Science.gov

Sample records for 3d ice sheet

  1. Are Heinrich events triggered by the ocean? From a conceptual model to a 3D ice sheet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Solas, J.; Ritz, C.; Charbit, S.; Ramstein, G.; Paillard, D.; Dumas, C.

    2009-12-01

    A common explanation for Heinrich events consists in an internal thermomechanical feedback of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets allowing the occurrence of periodical large ice surges into the ocean. It has been proposed that these large-scale surges likely occur when basal ice reaches the melting point in regions where subglacial sediment allows very strong sliding. Attempts to simulate such mechanism (so-called bing-purge) in the framework of the shallow ice approximation (SIA) indeed succeeded to produce oscillations (HEINO experiments). However these results are still controversial because the oscillation periods were very dependent on numerical methods and, more important, because the SIA does not take into account longitudinal stresses and is thus not suitable when there are strong gradient in velocity. Using a 3D ice sheet model, GRISLI, in which ice streams velocities are obtained with the MacAyeal equation and thus longitudinal stresses are accounted for, no oscillations can be obtained with only the ice sheet-ice stream system. The recent breakup of some ice shelves in Antarctica and the associated changes on ice streams velocities illustrates the importance of the buttressing effect on ice surges. We suggest here that ocean variability has to be considered as a potential triggering factor via the ice-shelf erosion and its consequences on ice streams. With a conceptual ice sheet /ice shelf /ocean model we demonstrate the ability of this simple model to produce physically based oscillations compatible with the signature of Heinrich events that can be only generated in presence of ocean millennial variability which is suggested by all the data available.

  2. Insights Into the Drainage Characteristics of Pleistocene Ice Sheets in NW Europe Using 3D Seismic Reflection Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonergan, L.; Collier, J. S.; Maidment, S.

    2003-12-01

    We use commercial 3D seismic reflection data to image spectacular, cross-cutting, anastomosing valley systems formed by subglacial meltwater drainage in the Pleistocene of the North Sea, at ~58degN 1degE. Although the seismic data were collected to image deeper structures, the high resolution and quality of the data have allowed us to identify meltwater drainage systems formed at the base of different NW European Pleistocene icesheets in the top 400 ms of the data. The data volume comprises stacked, deconvolved and time migrated data, in 12.5 x 12.5 m bins sampled at 4 ms. The frequency bandwidth is 5-80 Hz (at the 20 dB point), giving a vertical resolution of ~ 8 m and lateral resolution of 12.5 m. Within the 12.5 by 8 km study area, four phases of cross-cutting valley incision can be identified. Individual valleys, which are 30-155m deep and 250-1200m wide, have the irregular longitudinal profile characteristic of meltwater incision under ice sheets. The first three phases are orientated N-S, whilst the youngest, fourth phase valleys and orientated E-W. The fourth phase valleys are also narrower and shallower than the older valleys. We speculate that the successive episodes of valley formation document a history of advance and retreat of an ice-sheet, probably during the Elsterian glaciation of northwest Europe. Detailed mapping of the valley morphology and the geometry of the infill has shown that the valleys were incised by a number of meltwater flow episodes, which were variable energy, probably high velocity and episodic. As a result the valleys were dynamic and long-lived, and they existed as depressions for long periods of time under the ice sheet. When the ice sheet retreated, they were filled with proglacial sediments. From our limited study area it appears that the first of these advances had a N-S orientated drainage network and generated a greater volume of subglacial meltwater than the second, whose drainage network was orientated in a more E

  3. Grounding-line migration in plan-view marine ice-sheet models: results of the ice2sea MISMIP3d intercomparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattyn, Frank; Perichon, Laura; Durand, Gaël; Gagliardini, Olivier; Favier, Lionel; Hindmarsh, Richard; Zwinger, Thomas; Participants, Mismip3d

    2013-04-01

    Predictions of marine ice-sheet behaviour require models able to simulate grounding line migration. We present results of an intercomparison experiment for plan-view marine ice-sheet models. Verification is effected by comparison with approximate analytical solutions for flux across the grounding line using simplified geometrical configurations (no lateral variations, no buttressing effects from lateral drag). A unique steady state grounding line position exists for ice sheets on a downward sloping bed under those simplified conditions. Perturbation experiments specifying spatial (lateral) variation in basal sliding parameters permitted the evolution of curved grounding lines, generating buttressing effects. The experiments showed regions of compression and extensional flow across the grounding line, thereby invalidating the boundary layer theory. Models based on the shallow ice approximation, which neither resolve membrane stresses, nor reproduce the approximate analytical results unless appropriate parameterizations for ice flux are imposed at the grounding line, are invalid. Steady-state grounding line positions were found to be dependent on the level of physical model approximation. Models that only include membrane stresses result in ice sheets with a larger span than those that also incorporate vertical shearing at the grounding line, such as higher-order and full-Stokes models. From a numerical perspective, resolving grounding lines requires a sufficiently small grid size (

  4. Ice shelf melt rates and 3D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Cameron Scott

    Ice shelves are sensitive indicators of climate change and play a critical role in the stability of ice sheets and oceanic currents. Basal melting of ice shelves plays an important role in both the mass balance of the ice sheet and the global climate system. Airborne- and satellite based remote sensing systems can perform thickness measurements of ice shelves. Time separated repeat flight tracks over ice shelves of interest generate data sets that can be used to derive basal melt rates using traditional glaciological techniques. Many previous melt rate studies have relied on surface elevation data gathered by airborne- and satellite based altimeters. These systems infer melt rates by assuming hydrostatic equilibrium, an assumption that may not be accurate, especially near an ice shelf's grounding line. Moderate bandwidth, VHF, ice penetrating radar has been used to measure ice shelf profiles with relatively coarse resolution. This study presents the application of an ultra wide bandwidth (UWB), UHF, ice penetrating radar to obtain finer resolution data on the ice shelves. These data reveal significant details about the basal interface, including the locations and depth of bottom crevasses and deviations from hydrostatic equilibrium. While our single channel radar provides new insight into ice shelf structure, it only images a small swatch of the shelf, which is assumed to be an average of the total shelf behavior. This study takes an additional step by investigating the application of a 3D imaging technique to a data set collected using a ground based multi channel version of the UWB radar. The intent is to show that the UWB radar could be capable of providing a wider swath 3D image of an ice shelf. The 3D images can then be used to obtain a more complete estimate of the bottom melt rates of ice shelves.

  5. Global ice sheet modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed.

  6. ISSM: Ice Sheet System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larour, Eric; Schiermeier, John E.; Seroussi, Helene; Morlinghem, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    In order to have the capability to use satellite data from its own missions to inform future sea-level rise projections, JPL needed a full-fledged ice-sheet/iceshelf flow model, capable of modeling the mass balance of Antarctica and Greenland into the near future. ISSM was developed with such a goal in mind, as a massively parallelized, multi-purpose finite-element framework dedicated to ice-sheet modeling. ISSM features unstructured meshes (Tria in 2D, and Penta in 3D) along with corresponding finite elements for both types of meshes. Each finite element can carry out diagnostic, prognostic, transient, thermal 3D, surface, and bed slope simulations. Anisotropic meshing enables adaptation of meshes to a certain metric, and the 2D Shelfy-Stream, 3D Blatter/Pattyn, and 3D Full-Stokes formulations capture the bulk of the ice-flow physics. These elements can be coupled together, based on the Arlequin method, so that on a large scale model such as Antarctica, each type of finite element is used in the most efficient manner. For each finite element referenced above, ISSM implements an adjoint. This adjoint can be used to carry out model inversions of unknown model parameters, typically ice rheology and basal drag at the ice/bedrock interface, using a metric such as the observed InSAR surface velocity. This data assimilation capability is crucial to allow spinning up of ice flow models using available satellite data. ISSM relies on the PETSc library for its vectors, matrices, and solvers. This allows ISSM to run efficiently on any parallel platform, whether shared or distrib- ISSM: Ice Sheet System Model NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California uted. It can run on the largest clusters, and is fully scalable. This allows ISSM to tackle models the size of continents. ISSM is embedded into MATLAB and Python, both open scientific platforms. This improves its outreach within the science community. It is entirely written in C/C++, which gives it flexibility in its

  7. Ice sheets and nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Eric W.

    2013-01-01

    Snow and ice play their most important role in the nitrogen cycle as a barrier to land–atmosphere and ocean–atmosphere exchanges that would otherwise occur. The inventory of nitrogen compounds in the polar ice sheets is approximately 260 Tg N, dominated by nitrate in the much larger Antarctic ice sheet. Ice cores help to inform us about the natural variability of the nitrogen cycle at global and regional scale, and about the extent of disturbance in recent decades. Nitrous oxide concentrations have risen about 20 per cent in the last 200 years and are now almost certainly higher than at any time in the last 800 000 years. Nitrate concentrations recorded in Greenland ice rose by a factor of 2–3, particularly between the 1950s and 1980s, reflecting a major change in NOx emissions reaching the background atmosphere. Increases in ice cores drilled at lower latitudes can be used to validate or constrain regional emission inventories. Background ammonium concentrations in Greenland ice show no significant recent trend, although the record is very noisy, being dominated by spikes of input from biomass burning events. Neither nitrate nor ammonium shows significant recent trends in Antarctica, although their natural variations are of biogeochemical and atmospheric chemical interest. Finally, it has been found that photolysis of nitrate in the snowpack leads to significant re-emissions of NOx that can strongly impact the regional atmosphere in snow-covered areas. PMID:23713125

  8. The Physics of Ice Sheets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassis, J. N.

    2008-01-01

    The great ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland are vast deposits of frozen freshwater that contain enough to raise sea level by approximately 70 m if they were to completely melt. Because of the potentially catastrophic impact that ice sheets can have, it is important that we understand how ice sheets have responded to past climate changes and…

  9. Ice sheet margins and ice shelves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of climate warming on the size of ice sheet margins in polar regions is considered. Particular attention is given to the possibility of a rapid response to warming on the order of tens to hundreds of years. It is found that the early response of the polar regions to climate warming would be an increase in the area of summer melt on the ice sheets and ice shelves. For sufficiently large warming (5-10C) the delayed effects would include the breakup of the ice shelves by an increase in ice drainage rates, particularly from the ice sheets. On the basis of published data for periodic changes in the thickness and melting rates of the marine ice sheets and fjord glaciers in Greenland and Antarctica, it is shown that the rate of retreat (or advance) of an ice sheet is primarily determined by: bedrock topography; the basal conditions of the grounded ice sheet; and the ice shelf condition downstream of the grounding line. A program of satellite and ground measurements to monitor the state of ice sheet equilibrium is recommended.

  10. Extraction of Ice Sheet Layers from Two Intersected Radar Echograms Near Neem Ice Core in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, S.; Muller, J.-P.

    2016-06-01

    Accumulation of snow and ice over time result in ice sheet layers. These can be remotely sensed where there is a contrast in electromagnetic properties, which reflect variations of the ice density, acidity and fabric orientation. Internal ice layers are assumed to be isochronous, deep beneath the ice surface, and parallel to the direction of ice flow. The distribution of internal layers is related to ice sheet dynamics, such as the basal melt rate, basal elevation variation and changes in ice flow mode, which are important parameters to model the ice sheet. Radar echo sounder is an effective instrument used to study the sedimentology of the Earth and planets. Ice Penetrating Radar (IPR) is specific kind of radar echo sounder, which extends studies of ice sheets from surface to subsurface to deep internal ice sheets depending on the frequency utilised. In this study, we examine a study site where folded ice occurs in the internal ice sheet south of the North Greenland Eemian ice drilling (NEEM) station, where two intersected radar echograms acquired by the Multi-channel Coherent Radar Depth Sounder (MCoRDS) employed in the NASA's Operation IceBridge (OIB) mission imaged this folded ice. We propose a slice processing flow based on a Radon Transform to trace and extract these two sets of curved ice sheet layers, which can then be viewed in 3-D, demonstrating the 3-D structure of the ice folds.

