-thermal features, which can account for observations of gamma-ray bursts, are produced in the resulting spectra even though only thermal photons are injected initially and the effect of non-thermal particles is not considered.

  14. PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION FROM COLLAPSAR JETS IN 3D RELATIVISTIC HYDRODYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Hirotaka; Matsumoto, Jin; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Warren, Donald C.; Barkov, Maxim V.

    2015-12-01

    We explore the photospheric emission from a relativistic jet breaking out from a massive stellar envelope based on relativistic hydrodynamical simulations and post-process radiation transfer calculations in three dimensions. To investigate the impact of three-dimensional (3D) dynamics on the emission, two models of injection conditions are considered for the jet at the center of the progenitor star: one with periodic precession and another without precession. We show that structures developed within the jet due to the interaction with the stellar envelope, as well as due to the precession, have a significant imprint on the resulting emission. Particularly, we find that the signature of precession activity by the central engine is not smeared out and can be directly observed in the light curve as a periodic signal. We also show that non-thermal features, which can account for observations of gamma-ray bursts, are produced in the resulting spectra even though only thermal photons are injected initially and the effect of non-thermal particles is not considered.

  15. Focused electrojetting for nanoscale 3-D fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Minhee; Kim, Ho-Young

    2012-11-01

    Although extreme miniaturization of components in integrated circuits and biochemical chips has driven the development of various nanofabrication technologies, three-dimensional fabrication of nanoscale objects is still in its infancy. Here we propose a novel method to fabricate a free-standing nanowall by the line-by-line deposition of electrospun polymer nanofibers. We show that the electrified nanojet, which tends to get unstable as traveling in free space due to the Coulombic repulsion, can be stably focused onto a narrow line of metal electrode. On the conducting line, the polymer nanojet is spontaneously folded successively to form a wall-like structure. We rationalize the period of spontaneous folding by balancing the tension in the polymer fiber with the electrostatic interaction of the fiber with the metal ground. This novel fabrication scheme can be applied for the development of three-dimensional bioscaffolds, nanofilters and nanorobots.

  16. How Do Hydrodynamic Instabilities Affect 3D Transport in Geophysical Vortices?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Ozgokmen, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding three-dimensional (3D) transport in ocean eddies is important for processes at a variety of scales, ranging from plankton production to climate variability. It is well known that geophysical vortices are subject to various hydrodynamic instabilities. Yet the influence of these instabilities on 3D material transport in vortex systems is not well investigated. Focusing on barotropic, inertial and 3D instabilities, we analyze these instabilities with normal-mode method, and reproduce their characteristics via highly-resolved numerical simulations using a spectral element Navier-Stokes solver. By comparing the simulation results of stable and unstable vortices, we investigate the joint impacts of instabilities on 3D transport through three major aspects: (i) energy transfer, (ii) overturning transport of the secondary circulation, and (iii) rates of vertical exchange and mixing. It is found that instabilities can enhance local nonlinear interactions and cause the kinetic energy wavenumber spectrum to have slopes between the conventional -5/3 and -3 at inertial ranges. The cascade of a new quantity is proposed to explain these non-conventional slopes. One of our main results is the discovery of material exchange between the central vortex and satellite vortices through 3D pathways, called funnels. These funnels modify the concept of elliptic regions that can trap material when confined to 2D dynamics. Thus, we show that a family of vortices, created by the hydrodynamic instabilities of the initially unstable vortex, can still continue to operate in unity in order to complete the 3D transport in these systems. We also show that flow instabilities can double the magnitude of vertical velocity, increase the rate of vertical exchange by an order of magnitude and enhance mixing rate more than 100%.

  17. 3D Kinematics and Hydrodynamic Analysis of Freely Swimming Cetacean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yan; Sheinberg, Dustin; Liu, Geng; Dong, Haibo; Fish, Frank; Javed, Joveria

    2015-11-01

    It's widely thought that flexibility and the ability to control flexibility are crucial elements in determining the performance of animal swimming. However, there is a lack of quantification of both span-wise and chord-wise deformation of Cetacean's flukes and associated hydrodynamic performance during actively swimming. To fill this gap, we examined the motion and flexure of both dolphin fluke and orca fluke in steady swimming using a combined experimental and computational approach. It is found that the fluke surface morphing can effectively modulate the flow structures and influence the propulsive performance. Findings from this work are fundamental for understanding key kinematic features of effective Cetacean propulsors, and for quantifying the hydrodynamic force production that naturally occurs during different types of swimming. This work is supported by ONR MURI N00014-14-1-0533 and NSF CBET-1313217.

  18. A harmonic polynomial cell (HPC) method for 3D Laplace equation with application in marine hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yan-Lin Faltinsen, Odd M.

    2014-10-01

    We propose a new efficient and accurate numerical method based on harmonic polynomials to solve boundary value problems governed by 3D Laplace equation. The computational domain is discretized by overlapping cells. Within each cell, the velocity potential is represented by the linear superposition of a complete set of harmonic polynomials, which are the elementary solutions of Laplace equation. By its definition, the method is named as Harmonic Polynomial Cell (HPC) method. The characteristics of the accuracy and efficiency of the HPC method are demonstrated by studying analytical cases. Comparisons will be made with some other existing boundary element based methods, e.g. Quadratic Boundary Element Method (QBEM) and the Fast Multipole Accelerated QBEM (FMA-QBEM) and a fourth order Finite Difference Method (FDM). To demonstrate the applications of the method, it is applied to some studies relevant for marine hydrodynamics. Sloshing in 3D rectangular tanks, a fully-nonlinear numerical wave tank, fully-nonlinear wave focusing on a semi-circular shoal, and the nonlinear wave diffraction of a bottom-mounted cylinder in regular waves are studied. The comparisons with the experimental results and other numerical results are all in satisfactory agreement, indicating that the present HPC method is a promising method in solving potential-flow problems. The underlying procedure of the HPC method could also be useful in other fields than marine hydrodynamics involved with solving Laplace equation.

  19. 3D radiation hydrodynamics: Interacting photo-evaporating clumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, A. J.; Mellema, G.

    2003-07-01

    We present the results of a new radiation hydrodynamics code called Maartje. This code describes the evolution of a flow in three spatial dimensions using an adaptive mesh, and contains a combination of a ray tracer and an atomic physics module to describe the effects of ionizing radiation. The code is parallelized using a custom threadpool library. We present an application in which we follow the ionization of two dense spherical clumps which are exposed to an ionizing radiation field from a 50 000 K black body. We study various configurations in which one of the clumps shields the other from the ionizing photons. We find that relatively long-lived filamentary structures with narrow tails are formed. This raises the possibility that cometary knots (such as are found in the Helix Nebula) may be the result of the interaction of an ionizing radiation field with an ensemble of clumps, as opposed to the identification of a single knot with a single clump. Movies are available at http://www.edpsciences.org

  20. The hydrodynamic focusing effect inside rectangular microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gwo-Bin; Chang, Chih-Chang; Huang, Sung-Bin; Yang, Ruey-Jen

    2006-05-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and experimental investigation into the hydrodynamic focusing effect in rectangular microchannels. Two theoretical models for two-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing are proposed. The first model predicts the width of the focused stream in symmetric hydrodynamic focusing in microchannels of various aspect ratios. The second model predicts the location and the width of the focused stream in asymmetric hydrodynamic focusing in microchannels with a low or high aspect ratio. In both models, the theoretical results are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. Hence, the models provide a useful means of performing a theoretical analysis of flow control in microfluidic devices using hydrodynamic focusing effects. The ability of the proposed models to control the focused stream within a micro flow cytometer is verified in a series of experimental trials performed using polystyrene microparticles with a diameter of 20 µm. The experimental data show that the width of the focused stream can be reduced to the same order of magnitude as that of the particle size. Furthermore, it is shown that the microparticles can be successfully hydrodynamically focused and switched to the desired outlet port of the cytometer. Hence, the models presented in this study provide sufficient control to support cell/particle counting and sorting applications.

  1. Fast parallel interferometric 3D tracking of numerous optically trapped particles and their hydrodynamic interaction.

    PubMed

    Ruh, Dominic; Tränkle, Benjamin; Rohrbach, Alexander

    2011-10-24

    Multi-dimensional, correlated particle tracking is a key technology to reveal dynamic processes in living and synthetic soft matter systems. In this paper we present a new method for tracking micron-sized beads in parallel and in all three dimensions - faster and more precise than existing techniques. Using an acousto-optic deflector and two quadrant-photo-diodes, we can track numerous optically trapped beads at up to tens of kHz with a precision of a few nanometers by back-focal plane interferometry. By time-multiplexing the laser focus, we can calibrate individually all traps and all tracking signals in a few seconds and in 3D. We show 3D histograms and calibration constants for nine beads in a quadratic arrangement, although trapping and tracking is easily possible for more beads also in arbitrary 2D arrangements. As an application, we investigate the hydrodynamic coupling and diffusion anomalies of spheres trapped in a 3 × 3 arrangement. PMID:22109012

  2. Recent Hydrodynamics Improvements to the RELAP5-3D Code

    SciTech Connect

    Richard A. Riemke; Cliff B. Davis; Richard.R. Schultz

    2009-07-01

    The hydrodynamics section of the RELAP5-3D computer program has been recently improved. Changes were made as follows: (1) improved turbine model, (2) spray model for the pressurizer model, (3) feedwater heater model, (4) radiological transport model, (5) improved pump model, and (6) compressor model.

  3. Oxygen spectral line synthesis: 3D non-LTE with CO5BOLD hydrodynamical model atmospheres.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakapavičius, D.; Steffen, M.; Kučinskas, A.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Freytag, B.; Caffau, E.; Cayrel, R.

    In this work we present first results of our current project aimed at combining the 3D hydrodynamical stellar atmosphere approach with non-LTE (NLTE) spectral line synthesis for a number of key chemical species. We carried out a full 3D-NLTE spectrum synthesis of the oxygen IR 777 nm triplet, using a modified and improved version of our NLTE3D package to calculate departure coefficients for the atomic levels of oxygen in a CO5BOLD 3D hydrodynamical solar model atmosphere. Spectral line synthesis was subsequently performed with the Linfor3D code. In agreement with previous studies, we find that the lines of the oxygen triplet produce deeper cores under NLTE conditions, due to the diminished line source function in the line forming region. This means that the solar oxygen IR 777 nm lines should be stronger in NLTE, leading to negative 3D NLTE-LTE abundance corrections. Qualitatively this result would support previous claims for a relatively low solar oxygen abundance. Finally, we outline several further steps that need to be taken in order to improve the physical realism and numerical accuracy of our current 3D-NLTE calculations.

  4. Hydrodynamic growth experiments with the 3-D, “native-roughness” modulations on NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, S. V.; Casey, D.; Clark, D. S.; Coppari, F.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hamza, A.; Hsing, W.; Landen, O.; Nikroo, A.; Robey, H. F.; Weber, C. R.

    2016-05-01

    Hydrodynamic instability growth experiments with threedimensional (3-D) surface-roughness modulations were performed on plastic (CH) shell spherical implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The initial capsule outer-surface roughness was similar to the standard specifications (“native roughness”) used in a majority of implosions on NIF. At a convergence ratio of ∼3, the measured tent modulations were close to those predicted by 3-D simulations (within ∼15-20%), while measured 3-D, broadband modulations were ∼3-4 times larger than those simulated based on the growth of the known imposed initial surface modulations. One of the hypotheses to explain the results is based on the increased instability amplitudes due to modulations of the oxygen content in the bulk of the capsule. These new experiments results have prompted looking for ways to reduce UV light exposure during target fabrication.

  5. 3D Hydrodynamical Simulations of Evolved Stars and Observations of Stellar Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiavassa, A.; Freytag, B.

    2015-08-01

    Evolved stars are among the largest and brightest stars and they are ideal targets for the new generation of sensitive, high resolution instrumentation that provides spectrophotometric, interferometric, astrometric, and imaging observables. The interpretation of the complex stellar surface images requires numerical simulations of stellar convection that take into account multi-dimensional time-dependent radiation hydrodynamics with realistic input physics. We show how the evolved star simulations are obtained using the radiative hydrodynamics code CO5BOLD and how the accurate observables are computed with the post-processing radiative transfer code OPTIM3D. The synergy between observations and theoretical work is supported by a proper and quantitative analysis using these simulations, and by strong constraints from the observational side.

  6. Simulations of implosions with a 3D, parallel, unstructured-grid, radiation-hydrodynamics code

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, T B; Milovich, J L; Prasad, M K; Rathkopf, J; Shestakov, A I

    1998-12-28

    An unstructured-grid, radiation-hydrodynamics code is used to simulate implosions. Although most of the problems are spherically symmetric, they are run on 3D, unstructured grids in order to test the code's ability to maintain spherical symmetry of the converging waves. Three problems, of increasing complexity, are presented. In the first, a cold, spherical, ideal gas bubble is imploded by an enclosing high pressure source. For the second, we add non-linear heat conduction and drive the implosion with twelve laser beams centered on the vertices of an icosahedron. In the third problem, a NIF capsule is driven with a Planckian radiation source.

  7. Vertical hydrodynamic focusing in glass microchannels

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tony A.; Hosoi, A. E.; Ehrlich, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    Vertical hydrodynamic focusing in microfluidic devices is investigated through simulation and through direct experimental verification using a confocal microscope and a novel form of stroboscopic imaging. Optimization for microfluidic cytometry of biological cells is examined. By combining multiple crossing junctions, it is possible to confine cells to a single analytic layer of interest. Subtractive flows are investigated as a means to move the analysis layer vertically in the channel and to correct the flatness of this layer. The simulation software (ADINA and Coventor) is shown to accurately capture the complex dependencies of the layer interfaces, which vary strongly with channel geometry and relative flow rates. PMID:19693394

  8. Application of 3D hydrodynamic and particle tracking models for better environmental management of finfish culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno Navas, Juan; Telfer, Trevor C.; Ross, Lindsay G.

    2011-04-01

    Hydrographic conditions, and particularly current speeds, have a strong influence on the management of fish cage culture. These hydrodynamic conditions can be used to predict particle movement within the water column and the results used to optimise environmental conditions for effective site selection, setting of environmental quality standards, waste dispersion, and potential disease transfer. To this end, a 3D hydrodynamic model, MOHID, has been coupled to a particle tracking model to study the effects of mean current speed, quiescent water periods and bulk water circulation in Mulroy Bay, Co. Donegal Ireland, an Irish fjard (shallow fjordic system) important to the aquaculture industry. A Lagangrian method simulated the instantaneous release of "particles" emulating discharge from finfish cages to show the behaviour of waste in terms of water circulation and water exchange. The 3D spatial models were used to identify areas of mixed and stratified water using a version of the Simpson-Hunter criteria, and to use this in conjunction with models of current flow for appropriate site selection for salmon aquaculture. The modelled outcomes for stratification were in good agreement with the direct measurements of water column stratification based on observed density profiles. Calculations of the Simpson-Hunter tidal parameter indicated that most of Mulroy Bay was potentially stratified with a well mixed region over the shallow channels where the water is faster flowing. The fjard was characterised by areas of both very low and high mean current speeds, with some areas having long periods of quiescent water. The residual current and the particle tracking animations created through the models revealed an anticlockwise eddy that may influence waste dispersion and potential for disease transfer, among salmon cages and which ensures that the retention time of waste substances from cages is extended. The hydrodynamic model results were incorporated into the ArcView TM GIS

  9. Delft3D-FLOW on PRACE infrastructures for real life hydrodynamic applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donners, John; Genseberger, Menno; Jagers, Bert; de Goede, Erik; Mourits, Adri

    2013-04-01

    PRACE, the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe, offers access to the largest high-performance computing systems in Europe. PRACE invites and helps industry to increase their innovative potential through the use of the PRACE infrastructure. This poster describes different efforts to assist Deltares with porting the open-source simulation software Delft3D-FLOW to PRACE infrastructures. Analysis of the performance on these infrastructures has been done for real life flow applications. Delft3D-FLOW is a 2D and 3D shallow water solver which calculates non-steady flow and transport phenomena resulting from tidal and meteorological forcing on a curvilinear, boundary fitted grid in Cartesian or spherical coordinates. It also includes a module which sediment transport (both suspended and bed total load) and morphological changes for an arbitrary number of cohesive and non-cohesive fractions. As Delft3D-FLOW has been developed over several decades, with a variety of functionality and over 350k lines of source code, porting to PRACE infrastructures needs some effort. At the moment Delft3D-FLOW uses MPI with domain decomposition in one direction as its parallellisation approach. Because it is hard to identify scaling issues if one immediately starts with a complex case with many features enabled, different cases with increasing complexity have been used to investigate scaling of this parallellisation approach on several PRACE platforms. As a base reference case we started with a schematic high-resolution 2D hydrodynamic model of the river Waal that turned out to be surprisingly well-suited to the highly-parallel PRACE machines. Although Delft3D-FLOW employs a sophisticated build system, several modifications were required to port it to most PRACE systems due to the use of specific, highly-tuned compilers and MPI-libraries. After this we moved to a 3D hydrodynamic model of Rotterdam harbour that includes sections of the rivers Rhine and Meuse and a part of the North

  10. 3D sensitivity of 6-electrode Focused Impedance Method (FIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masum Iquebal, A. H.; Siddique-e Rabbani, K.

    2010-04-01

    The present work was taken up to have an understanding of the depth sensitivity of the 6 electrode FIM developed by our laboratory earlier, so that it may be applied judiciously for the measurement of organs in 3D, with electrodes on the skin surface. For a fixed electrode geometry sensitivity is expected to depend on the depth, size and conductivity of the target object. With current electrodes 18 cm apart and potential electrodes 5 cm apart, depth sensitivity of spherical conductors, insulators and of pieces of potato of different diameters were measured. The sensitivity dropped sharply with depth gradually leveling off to background, and objects could be sensed down to a depth of about twice their diameters. The sensitivity at a certain depth increases almost linearly with volume for objects with the same conductivity. Thus these results increase confidence in the use of FIM for studying organs at depths of the body.

  11. Deformation of DNA molecules by hydrodynamic focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Pak Kin; Lee, Yi-Kuen; Ho, Chih-Ming

    2003-12-01

    The motion of a DNA molecule in a solvent flow reflects the deformation of a nano/microscale flexible mass spring structure by the forces exerted by the fluid molecules. The dynamics of individual molecules can reveal both fundamental properties of the DNA and basic understanding of the complex rheological properties of long-chain molecules. In this study, we report the dynamics of isolated DNA molecules under homogeneous extensional flow. Hydrodynamic focusing generates homogeneous extensional flow with uniform velocity in the transverse direction. The deformation of individual DNA molecules in the flow was visualized with video fluorescence microscopy. A coil stretch transition was observed when the Deborah number (De) is larger than 0.8. With a sudden stopping of the flow, the DNA molecule relaxes and recoils. The longest relaxation time of T2 DNA was determined to be 0.63 s when scaling viscosity to 0.9 cP.

  12. A Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Focusing Method for Polyplex Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Mengqian; Ho, Yi-Ping; Grigsby, Christopher L.; Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Leong, Kam W.; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-01-01

    Successful intracellular delivery of nucleic acid therapeutics relies on multi-aspect optimization, one of which is formulation. While there has been ample innovation on chemical design of polymeric gene carriers, the same cannot be said for physical processing of polymer-DNA nanocomplexes (polyplexes). Conventional synthesis of polyplexes by bulk mixing depends on the operators’ experience. The poorly controlled bulk-mixing process may also lead to batch-to-batch variation and consequent irreproducibility. Here, we synthesize polyplexes by using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing (3D-HF) technique in a single-layered, planar microfluidic device. Without any additional chemical treatment or post processing, the polyplexes prepared by the 3D-HF method show smaller size, slower aggregation rate, and higher transfection efficiency, while exhibiting reduced cytotoxicity compared to the ones synthesized by conventional bulk mixing. In addition, by introducing external acoustic perturbation, mixing can be further enhanced, leading to even smaller nanocomplexes. The 3D-HF method provides a simple and reproducible process for synthesizing high-quality polyplexes, addressing a critical barrier in the eventual translation of nucleic acid therapeutics. PMID:24341632

  13. New Insights on Pulsating White Dwarfs from 3D Radiation-Hydrodynamical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Pier-Emmanuel; Fontaine, Gilles; Ludwig, Hans-Günter

    2015-08-01

    We have recently computed a grid of 3D radiation-hydrodynamical simulations for the atmosphere of 70 pure-hydrogen DA white dwarfs in the range 7.0 < log g < 9.0. This includes the full ZZ Ceti instability strip where DA white dwarfs are pulsating, by far the most common type of degenerate pulsators. We have significantly improved the theoretical framework to study these objects by removing the free parameters of 1D convection, which were previously a major modeling hurdle. We will compare our new models with the observed sample of ZZ Ceti stars and highlight the improved derived properties of these objects. In particular, the new spectroscopically determined 3D atmospheric parameters allow for an improved definition of instability strip edges. We have also made new predictions for the size of convection zones, which significantly impact the position where the pulsations are driven, and the region of the HR diagram where white dwarfs are expected to pulsate. Finally, we will present new results from non-adiabatic pulsation calculations.

  14. 3D Printing Meets Computational Astrophysics: Deciphering the Structure of Eta Carinae’s Colliding Winds Using 3D Prints of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, Thomas; Gull, Theodore R.; Clementel, Nicola; Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter; Kruip, Chael; Corcoran, Michael F.; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Teodoro, Mairan

    2015-01-01

    We present the first 3D prints of output from a supercomputer simulation of a complex astrophysical system, the colliding stellar winds in the massive (>120 MSun), highly eccentric (e ~ 0.9) binary Eta Carinae. Using a consumer-grade 3D printer (Makerbot Replicator 2X), we successfully printed 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of Eta Carinae's inner (r ~110 AU) wind-wind collision interface at multiple orbital phases. These 3D prints reveal important, previously unknown 'finger-like' structures at orbital phases shortly after periastron (φ ~1.045) that protrude radially outward from the spiral wind-wind collision region. We speculate that these fingers are related to instabilities (e.g. Rayleigh-Taylor) that arise at the interface between the radiatively-cooled layer of dense post-shock primary-star wind and the hot, adiabatic post-shock companion-star wind. The success of our work and easy identification of previously unknown physical features highlight the important role 3D printing can play in the visualization and understanding of complex 3D time-dependent numerical simulations of astrophysical phenomena.

  15. High-resolution modelling of 3D hydrodynamics in coastal archipelagos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miettunen, Elina; Tuomi, Laura; Ropponen, Janne; Lignell, Risto

    2016-04-01

    Dynamics of the coastal seas are affected by eutrophication, over-fishing, coastal construction and climate change. To enable the sustainable development of these areas, monitoring and modelling of the state of the sea are needed. The Archipelago Sea, located in the northern part of the semi-enclosed and brackish water Baltic Sea, is one of the most complex coastal areas with over 40 000 small islands and islets. It is also very vulnerable area already heavily stressed with eutrophication. Applicable modelling tools are needed to support the decision making and to provide sufficiently reliable information on the effects of the planned actions on the state of the coastal waters. We used 3D hydrodynamic model COHERENS to model the Archipelago Sea area with high spatial resolution of 0.25 nmi. Boundary conditions for this limited area were provided from coarser resolution, 2 nmi, Baltic Sea grid. In order to evaluate the performance of the high-resolution coastal model implementation a comprehensive measurement dataset was gathered, including hydrographic data from three intensive monitoring stations and several more rarely visited monitoring or research stations. The hydrodynamic model was able to simulate the surface temperature and salinity fields and their seasonal variation with good accuracy in this complex area. The sharp depth gradients typical for this area provided some challenges to the modelling. There was some over mixing and related to too strong vertical currents in the steep slopes of the deeper fault lines. Also the water exchange between the more open sea and coastal areas through narrow channels between the islands is not sufficiently well reproduced with the current resolution, leading to too high bottom temperatures.

  16. The hydrodynamic part of the 3D CEMBS model for the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, Lidia; Jakacki, Jaromir; Janecki, Maciej; Nowicki, Artur

    2013-04-01

    The paper presents a hydrodynamic part of the coupled ice-ocean model 3D CEMBS designed for the Baltic Sea. It is based on the Community Earth System Model (CESM from the National Center for Atmospheric Research). It was adopted for the Baltic Sea as a coupled sea-ice model. It consists of the Community Ice Code (CICE model, version 4.0) and the Parallel Ocean Program (version 2.1). The models are linked through the coupler (CPL7) based on the Model Coupling Toolkit library. The ocean model has 21 vertical levels and horizontal grid of 600x640 cells. Horizontal resolution is approximately 2km. It is forced by atmospheric fields from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and in operational mode from 48-hour atmospheric forecasts provided by the UM model from the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling of Warsaw University (ICM). The study was financially supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Research (grants: No N N305 111636, N N306 353239). The partial support for this study was also provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBaltyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract no. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09. Calculations were carried out at the Academy Computer Centre in Gdansk.

  17. 3-D hydrodynamic modelling of flood impacts on a building and indoor flooding processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gems, Bernhard; Mazzorana, Bruno; Hofer, Thomas; Sturm, Michael; Gabl, Roman; Aufleger, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Given the current challenges in flood risk management and vulnerability assessment of buildings exposed to flood hazards, this study presents three-dimensional numerical modelling of torrential floods and its interaction with buildings. By means of a case study application, the FLOW-3D software is applied to the lower reach of the Rio Vallarsa torrent in the village of Laives (Italy). A single-family house on the flood plain is therefore considered in detail. It is exposed to a 300-year flood hydrograph. Different building representation scenarios, including an entire impervious building envelope and the assumption of fully permeable doors, light shafts and windows, are analysed. The modelling results give insight into the flooding process of the building's interior, the impacting hydrodynamic forces on the exterior and interior walls, and further, they quantify the impact of the flooding of a building on the flow field on the surrounding flood plain. The presented study contributes to the development of a comprehensive physics-based vulnerability assessment framework. For pure water floods, this study presents the possibilities and limits of advanced numerical modelling techniques within flood risk management and, thereby, the planning of local structural protection measures.

  18. Linking 1D evolutionary to 3D hydrodynamical simulations of massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristini, A.; Meakin, C.; Hirschi, R.; Arnett, D.; Georgy, C.; Viallet, M.

    2016-03-01

    Stellar evolution models of massive stars are important for many areas of astrophysics, for example nucleosynthesis yields, supernova progenitor models and understanding physics under extreme conditions. Turbulence occurs in stars primarily due to nuclear burning at different mass coordinates within the star. The understanding and correct treatment of turbulence and turbulent mixing at convective boundaries in stellar models has been studied for decades but still lacks a definitive solution. This paper presents initial results of a study on convective boundary mixing (CBM) in massive stars. The ‘stiffness’ of a convective boundary can be quantified using the bulk Richardson number ({{Ri}}{{B}}), the ratio of the potential energy for restoration of the boundary to the kinetic energy of turbulent eddies. A ‘stiff’ boundary ({{Ri}}{{B}}˜ {10}4) will suppress CBM, whereas in the opposite case a ‘soft’ boundary ({{Ri}}{{B}}˜ 10) will be more susceptible to CBM. One of the key results obtained so far is that lower convective boundaries (closer to the centre) of nuclear burning shells are ‘stiffer’ than the corresponding upper boundaries, implying limited CBM at lower shell boundaries. This is in agreement with 3D hydrodynamic simulations carried out by Meakin and Arnett (2007 Astrophys. J. 667 448-75). This result also has implications for new CBM prescriptions in massive stars as well as for nuclear burning flame front propagation in super-asymptotic giant branch stars and also the onset of novae.

  19. The early phases of galaxy clusters formation in IR: coupling hydrodynamical simulations with GRASIL-3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granato, Gian Luigi; Ragone-Figueroa, Cinthia; Domínguez-Tenreiro, Rosa; Obreja, Aura; Borgani, Stefano; De Lucia, Gabriella; Murante, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    We compute and study the infrared and sub-mm properties of high-redshift (z ≳ 1) simulated clusters and protoclusters. The results of a large set of hydrodynamical zoom-in simulations including active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback, have been treated with the recently developed radiative transfer code GRASIL-3D, which accounts for the effect of dust reprocessing in an arbitrary geometry. Here, we have slightly generalized the code to adapt it to the present purpose. Then we have post-processed boxes of physical size 2 Mpc encompassing each of the 24 most massive clusters identified at z = 0, at several redshifts between 0.5 and 3, producing IR and sub-mm mock images of these regions and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the radiation coming out from them. While this field is in its infancy from the observational point of view, rapid development is expected in the near future thanks to observations performed in the far-IR and sub-mm bands. Notably, we find that in this spectral regime our prediction are little affected by the assumption required by this post-processing, and the emission is mostly powered by star formation (SF) rather than accretion on to super massive black hole (SMBH). The comparison with the little observational information currently available, highlights that the simulated cluster regions never attain the impressive star formation rates suggested by these observations. This problem becomes more intriguing taking into account that the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in the same simulations turn out to be too massive. It seems that the interplay between the feedback schemes and the star formation model should be revised, possibly incorporating a positive feedback mode.

  20. Review of solutions for 3D hydrodynamic modeling applied to aquaculture in South Pacific atoll lagoons.

    PubMed

    Andréfouët, S; Ouillon, S; Brinkman, R; Falter, J; Douillet, P; Wolk, F; Smith, R; Garen, P; Martinez, E; Laurent, V; Lo, C; Remoissenet, G; Scourzic, B; Gilbert, A; Deleersnijder, E; Steinberg, C; Choukroun, S; Buestel, D

    2006-10-01

    A workshop organized in French Polynesia in November 2004 allowed reviewing the current methods to model the three-dimensional hydrodynamic circulation in semi-enclosed atoll lagoons for aquaculture applications. Mollusk (e.g. pearl oyster, clam) aquaculture is a major source of income for South Pacific countries such as French Polynesia or Cook Islands. This aquaculture now requires a better understanding of circulation patterns to improve the spatial use of the lagoons, especially to define the best area to set larvae collectors. The pelagic larval duration of the relevant species (<20 days) and the size of the semi-closed lagoons (few hundreds of km2) drive the specifications of the model in terms of the spatial and temporal scale. It is considered that, in contrast with fish, mollusk larvae movements are limited and that their cycle occurs completely in the lagoon, without an oceanic stage. Atolls where aquaculture is productive are generally well-bounded, or semi-closed, without significant large and deep openings to the ocean. Nevertheless part of the lagoon circulation is driven by oceanic water inputs through the rim, ocean swells, tides and winds. Therefore, boundary conditions of the lagoon system are defined by the spatial structure of a very shallow rim (exposition and number of hoas), the deep ocean swell climate, tides and wind regimes. To obtain a realistic 3D numerical model of lagoon circulation with adequate forcing, it is thus necessary to connect in an interdisciplinary way a variety of methods (models, remote sensing and in situ data collection) to accurately represent the different components of the lagoon system and its specific boundary conditions. We review here the current methods and tools used to address these different components for a hypothetical atoll of the Tuamotu Archipelago (French Polynesia), representative of the semi-closed lagoons of the South Pacific Ocean. We hope this paper will serve as a guide for similar studies

  1. Introduction and guide to LLNL's relativistic 3-D nuclear hydrodynamics code

    SciTech Connect

    Zingman, J.A.; McAbee, T.L.; Alonso, C.T.; Wilson, J.R.

    1987-11-01

    We have constructed a relativistic hydrodynamic model to investigate Bevalac and higher energy, heavy-ion collisions. The basis of the model is a finite-difference solution to covariant hydrodynamics, which will be described in the rest of this paper. This paper also contains: a brief review of the equations and numerical methods we have employed in the solution to the hydrodynamic equations, a detailed description of several of the most important subroutines, and a numerical test on the code. 30 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Hydrodynamic focusing of a particle flux

    SciTech Connect

    Makhviladze, G.M.; Melikhov, O.I.; Nikolova, I.P.

    1995-12-01

    Based on numerical integration of the equations of mechanics of multiphase media, an effect of focusing of a particle flux generated by a source located on the upper wall of a closed vessel has been revealed and investigated.

  3. High-purity 3D nano-objects grown by focused-electron-beam induced deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdoba, Rosa; Sharma, Nidhi; Kölling, Sebastian; Koenraad, Paul M.; Koopmans, Bert

    2016-09-01

    To increase the efficiency of current electronics, a specific challenge for the next generation of memory, sensing and logic devices is to find suitable strategies to move from two- to three-dimensional (3D) architectures. However, the creation of real 3D nano-objects is not trivial. Emerging non-conventional nanofabrication tools are required for this purpose. One attractive method is focused-electron-beam induced deposition (FEBID), a direct-write process of 3D nano-objects. Here, we grow 3D iron and cobalt nanopillars by FEBID using diiron nonacarbonyl Fe2(CO)9, and dicobalt octacarbonyl Co2(CO)8, respectively, as starting materials. In addition, we systematically study the composition of these nanopillars at the sub-nanometer scale by atom probe tomography, explicitly mapping the homogeneity of the radial and longitudinal composition distributions. We show a way of fabricating high-purity 3D vertical nanostructures of ∼50 nm in diameter and a few micrometers in length. Our results suggest that the purity of such 3D nanoelements (above 90 at% Fe and above 95 at% Co) is directly linked to their growth regime, in which the selected deposition conditions are crucial for the final quality of the nanostructure. Moreover, we demonstrate that FEBID and the proposed characterization technique not only allow for growth and chemical analysis of single-element structures, but also offers a new way to directly study 3D core–shell architectures. This straightforward concept could establish a promising route to the design of 3D elements for future nano-electronic devices.

  4. High-purity 3D nano-objects grown by focused-electron-beam induced deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdoba, Rosa; Sharma, Nidhi; Kölling, Sebastian; Koenraad, Paul M.; Koopmans, Bert

    2016-09-01

    To increase the efficiency of current electronics, a specific challenge for the next generation of memory, sensing and logic devices is to find suitable strategies to move from two- to three-dimensional (3D) architectures. However, the creation of real 3D nano-objects is not trivial. Emerging non-conventional nanofabrication tools are required for this purpose. One attractive method is focused-electron-beam induced deposition (FEBID), a direct-write process of 3D nano-objects. Here, we grow 3D iron and cobalt nanopillars by FEBID using diiron nonacarbonyl Fe2(CO)9, and dicobalt octacarbonyl Co2(CO)8, respectively, as starting materials. In addition, we systematically study the composition of these nanopillars at the sub-nanometer scale by atom probe tomography, explicitly mapping the homogeneity of the radial and longitudinal composition distributions. We show a way of fabricating high-purity 3D vertical nanostructures of ˜50 nm in diameter and a few micrometers in length. Our results suggest that the purity of such 3D nanoelements (above 90 at% Fe and above 95 at% Co) is directly linked to their growth regime, in which the selected deposition conditions are crucial for the final quality of the nanostructure. Moreover, we demonstrate that FEBID and the proposed characterization technique not only allow for growth and chemical analysis of single-element structures, but also offers a new way to directly study 3D core-shell architectures. This straightforward concept could establish a promising route to the design of 3D elements for future nano-electronic devices.

  5. Solving 3D relativistic hydrodynamical problems with weighted essentially nonoscillatory discontinuous Galerkin methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugner, Marcus; Dietrich, Tim; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Weyhausen, Andreas; Brügmann, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods coupled to weighted essentially nonoscillatory (WENO) algorithms allow high order convergence for smooth problems and for the simulation of discontinuities and shocks. In this work, we investigate WENO-DG algorithms in the context of numerical general relativity, in particular for general relativistic hydrodynamics. We implement the standard WENO method at different orders, a compact (simple) WENO scheme, as well as an alternative subcell evolution algorithm. To evaluate the performance of the different numerical schemes, we study nonrelativistic, special relativistic, and general relativistic test beds. We present the first three-dimensional simulations of general relativistic hydrodynamics, albeit for a fixed spacetime background, within the framework of WENO-DG methods. The most important test bed is a single Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff star in three dimensions, showing that long term stable simulations of single isolated neutron stars can be obtained with WENO-DG methods.

  6. Cholla: 3D GPU-based hydrodynamics code for astrophysical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Evan E.; Robertson, Brant E.

    2016-07-01

    Cholla (Computational Hydrodynamics On ParaLLel Architectures) models the Euler equations on a static mesh and evolves the fluid properties of thousands of cells simultaneously using GPUs. It can update over ten million cells per GPU-second while using an exact Riemann solver and PPM reconstruction, allowing computation of astrophysical simulations with physically interesting grid resolutions (>256^3) on a single device; calculations can be extended onto multiple devices with nearly ideal scaling beyond 64 GPUs.

  7. Combined 3D hydrodynamic and watershed modelling of Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dargahi, Bijan; Setegn, Shimelis Gebriye

    2011-02-01

    SummaryThe growing high demand for Lake Tana water portends a disturbing future. The main objective of this paper is to make a contribution to the development of a sustainable use of the water of Lake Tana. A fully three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was combined with a watershed model and together, these models were successfully validated for the year 2006. The flow structure is characterized by large recirculation and secondary flow regions. Secondary flows are induced by hydrodynamic instabilities occurring at the interfaces of layers with a velocity gradient and the interaction with the irregularities of the bed. The weak stratification process in Lake Tana is characterized by a classic summer profile, which is more pronounced during January-February. Mixing processes in the lake are controlled by wind, the mixing energy induced by both river inflows and the lake outlet, and convective mixing due to the negative buoyancy. An alarming fall of the water levels in Lake Tana was found in response to the planned water withdrawal. The long flushing time (19 months) will not allow a fast decay of contaminated materials released into the lake. The flow structure will not be significantly modified by the planned water withdrawal but the flushing time will decrease. The hydrodynamics of Lake Tana resemble a closed system similar to a shallow reservoir with an overflow type outlet. The implication is that the lake is vulnerable to changes in external conditions and sustainable use of the water resource of the lake will require awareness of this vulnerability. The combined watershed and hydrodynamic models would be effective tools to achieve this awareness. It is also necessary to address the impact of climate change on the fate of the lake. These are all difficult challenges that need to be addressed to safeguard the sensitive eco-system of the area.

  8. Separation efficiency of a hydrodynamic separator using a 3D computational fluid dynamics multiscale approach.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Vivien; Dufresne, Matthieu; Vazquez, Jose; Fischer, Martin; Morin, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to predict the solid separation efficiency of a hydrodynamic separator. The numerical difficulty concerns the discretization of the geometry to simulate both the global behavior and the local phenomena that occur near the screen. In this context, a CFD multiscale approach was used: a global model (at the scale of the device) is used to observe the hydrodynamic behavior within the device; a local model (portion of the screen) is used to determine the local phenomena that occur near the screen. The Eulerian-Lagrangian approach was used to model the particle trajectories in both models. The global model shows the influence of the particles' characteristics on the trapping efficiency. A high density favors the sedimentation. In contrast, particles with small densities (1,040 kg/m(3)) are steered by the hydrodynamic behavior and can potentially be trapped by the separator. The use of the local model allows us to observe the particle trajectories near the screen. A comparison between two types of screens (perforated plate vs expanded metal) highlights the turbulent effects created by the shape of the screen.

  9. Simulation-Guided 3D Nanomanufacturing via Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Fowlkes, Jason D.; Winkler, Robert; Lewis, Brett B.; Stanford, Michael G.; Plank, Harald; Rack, Philip D.

    2016-06-10

    Focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) is one of the few techniques that enables direct-write synthesis of free-standing 3D nanostructures. While the fabrication of simple architectures such as vertical or curving nanowires has been achieved by simple trial and error, processing complex 3D structures is not tractable with this approach. This is due, inpart, to the dynamic interplay between electron–solid interactions and the transient spatial distribution of absorbed precursor molecules on the solid surface. Here, we demonstrate the ability to controllably deposit 3D lattice structures at the micro/nanoscale, which have received recent interest owing to superior mechanical and optical properties.more » Moreover, a hybrid Monte Carlo–continuum simulation is briefly overviewed, and subsequently FEBID experiments and simulations are directly compared. Finally, a 3D computer-aided design (CAD) program is introduced, which generates the beam parameters necessary for FEBID by both simulation and experiment. In using this approach, we demonstrate the fabrication of various 3D lattice structures using Pt-, Au-, and W-based precursors.« less

  10. Observations and 3D Hydrodynamical models of planetary nebulae with Wolf Rayet type central stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechy-García, J. S.; Velázquez, P. F.; Peña, M.; Raga, A. C.

    2016-10-01

    We present high-resolution, long-slit spectroscopic observations of two planetary nebulae with [WC] central stars located near the galactic bulge, M 1-32 and M 3-15. The observations were obtained with the 2.1-m telescope at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, San Pedro Mártir. M 1-32 shows wide wings on the base of its emission lines and M 3-15 has two very faint high-velocity knots. In order to model both PNe we built a three-dimensional model consisting of a jet interacting with an equatorially concentrated slow wind, emulating the presence of a dense torus, using the Yguazú hydrodynamical code. From our hydrodynamical models, we obtained position-velocity (PV) diagrams in the [N II]λ6583 line for comparison with the observations. We find that the spectral characteristics of M 1-32 and M 3-15 can be explained with the same physical model -a jet moving inside an AGB wind- using different parameters (physical conditions and position angles of the jet). In agreement with our model and observations, these objects contain a dense torus seeing pole-on and a bipolar jet escaping thorough the poles. Then we propose to classify this kind of objects as spectroscopic bipolar nebulae, although they have been classified morphologically as compact, round, or elliptical nebulae or with "close collimated lobes".

  11. 3D Image Acquisition System Based on Shape from Focus Technique

    PubMed Central

    Billiot, Bastien; Cointault, Frédéric; Journaux, Ludovic; Simon, Jean-Claude; Gouton, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a 3D image acquisition system dedicated to natural complex scenes composed of randomly distributed objects with spatial discontinuities. In agronomic sciences, the 3D acquisition of natural scene is difficult due to the complex nature of the scenes. Our system is based on the Shape from Focus technique initially used in the microscopic domain. We propose to adapt this technique to the macroscopic domain and we detail the system as well as the image processing used to perform such technique. The Shape from Focus technique is a monocular and passive 3D acquisition method that resolves the occlusion problem affecting the multi-cameras systems. Indeed, this problem occurs frequently in natural complex scenes like agronomic scenes. The depth information is obtained by acting on optical parameters and mainly the depth of field. A focus measure is applied on a 2D image stack previously acquired by the system. When this focus measure is performed, we can create the depth map of the scene. PMID:23591964

  12. Coupling Magnetic Fields and ALE Hydrodynamics for 3D Simulations of MFCG's

    SciTech Connect

    White, D; Rieben, R; Wallin, B

    2006-09-20

    We review the development of a full 3D multiphysics code for the simulation of explosively driven Magnetic Flux Compression Generators (MFCG) and related pulse power devices. In a typical MFCG the device is seeded with an initial electric current and the device is then detonated. The detonation compresses the magnetic field and amplifies the current. This is a multiphysics problem in that detonation kinetics, electromagnetic diffusion and induction, material deformation, and thermal effects are all important. This is a tightly coupled problem in that the different physical quantities have comparable spatial and temporal variation, and hence should be solved simultaneously on the same computational mesh.

  13. 3D hydrodynamic lift force model for AREVA fuel assembly in EDF PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Ekomie, S.; Bigot, J.; Dolleans, Ph.; Vallory, J.

    2007-07-01

    The accurate knowledge of the hydrodynamic lift force acting on a fuel assembly in PWR core is necessary to design the hold-down system of this assembly. This paper presents the model used by AREVA NP and EDF for computing this force. It results from a post-processing of sub-channel thermal-hydraulic codes respectively porous medium approach code THYC (EDF) and sub-channel type code FLICA III-F (AREVA NP). This model is based on the application of the Euler's theorem. Some hypotheses used to simplify the complexity of fuel assembly geometry are supported by CFD calculations. Then the model is compared to some experimental results obtained on a single fuel assembly inserted in the HERMES-T test facility located in CEA - Cadarache. Finally, the model is applied to calculate the lift force for the whole core. Various loading patterns including homogenous and mixed cores have been investigated and compared. (authors)

  14. Depth-of-Focus Affects 3D Perception in Stereoscopic Displays.

    PubMed

    Vienne, Cyril; Blondé, Laurent; Mamassian, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Stereoscopic systems present binocular images on planar surface at a fixed distance. They induce cues to flatness, indicating that images are presented on a unique surface and specifying the relative depth of that surface. The center of interest of this study is on a second problem, arising when a 3D object distance differs from the display distance. As binocular disparity must be scaled using an estimate of viewing distance, object depth can thus be affected through disparity scaling. Two previous experiments revealed that stereoscopic displays can affect depth perception due to conflicting accommodation and vergence cues at near distances. In this study, depth perception is evaluated for farther accommodation and vergence distances using a commercially available 3D TV. In Experiment I, we evaluated depth perception of 3D stimuli at different vergence distances for a large pool of participants. We observed a strong effect of vergence distance that was bigger for younger than for older participants, suggesting that the effect of accommodation was reduced in participants with emerging presbyopia. In Experiment 2, we extended 3D estimations by varying both the accommodation and vergence distances. We also tested the hypothesis that setting accommodation open loop by constricting pupil size could decrease the contribution of focus cues to perceived distance. We found that the depth constancy was affected by accommodation and vergence distances and that the accommodation distance effect was reduced with a larger depth-of-focus. We discuss these results with regard to the effectiveness of focus cues as a distance signal. Overall, these results highlight the importance of appropriate focus cues in stereoscopic displays at intermediate viewing distances.