  11. Status of 3D Ice Shape Measurement Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sam

    2011-01-01

    (1) Main goal of the Airframe Icing Technical Challenge is to achieve acceptance of experimental and computational icing simulation tools -SupercooledLarge Droplet Icing (SLD) conditions -3D airframe components including swept wings; (2) It is necessary to develop suitable means of recording and archiving fully 3D descriptions of experimental ice accretion geometry; (3) Past research has shown that commercial laser scanners have the potential to be adapted to this task; and (4) A research plan has been developed to implement and validate the use of this technology for experimental ice accretions.

  12. Implementation and Validation of 3-D Ice Accretion Measurement Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sam; Broeren, Andy P.; Kreeger, Richard E.; Potapczuk, Mark; Utt, Lloyd

    2014-01-01

    A research program has been implemented to develop and validate the use of a commercial 3-D laser scanning system to record ice accretion geometry in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel. A main component of the program was the geometric assessment of the 3- D laser scanning system on a 2-D (straight wing) and a 3-D (swept wing) airfoil geometries. This exercise consisted of comparison of scanned ice accretion to castings of the same ice accretion. The scan data were also used to create rapid prototype artificial ice shapes that were scanned and compared to the original ice accretion. The results from geometric comparisons on the straight wing showed that the ice shape models generated through the scan/rapid prototype process compared reasonably well with the cast shapes. Similar results were obtained with the geometric comparisons on the swept wing. It was difficult to precisely compare the scans of the cast shapes to the original ice accretion scans because the cast shapes appear to have shrunk during the mold/casting process by as much as 0.10-inch. However the comparison of the local ice-shape features were possible and produced better results. The rapid prototype manufacturing process was shown to reproduce the original ice accretion scan normally within 0.01-inch.

  13. Implementation and Validation of 3-D Ice Accretion Measurement Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sam; Broeren, Andy; Kreeger, Richard; Potapczuk, Mark; Utt, Lloyd

    2014-01-01

    A research program has been implemented to develop and validate the use of a commercial 3-D laser scanning system to record ice accretion geometry in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel. A main component of the program was the geometric assessment of the 3-D laser scanning system on a 2-D (straight wing) and a 3-D (swept wing) airfoil geometries. This exercise consisted of comparison of scanned ice accretion to castings of the same ice accretion. The scan data were also used to create rapid prototype artificial ice shapes that were scanned and compared to the original ice accretion.The results from geometric comparisons on the straight wing showed that the ice shape models generated through the scanrapid prototype process compared reasonably well with the cast shapes. Similar results were obtained with the geometric comparisons on the swept wing. It was difficult to precisely compare the scans of the cast shapes to the original ice accretion scans because the cast shapes appear to have shrunk during the moldcasting process by as much as 0.10-inch. However the comparison of the local ice-shape features were possible and produced better results. The rapid prototype manufacturing process was shown to reproduce the original ice accretion scan normally within 0.01-inch.

  14. Ice stream activity scaled to ice sheet volume during Laurentide Ice Sheet deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Stokes, C R; Margold, M; Clark, C D; Tarasov, L

    2016-02-18

    The contribution of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets to sea level has increased in recent decades, largely owing to the thinning and retreat of outlet glaciers and ice streams. This dynamic loss is a serious concern, with some modelling studies suggesting that the collapse of a major ice sheet could be imminent or potentially underway in West Antarctica, but others predicting a more limited response. A major problem is that observations used to initialize and calibrate models typically span only a few decades, and, at the ice-sheet scale, it is unclear how the entire drainage network of ice streams evolves over longer timescales. This represents one of the largest sources of uncertainty when predicting the contributions of ice sheets to sea-level rise. A key question is whether ice streams might increase and sustain rates of mass loss over centuries or millennia, beyond those expected for a given ocean-climate forcing. Here we reconstruct the activity of 117 ice streams that operated at various times during deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (from about 22,000 to 7,000 years ago) and show that as they activated and deactivated in different locations, their overall number decreased, they occupied a progressively smaller percentage of the ice sheet perimeter and their total discharge decreased. The underlying geology and topography clearly influenced ice stream activity, but--at the ice-sheet scale--their drainage network adjusted and was linked to changes in ice sheet volume. It is unclear whether these findings can be directly translated to modern ice sheets. However, contrary to the view that sees ice streams as unstable entities that can accelerate ice-sheet deglaciation, we conclude that ice streams exerted progressively less influence on ice sheet mass balance during the retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. PMID:26887494

  15. Evolution of a Coupled Marine Ice Sheet - Sea Level Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, N.; Pollard, D.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Huybers, P.; Clark, P. U.

    2012-04-01

    the ice-sheet model is forced from steady state, then on short timescales (< ~500 years) viscous effects may be ignored and grounding-line migration at a given time will depend on the local bedrock topography and on contemporaneous sea-level changes driven by ongoing ice-sheet mass flux. On longer timescales, an accurate assessment of the present stability of a marine ice sheet requires knowledge of its past evolution. We end with a discussion of the first results of simulations in which post-glacial sea-level physics is coupled to a 3D, dynamic model of the Antarctic Ice Sheet.

  16. Epistemology of Ice Sheet Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waibel, M. S.; Hulbe, C. L.; Johnson, J. V.

    2012-12-01

    Recent change in the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets is observed as surface lowering accompanied by speed up of the ice. One of two types of perturbation is usually invoked to account for these changes, unbalanced forces at either the bed or at the marine margin of the ice sheet. The former is linked to change in meltwater at the bed while the latter is linked to a change in the temperature of the ocean near the margin. Observational data have been used together with numerical models to reproduce both cases. What we ask here is whether or not there is anything distinctive in the observed patterns of change that warrants preferring one type of perturbation over the other. That is, our interest is epistemological: is there anything distinctive in the pattern of ice sheet response to environmental forcing that allows the correct forcing to be identified using observational data? We hypothesize that specific changes in ice dynamics—perturbation at the bed or at the margin—lead to unique patterns of change in ice sheet flow, and thus geometry. For example, ocean warming may have its largest expression close to the coast and then propagate into the interior on time and spatial scales set by the material properties of the ice and various boundary conditions. Other perturbations may yield different patterns. The hypothesis is tested using an ice sheet model and a set of simple perturbations that represent environmental changes that might drive ice sheet change. We use surface lowering (ice thinning) as our indicator of change and conduct an EOF analysis to identify modes in that time dependent field. If leading modes derived from different perturbation experiments are distinguishable, the null hypothesis—that there is nothing diagnostic in the observed changes—is rejected and we conclude that observed patterns of change in ice sheets may be used to identify underlying causes for that change. This, in turn, would yield normal mode "finger prints" for

  17. 3-D Particle Simulation of Current Sheet Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Lin, Yu; Wang, Xueyi; Tummel, Kurt; Chen, Liu

    2015-11-01

    The electrostatic (ES) and electromagnetic (EM) instabilities of a Harris current sheet are investigated using a 3-D linearized (δf) gyrokinetic (GK) electron and fully kinetic (FK) ion (GeFi) particle simulation code. The equilibrium magnetic field consists of an asymptotic anti-parallel Bx 0 and a guide field BG. The ES simulations show the excitation of lower-hybrid drift instability (LHDI) at the current sheet edge. The growth rate of the 3-D LHDI is scanned through the (kx ,ky) space. The most unstable modes are found to be at k∥ = 0 for smaller ky. As ky increases, the growth rate shows two peaks at k∥ ≠ 0 , consistent with analytical GK theory. The eigenmode structure and growth rate of LHDI obtained from the GeFi simulation agree well with those obtained from the FK PIC simulation. Decreasing BG, the asymptotic βe 0, or background density can destabilize the LHDI. In the EM simulation, tearing mode instability is dominant in the cases with ky kx , there exist two unstable modes: a kink-like (LHDI) mode at the current sheet edge and a sausage-like mode at the sheet center. The results are compared with the GK eigenmode theory and the FK simulation.

  18. Glaciological constraints on current ice mass changes from modelling the ice sheets over the glacial cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huybrechts, P.

    2003-04-01

    The evolution of continental ice sheets introduces a long time scale in the climate system. Large ice sheets have a memory of millenia, hence the present-day ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica are still adjusting to climatic variations extending back to the last glacial period. This trend is separate from the direct response to mass-balance changes on decadal time scales and needs to be correctly accounted for when assessing current and future contributions to sea level. One way to obtain estimates of current ice mass changes is to model the past history of the ice sheets and their underlying beds over the glacial cycles. Such calculations assist to distinguish between the longer-term ice-dynamic evolution and short-term mass-balance changes when interpreting altimetry data, and are helpful to isolate the effects of postglacial rebound from gravity and altimetry trends. The presentation will discuss results obtained from 3-D thermomechanical ice-sheet/lithosphere/bedrock models applied to the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. The simulations are forced by time-dependent boundary conditions derived from sediment and ice core records and are constrained by geomorphological and glacial-geological data of past ice sheet and sea-level stands. Current simulations suggest that the Greenland ice sheet is close to balance, while the Antarctic ice sheet is still losing mass, mainly due to incomplete grounding-line retreat of the West Antarctic ice sheet since the LGM. The results indicate that altimetry trends are likely dominated by ice thickness changes but that the gravitational signal mainly reflects postglacial rebound.

  19. Climate science: Ice streams waned as ice sheets shrank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briner, Jason P.

    2016-02-01

    It emerges that ice discharge from a major ice sheet did not increase rapidly at the end of the most recent ice age. The finding points to steady, not catastrophic, ice-sheet loss and sea-level rise on millennial timescales. See Letter p.322

  20. Evolution of a Coupled Marine Ice Sheet - Sea Level Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, N.; Pollard, D.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Huybers, P.; Clark, P. U.

    2011-12-01

    effects may be ignored and grounding-line migration at a given time will depend on the local bedrock topography and on contemporaneous sea-level changes driven by ongoing ice-sheet mass flux. On longer timescales, an accurate assessment of the present stability of a marine ice sheet requires knowledge of its past evolution. Finally, we end with a discussion of the first results of simulations in which post-glacial sea-level physics is coupled to a 3D, dynamic marine ice sheet-ice shelf model.

  1. Ice Accretion Calculations for a Commercial Transport Using the LEWICE3D, ICEGRID3D and CMARC Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin S.; Pinella, David; Garrison, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Collection efficiency and ice accretion calculations were made for a commercial transport using the NASA Lewis LEWICE3D ice accretion code, the ICEGRID3D grid code and the CMARC panel code. All of the calculations were made on a Windows 95 based personal computer. The ice accretion calculations were made for the nose, wing, horizontal tail and vertical tail surfaces. Ice shapes typifying those of a 30 minute hold were generated. Collection efficiencies were also generated for the entire aircraft using the newly developed unstructured collection efficiency method. The calculations highlight the flexibility and cost effectiveness of the LEWICE3D, ICEGRID3D, CMARC combination.

  2. Pre-LGM Northern Hemisphere ice sheet topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleman, J.; Fastook, J.; Ebert, K.; Nilsson, J.; Caballero, R.