  15. Parallel microfluidic synthesis of size-tunable polymeric nanoparticles using 3D flow focusing towards in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jong-Min; Bertrand, Nicolas; Valencia, Pedro M.; Rhee, Minsoung; Langer, Robert; Jon, Sangyong; Farokhzad, Omid C.; Karnik, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) can enhance the controllability and reproducibility in physicochemical properties of NPs compared to bulk synthesis methods. However, applications of microfluidic synthesis are typically limited to in vitro studies due to low production rates. Herein, we report the parallelization of NP synthesis by 3D hydrodynamic flow focusing (HFF) using a multilayer microfluidic system to enhance the production rate without losing the advantages of reproducibility, controllability, and robustness. Using parallel 3D HFF, polymeric poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-b-polyethyleneglycol (PLGA-PEG) NPs with sizes tunable in the range of 13–150 nm could be synthesized reproducibly with high production rate. As a proof of concept, we used this system to perform in vivo pharmacokinetic and biodistribution study of small (20 nm diameter) PLGA-PEG NPs that are otherwise difficult to synthesize. Microfluidic parallelization thus enables synthesis of NPs with tunable properties with production rates suitable for both in vitro and in vivo studies. PMID:23969105

  16. Hydrodynamic focusing of conducting fluids for conductivity-based biosensors.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Mansoor; Ateya, Daniel A; Burk, Diana; Golden, Joel P; Ligler, Frances S

    2010-02-15

    Hydrodynamic focusing of a conducting fluid by a non-conducting fluid to form a constricted current path between two sensing electrodes is implemented in order to enhance the sensitivity of a 4-electrode conductance-based biosensor. The sensor has a simple two-inlet T-junction design and performs four-point conductivity measurements to detect particles immobilized between the sensing electrode pair. Computational simulations conducted in conjunction with experimental flow studies using confocal microscopy show that a flat profile for the focused layer is dependent on the Reynolds number for the chosen flow parameters. The results also indicate that a flat focused layer is desirable for both increased sensitivity as well as surface-binding efficiency. Proof of concept for conductance measurements in a hydrodynamically focused conducting fluid was demonstrated with entrapped magnetic beads. PMID:19932019

  17. 3D imaging of the early embryonic chicken heart with focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Rennie, Monique Y; Gahan, Curran G; López, Claudia S; Thornburg, Kent L; Rugonyi, Sandra

    2014-08-01

    Early embryonic heart development is a period of dynamic growth and remodeling, with rapid changes occurring at the tissue, cell, and subcellular levels. A detailed understanding of the events that establish the components of the heart wall has been hampered by a lack of methodologies for three-dimensional (3D), high-resolution imaging. Focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) is a novel technology for imaging 3D tissue volumes at the subcellular level. FIB-SEM alternates between imaging the block face with a scanning electron beam and milling away thin sections of tissue with a FIB, allowing for collection and analysis of 3D data. FIB-SEM was used to image the three layers of the day 4 chicken embryo heart: myocardium, cardiac jelly, and endocardium. Individual images obtained with FIB-SEM were comparable in quality and resolution to those obtained with transmission electron microscopy. Up to 1,100 serial images were obtained in 4 nm increments at 4.88 nm resolution, and image stacks were aligned to create volumes 800-1,500 μm3 in size. Segmentation of organelles revealed their organization and distinct volume fractions between cardiac wall layers. We conclude that FIB-SEM is a powerful modality for 3D subcellular imaging of the embryonic heart wall.

  18. Microfluidic hydrodynamic focusing for high-throughput applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jingjing; You, Zheng

    2015-12-01

    Microfluidic hydrodynamic focusing is critical for chip-based bioanalytical systems to increase throughput and sensitivity, especially for microflow cytometers, enabling a sample flow to be confined to the center of a microchannel with a narrow cross-section. Current microfluidic hydrodynamic focusing designs are usually unable to maintain stable focusing in high flow velocity conditions, resulting in a large cross-section or even failed focusing. To overcome this challenge, this paper aims to develop a design that can achieve effective microfluidic hydrodynamic focusing at high velocity with favorable performance. For this purpose, specially designed structures and arc-shaped channels are used. Two focusing regions are modeled and optimized mathematically, and flow behavior is investigated using numerical simulations. The functional relationship between flow rates and the cross-sectional dimensions of the focused sample flow is explored, and a measurement method for testing the dimensions is developed. The design is implemented in glass chips and characterized experimentally. In a rectangular channel with a cross-section of 300 μm  ×  150 μm the sample flow can be focused down to 5-11 μm horizontally and 10-21 μm vertically at a roughly constant velocity of 4.4 m s-1 when the sample flow rate varies between 10 and 60 μl min-1. Effective focusing is accessible within a wide velocity range from 0.7 to 10 m s-1. The experimental results validate that the focusing design performs better than existing microfluidic designs at high velocities, while its performance is close to that of the designs used in conventional flow cytometers with much less volume and a simpler structure. The focusing design can serve as the basis for microflow cytometers or it can be integrated into various microfluidic systems where complete focusing is needed.

  19. A 3D boundary-fitted barotropic hydrodynamic model for the New York Harbor region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaranarayanan, S.

    2005-11-01

    A three-dimensional barotropic hydrodynamic model application to the New York Harbor Region is performed using the Boundary-Fitted HYDROdynamic model (BFHYDRO). The model forcing functions consist of surface elevations along the open boundaries, hourly winds, and fresh water flows from the rivers and sewage flows. A comprehensive skill assessment of the model predictions is done using observed surface elevations and three-dimensional currents. The model-predicted surface elevations compare well with the observed surface elevations at four stations. Mean errors in the model-predicted surface elevations are less than 4% and correlation coefficients exceed 0.985. Model-predicted three-dimensional currents at Verrazano Narrows show excellent comparison with the observations, with mean errors less than 11% and correlation coefficients exceeding 0.960. Model-predicted three-dimensional currents at Bergen Point compare well with the observations, with mean errors less than 15% and correlation coefficients exceeding 0.897. The surface elevation amplitudes and phases of the principal tidal constituents at nine tidal stations, obtained from a harmonic analysis of a 60-day simulation compare well with the observed data. The predicted amplitude and phase of the M2 tidal constituent at these stations are, respectively, within 5 cm and 6° of the observed data. The model-predicted tidal ellipse parameters for the major tidal constituents compare well with the observations at Verrazano Narrows and Bergen Point. The model-predicted along channel sub-tidal currents also compare well with the observations. The semi-diurnal tidal ranges and spring and neap tidal cycles of the surface elevations and currents are well reproduced in the model at all stations. The observed currents at Bergen Point were shown to be flood dominant through tidal distortion analysis. The model-predicted currents also showed Newark Bay and Arthur Kill to be flood dominant systems. The model predictions showed

  20. 3D Hydrodynamic Modeling of SN 1987A from the SN explosion till the Athena Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Salvatore; Miceli, Marco; Pumo, Maria Letizia; Bocchino, Fabrizio

    2015-09-01

    The proximity of SN 1987A and the wealth of observations collected at all wavelength bands since its outburst allow us to study in detail the transition of a supernova (SN) in a supernova remnant(SNR) and the link between the morphological properties of a SNRand the complex phases in the SN explosion. Here we investigate theinteraction between the remnant of SN 1987A and the surroundingcircumstellar medium (CSM) through three-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling. The aim is to identify the imprint of SN 1987A on the X-ray emission of its remnant and to determine the contribution of shocked ejecta and shocked CSM to the detected X-ray flux, thusproviding clues on both the ejecta and the density structure of theinhomogeneous CSM. Our model describes the evolution of the blastwave from the breakout of the shock wave at the stellar surfacetill its transition from SN to SNR, making predictions on the futureobservations of SN 1987A with the instruments on board Athena. Ourmodel is able to reproduce alltogether the main observables of boththe progenitor supernova (e.g. the bolometric lightcurve during thefirst 250 days) and of its remnant (X-ray lightcurves and spectraduring the following 26 years of evolution), providing for the firsttime an accurate description of the structure of ejecta and of the CSM around the progenitor.

  1. Focus Variation - A New Technology for High Resolution Optical 3D Surface Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, S.

    2009-04-01

    Focus Variation - A New Technology for High Resolution Optical 3D Surface Metrology S. Scherer1, E. Cristea1, O. Huber1, A. Krenn1 1 ALICONA GmbH Graz, Austria The need for increasing accuracy is a characteristic of all geo-applications, and hence of the instruments contributing to obtaining relevant data. Small and fine sensors are being developed, measuring different parameters of our geosystem and requiring continuous validation and calibration. These sensors have often very small components (fine sensors able to sense dust, atmospheric water vapour characteristics, pressure change, gravimeters, satellite micro-components), showing complex topographies including steep flanks and having varying reflective properties. In order to get valid and reliable results, quality assurance of these instruments and sensors is required. The optical technology Focus-Variation, developed by Alicona and added in the latest draft of the upcoming ISO standard 25178, provides high resolution 3D surface metrology even at those complex topographies. The technique of Focus-Variation combines the small depth of focus of an optical system with vertical scanning to provide topographical and color information from the variation of focus. It is used for high-resolution optical 3D surface measurements. The traceable and repeatable measurement results are further being used for calibration and validation purposes. Some of the characteristics of the technology are: - Measurement of instruments / samples with steep flanks up to 80° - Measurement of materials with strongly varying reflection properties - Measurement of surfaces presenting fine (from 10nm) or strong roughness Here, we present the operating principle and possible applications of the optical 3D measurement system "InfiniteFocus", which is based on the technology of Focus-Variation and used for quality assurance in the lab and in production. With the vertical resolution of up to 10nm, InfiniteFocus yields meaningful form and

  2. Precise time-of-flight calculation for 3-D synthetic aperture focusing.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Henrik; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2009-09-01

    Conventional linear arrays can be used for 3-D ultrasound imaging by moving the array in the elevation direction and stacking the planes in a volume. The point-spread function is larger in the elevation plane, because the aperture is smaller and has a fixed elevation focus. Resolution improvements in elevation can be achieved by applying synthetic aperture focusing to the beamformed-in-plane RF data. The proposed method uses a virtual source placed at the elevation focus for postbeamforming. This has previously been done in 2 steps, in-plane focusing followed by synthetic aperture postfocusing in elevation, due to lack of a simple expression for the exact time of flight. This paper presents a new single step method for calculating the time of flight for a 3-D case using a linear array. The new method is more flexible and is able to beamform a fewer number of points much more efficiently. The method is evaluated using both simulated data and phantom measurements using the RASMUS experimental scanner. Computational cost of the method is higher than the 2-step method for a full volume beamforming, but it allows for a reduction of an order-of-magnitude if 3 planes are used for real-time visualization. In addition, the need for a temporary storage of beamformed data is removed.

  3. 3D Medipix2 detector characterization with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimenez, E. N.; Maneuski, D.; Mac Raighne, A.; Parkes, C.; Bates, R.; O'Shea, V.; Fleta, C.; Pellegrini, G.; Lozano, M.; Alianelli, L.; Sawhney, K. J. S.; Marchal, J.; Tartoni, N.

    2011-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) photodiode detectors offer advantages over standard planar photodiodes in a wide range of applications. The main advantage of these sensors for X-ray imaging is their reduced charge sharing between adjacent pixels, which could improve spatial and spectral resolution. However, a drawback of 3D sensors structures is the loss of detection efficiency due to the presence in the pixel structure of heavily doped electrode columns which are insensitive to X-ray. In this work two types of 3D silicon detectors: n-type wafer with hole collecting readout-columns (N-TYPE) and p-type wafer with electron collecting readout-columns (P-TYPE), bump-bounded to a Medipix2 read-out chip were characterized with a 14.5 keV micro-focused X-ray beam from a synchrotron. Measurements of the detection efficiency and the charge sharing were performed at different bias voltages and Medipix2 energy thresholds and compared with those of a standard planar silicon sensor.

  4. Fast 3D Focusing Inversion of Gravity Data Using Reweighted Regularized Lanczos Bidiagonalization Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaie, Mohammad; Moradzadeh, Ali; Kalate, Ali Nejati; Aghajani, Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Inversion of gravity data is one of the important steps in the interpretation of practical data. One of the most interesting geological frameworks for gravity data inversion is the detection of sharp boundaries between orebody and host rocks. The focusing inversion is able to reconstruct a sharp image of the geological target. This technique can be efficiently applied for the quantitative interpretation of gravity data. In this study, a new reweighted regularized method for the 3D focusing inversion technique based on Lanczos bidiagonalization method is developed. The inversion results of synthetic data show that the new method is faster than common reweighted regularized conjugate gradient method to produce an acceptable solution for focusing inverse problem. The new developed inversion scheme is also applied for inversion of the gravity data collected over the San Nicolas Cu-Zn orebody in Zacatecas State, Mexico. The inversion results indicate a remarkable correlation with the true structure of the orebody that is achieved from drilling data.

  5. Surface-effect corrections for solar-like oscillations using 3D hydrodynamical simulations. I. Adiabatic oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonoi, T.; Samadi, R.; Belkacem, K.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Caffau, E.; Mosser, B.

    2015-11-01

    Context. The CoRoT and Kepler space-borne missions have provided us with a wealth of high-quality observational data that allows for seismic inferences of stellar interiors. This requires the computation of precise and accurate theoretical frequencies, but imperfect modeling of the uppermost stellar layers introduces systematic errors. To overcome this problem, an empirical correction has been introduced by Kjeldsen et al. (2008, ApJ, 683, L175) and is now commonly used for seismic inferences. Nevertheless, we still lack a physical justification allowing for the quantification of the surface-effect corrections. Aims: Our aim is to constrain the surface-effect corrections across the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram using a set of 3D hydrodynamical simulations. Methods: We used a grid of these simulations computed with the CO5BOLD code to model the outer layers of solar-like stars. Upper layers of the corresponding 1D standard models were then replaced by the layers obtained from the horizontally averaged 3D models. The frequency differences between these patched models and the 1D standard models were then calculated using the adiabatic approximation and allowed us to constrain the Kjeldsen et al. power law, as well as a Lorentzian formulation. Results: We find that the surface effects on modal frequencies depend significantly on both the effective temperature and the surface gravity. We further provide the variation in the parameters related to the surface-effect corrections using their power law as well as a Lorentzian formulation. Scaling relations between these parameters and the elevation (related to the Mach number) is also provided. The Lorentzian formulation is shown to be more robust for the whole frequency spectrum, while the power law is not suitable for the frequency shifts in the frequency range above νmax. Finally, we show that, owing to turbulent pressure, the elevation of the uppermost layers modifies the location of the hydrogen ionization zone and

  6. An edge-from-focus approach to 3D inspection and metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Fuqin; Chen, Jia; Liu, Jianyang; Zhang, Zhijun; Deng, Jiangwen; Fung, Kenneth S. M.; Lam, Edmund Y.

    2015-02-01

    We propose an edge-based depth-from-focus technique for high-precision non-contact industrial inspection and metrology applications. In our system, an objective lens with a large numerical aperture is chosen to resolve the edge details of the measured object. By motorizing this imaging system, we capture the high-resolution edges within every narrow depth of field. We can therefore extend the measured range and keep a high resolution at the same time. Yet, on the surfaces with a large depth variation, a significant amount of data around each measured point are out of focus within the captured images. Then, it is difficult to extract the valuable information from these out-of-focus data due to the depth-variant blur. Moreover, these data impede the extraction of continuous contours for the measurement objects in high-level machine vision applications. The proposed approach however makes use of the out-of-focus data to synthesize a depth-invariant smoothed image, and then robustly locates the positions of high contrast edges based on non-maximum suppression and hysteresis thresholding. Furthermore, by focus analysis of both the in-focus and the out-of-focus data, we reconstruct the high-precision 3D edges for metrology applications.

  7. Focusing optics of a parallel beam CCD optical tomography apparatus for 3D radiation gel dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Krstajić, Nikola; Doran, Simon J

    2006-04-21

    Optical tomography of gel dosimeters is a promising and cost-effective avenue for quality control of radiotherapy treatments such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Systems based on a laser coupled to a photodiode have so far shown the best results within the context of optical scanning of radiosensitive gels, but are very slow ( approximately 9 min per slice) and poorly suited to measurements that require many slices. Here, we describe a fast, three-dimensional (3D) optical computed tomography (optical-CT) apparatus, based on a broad, collimated beam, obtained from a high power LED and detected by a charged coupled detector (CCD). The main advantages of such a system are (i) an acquisition speed approximately two orders of magnitude higher than a laser-based system when 3D data are required, and (ii) a greater simplicity of design. This paper advances our previous work by introducing a new design of focusing optics, which take information from a suitably positioned focal plane and project an image onto the CCD. An analysis of the ray optics is presented, which explains the roles of telecentricity, focusing, acceptance angle and depth-of-field (DOF) in the formation of projections. A discussion of the approximation involved in measuring the line integrals required for filtered backprojection reconstruction is given. Experimental results demonstrate (i) the effect on projections of changing the position of the focal plane of the apparatus, (ii) how to measure the acceptance angle of the optics, and (iii) the ability of the new scanner to image both absorbing and scattering gel phantoms. The quality of reconstructed images is very promising and suggests that the new apparatus may be useful in a clinical setting for fast and accurate 3D dosimetry. PMID:16585845

  8. Focusing optics of a parallel beam CCD optical tomography apparatus for 3D radiation gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krstajic, Nikola; Doran, Simon J.

    2006-04-01

    Optical tomography of gel dosimeters is a promising and cost-effective avenue for quality control of radiotherapy treatments such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Systems based on a laser coupled to a photodiode have so far shown the best results within the context of optical scanning of radiosensitive gels, but are very slow (~9 min per slice) and poorly suited to measurements that require many slices. Here, we describe a fast, three-dimensional (3D) optical computed tomography (optical-CT) apparatus, based on a broad, collimated beam, obtained from a high power LED and detected by a charged coupled detector (CCD). The main advantages of such a system are (i) an acquisition speed approximately two orders of magnitude higher than a laser-based system when 3D data are required, and (ii) a greater simplicity of design. This paper advances our previous work by introducing a new design of focusing optics, which take information from a suitably positioned focal plane and project an image onto the CCD. An analysis of the ray optics is presented, which explains the roles of telecentricity, focusing, acceptance angle and depth-of-field (DOF) in the formation of projections. A discussion of the approximation involved in measuring the line integrals required for filtered backprojection reconstruction is given. Experimental results demonstrate (i) the effect on projections of changing the position of the focal plane of the apparatus, (ii) how to measure the acceptance angle of the optics, and (iii) the ability of the new scanner to image both absorbing and scattering gel phantoms. The quality of reconstructed images is very promising and suggests that the new apparatus may be useful in a clinical setting for fast and accurate 3D dosimetry.

  9. Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Hybrid Nanomaterials via Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Focusing

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Shape-controlled synthesis of nanomaterials through a simple, continuous, and low-cost method is essential to nanomaterials research toward practical applications. Hydrodynamic focusing, with its advantages of simplicity, low-cost, and precise control over reaction conditions, has been used for nanomaterial synthesis. While most studies have focused on improving the uniformity and size control, few have addressed the potential of tuning the shape of the synthesized nanomaterials. Here we demonstrate a facile method to synthesize hybrid materials by three-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing (3D-HF). While keeping the flow rates of the reagents constant and changing only the flow rate of the buffer solution, the molar ratio of two reactants (i.e., tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and HAuCl4) within the reaction zone varies. The synthesized TTF–Au hybrid materials possess very different and predictable morphologies. The reaction conditions at different buffer flow rates are studied through computational simulation, and the formation mechanisms of different structures are discussed. This simple one-step method to achieve continuous shape-tunable synthesis highlights the potential of 3D-HF in nanomaterials research. PMID:25268035

  10. 3D topographic correction of the BSR heat flow and detection of focused fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Tao; Li, Hong-Lin; Zou, Chang-Chun

    2014-06-01

    The bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) is a seismic indicator of the bottom of a gas hydrate stability zone. Its depth can be used to calculate the seafloor surface heat flow. The calculated BSR heat flow variations include disturbances from two important factors: (1) seafloor topography, which focuses the heat flow over regions of concave topography and defocuses it over regions of convex topography, and (2) the focused warm fluid flow within the accretionary prism coming from depths deeper than BSR. The focused fluid flow can be detected if the contribution of the topography to the BSR heat flow is removed. However, the analytical equation cannot solve the topographic effect at complex seafloor regions. We prove that 3D finite element method can model the topographic effect on the regional background heat flow with high accuracy, which can then be used to correct the topographic effect and obtain the BSR heat flow under the condition of perfectly flat topography. By comparing the corrected BSR heat flow with the regional background heat flow, focused fluid flow regions can be detected that are originally too small and cannot be detected using present-day equipment. This method was successfully applied to the midslope region of northern Cascadia subducting margin. The results suggest that the Cucumber Ridge and its neighboring area are positive heat flow anomalies, about 10%-20% higher than the background heat flow after 3D topographic correction. Moreover, the seismic imaging associated the positive heat flow anomaly areas with seabed fracture-cavity systems. This suggests flow of warm gas-carrying fluids along these high-permeability pathways, which could result in higher gas hydrate concentrations.

  11. Surface 3D nanostructuring by tightly focused laser pulse: simulations by Lagrangian code and molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inogamov, Nail A.; Zhakhovsky, Vasily V.

    2016-02-01

    There are many important applications in which the ultrashort diffraction-limited and therefore tightly focused laser pulses irradiates metal films mounted on dielectric substrate. Here we present the detailed picture of laser peeling and 3D structure formation of the thin (relative to a depth of a heat affected zone in the bulk targets) gold films on glass substrate. The underlying physics of such diffraction-limited laser peeling was not well understood previously. Our approach is based on a physical model which takes into consideration the new calculations of the two-temperature (2T) equation of state (2T EoS) and the two-temperature transport coefficients together with the coupling parameter between electron and ion subsystems. The usage of the 2T EoS and the kinetic coefficients is required because absorption of an ultrashort pulse with duration of 10-1000 fs excites electron subsystem of metal and transfers substance into the 2T state with hot electrons (typical electron temperatures 1-3 eV) and much colder ions. It is shown that formation of submicrometer-sized 3D structures is a result of the electron-ion energy transfer, melting, and delamination of film from substrate under combined action of electron and ion pressures, capillary deceleration of the delaminated liquid metal or semiconductor, and ultrafast freezing of molten material. We found that the freezing is going in non-equilibrium regime with strongly overcooled liquid phase. In this case the Stefan approximation is non-applicable because the solidification front speed is limited by the diffusion rate of atoms in the molten material. To solve the problem we have developed the 2T Lagrangian code including all this reach physics in. We also used the high-performance combined Monte- Carlo and molecular dynamics code for simulation of surface 3D nanostructuring at later times after completion of electron-ion relaxation.

  12. Multiplex Particle Focusing via Hydrodynamic Force in Viscoelastic Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Doo Jin; Brenner, Howard; Youn, Jae Ryoun; Song, Young Seok

    2013-11-01

    We introduce a multiplex particle focusing phenomenon that arises from the hydrodynamic interaction between the viscoelastic force and the Dean drag force in a microfluidic device. In a confined microchannel, the first normal stress difference of viscoelastic fluids results in a lateral migration of suspended particles. Such a viscoelastic force was harnessed to focus different sized particles in the middle of a microchannel, and spiral channel geometry was also considered in order to take advantage of the counteracting force, Dean drag force that induces particle migration in the outward direction. For theoretical understanding, we performed a numerical analysis of viscoelastic fluids in the spiral microfluidic channel. From these results, a concept of the `Dean-coupled Elasto-inertial Focusing band (DEF)' was proposed. This study provides in-depth physical insight into the multiplex focusing of particles that can open a new venue for microfluidic particle dynamics for a concrete high throughput platform at microscale.

  13. Verification Test Suite (VERTS) For Rail Gun Applications using ALE3D: 2-D Hydrodynamics & Thermal Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Najjar, F M; Solberg, J; White, D

    2008-04-17

    A verification test suite has been assessed with primary focus on low reynolds number flow of liquid metals. This is representative of the interface between the armature and rail in gun applications. The computational multiphysics framework, ALE3D, is used. The main objective of the current study is to provide guidance and gain confidence in the results obtained with ALE3D. A verification test suite based on 2-D cases is proposed and includes the lid-driven cavity and the Couette flow are investigated. The hydro and thermal fields are assumed to be steady and laminar in nature. Results are compared with analytical solutions and previously published data. Mesh resolution studies are performed along with various models for the equation of state.

  14. Effects of the LBV Primary's Mass-loss Rate on the 3D Hydrodynamics of eta Carinae's Colliding Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madura, Thomas I.; Gull, Theodore R.; Cocoran, M.; Okazaki, A.; Owocki, S.; Russell, C.; Hamaguchi, K.; Clementel, N; Groh, J.; Hillier, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    At the heart of eta Carinae's spectacular "Homunculus" nebula lies an extremely luminous (L(sub Total) greater than approximately 5 × 10(exp 6) solar luminosity) colliding wind binary with a highly eccentric (e approximately 0.9), 5.54-year orbit (Figure 1). The primary of the system, a Luminous Blue Variable (LBV), is our closest (D approximately 2.3 kpc) and best example of a pre-hypernova or pre-gamma ray burst environment. The remarkably consistent and periodic RXTE X-ray light curve surprisingly showed a major change during the system's last periastron in 2009, with the X-ray minimum being approximately 50% shorter than the minima of the previous two cycles1. Between 1998 and 2011, the strengths of various broad stellar wind emission lines (e.g. Halpha, Fe II) in line-of-sight (l.o.s.) also decreased by factors of 1.5 - 3 relative to the continuum2. The current interpretation for these changes is that they are due to a gradual factor of 2 - 4 drop in the primary's mass-loss rate over the last approximately 15 years1, 2. However, while a secular change is seen for a direct view of the central source, little to no change is seen in profiles at high stellar latitudes or reflected off of the dense, circumbinary material known as the "Weigelt blobs"2, 3. Moreover, model spectra generated with CMFGEN predict that a factor of 2 - 4 drop in the primary's mass-loss rate should lead to huge changes in the observed spectrum, which thus far have not been seen. Here we present results from large- (plus or minus 1620 AU) and small- (plus or minus 162 AU) domain, full 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of eta Car's massive binary colliding winds for three different primary-star mass-loss rates (2.4, 4.8, and 8.5 × 10(exp -4) solar mass/yr). The goal is to investigate how the mass-loss rate affects the 3D geometry and dynamics of eta Car's optically-thick wind and spatially-extended wind-wind collision (WWC) regions, both of which are known sources of

  15. A coupled wave-3-D hydrodynamics model of the Taranto Sea (Italy): a multiple-nesting approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaeta, Maria Gabriella; Samaras, Achilleas G.; Federico, Ivan; Archetti, Renata; Maicu, Francesco; Lorenzetti, Giuliano

    2016-09-01

    The present work describes an operational strategy for the development of a multiscale modeling system, based on a multiple-nesting approach and open-source numerical models. The strategy was applied and validated for the Gulf of Taranto in southern Italy, scaling large-scale oceanographic model results to high-resolution coupled wave-3-D hydrodynamics simulations for the area of Mar Grande in the Taranto Sea. The spatial and temporal high-resolution simulations were performed using the open-source TELEMAC suite, forced by wind data from the COSMO-ME database, boundary wave spectra from the RON buoy at Crotone and results from the Southern Adriatic Northern Ionian coastal Forecasting System (SANIFS) regarding sea levels and current fields. Model validation was carried out using data collected in the Mar Grande basin from a fixed monitoring station and during an oceanographic campaign in October 2014. The overall agreement between measurements and model results in terms of waves, sea levels, surface currents, circulation patterns and vertical velocity profiles is deemed to be satisfactory, and the methodology followed in the process can constitute a useful tool for both research and operational applications in the same field and as support of decisions for management and design of infrastructures.

  16. Quantification of Single- and Multi-Phase Hydrodynamic Dispersion in Rocks Using Dynamic 3D PET Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pini, R.; Vandehey, N. T.; O'Neil, J.; Benson, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    We report results of an experimental investigation into the effects of small-scale (mm-cm) heterogeneities and hydrodynamic dispersion on miscible and immiscible displacements in a Berea Sandstone core. Pulse-radiotracer tests were carried out by measuring breakthrough curves at distinct flow rates and gas/water saturation ratios, while simultaneously imaging the internal displacement of the radioactive solution by [11C]PET. Dynamic multidimensional maps of the tracer concentration in the rock sample have been obtained with a spatial resolution of about 10 mm3 and provide evidence for significant macrodispersion effects caused by the presence of heterogeneities at the same scale. The numerical solution of the classic Advection-Dispersion Equation (ADE) applied in 1D form fails to describe the measured breakthrough curves and significantly overestimates longitudinal dispersivity. An excellent agreement with the experiments is attained by explicitly accounting for permeability heterogeneity, while reducing the contribution of "Fickian" dispersivity. Heterogeneity was introduced in the model by discretising the rock sample into independent parallel streamlines, which were generated based on a previously determined 3D permeability map, and by solving the 1D ADE for each of them. The use of streamlines is supported by direct quantitative observations from the PET scans; remarkably, this approach leads to an accurate representation of both the temporal behaviour and spatial distribution of the tracer concentration in the sample. It is shown that when the length-scale of permeability variations is similar in order as the size of the sample, the effect of the former can be as significant as hydrodynamic dispersion. The presence of a second immiscible fluid phase further complicates the flow field and, accordingly, the interpretation of the experiments. The ability to decouple these effects leads to the estimation of dispersion coefficients that aren't sample specific and

  17. Constraints on Decreases in Eta Carinae's Mass-loss from 3D Hydrodynamic Simulations of Its Binary Colliding Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madura, T. I.; Gull, T. R.; Okazaki, A. T.; Russell, C. M. P.; Owocki, S. P.; Groh, J. H.; Corcoran, M. F.; Hamaguchi, K.; Teodoro, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work suggests that the mass-loss rate of the primary star Eta-A in the massive colliding wind binary Eta Carinae dropped by a factor of 2-3 between 1999 and 2010. We present result from large- (+/- 1545 au) and small- (+/- 155 au) domain, 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of Eta Car's colliding winds for three Eta-A mass-loss rates ( (dot-M(sub Eta-A) = 2.4, 4.8 and 8.5 × 10(exp -4) M(solar)/ yr), investigating the effects on the dynamics of the binary wind-wind collision (WWC). These simulations include orbital motion, optically thin radiative cooling and radiative forces. We find that dot-M Eta-A greatly affects the time-dependent hydrodynamics at all spatial scales investigated. The simulations also show that the post-shock wind of the companion star Eta-B switches from the adiabatic to the radiative-cooling regime during periastron passage (Phi approx.= 0.985-1.02). This switchover starts later and ends earlier the lower the value of dot-M Eta-A and is caused by the encroachment of the wind of Eta-A into the acceleration zone of Eta-B's wind, plus radiative inhibition of Eta-B's wind by Eta-A. The SPH simulations together with 1D radiative transfer models of Eta-A's spectra reveal that a factor of 2 or more drop in dot-M EtaA should lead to substantial changes in numerous multiwavelength observables. Recent observations are not fully consistent with the model predictions, indicating that any drop in dot- M Eta-A was likely by a factor of approx. < 2 and occurred after 2004. We speculate that most of the recent observed changes in Eta Car are due to a small increase in the WWC opening angle that produces significant effects because our line of sight to the system lies close to the dense walls of the WWC zone. A modest decrease in dot-M Eta-A may be responsible, but changes in the wind/stellar parameter of Eta-B, while less likely, cannot yet be fully ruled out. We suggest observations during Eta-Car's next periastron in 2014 to further

  18. Hierarchical Statistical 3D ' Atomistic' Simulation of Decanano MOSFETs: Drift-Diffusion, Hydrodynamic and Quantum Mechanical Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asenov, Asen; Brown, A. R.; Slavcheva, G.; Davies, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    voltage only single solution of the nonlinear Poisson equation is sufficient to extract the current with satisfactory accuracy. A pilot version of a hydrodynamic 'atomistic' simulator has been developed in order to study the effect of the nonequilibrium, non local transport in decanano MOSFETs on the random dopant induced current fluctuations. For the first time we have also applied the density gradient approach in 3D to investigate the effect of the quantum confinement on the threshold voltage fluctuations. The developed 'atomistic' simulation techniques have been applied to study various fluctuation resistant MOSFET architectures including epitaxial and delta doped devices.

  19. Modelling of river plume dynamics in Öre estuary (Baltic Sea) with Telemac-3D hydrodynamic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The main property of river plumes is their buoyancy, fresh water discharged by rivers is less dense than the receiving, saline waters. To study the processes of plume formation in case of river discharge into a brackish estuary where salinity is low (3.5 - 5 psu) a three dimensional hydrodynamic model was applied to the Öre estuary in the Baltic Sea. This estuary is a small fjord-like bay in the north part of the Baltic Sea. Size of the bay is about 8 by 8 km with maximum depth of 35 metres. River Öre has a small average freshwater discharge of 35 m3/s. But in spring during snowmelt the discharge can be many times higher. For example, in April 2015 the discharge increased from 8 m3/s to 160 m3/s in 18 days. To study river plume dynamics a finite element based three dimensional baroclinic model TELEMAC - 3D is used. The TELEMAC modelling suite is developed by the National Laboratory of Hydraulics and Environment (LNHE) of Electricité de France (EDF). Modelling domain was approximated by an unstructured mesh with element size varies from 50 to 500 m. In vertical direction a sigma-coordinate with 20 layers was used. Open sea boundary conditions were obtained from the Baltic Sea model HIROMB-BOOS using COPERNICUS marine environment monitoring service. Comparison of modelling results with observations obtained by BONUS COCOA project's field campaign in Öre estuary in 2015 shows that the model plausible simulate river plume dynamics. Modelling of age of freshwater is also discussed. This work resulted from the BONUS COCOA project was supported by BONUS (Art 185), funded jointly by the EU and the Swedish Research Council Formas.

  20. 3D Seismic Reflection Data: Has the Geological Hubble Retained Its Focus?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    In their seminal paper in 2002, Joe Cartwright and Mads Huuse referred to 3D seismic reflection data as the 'Geological Hubble', illustrating how these data had the potential to revolutionise our understanding of the genesis and evolution of sedimentary basins. 14 years on, I will here outline just some of the key recent advances made in our understanding of basin structure and stratigraphy, focusing on: (i) the intrusion and extrusion of igneous rocks; (ii) salt tectonics, with particular emphasis on intrasalt structure and the kinematics and mechanics of diapirism; (iii) the geometry and growth of normal faults; and (iv) the structure and emplacement of mass-transport complexes (MTCs). I will stress that future advances at least partly relies on hydrocarbon exploration companies and government agencies continuing to make their data freely available via easy-to-access data portals. I will issue a clarion call to academics, stressing that 'geodynamicists', sedimentologists, structural geologists and geomorphologists, amongst others, can benefit from utilising what I believe are currently an underused data type.

  1. 3D Ultrasonic Non-destructive Evaluation of Spot Welds Using an Enhanced Total Focusing Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasiuniene, Elena; Samaitis, Vykintas; Mazeika, Liudas; Sanderson, Ruth

    2015-02-01

    Spot welds are used to join sheets of metals in the automotive industry. When spot weld quality is evaluated using conventional ultrasonic manual pulse-echo method, the reliability of the inspection is affected by selection of the probe diameter and the positioning of the probe in the weld center. The application of a 2D matrix array is a potential solution to the aforementioned problems. The objective of this work was to develop a signal processing algorithm to reconstruct the 3D spot weld volume showing the size of the nugget and the defects in it. In order to achieve this, the conventional total focusing method was enhanced by taking into account the directivities of the single elements of the array and the divergence of the ultrasonic beam due to the propagation distance. Enhancements enabled a reduction in the background noise and uniform sensitivity at different depths to be obtained. The proposed algorithm was verified using a finite element model of ultrasonic wave propagation simulating three common spot weld conditions: a good weld, an undersized weld, and a weld containing a pore. The investigations have demonstrated that proposed method enables the determination of the size of the nugget and detection of discontinuities.

  2. Microfluidic three-dimensional hydrodynamic flow focusing for the rapid protein concentration analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sungmin; Tsou, Pei-Hsiang; Chou, Chao-Kai; Yamaguchi, Hirohito; Su, Chin B.; Hung, Mien-Chie; Kameoka, Jun

    2012-01-01

    A simple microfluidic 3D hydrodynamic flow focusing device has been developed and demonstrated quantitative determinations of quantum dot 525 with antibody (QD525-antibody) and hemagglutinin epitope tagged MAX (HA-MAX) protein concentrations. This device had a step depth cross junction structure at a hydrodynamic flow focusing point at which the analyte stream was flowed into a main detection channel and pinched not only horizontally but also vertically by two sheath streams. As a result, a triangular cross-sectional flow profile of the analyte stream was formed and the laser was focused on the top of the triangular shaped analyte stream. Since the detection volume was smaller than the radius of laser spot, a photon burst histogram showed Gaussian distribution, which was necessary for the quantitative analysis of protein concentration. By using this approach, a linear concentration curve of QD525-antibody down to 10 pM was demonstrated. In addition, the concentration of HA-MAX protein in HEK293 cell lysate was determined as 0.283 ± 0.015 nM. This approach requires for only 1 min determining protein concentration. As the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to determinate protein concentration by using single molecule detection techniques. PMID:23785388

  3. Bioengineered silk scaffolds in 3D tissue modeling with focus on mammary tissues.

    PubMed

    Maghdouri-White, Yas; Bowlin, Gary L; Lemmon, Christopher A; Dréau, Didier

    2016-02-01

    In vitro generation of three-dimensional (3D) biological tissues and organ-like structures is a promising strategy to study and closely model complex aspects of the molecular, cellular, and physiological interactions of tissue. In particular, in vitro 3D tissue modeling holds promises to further our understanding of breast development. Indeed, biologically relevant 3D structures that combine mammary cells and engineered matrices have improved our knowledge of mammary tissue growth, organization, and differentiation. Several polymeric biomaterials have been used as scaffolds to engineer 3D mammary tissues. Among those, silk fibroin-based biomaterials have many biologically relevant properties and have been successfully used in multiple medical applications. Here, we review the recent advances in engineered scaffolds with an emphasis on breast-like tissue generation and the benefits of modified silk-based scaffolds.

  4. FOREWORD: Focus on Novel Nanoelectromechanical 3D Structures: Fabrication and Properties Focus on Novel Nanoelectromechanical 3D Structures: Fabrication and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Shooji; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Sunao

    2009-06-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are widely used small electromechanical systems made of micrometre-sized components. Presently, we are witnessing a transition from MEMS to nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), which comprise devices integrating electrical and mechanical functionality on the nanoscale and offer new exciting applications. Similarly to MEMS, NEMS typically include a central transistor-like nanoelectronic unit for data processing, as well as mechanical actuators, pumps, and motors; and they may combine with physical, biological and chemical sensors. In the transition from MEMS to NEMS, component sizes need to be reduced. Therefore, many fabrication methods previously developed for MEMS are unsuitable for the production of high-precision NEMS components. The key challenge in NEMS is therefore the development of new methods for routine and reproducible nanofabrication. Two complementary types of method for NEMS fabrication are available: 'top-down' and 'bottom-up'. The top-down approach uses traditional lithography technologies, whereas bottom-up techniques include molecular self-organization, self-assembly and nanodeposition. The NT2008 conference, held at Ishikawa High-Tech Conference Center, Ishikawa, Japan, between 23-25 October 2008, focused on novel NEMS fabricated from new materials and on process technologies. The topics included compound semiconductors, small mechanical structures, nanostructures for micro-fluid and bio-sensors, bio-hybrid micro-machines, as well as their design and simulation. This focus issue compiles seven articles selected from 13 submitted manuscripts. The articles by Prinz et al and Kehrbusch et al introduce the frontiers of the top-down production of various operational NEMS devices, and Kometani et al present an example of the bottom-up approach, namely ion-beam induced deposition of MEMS and NEMS. The remaining articles report novel technologies for biological sensors. Taira et al have used manganese nanoparticles

  5. 3-D Surface Depression Profiling Using High Frequency Focused Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Kautz, Harold E.; Abel, Phillip B.; Whalen, Mike F.; Hendricks, J. Lynne; Bodis, James R.

    1999-01-01

    Surface topography is an important variable in the performance of many industrial components and is normally measured with diamond-tip profilometry over a small area or using optical scattering methods for larger area measurement. This article shows quantitative surface topography profiles as obtained using only high-frequency focused air-coupled ultrasonic pulses. The profiles were obtained using a profiling system developed by NASA Glenn Research Center and Sonix, Inc (via a formal cooperative agreement). (The air transducers are available as off-the-shelf items from several companies.) The method is simple and reproducible because it relies mainly on knowledge and constancy of the sound velocity through the air. The air transducer is scanned across the surface and sends pulses to the sample surface where they are reflected back from the surface along the same path as the incident wave. Time-of-flight images of the sample surface are acquired and converted to depth/surface profile images using the simple relation (d = V*t/2) between distance (d), time-of-flight (t), and the velocity of sound in air (V). The system has the ability to resolve surface depression variations as small as 25 microns, is useable over a 1.4 mm vertical depth range, and can profile large areas only limited by the scan limits of the particular ultrasonic system. (Best-case depth resolution is 0.25 microns which may be achievable with improved isolation from vibration and air currents.) The method using an optimized configuration is reasonably rapid and has all quantitative analysis facilities on-line including 2-D and 3-D visualization capability, extreme value filtering (for faulty data), and leveling capability. Air-coupled surface profilometry is applicable to plate-like and curved samples. In this article, results are shown for several proof-of-concept samples, plastic samples burned in microgravity on the STS-54 space shuttle mission, and a partially-coated cylindrical ceramic

  6. Transvaginal 3D Image-Guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, Robert; Nguyen, Thuc Nghi; Vaezy, Shahram

    2005-03-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a transvaginal image-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) device using piezocomposite HIFU array technology, and commercially-available ultrasound imaging. Potential applications include treatment of uterine fibroids and abnormal uterine bleeding. The HIFU transducer was an annular phased array, with a focal length range of 30-60 mm, an elliptically-shaped aperture of 35×60 mm, and an operating frequency of 3 MHz. A pillow-shaped bag with water circulation will be used for coupling the HIFU energy into the tissue. An intra-cavity imaging probe (C9-5, Philips) was integrated with the HIFU array such that the focal axis of the HIFU transducer was within the image plane. The entire device will be covered by a gel-filled condom when inserted in the vaginal cavity. To control it, software packages were developed in the LabView programming environment. An imaging algorithm processed the ultrasound image to remove noise patterns due to the HIFU signal. The device will be equipped with a three-dimensional tracking system, using a six-degrees-of-freedom articulating arm. Necrotic lesions were produced in a tissue-mimicking phantom and a turkey breast sample for all focal lengths. Various HIFU doses allow various necrotic lesion shapes, including thin ellipsoidal, spherical, wide cylindrical, and teardrop-shaped. Software control of the device allows multiple foci to be activated sequentially for desired lesion patterns. Ultrasound imaging synchronization can be achieved using hardware signals obtained from the imaging system, or software signals determined empirically for various imaging probes. The image-guided HIFU device will provide a valuable tool in visualization of uterine fibroid tumors for the purposes of planning and subsequent HIFU treatment of the tumor, all in a 3D environment. The control system allows for various lesions of different shapes to be optimally positioned in the tumor to cover the entire tumor

  7. Influence of the Aral Sea negative water balance on its seasonal circulation and ventilation patterns: use of a 3d hydrodynamic model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirjacobs, D.; Grégoire, M.; Delhez, E.; Nihoul, J.

    2003-04-01

    Within the context of the EU INCO-COPERNICUS program "Desertification in the Aral Sea Region: A study of the Natural and Anthropogenic Impacts" (Contract IAC2-CT-2000-10023), a large-scale 3D hydrodynamic model was adapted to address specifically the macroscale processes affecting the Aral Sea water circulation and ventilation. The particular goal of this research is to simulate the effect of lasting negative water balance on the 3D seasonal circulation, temperature, salinity and water-mixing fields of the Aral Sea. The original Aral Sea seasonal hydrodynamism is simulated with the average seasonal forcings corresponding to the period from 1956 to 1960. This first investigation concerns a period of relative stability of the water balance, before the beginning of the drying process. The consequences of the drying process on the hydrodynamic of the Sea will be studied by comparing this first results with the simulation representing the average situation for the years 1981 to 1985, a very low river flow period. For both simulation periods, the forcing considered are the seasonal fluctuations of wind fields, precipitation, evaporation, river discharge and salinity, cloud cover, air temperature and humidity. The meteorological forcings were adapted to the common optimum one-month temporal resolution of the available data sets. Monthly mean kinetic energy flux and surface tensions were calculated from daily ECMWF wind data. Monthly in situ precipitation, surface air temperature and humidity fields were interpolated from data obtained from the Russian Hydrological and Meteorological Institute. Monthly water discharge and average salinity of the river water were considered for both Amu Darya and Syr Darya river over each simulation periods. The water mass conservation routines allowed the simulation of a changing coastline by taking into account local drying and flooding events of particular grid points. Preliminary barotropic runs were realised (for the 1951

  8. Portable high-intensity focused ultrasound system with 3D electronic steering, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms: a preclinical study in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and accuracy of a new portable ultrasonography-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USg-HIFU) system with a 3-dimensional (3D) electronic steering transducer, a simultaneous ablation and imaging module, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms. Methods: To address the accuracy of the transducer, hydrophones in a water chamber were used to assess the generation of sonic fields. An animal study was also performed in five pigs by ablating in vivo thighs by single-point sonication (n=10) or volume sonication (n=10) and ex vivo kidneys by single-point sonication (n=10). Histological and statistical analyses were performed. Results: In the hydrophone study, peak voltages were detected within 1.0 mm from the targets on the y- and z-axes and within 2.0-mm intervals along the x-axis (z-axis, direction of ultrasound propagation; y- and x-axes, perpendicular to the direction of ultrasound propagation). Twenty-nine of 30 HIFU sessions successfully created ablations at the target. The in vivo porcine thigh study showed only a small discrepancy (width, 0.5-1.1 mm; length, 3.0 mm) between the planning ultrasonograms and the pathological specimens. Inordinate thermal damage was not observed in the adjacent tissues or sonic pathways in the in vivo thigh and ex vivo kidney studies. Conclusion: Our study suggests that this new USg-HIFU system may be a safe and accurate technique for ablating soft tissues and encapsulated organs. PMID:25038809

  9. Feasibility study on 3-D shape analysis of high-aspect-ratio features using through-focus scanning optical microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Attota, Ravi Kiran; Weck, Peter; Kramar, John A.; Bunday, Benjamin; Vartanian, Victor

    2016-01-01

    In-line metrologies currently used in the semiconductor industry are being challenged by the aggressive pace of device scaling and the adoption of novel device architectures. Metrology and process control of three-dimensional (3-D) high-aspect-ratio (HAR) features are becoming increasingly important and also challenging. In this paper we present a feasibility study of through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM) for 3-D shape analysis of HAR features. TSOM makes use of 3-D optical data collected using a conventional optical microscope for 3-D shape analysis. Simulation results of trenches and holes down to the 11 nm node are presented. The ability of TSOM to analyze an array of HAR features or a single isolated HAR feature is also presented. This allows for the use of targets with area over 100 times smaller than that of conventional gratings, saving valuable real estate on the wafers. Indications are that the sensitivity of TSOM may match or exceed the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) measurement requirements for the next several years. Both simulations and preliminary experimental results are presented. The simplicity, lowcost, high throughput, and nanometer scale 3-D shape sensitivity of TSOM make it an attractive inspection and process monitoring solution for nanomanufacturing. PMID:27464112

  10. Feasibility study on 3-D shape analysis of high-aspect-ratio features using through-focus scanning optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Attota, Ravi Kiran; Weck, Peter; Kramar, John A; Bunday, Benjamin; Vartanian, Victor

    2016-07-25

    In-line metrologies currently used in the semiconductor industry are being challenged by the aggressive pace of device scaling and the adoption of novel device architectures. Metrology and process control of three-dimensional (3-D) high-aspect-ratio (HAR) features are becoming increasingly important and also challenging. In this paper we present a feasibility study of through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM) for 3-D shape analysis of HAR features. TSOM makes use of 3-D optical data collected using a conventional optical microscope for 3-D shape analysis. Simulation results of trenches and holes down to the 11 nm node are presented. The ability of TSOM to analyze an array of HAR features or a single isolated HAR feature is also presented. This allows for the use of targets with area over 100 times smaller than that of conventional gratings, saving valuable real estate on the wafers. Indications are that the sensitivity of TSOM may match or exceed the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) measurement requirements for the next several years. Both simulations and preliminary experimental results are presented. The simplicity, lowcost, high throughput, and nanometer scale 3-D shape sensitivity of TSOM make it an attractive inspection and process monitoring solution for nanomanufacturing. PMID:27464112

  11. Implementation of a 3D Coupled Hydrodynamic and Contaminant Fate Model for PCDD/Fs in Thau Lagoon (France): The Importance of Atmospheric Sources of Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Dueri, Sibylle; Marinov, Dimitar; Fiandrino, Annie; Tronczyński, Jacek; Zaldívar, José-Manuel

    2010-01-01

    A 3D hydrodynamic and contaminant fate model was implemented for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in Thau lagoon. The hydrodynamic model was tested against temperature and salinity measurements, while the contaminant fate model was assessed against available data collected at different stations inside the lagoon. The model results allow an assessment of the spatial and temporal variability of the distribution of contaminants in the lagoon, the seasonality of loads and the role of atmospheric deposition for the input of PCDD/Fs. The outcome suggests that air is an important source of PCDD/Fs for this ecosystem, therefore the monitoring of air pollution is very appropriate for assessing the inputs of these contaminants. These results call for the development of integrated environmental protection policies. PMID:20617040

  12. Applications of 3D hydrodynamic and particle tracking models in the San Francisco bay-delta estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, P.E.; Donovan, J.M.; Wong, H.F.N.

    2005-01-01

    Three applications of three-dimensional hydrodynamic and particle-tracking models are currently underway by the United States Geological Survey in the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary. The first application is to the San Francisco Bay and a portion of the coastal ocean. The second application is to an important, gated control channel called the Delta Cross Channel, located within the northern portion of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. The third application is to a reach of the San Joaquin River near Stockton, California where a significant dissolved oxygen problem exists due, in part, to conditions associated with the deep-water ship channel for the Port of Stockton, California. This paper briefly discusses the hydrodynamic and particle tracking models being used and the three applications. Copyright ASCE 2005.

  13. Optical phase conjugation assisted scattering lens: variable focusing and 3D patterning

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Jihee; Jang, Mooseok; Eom, Tae Joong; Yang, Changhuei; Chung, Euiheon

    2016-01-01

    Variable light focusing is the ability to flexibly select the focal distance of a lens. This feature presents technical challenges, but is significant for optical interrogation of three-dimensional objects. Numerous lens designs have been proposed to provide flexible light focusing, including zoom, fluid, and liquid-crystal lenses. Although these lenses are useful for macroscale applications, they have limited utility in micron-scale applications due to restricted modulation range and exacting requirements for fabrication and control. Here, we present a holographic focusing method that enables variable light focusing without any physical modification to the lens element. In this method, a scattering layer couples low-angle (transverse wave vector) components into a full angular spectrum, and a digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) system characterizes and plays back the wavefront that focuses through the scattering layer. We demonstrate micron-scale light focusing and patterning over a wide range of focal distances of 22–51 mm. The interferometric nature of the focusing scheme also enables an aberration-free scattering lens. The proposed method provides a unique variable focusing capability for imaging thick specimens or selective photoactivation of neuronal networks. PMID:27049442

  14. Optical phase conjugation assisted scattering lens: variable focusing and 3D patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Jihee; Jang, Mooseok; Eom, Tae Joong; Yang, Changhuei; Chung, Euiheon

    2016-04-01

    Variable light focusing is the ability to flexibly select the focal distance of a lens. This feature presents technical challenges, but is significant for optical interrogation of three-dimensional objects. Numerous lens designs have been proposed to provide flexible light focusing, including zoom, fluid, and liquid-crystal lenses. Although these lenses are useful for macroscale applications, they have limited utility in micron-scale applications due to restricted modulation range and exacting requirements for fabrication and control. Here, we present a holographic focusing method that enables variable light focusing without any physical modification to the lens element. In this method, a scattering layer couples low-angle (transverse wave vector) components into a full angular spectrum, and a digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) system characterizes and plays back the wavefront that focuses through the scattering layer. We demonstrate micron-scale light focusing and patterning over a wide range of focal distances of 22–51 mm. The interferometric nature of the focusing scheme also enables an aberration-free scattering lens. The proposed method provides a unique variable focusing capability for imaging thick specimens or selective photoactivation of neuronal networks.

  15. Bidirectional inward migration of particles lagging behind a Poiseuille flow in a rectangular microchannel for 3D particle focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Won; Yoo, Jung Yul

    2015-02-01

    Electrophoretic mobility of particles dispersed in an electrolyte solution induces the particles to lag behind a Poiseuille flow in a rectangular microchannel, which causes bidirectional inward migration of particles to the central axis of the channel. As a result, in the present theoretical and experimental study, three-dimensional (3D) particle focusing is clearly realized in such a manner that the particles are aligned in a single file along the axis of the channel as they are transported downstream. Theoretical prediction on the particle migration time provides an excellent assessment of the experimental results. The method proposed in the present study has potential for development of low-cost rapid manufacturing process of sheathless monolayer microchips for 3D particle focusing.

  16. 3D optical two-mirror scanner with focus-tunable lens.

    PubMed

    Pokorny, Petr; Miks, Antonin

    2015-08-01

    The paper presents formulas for a ray tracing in the optical system of two-mirror optical scanner with a focus-tunable lens. Furthermore, equations for the calculation of focal length which ensure focusing of a beam in the desired point in a detection plane are derived. The uncertainty description of such focal length follows as well. The chosen vector approach is general; therefore, the application of formulas in various configurations of the optical systems is possible. In the example situation, the authors derived formulas for mirrors' rotations and the focal length depending on the position of the point in the detection plane. PMID:26368115

  17. The dynamic coupling of a third-generation wave model and a 3D hydrodynamic model through boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M. Y.; Li, Y. S.

    1997-08-01

    A third-generation wind wave model based on the energy balance equation taking into account the effects of time-varying currents and coupled dynamically with a semi-implicit three-dimensional hydrodynamic model incorporating the influences of time- and space-varying vertical eddy viscosity, bottom topography and wave-current interactions is presented in this paper. The wave model is synchronously coupled with the three-dimensional hydrodynamic model through the surface atmospheric turbulent boundary layer and the bottom boundary layer. The theory of Janssen (1991) (in Journal of Physical Oceanography21, 1631-1642) is used to incorporate the effects of waves on the surface boundary layer, while the theory of Grant and Maddsen (1979) [in Journal of Geophysical Research (Oceans)84, 1797-1808], which was used by Signell et al. (1990) (in Journal of Geophysical Research95, 9671-9678) on the bottom boundary layer for constant waves, is modified for the inclusion of time-varying waves. The mutual influences between waves and currents are investigated through an idealized continental shelf case and hindcastings of storm events in the sea area adjacent to Hong Kong in the northern South China Sea. Calculations are compared with other computed results and observations. Calculations show that the wave-dependent surface stress incorporated in the three-dimensional hydrodynamic model has significant impact on water surface velocities and surface elevations (over 10% higher). The inclusion of wave-dependent bottom stress also shows some effects; however, in the presence of the wave-dependent surface stress, its effect on surge levels becomes negligible. The effect of currents on waves amounts to the reduction of the significant wave height by about 8% and less for wave mean periods. However, the inclusion of the wave-dependent bottom stress in the three-dimensional hydrodynamic model has little effect on wave characteristics whether or not the wave-dependent surface stress is

  18. Creating effective focus cues in multi-plane 3D displays

    PubMed Central

    Ravikumar, Sowmya; Akeley, Kurt; Banks, Martin S.

    2011-01-01

    Focus cues are incorrect in conventional stereoscopic displays. This causes a dissociation of vergence and accommodation, which leads to visual fatigue and perceptual distortions. Multi-plane displays can minimize these problems by creating nearly correct focus cues. But to create the appearance of continuous depth in a multi-plane display, one needs to use depth-weighted blending: i.e., distribute light intensity between adjacent planes. Akeley et al. [ACM Trans. Graph. 23, 804 (2004)] and Liu and Hua [Opt. Express 18, 11562 (2009)] described rather different rules for depth-weighted blending. We examined the effectiveness of those and other rules using a model of a typical human eye and biologically plausible metrics for image quality. We find that the linear blending rule proposed by Akeley and colleagues [ACM Trans. Graph. 23, 804 (2004)] is the best solution for natural stimuli. PMID:21997103

  19. Using High Frequency Focused Water-Coupled Ultrasound for 3-D Surface Depression Profiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Whalen, Mike F.; Hendricks, J. Lynne; Bodis, James R.

    1999-01-01

    Surface topography is an important variable in the performance of many industrial components and is normally measured with diamond-tip profilometry over a small area or using optical scattering methods for larger area measurement. A prior study was performed demonstrating that focused air-coupled ultrasound at 1 MHz was capable of profiling surfaces with 25 micron depth resolution and 400 micron lateral resolution over a 1.4 mm depth range. In this article, the question of whether higher-frequency focused water-coupled ultrasound can improve on these specifications is addressed. 10 and 25 MHz focused ultrasonic transducers were employed in the water-coupled mode. Time-of-flight images of the sample surface were acquired and converted to depth / surface profile images using the simple relation (d = V*t/2) between distance (d), time-of-flight (t), and the velocity of sound in water (V). Results are compared for the two frequencies used and with those from the 1 MHz air-coupled configuration.

  20. Focus Variation - A New Technology for High Resolution Optical 3D Surface Metrology in the Micro- and Nanometer Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, O.

    2009-04-01

    Focus Variation - A New Technology for High Resolution Optical 3D Surface Metrology in the Micro- and Nanometer Range S. Scherer1, E. Cristea1, O. Huber1, A. Krenn1 1 ALICONA GmbH Graz, Austria The need for increasing accuracy is a characteristic of all geo-applications, and hence of the instruments contributing to obtaining relevant data. Small and fine sensors are being developed, measuring different parameters of our geosystem and requiring continuous validation and calibration. These sensors have often very small components (fine sensors able to sense dust, atmospheric water vapour characteristics, pressure change, gravimeters, satellite micro-components), showing complex topographies including steep flanks and having varying reflective properties. In order to get valid and reliable results, quality assurance of these instruments and sensors is required. The optical technology Focus-Variation, developed by Alicona and added in the latest draft of the upcoming ISO standard 25178, provides high resolution 3D surface metrology even at those complex topographies. The technique of Focus-Variation combines the small depth of focus of an optical system with vertical scanning to provide topographical and color information from the variation of focus. It is used for high-resolution optical 3D surface measurements. The traceable and repeatable measurement results are further being used for e.g. calibration and validation purposes. Some of the characteristics of the technology are: - Measurement of instruments / samples with steep flanks up to 80° - Measurement of materials with strongly varying reflection properties - Measurement of surfaces presenting fine (from 10nm) or strong roughness Here, we present the operating principle and possible applications of the optical 3D measurement system "InfiniteFocus", which is based on the technology of Focus-Variation. With the vertical resolution of up to 10nm, InfiniteFocus yields meaningful form and roughness measurements. The

  1. Fabrication of a three dimensional particle focusing microfluidic device using a 3D printer, PDMS, and glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collette, Robyn; Rosen, Daniel; Shirk, Kathryn

    Microfluidic devices have high importance in fields such as bioanalysis because they can manipulate volumes of fluid in the range of microliters to picoliters. Small samples can be quickly and easily tested using complex microfluidic devices. Typically, these devices are created through lithography techniques, which can be costly and time consuming. It has been shown that inexpensive microfluidic devices can be produced quickly using a 3D printer and PDMS. However, a size limitation prohibits the fabrication of precisely controlled microchannels. By using shrinking materials in combination with 3D printing of flow-focusing geometries, this limitation can be overcome. This research seeks to employ these techniques to quickly fabricate an inexpensive, working device with three dimensional particle focusing capabilities. By modifying the channel geometry, colloidal particles in a solution will be focused into a single beam when passed through this device. The ability to focus particles is necessary for a variety of biological applications which requires precise detection and characterization of particles in a sample. We would like to thank the Shippensburg University Undergraduate Research Grant Program for their generous funding.

  2. Site-Specific Cryo-focused Ion Beam Sample Preparation Guided by 3D Correlative Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Jan; Mahamid, Julia; Lucic, Vladan; de Marco, Alex; Fernandez, Jose-Jesus; Laugks, Tim; Mayer, Tobias; Hyman, Anthony A; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Plitzko, Jürgen M

    2016-02-23

    The development of cryo-focused ion beam (cryo-FIB) for the thinning of frozen-hydrated biological specimens enabled cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) analysis in unperturbed cells and tissues. However, the volume represented within a typical FIB lamella constitutes a small fraction of the biological specimen. Retaining low-abundance and dynamic subcellular structures or macromolecular assemblies within such limited volumes requires precise targeting of the FIB milling process. In this study, we present the development of a cryo-stage allowing for spinning-disk confocal light microscopy at cryogenic temperatures and describe the incorporation of the new hardware into existing workflows for cellular sample preparation by cryo-FIB. Introduction of fiducial markers and subsequent computation of three-dimensional coordinate transformations provide correlation between light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy/FIB. The correlative approach is employed to guide the FIB milling process of vitrified cellular samples and to capture specific structures, namely fluorescently labeled lipid droplets, in lamellas that are 300 nm thick. The correlation procedure is then applied to localize the fluorescently labeled structures in the transmission electron microscopy image of the lamella. This approach can be employed to navigate the acquisition of cryo-ET data within FIB-lamellas at specific locations, unambiguously identified by fluorescence microscopy.

  3. 3D Plant cell architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) using focused ion beam–scanning electron microscopy1

    PubMed Central

    Bhawana; Miller, Joyce L.; Cahoon, A. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Focused ion beam–scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) combines the ability to sequentially mill the sample surface and obtain SEM images that can be used to create 3D renderings with micron-level resolution. We have applied FIB-SEM to study Arabidopsis cell architecture. The goal was to determine the efficacy of this technique in plant tissue and cellular studies and to demonstrate its usefulness in studying cell and organelle architecture and distribution. • Methods: Seed aleurone, leaf mesophyll, stem cortex, root cortex, and petal lamina from Arabidopsis were fixed and embedded for electron microscopy using protocols developed for animal tissues and modified for use with plant cells. Each sample was sectioned using the FIB and imaged with SEM. These serial images were assembled to produce 3D renderings of each cell type. • Results: Organelles such as nuclei and chloroplasts were easily identifiable, and other structures such as endoplasmic reticula, lipid bodies, and starch grains were distinguishable in each tissue. • Discussion: The application of FIB-SEM produced 3D renderings of five plant cell types and offered unique views of their shapes and internal content. These results demonstrate the usefulness of FIB-SEM for organelle distribution and cell architecture studies. PMID:25202629

  4. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic flow focusing in a microfluidic platform featuring a monolithic integrated glass micronozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yifan; Shen, Yusheng; Duan, Lian; Yobas, Levent

    2016-10-01

    Two-dimensional hydrodynamic flow focusing is demonstrated through a microfluidic device featuring a monolithic integrated glass micronozzle inside a flow-focusing geometry. Such a coaxial configuration allows simple one-step focusing of a sample fluid stream, jetted from the micronozzle tip, in both in-plane and out-of-plane directions. The width of the focused filament can be precisely controlled and further scaled down to the submicrometer regime to facilitate rapid hydrodynamic mixing. Fluorescence quenching experiments reveal ultra-fast microsecond mixing of the denaturant into the focused filament. This device offers new possibilities to a set of applications such as the study of protein folding kinetics.

  5. High-temperature Processing of Solids through Solar Nebular Bow Shocks: 3D Radiation Hydrodynamics Simulations with Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boley, A. C.; Morris, M. A.; Desch, S. J.

    2013-10-01

    A fundamental, unsolved problem in solar system formation is explaining the melting and crystallization of chondrules found in chondritic meteorites. Theoretical models of chondrule melting in nebular shocks have been shown to be consistent with many aspects of thermal histories inferred for chondrules from laboratory experiments; but, the mechanism driving these shocks is unknown. Planetesimals and planetary embryos on eccentric orbits can produce bow shocks as they move supersonically through the disk gas, and are one possible source of chondrule-melting shocks. We investigate chondrule formation in bow shocks around planetoids through three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations. A new radiation transport algorithm that combines elements of flux-limited diffusion and Monte Carlo methods is used to capture the complexity of radiative transport around bow shocks. An equation of state that includes the rotational, vibrational, and dissociation modes of H2 is also used. Solids are followed directly in the simulations and their thermal histories are recorded. Adiabatic expansion creates rapid cooling of the gas, and tail shocks behind the embryo can cause secondary heating events. Radiative transport is efficient, and bow shocks around planetoids can have luminosities ~few× 10-8 L ⊙. While barred and radial chondrule textures could be produced in the radiative shocks explored here, porphyritic chondrules may only be possible in the adiabatic limit. We present a series of predicted cooling curves that merit investigation in laboratory experiments to determine whether the solids produced by bow shocks are represented in the meteoritic record by chondrules or other solids.

  6. HIGH-TEMPERATURE PROCESSING OF SOLIDS THROUGH SOLAR NEBULAR BOW SHOCKS: 3D RADIATION HYDRODYNAMICS SIMULATIONS WITH PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, A. C.; Morris, M. A.; Desch, S. J.

    2013-10-20

    A fundamental, unsolved problem in solar system formation is explaining the melting and crystallization of chondrules found in chondritic meteorites. Theoretical models of chondrule melting in nebular shocks have been shown to be consistent with many aspects of thermal histories inferred for chondrules from laboratory experiments; but, the mechanism driving these shocks is unknown. Planetesimals and planetary embryos on eccentric orbits can produce bow shocks as they move supersonically through the disk gas, and are one possible source of chondrule-melting shocks. We investigate chondrule formation in bow shocks around planetoids through three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations. A new radiation transport algorithm that combines elements of flux-limited diffusion and Monte Carlo methods is used to capture the complexity of radiative transport around bow shocks. An equation of state that includes the rotational, vibrational, and dissociation modes of H{sub 2} is also used. Solids are followed directly in the simulations and their thermal histories are recorded. Adiabatic expansion creates rapid cooling of the gas, and tail shocks behind the embryo can cause secondary heating events. Radiative transport is efficient, and bow shocks around planetoids can have luminosities ∼few× 10{sup –8} L{sub ☉}. While barred and radial chondrule textures could be produced in the radiative shocks explored here, porphyritic chondrules may only be possible in the adiabatic limit. We present a series of predicted cooling curves that merit investigation in laboratory experiments to determine whether the solids produced by bow shocks are represented in the meteoritic record by chondrules or other solids.

  7. Large-eddy simulations of 3D Taylor-Green vortex: comparison of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, Lattice Boltzmann and Finite Volume methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajzer, A.; Pozorski, J.; Szewc, K.

    2014-08-01

    In the paper we present Large-eddy simulation (LES) results of 3D Taylor- Green vortex obtained by the three different computational approaches: Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) and Finite Volume Method (FVM). The Smagorinsky model was chosen as a subgrid-scale closure in LES for all considered methods and a selection of spatial resolutions have been investigated. The SPH and LBM computations have been carried out with the use of the in-house codes executed on GPU and compared, for validation purposes, with the FVM results obtained using the open-source CFD software OpenFOAM. A comparative study in terms of one-point statistics and turbulent energy spectra shows a good agreement of LES results for all methods. An analysis of the GPU code efficiency and implementation difficulties has been made. It is shown that both SPH and LBM may offer a significant advantage over mesh-based CFD methods.

  8. Intrinsic spatial shift of local focus metric curves in digital inline holography for accurate 3D morphology measurement of irregular micro-objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yingchun; Wu, Xuecheng; Lebrun, Denis; Brunel, Marc; Coëtmellec, Sébastien; Lesouhaitier, Olivier; Chen, Jia; Gréhan, Gérard

    2016-09-01

    A theoretical model of digital inline holography system reveals that the local focus metric curves (FMCs) of different parts of an irregular micro-object present spatial shift in the depth direction which is resulted from the depth shift. Thus, the 3D morphology of an irregular micro-object can be accurately measured using the cross correlation of the local FMCs. This method retrieves the 3D depth information directly, avoiding the uncertainty inherited from the depth position determination. Typical 3D morphology measurements, including the 3D boundary lines of tilted carbon fibers and irregular coal particles, and the 3D swimming gesture of a live Caenorhabdities elegans, are presented.

  9. On the application of focused ion beam nanotomography in characterizing the 3D pore space geometry of Opalinus clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Lukas M.; Holzer, Lorenz; Wepf, Roger; Gasser, Philippe; Münch, Beat; Marschall, Paul

    The evaluation and optimization of radioactive disposal systems requires a comprehensive understanding of mass transport processes. Among others, mass transport in porous geomaterials depends crucially on the topology and geometry of the pore space. Thus, understanding the mechanism of mass transport processes ultimately requires a 3D characterization of the pore structure. Here, we demonstrate the potential of focused ion beam nanotomography (FIB-nT) in characterizing the 3D geometry of pore space in clay rocks, i.e. Opalinus clay. In order to preserve the microstructure and to reduce sample preparation artefacts we used high pressure freezing and subsequent freeze drying to prepare the samples. Resolution limitations placed the lower limit in pore radii that can be analyzed by FIB-nT to about 10-15 nm. Image analysis and the calculation of pore size distribution revealed that pores with radii larger than 15 nm are related to a porosity of about 3 vol.%. To validate the method, we compared the pores size distribution obtained by FIB-nT with the one obtained by N 2 adsorption analysis. The latter yielded a porosity of about 13 vol.%. This means that FIB-nT can describe around 20-30% of the total pore space. For pore radii larger than 15 nm the pore size distribution obtained by FIB-nT and N 2 adsorption analysis were in good agreement. This suggests that FIB-nT can provide representative data on the spatial distribution of pores for pore sizes in the range of about 10-100 nm. Based on the spatial analysis of 3D data we extracted information on the spatial distribution of pore space geometrical properties.

  10. Analysis of riverine suspended particulate matter fluxes (Gulf of Lion, Mediterranean Sea) using a synergy of ocean color observations with a 3-D hydrodynamic sediment transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Fouest, Vincent; Chami, Malik; Verney, Romaric

    2015-02-01

    The export of riverine suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the coastal ocean has major implications for the biogeochemical cycles. In the Mediterranean Sea (France), the Rhone River inputs of SPM into the Gulf of Lion (GoL) are highly variable in time, which severely impedes the assessment of SPM fluxes. The objectives of this study are (i) to investigate the prediction of the land-to-ocean flux of SPM using the complementarity (i.e., synergy) between a hydrodynamic sediment transport model and satellite observations, and (ii) to analyze the spatial distribution of the SPM export. An original approach that combines the MARS-3D model with satellite ocean color data is proposed. Satellite-derived SPM and light penetration depth are used to initialize MARS-3D and to validate its predictions. A sensitivity analysis is performed to quantify the impact of riverine SPM size composition and settling rate on the horizontal export of SPM. The best agreement between the model and the satellite in terms of SPM spatial distribution and export is obtained for two conditions: (i) when the relative proportion of "heavy and fast" settling particles significantly increases relative to the "light and slow" ones, and (ii) when the settling rate of heavy and light SPM increases by fivefold. The synergy between MARS-3D and the satellite data improved the SPM flux predictions by 48% near the Rhone River mouth. Our results corroborate the importance of implementing satellite observations within initialization procedures of ocean models since data assimilation techniques may fail for river floods showing strong seasonal variability.

  11. 3D Quantitative Assessment of Lesion Response to MR-guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Treatment of Uterine Fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Savic, Lynn J.; Lin, MingDe; Duran, Rafael; Schernthaner, Rüdiger E.; Hamm, Bernd; Geschwind, Jean-François; Hong, Kelvin; Chapiro, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives To investigate the response after MR-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) treatment of uterine fibroids (UF) using a 3D quantification of total and enhancing lesion volume (TLV, ELV) on contrast-enhanced MRI (ceMRI) scans. Methods and Materials In a total of 24 patients, ceMRI scans were obtained at baseline and 24 hrs, 6, 12 and 24 months after MRgHIFU treatment. The dominant lesion was assessed using a semi-automatic quantitative 3D segmentation technique. Agreement between software-assisted and manual measurements was then analyzed using a linear regression model. Patients were classified as responders (R) or non-responders (NR) based on their symptom report after 6 months. Statistical analysis included the paired t-test and Mann-Whitney-test. Results Preprocedurally, the median TLV and ELV were 263.74cm3 (30.45–689.56cm3) and 210.13cm3 (14.43–689.53cm3), respectively. The 6-month follow-up demonstrated a reduction of TLV in 21 patients (87.5%) with a median TLV of 171.7cm3 (8.5–791.2cm3) (p<.0001). TLV remained stable with significant differences compared to baseline (p<.001 and p=.047 after 12 and 24 months). A reduction of ELV was apparent in 16 patients (66.6%) with a median ELV of 158.91cm3 (8.55–779.61cm3) after 6 months (p=.065). 3D quantification and manual measurements showed strong intermethod-agreement for fibroid volumes (R2=.889 and R2=.917) but greater discrepancy for enhancement calculations (R2=.659 and R2=.419) at baseline and 6 mo. No significant differences in TLV or ELV were observed between clinical R (n=15) and NR (n=3). Conclusion The 3D assessment has proven feasible and accurate in the quantification of fibroid response to MRgHIFU. Contrary to ELV, changes in TLV may be representative of the clinical outcome. PMID:26160057

  12. 3D visualization of XFEL beam focusing properties using LiF crystal X-ray detector.

    PubMed

    Pikuz, Tatiana; Faenov, Anatoly; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Ozaki, Norimasa; Albertazzi, Bruno; Inubushi, Yuichi; Yabashi, Makina; Tono, Kensuke; Sato, Yuya; Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Pikuz, Sergei; Grum-Grzhimailo, Alexei N; Nishikino, Masaharu; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Kodama, Ryosuke

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report, that by means of direct irradiation of lithium fluoride a (LiF) crystal, in situ 3D visualization of the SACLA XFEL focused beam profile along the propagation direction is realized, including propagation inside photoluminescence solid matter. High sensitivity and large dynamic range of the LiF crystal detector allowed measurements of the intensity distribution of the beam at distances far from the best focus as well as near the best focus and evaluation of XFEL source size and beam quality factor M(2). Our measurements also support the theoretical prediction that for X-ray photons with energies ~10 keV the radius of the generated photoelectron cloud within the LiF crystal reaches about 600 nm before thermalization. The proposed method has a spatial resolution ~0.4-2.0 μm for photons with energies 6-14 keV and potentially could be used in a single shot mode for optimization of different focusing systems developed at XFEL and synchrotron facilities. PMID:26634431

  13. 3D visualization of XFEL beam focusing properties using LiF crystal X-ray detector

    PubMed Central

    Pikuz, Tatiana; Faenov, Anatoly; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Ozaki, Norimasa; Albertazzi, Bruno; Inubushi, Yuichi; Yabashi, Makina; Tono, Kensuke; Sato, Yuya; Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Pikuz, Sergei; Grum-Grzhimailo, Alexei N.; Nishikino, Masaharu; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Kodama, Ryosuke

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report, that by means of direct irradiation of lithium fluoride a (LiF) crystal, in situ 3D visualization of the SACLA XFEL focused beam profile along the propagation direction is realized, including propagation inside photoluminescence solid matter. High sensitivity and large dynamic range of the LiF crystal detector allowed measurements of the intensity distribution of the beam at distances far from the best focus as well as near the best focus and evaluation of XFEL source size and beam quality factor M2. Our measurements also support the theoretical prediction that for X-ray photons with energies ~10 keV the radius of the generated photoelectron cloud within the LiF crystal reaches about 600 nm before thermalization. The proposed method has a spatial resolution ~ 0.4–2.0 μm for photons with energies 6–14 keV and potentially could be used in a single shot mode for optimization of different focusing systems developed at XFEL and synchrotron facilities. PMID:26634431

  14. Reduction of diffusional defocusing in hydrodynamically focused flows

    DOEpatents

    Affleck, R.L.; Demas, J.N.; Goodwin, P.M.; Keller, R.; Wu, M.

    1998-09-01

    An analyte fluid stream with first molecules having relatively low molecular weight and a corresponding high coefficient of diffusion has reduced diffusional defocusing out of an analyte fluid stream. The analyte fluid stream of first molecules is associated with second molecules of relatively high molecular weight having a relatively low coefficient of diffusion and a binding constant effective to associate with the first molecules. A focused analyte fluid stream is maintained since the combined molecular weight of the associated first and second molecules is effective to minimize diffusion of the first molecules out of the analyte fluid stream. 6 figs.

  15. Reduction of diffusional defocusing in hydrodynamically focused flows

    DOEpatents

    Affleck, Rhett L.; Demas, James N.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Keller, Richard; Wu, Ming

    1998-01-01

    An analyte fluid stream with first molecules having relatively low molecular weight and a corresponding high coefficient of diffusion has reduced diffusional defocusing out of an analyte fluid stream. The analyte fluid stream of first molecules is associated with second molecules of relatively high molecular weight having a relatively low coefficient of diffusion and a binding constant effective to associate with the first molecules. A focused analyte fluid stream is maintained since the combined molecular weight of the associated first and second molecules is effective to minimize diffusion of the first molecules out of the analyte fluid stream.

  16. Comparison of 3D kinetic and hydrodynamic models to ROSINA-COPS measurements of the neutral coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieler, Andre; Altwegg, Kathrin; Balsiger, Hans; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Calmonte, Ursina; Combi, Michael; De Keyser, Johan; Fiethe, Björn; Fougere, Nicolas; Fuselier, Stephen; Gasc, Sébastien; Gombosi, Tamas; Hansen, Kenneth; Hässig, Myrtha; Huang, Zhenguang; Jäckel, Annette; Jia, Xianzhe; Le Roy, Lena; Mall, Urs A.; Rème, Henri; Rubin, Martin; Tenishev, Valeriy; Tóth, Gábor; Tzou, Chia-Yu; Wurz, Peter

    2015-11-01

    67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) is a Jupiter-family comet and the object of investigation of the European Space Agency mission Rosetta. This report presents the first full 3D simulation results of 67P's neutral gas coma. In this study we include results from a direct simulation Monte Carlo method, a hydrodynamic code, and a purely geometric calculation which computes the total illuminated surface area on the nucleus. All models include the triangulated 3D shape model of 67P as well as realistic illumination and shadowing conditions. The basic concept is the assumption that these illumination conditions on the nucleus are the main driver for the gas activity of the comet. As a consequence, the total production rate of 67P varies as a function of solar insolation. The best agreement between the model and the data is achieved when gas fluxes on the night side are in the range of 7% to 10% of the maximum flux, accounting for contributions from the most volatile components. To validate the output of our numerical simulations we compare the results of all three models to in situ gas number density measurements from the ROSINA COPS instrument. We are able to reproduce the overall features of these local neutral number density measurements of ROSINA COPS for the time period between early August 2014 and January 1 2015 with all three models. Some details in the measurements are not reproduced and warrant further investigation and refinement of the models. However, the overall assumption that illumination conditions on the nucleus are at least an important driver of the gas activity is validated by the models. According to our simulation results we find the total production rate of 67P to be constant between August and November 2014 with a value of about 1 × 1026 molecules s-1.

  17. Analysis of stratification patterns in river-influenced mesotidal and macrotidal estuaries using 3D hydrodynamic modelling and K-means clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bárcena, Javier F.; García-Alba, Javier; García, Andrés; Álvarez, César

    2016-11-01

    A methodology to determine the spatial and temporal evolution of stratification in estuaries driven by astronomical tides and river discharges was developed and is presented here. Using a 3D hydrodynamic model, the variation of estuarine currents, water levels and densities was investigated under different realistic forcing conditions. These conditions were classified from a long-term period (>30 years) of river flows and tidal water levels by a K-means clustering approach suggested by Bárcena et al. (2015). The methodology allows computing the location of mixed, partially mixed/stratified and stratified areas in tidal river estuaries along a continuum by means of Richardson's Layer number and the frequency of every model scenario. In order to illustrate the power of the method, it was applied to a case study, the Suances Estuary. In the application case, the Suances Estuary was vertically mixed at its innermost part due to riverine influence. At the outer part, it was also vertically mixed due to the turbulence caused by tidal action. At the intermediate section, it was partially mixed in the main channel or stratified in intertidal areas due to the combined action of forcing, depth gradients between the main channel and intertidal areas, and salinity variations in the water column.

  18. Dosimetry in radiotherapy using a-Si EPIDs: Systems, methods, and applications focusing on 3D patient dose estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, B. M. C.

    2013-06-01

    An overview is provided of the use of amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) for dosimetric purposes in radiation therapy, focusing on 3D patient dose estimation. EPIDs were originally developed to provide on-treatment radiological imaging to assist with patient setup, but there has also been a natural interest in using them as dosimeters since they use the megavoltage therapy beam to form images. The current generation of clinically available EPID technology, amorphous-silicon (a-Si) flat panel imagers, possess many characteristics that make them much better suited to dosimetric applications than earlier EPID technologies. Features such as linearity with dose/dose rate, high spatial resolution, realtime capability, minimal optical glare, and digital operation combine with the convenience of a compact, retractable detector system directly mounted on the linear accelerator to provide a system that is well-suited to dosimetric applications. This review will discuss clinically available a-Si EPID systems, highlighting dosimetric characteristics and remaining limitations. Methods for using EPIDs in dosimetry applications will be discussed. Dosimetric applications using a-Si EPIDs to estimate three-dimensional dose in the patient during treatment will be overviewed. Clinics throughout the world are implementing increasingly complex treatments such as dynamic intensity modulated radiation therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy, as well as specialized treatment techniques using large doses per fraction and short treatment courses (ie. hypofractionation and stereotactic radiosurgery). These factors drive the continued strong interest in using EPIDs as dosimeters for patient treatment verification.

  19. On the Usability and Usefulness of 3d (geo)visualizations - a Focus on Virtual Reality Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çöltekin, A.; Lokka, I.; Zahner, M.

    2016-06-01

    Whether and when should we show data in 3D is an on-going debate in communities conducting visualization research. A strong opposition exists in the information visualization (Infovis) community, and seemingly unnecessary/unwarranted use of 3D, e.g., in plots, bar or pie charts, is heavily criticized. The scientific visualization (Scivis) community, on the other hand, is more supportive of the use of 3D as it allows `seeing' invisible phenomena, or designing and printing things that are used in e.g., surgeries, educational settings etc. Geographic visualization (Geovis) stands between the Infovis and Scivis communities. In geographic information science, most visuo-spatial analyses have been sufficiently conducted in 2D or 2.5D, including analyses related to terrain and much of the urban phenomena. On the other hand, there has always been a strong interest in 3D, with similar motivations as in Scivis community. Among many types of 3D visualizations, a popular one that is exploited both for visual analysis and visualization is the highly realistic (geo)virtual environments. Such environments may be engaging and memorable for the viewers because they offer highly immersive experiences. However, it is not yet well-established if we should opt to show the data in 3D; and if yes, a) what type of 3D we should use, b) for what task types, and c) for whom. In this paper, we identify some of the central arguments for and against the use of 3D visualizations around these three considerations in a concise interdisciplinary literature review.

  20. Controllable positioning and alignment of silver nanowires by tunable hydrodynamic focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mei; Chen, Ying; Guo, Qiuquan; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang; Yang, Jun

    2011-03-01

    Assembly and alignment of nanowires or nanotubes are critical steps for integrating functional nanodevices by the bottom-up strategy. However, it is still challenging to manipulate either an array of nanowires or individual nanowires in a controllable manner. Here we present a simple but versatile method of positioning and aligning nanowires by hydrodynamic focusing that functions as 'hydro-tweezers'. By adjusting the flow duration and flow rates of the sheath flows and sample flow, the density, width and position of the nanowire arrays, as building blocks of nanodevices, can be readily tuned in the hydrodynamic focusing process. This approach exhibits great potentials in the assembly of an array of functional nanodevices. With this method, multiple nanowire arrays can be positioned and aligned on predefined locations. Further focusing the sample flow, nanowires flow in single file. Thus single nanowires can also be lined up and located to desired positions.

  1. Introduction to the focus issue: chemo-hydrodynamic patterns and instabilities.

    PubMed

    De Wit, A; Eckert, K; Kalliadasis, S

    2012-09-01

    Pattern forming instabilities are often encountered in a wide variety of natural phenomena and technological applications, from self-organization in biological and chemical systems to oceanic or atmospheric circulation and heat and mass transport processes in engineering systems. Spatio-temporal structures are ubiquitous in hydrodynamics where numerous different convective instabilities generate pattern formation and complex spatiotemporal dynamics, which have been much studied both theoretically and experimentally. In parallel, reaction-diffusion processes provide another large family of pattern forming instabilities and spatio-temporal structures which have been analyzed for several decades. At the intersection of these two fields, "chemo-hydrodynamic patterns and instabilities" resulting from the coupling of hydrodynamic and reaction-diffusion processes have been less studied. The exploration of the new instability and symmetry-breaking scenarios emerging from the interplay between chemical reactions, diffusion and convective motions is a burgeoning field in which numerous exciting problems have emerged during the last few years. These problems range from fingering instabilities of chemical fronts and reactive fluid-fluid interfaces to the dynamics of reaction-diffusion systems in the presence of chaotic mixing. The questions to be addressed are at the interface of hydrodynamics, chemistry, engineering or environmental sciences to name a few and, as a consequence, they have started to draw the attention of several communities including both the nonlinear chemical dynamics and hydrodynamics communities. The collection of papers gathered in this Focus Issue sheds new light on a wide range of phenomena in the general area of chemo-hydrodynamic patterns and instabilities. It also serves as an overview of the current research and state-of-the-art in the field. PMID:23020492

  2. Introduction to the Focus Issue: Chemo-Hydrodynamic Patterns and Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Wit, A.; Eckert, K.; Kalliadasis, S.

    2012-09-01

    Pattern forming instabilities are often encountered in a wide variety of natural phenomena and technological applications, from self-organization in biological and chemical systems to oceanic or atmospheric circulation and heat and mass transport processes in engineering systems. Spatio-temporal structures are ubiquitous in hydrodynamics where numerous different convective instabilities generate pattern formation and complex spatiotemporal dynamics, which have been much studied both theoretically and experimentally. In parallel, reaction-diffusion processes provide another large family of pattern forming instabilities and spatio-temporal structures which have been analyzed for several decades. At the intersection of these two fields, "chemo-hydrodynamic patterns and instabilities" resulting from the coupling of hydrodynamic and reaction-diffusion processes have been less studied. The exploration of the new instability and symmetry-breaking scenarios emerging from the interplay between chemical reactions, diffusion and convective motions is a burgeoning field in which numerous exciting problems have emerged during the last few years. These problems range from fingering instabilities of chemical fronts and reactive fluid-fluid interfaces to the dynamics of reaction-diffusion systems in the presence of chaotic mixing. The questions to be addressed are at the interface of hydrodynamics, chemistry, engineering or environmental sciences to name a few and, as a consequence, they have started to draw the attention of several communities including both the nonlinear chemical dynamics and hydrodynamics communities. The collection of papers gathered in this Focus Issue sheds new light on a wide range of phenomena in the general area of chemo-hydrodynamic patterns and instabilities. It also serves as an overview of the current research and state-of-the-art in the field.

  3. Mixing in microchannels based on hydrodynamic focusing and time-interleaved segmentation: modelling and experiment.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Huang, Xiaoyang

    2005-11-01

    This paper theoretically and experimentally investigates a micromixer based on combined hydrodynamic focusing and time-interleaved segmentation. Both hydrodynamic focusing and time-interleaved segmentation are used in the present study to reduce mixing path, to shorten mixing time, and to enhance mixing quality. While hydrodynamic focusing reduces the transversal mixing path, time-interleaved sequential segmentation shortens the axial mixing path. With the same viscosity in the different streams, the focused width can be adjusted by the flow rate ratio. The axial mixing path or the segment length can be controlled by the switching frequency and the mean velocity of the flow. Mixing ratio can be controlled by both flow rate ratio and pulse width modulation of the switching signal. This paper first presents a time-dependent two-dimensional analytical model for the mixing concept. The model considers an arbitrary mixing ratio between solute and solvent as well as the axial Taylor-Aris dispersion. A micromixer was designed and fabricated based on lamination of four polymer layers. The layers were machined using a CO2 laser. Time-interleaved segmentation was realized by two piezoelectric valves. The sheath streams for hydrodynamic focusing are introduced through the other two inlets. A special measurement set-up was designed with synchronization of the mixer's switching signal and the camera's trigger signal. The set-up allows a relatively slow and low-resolution CCD camera to freeze and to capture a large transient concentration field. The concentration profile along the mixing channel agrees qualitatively well with the analytical model. The analytical model and the device promise to be suitable tools for studying Taylor-Aris dispersion near the entrance of a flat microchannel.

  4. PDMS droplet formation and characterization by hydrodynamic flow focusing technique in a PDMS square microchannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carneiro, J.; Doutel, E.; Campos, J. B. L. M.; Miranda, J. M.