    2013-10-01

    We here reconstruct the paleotopography of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets during the glacial maxima of marine isotope stages (MIS) 5b and 4.We employ a combined approach, blending geologically based reconstruction and numerical modeling, to arrive at probable ice sheet extents and topographies for each of these two time slices. For a physically based 3-D calculation based on geologically derived 2-D constraints, we use the University of Maine Ice Sheet Model (UMISM) to calculate ice sheet thickness and topography. The approach and ice sheet modeling strategy is designed to provide robust data sets of sufficient resolution for atmospheric circulation experiments for these previously elusive time periods. Two tunable parameters, a temperature scaling function applied to a spliced Vostok-GRIP record, and spatial adjustment of the climatic pole position, were employed iteratively to achieve a good fit to geological constraints where such were available. The model credibly reproduces the first-order pattern of size and location of geologically indicated ice sheets during marine isotope stages (MIS) 5b (86.2 kyr model age) and 4 (64 kyr model age). From the interglacial state of two north-south obstacles to atmospheric circulation (Rocky Mountains and Greenland), by MIS 5b the emergence of combined Quebec-central Arctic and Scandinavian-Barents-Kara ice sheets had increased the number of such highland obstacles to four. The number of major ice sheets remained constant through MIS 4, but the merging of the Cordilleran and the proto-Laurentide Ice Sheet produced a single continent-wide North American ice sheet at the LGM.

  3. Development of 3-D Ice Accretion Measurement Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sam; Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Sills, Robert; Pifer, Ellen M.

    2012-01-01

    A research plan is currently being implemented by NASA to develop and validate the use of a commercial laser scanner to record and archive fully three-dimensional (3-D) ice shapes from an icing wind tunnel. The plan focused specifically upon measuring ice accreted in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). The plan was divided into two phases. The first phase was the identification and selection of the laser scanning system and the post-processing software to purchase and develop further. The second phase was the implementation and validation of the selected system through a series of icing and aerodynamic tests. Phase I of the research plan has been completed. It consisted of evaluating several scanning hardware and software systems against an established selection criteria through demonstrations in the IRT. The results of Phase I showed that all of the scanning systems that were evaluated were equally capable of scanning ice shapes. The factors that differentiated the scanners were ease of use and the ability to operate in a wide range of IRT environmental conditions.

  4. Pre-LGM Northern Hemisphere paleo-ice sheet topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleman, J.; Fastook, J.; Ebert, K.; Nilsson, J.; Caballero, R.

    2013-05-01

    We here reconstruct the paleotopgraphy of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets during the glacial maxima of marine isotope stages (MIS) 5b and 4. We employ two approaches, geologically based reconstruction and numerical modeling, in mutually supportive roles to arrive at probable ice sheet extents and topographies for each of these two time slices. For a physically based 3-D calculation based on geologically derived 2-D constraints, we use the University of Maine Ice Sheet Model (UMISM) to calculate ice-sheet thickness and topography. The approach and ice-sheet modeling strategy is designed to provide robust data sets of sufficient resolution for atmospheric circulation experiments for these previously elusive time periods. Two tunable parameters, a temperature scaling function applied to a spliced Vostok-GRIP record, and spatial adjustment of climatic pole position, were employed iteratively to achieve a good fit to geological constraints where such were available. The model credibly reproduces the first-order pattern of size and location of geologically indicated ice sheets during marine isotope stages (MIS) 5b (86.2 kyr model age) and 4 (64 kyr model age). From the interglacial state of two north-south obstacles to atmospheric circulation (Rocky Mountains and Greenland), by MIS 5b combined Quebec-Central Arctic and Scandinavian-Barents/Kara ice sheets had effectively increased the number of such highland obstacles to four. This number remained constant through MIS 4, but at the last glacial maximum (LGM) dropped to three, through the merging of the Cordilleran and the proto-Laurentide Ice Sheet to a single continent-wide North American ice sheet.

  5. Large Ice Discharge From the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this work are to measure the ice discharge of the Greenland Ice Sheet close to the grounding line and/or calving front, and compare the results with mass accumulation and ablation in the interior to estimate the ice sheet mass balance.

  6. Cenozoic ice volume and temperature simulations with a 1-D ice-sheet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, B.; van de Wal, R. S. W.; Bintanja, R.; Lourens, L. J.; Tuenter, E.

    2009-04-01

    Ice volume and temperature for the past 35 Million years is investigated with a 1-D ice-sheet model, simulating ice-sheets on both hemispheres. The simulations include two continental Northern Hemisphere (NH) ice-sheets representative for glaciation on the two major continents, i.e. Eurasia (EAZ) and North America (NAM). Antarctic glaciation is simulated with two separate ice-sheets, respectively for West and East Antarctica. The surface air temperature is reconstructed with an inventive inverse procedure, forced with benthic δ18O data. The procedure linearly relates the temperature to the difference between the modelled and observed marine δ18O 100 years later. The derived temperature, representative for the NH, is used to run the ice-sheet model over 100 years, to obtain a mutually consistent record of marine δ18O, sea level and temperature for the last 35 Ma of the Cenozoic. For Northern Hemispheric glaciations results are good compared to similar simulations performed with a much more comprehensive 3-D ice-sheet model. On average, differences are only 1.9 ˚ C for temperature and 6.1 m for sea level. Results with ice-sheets on both hemispheres are very similar. Most notably, the reconstructed ice volume as function of temperature shows a transition from climate dominated by Antarctic ice volume variation towards NH ice-sheets controlled climate. The transition period falls within the range of interglacials (about -2 to +8 ˚ C with respect to present day) and is thus characterized by lower ice volume changes per ˚ C. The relationship between temperature, sea level and δ18O input is tested with an equilibrium experiment, which results in a linear and symmetric relationship for both temperature and total sea level, providing limited evidence for hysteresis, though transient behaviour is still important. Furthermore results show a rather good comparison with other simulations of Antarctic ice volume and observed sea level and deep-sea temperature.

  7. Ice Stream Dynamics during Deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, C.; Margold, M.; Clark, C.

    2014-12-01

    Ice streams can rapidly drain large sectors of ice sheet interiors. At present, they account for approximately 50% and 90% of the mass loss from Greenland and Antarctica, respectively, but there are concerns over recent increases in ice discharge. This has been linked to atmospheric and oceanic warming, but the longer-term implications for ice sheet deglaciation are less clear. A key question is whether the activity of ice streams is predictably linked to climate-driven ice sheet mass balance, or whether their activity might accelerate deglaciation. To explore this, we analyse ice streaming during deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) from ~18 to ~7 ka. Following a recent mapping inventory, we bracket the timing of >100 ice streams using published ice margin chronologies. At the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), ice streams formed a drainage network similar to modern ice sheets. Numerous ice streams were located in topographic troughs and likely operated for thousands of years from the LGM. These drained the marine-based sectors of the northern and eastern margins of the ice sheet until ~11 ka and show a degree of spatial self-organisation. Other ice streams operated on much shorter time-scales and turned on and off, perhaps in as little as a few hundred years. These include large ice streams that switched positions over sedimentary bedrock at the western and southern terrestrial margins until ~13 ka. As the LIS retreated onto its low-relief and predominantly crystalline bedrock interior (after ~11 ka), a smaller number of large ice streams operated that were very wide (50-100 km), and have no modern analogue. Overall, the number of ice streams decreased during deglaciation and they drained a smaller proportion of the ice sheet margin: 30% at the LGM (similar to present-day Antarctica), 15% at 12 ka, and 12% at 10 ka. We use simple scaling relationships to estimate the mass loss delivered by ice streams and examine their role during deglaciation.

  8. The Elementary Marine Ice Sheet Model (EMISM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattyn, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Ice sheet models become more and more components of global climate system modelling instead of stand-alone features to study cryospheric processes. Full coupling of ice sheet models to atmospheric and ocean models requires a standard for ice sheet models, and more precisely for marine ice sheet models, where complex feedbacks between ice and ocean, such as marine ice sheet instability, and the atmosphere, such as the elevation-mass balance feedback, operate at different time scales. Recent model intercomparisons (e.g., SeaRISE, MISMIP) have shown that basic requirements for marine ice sheet models are still lacking and that the complexity of many ice sheet models is focused on processes that are either not well captured numerically (spatial resolution issue) or are of secondary importance compared to the essential features of marine ice sheet dynamics. Here, we propose a new and fast computing ice sheet model, devoid of most complexity, but capturing the essential feedbacks when coupled to ocean or atmospheric models. Its computational efficiency guarantees to easily tests its advantages as well as limits through ensemble modelling. EMISM (Elementary Marine Ice Sheet Model) is a vertically integrated ice sheet model based on the Shallow-Ice Approximation extended a Weertman sliding law. Although vertically integrated, thermomechanical coupling is ensured through a simplified representation of ice sheet thermodynamics based on an analytical solution of the vertical temperature profile, enhanced with strain heating. The marine boundary is represented by a parameterized flux condition similar to Pollard & Deconto (2012), based on Schoof (2007). A simplified ice shelf is added to account for buttressing of ice shelves in this parameterization. The ice sheet model is solved on a finite difference grid and special care is taken to its numerical efficiency and stability. While such model has a series of (known) deficiencies with respect to short time effects, its overall

  9. Biofunctionalized Hydrogel Microscaffolds Promote 3D Hepatic Sheet Morphology.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung Hee; Kumar, Supriya K; Shirahama, Hitomi; Seo, Jeongeun; Lee, Jae-Ho; Zhdanov, Vladimir P; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-03-01

    Development of artificial tissues providing the proper geometrical, mechanical, and environmental cues for cells is highly coveted in the field of tissue engineering. Recently, microfabrication strategies in combination with other chemistries have been utilized to capture the architectural complexity of intricate organs, such as the liver, in in vitro platforms. Here it is shown that a biofunctionalized poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel scaffold, fabricated using a sphere-template, facilitates hepatic sheet formation that follows the microscale patterns of the scaffold surface. The design takes advantage of the excellent diffusion properties of porous, uniform 3D hydrogel platforms, and the enhanced-cell-extracellular matrix interaction with the display of conjugated collagen type I, which in turn elicits favorable Huh-7.5 response. Collectively, the experimental findings and corresponding simulations demonstrate the importance of biofunctionalized porous scaffolds and indicate that the microscaffold shows promise in liver tissue engineering applications and provides distinct advantages over current cell sheet and hepatocyte spheroid technologies. PMID:26612190

  10. Uncertainty quantification for ice sheet inverse problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petra, N.; Ghattas, O.; Stadler, G.; Zhu, H.