    2016-10-01

    This study reports the generation of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) droplets by hydrodynamic flow focusing technique in a PDMS square microchannel. The droplet generation was characterized and a flow regime map addressed by the capillary numbers of each phase was assembled. Different flow regimes were found—dripping, jetting, threading and viscous displacement and the respective boundaries were sketched. Droplet size, breakup distance and formation frequency were analysed and quantified for the jetting and dripping regimes. The dripping regime showed better results for droplet formation, leading to the highest throughput of monodisperse droplets: formation frequency of  ≈12 Hz and droplets almost uniform in size (2.8% the coefficient of variance). The qualitative analysis and quantitative measurement of the different variables and their correlation within a capillary dependent regime map proved to be an invaluable tool to study droplet formation by hydrodynamic flow focusing technique in a PDMS square microchannel.

  5. MultiFocus Polarization Microscope (MF-PolScope) for 3D polarization imaging of up to 25 focal planes simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsson, Sara; McQuilken, Molly; Mehta, Shalin B; Verma, Amitabh; Larsch, Johannes; Ilic, Rob; Heintzmann, Rainer; Bargmann, Cornelia I; Gladfelter, Amy S; Oldenbourg, Rudolf

    2015-03-23

    We have developed an imaging system for 3D time-lapse polarization microscopy of living biological samples. Polarization imaging reveals the position, alignment and orientation of submicroscopic features in label-free as well as fluorescently labeled specimens. Optical anisotropies are calculated from a series of images where the sample is illuminated by light of different polarization states. Due to the number of images necessary to collect both multiple polarization states and multiple focal planes, 3D polarization imaging is most often prohibitively slow. Our MF-PolScope system employs multifocus optics to form an instantaneous 3D image of up to 25 simultaneous focal-planes. We describe this optical system and show examples of 3D multi-focus polarization imaging of biological samples, including a protein assembly study in budding yeast cells.

  6. First attempt at interpreting millimetric observations of CO in comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) using 3D+t hydrodynamical coma simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boissier, J.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Rodionov, A. V.; Crifo, J.-F.

    2010-02-01

    Context. Millimetre line observations of comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) close to perihelion, completed using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer, have detected temporal variations in the CO J(2-1) 230 GHz line shape, and in the position of its maximum emission brightness within the field-of-view, whose heuristic analysis has suggested the presence in the coma of a slowly rotating spiral-shaped enhancement of the CO density. Aims: Here, we reanalyse these data using a physically consistent model of the coma. Methods: We consider a large, rotating, icy nucleus with an arbitrarily aspherical shape and an adhoc rotation mode, and compute its tridimensional, time-dependent (”3D+t”) mixed CO + H2O coma, using a previously developed tridimensional hydrodynamical code (HDC). The line emission of CO is then computed using a molecular excitation and radiation transfer code (ERC). In the present, pioneering phase, the HDC and ERC both contain crude, and not thoroughly mutually consistent approximations. Several alternative CO surface flux distributions are considered, and the resulting CO 230 GHz line spectra and brightness maps are compared with observations. Results: We find that when an uniform surface flux of CO is assumed, the spiral structures created by the nucleus asphericity in the CO coma are too faint to account for the observational data, whereas we confirm earlier conclusions based on a heuristic approach that the assumption of an area of suitable dimensions and localization with increased CO flux leads to results in agreement with a large subset of (but not all) the data. This suggests that the true CO coma production map may be more complex than the presently assumed rather simple-minded one. Refined and mutually consistent HDC and ERC are needed for a more satisfactory interpretation of the present and any similar future data. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG

  7. Visualizing the 3D Architecture of Multiple Erythrocytes Infected with Plasmodium at Nanoscale by Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Soares Medeiros, Lia Carolina; De Souza, Wanderley; Jiao, Chengge; Barrabin, Hector; Miranda, Kildare

    2012-01-01

    Different methods for three-dimensional visualization of biological structures have been developed and extensively applied by different research groups. In the field of electron microscopy, a new technique that has emerged is the use of a focused ion beam and scanning electron microscopy for 3D reconstruction at nanoscale resolution. The higher extent of volume that can be reconstructed with this instrument represent one of the main benefits of this technique, which can provide statistically relevant 3D morphometrical data. As the life cycle of Plasmodium species is a process that involves several structurally complex developmental stages that are responsible for a series of modifications in the erythrocyte surface and cytoplasm, a high number of features within the parasites and the host cells has to be sampled for the correct interpretation of their 3D organization. Here, we used FIB-SEM to visualize the 3D architecture of multiple erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium chabaudi and analyzed their morphometrical parameters in a 3D space. We analyzed and quantified alterations on the host cells, such as the variety of shapes and sizes of their membrane profiles and parasite internal structures such as a polymorphic organization of hemoglobin-filled tubules. The results show the complex 3D organization of Plasmodium and infected erythrocyte, and demonstrate the contribution of FIB-SEM for the obtainment of statistical data for an accurate interpretation of complex biological structures. PMID:22432024

  8. An in-depth spectroscopic examination of molecular bands from 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres. I. Formation of the G-band in metal-poor dwarf stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, A. J.; Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Steffen, M.; Spite, M.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Recent developments in the three-dimensional (3D) spectral synthesis code Linfor3D have meant that for the first time, large spectral wavelength regions, such as molecular bands, can be synthesised with it in a short amount of time. Aims: A detailed spectral analysis of the synthetic G-band for several dwarf turn-off-type 3D atmospheres (5850 ≲ Teff [ K ] ≲ 6550, 4.0 ≤ log g ≤ 4.5, - 3.0 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤-1.0) was conducted, under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. We also examine carbon and oxygen molecule formation at various metallicity regimes and discuss the impact it has on the G-band. Methods: Using a qualitative approach, we describe the different behaviours between the 3D atmospheres and the traditional one-dimensional (1D) atmospheres and how the different physics involved inevitably leads to abundance corrections, which differ over varying metallicities. Spectra computed in 1D were fit to every 3D spectrum to determine the 3D abundance correction. Results: Early analysis revealed that the CH molecules that make up the G-band exhibited an oxygen abundance dependency; a higher oxygen abundance leads to weaker CH features. Nitrogen abundances showed zero impact to CH formation. The 3D corrections are also stronger at lower metallicity. Analysis of the 3D corrections to the G-band allows us to assign estimations of the 3D abundance correction to most dwarf stars presented in the literature. Conclusions: The 3D corrections suggest that A(C) in carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars with high A(C) would remain unchanged, but would decrease in CEMP stars with lower A(C). It was found that the C/O ratio is an important parameter to the G-band in 3D. Additional testing confirmed that the C/O ratio is an equally important parameter for OH transitions under 3D. This presents a clear interrelation between the carbon and oxygen abundances in 3D atmospheres through their molecular species, which is not seen in 1D.

  9. Selective evaporation of focusing fluid in two-fluid hydrodynamic print head.

    SciTech Connect

    Keicher, David M.; Cook, Adam W.

    2014-09-01

    The work performed in this project has demonstrated the feasibility to use hydrodynamic focusing of two fluid steams to create a novel micro printing technology for electronics and other high performance applications. Initial efforts focused solely on selective evaporation of the sheath fluid from print stream provided insight in developing a unique print head geometry allowing excess sheath fluid to be separated from the print flow stream for recycling/reuse. Fluid flow models suggest that more than 81 percent of the sheath fluid can be removed without affecting the print stream. Further development and optimization is required to demonstrate this capability in operation. Print results using two-fluid hydrodynamic focusing yielded a 30 micrometers wide by 0.5 micrometers tall line that suggests that the cross-section of the printed feature from the print head was approximately 2 micrometers in diameter. Printing results also demonstrated that complete removal of the sheath fluid is not necessary for all material systems. The two-fluid printing technology could enable printing of insulated conductors and clad optical interconnects. Further development of this concept should be pursued.

  10. Negative refraction and focusing analysis in a left-handed material slab and realization with a 3D photonic crystal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadlou, Majid; Kamarei, Mahmoud; Sheikhi, Mohammad Hossein

    2006-02-01

    The increasing interest in metamaterials and structures with negative refraction index requires a formulation capable of a full analysis of wave propagation in such materials and structures. Since two-dimensional (2D) problems have been largely explored in the literature, the natural step is a three-dimensional (3D) formulation of these structures. In this paper, (3D) formulation and simulation of a left-handed metamaterial slab using the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method in conjunction with perfectly matched layers (PMLs) is presented, and also a (3D) photonic crystal (PC) based structure is presented as a candidate for replacing the left-handed medium slab to realize the negative index of refraction on natural dielectric substrates. The results of these simulations are compared with each other, and the resulting outputs of the developed model are in good agreement. The results demonstrate numerically the focusing of the field emitted from an omnidirectional line source placed in front of the slab and crystal. Both the source and the focus pattern are away from the slab interfaces at two sides of the slab to have a real, negative perfect image. The dimensions of the simulation domain are set to have both source and image in the resulted plots. The focus pattern shows the ability of a photonic crystal structure in making a true flat lens.

  11. Wiggler improvement based on single axis magnetic measurement, synthesized 3-D field simulation of trajectories and sorting of lateral focusing magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, H. S.; Volshonok, M.; Dyunin, E.; Gover, A.; Lasser, Y.; Shershevski, R.; Yahalom, A.

    2011-12-01

    A method is presented for correcting magnetic field imperfections in an assembled wiggler of the Halbach configuration. The method is employed in a configuration in which lateral focusing is needed along the wiggler (at low beam energies and large length) and is provided by external magnet bars alongside the wiggler. Field deviations in both vertical and lateral dimensions due to wiggler imperfections are repaired by sorting and reassembly of the focusing magnets. A single Hall probe measurement along the wiggler axis and individual measurements of the focusing magnet bars provide sufficient data for sorting and optimal choice of the positions of the focusing magnets. Moreover, this data enables 3D simulation of the e-beam transport trajectories in the virtually synthesized field of the wiggler with the contemplated repair configuration of the focusing magnet bars before actually assembling them. It thus provides in advance a realistic prediction of the quality of the repair.

  12. Fabrication of high sensitivity 3D nanoSQUIDs based on a focused ion beam sculpting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Leo, Natascia; Fretto, Matteo; Lacquaniti, Vincenzo; Granata, Carmine; Vettoliere, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    In this paper a nanofabrication process, based on a focused ion beam (FIB) nanosculpting technique, for high sensitivity three-dimensional nanoscale superconducting quantum interference devices (nanoSQUIDs) is reported. The crucial steps of the fabrication process are described, as are some peculiar features of the superconductor-normal metal-insulator-superconductor (SNIS) Josephson junctions, which may useful for applications in cryocooler systems. This fabrication procedure is employed to fabricate sandwich nanojunctions and high sensitivity nanoSQUIDs. Specifically, the superconductive nanosensors have a rectangular loop of 1 × 0.2-0.4 μm2 interrupted by two square Nb/Al-AlO x /Nb SNIS Josephson junctions with side lengths of 0.3 μm. The characterization of a typical nanoSQUID has been carried out and a spectral density of magnetic flux noise as low as 0.8 μΦ0 Hz-1/2 has been measured.

  13. Fabrication of high sensitivity 3D nanoSQUIDs based on a focused ion beam sculpting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Leo, Natascia; Fretto, Matteo; Lacquaniti, Vincenzo; Granata, Carmine; Vettoliere, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    In this paper a nanofabrication process, based on a focused ion beam (FIB) nanosculpting technique, for high sensitivity three-dimensional nanoscale superconducting quantum interference devices (nanoSQUIDs) is reported. The crucial steps of the fabrication process are described, as are some peculiar features of the superconductor–normal metal–insulator–superconductor (SNIS) Josephson junctions, which may useful for applications in cryocooler systems. This fabrication procedure is employed to fabricate sandwich nanojunctions and high sensitivity nanoSQUIDs. Specifically, the superconductive nanosensors have a rectangular loop of 1 × 0.2–0.4 μm2 interrupted by two square Nb/Al–AlO x /Nb SNIS Josephson junctions with side lengths of 0.3 μm. The characterization of a typical nanoSQUID has been carried out and a spectral density of magnetic flux noise as low as 0.8 μΦ0 Hz–1/2 has been measured.

  14. 3D imaging of cells and tissues by focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM).

    PubMed

    Drobne, Damjana

    2013-01-01

    Integration of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and focused ion beam (FIB) technology into a single FIB/SEM system permits use of the FIB as a nano-scalpel to reveal site-specific subsurface microstructures which can be examined in great detail by SEM. The FIB/SEM technology is widely used in the semiconductor industry and material sciences, and recently its use in the life sciences has been initiated. Samples for FIB/SEM investigation can be either embedded in a plastic matrix, the traditional means of preparation of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimens, or simply dried as in samples prepared for SEM imaging. Currently, FIB/SEM is used in the life sciences for (a) preparation by the lift-out technique of lamella for TEM analysis, (b) tomography of samples embedded in a matrix, and (c) in situ site-specific FIB milling and SEM imaging using a wide range of magnifications. Site-specific milling and imaging has attracted wide interest as a technique in structural research of single eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, small animals, and different animal tissue, but it still remains to be explored more thoroughly. In the past, preparation of samples for site-specific milling and imaging by FIB/SEM has typically adopted the embedding techniques used for TEM samples, and which have been very well described in the literature. Sample preparation protocols for the use of dried samples in FIB/SEM have been less well investigated. The aim of this chapter is to encourage application of FIB/SEM on dried biological samples. A detailed description of conventional dried sample preparation and FIB/SEM investigation of dried biological samples is presented. The important steps are described and illustrated, and direct comparison between embedded and dried samples of same tissues is provided. The ability to discover links between gross morphology of the tissue or organ, surface characteristics of any selected region, and intracellular structural details on the nanometer

  15. Design by simulation of the UT array inspection of a nozzle with a flexible probe: Definition of 3D trajectories and focusing parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhoye, A.; Casula, O.; Moussebois, D.

    2013-01-01

    The inspection of 3D components such as a nozzle weld requires overcoming the difficulties due to the complex geometry. The use of flexible array has been proven to be an efficient solution allowing to compensate the effect of the varying profile and to ensure the quality of the ultrasonic beam transmitted in the material along the probe scanning. The definition of the trajectory of the probe and the focusing parameters (parameters introduced in the delay law calculations) is allowed by using a flexible probe on this evolving 3D geometry (saddle) compared to a solid wedge probe. In this communication we present a study performed in the case of the inspection of a nozzle weld using a flexible array. This study aims at ensuring an efficient coverage of the region of interest around the weld based on software tools. These tools allow calculation of an efficient trajectory and the focusing parameters. A strategy has been implemented in order to minimize the number of delay laws applied to reach this coverage. The probe performances have been assessed by using the CIVA software to detect notch located in the zone of interest.

  16. A 3-D finite-element model for computation of temperature profiles and regions of thermal damage during focused ultrasound surgery exposures.

    PubMed

    Meaney, P M; Clarke, R L; ter Haar, G R; Rivens, I H

    1998-11-01

    Although there have been numerous models implemented for modeling thermal diffusion effects during focused ultrasound surgery (FUS), most have limited themselves to representing simple situations for which analytical solutions and the use of cylindrical geometries sufficed. For modeling single lesion formation and the heating patterns from a single exposure, good results were achieved in comparison with experimental results for predicting lesion size, shape and location. However, these types of approaches are insufficient when considering the heating of multiple sites with FUS exposures when the time interval between exposures is short. In such cases, the heat dissipation patterns from initial exposures in the lesion array formation can play a significant role in the heating patterns for later exposures. Understanding the effects of adjacent lesion formation, such as this, requires a three-dimensional (3-D) representation of the bioheat equation. Thus, we have developed a 3-D finite-element representation for modeling the thermal diffusion effects during FUS exposures in clinically relevant tissue volumes. The strength of this approach over past methods is its ability to represent arbitrarily shaped 3-D situations. Initial simulations have allowed calculation of the temperature distribution as a function of time for adjacent FUS exposures in excised bovine liver, with the individually computed point temperatures comparing favorably with published measurements. In addition to modeling these temperature distributions, the model was implemented in conjunction with an algorithm for calculating the thermal dose as a way of predicting lesion shape. Although used extensively in conventional hyperthermia applications, this thermal dose criterion has only been applied in a limited number of simulations in FUS for comparison with experimental measurements. In this study, simulations were run for focal depths 2 and 3 cm below the surface of pig's liver, using multiple

  17. Microgravity Experiments on Bubble Removal in the Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor - Space (HFB-S)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, H. K.; Niederhaus, C. E.; Robinson, S.; Hudson, E.; Geffert, S. K.; Lupo, P. J.; Gonda, S. R.; Kleis, S. J.; Kizito, J. P.

    2005-01-01

    The Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor-Space (HFB-S) is being developed as a possible replacement for the Rotating Wall Perfused Vessel (RWPV) bioreactor currently planned for use on the International Space Station (ISS). The HFB-S is being developed with the ability to remove gas bubbles that may inadvertently enter the system during long duration experiments (approx. 1-3 months). The RWPV has been used in the past with great success on Shuttle flights and Mir missions, but has occasionally experienced problems with gas bubbles entering the fluid-filled vessel. These bubbles are harmful to the cell science, and bubble removal in the RWPV is problematic. The HFB-S has an access port on the rotation axis that allows for bubble removal under specific operating conditions without detrimentally affecting the cell tissue. Experiments on bubble removal with the HFB-S were conducted in the microgravity environment on NASA's KC-135 Reduced Gravity Aircraft. The first set of flights provided useful data on bubble trajectories that are validating computational predictions. The second set of flights free-floated the apparatus and tested the most recent configuration of the bioreactor while focusing on the bubble removal process itself. These experiments have shown that gas bubbles can successfully be driven to the removal port and purged in microgravity. The last day's experiments had an excellent microgravity environment due to calm air, and the experience gained in previous flights allowed successful bubble removal 18 out of 35 tries, remarkable given the microgravity time constraints and g-jitter on the KC-135.

  18. Recent developments regarding the use of thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one derivatives in medicinal chemistry, with a focus on their synthesis and anticancer properties.

    PubMed

    Bozorov, Khurshed; Zhao, Jiang-Yu; Elmuradov, Burkhon; Pataer, Apar; Aisa, Haji A

    2015-09-18

    It is generally understood that the antitumor properties of synthetic heterocyclic compounds are among the most powerful properties that can be made use in medicinal chemistry. More specifically, their substantial cytotoxic effects against different types of human tumor cells, in addition to their roles as enzymes or receptors for various kinase inhibitors, make them critically important. In recent years, thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one derivatives (TPs), which are analogs of quinazoline alkaloids, have frequently attracted the interest of medicinal chemistry researchers due to their promising anticancer properties. The present study is a review of the latest advances (i.e., since 2006) in TP derivative-related research, with a focus on how such derivatives are synthesized and on their anticancer activities.

  19. Bubble Experiments on the Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor-Space (HFB-S)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niederhaus, Charles; Nahra, Henry; Gonda, Steve; Lupo, Pamela; Kleis, Stanley; Geffert, Sandra; Kizito, John; Robinson, Stewart

    2002-01-01

    The Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor-Space (HFB-S) is being developed as a drop-in replacement for the Rotating Wall Perfused Vessel (RWPV) bioreactor currently planned for use on the International Space Station (ISS). Only the vessel itself is proposed for change, the supporting hardware will remain the same. These bioreactors are used for the growth of three-dimensional tissue culture that cannot be done in normal gravity labs. The bioreactors provide a continual supply of oxygen for cell growth, as well as periodic replacement of cell culture media with nutrients. The RWPV has had many successful flights on the space shuttle, but longer duration missions onboard the Mir Space Station resulted in bubbles inside the vessel that were detrimental to the science. It is believed that procedural changes can prevent bubble formation, but the HFB-S must not only provide a mechanism of bubble removal, but must also meet strict requirements for a low-shear environment and uniform oxygen concentration distribution for optimum cell tissue growth. A detailed technical objective (DTO) flight on the space shuttle to fully evaluate the HFB-S is currently in the planning stages. Ground-based activities are also underway to quanitify the characteristics of the HFB-S. Computational studies are being used to predict the internal fluid flow and cell trajectories. These computations will be compared to ground-based flow visualization experiments. Comparative studies of ground-based cell growth between the RWPV and the HFB-S are also in progress. These studies have shown that the HFB-S functions well as a bioreactor in normal gravity. Bubble motion and bubble removal are being studied using computational predictions as well as experimental validation.

  20. 3D tracking of single nanoparticles and quantum dots in living cells by out-of-focus imaging with diffraction pattern recognition

    PubMed Central

    Gardini, Lucia; Capitanio, Marco; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2015-01-01

    Live cells are three-dimensional environments where biological molecules move to find their targets and accomplish their functions. However, up to now, most single molecule investigations have been limited to bi-dimensional studies owing to the complexity of 3d-tracking techniques. Here, we present a novel method for three-dimensional localization of single nano-emitters based on automatic recognition of out-of-focus diffraction patterns. Our technique can be applied to track the movements of single molecules in living cells using a conventional epifluorescence microscope. We first demonstrate three-dimensional localization of fluorescent nanobeads over 4 microns depth with accuracy below 2 nm in vitro. Remarkably, we also establish three-dimensional tracking of Quantum Dots, overcoming their anisotropic emission, by adopting a ligation strategy that allows rotational freedom of the emitter combined with proper pattern recognition. We localize commercially available Quantum Dots in living cells with accuracy better than 7 nm over 2 microns depth. We validate our technique by tracking the three-dimensional movements of single protein-conjugated Quantum Dots in living cell. Moreover, we find that important localization errors can occur in off-focus imaging when improperly calibrated and we give indications to avoid them. Finally, we share a Matlab script that allows readily application of our technique by other laboratories. PMID:26526410

  1. 3D tracking of single nanoparticles and quantum dots in living cells by out-of-focus imaging with diffraction pattern recognition.

    PubMed

    Gardini, Lucia; Capitanio, Marco; Pavone, Francesco S

    2015-01-01

    Live cells are three-dimensional environments where biological molecules move to find their targets and accomplish their functions. However, up to now, most single molecule investigations have been limited to bi-dimensional studies owing to the complexity of 3d-tracking techniques. Here, we present a novel method for three-dimensional localization of single nano-emitters based on automatic recognition of out-of-focus diffraction patterns. Our technique can be applied to track the movements of single molecules in living cells using a conventional epifluorescence microscope. We first demonstrate three-dimensional localization of fluorescent nanobeads over 4 microns depth with accuracy below 2 nm in vitro. Remarkably, we also establish three-dimensional tracking of Quantum Dots, overcoming their anisotropic emission, by adopting a ligation strategy that allows rotational freedom of the emitter combined with proper pattern recognition. We localize commercially available Quantum Dots in living cells with accuracy better than 7 nm over 2 microns depth. We validate our technique by tracking the three-dimensional movements of single protein-conjugated Quantum Dots in living cell. Moreover, we find that important localization errors can occur in off-focus imaging when improperly calibrated and we give indications to avoid them. Finally, we share a Matlab script that allows readily application of our technique by other laboratories.

  2. Effect of hydrodynamic cavitation in the tissue erosion by pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yufeng; Gao, Xiaobin Wilson

    2016-09-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is emerging as an effective therapeutic modality in clinics. Besides the thermal ablation, tissue disintegration is also possible because of the interaction between the distorted HIFU bursts and either bubble cloud or boiling bubble. Hydrodynamic cavitation is another type of cavitation and has been employed widely in industry, but its role in mechanical erosion to tissue is not clearly known. In this study, the bubble dynamics immediately after the termination of HIFU exposure in the transparent gel phantom was captured by high-speed photography, from which the bubble displacement towards the transducer and the changes of bubble size was quantitatively determined. The characteristics of hydrodynamic cavitation due to the release of the acoustic radiation force and relaxation of compressed surrounding medium were found to associate with the number of pulses delivered and HIFU parameters (i.e. pulse duration and pulse repetition frequency). Because of the initial big bubble (~1 mm), large bubble expansion (up to 1.76 folds), and quick bubble motion (up to ~1 m s-1) hydrodynamic cavitation is significant after HIFU exposure and may lead to mechanical erosion. The shielding effect of residual tiny bubbles would reduce the acoustic energy delivered to the pre-existing bubble at the focus and, subsequently, the hydrodynamic cavitation effect. Tadpole shape of mechanical erosion in ex vivo porcine kidney samples was similar to the contour of bubble dynamics in the gel. Liquefied tissue was observed to emit towards the transducer through the punctured tissue after HIFU exposure in the sonography. In summary, the release of HIFU exposure-induced hydrodynamic cavitation produces significant bubble expansion and motion, which may be another important mechanism of tissue erosion. Understanding its mechanism and optimizing the outcome would broaden and enhance HIFU applications.

  3. Effect of hydrodynamic cavitation in the tissue erosion by pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yufeng; Gao, Xiaobin Wilson

    2016-09-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is emerging as an effective therapeutic modality in clinics. Besides the thermal ablation, tissue disintegration is also possible because of the interaction between the distorted HIFU bursts and either bubble cloud or boiling bubble. Hydrodynamic cavitation is another type of cavitation and has been employed widely in industry, but its role in mechanical erosion to tissue is not clearly known. In this study, the bubble dynamics immediately after the termination of HIFU exposure in the transparent gel phantom was captured by high-speed photography, from which the bubble displacement towards the transducer and the changes of bubble size was quantitatively determined. The characteristics of hydrodynamic cavitation due to the release of the acoustic radiation force and relaxation of compressed surrounding medium were found to associate with the number of pulses delivered and HIFU parameters (i.e. pulse duration and pulse repetition frequency). Because of the initial big bubble (~1 mm), large bubble expansion (up to 1.76 folds), and quick bubble motion (up to ~1 m s‑1) hydrodynamic cavitation is significant after HIFU exposure and may lead to mechanical erosion. The shielding effect of residual tiny bubbles would reduce the acoustic energy delivered to the pre-existing bubble at the focus and, subsequently, the hydrodynamic cavitation effect. Tadpole shape of mechanical erosion in ex vivo porcine kidney samples was similar to the contour of bubble dynamics in the gel. Liquefied tissue was observed to emit towards the transducer through the punctured tissue after HIFU exposure in the sonography. In summary, the release of HIFU exposure-induced hydrodynamic cavitation produces significant bubble expansion and motion, which may be another important mechanism of tissue erosion. Understanding its mechanism and optimizing the outcome would broaden and enhance HIFU applications.

  4. Focused ion beam (FIB) combined with high resolution scanning electron microscopy: a promising tool for 3D analysis of chromosome architecture.

    PubMed

    Schroeder-Reiter, Elizabeth; Pérez-Willard, Fabián; Zeile, Ulrike; Wanner, Gerhard

    2009-02-01

    Focused ion beam (FIB) milling in combination with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was applied to investigations of metaphase barley chromosomes, providing new insight into the chromatin packaging in the chromosome interior and 3D distribution of histone variants in the centromeric region. Whole mount chromosomes were sectioned with FIB with thicknesses in the range of 7-20nm, resulting in up to 2000 sections, which allow high resolution three-dimensional reconstruction. For the first time, it could be shown that the chromosome interior is characterized by a network of interconnected cavities, with openings to the chromosome surface. In combination with immunogold labeling, the centromere-correlated distribution of histone variants (phosphorylated histone H3, CENH3) could be investigated with FIB in three dimensions. Limitations of classical SEM analysis of whole mount chromosomes with back-scattered electrons requiring higher accelerating voltages, e.g. faint and blurred interior signals, could be overcome with FIB milling: from within the chromosome even very small labels in the range of 10nm could be precisely visualized. This allowed direct quantification of marker molecules in a three-dimensional context. Distribution of DNA in the chromosome interior could be directly analyzed after staining with a DNA-specific platinorganic compound Platinum Blue. Higher resolution visualization of DNA distribution could be performed by preparation of FIB lamellae with the in situ lift-out technique followed by investigation in dark field with a scanning transmission electron detector (STEM) at 30kV. PMID:19059341

  5. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  6. Dynamic radial positioning of a hydrodynamically focused particle stream enabled by a three-dimensional microfluidic nozzle.

    PubMed

    Hebert, C G; Staton, S J R; Hudson, T Q; Hart, S J; Lopez-Mariscal, C; Terray, A

    2015-03-01

    The ability to confine flows and focus particle streams has become an integral component of the design of microfluidic systems for the analysis of a wide range of samples. Presented here is the implementation of a 3D microfluidic nozzle capable of both focusing particles as well as dynamically positioning those particles in selected flow lamina within the downstream analysis channel. Through the independent adjustment of the three sheath inlet flows, the nozzle controlled the size of a focused stream for 6, 10, and 15 μm polystyrene microparticles. Additional flow adjustment allowed the nozzle to dynamically position the focused particle stream to a specific area within the downstream channel. This unique ability provides additional capability and sample flexibility to the system. In order to gain insight into the fluidic behavior of the system, experimental conditions and results were duplicated within 4.75 μm using a COMSOL Multiphysics(®) model to elucidate the structure, direction, proportion, and fate of fluid lamina throughout the nozzle region. The COMSOL Multiphysics model showed that the position and distribution of particles upon entering the nozzle have negligible influence over its focusing ability, extending the experimental results into a wider range of particle sizes and system flow rates. These results are promising for the application of this design to allow for a relatively simple, fast, fully fluidically controlled nozzle for selective particle focusing and positioning for further particle analysis and sorting. PMID:25825621

  7. Salinity and eutrophication management by in situ continuous real-time monitoring and 3D modelling (hydrodynamics coupled with water quality): the case of the Berre lagoon (Mediterranean, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Laurent; Emma, Gouze

    2010-05-01

    . Since 2008, these three buoys have been also equipped with nitrate, chlorophyll and oxygen probes. Thanks to these measurements, a 3D hydrodynamic model (TELEMAC©) has been developped and validated to better qualify and quantify the relationships between the salinity of the lagoon, the fresh water inputs (from the powerplant and from the rivers), the water exchanges through the Caronte channel and the wind mixing. This model is currently used by the electricity producer to manage fresh water discharges complying with salinity indicators fixed by the European Court of Justice. Then, a biogeochemical model (DelWAQ©) coupled with the hydrodynamic model has been developped to understand the ecosystem functioning and to assess the hydroelectric powerplant implication in the eutrophication of the lagoon. Simulations reproduce quite well: 1/ the seasonal variations of nutrients, 2/ biogeochemical processes, 3/ anoxia events in connection with stratification periods at deep stations and 4/ are able to calculate nutrients budgets over a year. The results show that high primary production rates are based on high dynamical mineralization processes. The allochtonous nutrients sources are not sufficient to feed the phytoplanktonic demand (less than 1%). This models coupling is the only way to compile the physical and biogeochemical variables and processes. It's a tool aiming at a better assessment of the high complexity of the lagoon nutrients cycles. It will help us to understand the powerplant implication for the eutrophication with respect to the anthropised rivers. Moreover we would be able to test various managing scenarii (e.g. drop of nutrients loads) and to suggest new rehabilitation strategies.

  8. Human Bone-Forming Chondrocytes Cultured in the Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor Retain Matrix Proteins: Similarities to Spaceflight Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, P. J.; Hecht, J.; Montufar-Solis, D.

    2006-01-01

    Fracture healing, crucial to a successful Mars mission, involves formation of a cartilaginous fracture callus which differentiates, mineralizes, ossifies and remodels via the endochondral process. Studies of spaceflown and tailsuspended rats found that, without loading, fracture callus formation and cartilage differentiation within the callus were minimal. We found delayed differentiation of chondrocytes within the rat growth plate on Cosmos 1887, 2044, and Spacelab 3. In the current study, differentiation of human bone-forming chondrocytes cultured in the hydrodynamic focusing bioreactor (HFB) was assessed. Human costochondral chondrocytes in suspension were aggregated overnight, then cultured in the HFB for 25 days. Collagen Type II, aggrecan and unsulfated chondroitin were found extracellularly and chondroitin sulfates 4 and 6 within the cell. Lack of secretion was also found in pancreatic cells of spaceflown rats, and in our SL3 studies. The HFB can be used to study cartilage differentiation in simulated microgravity.

  9. Evaluation of the Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor (HDFB) and the Centrifugal Absorption Cartridge System (CACS) Performance Under Micro G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve; Lee, Wenshan; Flechsig, Steve

    1999-01-01

    The Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor (HDFB) technology is designed to provide a flow field with nearly uniform shear force throughout the vessel, which can provide the desired low shear force spatial environment to suspend three-dimensional cell aggregates while providing optimum mass transfer. The reactor vessel consists of a dome-shaped cell culture vessel, a viscous spinner, an access port, and a rotating base. The domed vessel face has a radius of R(o). and rotates at 0mega(o) rpm, while the internal viscous spinner has a radius of R(i) and rotates at 0mega(i) rpm. The culture vessel is completely filled with cell culture medium into which three-dimensional cellular structures are introduced. The HDFB domed vessel and spinner were driven by two independent step motors,

  10. Method for the determination of the modulation transfer function (MTF) in 3D x-ray imaging systems with focus on correction for finite extent of test objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Dirk; Wiegert, Jens; Bertram, Matthias

    2007-03-01

    It is well known that rotational C-arm systems are capable of providing 3D tomographic X-ray images with much higher spatial resolution than conventional CT systems. Using flat X-ray detectors, the pixel size of the detector typically is in the range of the size of the test objects. Therefore, the finite extent of the "point" source cannot be neglected for the determination of the MTF. A practical algorithm has been developed that includes bias estimation and subtraction, averaging in the spatial domain, and correction for the frequency content of the imaged bead or wire. Using this algorithm, the wire and the bead method are analyzed for flat detector based 3D X-ray systems with the use of standard CT performance phantoms. Results on both experimental and simulated data are presented. It is found that the approximation of applying the analysis of the wire method to a bead measurement is justified within 3% accuracy up to the first zero of the MTF.

  11. A hydrodynamic focusing microchannel based on micro-weir shear lift force.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruey-Jen; Hou, Hui-Hsiung; Wang, Yao-Nan; Lin, Che-Hsin; Fu, Lung-Ming

    2012-09-01

    A novel microflow cytometer is proposed in which the particles are focused in the horizontal and vertical directions by means of the Saffman shear lift force generated within a micro-weir microchannel. The proposed device is fabricated on stress-relieved glass substrates and is characterized both numerically and experimentally using fluorescent particles with diameters of 5 μm and 10 μm, respectively. The numerical results show that the micro-weir structures confine the particle stream to the center of the microchannel without the need for a shear flow. Moreover, the experimental results show that the particles emerging from the micro-weir microchannel pass through the detection region in a one-by-one fashion. The focusing effect of the micro-weir microchannel is quantified by computing the normalized variance of the optical detection signal intensity. It is shown that the focusing performance of the micro-weir structure is equal to 99.76% and 99.57% for the 5-μm and 10-μm beads, respectively. Overall, the results presented in this study confirm that the proposed microcytometer enables the reliable sorting and counting of particles with different diameters.

  12. A hydrodynamic focusing microchannel based on micro-weir shear lift force

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ruey-Jen; Hou, Hui-Hsiung; Wang, Yao-Nan; Lin, Che-Hsin; Fu, Lung-Ming

    2012-01-01

    A novel microflow cytometer is proposed in which the particles are focused in the horizontal and vertical directions by means of the Saffman shear lift force generated within a micro-weir microchannel. The proposed device is fabricated on stress-relieved glass substrates and is characterized both numerically and experimentally using fluorescent particles with diameters of 5 μm and 10 μm, respectively. The numerical results show that the micro-weir structures confine the particle stream to the center of the microchannel without the need for a shear flow. Moreover, the experimental results show that the particles emerging from the micro-weir microchannel pass through the detection region in a one-by-one fashion. The focusing effect of the micro-weir microchannel is quantified by computing the normalized variance of the optical detection signal intensity. It is shown that the focusing performance of the micro-weir structure is equal to 99.76% and 99.57% for the 5-μm and 10-μm beads, respectively. Overall, the results presented in this study confirm that the proposed microcytometer enables the reliable sorting and counting of particles with different diameters. PMID:23919100

  13. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  14. Hydrodynamic directional control of liquid metal droplets within a microfluidic flow focusing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gol, Berrak; Kurdzinski, Michael E.; Tovar-Lopez, Francisco J.; Petersen, Phred; Mitchell, Arnan; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2016-04-01

    Here, we investigate the directional control of Galinstan liquid metal droplets when transferring from the high-viscosity glycerol core into the parallel low-viscosity NaOH sheath streams within a flow focusing microfluidic system. In the presence of sufficient flow mismatch between the sheath streams, the droplets are driven toward the higher velocity interface and cross the interface under the influence of surface tension gradient. A minimum flow mismatch of 125 μl/min is required to enable the continuous transfer of droplets toward the desired sheath stream. The response time of droplets, the time required to change the direction of droplet transfer, is governed by the response time of the syringe pump driven microfluidic system and is found to be 3.3 and 8.8 s when increasing and decreasing the flow rate of sheath stream, respectively.

  15. RELAP5-3D User Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Riemke, Richard Allan

    2002-09-01

    The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability1 (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics2 and 3D neutron kinetics3,4. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature5,6,7,8,9,10. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution.

  16. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  17. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  18. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  19. Autofocus for 3D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Elkin, Forest

    2008-04-01

    Three dimensional (3D) autofocus remains a significant challenge for the development of practical 3D multipass radar imaging. The current 2D radar autofocus methods are not readily extendable across sensor passes. We propose a general framework that allows a class of data adaptive solutions for 3D auto-focus across passes with minimal constraints on the scene contents. The key enabling assumption is that portions of the scene are sparse in elevation which reduces the number of free variables and results in a system that is simultaneously solved for scatterer heights and autofocus parameters. The proposed method extends 2-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) methods to an arbitrary number of passes allowing the consideration of scattering from multiple height locations. A specific case from the proposed autofocus framework is solved and demonstrates autofocus and coherent multipass 3D estimation across the 8 passes of the "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set" X-Band radar data.

  20. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  1. 3D radiative transfer in colliding wind binaries: Application of the SimpleX algorithm to 3D SPH simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, Thomas; Clementel, Nicola; Kruip, Chael; Icke, Vincent; Gull, Theodore

    2014-09-01

    We present the first results of full 3D radiative transfer simulations of the colliding stellar winds in a massive binary system. We accomplish this by applying the SIMPLEX algorithm for 3D radiative transfer on an unstructured Delaunay grid to recent 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of the colliding winds in the binary system η Carinae. We use SIMPLEX to obtain detailed ionization fractions of hydrogen and helium, in 3D, at the resolution of the original SPH simulations. We show how the SIMPLEX simulations can be used to generate synthetic spectral data cubes for comparison to data obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph as part of a multi-cycle program to map changes in η Car's extended interacting wind structures across one binary cycle. Comparison of the HST observations to the SIMPLEX models can help lead to more accurate constraints on the orbital, stellar, and wind parameters of the η Car system, such as the primary's mass-loss rate and the companion's temperature and luminosity. While we initially focus specifically on the η Car binary, the numerical methods employed can be applied to numerous other colliding wind (WR140, WR137, WR19) and dusty 'pinwheel' (WR104, WR98a) binary systems. One of the biggest remaining mysteries is how dust can form and survive in such systems that contain a hot, luminous O star. Coupled with 3D hydrodynamical simulations, SIMPLEX simulations have the potential to help determine the regions where dust can form and survive in these unique objects.

  2. Performance assessment of HIFU lesion detection by harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU): a 3-D finite-element-based framework with experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Gary Y; Luo, Jianwen; Marquet, Fabrice; Maleke, Caroline; Vappou, Jonathan; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2011-12-01

    Harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU) is a novel high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy monitoring method with feasibilities demonstrated in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. Its principle is based on amplitude-modulated (AM) - harmonic motion imaging (HMI), an oscillatory radiation force used for imaging the tissue mechanical response during thermal ablation. In this study, a theoretical framework of HMIFU is presented, comprising a customized nonlinear wave propagation model, a finite-element (FE) analysis module and an image-formation model. The objective of this study is to develop such a framework to (1) assess the fundamental performance of HMIFU in detecting HIFU lesions based on the change in tissue apparent elasticity, i.e., the increasing Young's modulus, and the HIFU lesion size with respect to the HIFU exposure time and (2) validate the simulation findings ex vivo. The same HMI and HMIFU parameters as in the experimental studies were used, i.e., 4.5-MHz HIFU frequency and 25 Hz AM frequency. For a lesion-to-background Young's modulus ratio of 3, 6 and 9, the FE and estimated HMI displacement ratios were equal to 1.83, 3.69 and 5.39 and 1.65, 3.19 and 4.59, respectively. In experiments, the HMI displacement followed a similar increasing trend of 1.19, 1.28 and 1.78 at 10-s, 20-s and 30-s HIFU exposure, respectively. In addition, moderate agreement in lesion size growth was found in both simulations (16.2, 73.1 and 334.7 mm(2)) and experiments (26.2, 94.2 and 206.2 mm(2)). Therefore, the feasibility of HMIFU for HIFU lesion detection based on the underlying tissue elasticity changes was verified through the developed theoretical framework, i.e., validation of the fundamental performance of the HMIFU system for lesion detection, localization and quantification, was demonstrated both theoretically and ex vivo.

  3. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  4. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  5. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  6. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  7. Martian terrain - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This area of terrain near the Sagan Memorial Station was taken on Sol 3 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  8. A simple approach for the fabrication of 3D microelectrodes for impedimetric sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahsin Guler, Mustafa; Bilican, Ismail; Agan, Sedat; Elbuken, Caglar

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we present a very simple method to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) microelectrodes integrated with microfluidic devices. We form the electrodes by etching a microwire placed across a microchannel. For precise control of the electrode spacing, we employ a hydrodynamic focusing microfluidic device and control the width of the etching solution stream. The focused widths of the etchant solution and the etching time determine the gap formed between the electrodes. Using the same microfluidic device, we can fabricate integrated 3D electrodes with different electrode gaps. We have demonstrated the functionality of these electrodes using an impedimetric particle counting setup. Using 3D microelectrodes with a diameter of 25 μm, we have detected 6 μm-diameter polystyrene beads in a buffer solution as well as erythrocytes in a PBS solution. We study the effect of electrode spacing on the signal-to-noise ratio of the impedance signal and we demonstrate that the smaller the electrode spacing the higher the signal obtained from a single microparticle. The sample stream is introduced to the system using the same hydrodynamic focusing device, which ensures the alignment of the sample in between the electrodes. Utilising a 3D hydrodynamic focusing approach, we force all the particles to go through the sensing region of the electrodes. This fabrication scheme not only provides a very low-cost and easy method for rapid prototyping, but which can also be used for applications requiring 3D electric field focused through a narrow section of the microchannel.

  9. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  10. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  11. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.

    2009-05-01

    This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

  12. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    DOE PAGES

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  13. Evaluation of 3-D turbula mixing coupled with focused subsampling as a method to obtain representative laboratory subsamples of rock and soil for analysis when performing the CARB 435 test protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, C.; Bailey, R.; Suess, T.

    2012-12-01

    Rock and samples submitted to asbestos testing laboratories for CARB 435 method analysis typically range from one pint (~1 kg) to five gallons (~40kg) in size with contained rock fragments as large as 3" in diameter. Extracting a representative test sample, which requires 8 sample preps containing ~3 mg per grain mount of ~200 mesh powder, is a non-trivial and poorly understood process. The CARB 435 test method calls for crushing and pulverizing of rock/soil samples, but gives no guidance as to how to extract a representative sample from the resulting powdered material, allowing for large errors due to poor lab subsampling protocols (too often a simple scoop off the top). This talk presents the results of a series of experiments which evaluate the efficacy and efficiency of 3-D turbula powder sample mixing coupled with focused multiple sampling thief extractions from the mixed powder to obtain representative subsamples for CARB 435 method analysis.

  14. Venus in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaut, J. J.

    1993-08-01

    Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.

  15. 3D reservoir visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Van, B.T.; Pajon, J.L.; Joseph, P. )

    1991-11-01

    This paper shows how some simple 3D computer graphics tools can be combined to provide efficient software for visualizing and analyzing data obtained from reservoir simulators and geological simulations. The animation and interactive capabilities of the software quickly provide a deep understanding of the fluid-flow behavior and an accurate idea of the internal architecture of a reservoir.

  16. Evaluation of the monocular depth cue in 3D displays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kwon, Yong Moo; Son, Jung-Young

    2008-12-22

    Binocular disparity and monocular depth information are the principal functions of ideal 3D displays. 3D display systems such as stereoscopic or multi-view, super multi-view (SMV), and multi-focus (MF) displays were considered for the testing of the satisfaction level with the monocular accommodation of three different depths of 3D object points. The numerical simulation and experimental results show that the MF 3D display gives a monocular depth cue. In addition, the experimental results of the monocular MF 3D display show clear monocular focus on four different depths. Therefore, we can apply the MF 3D display to monocular 3D displays.