    2011-12-01

    Modeling the dynamics of polar ice sheets is critical for projections of future sea level rise. Yet, there remain large uncertainties in the basal boundary conditions and in the non-Newtonian constitutive relations employed within ice sheet models. In this presentation, we consider the problem of estimating uncertainty in the solution of (large-scale) ice sheet inverse problems within the framework of Bayesian inference. Computing the general solution of the inverse problem-i.e., the posterior probability density-is intractable with current methods on today's computers, due to the expense of solving the forward model (3D full Stokes flow with nonlinear rheology) and the high dimensionality of the uncertain parameters (which are discretizations of the basal slipperiness field and the Glen's law exponent field). However, under the assumption of Gaussian noise and prior probability densities, and after linearizing the parameter-to-observable map, the posterior density becomes Gaussian, and can therefore be characterized by its mean and covariance. The mean is given by the solution of a nonlinear least squares optimization problem, which is equivalent to a deterministic inverse problem with appropriate interpretation and weighting of the data misfit and regularization terms. To obtain this mean, we solve a deterministic ice sheet inverse problem; here, we infer parameters arising from discretizations of basal slipperiness and rheological exponent fields. For this purpose, we minimize a regularized misfit functional between observed and modeled surface flow velocities. The resulting least squares minimization problem is solved using an adjoint-based inexact Newton method, which uses first and second derivative information. The posterior covariance matrix is given (in the linear-Gaussian case) by the inverse of the Hessian of the least squares cost functional of the deterministic inverse problem. Direct computation of the Hessian matrix is prohibitive, since it would

  11. Balance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For several decades, measurements of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet showed it to be retreating rapidly. But new data derived from satellite-borne radar sensors show the ice sheet to be growing. Changing Antarctic ice sheets remains an area of high scientific interest, particularly in light of recent global warming concerns. These new findings are significant because scientists estimate that sea level would rise 5-6 meters (16-20 feet) if the ice sheet collapsed into the sea. Do these new measurements signal the end of the ice sheet's 10,000-year retreat? Or, are these new satellite data simply much more accurate than the sparse ice core and surface measurements that produced the previous estimates? Another possibility is that the ice accumulation may simply indicate that the ice sheet naturally expands and retreats in regular cycles. Cryologists will grapple with these questions, and many others, as they examine the new data. The image above depicts the region of West Antarctica where scientists measured ice speed. The fast-moving central ice streams are shown in red. Slower tributaries feeding the ice streams are shown in blue. Green areas depict slow-moving, stable areas. Thick black lines depict the areas that collect snowfall to feed their respective ice streams. Reference: Ian Joughin and Slawek Tulaczyk Science Jan 18 2002: 476-480. Image courtesy RADARSAT Antarctic Mapping Project

  12. Holocene deceleration of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, Joseph A; Colgan, William T; Fahnestock, Mark A; Morlighem, Mathieu; Catania, Ginny A; Paden, John D; Gogineni, S Prasad

    2016-02-01

    Recent peripheral thinning of the Greenland Ice Sheet is partly offset by interior thickening and is overprinted on its poorly constrained Holocene evolution. On the basis of the ice sheet's radiostratigraphy, ice flow in its interior is slower now than the average speed over the past nine millennia. Generally higher Holocene accumulation rates relative to modern estimates can only partially explain this millennial-scale deceleration. The ice sheet's dynamic response to the decreasing proportion of softer ice from the last glacial period and the deglacial collapse of the ice bridge across Nares Strait also contributed to this pattern. Thus, recent interior thickening of the Greenland Ice Sheet is partly an ongoing dynamic response to the last deglaciation that is large enough to affect interpretation of its mass balance from altimetry. PMID:26912699

  13. Ice-sheet response to oceanic forcing.

    PubMed

    Joughin, Ian; Alley, Richard B; Holland, David M

    2012-11-30

    The ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica are losing ice at accelerating rates, much of which is a response to oceanic forcing, especially of the floating ice shelves. Recent observations establish a clear correspondence between the increased delivery of oceanic heat to the ice-sheet margin and increased ice loss. In Antarctica, most of these processes are reasonably well understood but have not been rigorously quantified. In Greenland, an understanding of the processes by which warmer ocean temperatures drive the observed retreat remains elusive. Experiments designed to identify the relevant processes are confounded by the logistical difficulties of instrumenting ice-choked fjords with actively calving glaciers. For both ice sheets, multiple challenges remain before the fully coupled ice-ocean-atmosphere models needed for rigorous sea-level projection are available. PMID:23197526

  14. The role of the ice-shelves in Heinrich events: from a conceptual to a 3D model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solas, A.; Charbit, S.; Dumas, C.; Ramstein, G.; Ritz, C.; Paillard, D.

    2008-12-01

    It is now often accepted that Heinrich events are associated with internal oscillations of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets leading to periodical large surges of ice in the ocean. However, no consensus has yet been obtained about the origin of these oscillations. These large-scale surges likely occur with large basal sliding leading to fast flowing ice streams. In sediment zones, this process is favoured by strongly reduced basal dragging. However, thanks to the behavior of the ice shelves in the Antarctic Peninsula, and due to the buttressing effect of the ice shelves, we know now that basal melting may also play a significant role in the production of ice surges. In this study, we investigate trough a conceptual and a 3D thermo-mechanical ice- sheet model including representations of grounding and floating ice and ocean, the ability to produce instabilities of the Northern ice sheets. A series of tests has been conducted to analyze the role of the presence of soft-saturated sediment, the amplitude of basal sliding in grounded areas, the role of basal melting under the ice shelves and the ocean response.

  15. Development of 3D Ice Accretion Measurement Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sam; Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Sills, Robert; Pifer, Ellen M.

    2012-01-01

    Icing wind tunnels are designed to simulate in-flight icing environments. The chief product of such facilities is the ice accretion that forms on various test articles. Documentation of the resulting ice accretion key piece of data in icing-wind-tunnel tests. Number of currently used options for documenting ice accretion in icing-wind-tunnel testing.

  16. Ice sheet topography by satellite altimetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, R.L.; Campbell, W.J.; Ramseier, R.O.; Stanley, H.R.; Zwally, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    The surface elevation of the southern Greenland ice sheet and surface features of the ice flow are obtained from the radar altimeter on the GEOS 3 satellite. The achieved accuracy in surface elevation is ???2 m. As changes in surface elevation are indicative of changes in ice volume, the mass balance of the present ice sheets could be determined by repetitive mapping of the surface elevation and the surface could be monitored to detect surging or significant changes in ice flow. ?? 1978 Nature Publishing Group.

  17. Ice sheets. Volume loss from Antarctic ice shelves is accelerating.

    PubMed

    Paolo, Fernando S; Fricker, Helen A; Padman, Laurie

    2015-04-17

    The floating ice shelves surrounding the Antarctic Ice Sheet restrain the grounded ice-sheet flow. Thinning of an ice shelf reduces this effect, leading to an increase in ice discharge to the ocean. Using 18 years of continuous satellite radar altimeter observations, we have computed decadal-scale changes in ice-shelf thickness around the Antarctic continent. Overall, average ice-shelf volume change accelerated from negligible loss at 25 ± 64 cubic kilometers per year for 1994-2003 to rapid loss of 310 ± 74 cubic kilometers per year for 2003-2012. West Antarctic losses increased by ~70% in the past decade, and earlier volume gain by East Antarctic ice shelves ceased. In the Amundsen and Bellingshausen regions, some ice shelves have lost up to 18% of their thickness in less than two decades. PMID:25814064

  18. The Greenland Ice Sheet in Three Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, J. A.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Catania, G. A.; Paden, J. D.; Gogineni, S.; Morlighem, M.; Colgan, W. T.; Li, J.; Stillman, D. E.; Grimm, R. E.; Clow, G. D.; Young, S. K.; Mabrey, A. N.; Rybarski, S. C.; Wagman, B. M.; Rodriguez, K.

    2014-12-01

    We have produced a dated radiostratigraphy for the whole of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) from two decades of airborne radar-sounding surveys performed by The University of Kansas. This radiostratigraphy reveals a wealth of new information regarding this ice sheet's three-dimensional structure and history. South of Jakobshavn Isbræ, most of the ice sheet is Holocene-aged. Eemian ice is mostly confined to central northern Greenland. Disrupted radiostratigraphy is often located near the onset of the largest outlet glaciers, suggesting a strong coupling between the initiation of faster ice flow and anomalous basal processes in the ice-sheet interior. Ice-flow modeling constrained by this radiostratigraphy reveals that the Holocene-averaged pattern of surface accumulation is similar to the modern pattern, but that Holocene surface-accumulation rates were substantially higher than present rates in the interior. The pattern of predicted basal melt is strongly modulated by surface accumulation, further suggesting that geothermal flux beneath the GrIS is low except in the vicinity of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream. This observation also raises the possibility that the position of the GrIS's central ice divide is coupled to local basal conditions, including spatially varying subglacial geology and geothermal flux. The Holocene-averaged flow of the GrIS was significantly faster than at present, implying that the ice-sheet interior is presently dynamically thickening, likely due to the viscosity contrast between Holocene and Last Glacial Period ice. Englacial dielectric attenuation, inferred from the echo intensity of mapped reflections, is related to borehole-measured temperature and constrains depth-averaged englacial temperature across the GrIS. This ice-sheet-wide radiostratigraphy and its related inferences are new and powerful constraints on the dynamics of the GrIS, and they should be used to evaluate and improve the next generation of ice-sheet models.

  19. Design of the MISMIP+, ISOMIP+, and MISOMIP ice-sheet, ocean, and coupled ice sheet-ocean intercomparison projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asay-Davis, Xylar; Cornford, Stephen; Martin, Daniel; Gudmundsson, Hilmar; Holland, David; Holland, Denise

    2015-04-01

    The MISMIP and MISMIP3D marine ice sheet model intercomparison exercises have become popular benchmarks, and several modeling groups have used them to show how their models compare to both analytical results and other models. Similarly, the ISOMIP (Ice Shelf-Ocean Model Intercomparison Project) experiments have acted as a proving ground for ocean models with sub-ice-shelf cavities.As coupled ice sheet-ocean models become available, an updated set of benchmark experiments is needed. To this end, we propose sequel experiments, MISMIP+ and ISOMIP+, with an end goal of coupling the two in a third intercomparison exercise, MISOMIP (the Marine Ice Sheet-Ocean Model Intercomparison Project). Like MISMIP3D, the MISMIP+ experiments take place in an idealized, three-dimensional setting and compare full 3D (Stokes) and reduced, hydrostatic models. Unlike the earlier exercises, the primary focus will be the response of models to sub-shelf melting. The chosen configuration features an ice shelf that experiences substantial lateral shear and buttresses the upstream ice, and so is well suited to melting experiments. Differences between the steady states of each model are minor compared to the response to melt-rate perturbations, reflecting typical real-world applications where parameters are chosen so that the initial states of all models tend to match observations. The three ISOMIP+ experiments have been designed to to make use of the same bedrock topography as MISMIP+ and using ice-shelf geometries from MISMIP+ results produced by the BISICLES ice-sheet model. The first two experiments use static ice-shelf geometries to simulate the evolution of ocean dynamics and resulting melt rates to a quasi-steady state when far-field forcing changes in either from cold to warm or from warm to cold states. The third experiment prescribes 200 years of dynamic ice-shelf geometry (with both retreating and advancing ice) based on a BISICLES simulation along with similar flips between warm and

  20. Microbial abundance in surface ice on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    PubMed Central

    Stibal, Marek; Gözdereliler, Erkin; Cameron, Karen A.; Box, Jason E.; Stevens, Ian T.; Gokul, Jarishma K.; Schostag, Morten; Zarsky, Jakub D.; Edwards, Arwyn; Irvine-Fynn, Tristram D. L.; Jacobsen, Carsten S.

    2015-01-01

    Measuring microbial abundance in glacier ice and identifying its controls is essential for a better understanding and quantification of biogeochemical processes in glacial ecosystems. However, cell enumeration of glacier ice samples is challenging due to typically low cell numbers and the presence of interfering mineral particles. We quantified for the first time the abundance of microbial cells in surface ice from geographically distinct sites on the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), using three enumeration methods: epifluorescence microscopy (EFM), flow cytometry (FCM), and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). In addition, we reviewed published data on microbial abundance in glacier ice and tested the three methods on artificial ice samples of realistic cell (102–107 cells ml−1) and mineral particle (0.1–100 mg ml−1) concentrations, simulating a range of glacial ice types, from clean subsurface ice to surface ice to sediment-laden basal ice. We then used multivariate statistical analysis to identify factors responsible for the variation in microbial abundance on the ice sheet. EFM gave the most accurate and reproducible results of the tested methodologies, and was therefore selected as the most suitable technique for cell enumeration of ice containing dust. Cell numbers in surface ice samples, determined by EFM, ranged from ~ 2 × 103 to ~ 2 × 106 cells ml−1 while dust concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 2 mg ml−1. The lowest abundances were found in ice sampled from the accumulation area of the ice sheet and in samples affected by fresh snow; these samples may be considered as a reference point of the cell abundance of precipitants that are deposited on the ice sheet surface. Dust content was the most significant variable to explain the variation in the abundance data, which suggests a direct association between deposited dust particles and cells and/or by their provision of limited nutrients to microbial communities on the GrIS. PMID:25852678

  1. 3D data visualisation of the internal structure and bed morphology of Rutford Ice Stream, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, E. C.

    2009-04-01

    One of the distinctive indicators of the location of former ice stream tracks is the presence of extensive sets of highly-elongate bedforms known as mega-scale glacial lineations (MSGL). Knowledge of the conditions of formation of MSGL has been hampered by the lack of direct observation of such landforms beneath contemporary ice sheets. I conducted a detailed ground-penetrating radar survey of a fast-flowing area of the Rutford Ice Stream, West Antarctica, where repeated seismic surveys over a 13 year period have demonstrated the rapid formation of subglacial bedforms beneath 2.5 km of ice. The majority of the bed of the 18 x 18 km area is covered by MSGL. There is a strong correlation between the location of the MSGL and the presence of deforming till (which is several metres thick). The MSGL are absent from an area of the bed where stiff, non-dilatant till outcrops, although there is evidence that the MSGL are migrating onto the stiff-till area. These data provide the first direct test of the hypothesis that MSGL are formed beneath ice streams and the first opportunity to use observations to critically examine process models for their genesis. The data were collected with a 3 MHz ground radar (constructed at the British Antarctic Survey) on profiles separated by 500 m. Data processing used a simple, conventional workflow but the effective 3D visualisation of the bedforms required well-controlled gridding of the bed elevation data followed by the application of spatial filtering. To investigate the relationship between flow directions at the surface and at the bed, commercial seismic interpretation software (Schlumberger Petrel) has been used to visualise the internal layering within the ice stream. The ability to handle large 3-D data volumes in this way will significantly enhance our understanding of glacier dynamics.

  2. Ice Sheet Roughness Estimation Based on Impulse Responses Acquired in the Global Ice Sheet Mapping Orbiter Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niamsuwan, N.; Johnson, J. T.; Jezek, K. C.; Gogineni, P.

    2008-12-01

    The Global Ice Sheet Mapping Orbiter (GISMO) mission was developed to address scientific needs to understand the polar ice subsurface structure. This NASA Instrument Incubator Program project is a collaboration between Ohio State University, the University of Kansas, Vexcel Corporation and NASA. The GISMO design utilizes an interferometric SAR (InSAR) strategy in which ice sheet reflected signals received by a dual-antenna system are used to produce an interference pattern. The resulting interferogram can be used to filter out surface clutter so as to reveal the signals scattered from the base of the ice sheet. These signals are further processed to produce 3D-images representing basal topography of the ice sheet. In the past three years, the GISMO airborne field campaigns that have been conducted provide a set of useful data for studying geophysical properties of the Greenland ice sheet. While topography information can be obtained using interferometric SAR processing techniques, ice sheet roughness statistics can also be derived by a relatively simple procedure that involves analyzing power levels and the shape of the radar impulse response waveforms. An electromagnetic scattering model describing GISMO impulse responses has previously been proposed and validated. This model suggested that rms-heights and correlation lengths of the upper surface profile can be determined from the peak power and the decay rate of the pulse return waveform, respectively. This presentation will demonstrate a procedure for estimating the roughness of ice surfaces by fitting the GISMO impulse response model to retrieved waveforms from selected GISMO flights. Furthermore, an extension of this procedure to estimate the scattering coefficient of the glacier bed will be addressed as well. Planned future applications involving the classification of glacier bed conditions based on the derived scattering coefficients will also be described.

  3. Spatial complexity of ice flow across the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Felix S. L.

    2015-11-01

    Fast-flowing ice streams carry ice from the interior of the Antarctic Ice Sheet towards the coast. Understanding how ice-stream tributaries operate and how networks of them evolve is essential for developing reliable models of the ice sheet’s response to climate change. A particular challenge is to unravel the spatial complexity of flow within and across tributary networks. Here I define a measure of planimetric flow convergence, which can be calculated from satellite measurements of the ice sheet’s surface velocity, to explore this complexity. The convergence map of Antarctica clarifies how tributaries draw ice from its interior. The map also reveals curvilinear zones of convergence along lateral shear margins of streaming, and abundant ripples associated with nonlinear ice rheology and changes in bed topography and friction. Convergence on ice-stream tributaries and their feeding zones is uneven and interspersed with divergence. For individual drainage basins, as well as the ice sheet as a whole, fast flow cannot converge or diverge as much as slow flow. I therefore deduce that flow in the ice-stream networks is subject to mechanical regulation that limits flow-orthonormal strain rates. These findings provide targets for ice-sheet simulations and motivate more research into the origin and dynamics of tributarization.

  4. Holocene deceleration of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, Joseph A.; Colgan, William T.; Fahnestock, Mark A.; Morlighem, Mathieu; Catania, Ginny A.; Paden, John D.; Gogineni, S. Prasad

    2016-02-01

    Recent peripheral thinning of the Greenland Ice Sheet is partly offset by interior thickening and is overprinted on its poorly constrained Holocene evolution. On the basis of the ice sheet’s radiostratigraphy, ice flow in its interior is slower now than the average speed over the past nine millennia. Generally higher Holocene accumulation rates relative to modern estimates can only partially explain this millennial-scale deceleration. The ice sheet’s dynamic response to the decreasing proportion of softer ice from the last glacial period and the deglacial collapse of the ice bridge across Nares Strait also contributed to this pattern. Thus, recent interior thickening of the Greenland Ice Sheet is partly an ongoing dynamic response to the last deglaciation that is large enough to affect interpretation of its mass balance from altimetry.

  5. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics non-Newtonian model for ice-sheet and ice-shelf dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, W.; Tartakovsky, A. M.; Monaghan, J. J.

    2013-06-01

    Mathematical modeling of ice sheets is complicated by the non-linearity of the governing equations and boundary conditions. Standard grid-based methods require complex front tracking techniques and have limited capability to handle large material deformations and abrupt changes in bottom topography. As a consequence, numerical methods are usually restricted to shallow ice sheet and ice shelf approximations. We propose a new smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) non-Newtonian model for coupled ice sheet and ice shelf dynamics. SPH, a fully Lagrangian particle method, is highly scalable and its Lagrangian nature and meshless discretization are well suited to the simulation of free surface flows, large material deformation, and material fragmentation. In this paper, SPH is used to study 3D ice sheet/ice shelf behavior, and the dynamics of the grounding line. The steady state position of the grounding line obtained from SPH simulations is in good agreement with laboratory observations for a wide range of simulated bedrock slopes, and density ratios, similar to those of ice and sea water. The numerical accuracy of the SPH algorithm is verif;ed by simulating Poiseuille flow, plane shear flow with free surface and the propagation of a blob of ice along a horizontal surface. In the laboratory experiment, the ice was represented with a viscous Newtonian fluid. In the present work, however, the ice is modeled as both viscous Newtonian fluid and non-Newtonian fluid, such that the effect of non-Newtonian rheology on the dynamics of grounding line was examined. The non-Newtonian constitutive relation is prescribed to be Glen’s law for the creep of polycrystalline ice. A V-shaped bedrock ramp is further introduced to model the real geometry of bedrock slope.

  6. ICEd-ALE Treatment of 3-D Fluid Flow.

    1999-09-13

    Version: 00 SALE3D calculates three-dimensional fluid flow at all speeds, from the incompressible limit to highly supersonic. An implicit treatment of the pressure calculation similar to that in the Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian (ICE) technique provides this flow speed flexibility. In addition, the computing mesh may move with the fluid in a typical Lagrangian fashion, be held in an Eulerian manner, or move in some arbitrarily specified way to provide a continuous rezoning capability. This latitudemore » results from use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) treatment of the mesh. The partial differential equations solved are the Navier-Stokes equations and the mass and internal energy equations. The fluid pressure is determined from an equation of state and supplemented with an artificial viscous pressure for the computation of shock waves. The computing mesh consists of a three-dimensional network of arbitrarily shaped, six-sided deformable cells, and a variety of user-selectable boundary conditions are provided in the program.« less

  7. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet meltwater runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Tricht, K.; Lhermitte, S.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; Gorodetskaya, I. V.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Noël, B.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Turner, D. D.; van Lipzig, N. P. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet has become one of the main contributors to global sea level rise, predominantly through increased meltwater runoff. The main drivers of Greenland ice sheet runoff, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that clouds enhance meltwater runoff by about one-third relative to clear skies, using a unique combination of active satellite observations, climate model data and snow model simulations. This impact results from a cloud radiative effect of 29.5 (+/-5.2) W m-2. Contrary to conventional wisdom, however, the Greenland ice sheet responds to this energy through a new pathway by which clouds reduce meltwater refreezing as opposed to increasing surface melt directly, thereby accelerating bare-ice exposure and enhancing meltwater runoff. The high sensitivity of the Greenland ice sheet to both ice-only and liquid-bearing clouds highlights the need for accurate cloud representations in climate models, to better predict future contributions of the Greenland ice sheet to global sea level rise.

  8. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet meltwater runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Tricht, Kristof; Lhermitte, Stef; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Gorodetskaya, Irina V.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Noël, Brice; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Turner, David D.; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.

    2016-04-01

    The Greenland ice sheet has become one of the main contributors to global sea level rise, predominantly through increased meltwater runoff. The main drivers of Greenland ice sheet runoff, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that clouds enhance meltwater runoff by about one-third relative to clear skies, using a unique combination of active satellite observations, climate model data and snow model simulations. This impact results from a cloud radiative effect of 29.5 (±5.2) W m‑2. Contrary to conventional wisdom, however, the Greenland ice sheet responds to this energy through a new pathway by which clouds reduce meltwater refreezing as opposed to increasing surface melt directly, thereby accelerating bare-ice exposure and enhancing meltwater runoff. The high sensitivity of the Greenland ice sheet to both ice-only and liquid-bearing clouds highlights the need for accurate cloud representations in climate models, to better predict future contributions of the Greenland ice sheet to global sea level rise.

  9. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet meltwater runoff

    PubMed Central

    Van Tricht, K.; Lhermitte, S.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; Gorodetskaya, I. V.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Noël, B.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Turner, D. D.; van Lipzig, N. P. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet has become one of the main contributors to global sea level rise, predominantly through increased meltwater runoff. The main drivers of Greenland ice sheet runoff, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that clouds enhance meltwater runoff by about one-third relative to clear skies, using a unique combination of active satellite observations, climate model data and snow model simulations. This impact results from a cloud radiative effect of 29.5 (±5.2) W m−2. Contrary to conventional wisdom, however, the Greenland ice sheet responds to this energy through a new pathway by which clouds reduce meltwater refreezing as opposed to increasing surface melt directly, thereby accelerating bare-ice exposure and enhancing meltwater runoff. The high sensitivity of the Greenland ice sheet to both ice-only and liquid-bearing clouds highlights the need for accurate cloud representations in climate models, to better predict future contributions of the Greenland ice sheet to global sea level rise. PMID:26756470

  10. Hypoxia Created Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheet for Prevascularized 3D Tissue Construction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijun; Xing, Qi; Qian, Zichen; Tahtinen, Mitchell; Zhang, Zhaoqiang; Shearier, Emily; Qi, Shaohai; Zhao, Feng

    2016-02-01

    3D tissue based on human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) sheets offers many interesting opportunities for regenerating multiple types of connective tissues. Prevascularizing hMSC sheets with endothelial cells (ECs) will improve 3D tissue performance by supporting cell survival and accelerating integration with host tissue. It is hypothesized that hypoxia cultured hMSC sheets can promote microvessel network formation and preserve stemness of hMSCs. This study investigates the vascularization of hMSC sheets under different oxygen tensions. It is found that the HN condition, in which hMSC sheets formed under physiological hypoxia (2% O2 ) and then cocultured with ECs under normoxia (20% O2 ), enables longer and more branched microvessel network formation. The observation is corroborated by higher levels of angiogenic factors in coculture medium. Additionally, the hypoxic hMSC sheet is more uniform and less defective, which facilitates fabrication of 3D prevascularized tissue construct by layering the prevascularized hMSC sheets and maturing in rotating wall vessel bioreactor. The hMSCs in the 3D construct still maintain multilineage differentiation ability, which indicates the possible application of the 3D construct for various connective tissues regeneration. These results demonstrate that hypoxia created hMSC sheets benefit the microvessel growth and it is feasible to construct 3D prevascularized tissue construct using the prevascularized hMSC sheets. PMID:26663707

  11. Modelling binge-purge oscillations of the Laurentide ice sheet using a plastic ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steen-Larsen, H. C.; Dahl-Jensen, D.