  17. 3D rapid mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaksson, Folke; Borg, Johan; Haglund, Leif

    2008-04-01

    In this paper the performance of passive range measurement imaging using stereo technique in real time applications is described. Stereo vision uses multiple images to get depth resolution in a similar way as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) uses multiple measurements to obtain better spatial resolution. This technique has been used in photogrammetry for a long time but it will be shown that it is now possible to do the calculations, with carefully designed image processing algorithms, in e.g. a PC in real time. In order to get high resolution and quantitative data in the stereo estimation a mathematical camera model is used. The parameters to the camera model are settled in a calibration rig or in the case of a moving camera the scene itself can be used for calibration of most of the parameters. After calibration an ordinary TV camera has an angular resolution like a theodolite, but to a much lower price. The paper will present results from high resolution 3D imagery from air to ground. The 3D-results from stereo calculation of image pairs are stitched together into a large database to form a 3D-model of the area covered.

  18. Non-Invasive Targeted Peripheral Nerve Ablation Using 3D MR Neurography and MRI-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (MR-HIFU): Pilot Study in a Swine Model

    PubMed Central

    Huisman, Merel; Staruch, Robert M.; Ladouceur-Wodzak, Michelle; van den Bosch, Maurice A.; Burns, Dennis K.; Chhabra, Avneesh; Chopra, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Ultrasound (US)-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been proposed for noninvasive treatment of neuropathic pain and has been investigated in in-vivo studies. However, ultrasound has important limitations regarding treatment guidance and temperature monitoring. Magnetic resonance (MR)-imaging guidance may overcome these limitations and MR-guided HIFU (MR-HIFU) has been used successfully for other clinical indications. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing 3D MR neurography to identify and guide ablation of peripheral nerves using a clinical MR-HIFU system. Methods Volumetric MR-HIFU was used to induce lesions in the peripheral nerves of the lower limbs in three pigs. Diffusion-prep MR neurography and T1-weighted images were utilized to identify the target, plan treatment and immediate post-treatment evaluation. For each treatment, one 8 or 12 mm diameter treatment cell was used (sonication duration 20 s and 36 s, power 160–300 W). Peripheral nerves were extracted < 3 hours after treatment. Ablation dimensions were calculated from thermal maps, post-contrast MRI and macroscopy. Histological analysis included standard H&E staining, Masson’s trichrome and toluidine blue staining. Results All targeted peripheral nerves were identifiable on MR neurography and T1-weighted images and could be accurately ablated with a single exposure of focused ultrasound, with peak temperatures of 60.3 to 85.7°C. The lesion dimensions as measured on MR neurography were similar to the lesion dimensions as measured on CE-T1, thermal dose maps, and macroscopy. Histology indicated major hyperacute peripheral nerve damage, mostly confined to the location targeted for ablation. Conclusion Our preliminary results indicate that targeted peripheral nerve ablation is feasible with MR-HIFU. Diffusion-prep 3D MR neurography has potential for guiding therapy procedures where either nerve targeting or avoidance is desired, and may

  19. Taming supersymmetric defects in 3d-3d correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Dongmin; Kim, Nakwoo; Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-07-01

    We study knots in 3d Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group {SL}(N,{{C}}), in the context of its relation with 3d { N }=2 theory (the so-called 3d-3d correspondence). The defect has either co-dimension 2 or co-dimension 4 inside the 6d (2,0) theory, which is compactified on a 3-manifold \\hat{M}. We identify such defects in various corners of the 3d-3d correspondence, namely in 3d {SL}(N,{{C}}) CS theory, in 3d { N }=2 theory, in 5d { N }=2 super Yang-Mills theory, and in the M-theory holographic dual. We can make quantitative checks of the 3d-3d correspondence by computing partition functions at each of these theories. This Letter is a companion to a longer paper [1], which contains more details and more results.

  20. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  1. DRACO development for 3D simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatenejad, Milad; Moses, Gregory

    2006-10-01

    The DRACO (r-z) lagrangian radiation-hydrodynamics laser fusion simulation code is being extended to model 3D hydrodynamics in (x-y-z) coordinates with hexahedral cells on a structured grid. The equation of motion is solved with a lagrangian update with optional rezoning. The fluid equations are solved using an explicit scheme based on (Schulz, 1964) while the SALE-3D algorithm (Amsden, 1981) is used as a template for computing cell volumes and other quantities. A second order rezoner has been added which uses linear interpolation of the underlying continuous functions to preserve accuracy (Van Leer, 1976). Artificial restoring force terms and smoothing algorithms are used to avoid grid distortion in high aspect ratio cells. These include alternate node couplers along with a rotational restoring force based on the Tensor Code (Maenchen, 1964). Electron and ion thermal conduction is modeled using an extension of Kershaw's method (Kershaw, 1981) to 3D geometry. Test problem simulations will be presented to demonstrate the applicability of this new version of DRACO to the study of fluid instabilities in three dimensions.

  2. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  3. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  4. FIT3D: Fitting optical spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; González, J. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Cano-Díaz, M.; López-Cobá, C.; Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Mollá, M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.

    2016-09-01

    FIT3D fits optical spectra to deblend the underlying stellar population and the ionized gas, and extract physical information from each component. FIT3D is focused on the analysis of Integral Field Spectroscopy data, but is not restricted to it, and is the basis of Pipe3D, a pipeline used in the analysis of datasets like CALIFA, MaNGA, and SAMI. It can run iteratively or in an automatic way to derive the parameters of a large set of spectra.

  5. 3D Models of Symbiotic Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, S.; Booth, R.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Ramstedt, S.; Vlemmings, W.; Maercker, M.

    2015-12-01

    Symbiotic binaries consist of a cool, mass-losing giant and an accreting, compact companion. We present 3D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) models of two such interacting binaries, RS Oph and Mira AB. RS Oph is also a recurrent nova system, thus we model multiple quiescent mass transfer-nova outburst cycles. The resulting circumstellar structures of both systems are highly complex with the formation of spirals, arcs, shells, equatorial and bipolar outflows. We compare the models to recent observations and discuss the implications of our results for related systems, e.g., bipolar nebulae and jets, chemically peculiar stars, and the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae.

  6. Scaling supernova hydrodynamics to the laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, J O; Remington, B A; Arnett, D; Fryxell, B A; Drake, R P

    1998-11-10

    Supernova (SN) 1987A focused attention on the critical role of hydrodynamic instabilities in the evolution of supernovae. To test the modeling of these instabilities, they are attempting to rigorously scale the physics of the laboratory in supernova. The scaling of hydrodynamics on microscopic laser scales to hydrodynamics on the SN-size scales is presented and requirements established. Initial results were reported in [1]. Next the appropriate conditions are generated on the NOVA laser. 10-15 Mbar shock at the interface of a two-layer planar target, which triggers perturbation growth, due to the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability and to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability as the interface decelerates is generated. This scales the hydrodynamics of the He-H interface of a Type II supernova at intermediate times, up to a few x10{sup 3} s. The experiment is modeled using the hydrodynamics codes HYADES and CALE, and the supernova code PROMETHEUS. Results of the experiments and simulations are presented. Analysis of the spike bubble velocities using potential flow theory and Ott thin shell theory is presented, as well as a study of 2D vs. 3D difference in growth at the He-H interface of Sn 1987A.

  7. 3D printed diffractive terahertz lenses.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Walter D; Ferrando, Vicente; Monsoriu, Juan A; Zagrajek, Przemysław; Czerwińska, Elżbieta; Szustakowski, Mieczysław

    2016-04-15

    A 3D printer was used to realize custom-made diffractive THz lenses. After testing several materials, phase binary lenses with periodic and aperiodic radial profiles were designed and constructed in polyamide material to work at 0.625 THz. The nonconventional focusing properties of such lenses were assessed by computing and measuring their axial point spread function (PSF). Our results demonstrate that inexpensive 3D printed THz diffractive lenses can be reliably used in focusing and imaging THz systems. Diffractive THz lenses with unprecedented features, such as extended depth of focus or bifocalization, have been demonstrated. PMID:27082335

  8. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  9. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F

    2016-07-15

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  10. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  11. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F

    2016-07-15

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices. PMID:27250897

  12. RGUI 1.0, New Graphical User Interface for RELAP5-3D

    SciTech Connect

    Mesina, George Lee; Galbraith, James Andrew

    1999-04-01

    With the advent of three-dimensional modeling in nuclear safety analysis codes, the need has arisen for a new display methodology. Currently, analysts either sort through voluminous numerical displays of data at points in a region, or view color coded interpretations of the data on a two-dimensional rendition of the plant. RGUI 1.0 provides 3D capability for displaying data. The 3D isometric hydrodynamic image is built automatically from the input deck without additional input from the user. Standard view change features allow the user to focus on only the important data. Familiar features that are standard to the nuclear industry, such as run, interact, and monitor, are included. RGUI 1.0 reduces the difficulty of analyzing complex three dimensional plants.

  13. RGUI 1.0, New Graphical User Interface for RELAP5-3D

    SciTech Connect

    G. L. Mesina; J. Galbraith

    1999-04-01

    With the advent of three-dimensional modeling in nuclear safety analysis codes, the need has arisen for a new display methodology. Currently, analysts either sort through voluminous numerical displays of data at points in a region, or view color coded interpretations of the data on a two-dimensional rendition of the plant. RGUI 1.0 provides 3D capability for displaying data. The 3D isometric hydrodynamic image is built automatically from the input deck without additional input from the user. Standard view change features allow the user to focus on only the important data. Familiar features that are standard to the nuclear industry, such as run, interact, and monitor, are included. RGUI 1.0 reduces the difficulty of analyzing complex three-dimensional plants.

  14. Exploring interaction with 3D volumetric displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Tovi; Wigdor, Daniel; Balakrishnan, Ravin

    2005-03-01

    Volumetric displays generate true volumetric 3D images by actually illuminating points in 3D space. As a result, viewing their contents is similar to viewing physical objects in the real world. These displays provide a 360 degree field of view, and do not require the user to wear hardware such as shutter glasses or head-trackers. These properties make them a promising alternative to traditional display systems for viewing imagery in 3D. Because these displays have only recently been made available commercially (e.g., www.actuality-systems.com), their current use tends to be limited to non-interactive output-only display devices. To take full advantage of the unique features of these displays, however, it would be desirable if the 3D data being displayed could be directly interacted with and manipulated. We investigate interaction techniques for volumetric display interfaces, through the development of an interactive 3D geometric model building application. While this application area itself presents many interesting challenges, our focus is on the interaction techniques that are likely generalizable to interactive applications for other domains. We explore a very direct style of interaction where the user interacts with the virtual data using direct finger manipulations on and around the enclosure surrounding the displayed 3D volumetric image.

  15. 3D spatial resolution and spectral resolution of interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Obara, Masaki; Yoshimori, Kyu

    2016-04-01

    Recently developed interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry (J. Opt. Soc. Am A18, 765 [2001]1084-7529JOAOD610.1364/JOSAA.18.000765) enables obtainment of the spectral information and 3D spatial information for incoherently illuminated or self-luminous object simultaneously. Using this method, we can obtain multispectral components of complex holograms, which correspond directly to the phase distribution of the wavefronts propagated from the polychromatic object. This paper focuses on the analysis of spectral resolution and 3D spatial resolution in interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry. Our analysis is based on a novel analytical impulse response function defined over four-dimensional space. We found that the experimental results agree well with the theoretical prediction. This work also suggests a new criterion and estimate method regarding 3D spatial resolution of digital holography. PMID:27139648

  16. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  17. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  18. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  19. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  20. LLNL-Earth3D

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  1. [3-D ultrasound in gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Zoller, W G; Liess, H

    1994-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a 3D effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate 3D presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of 3D images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of 3D images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal 3D presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the 3D imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. 3D ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible.

  2. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  3. 3D Modeling Engine Representation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Timothy Yang

    2014-09-01

    Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This summary report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a 3D modeling engine to represent risk analysis simulation for advanced small modular reactor structures and components. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.

  4. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435

  5. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  6. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  7. 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Maria

    The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.

  8. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  9. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  10. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    MedlinePlus

    ... viewer has a problem with focusing or depth perception. Also, the techniques used to create the 3- ... or other conditions that persistently inhibit focusing, depth perception or normal 3-D vision, would have difficulty ...

  11. 3D unstructured mesh discontinuous finite element hydro

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, M.K.; Kershaw, D.S.; Shaw, M.J.

    1995-07-01

    The authors present detailed features of the ICF3D hydrodynamics code used for inertial fusion simulations. This code is intended to be a state-of-the-art upgrade of the well-known fluid code, LASNEX. ICF3D employs discontinuous finite elements on a discrete unstructured mesh consisting of a variety of 3D polyhedra including tetrahedra, prisms, and hexahedra. The authors discussed details of how the ROE-averaged second-order convection was applied on the discrete elements, and how the C++ coding interface has helped to simplify implementing the many physics and numerics modules within the code package. The author emphasized the virtues of object-oriented design in large scale projects such as ICF3D.

  12. A study on the flip angle for an optimal T1-weighted image based on the 3D-THRIVE MRI technique: Focusing on the detection of a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Kyung-Rae; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Lee, Jae-Seung; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Kim, Young-Jae

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the optimal flip angle (FA) for a T1-weighted image in the detection of a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A 3D-T1-weighted high-resolution isotropic volume examination (THRIVE) technique was used to determine the dependence of the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) on the change in FA. This study targeted 40 liver cancer patients (25 men and 15 women aged 50 to 70 years with a mean age of 60.32 ± 6.2 years) who visited this hospital to undergo an abdominal MRI examination from January to June 2013. A 3.0 Tesla MRI machine (Philips, Medical System, Achieva) and a MRI receiver coil for data reception with a 16-channel multicoil were used in this study. The THRIVE (repetition time (TR): 8.1 ms, echo time (TE): 3.7 ms, matrix: 172 × 172, slice thickness: 4 mm, gap: 2 mm, field of view (FOV): 350 mm, and band width (BW): 380.1 Hz) technique was applied as a pulse sequence. The time required for the examination was 19 seconds, and the breath-hold technique was used. Axial images were obtained at five FAs: 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25°. The signal intensities of the liver, the lesion and the background noise were measured based on the acquired images before the SNR and the CNR were calculated. To evaluate the image at the FA, we used SPSS for Windows ver. 17.0 to conduct a one-way ANOVA test. A Bonferroni test was conducted as a post-hoc test. The SNRs of the hemorrhagic HCC in the 3D-THRIVE technique were 35.50 ± 4.12, 97.00 ± 10.24, 66.09 ± 7.29, 53.84 ± 5.43, and 42.92 ± 5.11 for FAs of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°, respectively (p = 0.0430), whereas the corresponding CNRs were 30.50 ± 3.84, 43.00 ± 5.42, 36.54 ± 4.09, 32.30 ± 2.79, and 31.69 ± 3.21 (p = 0.0003). At a small FA of 10, the SNR and the CNR showed the highest values. As the FA was increased, the SNR and the CNR values showed a decreasing tendency. In conclusion, the optimal T1-weighted image FA should be set to 10° to detect a HCC by using the 3D

  13. Spatially resolved 3D noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haefner, David P.; Preece, Bradley L.; Doe, Joshua M.; Burks, Stephen D.

    2016-05-01

    When evaluated with a spatially uniform irradiance, an imaging sensor exhibits both spatial and temporal variations, which can be described as a three-dimensional (3D) random process considered as noise. In the 1990s, NVESD engineers developed an approximation to the 3D power spectral density (PSD) for noise in imaging systems known as 3D noise. In this correspondence, we describe how the confidence intervals for the 3D noise measurement allows for determination of the sampling necessary to reach a desired precision. We then apply that knowledge to create a smaller cube that can be evaluated spatially across the 2D image giving the noise as a function of position. The method presented here allows for both defective pixel identification and implements the finite sampling correction matrix. In support of the reproducible research effort, the Matlab functions associated with this work can be found on the Mathworks file exchange [1].

  14. Accepting the T3D

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.

    1994-10-01

    In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

  15. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  16. Evaluation of vision training using 3D play game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung-Ho; Kwon, Soon-Chul; Son, Kwang-Chul; Lee, Seung-Hyun

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of the vision training, which is a benefit of watching 3D video images (3D video shooting game in this study), focusing on its accommodative facility and vergence facility. Both facilities, which are the scales used to measure human visual performance, are very important factors for man in leading comfortable and easy life. This study was conducted on 30 participants in their 20s through 30s (19 males and 11 females at 24.53 ± 2.94 years), who can watch 3D video images and play 3D game. Their accommodative and vergence facility were measured before and after they watched 2D and 3D game. It turned out that their accommodative facility improved after they played both 2D and 3D games and more improved right after they played 3D game than 2D game. Likewise, their vergence facility was proved to improve after they played both 2D and 3D games and more improved soon after they played 3D game than 2D game. In addition, it was demonstrated that their accommodative facility improved to greater extent than their vergence facility. While studies have been so far conducted on the adverse effects of 3D contents, from the perspective of human factor, on the imbalance of visual accommodation and convergence, the present study is expected to broaden the applicable scope of 3D contents by utilizing the visual benefit of 3D contents for vision training.

  17. Forward ramp in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder's forward rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This ramp was not used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. When this image was taken, Sojourner was still latched to one of the lander's petals, waiting for the command sequence that would execute its descent off of the lander's petal.

    The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine whether to deploy the rover using the forward or backward ramps and the nature of the first rover traverse. The metallic object at the lower left of the image is the lander's low-gain antenna. The square at the end of the ramp is one of the spacecraft's magnetic targets. Dust that accumulates on the magnetic targets will later be examined by Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer instrument for chemical analysis. At right, a lander petal is visible.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  18. Plans for a 3D reconnection experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellan, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Plasma-filled, current-carrying magnetic flux tubes are the essence of tokamaks, RFP's, spheromaks, solar coronal loops, and astrophysical jets. Relevant behaviors/issues are magnetic helicity content and injection, motion of the tube axis (hoop force, kinking), plasma confinement (balance between hydrodynamic pressure and pinch force), axial jet flows (acceleration and stagnation), waves, particle orbits, reconnection, and open v. closed field lines. These behaviors/issues and their mutual interaction are being investigated via Alfven time-scale imaging and conventional diagnostics in highly reproducible experiments having the simplest relevant geometry. High-speed movies clearly show flux tube kinking, motion of the flux tube axis due to hoop force, axial jet flows, an unusual particle orbit associated with flows counter to the electrical current, and reconnection between adjacent co- or counter-helicity flux tubes. A new experiment now under construction will have two slightly offset plasma-filled, current carrying flux tubes locally reconnect in 3D to form a single long flux tube. The setup requires two floating power supplies to drive the pre-reconnection currents as post-reconnection the power supplies become series-connected. A means for overcoming the topologically unavoidable mutual repulsion between the pre-reconnection currents is also required. It is anticipated that Alfven waves will radiate from the 3D localized reconnection region.

  19. LASTRAC.3d: Transition Prediction in 3D Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2004-01-01

    Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) is a general-purpose, physics-based transition prediction code released by NASA for laminar flow control studies and transition research. This paper describes the LASTRAC extension to general three-dimensional (3D) boundary layers such as finite swept wings, cones, or bodies at an angle of attack. The stability problem is formulated by using a body-fitted nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system constructed on the body surface. The nonorthogonal coordinate system offers a variety of marching paths and spanwise waveforms. In the extreme case of an infinite swept wing boundary layer, marching with a nonorthogonal coordinate produces identical solutions to those obtained with an orthogonal coordinate system using the earlier release of LASTRAC. Several methods to formulate the 3D parabolized stability equations (PSE) are discussed. A surface-marching procedure akin to that for 3D boundary layer equations may be used to solve the 3D parabolized disturbance equations. On the other hand, the local line-marching PSE method, formulated as an easy extension from its 2D counterpart and capable of handling the spanwise mean flow and disturbance variation, offers an alternative. A linear stability theory or parabolized stability equations based N-factor analysis carried out along the streamline direction with a fixed wavelength and downstream-varying spanwise direction constitutes an efficient engineering approach to study instability wave evolution in a 3D boundary layer. The surface-marching PSE method enables a consistent treatment of the disturbance evolution along both streamwise and spanwise directions but requires more stringent initial conditions. Both PSE methods and the traditional LST approach are implemented in the LASTRAC.3d code. Several test cases for tapered or finite swept wings and cones at an angle of attack are discussed.

  20. Complete 3D model reconstruction from multiple views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Huei-Yung; Subbarao, Murali; Park, Soon-Yong

    2002-02-01

    New algorithms are presented for automatically acquiring the complete 3D model of single and multiple objects using rotational stereo. The object is placed on a rotation stage. Stereo images for several viewing directions are taken by rotating the object by known angles. Partial 3D shapes and the corresponding texture maps are obtained using rotational stereo and shape from focus. First, for each view, shape from focus is used to obtain a rough 3D shape and the corresponding focused image. Then, the rough 3D shape and focused images are used in rotational stereo to obtain a more accurate measurement of 3D shape. The rotation axis is calibrated using three fixed points on a planar object and refined during surface integration. The complete 3D model is reconstructed by integrating partial 3D shapes and the corresponding texture maps of the object from multiple views. New algorithms for range image registration, surface integration and texture mapping are presented. Our method can generate 3D models very fast and preserve the texture of objects. A new prototype vision system named Stonybrook VIsion System 2 (SVIS-2) has been built and used in the experiments. In the experiments, 4 viewing directions at 90-degree intervals are used. SVIS-2 can acquire the 3D model of objects within a 250 mm x 250 mm x 250 mm cubic workspace placed about 750 mm from the camera. Both computational algorithms and experimental results on several objects are presented.

  1. Scaling supernova hydrodynamics to the laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, J.O.

    1999-06-01

    Supernova (SN) 1987A focused attention on the critical role of hydrodynamic instabilities in the evolution of supernovae. To test the modeling of these instabilities, we are developing laboratory experiments of hydrodynamic mixing under conditions relevant to supernovae. Initial results were reported in J. Kane et al., Astrophys. J.478, L75 (1997) The Nova laser is used to shock two-layer targets, producing Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities at the interfaces between the layers, analogous to instabilities seen at the interfaces of SN 1987A. Because the hydrodynamics in the laser experiments at intermediate times (3-40 ns) and in SN 1987A at intermediate times (5 s-10{sup 4} s) are well described by the Euler equations, the hydrodynamics scale between the two regimes. The experiments are modeled using the hydrodynamics codes HYADES and CALE, and the supernova code PROMETHEUS, thus serving as a benchmark for PROMETHEUS. Results of the experiments and simulations are presented. Analysis of the spike and bubble velocities in the experiment using potential flow theory and a modified Ott thin shell theory is presented. A numerical study of 2D vs. 3D differences in instability growth at the O-He and He-H interface of SN 1987A, and the design for analogous laser experiments are presented. We discuss further work to incorporate more features of the SN in the experiments, including spherical geometry, multiple layers and density gradients. Past and ongoing work in laboratory and laser astrophysics is reviewed, including experimental work on supernova remnants (SNRs). A numerical study of RM instability in SNRs is presented.

  2. Scaling supernova hydrodynamics to the laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, J.; Arnett, D.; Remington, B.A.; Glendinning, S.G.; Bazan, G.; Drake, R.P.; Fryxell, B.A.; Teyssier, R.

    1999-05-01

    Supernova (SN) 1987A focused attention on the critical role of hydrodynamic instabilities in the evolution of supernovae. To test the modeling of these instabilities, we are developing laboratory experiments of hydrodynamic mixing under conditions relevant to supernovae. Initial results were reported in J. Kane {ital et al.} [Astrophys. J. {bold 478}, L75 (1997) and B. A. Remington {ital et al.}, Phys. Plasmas {bold 4}, 1994 (1997)]. The Nova laser is used to generate a 10{endash}15 Mbar shock at the interface of a two-layer planar target, which triggers perturbation growth due to the Richtmyer{endash}Meshkov instability, and to the Rayleigh{endash}Taylor instability as the interface decelerates. This resembles the hydrodynamics of the He-H interface of a Type II supernova at intermediate times, up to a few {times}10{sup 3}s. The scaling of hydrodynamics on microscopic laser scales to the SN-size scales is presented. The experiment is modeled using the hydrodynamics codes HYADES [J. T. Larson and S. M. Lane, J. Quant. Spect. Rad. Trans. {bold 51}, 179 (1994)] and CALE [R. T. Barton, {ital Numerical Astrophysics} (Jones and Bartlett, Boston, 1985), pp. 482{endash}497], and the supernova code PROMETHEUS [P. R. Woodward and P. Collela, J. Comp. Phys. {bold 54}, 115 (1984)]. Results of the experiments and simulations are presented. Analysis of the spike-and-bubble velocities using potential flow theory and Ott thin-shell theory is presented, as well as a study of 2D versus 3D differences in perturbation growth at the He-H interface of SN 1987A.

  3. Remote 3D Medical Consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

    Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

  4. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  5. Complex light in 3D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Christophe; Delrot, Paul; Loterie, Damien; Morales Delgado, Edgar; Modestino, Miguel; Psaltis, Demetri

    2016-03-01

    3D printing as a tool to generate complicated shapes from CAD files, on demand, with different materials from plastics to metals, is shortening product development cycles, enabling new design possibilities and can provide a mean to manufacture small volumes cost effectively. There are many technologies for 3D printing and the majority uses light in the process. In one process (Multi-jet modeling, polyjet, printoptical©), a printhead prints layers of ultra-violet curable liquid plastic. Here, each nozzle deposits the material, which is then flooded by a UV curing lamp to harden it. In another process (Stereolithography), a focused UV laser beam provides both the spatial localization and the photo-hardening of the resin. Similarly, laser sintering works with metal powders by locally melting the material point by point and layer by layer. When the laser delivers ultra-fast focused pulses, nonlinear effects polymerize the material with high spatial resolution. In these processes, light is either focused in one spot and the part is made by scanning it or the light is expanded and covers a wide area for photopolymerization. Hence a fairly "simple" light field is used in both cases. Here, we give examples of how "complex light" brings additional level of complexity in 3D printing.

  6. 3D-Printed Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony K; Huynh, Wilson; Horowitz, Lisa F; Folch, Albert

    2016-03-14

    The advent of soft lithography allowed for an unprecedented expansion in the field of microfluidics. However, the vast majority of PDMS microfluidic devices are still made with extensive manual labor, are tethered to bulky control systems, and have cumbersome user interfaces, which all render commercialization difficult. On the other hand, 3D printing has begun to embrace the range of sizes and materials that appeal to the developers of microfluidic devices. Prior to fabrication, a design is digitally built as a detailed 3D CAD file. The design can be assembled in modules by remotely collaborating teams, and its mechanical and fluidic behavior can be simulated using finite-element modeling. As structures are created by adding materials without the need for etching or dissolution, processing is environmentally friendly and economically efficient. We predict that in the next few years, 3D printing will replace most PDMS and plastic molding techniques in academia.

  7. 3D Virtual Reality for Teaching Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speck, Angela; Ruzhitskaya, L.; Laffey, J.; Ding, N.

    2012-01-01

    We are developing 3D virtual learning environments (VLEs) as learning materials for an undergraduate astronomy course, in which will utilize advances both in technologies available and in our understanding of the social nature of learning. These learning materials will be used to test whether such VLEs can indeed augment science learning so that it is more engaging, active, visual and effective. Our project focuses on the challenges and requirements of introductory college astronomy classes. Here we present our virtual world of the Jupiter system and how we plan to implement it to allow students to learn course material - physical laws and concepts in astronomy - while engaging them into exploration of the Jupiter's system, encouraging their imagination, curiosity, and motivation. The VLE can allow students to work individually or collaboratively. The 3D world also provides an opportunity for research in astronomy education to investigate impact of social interaction, gaming features, and use of manipulatives offered by a learning tool on students’ motivation and learning outcomes. Use of this VLE is also a valuable source for exploration of how the learners’ spatial awareness can be enhanced by working in 3D environment. We will present the Jupiter-system environment along with a preliminary study of the efficacy and usability of our Jupiter 3D VLE.

  8. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  9. SNL3dFace

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmore » of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.« less

  10. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  11. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  12. ESL Teacher Training in 3D Virtual Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlova, Iryna; Priven, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Although language learning in 3D Virtual Worlds (VWs) has become a focus of recent research, little is known about the knowledge and skills teachers need to acquire to provide effective task-based instruction in 3D VWs and the type of teacher training that best prepares instructors for such an endeavor. This study employs a situated learning…

  13. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  14. Super deep 3D images from a 3D omnifocus video camera.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2012-02-20

    When using stereographic image pairs to create three-dimensional (3D) images, a deep depth of field in the original scene enhances the depth perception in the 3D image. The omnifocus video camera has no depth of field limitations and produces images that are in focus throughout. By installing an attachment on the omnifocus video camera, real-time super deep stereoscopic pairs of video images were obtained. The deeper depth of field creates a larger perspective image shift, which makes greater demands on the binocular fusion of human vision. A means of reducing the perspective shift without harming the depth of field was found.

  15. 3D measurement using circular gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Kevin

    2013-09-01

    3D measurement using methods of structured light are well known in the industry. Most such systems use some variation of straight lines, either as simple lines or with some form of encoding. This geometry assumes the lines will be projected from one side and viewed from another to generate the profile information. But what about applications where a wide triangulation angle may not be practical, particularly at longer standoff distances. This paper explores the use of circular grating patterns projected from a center point to achieve 3D information. Originally suggested by John Caulfield around 1990, the method had some interesting potential, particularly if combined with alternate means of measurement from traditional triangulation including depth from focus methods. The possible advantages of a central reference point in the projected pattern may offer some different capabilities not as easily attained with a linear grating pattern. This paper will explore the pros and cons of the method and present some examples of possible applications.

  16. Debris Dispersion Model Using Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Bardina, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes web based simulation of Shuttle launch operations and debris dispersion. Java 3D graphics provides geometric and visual content with suitable mathematical model and behaviors of Shuttle launch. Because the model is so heterogeneous and interrelated with various factors, 3D graphics combined with physical models provides mechanisms to understand the complexity of launch and range operations. The main focus in the modeling and simulation covers orbital dynamics and range safety. Range safety areas include destruct limit lines, telemetry and tracking and population risk near range. If there is an explosion of Shuttle during launch, debris dispersion is explained. The shuttle launch and range operations in this paper are discussed based on the operations from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA.

  17. 3D Face modeling using the multi-deformable method.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jinkyu; Yu, Sunjin; Kim, Joongrock; Lee, Sangyoun

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the problem of the accuracy performance of 3D face modeling techniques using corresponding features in multiple views, which is quite sensitive to feature extraction errors. To solve the problem, we adopt a statistical model-based 3D face modeling approach in a mirror system consisting of two mirrors and a camera. The overall procedure of our 3D facial modeling method has two primary steps: 3D facial shape estimation using a multiple 3D face deformable model and texture mapping using seamless cloning that is a type of gradient-domain blending. To evaluate our method's performance, we generate 3D faces of 30 individuals and then carry out two tests: accuracy test and robustness test. Our method shows not only highly accurate 3D face shape results when compared with the ground truth, but also robustness to feature extraction errors. Moreover, 3D face rendering results intuitively show that our method is more robust to feature extraction errors than other 3D face modeling methods. An additional contribution of our method is that a wide range of face textures can be acquired by the mirror system. By using this texture map, we generate realistic 3D face for individuals at the end of the paper. PMID:23201976

  18. 3D Face Modeling Using the Multi-Deformable Method

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jinkyu; Yu, Sunjin; Kim, Joongrock; Lee, Sangyoun

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the problem of the accuracy performance of 3D face modeling techniques using corresponding features in multiple views, which is quite sensitive to feature extraction errors. To solve the problem, we adopt a statistical model-based 3D face modeling approach in a mirror system consisting of two mirrors and a camera. The overall procedure of our 3D facial modeling method has two primary steps: 3D facial shape estimation using a multiple 3D face deformable model and texture mapping using seamless cloning that is a type of gradient-domain blending. To evaluate our method's performance, we generate 3D faces of 30 individuals and then carry out two tests: accuracy test and robustness test. Our method shows not only highly accurate 3D face shape results when compared with the ground truth, but also robustness to feature extraction errors. Moreover, 3D face rendering results intuitively show that our method is more robust to feature extraction errors than other 3D face modeling methods. An additional contribution of our method is that a wide range of face textures can be acquired by the mirror system. By using this texture map, we generate realistic 3D face for individuals at the end of the paper. PMID:23201976

  19. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  20. 3D Printable Graphene Composite.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-08

    In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  1. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  2. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  3. 3D light scanning macrography.

    PubMed

    Huber, D; Keller, M; Robert, D

    2001-08-01

    The technique of 3D light scanning macrography permits the non-invasive surface scanning of small specimens at magnifications up to 200x. Obviating both the problem of limited depth of field inherent to conventional close-up macrophotography and the metallic coating required by scanning electron microscopy, 3D light scanning macrography provides three-dimensional digital images of intact specimens without the loss of colour, texture and transparency information. This newly developed technique offers a versatile, portable and cost-efficient method for the non-invasive digital and photographic documentation of small objects. Computer controlled device operation and digital image acquisition facilitate fast and accurate quantitative morphometric investigations, and the technique offers a broad field of research and educational applications in biological, medical and materials sciences. PMID:11489078

  4. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  5. [Real time 3D echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Bauer, F; Shiota, T; Thomas, J D

    2001-07-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:11494630

  6. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer themore » second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.« less

  7. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  8. USM3D Predictions of Supersonic Nozzle Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Melissa B.; Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Campbell, Richard L.; Nayani, Sudheer N.

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the NASA Tetrahedral Unstructured Software System CFD code (USM3D) capability to predict supersonic plume flow. Previous studies, published in 2004 and 2009, investigated USM3D's results versus historical experimental data. This current study continued that comparison however focusing on the use of the volume souring to capture the shear layers and internal shock structure of the plume. This study was conducted using two benchmark axisymmetric supersonic jet experimental data sets. The study showed that with the use of volume sourcing, USM3D was able to capture and model a jet plume's shear layer and internal shock structure.

  9. 3D Models of Stellar Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, S.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Booth, R.; Maercker, M.; Ramstedt, S.; Vlemmings, W.; Harries, T.; Mackey, J.; Langer, N.; Corradi, R.

    2014-04-01

    Symbiotic binaries consist of a cool, evolved mass-losing giant and an accreting compact companion. As symbiotic nebulae show similar morphologies to those in planetary nebulae (so much so that it is often difficult to distinguish between the two), they are ideal laboratories for understanding the role a binary companion plays in shaping the circumstellar envelopes in these evolved systems. We will present 3D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) models of interacting binaries, e.g. R Aquarii and Mira, and discuss the formation of spiral outflows, arcs, shells and equatorial density enhancements.We will also discuss the implications of the former for planetary nebulae, e.g. the Egg Nebula and Cat's Eye, and the latter for the formation of bipolar geometries, e.g. M2-9. We also investigate accretion and angular momentum evolution in symbiotic binaries which may be important to understand the formation of jets and more episodic mass-loss features we see in circumstellar envelopes and the orbital characteristics of binary central stars of planetary nebulae.

  10. A fully 3-D molecular dynamics study of the initiation of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudd, Robert E.; Caspersen, K. J.; Richards, D. F.; Glosli, J. N.; Gunnels, J. A.; Streitz, F. H.

    2008-03-01

    The modeling of hydrodynamic phenomena has almost exclusively been the purview of continuum mechanics, specifically, through the use of the Navier-Stokes equation and closely related variants. Nevertheless, at the smallest length scales, where atomistic effects become important, it is not clear that this continuum approach provides a complete description of fluid behavior. To understand the effects of atomistics, we have performed a 62.5-billion-atom, fully 3-D molecular dynamics simulation of a cubic micron of molten copper and aluminum. The shear flow at 2 km/s exhibits complex phenomena associated with a Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability. In this presentation we will discuss the initiation and early evolution of the KH instability, focusing specifically on the effects of full atomistic resolution.

  11. Light field display and 3D image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwane, Toru

    2016-06-01

    Light field optics and its applications become rather popular in these days. With light field optics or light field thesis, real 3D space can be described in 2D plane as 4D data, which we call as light field data. This process can be divided in two procedures. First, real3D scene is optically reduced with imaging lens. Second, this optically reduced 3D image is encoded into light field data. In later procedure we can say that 3D information is encoded onto a plane as 2D data by lens array plate. This transformation is reversible and acquired light field data can be decoded again into 3D image with the arrayed lens plate. "Refocusing" (focusing image on your favorite point after taking a picture), light-field camera's most popular function, is some kind of sectioning process from encoded 3D data (light field data) to 2D image. In this paper at first I show our actual light field camera and our 3D display using acquired and computer-simulated light field data, on which real 3D image is reconstructed. In second I explain our data processing method whose arithmetic operation is performed not in Fourier domain but in real domain. Then our 3D display system is characterized by a few features; reconstructed image is of finer resolutions than density of arrayed lenses and it is not necessary to adjust lens array plate to flat display on which light field data is displayed.

  12. Optimization Techniques for 3D Graphics Deployment on Mobile Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskela, Timo; Vatjus-Anttila, Jarkko

    2015-03-01

    3D Internet technologies are becoming essential enablers in many application areas including games, education, collaboration, navigation and social networking. The use of 3D Internet applications with mobile devices provides location-independent access and richer use context, but also performance issues. Therefore, one of the important challenges facing 3D Internet applications is the deployment of 3D graphics on mobile devices. In this article, we present an extensive survey on optimization techniques for 3D graphics deployment on mobile devices and qualitatively analyze the applicability of each technique from the standpoints of visual quality, performance and energy consumption. The analysis focuses on optimization techniques related to data-driven 3D graphics deployment, because it supports off-line use, multi-user interaction, user-created 3D graphics and creation of arbitrary 3D graphics. The outcome of the analysis facilitates the development and deployment of 3D Internet applications on mobile devices and provides guidelines for future research.

  13. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  14. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  15. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  16. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie

    2015-01-09

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  17. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  18. 3D acoustic atmospheric tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.

  19. Gravitation in 3D Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubenstein, John; Cockream, Kandi

    2009-05-01

    3D spacetime was developed by the IWPD Scale Metrics (SM) team using a coordinate system that translates n dimensions to n-1. 4-vectors are expressed in 3D along with a scaling factor representing time. Time is not orthogonal to the three spatial dimensions, but rather in alignment with an object's axis-of-motion. We have defined this effect as the object's ``orientation'' (X). The SM orientation (X) is equivalent to the orientation of the 4-velocity vector positioned tangent to its worldline, where X-1=θ+1 and θ is the angle of the 4-vector relative to the axis-of -motion. Both 4-vectors and SM appear to represent valid conceptualizations of the relationship between space and time. Why entertain SM? Scale Metrics gravity is quantized and may suggest a path for the full unification of gravitation with quantum theory. SM has been tested against current observation and is in agreement with the age of the universe, suggests a physical relationship between dark energy and dark matter, is in agreement with the accelerating expansion rate of the universe, contributes to the understanding of the fine-structure constant and provides a physical explanation of relativistic effects.

  20. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  1. 3D medical thermography device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Peyman

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.

  2. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  3. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  4. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  5. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

    2004-09-01

    The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data

  6. Coupling hydrodynamic and wave propagation modeling for waveform modeling of SPE.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larmat, C. S.; Steedman, D. W.; Rougier, E.; Delorey, A.; Bradley, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is to bring empirical and theoretical advances to the problem of detection and identification of underground nuclear explosions. This paper presents effort to improve knowledge of the processes that affect seismic wave propagation from the hydrodynamic/plastic source region to the elastic/anelastic far field thanks to numerical modeling. The challenge is to couple the prompt processes that take place in the near source region to the ones taking place later in time due to wave propagation in complex 3D geologic environments. In this paper, we report on results of first-principles simulations coupling hydrodynamic simulation codes (Abaqus and CASH), with a 3D full waveform propagation code, SPECFEM3D. Abaqus and CASH model the shocked, hydrodynamic region via equations of state for the explosive, borehole stemming and jointed/weathered granite. LANL has been recently employing a Coupled Euler-Lagrange (CEL) modeling capability. This has allowed the testing of a new phenomenological model for modeling stored shear energy in jointed material. This unique modeling capability has enabled highfidelity modeling of the explosive, the weak grout-filled borehole, as well as the surrounding jointed rock. SPECFEM3D is based on the Spectral Element Method, a direct numerical method for full waveform modeling with mathematical accuracy (e.g. Komatitsch, 1998, 2002) thanks to its use of the weak formulation of the wave equation and of high-order polynomial functions. The coupling interface is a series of grid points of the SEM mesh situated at the edge of the hydrodynamic code domain. Displacement time series at these points are computed from output of CASH or Abaqus (by interpolation if needed) and fed into the time marching scheme of SPECFEM3D. We will present validation tests and waveforms modeled for several SPE tests conducted so far, with a special focus on effect of the local topography.

  7. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.

  8. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction. PMID:26861680

  9. Distributed 3D Information Visualization - Towards Integration of the Dynamic 3D Graphics and Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucinic, Dean; Deen, Danny; Oanta, Emil; Batarilo, Zvonimir; Lacor, Chris

    This paper focuses on visualization and manipulation of graphical content in distributed network environments. The developed graphical middleware and 3D desktop prototypes were specialized for situational awareness. This research was done in the LArge Scale COllaborative decision support Technology (LASCOT) project, which explored and combined software technologies to support human-centred decision support system for crisis management (earthquake, tsunami, flooding, airplane or oil-tanker incidents, chemical, radio-active or other pollutants spreading, etc.). The performed state-of-the-art review did not identify any publicly available large scale distributed application of this kind. Existing proprietary solutions rely on the conventional technologies and 2D representations. Our challenge was to apply the "latest" available technologies, such Java3D, X3D and SOAP, compatible with average computer graphics hardware. The selected technologies are integrated and we demonstrate: the flow of data, which originates from heterogeneous data sources; interoperability across different operating systems and 3D visual representations to enhance the end-users interactions.

  10. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  11. 3D Elastic Wavefield Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guasch, L.; Warner, M.; Stekl, I.; Umpleby, A.; Shah, N.

    2010-12-01

    Wavefield tomography, or waveform inversion, aims to extract the maximum information from seismic data by matching trace by trace the response of the solid earth to seismic waves using numerical modelling tools. Its first formulation dates from the early 80's, when Albert Tarantola developed a solid theoretical basis that is still used today with little change. Due to computational limitations, the application of the method to 3D problems has been unaffordable until a few years ago, and then only under the acoustic approximation. Although acoustic wavefield tomography is widely used, a complete solution of the seismic inversion problem requires that we account properly for the physics of wave propagation, and so must include elastic effects. We have developed a 3D tomographic wavefield inversion code that incorporates the full elastic wave equation. The bottle neck of the different implementations is the forward modelling algorithm that generates the synthetic data to be compared with the field seismograms as well as the backpropagation of the residuals needed to form the direction update of the model parameters. Furthermore, one or two extra modelling runs are needed in order to calculate the step-length. Our approach uses a FD scheme explicit time-stepping by finite differences that are 4th order in space and 2nd order in time, which is a 3D version of the one developed by Jean Virieux in 1986. We chose the time domain because an explicit time scheme is much less demanding in terms of memory than its frequency domain analogue, although the discussion of wich domain is more efficient still remains open. We calculate the parameter gradients for Vp and Vs by correlating the normal and shear stress wavefields respectively. A straightforward application would lead to the storage of the wavefield at all grid points at each time-step. We tackled this problem using two different approaches. The first one makes better use of resources for small models of dimension equal

  12. Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes

    PubMed Central

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Castillo-León, Jaime; Emnéus, Jenny; Svendsen, Winnie E.

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements. PMID:22163508

  13. ShowMe3D

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  14. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  15. Bringing 3D Printing to Geophysical Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boghosian, A.; Turrin, M.; Porter, D. F.

    2014-12-01

    3D printing technology has been embraced by many technical fields, and is rapidly making its way into peoples' homes and schools. While there is a growing educational and hobbyist community engaged in the STEM focused technical and intellectual challenges associated with 3D printing, there is unrealized potential for the earth science community to use 3D printing to communicate scientific research to the public. Moreover, 3D printing offers scientists the opportunity to connect students and the public with novel visualizations of real data. As opposed to introducing terrestrial measurements through the use of colormaps and gradients, scientists can represent 3D concepts with 3D models, offering a more intuitive education tool. Furthermore, the tactile aspect of models make geophysical concepts accessible to a wide range of learning styles like kinesthetic or tactile, and learners including both visually impaired and color-blind students.We present a workflow whereby scientists, students, and the general public will be able to 3D print their own versions of geophysical datasets, even adding time through layering to include a 4th dimension, for a "4D" print. This will enable scientists with unique and expert insights into the data to easily create the tools they need to communicate their research. It will allow educators to quickly produce teaching aids for their students. Most importantly, it will enable the students themselves to translate the 2D representation of geophysical data into a 3D representation of that same data, reinforcing spatial reasoning.

  16. An Automated 3d Indoor Topological Navigation Network Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali, A.; Rahman, A. A.; Boguslawski, P.; Gold, C. M.

    2015-10-01

    Indoor navigation is important for various applications such as disaster management and safety analysis. In the last decade, indoor environment has been a focus of wide research; that includes developing techniques for acquiring indoor data (e.g. Terrestrial laser scanning), 3D indoor modelling and 3D indoor navigation models. In this paper, an automated 3D topological indoor network generated from inaccurate 3D building models is proposed. In a normal scenario, 3D indoor navigation network derivation needs accurate 3D models with no errors (e.g. gap, intersect) and two cells (e.g. rooms, corridors) should touch each other to build their connections. The presented 3D modeling of indoor navigation network is based on surveying control points and it is less dependent on the 3D geometrical building model. For reducing time and cost of indoor building data acquisition process, Trimble LaserAce 1000 as surveying instrument is used. The modelling results were validated against an accurate geometry of indoor building environment which was acquired using Trimble M3 total station.

  17. Ship Hydrodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafrance, Pierre

    1978-01-01

    Explores in a non-mathematical treatment some of the hydrodynamical phenomena and forces that affect the operation of ships, especially at high speeds. Discusses the major components of ship resistance such as the different types of drags and ways to reduce them and how to apply those principles for the hovercraft. (GA)

  18. Supernova-relevant hydrodynamic instability experiments on the Nova Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, J.; arnett, D.; Remington, B.A.; Glendinning, S.G.; wallace, R.; Mangan, R.; Rubenchik, A.; Fryxell, B.A.

    1997-04-18

    Supernova 1987A focused attention on the critical role of hydrodynamic instabilities in the evolution of supernovae. To test the modeling of these instabilities we are developing laboratory experiments of hydrodynamic mixing under conditions relevant to supernovae. The target consists of two-layer planar package composed on 85 micron Cu backed by 500 micron CH2, having a single mode sinusoidal perturbation at the interface, with gamma = 200 microns, nuo + 20 microns. The Nova laser is used to generate a 10-15 Mbar (10- 15x10{sup 12} dynes/cm2) shock at the interface, which triggers perturbation growth, due to the Richtmyer-Meshov instability followed by the Raleigh-Taylor instability as the interface decelerates. This resembles the hydrodynamics of the He-H interface of a Type II supernova at the intermediate times, up to a few x10{sup 3} s. The experiment is modeled using the hydrodynamic codes HYADES and CALE, and the supernova code PROMETHEUS. We are designing experiments to test the differences in the growth of 2D vs 3D single mode perturbations; such differences may help explain the high observed velocities of radioactive core material in SN1987A. Results of the experiments and simulations are presented.

  19. Examination of 3D visual attention in stereoscopic video content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh-Thu, Quan; Schiatti, Luca

    2011-03-01

    Recent advances in video technology and digital cinema have made it possible to produce entertaining 3D stereoscopic content that can be viewed for an extended duration without necessarily causing extreme fatigue, visual strain and discomfort. Viewers focus naturally their attention on specific areas of interest in their visual field. Visual attention is an important aspect of perception and its understanding is therefore an important aspect for the creation of 3D stereoscopic content. Most of the studies on visual attention have focused on the case of still images or 2D video. Only a very few studies have investigated eye movement patterns in 3D stereoscopic moving sequences, and how these may differ from viewing 2D video content. In this paper, we present and discuss the results of a subjective experiment that we conducted using an eye-tracking apparatus to record observers' gaze patterns. Participants were asked to watch the same set of video clips in a free-viewing task. Each clip was shown in a 3D stereoscopic version and 2D version. Our results indicate that the extent of areas of interests is not necessarily wider in 3D. We found a very strong content dependency in the difference of density and locations of fixations between 2D and 3D stereoscopic content. However, we found that saccades were overall faster and that fixation durations were overall lower when observers viewed the 3D stereoscopic version.

  20. 3D printed impedance elements by micro-dispensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles Dominguez, Ubaldo

    Micro-dispensing allows electric circuits to be "3D printed," which can be used to give 3D printed systems electronic and electromagnetic functionality. The focus of this thesis is using micro-dispensing to fabricate capacitors and inductors. 3D printed impedance elements are capable of being more easily embedded, can be used to create structural electronics, and will have extensive applications in antennas, metamaterials, frequency selective surfaces, and more. This is the first known effort to print and measure impedance elements by micro-dispensing which holds great potential for manufacturing multi-material devices.

  1. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  2. MESA: A 3-D Eulerian hydrocode for penetration mechanics studies

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, D.A.; Holian, K.S.; Henninger, R.

    1991-01-01

    We describe an explicit, finite-difference hydrocode, called MESA, and compare calculations to metal and ceramic plate impacts with spall and to Taylor cylinder tests. The MESA code was developed with support from DARPA, the Army and the Marine Corps for use in armor/anti-armor problems primarily, but the code has been used for a number of other applications. MESA includes 2-D and 3-D Eulerian hydrodynamics, a number of material strength and fracture models, and a programmed burn high explosives model. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  3. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  4. 3D Simulations of the Beehive Proplyd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feitosa, J. A.; Vasconcelos, M. J.; Cerqueira, A. H.

    2014-10-01

    Some star formation regions, like the Orion nebula, have stars of different masses, from massive stars, responsible for strong ionizing winds and HII regions, to low-mass stars, which spend a long time in the protostellar phase, and are frequently associated with protostellar disks and jets. Massive O or B stars emit a great deal of UV radiation, able to dissociate the hydrogen molecule (FUV radiation, energies between 6-13 eV), to ionize the atomic hydrogen (EUV radiation, energies greater than 13.6 eV) and heat the gas. Around these stars, a large and hot (10^{4}K) region is formed, known as HII region. T-Tauri stars inside HII regions produce a type of young stellar object, a proplyd, described with accuracy in O'Dell et al. (1993). Proplyds exhibit a cometary shape from which we can distinguish a central low-mass star with an accretion disk, an ionization front, a photodissociation region and, sometimes, an external bow shock and a protostellar jet. Its morphological characteristics depends on the distance between the low-mass star and the source of the ionizing radiation. The Beehive, a giant proplyd in Orion Nebula, has attracted attention due to its exotic system of rings coaxial to the HH540 jet's axis. Bally et al. (2005) suggested that the rings are perturbations due to the crossing of the ionization front by the jet. In this work, we test this hypothesis making 3D hydrodynamic numerical simulations over an adaptive grid, using the Yguazú-A code (Raga et al., 2000), properly adapted for the Beehive conditions. Our results show that the jet causes a perturbation in the ionization front of the proplyd, but is necessary to adjust carefully some parameters of the jet like its velocity and ejection frequency in order to have the results matching the observations.

  5. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-21

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K(+) channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44(+) EGFR(+) KV1.1(+) MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44(-) EGFR(-) KV1.1(+) 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third

  6. Radiation Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Castor, J I

    2003-10-16

    The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly. Ignoring the radiation contributions to energy and momentum will give a wrong prediction of the hydrodynamic motion when the correct description is radiation hydrodynamics. Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons (apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons), but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial. Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics'' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid. That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is to distinguish

  7. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  8. Locomotive wheel 3D reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xin; Luo, Zhisheng; Gao, Xiaorong; Wu, Jianle

    2010-08-01

    In the article, a system, which is used to reconstruct locomotive wheels, is described, helping workers detect the condition of a wheel through a direct view. The system consists of a line laser, a 2D camera, and a computer. We use 2D camera to capture the line-laser light reflected by the object, a wheel, and then compute the final coordinates of the structured light. Finally, using Matlab programming language, we transform the coordinate of points to a smooth surface and illustrate the 3D view of the wheel. The article also proposes the system structure, processing steps and methods, and sets up an experimental platform to verify the design proposal. We verify the feasibility of the whole process, and analyze the results comparing to standard date. The test results show that this system can work well, and has a high accuracy on the reconstruction. And because there is still no such application working in railway industries, so that it has practical value in railway inspection system.

  9. 3D ultrafast laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2013-03-01

    Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.

  10. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  11. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  12. 3D printed rapid disaster response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacaze, Alberto; Murphy, Karl; Mottern, Edward; Corley, Katrina; Chu, Kai-Dee

    2014-05-01

    Under the Department of Homeland Security-sponsored Sensor-smart Affordable Autonomous Robotic Platforms (SAARP) project, Robotic Research, LLC is developing an affordable and adaptable method to provide disaster response robots developed with 3D printer technology. The SAARP Store contains a library of robots, a developer storefront, and a user storefront. The SAARP Store allows the user to select, print, assemble, and operate the robot. In addition to the SAARP Store, two platforms are currently being developed. They use a set of common non-printed components that will allow the later design of other platforms that share non-printed components. During disasters, new challenges are faced that require customized tools or platforms. Instead of prebuilt and prepositioned supplies, a library of validated robots will be catalogued to satisfy various challenges at the scene. 3D printing components will allow these customized tools to be deployed in a fraction of the time that would normally be required. While the current system is focused on supporting disaster response personnel, this system will be expandable to a range of customers, including domestic law enforcement, the armed services, universities, and research facilities.

  13. Seasonal dynamics and stoichiometry of the planktonic community in the NW Mediterranean Sea: a 3D modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseenko, Elena; Raybaud, Virginie; Espinasse, Boris; Carlotti, François; Queguiner, Bernard; Thouvenin, Bénédicte; Garreau, Pierre; Baklouti, Melika

    2014-01-01

    The 3D hydrodynamic Model for Applications at Regional Scale (MARS3D) was coupled with a biogeochemical model developed with the Ecological Modular Mechanistic Modelling (Eco3M) numerical tool. The three-dimensional coupled model was applied to the NW Mediterranean Sea to study the dynamics of the key biogeochemical processes in the area in relation with hydrodynamic constraints. In particular, we focused on the temporal and spatial variability of intracellular contents of living and non-living compartments. The conceptual scheme of the biogeochemical model accounts for the complex food web of the NW Mediterranean Sea (34 state variables), using flexible plankton stoichiometry. We used mechanistic formulations to describe most of the biogeochemical processes involved in the dynamics of marine pelagic ecosystems. Simulations covered the period from September 1, 2009 to January 31, 2011 (17 months), which enabled comparison of model outputs with situ measurements made during two oceanographic cruises in the region (Costeau-4: April 27-May 2, 2010 and Costeau-6: January 23-January 27, 2011).

  14. Bacterial Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauga, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells, yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micrometer scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, I review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.

  15. 3D grain boundary migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J. K.; Bons, P. D.

    2009-04-01

    Microstructures of rocks play an important role in determining rheological properties and help to reveal the processes that lead to their formation. Some of these processes change the microstructure significantly and may thus have the opposite effect in obliterating any fabrics indicative of the previous history of the rocks. One of these processes is grain boundary migration (GBM). During static recrystallisation, GBM may produce a foam texture that completely overprints a pre-existing grain boundary network and GBM actively influences the rheology of a rock, via its influence on grain size and lattice defect concentration. We here present a new numerical simulation software that is capable of simulating a whole range of processes on the grain scale (it is not limited to grain boundary migration). The software is polyhedron-based, meaning that each grain (or phase) is represented by a polyhedron that has discrete boundaries. The boundary (the shell) of the polyhedron is defined by a set of facets which in turn is defined by a set of vertices. Each structural entity (polyhedron, facets and vertices) can have an unlimited number of parameters (depending on the process to be modeled) such as surface energy, concentration, etc. which can be used to calculate changes of the microstructre. We use the processes of grain boundary migration of a "regular" and a partially molten rock to demonstrate the software. Since this software is 3D, the formation of melt networks in a partially molten rock can also be studied. The interconnected melt network is of fundamental importance for melt segregation and migration in the crust and mantle and can help to understand the core-mantle differentiation of large terrestrial planets.

  16. Deconvolution in 3-D optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Shaw, P

    1994-09-01

    Fluorescent probes are becoming ever more widely used in the study of subcellular structure, and determination of their three-dimensional distributions has become very important. Confocal microscopy is now a common technique for overcoming the problem of out-of-focus flare in fluorescence imaging, but an alternative method uses digital image processing of conventional fluorescence images--a technique often termed 'deconvolution' or 'restoration'. This review attempts to explain image deconvolution in a non-technical manner. It is also applicable to 3-D confocal images, and can provide a further significant improvement in clarity and interpretability of such images. Some examples of the application of image deconvolution to both conventional and confocal fluorescence images are shown.

  17. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  18. Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.

    2012-07-01

    It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.

  19. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology.

  20. Beowulf 3D: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Rob

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.

  1. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  2. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  3. 3D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code

    1998-09-23

    E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output.

  4. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  5. Emergence of 3D Printed Dosage Forms: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Alhnan, Mohamed A; Okwuosa, Tochukwu C; Sadia, Muzna; Wan, Ka-Wai; Ahmed, Waqar; Arafat, Basel

    2016-08-01

    The recent introduction of the first FDA approved 3D-printed drug has fuelled interest in 3D printing technology, which is set to revolutionize healthcare. Since its initial use, this rapid prototyping (RP) technology has evolved to such an extent that it is currently being used in a wide range of applications including in tissue engineering, dentistry, construction, automotive and aerospace. However, in the pharmaceutical industry this technology is still in its infancy and its potential yet to be fully explored. This paper presents various 3D printing technologies such as stereolithographic, powder based, selective laser sintering, fused deposition modelling and semi-solid extrusion 3D printing. It also provides a comprehensive review of previous attempts at using 3D printing technologies on the manufacturing dosage forms with a particular focus on oral tablets. Their advantages particularly with adaptability in the pharmaceutical field have been highlighted, which enables the preparation of dosage forms with complex designs and geometries, multiple actives and tailored release profiles. An insight into the technical challenges facing the different 3D printing technologies such as the formulation and processing parameters is provided. Light is also shed on the different regulatory challenges that need to be overcome for 3D printing to fulfil its real potential in the pharmaceutical industry.

  6. Emergence of 3D Printed Dosage Forms: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Alhnan, Mohamed A; Okwuosa, Tochukwu C; Sadia, Muzna; Wan, Ka-Wai; Ahmed, Waqar; Arafat, Basel

    2016-08-01

    The recent introduction of the first FDA approved 3D-printed drug has fuelled interest in 3D printing technology, which is set to revolutionize healthcare. Since its initial use, this rapid prototyping (RP) technology has evolved to such an extent that it is currently being used in a wide range of applications including in tissue engineering, dentistry, construction, automotive and aerospace. However, in the pharmaceutical industry this technology is still in its infancy and its potential yet to be fully explored. This paper presents various 3D printing technologies such as stereolithographic, powder based, selective laser sintering, fused deposition modelling and semi-solid extrusion 3D printing. It also provides a comprehensive review of previous attempts at using 3D printing technologies on the manufacturing dosage forms with a particular focus on oral tablets. Their advantages particularly with adaptability in the pharmaceutical field have been highlighted, which enables the preparation of dosage forms with complex designs and geometries, multiple actives and tailored release profiles. An insight into the technical challenges facing the different 3D printing technologies such as the formulation and processing parameters is provided. Light is also shed on the different regulatory challenges that need to be overcome for 3D printing to fulfil its real potential in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:27194002

  7. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  8. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  9. 3D laptop for defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David

    2012-06-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.

  10. A 3-D Model of Hot-Spot Formation in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, X.; Goncharov, V. N.; Igumenshchev, I. V.

    2015-11-01

    A 3-D model describing the formation of a hot-spot in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions is presented. The model includes thermal conduction and mass ablation effects in a 3-D distorted hot spot using an approach developed by Sanz. Evolution of the nonuniformity growth is calculated based on a sharp boundary model. The results of the model will be compared against 2-D DRACO and 3-D hydrodynamic code calculations. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  11. 3D Printing and Biofabrication for Load Bearing Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Claire G; Atala, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Cell-based direct biofabrication and 3D bioprinting is becoming a dominant technological platform and is suggested as a new paradigm for twenty-first century tissue engineering. These techniques may be our next step in surpassing the hurdles and limitations of conventional scaffold-based tissue engineering, and may offer the industrial potential of tissue engineered products especially for load bearing tissues. Here we present a topically focused review regarding the fundamental concepts, state of the art, and perspectives of this new technology and field of biofabrication and 3D bioprinting, specifically focused on tissue engineering of load bearing tissues such as bone, cartilage, osteochondral and dental tissue engineering.

  12. 3D Printing and Biofabrication for Load Bearing Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Claire G; Atala, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Cell-based direct biofabrication and 3D bioprinting is becoming a dominant technological platform and is suggested as a new paradigm for twenty-first century tissue engineering. These techniques may be our next step in surpassing the hurdles and limitations of conventional scaffold-based tissue engineering, and may offer the industrial potential of tissue engineered products especially for load bearing tissues. Here we present a topically focused review regarding the fundamental concepts, state of the art, and perspectives of this new technology and field of biofabrication and 3D bioprinting, specifically focused on tissue engineering of load bearing tissues such as bone, cartilage, osteochondral and dental tissue engineering. PMID:26545741

  13. Fully 3D refraction correction dosimetry system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjappa, Rakesh; Sharath Makki, S.; Kumar, Rajesh; Mohan Vasu, Ram; Kanhirodan, Rajan

    2016-02-01

    The irradiation of selective regions in a polymer gel dosimeter results in an increase in optical density and refractive index (RI) at those regions. An optical tomography-based dosimeter depends on rayline path through the dosimeter to estimate and reconstruct the dose distribution. The refraction of light passing through a dose region results in artefacts in the reconstructed images. These refraction errors are dependant on the scanning geometry and collection optics. We developed a fully 3D image reconstruction algorithm, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc) that corrects for the refractive index mismatches present in a gel dosimeter scanner not only at the boundary, but also for any rayline refraction due to multiple dose regions inside the dosimeter. In this study, simulation and experimental studies have been carried out to reconstruct a 3D dose volume using 2D CCD measurements taken for various views. The study also focuses on the effectiveness of using different refractive-index matching media surrounding the gel dosimeter. Since the optical density is assumed to be low for a dosimeter, the filtered backprojection is routinely used for reconstruction. We carry out the reconstructions using conventional algebraic reconstruction (ART) and refractive index corrected ART (ART-rc) algorithms. The reconstructions based on FDK algorithm for cone-beam tomography has also been carried out for comparison. Line scanners and point detectors, are used to obtain reconstructions plane by plane. The rays passing through dose region with a RI mismatch does not reach the detector in the same plane depending on the angle of incidence and RI. In the fully 3D scanning setup using 2D array detectors, light rays that undergo refraction are still collected and hence can still be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm. It is found that, for the central region of the dosimeter, the usable radius using ART-rc algorithm with water as RI matched

  14. Fully 3D refraction correction dosimetry system.

    PubMed

    Manjappa, Rakesh; Makki, S Sharath; Kumar, Rajesh; Vasu, Ram Mohan; Kanhirodan, Rajan

    2016-02-21

    The irradiation of selective regions in a polymer gel dosimeter results in an increase in optical density and refractive index (RI) at those regions. An optical tomography-based dosimeter depends on rayline path through the dosimeter to estimate and reconstruct the dose distribution. The refraction of light passing through a dose region results in artefacts in the reconstructed images. These refraction errors are dependant on the scanning geometry and collection optics. We developed a fully 3D image reconstruction algorithm, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc) that corrects for the refractive index mismatches present in a gel dosimeter scanner not only at the boundary, but also for any rayline refraction due to multiple dose regions inside the dosimeter. In this study, simulation and experimental studies have been carried out to reconstruct a 3D dose volume using 2D CCD measurements taken for various views. The study also focuses on the effectiveness of using different refractive-index matching media surrounding the gel dosimeter. Since the optical density is assumed to be low for a dosimeter, the filtered backprojection is routinely used for reconstruction. We carry out the reconstructions using conventional algebraic reconstruction (ART) and refractive index corrected ART (ART-rc) algorithms. The reconstructions based on FDK algorithm for cone-beam tomography has also been carried out for comparison. Line scanners and point detectors, are used to obtain reconstructions plane by plane. The rays passing through dose region with a RI mismatch does not reach the detector in the same plane depending on the angle of incidence and RI. In the fully 3D scanning setup using 2D array detectors, light rays that undergo refraction are still collected and hence can still be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm. It is found that, for the central region of the dosimeter, the usable radius using ART-rc algorithm with water as RI matched

  15. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  16. Automatic 3D video format detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Zhe; Zhai, Jiefu; Doyen, Didier

    2011-03-01

    Many 3D formats exist and will probably co-exist for a long time even if 3D standards are today under definition. The support for multiple 3D formats will be important for bringing 3D into home. In this paper, we propose a novel and effective method to detect whether a video is a 3D video or not, and to further identify the exact 3D format. First, we present how to detect those 3D formats that encode a pair of stereo images into a single image. The proposed method detects features and establishes correspondences between features in the left and right view images, and applies the statistics from the distribution of the positional differences between corresponding features to detect the existence of a 3D format and to identify the format. Second, we present how to detect the frame sequential 3D format. In the frame sequential 3D format, the feature points are oscillating from frame to frame. Similarly, the proposed method tracks feature points over consecutive frames, computes the positional differences between features, and makes a detection decision based on whether the features are oscillating. Experiments show the effectiveness of our method.

  17. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  18. Livermore Unstructured Lagrange Explicit Shock Hydrodynamics

    2010-09-21

    LULESH v1.0 is a 3D unstructured Lagrange hydrodynamics simulation written specifically to solve a standard analytical test problem, known as the Sedov problem. In this problem, a quantum of energy is deposited into a gas and propagates through the gas over time.

  19. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications-A Review.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture.

  20. A Preliminary Study of 3D Printing on Rock Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chao; Zhao, Gao-Feng

    2015-05-01

    3D printing is an innovative manufacturing technology that enables the printing of objects through the accumulation of successive layers. This study explores the potential application of this 3D printing technology for rock mechanics. Polylactic acid (PLA) was used as the printing material, and the specimens were constructed with a "3D Touch" printer that employs fused deposition modelling (FDM) technology. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests and direct tensile strength (DTS) tests were performed to determine the Young's modulus ( E) and Poisson's ratio ( υ) for these specimens. The experimental results revealed that the PLA specimens exhibited elastic to brittle behaviour in the DTS tests and exhibited elastic to plastic behaviour in the UCS tests. The influence of structural changes in the mechanical response of the printed specimen was investigated; the results indicated that the mechanical response is highly influenced by the input structures, e.g., granular structure, and lattice structure. Unfortunately, our study has demonstrated that the FDM 3D printing with PLA is unsuitable for the direct simulation of rock. However, the ability for 3D printing on manufactured rock remains appealing for researchers of rock mechanics. Additional studies should focus on the development of an appropriate substitution for the printing material (brittle and stiff) and modification of the printing technology (to print 3D grains with arbitrary shapes).

  1. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications-A Review.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture. PMID:27136560

  2. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W.; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S.

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture. PMID:27136560

  3. 3-D Printed Ultem 9085 Testing and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilar, Daniel; Christensen, Sean; Fox, Emmet J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to analyze the mechanical properties of 3-D printed Ultem 9085. This document will focus on the capabilities, limitations, and complexities of 3D printing in general, and explain the methods by which this material is tested. Because 3-D printing is a relatively new process that offers an innovative means to produce hardware, it is important that the aerospace community understands its current advantages and limitations, so that future endeavors involving 3-D printing may be completely safe. This document encompasses three main sections: a Slosh damage assessment, a destructive test of 3-D printed Ultem 9085 samples, and a test to verify simulation for the 3-D printed SDP (SPHERES Docking Port). Described below, 'Slosh' and 'SDP' refer to two experiments that are built using Ultem 9085 for use with the SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites) program onboard the International Space Station (ISS) [16]. The SPHERES Facility is managed out of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center in California.

  4. Macroscopic Carbon Nanotube-based 3D Monoliths.

    PubMed

    Du, Ran; Zhao, Qiuchen; Zhang, Na; Zhang, Jin

    2015-07-15

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of the most promising carbon allotropes with incredible diverse physicochemical properties, thereby enjoying continuous worldwide attention since their discovery about two decades ago. From the point of view of practical applications, assembling individual CNTs into macroscopic functional and high-performance materials is of paramount importance. For example, multiscaled CNT-based assemblies including 1D fibers, 2D films, and 3D monoliths have been developed. Among all of these, monolithic 3D CNT architectures with porous structures have attracted increasing interest in the last few years. In this form, theoretically all individual CNTs are well connected and fully expose their surfaces. These 3D architectures have huge specific surface areas, hierarchical pores, and interconnected conductive networks, resulting in enhanced mass/electron transport and countless accessible active sites for diverse applications (e.g. catalysis, capacitors, and sorption). More importantly, the monolithic form of 3D CNT assemblies can impart additional application potentials to materials, such as free-standing electrodes, sensors, and recyclable sorbents. However, scaling the properties of individual CNTs to 3D assemblies, improving use of the diverse, structure-dependent properties of CNTs, and increasing the performance-to-cost ratio are great unsolved challenges for their real commercialization. This review aims to provide a comprehensive introduction of this young and energetic field, i.e., CNT-based 3D monoliths, with a focus on the preparation principles, current synthetic methods, and typical applications. Opportunities and challenges in this field are also presented.

  5. Gravitational Wave Signals from 2D and 3D Core Collapse Supernova Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakunin, Konstantin; Mezzacappa, Anthony; Marronetti, Pedro; Bruenn, Stephen; Hix, W. Raphael; Lentz, Eric J.; Messer, O. E. Bronson; Harris, J. Austin; Endeve, Eirik; Blondin, John

    2016-03-01

    We study two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) core-collapse supernovae (CCSN) using our first-principles CCSN simulations performed with the neutrino hydrodynamics code CHIMERA. The following physics is included: Newtonian hydrodynamics with a nuclear equation of state capable of describing matter in both NSE and non-NSE, MGFLD neutrino transport with realistic neutrino interactions, an effective GR gravitational potential, and a nuclear reaction network. Both our 2D and 3D models achieve explosion, which in turn enables us to determine their complete gravitational wave signals. In this talk, we present them, and we analyze the similarities and differences between the 2D and 3D signals.

  6. An Evaluative Review of Simulated Dynamic Smart 3d Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeijn, H.; Sheth, F.; Pettit, C. J.

    2012-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) modelling of plants can be an asset for creating agricultural based visualisation products. The continuum of 3D plants models ranges from static to dynamic objects, also known as smart 3D objects. There is an increasing requirement for smarter simulated 3D objects that are attributed mathematically and/or from biological inputs. A systematic approach to plant simulation offers significant advantages to applications in agricultural research, particularly in simulating plant behaviour and the influences of external environmental factors. This approach of 3D plant object visualisation is primarily evident from the visualisation of plants using photographed billboarded images, to more advanced procedural models that come closer to simulating realistic virtual plants. However, few programs model physical reactions of plants to external factors and even fewer are able to grow plants based on mathematical and/or biological parameters. In this paper, we undertake an evaluation of plant-based object simulation programs currently available, with a focus upon the components and techniques involved in producing these objects. Through an analytical review process we consider the strengths and weaknesses of several program packages, the features and use of these programs and the possible opportunities in deploying these for creating smart 3D plant-based objects to support agricultural research and natural resource management. In creating smart 3D objects the model needs to be informed by both plant physiology and phenology. Expert knowledge will frame the parameters and procedures that will attribute the object and allow the simulation of dynamic virtual plants. Ultimately, biologically smart 3D virtual plants that react to changes within an environment could be an effective medium to visually represent landscapes and communicate land management scenarios and practices to planners and decision-makers.

  7. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  8. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-03-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The current paper describes the modern stereo 3-D technologies that are applicable to various tasks in teaching physics in schools, colleges, and universities. Examples of stereo 3-D simulations developed by the author can be observed on online.

  9. Software for 3D radiotherapy dosimetry. Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Karwowski, Andrzej C.

    2014-08-01

    The subject of this work is polyGeVero® software (GeVero Co., Poland), which has been developed to fill the requirements of fast calculations of 3D dosimetry data with the emphasis on polymer gel dosimetry for radiotherapy. This software comprises four workspaces that have been prepared for: (i) calculating calibration curves and calibration equations, (ii) storing the calibration characteristics of the 3D dosimeters, (iii) calculating 3D dose distributions in irradiated 3D dosimeters, and (iv) comparing 3D dose distributions obtained from measurements with the aid of 3D dosimeters and calculated with the aid of treatment planning systems (TPSs). The main features and functions of the software are described in this work. Moreover, the core algorithms were validated and the results are presented. The validation was performed using the data of the new PABIGnx polymer gel dosimeter. The polyGeVero® software simplifies and greatly accelerates the calculations of raw 3D dosimetry data. It is an effective tool for fast verification of TPS-generated plans for tumor irradiation when combined with a 3D dosimeter. Consequently, the software may facilitate calculations by the 3D dosimetry community. In this work, the calibration characteristics of the PABIGnx obtained through four calibration methods: multi vial, cross beam, depth dose, and brachytherapy, are discussed as well.

  10. [3D reconstructions in radiotherapy planning].

    PubMed

    Schlegel, W

    1991-10-01

    3D Reconstructions from tomographic images are used in the planning of radiation therapy to study important anatomical structures such as the body surface, target volumes, and organs at risk. The reconstructed anatomical models are used to define the geometry of the radiation beams. In addition, 3D voxel models are used for the calculation of the 3D dose distributions with an accuracy, previously impossible to achieve. Further uses of 3D reconstructions are in the display and evaluation of 3D therapy plans, and in the transfer of treatment planning parameters to the irradiation situation with the help of digitally reconstructed radiographs. 3D tomographic imaging with subsequent 3D reconstruction must be regarded as a completely new basis for the planning of radiation therapy, enabling tumor-tailored radiation therapy of localized target volumes with increased radiation doses and improved sparing of organs at risk. 3D treatment planning is currently being evaluated in clinical trials in connection with the new treatment techniques of conformation radiotherapy. Early experience with 3D treatment planning shows that its clinical importance in radiotherapy is growing, but will only become a standard radiotherapy tool when volumetric CT scanning, reliable and user-friendly treatment planning software, and faster and cheaper PACS-integrated medical work stations are accessible to radiotherapists.

  11. Supernova hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgate, S. A.

    1981-11-01

    The physics as well as astrophysics of the supernova (SN) phenomenon are illustrated with the appropriate numbers. The explosion of a star, a supernova, occurs at the end of its evolution when the nuclear fuel in its core is almost, or completely, consumed. The star may explode due to a small residual thermonuclear detonation, type I SN, or it may collapse, type I and type II SN, leaving a neutron star remnant. The type I progenitor is thought to be an old accreting white dwarf, 1.4 interior mass, with a close companion star. A type II SN is thought to be a massive young star, 6 to 10 interior mass. The mechanism of explosion is still a challenge to model, being the most extreme conditions of matter and hydrodynamics that occur presently and excessively in the universe.

  12. 3D printing meets computational astrophysics: deciphering the structure of η Carinae's inner colliding winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, T. I.; Clementel, N.; Gull, T. R.; Kruip, C. J. H.; Paardekooper, J.-P.

    2015-06-01

    We present the first 3D prints of output from a supercomputer simulation of a complex astrophysical system, the colliding stellar winds in the massive (≳120 M⊙), highly eccentric (e ˜ 0.9) binary star system η Carinae. We demonstrate the methodology used to incorporate 3D interactive figures into a PDF (Portable Document Format) journal publication and the benefits of using 3D visualization and 3D printing as tools to analyse data from multidimensional numerical simulations. Using a consumer-grade 3D printer (MakerBot Replicator 2X), we successfully printed 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of η Carinae's inner (r ˜ 110 au) wind-wind collision interface at multiple orbital phases. The 3D prints and visualizations reveal important, previously unknown `finger-like' structures at orbital phases shortly after periastron (φ ˜ 1.045) that protrude radially outwards from the spiral wind-wind collision region. We speculate that these fingers are related to instabilities (e.g. thin-shell, Rayleigh-Taylor) that arise at the interface between the radiatively cooled layer of dense post-shock primary-star wind and the fast (3000 km s-1), adiabatic post-shock companion-star wind. The success of our work and easy identification of previously unrecognized physical features highlight the important role 3D printing and interactive graphics can play in the visualization and understanding of complex 3D time-dependent numerical simulations of astrophysical phenomena.

  13. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  14. Imaging thin-bed reservoirs with 3-D seismic

    SciTech Connect

    Hardage, B.A.

    1996-12-01

    This article explains how a 3-D seismic data volume, a vertical seismic profile (VSP), electric well logs and reservoir pressure data can be used to image closely stacked thin-bed reservoirs. This interpretation focuses on the Oligocene Frio reservoir in South Texas which has multiple thin-beds spanning a vertical interval of about 3,000 ft.

  15. Assessment of 3D Models Used in Contours Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, F. J. Ayala; Parra, E. B. Blazquez; Tubio, F. Montes

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental research focusing on the view of first year students. The aim is to check the quality of implementing 3D models integrated in the curriculum. We search to determine students' preference between the various means facilitated in order to understand the given subject. Students have been respondents to prove the…

  16. Use scenarios: mobile 3D television and video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohmeier, Dominik; Weitzel, Mandy; Jumisko-Pyykkö, Satu

    2009-02-01

    The focus of 3D television and video has been in technical development while hardly any attention has been paid on user expectations and needs of related applications. The object of the study is to examine user requirements for mobile 3D television and video in depth. We conducted two qualitative studies, focus groups and probe studies, to improve the understanding of user approach. Eight focus groups were carried out with altogether 46 participants focusing on use scenario development. The data-collection of the probe study was done over the period of 4 weeks in the field with nine participants to reveal intrinsic user needs and expectations. Both studies were conducted and analyzed independently so that they did not influence each other. The results of both studies provide novel aspects of users, system and content, and context of use. In the paper, we present personas as first archetype users of mobile 3D television and video. Putting these personas into contexts, we summarize the results of our studies and previous related work in the form of use scenarios to guide the user-centered development of 3D television and video.

  17. Developing 3D SEM in a broad biological context

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, A; Lippens, S; Bartunkova, S; Asselbergh, B; Blanpain, C; Fendrych, M; Goossens, A; Holt, M; Janssens, S; Krols, M; Larsimont, J-C; Mc Guire, C; Nowack, MK; Saelens, X; Schertel, A; Schepens, B; Slezak, M; Timmerman, V; Theunis, C; Van Brempt, R; Visser, Y; GuÉRin, CJ

    2015-01-01

    When electron microscopy (EM) was introduced in the 1930s it gave scientists their first look into the nanoworld of cells. Over the last 80 years EM has vastly increased our understanding of the complex cellular structures that underlie the diverse functions that cells need to maintain life. One drawback that has been difficult to overcome was the inherent lack of volume information, mainly due to the limit on the thickness of sections that could be viewed in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). For many years scientists struggled to achieve three-dimensional (3D) EM using serial section reconstructions, TEM tomography, and scanning EM (SEM) techniques such as freeze-fracture. Although each technique yielded some special information, they required a significant amount of time and specialist expertise to obtain even a very small 3D EM dataset. Almost 20 years ago scientists began to exploit SEMs to image blocks of embedded tissues and perform serial sectioning of these tissues inside the SEM chamber. Using first focused ion beams (FIB) and subsequently robotic ultramicrotomes (serial block-face, SBF-SEM) microscopists were able to collect large volumes of 3D EM information at resolutions that could address many important biological questions, and do so in an efficient manner. We present here some examples of 3D EM taken from the many diverse specimens that have been imaged in our core facility. We propose that the next major step forward will be to efficiently correlate functional information obtained using light microscopy (LM) with 3D EM datasets to more completely investigate the important links between cell structures and their functions. Lay Description Life happens in three dimensions. For many years, first light, and then EM struggled to image the smallest parts of cells in 3D. With recent advances in technology and corresponding improvements in computing, scientists can now see the 3D world of the cell at the nanoscale. In this paper we present the

  18. Recent development of hydrodynamic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Tetsufumi

    2014-09-01

    In this talk, I give an overview of recent development in hydrodynamic modeling of high-energy nuclear collisions. First, I briefly discuss about current situation of hydrodynamic modeling by showing results from the integrated dynamical approach in which Monte-Carlo calculation of initial conditions, quark-gluon fluid dynamics and hadronic cascading are combined. In particular, I focus on rescattering effects of strange hadrons on final observables. Next I highlight three topics in recent development in hydrodynamic modeling. These include (1) medium response to jet propagation in di-jet asymmetric events, (2) causal hydrodynamic fluctuation and its application to Bjorken expansion and (3) chiral magnetic wave from anomalous hydrodynamic simulations. (1) Recent CMS data suggest the existence of QGP response to propagation of jets. To investigate this phenomenon, we solve hydrodynamic equations with source term which exhibits deposition of energy and momentum from jets. We find a large number of low momentum particles are emitted at large angle from jet axis. This gives a novel interpretation of the CMS data. (2) It has been claimed that a matter created even in p-p/p-A collisions may behave like a fluid. However, fluctuation effects would be important in such a small system. We formulate relativistic fluctuating hydrodynamics and apply it to Bjorken expansion. We found the final multiplicity fluctuates around the mean value even if initial condition is fixed. This effect is relatively important in peripheral A-A collisions and p-p/p-A collisions. (3) Anomalous transport of the quark-gluon fluid is predicted when extremely high magnetic field is applied. We investigate this possibility by solving anomalous hydrodynamic equations. We found the difference of the elliptic flow parameter between positive and negative particles appears due to the chiral magnetic wave. Finally, I provide some personal perspective of hydrodynamic modeling of high energy nuclear collisions

  19. 3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

  20. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability.

  1. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  2. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  3. A method to fabricate disconnected silver nanostructures in 3D.

    PubMed

    Vora, Kevin; Kang, SeungYeon; Mazur, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The standard nanofabrication toolkit includes techniques primarily aimed at creating 2D patterns in dielectric media. Creating metal patterns on a submicron scale requires a combination of nanofabrication tools and several material processing steps. For example, steps to create planar metal structures using ultraviolet photolithography and electron-beam lithography can include sample exposure, sample development, metal deposition, and metal liftoff. To create 3D metal structures, the sequence is repeated multiple times. The complexity and difficulty of stacking and aligning multiple layers limits practical implementations of 3D metal structuring using standard nanofabrication tools. Femtosecond-laser direct-writing has emerged as a pre-eminent technique for 3D nanofabrication.(1,2) Femtosecond lasers are frequently used to create 3D patterns in polymers and glasses.(3-7) However, 3D metal direct-writing remains a challenge. Here, we describe a method to fabricate silver nanostructures embedded inside a polymer matrix using a femtosecond laser centered at 800 nm. The method enables the fabrication of patterns not feasible using other techniques, such as 3D arrays of disconnected silver voxels.(8) Disconnected 3D metal patterns are useful for metamaterials where unit cells are not in contact with each other,(9) such as coupled metal dot(10,11)or coupled metal rod(12,13) resonators. Potential applications include negative index metamaterials, invisibility cloaks, and perfect lenses. In femtosecond-laser direct-writing, the laser wavelength is chosen such that photons are not linearly absorbed in the target medium. When the laser pulse duration is compressed to the femtosecond time scale and the radiation is tightly focused inside the target, the extremely high intensity induces nonlinear absorption. Multiple photons are absorbed simultaneously to cause electronic transitions that lead to material modification within the focused region. Using this approach, one can

  4. 3D-Spektrofotometrie extragalaktischer Emissionslinienobjekte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmoll, Jürgen

    2002-01-01

    Beobachtungen mit dem MPFS-Instrument am russischen 6m - Teleskop in Selentschuk/Kaukasus sowie mit INTEGRAL/WYFFOS am englischen William-Herschel-Teleskop auf La Palma gewonnen. Ein überraschendes Ergebnis war, daß eins der beiden Objekte falsch klassifiziert wurde. Sowohl die meßbare räumliche Ausdehnung des Objektes als auch das spektrale Erscheinungsbild schlossen die Identität mit einem planetarischen Nebel aus. Mit hoher Wahrscheinlichkeit handelt es sich um einen Supernovaüberrest, zumal im Rahmen der Fehler an gleicher Stelle eine vom Röntgensatelliten ROSAT detektierte Röntgenquelle liegt. Die in diesem Projekt verwendeten Integral-Field-Instrumente wiesen zwei verschiedene Bauweisen auf, die sich miteinander vergleichen ließen. Ein Hauptkritikpunkt der verwendeten Instrumente war ihre geringe Lichtausbeute. Die gesammelten Erfahrung fanden Eingang in das Konzept des derzeit in Potsdam in der Fertigung befindlichen 3D-Instruments PMAS (Potsdamer Multi - Apertur - Spektrophotometer), welcher zunächst für das 3.5m-Teleskop des Calar - Alto - Observatoriums in Südspanien vorgesehen ist. Um die Effizienz dieses Instrumentes zu verbessern, wurde in dieser Arbeit die Kopplung der zum Bildrasterung verwendeten Optik zu den Lichtleitfasern im Labor untersucht. Die Untersuchungen zur Maximierung von Lichtausbeute und Stabilität zeigen, daß sich die Effizienz durch Auswahl einer geeigneten Koppelmethode um etwa 20 Prozent steigern lässt. Popular scientific abstract: Currently there are two different approaches in the observational optical astronomy: On the first hand objects are imaged with cameras, on the other hand spectra are produced. The integral-field-technique is a relatively new way to combine both branches. The object image in the telecopes focus is sampled spatially and each spatial bin assigned to a spectrograph. Hence the object is not only sampled spatially but the spectral component is achieved as a third dimension, so the name 3D-Method. The result

  5. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  6. 3D, or Not to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  7. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  8. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  9. 3D elastic control for mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Hachet, Martin; Pouderoux, Joachim; Guitton, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    To increase the input space of mobile devices, the authors developed a proof-of-concept 3D elastic controller that easily adapts to mobile devices. This embedded device improves the completion of high-level interaction tasks such as visualization of large documents and navigation in 3D environments. It also opens new directions for tomorrow's mobile applications.

  10. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    1996-07-15

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  11. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  12. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  13. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, W. W.; Stevenson, Graig; Patel, Ketan; Wang, Jun

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  14. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D…

  15. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  16. The 3D Flow Field Around an Embedded Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Jeffrey; Artymowicz, Pawel; Wu, Yanqin

    2015-10-01

    3D modifications to the well-studied 2D flow topology around an embedded planet have the potential to resolve long-standing problems in planet formation theory. We present a detailed analysis of the 3D isothermal flow field around a 5 Earth-mass planet on a fixed circular orbit, simulated using our graphics processing unit hydrodynamics code PEnGUIn. We find that, overall, the horseshoe region has a columnar structure extending vertically much beyond the Hill sphere of the planet. This columnar structure is only broken for some of the widest horseshoe streamlines, along which high altitude fluid descends rapidly into the planet’s Bondi sphere, performs one horseshoe turn, and exits the Bondi sphere radially in the midplane. A portion of this flow exits the horseshoe region altogether, which we refer to as the “transient” horseshoe flow. The flow continues as it rolls up into a pair of up-down symmetric horizontal vortex lines shed into the wake of the planet. This flow, unique to 3D, affects both planet accretion and migration. It prevents the planet from sustaining a hydrostatic atmosphere due to its intrusion into the Bondi sphere, and leads to a significant corotation torque on the planet, unanticipated by 2D analysis. In the reported simulation, starting with a {{Σ }}˜ {r}-3/2 radial surface density profile, this torque is positive and partially cancels with the negative differential Lindblad torque, resulting in a factor of three slower planet migration rate. Finally, we report 3D effects can be suppressed by a sufficiently large disk viscosity, leading to results similar to 2D.

  17. 3-D laser pulse shaping for photoinjector drive lasers.

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Chang, X.; Accelerator Systems Division; BNL

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a three-dimensional (3-D) laser pulse shaping scheme that can be applied for generating ellipsoidal electron bunches from a photoinjector. The 3-D shaping is realized through laser phase tailoring in combination with chromatic aberration in a focusing optics. Performance of an electron beam generated from such shaped laser pulses is compared with that of a uniforma ellipsoidal, a uniform cylindrical, and a Gaussian electron beam. PARMELA simulation shows the advantage of this shaped beam in both transverse and longitudinal performances.

  18. An annotation system for 3D fluid flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughlin, Maria M.; Hughes, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Annotation is a key activity of data analysis. However, current systems for data analysis focus almost exclusively on visualization. We propose a system which integrates annotations into a visualization system. Annotations are embedded in 3D data space, using the Post-it metaphor. This embedding allows contextual-based information storage and retrieval, and facilitates information sharing in collaborative environments. We provide a traditional database filter and a Magic Lens filter to create specialized views of the data. The system has been customized for fluid flow applications, with features which allow users to store parameters of visualization tools and sketch 3D volumes.

  19. 3D Visualization of Astronomical Data with Blender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, B. R.

    2015-09-01

    We present the innovative use of Blender, a 3D graphics package, for astronomical visualization. With a Python API and feature rich interface, Blender lends itself well to many 3D data visualization scenarios including data cube rendering, N-body simulations, catalog displays, and surface maps. We focus on the aspects of the software most useful to astronomers such as visual data exploration, applying data to Blender object constructs, and using graphics processing units (GPUs) for rendering. We share examples from both observational data and theoretical models to illustrate how the software can fit into an astronomer's toolkit.