    A simple combined heat and ice-sheet model has been used to calculate temperatures at the base of the Laurentide ice sheet. We let the ice sheet surge when the basal temperature reaches the pressure-melting temperature. Driving the system with the observed accumulation and temperature records from the GRIP ice core, Greenland, produces surges corresponding to the observed Heinrich events. This suggests that the mechanism of basal sliding, initiated when the basal temperature reaches the melting point, can explain the surges of the Laurentide ice sheet. This study highlights the importance of the surface temperature and accumulation rate as a means of forcing the timing and strength of the Heinrich events, thus implying important ice-sheet climate feedbacks.

  12. Conditions for bubble elongation in cold ice-sheet ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, R.B.; Fitzpatrick, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Highly elongated bubbles are sometimes observed in ice-sheet ice. Elongation is favored by rapid ice deformation, and opposed by diffusive processes. We use simple models to show that vapor transport dominates diffusion except possibly very close to the melting point, and that latent-heat effects are insignificant. Elongation is favored by larger bubbles at pore close-off, but is nearly independent of bubble compression below close-off. The simple presence of highly elongated bubbles indicates only that a critical ice-strain rate has been exceeded for significant time, and provides no information on possible disruption of stratigraphic continuity by ice deformation.

  13. Recession of Thwaites Glacier: inferring relevant processes using the ice sheet model Elmer/Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, Nacho; Durand, Gael; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Gourmelen, Noel; Stumpf, Andre; Lampert, Thomas; Gagliardini, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    Numerous studies focusing on ice sheets mass balance clearly show an increasing ice discharge mainly induced by the acceleration of ice flow through coastal outlet glaciers. As a crucial impact, imbalance of both Greenland and Antarctica is today an essential driver of the current sea level rise. In the specific case of West Antarctica, the Amundsen Sea sector is the most impacted region and current recession may be the first sign of a large, unstable and irrevocable retreat of the whole region. Projecting the forthcoming behavior of that sector in general, and the most out of balance Pine Island and Thwaites Glacier is therefore a large matter of concern. Using notably the 3D full-Stokes ice sheet model Elmer/Ice, a recent study has shown that the Pine Island Glacier retreat is currently driven by marine ice sheet instability. Here, we use similar methodologies to investigate the condition of stability of the neighboring Thwaites glacier. In particular, we focus on the effect of ice rises and induced crevasses onto the ice flow and show that their impact is of crucial importance prior to any attempt of projecting the short term response of Twaites glacier.

  14. Rapid Access Ice Drill: A New Tool for Exploration of the Deep Antarctic Ice Sheets and Subglacial Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodge, J. W.; Severinghaus, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Rapid Access Ice Drill (RAID) will penetrate the Antarctic ice sheets in order to core through deep ice, the glacial bed, and into bedrock below. This new technology will provide a critical first look at the interface between major ice caps and their subglacial geology. Currently in construction, RAID is a mobile drilling system capable of making several long boreholes in a single field season in Antarctica. RAID is interdisciplinary and will allow access to polar paleoclimate records in ice >1 Ma, direct observation at the base of the ice sheets, and recovery of rock cores from the ice-covered East Antarctic craton. RAID uses a diamond rock-coring system as in mineral exploration. Threaded drill-pipe with hardened metal bits will cut through ice using reverse circulation of Estisol for pressure-compensation, maintenance of temperature, and removal of ice cuttings. Near the bottom of the ice sheet, a wireline bottom-hole assembly will enable diamond coring of ice, the glacial bed, and bedrock below. Once complete, boreholes will be kept open with fluid, capped, and made available for future down-hole measurement of thermal gradient, heat flow, ice chronology, and ice deformation. RAID will also sample for extremophile microorganisms. RAID is designed to penetrate up to 3,300 meters of ice and take sample cores in less than 200 hours. This rapid performance will allow completion of a borehole in about 10 days before moving to the next drilling site. RAID is unique because it can provide fast borehole access through thick ice; take short ice cores for paleoclimate study; sample the glacial bed to determine ice-flow conditions; take cores of subglacial bedrock for age dating and crustal history; and create boreholes for use as an observatory in the ice sheets. Together, the rapid drilling capability and mobility of the drilling system, along with ice-penetrating imaging methods, will provide a unique 3D picture of the interior Antarctic ice sheets.

  15. Models for polythermal ice sheets and glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, Ian; Schoof, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics of ice-sheets and glaciers depend sensitively on their thermal structure. Many ice masses are polythermal, containing both cold ice, with temperature below the melting point, and temperate ice, with temperature at the melting point. The temperate ice is really an ice-water mixture, with water produced at grain boundaries by dissipative heating. Although the water content is typically small, it can have an important effect on ice dynamics; water content controls ice viscosity, and internal meltwater percolation affects hydrology. Locations where this may be important are in the enhanced shear layer at the base of fast-flowing outlet glaciers, and in the shear margins of ice streams. In this study, we present a simplified model to describe the temperature and water-content of polythermal ice masses, accounting for the possibility of gravity- and pressure-driven water drainage according to Darcy's law. The model is based on the principle of energy conservation and the theory of viscous compaction. Numerical solutions are described and a number of illustrative test problems presented. The model is compared with existing methods in the literature, including enthalpy gradient methods, to which it reduces under certain conditions. Based on the results of our analysis, we suggest a modified enthalpy method that allows for drainage under gravity but that can be relatively easily implemented in ice-sheet models.

  16. Balance Velocities of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joughin, Ian; Fahnestock, Mark; Ekholm, Simon; Kwok, Ron

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetry data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail the location of an ice stream in northeastern Greenland, which was only recently discovered using satellite imagery. Enhanced flow associated with all of the major outlets is clearly visible, although small errors in the source data result in less accurate estimates of the absolute flow speeds. Nevertheless, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning.

  17. Paleoclimate perspectives on Antarctic ice sheet sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naish, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    Near- and long-term future projections of global mean sea level rise (SLR) are hampered by a lack of understanding of the potential dynamic contribution of the polar ice sheets, and in particular the Antarctic ice sheets. With the completion of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Assessment Report a major challenge continues to be placing an upper bound in sea-level projections for 2100 and beyond. The so-called "deterministic" approach which sums observed- and model-projected trends in the known contributions (e.g. ice sheet and glacier surface mass balance, ocean thermal expansion and ground water storage changes) implies a "likely" upper bound of +100cm by 2080-2100. The "semi-empirical" approach which scales past observed sea-level change to mean surface temperature, and uses this relationship to scale future temperature scenarios, predicts a significantly higher upper bound of up to ~2m by 2100. The discrepancy between the two approaches may in part reflect the poorly understood contribution of ice dynamics - that is the rate of flow of ice sheets into the ocean. An ensemble of Antarctic ice sheet models produces highly divergent results for future sea-level projections, primarily because of uncertainties around the mass changes in the East Antarctic Ice Sheet with some models showing increased precipitation driving a positive mass balance overall, even with loss of the marine-based West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). Current best estimates suggest a 10-20cm dynamic ice sheet contribution by 2100 to global SLR. Of concern is that marine based ice sheets are highly sensitive to increases in ocean temperature at their margins and rapid disintegration may ensue if the ice sheets grounding lines retreat into deep sub-glacial basins. Recent studies show the highest rates of ice sheet thinning and retreat are occurring at locations around the WAIS where the surface ocean has warmed, and that some WAIS loss may now be irreversible. Geological records allow

  18. Learning from the past: Antarctic Eemian ice sheet dynamics as an analogy for future warming.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, Johannes; Thoma, Malte; Grosfeld, Klaus; Gierz, Paul; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2015-04-01

    Facing considerable warming during this century the stability of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is under increasing scrutiny. Recent observations suggest that the marine ice sheet instability of the WAIS has already started . We investigate the dynamic evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet during the last interglacial, forcing a state of the art 3D ice sheet model with Eemian boundary conditions. We elucidate the role of ocean warming and surface mass balance on the coupled ice sheet/shelf and grounding line dynamics. Special focus lies on an ice sheet modeling assessment of Antarctica's potential contribution to global sea level rise during the Eemian. The transient model runs are forced by time slice experiments of a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean global circulation model, as well as different sets of sea level and bedrock reconstructions. The model result show strong evidences for a severe ice-sheet retreat in West Antartica, leading to substantical contribution to global sea level from the Southern Hemisphere. Additionally we compare future warming scenarios of West Antarctic Ice Sheet dynamics to our paleo ice sheet modeling studies.

  19. RIMBAY - a multi-approximation 3D ice-dynamics model for comprehensive applications: model description and examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoma, M.; Grosfeld, K.; Barbi, D.; Determann, J.; Goeller, S.; Mayer, C.; Pattyn, F.

    2014-01-01

    Glaciers and ice caps exhibit currently the largest cryospheric contributions to sea level rise. Modelling the dynamics and mass balance of the major ice sheets is therefore an important issue to investigate the current state and the future response of the cryosphere in response to changing environmental conditions, namely global warming. This requires a powerful, easy-to-use, versatile multi-approximation ice dynamics model. Based on the well-known and established ice sheet model of Pattyn (2003) we develop the modular multi-approximation thermomechanic ice model RIMBAY, in which we improve the original version in several aspects like a shallow ice-shallow shelf coupler and a full 3D-grounding-line migration scheme based on Schoof's (2007) heuristic analytical approach. We summarise the full Stokes equations and several approximations implemented within this model and we describe the different numerical discretisations. The results are cross-validated against previous publications dealing with ice modelling, and some additional artificial set-ups demonstrate the robustness of the different solvers and their internal coupling. RIMBAY is designed for an easy adaption to new scientific issues. Hence, we demonstrate in very different set-ups the applicability and functionality of RIMBAY in Earth system science in general and ice modelling in particular.

  20. Growth of Greenland ice sheet - Interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay

    1989-01-01

    An observed 0.23 m/year thickening of the Greenland ice sheet indicates a 25 percent to 45 percent excess ice accumulation over the amount required to balance the outward ice flow. The implied global sea-level depletion is 0.2 to 0.4 mm/year, depending on whether the thickening is only recent (5 to 10 years) or longer term (less than 100 years). If there is a similar imbalance in the northern 60 percent of the ice-sheet area, the depletion is 0.35 to 0.7 mm/year. Increasing ice thickness suggests that the precipitation is higher than the long-term average; higher precipitation may be a characteristic of warmer climates in polar regions.