  20. Clinical applications of 3-D dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuu, Cheng-Shie

    2015-01-01

    Both 3-D gels and radiochromic plastic dosimeters, in conjunction with dose image readout systems (MRI or optical-CT), have been employed to measure 3-D dose distributions in many clinical applications. The 3-D dose maps obtained from these systems can provide a useful tool for clinical dose verification for complex treatment techniques such as IMRT, SRS/SBRT, brachytherapy, and proton beam therapy. These complex treatments present high dose gradient regions in the boundaries between the target and surrounding critical organs. Dose accuracy in these areas can be critical, and may affect treatment outcome. In this review, applications of 3-D gels and PRESAGE dosimeter are reviewed and evaluated in terms of their performance in providing information on clinical dose verification as well as commissioning of various treatment modalities. Future interests and clinical needs on studies of 3-D dosimetry are also discussed.

  1. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  2. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  3. Forward ramp and Twin Peaks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A lander petal and the forward ramp are featured in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. There are several prominent rocks, including Wedge at left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin in the background; and Flat Top and Little Flat Top at center.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  4. Sojourner's favorite rocks - in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, and Little Flat Top are at center. The 'Twin Peaks' in the distance are one to two kilometers away. Curvature in the image is due to parallax.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  5. 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  6. The psychology of the 3D experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  7. Low-cost 3D rangefinder system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bor-Tow; Lou, Wen-Shiou; Chen, Chia-Chen; Lin, Hsien-Chang

    1998-06-01

    Nowadays, 3D data are popularly performed in computer, and 3D browsers manipulate 3D model in the virtual world. Yet, till now, 3D digitizer is still a high-cost product and not a familiar equipment. In order to meet the requirement of 3D fancy world, in this paper, the concept of a low-cost 3D digitizer system is proposed to catch 3D range data from objects. The specified optical design of the 3D extraction is effective to depress the size, and the processing software of the system is compatible with PC to promote its portable capability. Both features contribute a low-cost system in PC environment in contrast to a large system bundled in an expensive workstation platform. In the structure of 3D extraction, laser beam and CCD camera are adopted to construct a 3D sensor. Instead of 2 CCD cameras for capturing laser lines twice before, a 2-in-1 system is proposed to merge 2 images in one CCD which still retains the information of two fields of views to inhibit occlusion problems. Besides, optical paths of two camera views are reflected by mirror in order that the volume of the system can be minified with one rotary axis only. It makes a portable system be more possible to work. Combined with the processing software executable in PC windows system, the proposed system not only saves hardware cost but also processing time of software. The system performance achieves 0.05 mm accuracy. It shows that a low- cost system is more possible to be high-performance.

  8. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  9. Practical pseudo-3D registration for large tomographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuan; Laperre, Kjell; Sasov, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Image registration is a powerful tool in various tomographic applications. Our main focus is on microCT applications in which samples/animals can be scanned multiple times under different conditions or at different time points. For this purpose, a registration tool capable of handling fairly large volumes has been developed, using a novel pseudo-3D method to achieve fast and interactive registration with simultaneous 3D visualization. To reduce computation complexity in 3D registration, we decompose it into several 2D registrations, which are applied to the orthogonal views (transaxial, sagittal and coronal) sequentially and iteratively. After registration in each view, the next view is retrieved with the new transformation matrix for registration. This reduces the computation complexity significantly. For rigid transform, we only need to search for 3 parameters (2 shifts, 1 rotation) in each of the 3 orthogonal views instead of 6 (3 shifts, 3 rotations) for full 3D volume. In addition, the amount of voxels involved is also significantly reduced. For the proposed pseudo-3D method, image-based registration is employed, with Sum of Square Difference (SSD) as the similarity measure. The searching engine is Powell's conjugate direction method. In this paper, only rigid transform is used. However, it can be extended to affine transform by adding scaling and possibly shearing to the transform model. We have noticed that more information can be used in the 2D registration if Maximum Intensity Projections (MIP) or Parallel Projections (PP) is used instead of the orthogonal views. Also, other similarity measures, such as covariance or mutual information, can be easily incorporated. The initial evaluation on microCT data shows very promising results. Two application examples are shown: dental samples before and after treatment and structural changes in materials before and after compression. Evaluation on registration accuracy between pseudo-3D method and true 3D method has

  10. GPU-based 3D SAFT reconstruction including attenuation correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretzek, E.; Hopp, T.; Ruiter, N. V.

    2015-03-01

    3D Ultrasound Computer Tomography (3D USCT) promises reproducible high-resolution images for early detection of breast tumors. The KIT prototype provides three different modalities: reflectivity, speed of sound, and attenuation. The reflectivity images are reconstructed using a Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT) algorithm. For high-resolution re ectivity images, with spatially homogeneous reflectivity, attenuation correction is necessary. In this paper we present a GPU accelerated attenuation correction for 3D USCT and evaluate the method by means of image quality metrics; i.e. absolute error, contrast and spatially homogeneous reflectivity. A threshold for attenuation correction was introduced to preserve a high contrast. Simulated and in-vivo data were used for analysis of the image quality. Attenuation correction increases the image quality by improving spatially homogeneous reflectivity by 25 %. This leads to a factor 2.8 higher contrast for in-vivo data.

  11. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  12. 3D facial expression modeling for recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaoguang; Jain, Anil K.; Dass, Sarat C.

    2005-03-01

    Current two-dimensional image based face recognition systems encounter difficulties with large variations in facial appearance due to the pose, illumination and expression changes. Utilizing 3D information of human faces is promising for handling the pose and lighting variations. While the 3D shape of a face does not change due to head pose (rigid) and lighting changes, it is not invariant to the non-rigid facial movement and evolution, such as expressions and aging effect. We propose a facial surface matching framework to match multiview facial scans to a 3D face model, where the (non-rigid) expression deformation is explicitly modeled for each subject, resulting in a person-specific deformation model. The thin plate spline (TPS) is applied to model the deformation based on the facial landmarks. The deformation is applied to the 3D neutral expression face model to synthesize the corresponding expression. Both the neutral and the synthesized 3D surface models are used to match a test scan. The surface registration and matching between a test scan and a 3D model are achieved by a modified Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate that the proposed expression modeling and recognition-by-synthesis schemes improve the 3D matching accuracy.

  13. Digital relief generation from 3D models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meili; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Hongming; Qian, Kun; Chang, Jian; He, Dongjian

    2016-09-01

    It is difficult to extend image-based relief generation to high-relief generation, as the images contain insufficient height information. To generate reliefs from three-dimensional (3D) models, it is necessary to extract the height fields from the model, but this can only generate bas-reliefs. To overcome this problem, an efficient method is proposed to generate bas-reliefs and high-reliefs directly from 3D meshes. To produce relief features that are visually appropriate, the 3D meshes are first scaled. 3D unsharp masking is used to enhance the visual features in the 3D mesh, and average smoothing and Laplacian smoothing are implemented to achieve better smoothing results. A nonlinear variable scaling scheme is then employed to generate the final bas-reliefs and high-reliefs. Using the proposed method, relief models can be generated from arbitrary viewing positions with different gestures and combinations of multiple 3D models. The generated relief models can be printed by 3D printers. The proposed method provides a means of generating both high-reliefs and bas-reliefs in an efficient and effective way under the appropriate scaling factors.

  14. NUBEAM developments and 3d halo modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkova, M. V.; Medley, S. S.; Kaye, S. M.

    2012-10-01

    Recent developments related to the 3D halo model in NUBEAM code are described. To have a reliable halo neutral source for diagnostic simulation, the TRANSP/NUBEAM code has been enhanced with full implementation of ADAS atomic physic ground state and excited state data for hydrogenic beams and mixed species plasma targets. The ADAS codes and database provide the density and temperature dependence of the atomic data, and the collective nature of the state excitation process. To be able to populate 3D halo output with sufficient statistical resolution, the capability to control the statistics of fast ion CX modeling and for thermal halo launch has been added to NUBEAM. The 3D halo neutral model is based on modification and extension of the ``beam in box'' aligned 3d Cartesian grid that includes the neutral beam itself, 3D fast neutral densities due to CX of partially slowed down fast ions in the beam halo region, 3D thermal neutral densities due to CX deposition and fast neutral recapture source. More details on the 3D halo simulation design will be presented.

  15. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26562233

  16. Perception of detail in 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heynderickx, Ingrid; Kaptein, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    A lot of current 3D displays suffer from the fact that their spatial resolution is lower compared to their 2D counterparts. One reason for this is that the multiple views needed to generate 3D are often spatially multiplexed. Besides this, imperfect separation of the left- and right-eye view leads to blurring or ghosting, and therefore to a decrease in perceived sharpness. However, people watching stereoscopic videos have reported that the 3D scene contained more details, compared to the 2D scene with identical spatial resolution. This is an interesting notion, that has never been tested in a systematic and quantitative way. To investigate this effect, we had people compare the amount of detail ("detailedness") in pairs of 2D and 3D images. A blur filter was applied to one of the two images, and the blur level was varied using an adaptive staircase procedure. In this way, the blur threshold for which the 2D and 3D image contained perceptually the same amount of detail could be found. Our results show that the 3D image needed to be blurred more than the 2D image. This confirms the earlier qualitative findings that 3D images contain perceptually more details than 2D images with the same spatial resolution.

  17. 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology. PMID:25093879

  18. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist

    PubMed Central

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26562233

  19. 3D thermography imaging standardization technique for inflammation diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Xiangyang; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Siebert, J. Paul

    2005-01-01

    We develop a 3D thermography imaging standardization technique to allow quantitative data analysis. Medical Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging is very sensitive and reliable mean of graphically mapping and display skin surface temperature. It allows doctors to visualise in colour and quantify temperature changes in skin surface. The spectrum of colours indicates both hot and cold responses which may co-exist if the pain associate with an inflammatory focus excites an increase in sympathetic activity. However, due to thermograph provides only qualitative diagnosis information, it has not gained acceptance in the medical and veterinary communities as a necessary or effective tool in inflammation and tumor detection. Here, our technique is based on the combination of visual 3D imaging technique and thermal imaging technique, which maps the 2D thermography images on to 3D anatomical model. Then we rectify the 3D thermogram into a view independent thermogram and conform it a standard shape template. The combination of these imaging facilities allows the generation of combined 3D and thermal data from which thermal signatures can be quantified.

  20. Cognitive Aspects of Collaboration in 3d Virtual Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juřík, V.; Herman, L.; Kubíček, P.; Stachoň, Z.; Šašinka, Č.

    2016-06-01

    Human-computer interaction has entered the 3D era. The most important models representing spatial information — maps — are transferred into 3D versions regarding the specific content to be displayed. Virtual worlds (VW) become promising area of interest because of possibility to dynamically modify content and multi-user cooperation when solving tasks regardless to physical presence. They can be used for sharing and elaborating information via virtual images or avatars. Attractiveness of VWs is emphasized also by possibility to measure operators' actions and complex strategies. Collaboration in 3D environments is the crucial issue in many areas where the visualizations are important for the group cooperation. Within the specific 3D user interface the operators' ability to manipulate the displayed content is explored regarding such phenomena as situation awareness, cognitive workload and human error. For such purpose, the VWs offer a great number of tools for measuring the operators' responses as recording virtual movement or spots of interest in the visual field. Study focuses on the methodological issues of measuring the usability of 3D VWs and comparing them with the existing principles of 2D maps. We explore operators' strategies to reach and interpret information regarding the specific type of visualization and different level of immersion.

  1. Possible Applications of 3D Printing Technology on Textile Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korger, M.; Bergschneider, J.; Lutz, M.; Mahltig, B.; Finsterbusch, K.; Rabe, M.

    2016-07-01

    3D printing is a rapidly emerging additive manufacturing technology which can offer cost efficiency and flexibility in product development and production. In textile production 3D printing can also serve as an add-on process to apply 3D structures on textiles. In this study the low-cost fused deposition modeling (FDM) technique was applied using different thermoplastic printing materials available on the market with focus on flexible filaments such as thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) or Soft PLA. Since a good adhesion and stability of the 3D printed structures on textiles are essential, separation force and abrasion resistance tests were conducted with different kinds of printed woven fabrics demonstrating that a sufficient adhesion can be achieved. The main influencing factor can be attributed to the topography of the textile surface affected by the weave, roughness and hairiness offering formlocking connections followed by the wettability of the textile surface by the molten polymer, which depends on the textile surface energy and can be specifically controlled by washing (desizing), finishing or plasma treatment of the textile before the print. These basic adhesion mechanisms can also be considered crucial for 3D printing on knitwear.

  2. 3D wavefront image formation for NIITEK GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soumekh, Mehrdad; Ton, Tuan; Howard, Pete

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining (HD) Research and Development Program focuses on developing, testing, demonstrating, and validating new technology for immediate use in humanitarian demining operations around the globe. Beginning in the late 1990's, the U.S. Army Countermine Division funded the development of the NIITEK ground penetrating radar (GPR) for detection of anti-tank (AT) landmines. This work is concerned with signal processing algorithms to suppress sources of artifacts in the NIITEK GPR, and formation of three-dimensional (3D) imagery from the resultant data. We first show that the NIITEK GPR data correspond to a 3D Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) database. An adaptive filtering method is utilized to suppress ground return and self-induced resonance (SIR) signals that are generated by the interaction of the radar-carrying platform and the transmitted radar signal. We examine signal processing methods to improve the fidelity of imagery for this 3D SAR system using pre-processing methods that suppress Doppler aliasing as well as other side lobe leakage artifacts that are introduced by the radar radiation pattern. The algorithm, known as digital spotlighting, imposes a filtering scheme on the azimuth-compressed SAR data, and manipulates the resultant spectral data to achieve a higher PRF to suppress the Doppler aliasing. We also present the 3D version of the Fourier-based wavefront reconstruction, a computationally-efficient and approximation-free SAR imaging method, for image formation with the NIITEK 3D SAR database.

  3. 3D Microfabrication Using Emulsion Mask Grayscale Photolithography Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tze Pin; Mohamed, Khairudin

    2016-02-01

    Recently, the rapid development of technology such as biochips, microfluidic, micro-optical devices and micro-electromechanical-systems (MEMS) demands the capability to create complex design of three-dimensional (3D) microstructures. In order to create 3D microstructures, the traditional photolithography process often requires multiple photomasks to form 3D pattern from several stacked photoresist layers. This fabrication method is extremely time consuming, low throughput, costly and complicated to conduct for high volume manufacturing scale. On the other hand, next generation lithography such as electron beam lithography (EBL), focused ion beam lithography (FIB) and extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUV) are however too costly and the machines require expertise to setup. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop a simplified method in producing 3D microstructures using single grayscale emulsion mask technique. By using this grayscale fabrication method, microstructures of thickness as high as 500μm and as low as 20μm are obtained in a single photolithography exposure. Finally, the fabrication of 3D microfluidic channel has been demonstrated by using this grayscale photolithographic technique.

  4. Space Partitioning for Privacy Enabled 3D City Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippovska, Y.; Wichmann, A.; Kada, M.

    2016-10-01

    Due to recent technological progress, data capturing and processing of highly detailed (3D) data has become extensive. And despite all prospects of potential uses, data that includes personal living spaces and public buildings can also be considered as a serious intrusion into people's privacy and a threat to security. It becomes especially critical if data is visible by the general public. Thus, a compromise is needed between open access to data and privacy requirements which can be very different for each application. As privacy is a complex and versatile topic, the focus of this work particularly lies on the visualization of 3D urban data sets. For the purpose of privacy enabled visualizations of 3D city models, we propose to partition the (living) spaces into privacy regions, each featuring its own level of anonymity. Within each region, the depicted 2D and 3D geometry and imagery is anonymized with cartographic generalization techniques. The underlying spatial partitioning is realized as a 2D map generated as a straight skeleton of the open space between buildings. The resulting privacy cells are then merged according to the privacy requirements associated with each building to form larger regions, their borderlines smoothed, and transition zones established between privacy regions to have a harmonious visual appearance. It is exemplarily demonstrated how the proposed method generates privacy enabled 3D city models.

  5. The agreement between 3D, standard 2D and triplane 2D speckle tracking: effects of image quality and 3D volume rate

    PubMed Central

    Stöbe, Stephan; Tarr, Adrienn; Pfeiffer, Dietrich; Hagendorff, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Comparison of 3D and 2D speckle tracking performed on standard 2D and triplane 2D datasets of normal and pathological left ventricular (LV) wall-motion patterns with a focus on the effect that 3D volume rate (3DVR), image quality and tracking artifacts have on the agreement between 2D and 3D speckle tracking. 37 patients with normal LV function and 18 patients with ischaemic wall-motion abnormalities underwent 2D and 3D echocardiography, followed by offline speckle tracking measurements. The values of 3D global, regional and segmental strain were compared with the standard 2D and triplane 2D strain values. Correlation analysis with the LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was also performed. The 3D and 2D global strain values correlated good in both normally and abnormally contracting hearts, though systematic differences between the two methods were observed. Of the 3D strain parameters, the area strain showed the best correlation with the LVEF. The numerical agreement of 3D and 2D analyses varied significantly with the volume rate and image quality of the 3D datasets. The highest correlation between 2D and 3D peak systolic strain values was found between 3D area and standard 2D longitudinal strain. Regional wall-motion abnormalities were similarly detected by 2D and 3D speckle tracking. 2DST of triplane datasets showed similar results to those of conventional 2D datasets. 2D and 3D speckle tracking similarly detect normal and pathological wall-motion patterns. Limited image quality has a significant impact on the agreement between 3D and 2D numerical strain values. PMID:26693303

  6. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Norman A.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  7. FUN3D Manual: 12.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  8. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  9. FUN3D Manual: 12.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  10. FUN3D Manual: 12.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  11. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  12. FUN3D Manual: 12.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  13. FUN3D Manual: 12.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  14. VALIDATION OF IMPROVED 3D ATR MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Soon Sam Kim; Bruce G. Schnitzler

    2005-11-01

    A full-core Monte Carlo based 3D model of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) was previously developed. [1] An improved 3D model has been developed by the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) to eliminate homogeneity of fuel plates of the old model, incorporate core changes into the new model, and to validate against a newer, more complicated core configuration. This new 3D model adds capability for fuel loading design and azimuthal power peaking studies of the ATR fuel elements.

  15. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models.

  16. How We 3D-Print Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-23

    A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.

  17. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  18. Investigations in massive 3D gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Accioly, Antonio; Helayeel-Neto, Jose; Morais, Jefferson; Turcati, Rodrigo; Scatena, Eslley

    2011-05-15

    Some interesting gravitational properties of the Bergshoeff-Hohm-Townsend model (massive 3D gravity), such as the presence of a short-range gravitational force in the nonrelativistic limit and the existence of an impact-parameter-dependent gravitational deflection angle, are studied. Interestingly enough, these phenomena have no counterpart in the usual Einstein 3D gravity. In order to better understand the two aforementioned gravitational properties, they are also analyzed in the framework of 3D higher-derivative gravity with the Einstein-Hilbert term with the 'wrong sign'.

  19. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-07-29

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  20. JAR3D Webserver: Scoring and aligning RNA loop sequences to known 3D motifs

    PubMed Central

    Roll, James; Zirbel, Craig L.; Sweeney, Blake; Petrov, Anton I.; Leontis, Neocles

    2016-01-01

    Many non-coding RNAs have been identified and may function by forming 2D and 3D structures. RNA hairpin and internal loops are often represented as unstructured on secondary structure diagrams, but RNA 3D structures show that most such loops are structured by non-Watson–Crick basepairs and base stacking. Moreover, different RNA sequences can form the same RNA 3D motif. JAR3D finds possible 3D geometries for hairpin and internal loops by matching loop sequences to motif groups from the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, by exact sequence match when possible, and by probabilistic scoring and edit distance for novel sequences. The scoring gauges the ability of the sequences to form the same pattern of interactions observed in 3D structures of the motif. The JAR3D webserver at http://rna.bgsu.edu/jar3d/ takes one or many sequences of a single loop as input, or else one or many sequences of longer RNAs with multiple loops. Each sequence is scored against all current motif groups. The output shows the ten best-matching motif groups. Users can align input sequences to each of the motif groups found by JAR3D. JAR3D will be updated with every release of the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, and so its performance is expected to improve over time. PMID:27235417

  1. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing. PMID:24808080

  2. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  3. 3-D Eutrophication Modeling for Lake Simcoe, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Q.; Duckett, F.; Nairn, R.; Brunton, A.

    2006-12-01

    The Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority (LSRCA) and the Province of Ontario are undertaking a series of studies to facilitate management of the pressures of population growth in the Lake Simcoe watershed. With rapid population growth and urban development comes additional land clearing, storm water runoff and the discharge of treated sewage, all of which are sources of increased phosphorus loading to Lake Simcoe. Depressed oxygen levels were linked to phosphorous enrichment of the lake, with the resultant stimulation of algal growth in the sunlit upper waters of the lake, and its subsequent senescence and settling into the hypolimnion where bacterial decomposition consumes oxygen from the stratified waters. This poster describes a 3-D hydrodynamic, thermal and water quality model of Lake Simcoe developed using the Danish Hydraulics Institute (DHI) MIKE3 model. The hydrodynamic module includes wind-driven circulation, temperature variation, development of the thermocline and thermal stratification, and hydraulic forcing from inflowing tributaries. This is linked to the water quality module which simulates the eutrophication processes in the response of the lake to loadings of phosphorus, such as algal growth, the growth of aquatic plants and subsequent oxygen consumption. The model has been calibrated against Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler velocity data, plus measured temperature and water quality data at MOE stations in the lake and water intakes. The model is an important assessment tool for the management of the lake and its watersheds, allowing assessment of the impacts of the urban growth and land use change on the water quality in Lake Simcoe.

  4. TRMM 3-D Flyby of Ingrid

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Ingrid's rainfall was created from TRMM satellite data for Sept. 16. Heaviest rainfall appears in red towers over the Gulf of Mexico, while moderate rainfall stretc...

  5. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset.

    PubMed

    Tafti, Ahmad P; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B; Holz, Jessica D; Owen, Heather A; Yu, Zeyun

    2016-03-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples. PMID:26779561

  6. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset

    PubMed Central

    Tafti, Ahmad P.; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B.; Holz, Jessica D.; Owen, Heather A.; Yu, Zeyun

    2015-01-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples. PMID:26779561

  7. Tropical Cyclone Jack in Satellite 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby from NASA's TRMM satellite of Tropical Cyclone Jack on April 21 shows that some of the thunderstorms were shown by TRMM PR were still reaching height of at least 17 km (10.5 miles). ...

  8. An Augmented Reality based 3D Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Ryo; Kishimoto, Katsumi

    This paper presents a 3D catalog system that uses Augmented Reality technology. The use of Web-based catalog systems that present products in 3D form is increasing in various fields, along with the rapid and widespread adoption of Electronic Commerce. However, 3D shapes could previously only be seen in a virtual space, and it was difficult to understand how the products would actually look in the real world. To solve this, we propose a method that combines the virtual and real worlds simply and intuitively. The method applies Augmented Reality technology, and the system developed based on the method enables users to evaluate 3D virtual products in a real environment.

  9. Cyclone Rusty's Landfall in 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D image derived from NASA's TRMM satellite Precipitation Radar data on February 26, 2013 at 0654 UTC showed that the tops of some towering thunderstorms in Rusty's eye wall were reaching hei...

  10. 3-D Animation of Typhoon Bopha

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D animation of NASA's TRMM satellite data showed Typhoon Bopha tracking over the Philippines on Dec. 3 and moving into the Sulu Sea on Dec. 4, 2012. TRMM saw heavy rain (red) was falling at ...

  11. Palacios field: A 3-D case history

    SciTech Connect

    McWhorter, R.; Torguson, B.

    1994-12-31

    In late 1992, Mitchell Energy Corporation acquired a 7.75 sq mi (20.0 km{sup 2}) 3-D seismic survey over Palacios field. Matagorda County, Texas. The company shot the survey to help evaluate the field for further development by delineating the fault pattern of the producing Middle Oligocene Frio interval. They compare the mapping of the field before and after the 3-D survey. This comparison shows that the 3-D volume yields superior fault imaging and interpretability compared to the dense 2-D data set. The problems with the 2-D data set are improper imaging of small and oblique faults and insufficient coverage over a complex fault pattern. Whereas the 2-D data set validated a simple fault model, the 3-D volume revealed a more complex history of faulting that includes three different fault systems. This discovery enabled them to reconstruct the depositional and structural history of Palacios field.

  12. 3-D TRMM Flyby of Hurricane Amanda

    NASA Video Gallery

    The TRMM satellite flew over Hurricane Amanda on Tuesday, May 27 at 1049 UTC (6:49 a.m. EDT) and captured rainfall rates and cloud height data that was used to create this 3-D simulated flyby. Cred...

  13. Eyes on the Earth 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

    2013-01-01

    Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

  14. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication. PMID:26869728

  15. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset.

    PubMed

    Tafti, Ahmad P; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B; Holz, Jessica D; Owen, Heather A; Yu, Zeyun

    2016-03-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples.

  16. 3-D Flyover Visualization of Veil Nebula

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D visualization flies across a small portion of the Veil Nebula as photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope. This region is a small part of a huge expanding remnant from a star that explod...

  17. Future Engineers 3-D Print Timelapse

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Challenges K-12 students to create a model of a container for space using 3-D modeling software. Astronauts need containers of all kinds - from advanced containers that can study fruit flies t...

  18. Modeling Cellular Processes in 3-D

    PubMed Central

    Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

    2011-01-01

    Summary Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated, we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3-D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3-D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3-D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2-D or 1-D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3-D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling. PMID:22036197

  19. Numerical study on 3D composite morphing actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Kazuma; Saito, Makoto; Anandan, Nishita; Kadooka, Kevin; Taya, Minoru

    2015-04-01

    There are a number of actuators using the deformation of electroactive polymer (EAP), where fewer papers seem to have focused on the performance of 3D morphing actuators based on the analytical approach, due mainly to their complexity. The present paper introduces a numerical analysis approach on the large scale deformation and motion of a 3D half dome shaped actuator composed of thin soft membrane (passive material) and EAP strip actuators (EAP active coupon with electrodes on both surfaces), where the locations of the active EAP strips is a key parameter. Simulia/Abaqus Static and Implicit analysis code, whose main feature is the high precision contact analysis capability among structures, are used focusing on the whole process of the membrane to touch and wrap around the object. The unidirectional properties of the EAP coupon actuator are used as input data set for the material properties for the simulation and the verification of our numerical model, where the verification is made as compared to the existing 2D solution. The numerical results can demonstrate the whole deformation process of the membrane to wrap around not only smooth shaped objects like a sphere or an egg, but also irregularly shaped objects. A parametric study reveals the proper placement of the EAP coupon actuators, with the modification of the dome shape to induce the relevant large scale deformation. The numerical simulation for the 3D soft actuators shown in this paper could be applied to a wider range of soft 3D morphing actuators.

  20. Advances toward field application of 3D hydraulic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardiff, M. A.; Barrash, W.; Kitanidis, P. K.

    2011-12-01

    , and thus bring HT closer to field practice. Topics to be discussed include: -Improving field efficiency through design and implementation of new modular, easily-installed equipment for 3D HT. -Validating field-scale 3D HT through application and cross-validation at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site. -Developing guidelines for HT implementation based on field experience, numerical modeling, and a comprehensive literature review of the past 15 years of HT research. -Application of novel, fast numerical methods for large-scale HT data analysis. The results presented will focus on the application of 3D HT, but in general we also hope to provide insights on aquifer characterization that stimulate thought on the issue of continually updating aquifer characteristics estimates while recognizing uncertainties and providing guidance for future data collection.

  1. 3D goes digital: from stereoscopy to modern 3D imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerwien, N.

    2014-11-01

    In the 19th century, English physicist Charles Wheatstone discovered stereopsis, the basis for 3D perception. His construction of the first stereoscope established the foundation for stereoscopic 3D imaging. Since then, many optical instruments were influenced by these basic ideas. In recent decades, the advent of digital technologies revolutionized 3D imaging. Powerful readily available sensors and displays combined with efficient pre- or post-processing enable new methods for 3D imaging and applications. This paper draws an arc from basic concepts of 3D imaging to modern digital implementations, highlighting instructive examples from its 175 years of history.

  2. Motif3D: Relating protein sequence motifs to 3D structure.

    PubMed

    Gaulton, Anna; Attwood, Teresa K

    2003-07-01

    Motif3D is a web-based protein structure viewer designed to allow sequence motifs, and in particular those contained in the fingerprints of the PRINTS database, to be visualised on three-dimensional (3D) structures. Additional functionality is provided for the rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors, enabling fingerprint motifs of any of the receptors in this family to be mapped onto the single structure available, that of bovine rhodopsin. Motif3D can be used via the web interface available at: http://www.bioinf.man.ac.uk/dbbrowser/motif3d/motif3d.html.

  3. Assessing 3d Photogrammetry Techniques in Craniometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshobane, M. C.; de Bruyn, P. J. N.; Bester, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features) has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc®) three-dimensional (3D) modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model's accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  4. 360-degree panorama in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama was taken in stereo by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses (red left lens, blue right lens) are necessary to help identify surface detail. All three petals, the perimeter of the deflated airbags, deployed rover Sojourner, forward and backward ramps and prominent surface features are visible, including the double Twin Peaks at the horizon. Sojourner would later investigate the rock Barnacle Bill just to its left in this image, and the larger rock Yogi at its forward right.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters. Stereoscopic imaging brings exceptional clarity and depth to many of the features in this image, particularly the ridge beyond the far left petal and the large rock Yogi. The curvature and misalignment of several section are due to image parallax.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  5. 3D modelling of the Black Sea ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capet, A.; Gregoire, M.; Beckers, J.-M.; Joassin, P.; Naithani, J.; Soetart, K.

    2009-04-01

    A coupled physical-biogeochemical model has been developed to simulate the ecosystem of the Black Sea at the end of the 80's when eutrophication and invasion by gelatinous organisms seriously affected the stability and dynamics of the system. The biogeochemical model describes the cycle of carbon, nitrogen, silicate, oxygen and phosphorus through the foodweb from bacteria to gelatinous carnivores and explicitly represents processes in the anoxic layer down to the bottom. For calibration and analyses purposes, the coupled model has first been run in 1D at several places in the Black Sea. The biogeochemical model involves some hundred parameters which have been first calibrated by hand using published values. Then, an identifiability analysis has been performed in order to determine a subset of 15 identifiable parameters. An automatic calibration subroutine has been used to fine tune these parameters. In 1D, the model solution exhibits a complex dynamics with several years of transient adjustment. This complexity is imparted by the explicit modelling of top predators. The model has been calibrated and validated using a large set of data available in the Black Sea TU Ocean Base. The calibrated biogeochemical model is implemented in a 3D hydrodynamical model of the Black Sea. Results of these 3D simulations will be presented and compared with maps of in-situ data reconstructed from available data base using the software DIVA (Data Interpolation and Variational analysis).

  6. FARGO3D: A New GPU-oriented MHD Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benítez-Llambay, Pablo; Masset, Frédéric S.

    2016-03-01

    We present the FARGO3D code, recently publicly released. It is a magnetohydrodynamics code developed with special emphasis on the physics of protoplanetary disks and planet-disk interactions, and parallelized with MPI. The hydrodynamics algorithms are based on finite-difference upwind, dimensionally split methods. The magnetohydrodynamics algorithms consist of the constrained transport method to preserve the divergence-free property of the magnetic field to machine accuracy, coupled to a method of characteristics for the evaluation of electromotive forces and Lorentz forces. Orbital advection is implemented, and an N-body solver is included to simulate planets or stars interacting with the gas. We present our implementation in detail and present a number of widely known tests for comparison purposes. One strength of FARGO3D is that it can run on either graphical processing units (GPUs) or central processing units (CPUs), achieving large speed-up with respect to CPU cores. We describe our implementation choices, which allow a user with no prior knowledge of GPU programming to develop new routines for CPUs, and have them translated automatically for GPUs.

  7. Outwards migration for planets in stellar irradiated 3D discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lega, E.; Morbidelli, A.; Bitsch, B.; Crida, A.; Szulágyi, J.

    2015-09-01

    For the very first time we present 3D simulations of planets embedded in stellar irradiated discs. It is well known that thermal effects could reverse the direction of planetary migration from inwards to outwards, potentially saving planets in the inner, optically thick parts of the protoplanetary disc. When considering stellar irradiation in addition to viscous friction as a source of heating, the outer disc changes from a shadowed to a flared structure. Using a suited analytical formula it has been shown that in the flared part of the disc the migration is inwards; planets can migrate outwards only in shadowed regions of the disc, because the radial gradient of entropy is stronger there. In order to confirm this result numerically, we have computed the total torque acting on planets held on fixed orbits embedded in stellar irradiated 3D discs using the hydrodynamical code FARGOCA. We find qualitatively good agreement between the total torque obtained with numerical simulations and the one predicted by the analytical formula. For large masses (>20 M⊕) we find quantitative agreement, and we obtain outwards migration regions for planets up to 60 M⊕ in the early stages of accretional discs. We find nevertheless that the agreement with the analytic formula is quite fortuitous because the formula underestimates the size of the horseshoe region; this error is compensated by imperfect estimates of other terms, most likely the cooling rate and the saturation.

  8. Recording stereoscopic 3D neurosurgery with a head-mounted 3D camera system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Brian; Chen, Brian R; Chen, Beverly B; Lu, James Y; Giannotta, Steven L

    2015-06-01

    Stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) imaging can present more information to the viewer and further enhance the learning experience over traditional two-dimensional (2D) video. Most 3D surgical videos are recorded from the operating microscope and only feature the crux, or the most important part of the surgery, leaving out other crucial parts of surgery including the opening, approach, and closing of the surgical site. In addition, many other surgeries including complex spine, trauma, and intensive care unit procedures are also rarely recorded. We describe and share our experience with a commercially available head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to obtain stereoscopic 3D recordings of these seldom recorded aspects of neurosurgery. The strengths and limitations of using the GoPro(®) 3D system as a head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system in the operating room are reviewed in detail. Over the past several years, we have recorded in stereoscopic 3D over 50 cranial and spinal surgeries and created a library for education purposes. We have found the head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to be a valuable asset to supplement 3D footage from a 3D microscope. We expect that these comprehensive 3D surgical videos will become an important facet of resident education and ultimately lead to improved patient care.

  9. CFL3D, FUN3d, and NSU3D Contributions to the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Laflin, Kelly R.; Chaffin, Mark S.; Powell, Nicholas; Levy, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Results presented at the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop using CFL3D, FUN3D, and NSU3D are described. These are calculations on the workshop provided grids and drag adapted grids. The NSU3D results have been updated to reflect an improvement to skin friction calculation on skewed grids. FUN3D results generated after the workshop are included for custom participant generated grids and a grid from a previous workshop. Uniform grid refinement at the design condition shows a tight grouping in calculated drag, where the variation in the pressure component of drag is larger than the skin friction component. At this design condition, A fine-grid drag value was predicted with a smaller drag adjoint adapted grid via tetrahedral adaption to a metric and mixed-element subdivision. The buffet study produced larger variation than the design case, which is attributed to large differences in the predicted side-of-body separation extent. Various modeling and discretization approaches had a strong impact on predicted side-of-body separation. This large wing root separation bubble was not observed in wind tunnel tests indicating that more work is necessary in modeling wing root juncture flows to predict experiments.

  10. Supernova hydrodynamics experiments using the Nova laser

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B.A.; Glendinning, S.G.; Estabrook, K.; Wallace, R.J.; Rubenchik, A.; Kane, J.; Arnett, D.; Drake, R.P.; McCray, R.

    1997-04-01

    We are developing experiments using the Nova laser to investigate two areas of physics relevant to core-collapse supernovae (SN): (1) compressible nonlinear hydrodynamic mixing and (2) radiative shock hydrodynamics. In the former, we are examining the differences between the 2D and 3D evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, an issue critical to the observables emerging from SN in the first year after exploding. In the latter, we are investigating the evolution of a colliding plasma system relevant to the ejecta-stellar wind interactions of the early stages of SN remnant formation. The experiments and astrophysical implications are discussed.

  11. Shadowfax: Moving mesh hydrodynamical integration code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenbroucke, Bert

    2016-05-01

    Shadowfax simulates galaxy evolution. Written in object-oriented modular C++, it evolves a mixture of gas, subject to the laws of hydrodynamics and gravity, and any collisionless fluid only subject to gravity, such as cold dark matter or stars. For the hydrodynamical integration, it makes use of a (co-) moving Lagrangian mesh. The code has a 2D and 3D version, contains utility programs to generate initial conditions and visualize simulation snapshots, and its input/output is compatible with a number of other simulation codes, e.g. Gadget2 (ascl:0003.001) and GIZMO (ascl:1410.003).

  12. 3-D Adaptive Sparsity Based Image Compression with Applications to Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Leyuan; Li, Shutao; Kang, Xudong; Izatt, Joseph A.; Farsiu, Sina

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel general-purpose compression method for tomographic images, termed 3D adaptive sparse representation based compression (3D-ASRC). In this paper, we focus on applications of 3D-ASRC for the compression of ophthalmic 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. The 3D-ASRC algorithm exploits correlations among adjacent OCT images to improve compression performance, yet is sensitive to preserving their differences. Due to the inherent denoising mechanism of the sparsity based 3D-ASRC, the quality of the compressed images are often better than the raw images they are based on. Experiments on clinical-grade retinal OCT images demonstrate the superiority of the proposed 3D-ASRC over other well-known compression methods. PMID:25561591

  13. Athena3D: Flux-conservative Godunov-type algorithm for compressible magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, John; Simon, Jake; Stone, James; Gardiner, Thomas; Teuben, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Written in FORTRAN, Athena3D, based on Athena (ascl:1010.014), is an implementation of a flux-conservative Godunov-type algorithm for compressible magnetohydrodynamics. Features of the Athena3D code include compressible hydrodynamics and ideal MHD in one, two or three spatial dimensions in Cartesian coordinates; adiabatic and isothermal equations of state; 1st, 2nd or 3rd order reconstruction using the characteristic variables; and numerical fluxes computed using the Roe scheme. In addition, it offers the ability to add source terms to the equations and is parallelized based on MPI.

  14. Multiscale hydrodynamic investigation to intensify the biogas production in upflow anaerobic reactors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiankai; Wu, Jing; Zhang, Jinbai; Poncin, Souhila; Li, Huai Z

    2014-03-01

    Hydrodynamics plays a main role for the performance of an anaerobic reactor involving three phases: wastewater, sludge granules and biogas bubbles. The present work was focused on an original approach to investigate the hydrodynamics at different scales and then to intensify the performance of such complex reactors. The experiments were carried out respectively in a 3D reactor at macroscale, a 2D reactor at mesoscale and a 1D anaerobic reactor at microscale. A Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), a micro-PIV and a high-speed camera were employed to quantify the liquid flow fields and the relative motion between sludge granules and bubbles. Shear rates exerted on sludge granules were quantified from liquid flow fields. The optimal biogas production is obtained at mean shear rate varying from 28 to 48s(-1), which is controlled by two antagonistic mechanisms. The multiscale approach demonstrates pertinent mechanisms proper to each scale and allows a better understanding of such reactors.

  15. Self assembled structures for 3D integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Madhav

    Three dimensional (3D) micro-scale structures attached to a silicon substrate have various applications in microelectronics. However, formation of 3D structures using conventional micro-fabrication techniques are not efficient and require precise control of processing parameters. Self assembly is a method for creating 3D structures that takes advantage of surface area minimization phenomena. Solder based self assembly (SBSA), the subject of this dissertation, uses solder as a facilitator in the formation of 3D structures from 2D patterns. Etching a sacrificial layer underneath a portion of the 2D pattern allows the solder reflow step to pull those areas out of the substrate plane resulting in a folded 3D structure. Initial studies using the SBSA method demonstrated low yields in the formation of five different polyhedra. The failures in folding were primarily attributed to nonuniform solder deposition on the underlying metal pads. The dip soldering method was analyzed and subsequently refined. A modified dip soldering process provided improved yield among the polyhedra. Solder bridging referred as joining of solder deposited on different metal patterns in an entity influenced the folding mechanism. In general, design parameters such as small gap-spacings and thick metal pads were found to favor solder bridging for all patterns studied. Two types of soldering: face and edge soldering were analyzed. Face soldering refers to the application of solder on the entire metal face. Edge soldering indicates application of solder only on the edges of the metal face. Mechanical grinding showed that face soldered SBSA structures were void free and robust in nature. In addition, the face soldered 3D structures provide a consistent heat resistant solder standoff height that serve as attachments in the integration of dissimilar electronic technologies. Face soldered 3D structures were developed on the underlying conducting channel to determine the thermo-electric reliability of

  16. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  17. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies.

  18. Mechanisms driving estuarine water quality: A 3D biogeochemical model for informed management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild-Allen, Karen; Skerratt, Jenny; Whitehead, Jason; Rizwi, Farhan; Parslow, John

    2013-12-01

    Estuaries are amongst the most productive marine ecosystems of the world but are also some of the most degraded due to coastal urban development. Sparse sampling of complex interactions between estuarine physics, sediment transport, chemistry, and biology limits understanding of the processes controlling estuarine water quality and confounds active management. We use a 3D coupled hydrodynamic, sediment and biogeochemical model to identify the key mechanisms driving fine-scale fluctuations in water quality in a temperate micro-tidal salt wedge estuary [Derwent Estuary, Tasmania]. Model results are dynamically consistent with relatively sparse monitoring data collected over a seasonal cycle and are considered to be a plausible hypothesis of sub-monitoring scale processes occurring in the estuary. The model shows enhanced mixing of nutrients across the pycnocline downstream of the salt wedge front that supports a persistent phytoplankton bloom. The length and flow regime of the estuary results in nutrient recycling and retention in the estuarine circulation driving a decline in bottom water dissolved oxygen in the mid- and upper-reaches. A budget analysis of modelled nitrogen suggests high levels of denitrification are critical to the maintenance of existing water quality. Active estuarine management focused on the improvement of bottom water dissolved oxygen for ecological health reasons must either concurrently reduce anthropogenic nitrogen loads or be sure to maintain high levels of microbial denitrification for net water quality improvement.

  19. Directing Matter: Toward Atomic-Scale 3D Nanofabrication.

    PubMed

    Jesse, Stephen; Borisevich, Albina Y; Fowlkes, Jason D; Lupini, Andrew R; Rack, Philip D; Unocic, Raymond R; Sumpter, Bobby G; Kalinin, Sergei V; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S

    2016-06-28

    Enabling memristive, neuromorphic, and quantum-based computing as well as efficient mainstream energy storage and conversion technologies requires the next generation of materials customized at the atomic scale. This requires full control of atomic arrangement and bonding in three dimensions. The last two decades witnessed substantial industrial, academic, and government research efforts directed toward this goal through various lithographies and scanning-probe-based methods. These technologies emphasize 2D surface structures, with some limited 3D capability. Recently, a range of focused electron- and ion-based methods have demonstrated compelling alternative pathways to achieving atomically precise manufacturing of 3D structures in solids, liquids, and at interfaces. Electron and ion microscopies offer a platform that can simultaneously observe dynamic and static structures at the nano- and atomic scales and also induce structural rearrangements and chemical transformation. The addition of predictive modeling or rapid image analytics and feedback enables guiding these in a controlled manner. Here, we review the recent results that used focused electron and ion beams to create free-standing nanoscale 3D structures, radiolysis, and the fabrication potential with liquid precursors, epitaxial crystallization of amorphous oxides with atomic layer precision, as well as visualization and control of individual dopant motion within a 3D crystal lattice. These works lay the foundation for approaches to directing nanoscale level architectures and offer a potential roadmap to full 3D atomic control in materials. In this paper, we lay out the gaps that currently constrain the processing range of these platforms, reflect on indirect requirements, such as the integration of large-scale data analysis with theory, and discuss future prospects of these technologies.

  20. Directing Matter: Toward Atomic-Scale 3D Nanofabrication.

    PubMed

    Jesse, Stephen; Borisevich, Albina Y; Fowlkes, Jason D; Lupini, Andrew R; Rack, Philip D; Unocic, Raymond R; Sumpter, Bobby G; Kalinin, Sergei V; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S

    2016-06-28

    Enabling memristive, neuromorphic, and quantum-based computing as well as efficient mainstream energy storage and conversion technologies requires the next generation of materials customized at the atomic scale. This requires full control of atomic arrangement and bonding in three dimensions. The last two decades witnessed substantial industrial, academic, and government research efforts directed toward this goal through various lithographies and scanning-probe-based methods. These technologies emphasize 2D surface structures, with some limited 3D capability. Recently, a range of focused electron- and ion-based methods have demonstrated compelling alternative pathways to achieving atomically precise manufacturing of 3D structures in solids, liquids, and at interfaces. Electron and ion microscopies offer a platform that can simultaneously observe dynamic and static structures at the nano- and atomic scales and also induce structural rearrangements and chemical transformation. The addition of predictive modeling or rapid image analytics and feedback enables guiding these in a controlled manner. Here, we review the recent results that used focused electron and ion beams to create free-standing nanoscale 3D structures, radiolysis, and the fabrication potential with liquid precursors, epitaxial crystallization of amorphous oxides with atomic layer precision, as well as visualization and control of individual dopant motion within a 3D crystal lattice. These works lay the foundation for approaches to directing nanoscale level architectures and offer a potential roadmap to full 3D atomic control in materials. In this paper, we lay out the gaps that currently constrain the processing range of these platforms, reflect on indirect requirements, such as the integration of large-scale data analysis with theory, and discuss future prospects of these technologies. PMID:27183171

  1. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    DOE PAGES

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally describedmore » in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.« less

  2. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.

  3. RAG-3D: a search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    PubMed Central

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    To address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding. PMID:26304547

  4. 3D DIII-D Equilibrium Calculations with Magnetic Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiman, Allan; Monticello, Don; Lazerson, Sam

    2012-10-01

    We discuss 3D equilibrium calculations for the DIII-D tokamak that have been performed using the PIES code, focusing particularly on a single shot that has been studied by a number of different codes in the context of the FY 2012 FES Theory Milestone. The shot was part of an experimental campaign to study the suppression of edge localized modes (ELMs) using an externally imposed nonaxisymmetric magnetic perturbation.

  5. ICER-3D Hyperspectral Image Compression Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Hua; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, matthew; Aranki, Nazeeh

    2010-01-01

    Software has been developed to implement the ICER-3D algorithm. ICER-3D effects progressive, three-dimensional (3D), wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images. If a compressed data stream is truncated, the progressive nature of the algorithm enables reconstruction of hyperspectral data at fidelity commensurate with the given data volume. The ICER-3D software is capable of providing either lossless or lossy compression, and incorporates an error-containment scheme to limit the effects of data loss during transmission. The compression algorithm, which was derived from the ICER image compression algorithm, includes wavelet-transform, context-modeling, and entropy coding subalgorithms. The 3D wavelet decomposition structure used by ICER-3D exploits correlations in all three dimensions of sets of hyperspectral image data, while facilitating elimination of spectral ringing artifacts, using a technique summarized in "Improving 3D Wavelet-Based Compression of Spectral Images" (NPO-41381), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 3 (March 2009), page 7a. Correlation is further exploited by a context-modeling subalgorithm, which exploits spectral dependencies in the wavelet-transformed hyperspectral data, using an algorithm that is summarized in "Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images" (NPO-43239), which follows this article. An important feature of ICER-3D is a scheme for limiting the adverse effects of loss of data during transmission. In this scheme, as in the similar scheme used by ICER, the spatial-frequency domain is partitioned into rectangular error-containment regions. In ICER-3D, the partitions extend through all the wavelength bands. The data in each partition are compressed independently of those in the other partitions, so that loss or corruption of data from any partition does not affect the other partitions. Furthermore, because compression is progressive within each partition, when data are lost, any data from that partition received

  6. T-HEMP3D user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.

    1983-08-01

    The T-HEMP3D (Transportable HEMP3D) computer program is a derivative of the STEALTH three-dimensional thermodynamics code developed by Science Applications, Inc., under the direction of Ron Hofmann. STEALTH, in turn, is based entirely on the original HEMP3D code written at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary advantage STEALTH has over its predecessors is that it was designed using modern structured design techniques, with rigorous programming standards enforced. This yields two benefits. First, the code is easily changeable; this is a necessity for a physics code used for research. The second benefit is that the code is easily transportable between different types of computers. The STEALTH program was transferred to LLNL under a cooperative development agreement. Changes were made primarily in three areas: material specification, coordinate generation, and the addition of sliding surface boundary conditions. The code was renamed T-HEMP3D to avoid confusion with other versions of STEALTH. This document summarizes the input to T-HEMP3D, as used at LLNL. It does not describe the physics simulated by the program, nor the numerical techniques employed. Furthermore, it does not describe the separate job steps of coordinate generation and post-processing, including graphical display of results. (WHK)

  7. The importance of 3D dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been getting progressively more complex for the past 20 years. Early radiation therapy techniques needed only basic dosimetry equipment; motorized water phantoms, ionization chambers, and basic radiographic film techniques. As intensity modulated radiation therapy and image guided therapy came into widespread practice, medical physicists were challenged with developing effective and efficient dose measurement techniques. The complex 3-dimensional (3D) nature of the dose distributions that were being delivered demanded the development of more quantitative and more thorough methods for dose measurement. The quality assurance vendors developed a wide array of multidetector arrays that have been enormously useful for measuring and characterizing dose distributions, and these have been made especially useful with the advent of 3D dose calculation systems based on the array measurements, as well as measurements made using film and portal imagers. Other vendors have been providing 3D calculations based on data from the linear accelerator or the record and verify system, providing thorough evaluation of the dose but lacking quality assurance (QA) of the dose delivery process, including machine calibration. The current state of 3D dosimetry is one of a state of flux. The vendors and professional associations are trying to determine the optimal balance between thorough QA, labor efficiency, and quantitation. This balance will take some time to reach, but a necessary component will be the 3D measurement and independent calculation of delivered radiation therapy dose distributions.

  8. 3D Spray Droplet Distributions in Sneezes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Techet, Alexandra; Scharfman, Barry; Bourouiba, Lydia

    2015-11-01

    3D spray droplet clouds generated during human sneezing are investigated using the Synthetic Aperture Feature Extraction (SAFE) method, which relies on light field imaging (LFI) and synthetic aperture (SA) refocusing computational photographic techniques. An array of nine high-speed cameras are used to image sneeze droplets and tracked the droplets in 3D space and time (3D + T). An additional high-speed camera is utilized to track the motion of the head during sneezing. In the SAFE method, the raw images recorded by each camera in the array are preprocessed and binarized, simplifying post processing after image refocusing and enabling the extraction of feature sizes and positions in 3D + T. These binary images are refocused using either additive or multiplicative methods, combined with thresholding. Sneeze droplet centroids, radii, distributions and trajectories are determined and compared with existing data. The reconstructed 3D droplet centroids and radii enable a more complete understanding of the physical extent and fluid dynamics of sneeze ejecta. These measurements are important for understanding the infectious disease transmission potential of sneezes in various indoor environments.

  9. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  10. 3D dynamic roadmapping for abdominal catheterizations.

    PubMed

    Bender, Frederik; Groher, Martin; Khamene, Ali; Wein, Wolfgang; Heibel, Tim Hauke; Navab, Nassir

    2008-01-01

    Despite rapid advances in interventional imaging, the navigation of a guide wire through abdominal vasculature remains, not only for novice radiologists, a difficult task. Since this navigation is mostly based on 2D fluoroscopic image sequences from one view, the process is slowed down significantly due to missing depth information and patient motion. We propose a novel approach for 3D dynamic roadmapping in deformable regions by predicting the location of the guide wire tip in a 3D vessel model from the tip's 2D location, respiratory motion analysis, and view geometry. In a first step, the method compensates for the apparent respiratory motion in 2D space before backprojecting the 2D guide wire tip into three dimensional space, using a given projection matrix. To countervail the error connected to the projection parameters and the motion compensation, as well as the ambiguity caused by vessel deformation, we establish a statistical framework, which computes a reliable estimate of the guide wire tip location within the 3D vessel model. With this 2D-to-3D transfer, the navigation can be performed from arbitrary viewing angles, disconnected from the static perspective view of the fluoroscopic sequence. Tests on a realistic breathing phantom and on synthetic data with a known ground truth clearly reveal the superiority of our approach compared to naive methods for 3D roadmapping. The concepts and information presented in this paper are based on research and are not commercially available. PMID:18982662

  11. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies.

  12. Shim3d Helmholtz Solution Package

    2009-01-29

    This suite of codes solves the Helmholtz Equation for the steady-state propagation of single-frequency electromagnetic radiation in an arbitrary 2D or 3D dielectric medium. Materials can be either transparent or absorptive (including metals) and are described entirely by their shape and complex dielectric constant. Dielectric boundaries are assumed to always fall on grid boundaries and the material within a single grid cell is considered to be uniform. Input to the problem is in the formmore » of a Dirichlet boundary condition on a single boundary, and may be either analytic (Gaussian) in shape, or a mode shape computed using a separate code (such as the included eigenmode solver vwave20), and written to a file. Solution is via the finite difference method using Jacobi iteration for 3D problems or direct matrix inversion for 2D problems. Note that 3D problems that include metals will require different iteration parameters than described in the above reference. For structures with curved boundaries not easily modeled on a rectangular grid, the auxillary codes helmholtz11(2D), helm3d (semivectoral), and helmv3d (full vectoral) are provided. For these codes the finite difference equations are specified on a topological regular triangular grid and solved using Jacobi iteration or direct matrix inversion as before. An automatic grid generator is supplied.« less

  13. Full-color holographic 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio

    2003-05-01

    A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (λ=633nm), green (λ=533nm), and blue (λ=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.

  14. DYNA3D Code Practices and Developments

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, L.; Zywicz, E.; Raboin, P.

    2000-04-21

    DYNA3D is an explicit, finite element code developed to solve high rate dynamic simulations for problems of interest to the engineering mechanics community. The DYNA3D code has been under continuous development since 1976[1] by the Methods Development Group in the Mechanical Engineering Department of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The pace of code development activities has substantially increased in the past five years, growing from one to between four and six code developers. This has necessitated the use of software tools such as CVS (Concurrent Versions System) to help manage multiple version updates. While on-line documentation with an Adobe PDF manual helps to communicate software developments, periodically a summary document describing recent changes and improvements in DYNA3D software is needed. The first part of this report describes issues surrounding software versions and source control. The remainder of this report details the major capability improvements since the last publicly released version of DYNA3D in 1996. Not included here are the many hundreds of bug corrections and minor enhancements, nor the development in DYNA3D between the manual release in 1993[2] and the public code release in 1996.

  15. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  16. Lifting Object Detection Datasets into 3D.

    PubMed

    Carreira, Joao; Vicente, Sara; Agapito, Lourdes; Batista, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    While data has certainly taken the center stage in computer vision in recent years, it can still be difficult to obtain in certain scenarios. In particular, acquiring ground truth 3D shapes of objects pictured in 2D images remains a challenging feat and this has hampered progress in recognition-based object reconstruction from a single image. Here we propose to bypass previous solutions such as 3D scanning or manual design, that scale poorly, and instead populate object category detection datasets semi-automatically with dense, per-object 3D reconstructions, bootstrapped from:(i) class labels, (ii) ground truth figure-ground segmentations and (iii) a small set of keypoint annotations. Our proposed algorithm first estimates camera viewpoint using rigid structure-from-motion and then reconstructs object shapes by optimizing over visual hull proposals guided by loose within-class shape similarity assumptions. The visual hull sampling process attempts to intersect an object's projection cone with the cones of minimal subsets of other similar objects among those pictured from certain vantage points. We show that our method is able to produce convincing per-object 3D reconstructions and to accurately estimate cameras viewpoints on one of the most challenging existing object-category detection datasets, PASCAL VOC. We hope that our results will re-stimulate interest on joint object recognition and 3D reconstruction from a single image. PMID:27295458

  17. Magnetic Properties of 3D Printed Toroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollig, Lindsey; Otto, Austin; Hilpisch, Peter; Mowry, Greg; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Renewable Energy; Alternatives Lab (REAL) Team

    Transformers are ubiquitous in electronics today. Although toroidal geometries perform most efficiently, transformers are traditionally made with rectangular cross-sections due to the lower manufacturing costs. Additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) can easily achieve toroidal geometries by building up a part through a series of 2D layers. To get strong magnetic properties in a 3D printed transformer, a composite filament is used containing Fe dispersed in a polymer matrix. How the resulting 3D printed toroid responds to a magnetic field depends on two structural factors of the printed 2D layers: fill factor (planar density) and fill pattern. In this work, we investigate how the fill factor and fill pattern affect the magnetic properties of 3D printed toroids. The magnetic properties of the printed toroids are measured by a custom circuit that produces a hysteresis loop for each toroid. Toroids with various fill factors and fill patterns are compared to determine how these two factors can affect the magnetic field the toroid can produce. These 3D printed toroids can be used for numerous applications in order to increase the efficiency of transformers by making it possible for manufacturers to make a toroidal geometry.

  18. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies. PMID:26724184

  19. 3D culture for cardiac cells.

    PubMed

    Zuppinger, Christian

    2016-07-01

    This review discusses historical milestones, recent developments and challenges in the area of 3D culture models with cardiovascular cell types. Expectations in this area have been raised in recent years, but more relevant in vitro research, more accurate drug testing results, reliable disease models and insights leading to bioartificial organs are expected from the transition to 3D cell culture. However, the construction of organ-like cardiac 3D models currently remains a difficult challenge. The heart consists of highly differentiated cells in an intricate arrangement.Furthermore, electrical “wiring”, a vascular system and multiple cell types act in concert to respond to the rapidly changing demands of the body. Although cardiovascular 3D culture models have been predominantly developed for regenerative medicine in the past, their use in drug screening and for disease models has become more popular recently. Many sophisticated 3D culture models are currently being developed in this dynamic area of life science. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  20. Miniaturized 3D microscope imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yung-Sung; Chang, Chir-Weei; Sung, Hsin-Yueh; Wang, Yen-Chang; Chang, Cheng-Yi

    2015-05-01

    We designed and assembled a portable 3-D miniature microscopic image system with the size of 35x35x105 mm3 . By integrating a microlens array (MLA) into the optical train of a handheld microscope, the biological specimen's image will be captured for ease of use in a single shot. With the light field raw data and program, the focal plane can be changed digitally and the 3-D image can be reconstructed after the image was taken. To localize an object in a 3-D volume, an automated data analysis algorithm to precisely distinguish profundity position is needed. The ability to create focal stacks from a single image allows moving or specimens to be recorded. Applying light field microscope algorithm to these focal stacks, a set of cross sections will be produced, which can be visualized using 3-D rendering. Furthermore, we have developed a series of design rules in order to enhance the pixel using efficiency and reduce the crosstalk between each microlens for obtain good image quality. In this paper, we demonstrate a handheld light field microscope (HLFM) to distinguish two different color fluorescence particles separated by a cover glass in a 600um range, show its focal stacks, and 3-D position.

  1. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    DOE PAGES

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universalmore » 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.« less

  2. 3D optical measuring technologies and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yuri V.

    2005-02-01

    The results of the R & D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for noncontact 3D optical dimensional inspection applied to atomic and railway industry safety problems are presented. This activity includes investigations of diffraction phenomena on some 3D objects, using the original constructive calculation method. The efficient algorithms for precise determining the transverse and longitudinal sizes of 3D objects of constant thickness by diffraction method, peculiarities on formation of the shadow and images of the typical elements of the extended objects were suggested. Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and running trains as well as their high exploitation reliability requires a 100% noncontact precise inspection of geometrical parameters of their components. To solve this problem we have developed methods and produced the technical vision measuring systems LMM, CONTROL, PROFIL, and technologies for noncontact 3D dimensional inspection of grid spacers and fuel elements for the nuclear reactor VVER-1000 and VVER-440, as well as automatic laser diagnostic COMPLEX for noncontact inspection of geometric parameters of running freight car wheel pairs. The performances of these systems and the results of industrial testing are presented and discussed. The created devices are in pilot operation at Atomic and Railway Companies.

  3. 3D angiography. Clinical interest. First applications in interventional neuroradiology.

    PubMed

    Anxionnat, R; Bracard, S; Macho, J; Da Costa, E; Vaillant, R; Launay, L; Trousset, Y; Romeas, R; Picard, L

    1998-12-01

    3D angiography is a true technical revolution that allows improvement in the quality and safety of diagnostic and endovascular treatment procedures. 3D angiography images are obtained by reconstruction of a rotational angiography acquisition done on a C-arm (GE Medical Systems) spinning at 40 degrees per second. The carotid or vertebral selective injection of a total of 15 ml of non-ionic contrast media at 3 ml/sec over 5 seconds allows the selection of the "arterial phase". Four hundred sixty 3D angiographic studies were performed from December 1996 to September 1998 on 260 patients and have been analyzed in MIP (Maximum Intensity Projection) and SSD (Shaded Surface Display) views. The exploration of intracranial aneurysms is simplified and only requires, for each vascular axis, a biplane PA and Lateral run followed by a single rotational angiography run. The 3D angiography image is available on the workstation's screen (Advantage Workstation 3.1, GE Medical Systems) in less than 10 minutes after the acquisition of the rotational run. It therefore allows one to analyze, during the intervention, the aneurysm's angioarchitecture, in particular the neck, and select the best therapeutic technique. When endovascular treatment is the best indication, 3D angiography allows one to define the optimal angle of view and accurately select the microcoils dimensions. 3D angiography replaces the multiple oblique views that used to be required to analyze the complex aneurysms and therefore allows a reduction of the total contrast medium quantity, the patient X-ray dose and the length of the intervention time which is a safety factor. Also, in particular for complex cases, it brings additional elements complementing the results of standard 2D DSA and rotational angiograms. In the cervical vascular pathology, 3D angiography allows for a better assessment of the stenosis level and of dissection lesions. Our current research activities focus on the matching without stereotactic frame

  4. 3D Simulation: Microgravity Environments and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most, if not all, 3-D and Virtual Reality (VR) software programs are designed for one-G gravity applications. Space environments simulations require gravity effects of one one-thousandth to one one-million of that of the Earth's surface (10(exp -3) - 10(exp -6) G), thus one must be able to generate simulations that replicate those microgravity effects upon simulated astronauts. Unfortunately, the software programs utilized by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration does not have the ability to readily neutralize the one-G gravity effect. This pre-programmed situation causes the engineer or analysis difficulty during micro-gravity simulations. Therefore, microgravity simulations require special techniques or additional code in order to apply the power of 3D graphic simulation to space related applications. This paper discusses the problem and possible solutions to allow microgravity 3-D/VR simulations to be completed successfully without program code modifications.

  5. 3D differential phase contrast microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Michael; Tian, Lei; Waller, Laura

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) optical phase and amplitude reconstruction based on coded source illumination using a programmable LED array. Multiple stacks of images along the optical axis are computed from recorded intensities captured by multiple images under off-axis illumination. Based on the first Born approximation, a linear differential phase contrast (DPC) model is built between 3D complex index of refraction and the intensity stacks. Therefore, 3D volume reconstruction can be achieved via a fast inversion method, without the intermediate 2D phase retrieval step. Our system employs spatially partially coherent illumination, so the transverse resolution achieves twice the NA of coherent systems, while axial resolution is also improved 2× as compared to holographic imaging.

  6. The CIFIST 3D model atmosphere grid.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, H.-G.; Caffau, E.; Steffen, M.; Freytag, B.; Bonifacio, P.; Kučinskas, A.

    Grids of stellar atmosphere models and associated synthetic spectra are numerical products which have a large impact in astronomy due to their ubiquitous application in the interpretation of radiation from individual stars and stellar populations. 3D model atmospheres are now on the verge of becoming generally available for a wide range of stellar atmospheric parameters. We report on efforts to develop a grid of 3D model atmospheres for late-type stars within the CIFIST Team at Paris Observatory. The substantial demands in computational and human labor for the model production and post-processing render this apparently mundane task a challenging logistic exercise. At the moment the CIFIST grid comprises 77 3D model atmospheres with emphasis on dwarfs of solar and sub-solar metallicities. While the model production is still ongoing, first applications are already worked upon by the CIFIST Team and collaborators.

  7. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve.

    PubMed

    Keating, Steven J; Gariboldi, Maria Isabella; Patrick, William G; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics.

  8. Simnple, portable, 3-D projection routine

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.S.

    1987-04-01

    A 3-D projection routine is presented for use in computer graphics applications. The routine is simple enough to be considered portable, and easily modified for special problems. There is often the need to draw three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional plotting surface. For the object to appear realistic, perspective effects must be included that allow near objects to appear larger than distant objects. Several 3-D projection routines are commercially available, but they are proprietary, not portable, and not easily changed by the user. Most are restricted to surfaces that are functions of two variables. This makes them unsuitable for viewing physical objects such as accelerator prototypes or propagating beams. This report develops a very simple algorithm for 3-D projections; the core routine is only 39 FORTRAN lines long. It can be easily modified for special problems. Software dependent calls are confined to simple drivers that can be exchanged when different plotting software packages are used.

  9. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Ryan

    2014-02-13

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  10. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, William G.; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S.; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  11. Structured light field 3D imaging.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zewei; Liu, Xiaoli; Peng, Xiang; Yin, Yongkai; Li, Ameng; Wu, Jiachen; Gao, Bruce Z

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a method by means of light field imaging under structured illumination to deal with high dynamic range 3D imaging. Fringe patterns are projected onto a scene and modulated by the scene depth then a structured light field is detected using light field recording devices. The structured light field contains information about ray direction and phase-encoded depth, via which the scene depth can be estimated from different directions. The multidirectional depth estimation can achieve high dynamic 3D imaging effectively. We analyzed and derived the phase-depth mapping in the structured light field and then proposed a flexible ray-based calibration approach to determine the independent mapping coefficients for each ray. Experimental results demonstrated the validity of the proposed method to perform high-quality 3D imaging for highly and lowly reflective surfaces. PMID:27607639

  12. 3D-printed microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Amin, Reza; Knowlton, Stephanie; Hart, Alexander; Yenilmez, Bekir; Ghaderinezhad, Fariba; Katebifar, Sara; Messina, Michael; Khademhosseini, Ali; Tasoglu, Savas

    2016-06-20

    Microfluidics is a flourishing field, enabling a wide range of biochemical and clinical applications such as cancer screening, micro-physiological system engineering, high-throughput drug testing, and point-of-care diagnostics. However, fabrication of microfluidic devices is often complicated, time consuming, and requires expensive equipment and sophisticated cleanroom facilities. Three-dimensional (3D) printing presents a promising alternative to traditional techniques such as lithography and PDMS-glass bonding, not only by enabling rapid design iterations in the development stage, but also by reducing the costs associated with institutional infrastructure, equipment installation, maintenance, and physical space. With the recent advancements in 3D printing technologies, highly complex microfluidic devices can be fabricated via single-step, rapid, and cost-effective protocols, making microfluidics more accessible to users. In this review, we discuss a broad range of approaches for the application of 3D printing technology to fabrication of micro-scale lab-on-a-chip devices.

  13. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve.

    PubMed

    Keating, Steven J; Gariboldi, Maria Isabella; Patrick, William G; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  14. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Christon, M. A.; Dovey, D.; Stillman, D. W.; Hallquist, J. O.; Rainsberger, R. B

    1994-04-07

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

  15. 3D holoscopic video imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steurer, Johannes H.; Pesch, Matthias; Hahne, Christopher

    2012-03-01

    Since many years, integral imaging has been discussed as a technique to overcome the limitations of standard still photography imaging systems where a three-dimensional scene is irrevocably projected onto two dimensions. With the success of 3D stereoscopic movies, a huge interest in capturing three-dimensional motion picture scenes has been generated. In this paper, we present a test bench integral imaging camera system aiming to tailor the methods of light field imaging towards capturing integral 3D motion picture content. We estimate the hardware requirements needed to generate high quality 3D holoscopic images and show a prototype camera setup that allows us to study these requirements using existing technology. The necessary steps that are involved in the calibration of the system as well as the technique of generating human readable holoscopic images from the recorded data are discussed.

  16. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Tokola, Ryan A; Mikkilineni, Aravind K; Boehnen, Chris Bensing

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  17. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer

    1992-02-01

    TOPAZ3D is a three-dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ3D can be used to solve for the steady-state or transient temperature field on three-dimensional geometries. Material properties may be temperature-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functionalmore » representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. TOPAZ3D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.« less

  18. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    ScienceCinema

    Ott, Ryan

    2016-07-12

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  19. User-driven 3D mesh region targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasev, Peter; Malcolm, James; Niethammer, Marc; Kikinis, Ron; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2010-02-01

    We present a method for the fast selection of a region on a 3D mesh using geometric information. This is done using a weighted arc length minimization with a conformal factor based on the mean curvature of the 3D surface. A careful analysis of the geometric estimation process enables our geometric curve shortening to use a reliable smooth estimate of curvature and its gradient. The result is a robust way for a user to easily interact with particular regions of a 3D mesh construced from medical imaging. In this study, we focus on building a robust and semi-automatic method for extracting selected folds on the cortical surface, specifically for isolating gyri by drawing a curve along the surrounding sulci. It is desirable to make this process semi-automatic because manually drawing a curve through the complex 3D mesh is extremely tedious, while automatic methods cannot realistically be expected to select the exact closed contour a user desires for a given dataset. In the technique described here, a user places a handful of seed points surrounding the gyri of interest; an initial curve is made from these points which then evolves to capture the region. We refer to this user-driven procedure as targeting or selection interchangeably. To illustrate the applicability of these methods to other medical data, we also give an example of bone fracture CT surface parcellation.

  20. Mapping the human cerebral cortex using 3-D medial manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szekely, Gabor; Brechbuehler, Christian; Kuebler, Olaf; Ogniewicz, Robert; Budinger, Thomas F.

    1992-09-01

    Novel imaging technologies provide a detailed look at structure and function of the tremendously complex and variable human brain. Optimal exploitation of the information stored in the rapidly growing collection of acquired and segmented MRI data calls for robust and reliable descriptions of the individual geometry of the cerebral cortex. A mathematical description and representation of 3-D shape, capable of dealing with form of variable appearance, is at the focus of this paper. We base our development on the Medial Axis Transformation (MAT) customarily defined in 2-D although the concept generalizes to any number of dimensions. Our implementation of the 3-D MAT combines full 3-D Voronoitesselation generated by the set of all border points with regularization procedures to obtain geometrically and topologically correct medial manifolds. The proposed algorithm was tested on synthetic objects and has been applied to 3-D MRI data of 1 mm isotropic resolution to obtain a description of the sulci in the cerebral cortex. Description and representation of the cortical anatomy is significant in clinical applications, medical research, and instrumentation developments.

  1. Scanning Acoustic Microscope of 3D-Interconnect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wai Kong, Lay; Diebold, A. C.; Rudack, A.; Arkalgud, S.

    2009-09-01

    The College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering of the University at Albany in collaboration with International SEMATECH is investigating the use of Scanning Acoustic Microscope (SAM) for analyzing 3D Interconnects. SAM is a non-destructive metrology technique which utilizes high frequency ultrasound to generate a microscopic image of the internal parts of a specimen. The goal of this project is to develop microscopic techniques for evaluating Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs) for 3D-Interconnects. Preliminary data shows voids and other defects in the interface between bonded wafers as shown in Figure 1. Our SAM laboratory system operates at 230 MHz and has a spatial resolution of 5-10 μm and focal length of 5.9 mm on a silicon wafer. The spatial resolution and sampling depth depend on the ultrasonic frequency, sound velocity, focal length and diameter of piezoelectric crystal. Typically, the silicon wafers have a thickness of 775 μm before they are bonded. Our initial work is focused on blanket wafers in order to develop the bonding process. The next step is to bond wafers with test die where the patterning obscures the interface. This paper will discuss the limitations of SAM and compare it to infrared microscopy which is another important imaging capability for 3D Interconnect. We also discuss the current status of research into more advanced acoustic microscopy methods and how this might impact 3D Interconnect imaging.

  2. Real-time monitoring of 3D cell culture using a 3D capacitance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Han, Nalae; Lee, Rimi; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Yong-Beom; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-03-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures have recently received attention because they represent a more physiologically relevant environment compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. However, 2D-based imaging techniques or cell sensors are insufficient for real-time monitoring of cellular behavior in 3D cell culture. Here, we report investigations conducted with a 3D capacitance cell sensor consisting of vertically aligned pairs of electrodes. When GFP-expressing human breast cancer cells (GFP-MCF-7) encapsulated in alginate hydrogel were cultured in a 3D cell culture system, cellular activities, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis at different heights, could be monitored non-invasively and in real-time by measuring the change in capacitance with the 3D capacitance sensor. Moreover, we were able to monitor cell migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with our 3D capacitance sensor.

  3. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  4. 3D whiteboard: collaborative sketching with 3D-tracked smart phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, James; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2014-02-01

    We present the results of our investigation of the feasibility of a new approach for collaborative drawing in 3D, based on Android smart phones. Our approach utilizes a number of fiduciary markers, placed in the working area where they can be seen by the smart phones' cameras, in order to estimate the pose of each phone in the room. Our prototype allows two users to draw 3D objects with their smart phones by moving their phones around in 3D space. For example, 3D lines are drawn by recording the path of the phone as it is moved around in 3D space, drawing line segments on the screen along the way. Each user can see the virtual drawing space on their smart phones' displays, as if the display was a window into this space. Besides lines, our prototype application also supports 3D geometry creation, geometry transformation operations, and it shows the location of the other user's phone.

  5. Real-time monitoring of 3D cell culture using a 3D capacitance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Han, Nalae; Lee, Rimi; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Yong-Beom; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-03-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures have recently received attention because they represent a more physiologically relevant environment compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. However, 2D-based imaging techniques or cell sensors are insufficient for real-time monitoring of cellular behavior in 3D cell culture. Here, we report investigations conducted with a 3D capacitance cell sensor consisting of vertically aligned pairs of electrodes. When GFP-expressing human breast cancer cells (GFP-MCF-7) encapsulated in alginate hydrogel were cultured in a 3D cell culture system, cellular activities, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis at different heights, could be monitored non-invasively and in real-time by measuring the change in capacitance with the 3D capacitance sensor. Moreover, we were able to monitor cell migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with our 3D capacitance sensor. PMID:26386332

  6. Spatial watermarking of 3D triangle meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayre, Francois; Macq, Benoit M. M.

    2001-12-01

    Although it is obvious that watermarking has become of great interest in protecting audio, videos, and still pictures, few work has been done considering 3D meshes. We propose a new method for watermarking 3D triangle meshes. This method embeds the watermark as triangles deformations. The list of watermarked triangles is obtained through a similar way to the one used in the TSPS (Triangle Strip Peeling Sequence) method. Unlike TSPS, our method is automatic and more secure. We also show that it is reversible.

  7. Acquisition and applications of 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterian, Paul; Mocanu, Elena

    2007-08-01

    The moiré fringes method and their analysis up to medical and entertainment applications are discussed in this paper. We describe the procedure of capturing 3D images with an Inspeck Camera that is a real-time 3D shape acquisition system based on structured light techniques. The method is a high-resolution one. After processing the images, using computer, we can use the data for creating laser fashionable objects by engraving them with a Q-switched Nd:YAG. In medical field we mention the plastic surgery and the replacement of X-Ray especially in pediatric use.

  8. Superplastic forming using NIKE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Puso, M.

    1996-12-04

    The superplastic forming process requires careful control of strain rates in order to avoid strain localizations. A load scheduler was developed and implemented into the nonlinear finite element code NIKE3D to provide strain rate control during forming simulation and process schedule output. Often the sheets being formed in SPF are very thin such that less expensive membrane elements can be used as opposed to shell elements. A large strain membrane element was implemented into NIKE3D to assist in SPF process modeling.

  9. The Galicia 3D experiment: an Introduction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reston, Timothy; Martinez Loriente, Sara; Holroyd, Luke; Merry, Tobias; Sawyer, Dale; Morgan, Julia; Jordan, Brian; Tesi Sanjurjo, Mari; Alexanian, Ara; Shillington, Donna; Gibson, James; Minshull, Tim; Karplus, Marianne; Bayracki, Gaye; Davy, Richard; Klaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Ranero, Cesar; Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Martinez, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    In June and July 2013, scientists from 8 institutions took part in the Galicia 3D seismic experiment, the first ever crustal -scale academic 3D MCS survey over a rifted margin. The aim was to determine the 3D structure of a critical portion of the west Galicia rifted margin. At this margin, well-defined tilted fault blocks, bound by west-dipping faults and capped by synrift sediments are underlain by a bright reflection, undulating on time sections, termed the S reflector and thought to represent a major detachment fault of some kind. Moving west, the crust thins to zero thickness and mantle is unroofed, as evidence by the "Peridotite Ridge" first reported at this margin, but since observed at many other magma-poor margins. By imaging such a margin in detail, the experiment aimed to resolve the processes controlling crustal thinning and mantle unroofing at a type example magma poor margin. The experiment set out to collect several key datasets: a 3D seismic reflection volume measuring ~20x64km and extending down to ~14s TWT, a 3D ocean bottom seismometer dataset suitable for full wavefield inversion (the recording of the complete 3D seismic shots by 70 ocean bottom instruments), the "mirror imaging" of the crust using the same grid of OBS, a single 2D combined reflection/refraction profile extending to the west to determine the transition from unroofed mantle to true oceanic crust, and the seismic imaging of the water column, calibrated by regular deployment of XBTs to measure the temperature structure of the water column. We collected 1280 km2 of seismic reflection data, consisting of 136533 shots recorded on 1920 channels, producing 260 million seismic traces, each ~ 14s long. This adds up to ~ 8 terabytes of data, representing, we believe, the largest ever academic 3D MCS survey in terms of both the area covered and the volume of data. The OBS deployment was the largest ever within an academic 3D survey.

  10. Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2014-05-01

    Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river

  11. Recent developments in DFD (depth-fused 3D) display and arc 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyama, Shiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    2015-05-01

    We will report our recent developments in DFD (Depth-fused 3D) display and arc 3D display, both of which have smooth movement parallax. Firstly, fatigueless DFD display, composed of only two layered displays with a gap, has continuous perceived depth by changing luminance ratio between two images. Two new methods, called "Edge-based DFD display" and "Deep DFD display", have been proposed in order to solve two severe problems of viewing angle and perceived depth limitations. Edge-based DFD display, layered by original 2D image and its edge part with a gap, can expand the DFD viewing angle limitation both in 2D and 3D perception. Deep DFD display can enlarge the DFD image depth by modulating spatial frequencies of front and rear images. Secondly, Arc 3D display can provide floating 3D images behind or in front of the display by illuminating many arc-shaped directional scattering sources, for example, arcshaped scratches on a flat board. Curved Arc 3D display, composed of many directional scattering sources on a curved surface, can provide a peculiar 3D image, for example, a floating image in the cylindrical bottle. The new active device has been proposed for switching arc 3D images by using the tips of dual-frequency liquid-crystal prisms as directional scattering sources. Directional scattering can be switched on/off by changing liquid-crystal refractive index, resulting in switching of arc 3D image.

  12. Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A

    2014-02-01

    3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints. PMID:24288392

  13. Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A

    2014-02-01

    3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints.

  14. 3D radiative transfer in η Carinae: application of the SIMPLEX algorithm to 3D SPH simulations of binary colliding winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clementel, N.; Madura, T. I.; Kruip, C. J. H.; Icke, V.; Gull, T. R.

    2014-09-01

    Eta Carinae is an ideal astrophysical laboratory for studying massive binary interactions and evolution, and stellar wind-wind collisions. Recent three-dimensional (3D) simulations set the stage for understanding the highly complex 3D flows in η Car. Observations of different broad high- and low-ionization forbidden emission lines provide an excellent tool to constrain the orientation of the system, the primary's mass-loss rate, and the ionizing flux of the hot secondary. In this work, we present the first steps towards generating synthetic observations to compare with available and future HST/STIS data. We present initial results from full 3D radiative transfer simulations of the interacting winds in η Car. We use the SIMPLEX algorithm to post-process the output from 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations and obtain the ionization fractions of hydrogen and helium assuming three different mass-loss rates for the primary star. The resultant ionization maps of both species constrain the regions where the observed forbidden emission lines can form. Including collisional ionization is necessary to achieve a better description of the ionization states, especially in the areas shielded from the secondary's radiation. We find that reducing the primary's mass-loss rate increases the volume of ionized gas, creating larger areas where the forbidden emission lines can form. We conclude that post-processing 3D SPH data with SIMPLEX is a viable tool to create ionization maps for η Car.

  15. The EISCAT_3D Science Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjulin, A.; Mann, I.; McCrea, I.; Aikio, A. T.

    2013-05-01

    EISCAT_3D will be a world-leading international research infrastructure using the incoherent scatter technique to study the atmosphere in the Fenno-Scandinavian Arctic and to investigate how the Earth's atmosphere is coupled to space. The EISCAT_3D phased-array multistatic radar system will be operated by EISCAT Scientific Association and thus be an integral part of an organisation that has successfully been running incoherent scatter radars for more than thirty years. The baseline design of the radar system contains a core site with transmitting and receiving capabilities located close to the intersection of the Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish borders and five receiving sites located within 50 to 250 km from the core. The EISCAT_3D project is currently in its Preparatory Phase and can smoothly transit into implementation in 2014, provided sufficient funding. Construction can start 2016 and first operations in 2018. The EISCAT_3D Science Case is prepared as part of the Preparatory Phase. It is regularly updated with annual new releases, and it aims at being a common document for the whole future EISCAT_3D user community. The areas covered by the Science Case are atmospheric physics and global change; space and plasma physics; solar system research; space weather and service applications; and radar techniques, new methods for coding and analysis. Two of the aims for EISCAT_3D are to understand the ways natural variability in the upper atmosphere, imposed by the Sun-Earth system, can influence the middle and lower atmosphere, and to improve the predictivity of atmospheric models by providing higher resolution observations to replace the current parametrised input. Observations by EISCAT_3D will also be used to monitor the direct effects from the Sun on the ionosphere-atmosphere system and those caused by solar wind magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction. In addition, EISCAT_3D will be used for remote sensing the large-scale behaviour of the magnetosphere from its

  16. Development and characterization of 3D-printed feed spacers for spiral wound membrane systems.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Amber; Farhat, Nadia; Bucs, Szilárd S; Linares, Rodrigo Valladares; Picioreanu, Cristian; Kruithof, Joop C; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Kidwell, James; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S

    2016-03-15

    Feed spacers are important for the impact of biofouling on the performance of spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems. The objective of this study was to propose a strategy for developing, characterizing, and testing of feed spacers by numerical modeling, three-dimensional (3D) printing of feed spacers and experimental membrane fouling simulator (MFS) studies. The results of numerical modeling on the hydrodynamic behavior of various feed spacer geometries suggested that the impact of spacers on hydrodynamics and biofouling can be improved. A good agreement was found for the modeled and measured relationship between linear flow velocity and pressure drop for feed spacers with the same geometry, indicating that modeling can serve as the first step in spacer characterization. An experimental comparison study of a feed spacer currently applied in practice and a 3D printed feed spacer with the same geometry showed (i) similar hydrodynamic behavior, (ii) similar pressure drop development with time and (iii) similar biomass accumulation during MFS biofouling studies, indicating that 3D printing technology is an alternative strategy for development of thin feed spacers with a complex geometry. Based on the numerical modeling results, a modified feed spacer with low pressure drop was selected for 3D printing. The comparison study of the feed spacer from practice and the modified geometry 3D printed feed spacer established that the 3D printed spacer had (i) a lower pressure drop during hydrodynamic testing, (ii) a lower pressure drop increase in time with the same accumulated biomass amount, indicating that modifying feed spacer geometries can reduce the impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance. The combination of numerical modeling of feed spacers and experimental testing of 3D printed feed spacers is a promising strategy (rapid, low cost and representative) to develop advanced feed spacers aiming to reduce the impact of

  17. Development and characterization of 3D-printed feed spacers for spiral wound membrane systems.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Amber; Farhat, Nadia; Bucs, Szilárd S; Linares, Rodrigo Valladares; Picioreanu, Cristian; Kruithof, Joop C; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Kidwell, James; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S

    2016-03-15

    Feed spacers are important for the impact of biofouling on the performance of spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems. The objective of this study was to propose a strategy for developing, characterizing, and testing of feed spacers by numerical modeling, three-dimensional (3D) printing of feed spacers and experimental membrane fouling simulator (MFS) studies. The results of numerical modeling on the hydrodynamic behavior of various feed spacer geometries suggested that the impact of spacers on hydrodynamics and biofouling can be improved. A good agreement was found for the modeled and measured relationship between linear flow velocity and pressure drop for feed spacers with the same geometry, indicating that modeling can serve as the first step in spacer characterization. An experimental comparison study of a feed spacer currently applied in practice and a 3D printed feed spacer with the same geometry showed (i) similar hydrodynamic behavior, (ii) similar pressure drop development with time and (iii) similar biomass accumulation during MFS biofouling studies, indicating that 3D printing technology is an alternative strategy for development of thin feed spacers with a complex geometry. Based on the numerical modeling results, a modified feed spacer with low pressure drop was selected for 3D printing. The comparison study of the feed spacer from practice and the modified geometry 3D printed feed spacer established that the 3D printed spacer had (i) a lower pressure drop during hydrodynamic testing, (ii) a lower pressure drop increase in time with the same accumulated biomass amount, indicating that modifying feed spacer geometries can reduce the impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance. The combination of numerical modeling of feed spacers and experimental testing of 3D printed feed spacers is a promising strategy (rapid, low cost and representative) to develop advanced feed spacers aiming to reduce the impact of

  18. Fish Pectoral Fin Hydrodynamics; Part III: Low Dimensional Models via POD Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkurttas, M.; Madden, P.

    2005-11-01

    The highly complex kinematics of the pectoral fin and the resulting hydrodynamics does not lend itself easily to analysis based on simple notions of pitching/heaving/paddling kinematics or lift/drag based propulsive mechanisms. A more inventive approach is needed to dissect the fin gait and gain insight into the hydrodynamic performance of the pectoral fin. The focus of the current work is on the hydrodynamics of the pectoral fin of a bluegill sunfish in steady forward motion. The 3D, time-dependent fin kinematics is obtained via a stereo-videographic technique. We employ proper orthogonal decomposition to extract the essential features of the fin gait and then use CFD to examine the hydrodynamics of simplified gaits synthesized from the POD modes. The POD spectrum shows that the first two, three and five POD modes capture 55%, 67%, and 80% of the motion respectively. The first three modes are in particular highly distinct: Mode-1 is a ``cupping'' motion where the fin cups forward as it is abducted; Mode-2 is an ``expansion'' motion where the fin expands to present a larger area during adduction and finally Mode-3 involves a ``spanwise flick'' of the dorsal edge of the fin. Numerical simulation of flow past fin gaits synthesized from these modes lead to insights into the mechanisms of thrust production; these are discussed in detail.

  19. Scoops3D: software to analyze 3D slope stability throughout a digital landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Mark E.; Christian, Sarah B.; Brien, Dianne L.; Henderson, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    The computer program, Scoops3D, evaluates slope stability throughout a digital landscape represented by a digital elevation model (DEM). The program uses a three-dimensional (3D) method of columns approach to assess the stability of many (typically millions) potential landslides within a user-defined size range. For each potential landslide (or failure), Scoops3D assesses the stability of a rotational, spherical slip surface encompassing many DEM cells using a 3D version of either Bishop’s simplified method or the Ordinary (Fellenius) method of limit-equilibrium analysis. Scoops3D has several options for the user to systematically and efficiently search throughout an entire DEM, thereby incorporating the effects of complex surface topography. In a thorough search, each DEM cell is included in multiple potential failures, and Scoops3D records the lowest stability (factor of safety) for each DEM cell, as well as the size (volume or area) associated with each of these potential landslides. It also determines the least-stable potential failure for the entire DEM. The user has a variety of options for building a 3D domain, including layers or full 3D distributions of strength and pore-water pressures, simplistic earthquake loading, and unsaturated suction conditions. Results from Scoops3D can be readily incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) or other visualization software. This manual includes information on the theoretical basis for the slope-stability analysis, requirements for constructing and searching a 3D domain, a detailed operational guide (including step-by-step instructions for using the graphical user interface [GUI] software, Scoops3D-i) and input/output file specifications, practical considerations for conducting an analysis, results of verification tests, and multiple examples illustrating the capabilities of Scoops3D. Easy-to-use software installation packages are available for the Windows or Macintosh operating systems; these packages

  20. Effect of viewing distance on 3D fatigue caused by viewing mobile 3D content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Sungchul; Lee, Dong-Su; Park, Min-Chul; Yano, Sumio

    2013-05-01

    With an advent of autostereoscopic display technique and increased needs for smart phones, there has been a significant growth in mobile TV markets. The rapid growth in technical, economical, and social aspects has encouraged 3D TV manufacturers to apply 3D rendering technology to mobile devices so that people have more opportunities to come into contact with many 3D content anytime and anywhere. Even if the mobile 3D technology leads to the current market growth, there is an important thing to consider for consistent development and growth in the display market. To put it briefly, human factors linked to mobile 3D viewing should be taken into consideration before developing mobile 3D technology. Many studies have investigated whether mobile 3D viewing causes undesirable biomedical effects such as motion sickness and visual fatigue, but few have examined main factors adversely affecting human health. Viewing distance is considered one of the main factors to establish optimized viewing environments from a viewer's point of view. Thus, in an effort to determine human-friendly viewing environments, this study aims to investigate the effect of viewing distance on human visual system when exposing to mobile 3D environments. Recording and analyzing brainwaves before and after watching mobile 3D content, we explore how viewing distance affects viewing experience from physiological and psychological perspectives. Results obtained in this study are expected to provide viewing guidelines for viewers, help ensure viewers against undesirable 3D effects, and lead to make gradual progress towards a human-friendly mobile 3D viewing.