  1. Exposure age and ice-sheet model constraints on Pliocene East Antarctic ice sheet dynamics.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Masako; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Obrochta, Stephen; Saito, Fuyuki; Moriwaki, Kiichi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The Late Pliocene epoch is a potential analogue for future climate in a warming world. Here we reconstruct Plio-Pleistocene East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) variability using cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages and model simulations to better understand ice sheet behaviour under such warm conditions. New and previously published exposure ages indicate interior-thickening during the Pliocene. An ice sheet model with mid-Pliocene boundary conditions also results in interior thickening and suggests that both the Wilkes Subglacial and Aurora Basins largely melted, offsetting increased ice volume. Considering contributions from West Antarctica and Greenland, this is consistent with the most recent IPCC AR5 estimate, which indicates that the Pliocene sea level likely did not exceed +20 m on Milankovitch timescales. The inception of colder climate since ∼3 Myr has increased the sea ice cover and inhibited active moisture transport to Antarctica, resulting in reduced ice sheet thickness, at least in coastal areas. PMID:25908601

  2. Exposure age and ice-sheet model constraints on Pliocene East Antarctic ice sheet dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Yamane, Masako; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Obrochta, Stephen; Saito, Fuyuki; Moriwaki, Kiichi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The Late Pliocene epoch is a potential analogue for future climate in a warming world. Here we reconstruct Plio-Pleistocene East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) variability using cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages and model simulations to better understand ice sheet behaviour under such warm conditions. New and previously published exposure ages indicate interior-thickening during the Pliocene. An ice sheet model with mid-Pliocene boundary conditions also results in interior thickening and suggests that both the Wilkes Subglacial and Aurora Basins largely melted, offsetting increased ice volume. Considering contributions from West Antarctica and Greenland, this is consistent with the most recent IPCC AR5 estimate, which indicates that the Pliocene sea level likely did not exceed +20 m on Milankovitch timescales. The inception of colder climate since ∼3 Myr has increased the sea ice cover and inhibited active moisture transport to Antarctica, resulting in reduced ice sheet thickness, at least in coastal areas. PMID:25908601

  3. Exposure age and ice-sheet model constraints on Pliocene East Antarctic ice sheet dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Masako; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Obrochta, Stephen; Saito, Fuyuki; Moriwaki, Kiichi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2015-04-01

    The Late Pliocene epoch is a potential analogue for future climate in a warming world. Here we reconstruct Plio-Pleistocene East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) variability using cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages and model simulations to better understand ice sheet behaviour under such warm conditions. New and previously published exposure ages indicate interior-thickening during the Pliocene. An ice sheet model with mid-Pliocene boundary conditions also results in interior thickening and suggests that both the Wilkes Subglacial and Aurora Basins largely melted, offsetting increased ice volume. Considering contributions from West Antarctica and Greenland, this is consistent with the most recent IPCC AR5 estimate, which indicates that the Pliocene sea level likely did not exceed +20 m on Milankovitch timescales. The inception of colder climate since ~3 Myr has increased the sea ice cover and inhibited active moisture transport to Antarctica, resulting in reduced ice sheet thickness, at least in coastal areas.

  4. The Role of Glacial Erosion in Limiting Ice Sheet Extents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, S.; Hulton, N.

    2007-12-01

    We aim to identify and quantify feedbacks between ice dynamics and glacial erosion. Whilst geological and geomorphological evidence indicates that ice sheets generally oscillate in time with orbital forcing, their extents are not necessarily a direct function of the amplitude of this forcing. Benthic δ18O records document glacial-interglacial fluctuations and indicate that maximum Pleistocene global ice volume occurs around 400 ka. However, geomorphological evidence in a number of regions is contradictory, with the most extensive ice masses often occurring 100's of kyrs prior to peaks in the δ18O record. For example, the glacial landforms of Patagonia preserve a record of just such behaviour with each successive glacial advance since 1.15 Ma covering an area less extensive than the previous expansion. This implies that other processes are modifying the linkages between ice sheets and climate. We ask: Could glacial erosion of bedrock have caused ice sheets to self-regulate their extents? Ground-breaking experiments by Oerlemans (1984) demonstrated that erosion induced margin retreat was indeed possible. He showed that retreat could be achieved but only where eroding ice streams were smaller in width than the wavelength of lithospheric response. In Patagonia however, the scales of retreat are much larger than this lithospheric wavelength - but could erosion still be an important factor? We use the GLIMMER 3-D thermomechanical ice sheet model (Payne, 1999) with an added erosion component to simulate long-term landscape evolution under theoretical ice sheets (Jamieson et al., 2007). We show that models of glacial erosion can generate feedbacks on a significant scale such that ice sheets can self-limit their extents over periods of 105 - 106 years regardless of the flexural response of the land surface. Erosion around the ELA enables increasingly efficient ice drainage, and the mass balance of the ice sheet thus shifts towards a more negative state. At the same time

  5. Active volcanism beneath the West Antarctic ice sheet and implications for ice-sheet stability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blankenship, D.D.; Bell, R.E.; Hodge, S.M.; Brozena, J.M.; Behrendt, John C.; Finn, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    IT is widely understood that the collapse of the West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) would cause a global sea level rise of 6 m, yet there continues to be considerable debate about the detailed response of this ice sheet to climate change1-3. Because its bed is grounded well below sea level, the stability of the WAIS may depend on geologically controlled conditions at the base which are independent of climate. In particular, heat supplied to the base of the ice sheet could increase basal melting and thereby trigger ice streaming, by providing the water for a lubricating basal layer of till on which ice streams are thought to slide4,5. Ice streams act to protect the reservoir of slowly moving inland ice from exposure to oceanic degradation, thus enhancing ice-sheet stability. Here we present aerogeophysical evidence for active volcanism and associated elevated heat flow beneath the WAIS near the critical region where ice streaming begins. If this heat flow is indeed controlling ice-stream formation, then penetration of ocean waters inland of the thin hot crust of the active portion of the West Antarctic rift system could lead to the disappearance of ice streams, and possibly trigger a collapse of the inland ice reservoir.

  6. Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content

    DOE Data Explorer

    Liu, Guosheng

    2008-01-15

    Cloud ice water concentration is one of the most important, yet poorly observed, cloud properties. Developing physical parameterizations used in general circulation models through single-column modeling is one of the key foci of the ARM program. In addition to the vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor and condensed water at the model grids, large-scale horizontal advective tendencies of these variables are also required as forcing terms in the single-column models. Observed horizontal advection of condensed water has not been available because the radar/lidar/radiometer observations at the ARM site are single-point measurement, therefore, do not provide horizontal distribution of condensed water. The intention of this product is to provide large-scale distribution of cloud ice water by merging available surface and satellite measurements. The satellite cloud ice water algorithm uses ARM ground-based measurements as baseline, produces datasets for 3-D cloud ice water distributions in a 10 deg x 10 deg area near ARM site. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) areal measurement. That is, this study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements at the point of ARM site. We use the cloud characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain satellite retrieval, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the cloud ice water distributions within an area, i.e., 10 deg x 10 deg centered at ARM site.

  7. Isochronal ice sheet model: Simulate englacial tracer transport to reconstruct past climates and ice sheet volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The full history of ice sheet and climate interactions is recorded in the vertical profiles of isotopic and other geochemical tracers in polar ice sheets. In addition, recent advances in radiostratigraphy uncover the englacial layering that contains information of past surface topographies and thus ice sheet volumes and sea level. Numerical simulations of these archives could afford great advances both in the interpretation of paleoclimatic tracers as well as to help improve ice sheet models themselves and future projections. However, fundamental mathematical shortcomings in existing ice sheet models subject tracers to spurious diffusion that renders such attempts unfeasible. Here, we propose a new vertical discretization for ice sheet models that eliminates numerical diffusion entirely. Vertical motion through the model mesh is avoided by mimicking the real-world ice flow as a thinning of underlying layers. Simulations of the last glacial cycle are presented that show good skill in reproducing the reconstructed profile of the oxygen isotopic ratio (δ18O) and the age scale (http://www.climate.unibe.ch/~born/ice_model.html).

  8. Studies of ice sheet hydrology using SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, R. A.; Vornberger, P. L.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of SAR data of the Greenland ice sheet in summer and winter suggest the use of SAR to monitor the temporal hydrology of ice sheets. Comparisons of each SAR data set with summer Landsat TM imagery show an areal-positive correlation with summer SAR data and a negative correlation with winter SAR data. It is proposed that the summer SAR data are most sensitive to the variable concentrations of free water in the surface snow and that the winter SAR data indicate variations in snow grain size.

  9. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeh, N.

    1984-01-01

    Mass balance equation for glaciers; areal distribution and ice volumes; estimates of actual mass balance; loss by calving of icebergs; hydrological budget for Greenland; and temporal variations of Greenland mass balance are examined.

  10. Bedforms of the Keewatin Ice Sheet, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aylsworth, J. M.; Shilts, W. W.

    1989-05-01

    By compiling glacial bedforms on a map that covers most of one sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, it is possible to make some suggestions about their genesis based largely on spatial relationships. It can be concluded that drumlins and ribbed moraine form at the base of actively flowing ice under similar dynamic conditions. For either landform to exist, however, there must have been enough sediment available in the base of the glacier to leave or form a feature large enough to be recognizable. The presence or absence of sufficient load is related to the geology of the glacier bed and has little to do with regionally changing dynamics of the ice-water system. Likewise, given sufficient load, it is evident that whether drumlins formed or whether ribbed moraine formed in a certain area is a function of the physical nature of the load which is, again, related to geology of the source outcrops. Whether the physical characteristics come into play after the sediment has been released from the ice and is being reshaped by basal drag, streamlining, etc., or whether the nature of the load while entrained changes the behaviour of the basal part of the ice is unclear. Physical characteristics of the basal sediment load have apparently promoted internal thrusting of coherent slabs of entrained debris and ice to form ribbed moraine on melting, whereas drumlins may reflect moulding of plastic subglacial debris or erosional streamlining of both the unconsolidated glacial substrate and bedrock. The observation that many eskers cross drumlin fields at nearly right angles to their orientation suggests that conditions producing streamlining and those pertaining to subglacial drainage are separated in time and circumstance. The general occurrence of drumlins and eskers throughout the sediment-rich portions of the Keewatin Ice Sheet, from Zone 1 to its edge, is difficult to reconcile with the restriction and intimate association of these forms with ribbed moraine almost exclusively in

  11. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet mass loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Tricht, Kristof; Gorodetskaya, Irina V.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Lhermitte, Stef; Noel, Brice; Turner, David D.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.

    2015-04-01

    Clouds have a profound influence on both the Arctic and global climate, while they still represent one of the key uncertainties in climate models, limiting the fidelity of future climate projections. The potentially important role of thin liquid-containing clouds over Greenland in enhancing ice sheet melt has recently gained interest, yet current research is spatially and temporally limited, focusing on particular events, and their large scale impact on the surface mass balance remains unknown. We used a combination of satellite remote sensing (CloudSat - CALIPSO), ground-based observations and climate model (RACMO) data to show that liquid-containing clouds warm the Greenland ice sheet 94% of the time. High surface reflectivity (albedo) for shortwave radiation reduces the cloud shortwave cooling effect on the absorbed fluxes, while not influencing the absorption of longwave radiation. Cloud warming over the ice sheet therefore dominates year-round. Only when albedo values drop below ~0.6 in the coastal areas during summer, the cooling effect starts to overcome the warming effect. The year-round excess of energy due to the presence of liquid-containing clouds has an extensive influence on the mass balance of the ice sheet. Simulations using the SNOWPACK snow model showed not only a strong influence of these liquid-containing clouds on melt increase, but also on the increased sublimation mass loss. Simulations with the Community Earth System Climate Model for the end of the 21st century (2080-2099) show that Greenland clouds contain more liquid water path and less ice water path. This implies that cloud radiative forcing will be further enhanced in the future. Our results therefore urge the need for improving cloud microphysics in climate models, to improve future projections of ice sheet mass balance and global sea level rise.

  12. Anisotropic texture of ice sheet surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Benjamin E.; Raymond, Charles F.; Scambos, Theodore

    2006-03-01

    In this paper we analyze the magnitude and spatial organization of small-scale surface features (the surface texture) of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. The texture is revealed in shaded relief maps of digital elevation models because surface slopes emphasize short-wavelength topography. We show that the surface slope components parallel to and perpendicular to the ice flow direction of ice sheets are both qualitatively and quantitatively different from one another. The parallel component variations are larger in magnitude than the perpendicular component variations, and features in maps of the parallel component are elongated perpendicular to the ice flow direction, while features in maps of the perpendicular component are elongated at a diagonal to the ice flow direction. These properties may be explained by a simple model of glacier dynamics in which a linearly viscous slab of ice flows over a random, isotropic, red noise bed. In this model an anisotropic surface results from an isotropic bed because the surface anisotropy derives from the anisotropic transfer of bed topography to the surface by viscous flow dynamics. The modeling results suggest that analysis of surface texture magnitude and anisotropy can be used to identify areas of sliding ice from surface topography data alone and can be used to roughly estimate sliding rates where bed topography is known.

  13. Icing Analysis of a Swept NACA 0012 Wing Using LEWICE3D Version 3.48

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin S.

    2014-01-01

    Icing calculations were performed for a NACA 0012 swept wing tip using LEWICE3D Version 3.48 coupled with the ANSYS CFX flow solver. The calculated ice shapes were compared to experimental data generated in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). The IRT tests were designed to test the performance of the LEWICE3D ice void density model which was developed to improve the prediction of swept wing ice shapes. Icing tests were performed for a range of temperatures at two different droplet inertia parameters and two different sweep angles. The predicted mass agreed well with the experiment with an average difference of 12%. The LEWICE3D ice void density model under-predicted void density by an average of 30% for the large inertia parameter cases and by 63% for the small inertia parameter cases. This under-prediction in void density resulted in an over-prediction of ice area by an average of 115%. The LEWICE3D ice void density model produced a larger average area difference with experiment than the standard LEWICE density model, which doesn't account for the voids in the swept wing ice shape, (115% and 75% respectively) but it produced ice shapes which were deemed more appropriate because they were conservative (larger than experiment). Major contributors to the overly conservative ice shape predictions were deficiencies in the leading edge heat transfer and the sensitivity of the void ice density model to the particle inertia parameter. The scallop features present on the ice shapes were thought to generate interstitial flow and horse shoe vortices which enhance the leading edge heat transfer. A set of changes to improve the leading edge heat transfer and the void density model were tested. The changes improved the ice shape predictions considerably. More work needs to be done to evaluate the performance of these modifications for a wider range of geometries and icing conditions

  14. Icing Analysis of a Swept NACA 0012 Wing Using LEWICE3D Version 3.48

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin S.

    2014-01-01

    Icing calculations were performed for a NACA 0012 swept wing tip using LEWICE3D Version 3.48 coupled with the ANSYS CFX flow solver. The calculated ice shapes were compared to experimental data generated in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). The IRT tests were designed to test the performance of the LEWICE3D ice void density model which was developed to improve the prediction of swept wing ice shapes. Icing tests were performed for a range of temperatures at two different droplet inertia parameters and two different sweep angles. The predicted mass agreed well with the experiment with an average difference of 12%. The LEWICE3D ice void density model under-predicted void density by an average of 30% for the large inertia parameter cases and by 63% for the small inertia parameter cases. This under-prediction in void density resulted in an over-prediction of ice area by an average of 115%. The LEWICE3D ice void density model produced a larger average area difference with experiment than the standard LEWICE density model, which doesn't account for the voids in the swept wing ice shape, (115% and 75% respectively) but it produced ice shapes which were deemed more appropriate because they were conservative (larger than experiment). Major contributors to the overly conservative ice shape predictions were deficiencies in the leading edge heat transfer and the sensitivity of the void ice density model to the particle inertia parameter. The scallop features present on the ice shapes were thought to generate interstitial flow and horse shoe vortices which enhance the leading edge heat transfer. A set of changes to improve the leading edge heat transfer and the void density model were tested. The changes improved the ice shape predictions considerably. More work needs to be done to evaluate the performance of these modifications for a wider range of geometries and icing conditions.

  15. Satellite remote sensing for ice sheet research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. H.; omplexity of the land cover and land use p; omplexity of the land cover and land use p

    1985-01-01

    Potential research applications of satellite data over the terrestrial ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica are assessed and actions required to ensure acquisition of relevant data and appropriate processing to a form suitable for research purposes are recommended. Relevant data include high-resolution visible and SAR imagery, infrared, passive-microwave and scatterometer measurements, and surface topography information from laser and radar altimeters.

  16. Imaging of human differentiated 3D neural aggregates using light sheet fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gualda, Emilio J.; Simão, Daniel; Pinto, Catarina; Alves, Paula M.; Brito, Catarina

    2014-01-01

    The development of three dimensional (3D) cell cultures represents a big step for the better understanding of cell behavior and disease in a more natural like environment, providing not only single but multiple cell type interactions in a complex 3D matrix, highly resembling physiological conditions. Light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) is becoming an excellent tool for fast imaging of such 3D biological structures. We demonstrate the potential of this technique for the imaging of human differentiated 3D neural aggregates in fixed and live samples, namely calcium imaging and cell death processes, showing the power of imaging modality compared with traditional microscopy. The combination of light sheet microscopy and 3D neural cultures will open the door to more challenging experiments involving drug testing at large scale as well as a better understanding of relevant biological processes in a more realistic environment. PMID:25161607

  17. Mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet.

    PubMed

    Wingham, D J; Shepherd, A; Muir, A; Marshall, G J

    2006-07-15

    The Antarctic contribution to sea-level rise has long been uncertain. While regional variability in ice dynamics has been revealed, a picture of mass changes throughout the continental ice sheet is lacking. Here, we use satellite radar altimetry to measure the elevation change of 72% of the grounded ice sheet during the period 1992-2003. Depending on the density of the snow giving rise to the observed elevation fluctuations, the ice sheet mass trend falls in the range -5-+85Gtyr-1. We find that data from climate model reanalyses are not able to characterise the contemporary snowfall fluctuation with useful accuracy and our best estimate of the overall mass trend-growth of 27+/-29Gtyr-1-is based on an assessment of the expected snowfall variability. Mass gains from accumulating snow, particularly on the Antarctic Peninsula and within East Antarctica, exceed the ice dynamic mass loss from West Antarctica. The result exacerbates the difficulty of explaining twentieth century sea-level rise. PMID:16782603

  18. Ice sheet collapse affects ocean circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-06-01

    As Earth's climate warms and ice melts, freshwater input to oceans could weaken the large-scale Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, which acts as an important conveyor of heat and has significant effects on climate. Green et al. used an intermediate complexity climate model to study how freshwater input to oceans can affect the meridional overturning circulation. They applied their model to the collapse of the Barents ice sheet about 140,000 years ago—the first study of this kind for the time period—which resulted in a huge influx of freshwater to the North Atlantic Ocean as large icebergs calved off of the ice sheet. (Paleoceanography, doi:10.1029/ 2010PA002088, 2011)

  19. GIA simulation with plastic and visco-plastic ice models on a laterally heterogeneous 3D Earth model for Scandinavia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocchi, P.; van der Wal, W.; Vermeersen, B. L.; van de Wal, R.; Wu, P. P.

    2010-12-01

    Constraining the rheology of the upper mantle beneath the Scandinavian shield by means of relative sea-level indicators and instrumental observations demands a realistic spatio-temporal discretization of the late Pleistocene ice coverage over Eurasia. The waxing and waning of ice sheets is testified by the occurrence of surface marks that come in form of datable depositional and erosive features. We use these georeferenced geological evidences to infer the time-dependent ice sheet margins. By adopting both plastic and viscosplastic rheologies, we fill the boundaries with ice mass resting at equilibrium. Thus, in our approach the ice model is not biased by assumptions on the Earth’s rheology. The Fennoscandian ice cap contributes up to ~14 of the ~38 m of equivalent sea level stored over Eurasia, while 82 m are distributed between simplified parabolic ice caps for North America, Greenland and Antarctica in order to conserve the 120 m of global eustatic sea level rise. We apply the equal-volume plastic and viscoplastic versions of our ice model to a 3d spherical Earth model with rheology based on laboratory derived flow laws for mantle rocks. Fixed deformation parameters for diffusion and dislocation creep are used throughout the mantle, except for the top 250 km in which deformation parameters are computed from lateral varying temperature derived from seismology. We vary grain sizes and water content in the top layers to study their impact on glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) observables. Predictions are compared with GIA observations in Scandinavia to show whether the ice model and laterally varying Earth rheology can explain GIA observations as good as previous models that were based on Newtonian rheology in the Earth.

  20. Future Antarctic Bed Topography and Its Implications for Ice Sheet Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adhikari, Surendra; Ivins, Erik R.; Larour, Eric Y.; Seroussi, Helene L.; Morlighem, Mathieu; Nowicki, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Antarctic bedrock is evolving as the solid Earth responds to the past and ongoing evolution of the ice sheet. A recently improved ice loading history suggests that the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) has generally been losing its mass since the Last Glacial Maximum. In a sustained warming climate, the AIS is predicted to retreat at a greater pace, primarily via melting beneath the ice shelves.We employ the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) capability of the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) to combine these past and future ice loadings and provide the new solid Earth computations for the AIS.We find that past loading is relatively less important than future loading for the evolution of the future bed topography. Our computations predict that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) may uplift by a few meters and a few tens of meters at years AD 2100 and 2500, respectively, and that the East Antarctic Ice Sheet is likely to remain unchanged or subside minimally except around the Amery Ice Shelf. The Amundsen Sea Sector in particular is predicted to rise at the greatest rate; one hundred years of ice evolution in this region, for example, predicts that the coastline of Pine Island Bay will approach roughly 45mmyr-1 in viscoelastic vertical motion. Of particular importance, we systematically demonstrate that the effect of a pervasive and large GIA uplift in the WAIS is generally associated with the flattening of reverse bed slope, reduction of local sea depth, and thus the extension of grounding line (GL) towards the continental shelf. Using the 3-D higher-order ice flow capability of ISSM, such a migration of GL is shown to inhibit the ice flow. This negative feedback between the ice sheet and the solid Earth may promote stability in marine portions of the ice sheet in the future.

  1. Irregular oscillations of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macayeal, Douglas R.

    1993-01-01

    Model simulations of the West Antarctic ice sheet suggest that sporadic, perhaps chaotic, collapse (complete mobilization) of the ice sheet occurred throughout the past one million years. The irregular behavior is due to the slow equilibration time of the distribution of basal till, which lubricates ice-sheet motion. This nonlinear response means that predictions of future collapse of the ice sheet in response to global warming must take into account its past history, and in particular, whether the present basal till distribution predisposes the ice sheet towards rapid change.

  2. The Greenland Ice Sheet Monitoring Network (GLISN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, K. R.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Butler, R.; Clinton, J. F.; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Ekstrom, G.; Giardini, D.; Govoni, A.; Hanka, W.; Kanao, M.; Larsen, T.; Lasocki, S.; McCormack, D. A.; Mykkeltveit, S.; Nettles, M.; Agostinetti, N. P.; Stutzmann, E.; Tsuboi, S.; Voss, P.

    2010-12-01

    The GreenLand Ice Sheet monitoring Network (GLISN) is an international, broadband seismic capability for Greenland, being installed and implemented through the collaboration of Denmark, Canada, Germany, Italy, Japan, Norway, Poland, Switzerland, and USA. GLISN is a real-time sensor array of seismic stations to enhance and upgrade the performance of the sparse Greenland seismic infrastructure for detecting, locating, and characterizing glacial earthquakes and other cryo-seismic phenomena, and contributing to our understanding of Ice Sheet dynamics. Complementing data from satellites, geodesy, and other sources, and in concert with these technologies, GLISN will provide a powerful tool for detecting change, and will advance new frontiers of research in the glacial systems; the underlying geological and geophysical processes affecting the Greenland Ice Sheet; interactions between oceans, climate, and the cryosphere; and other multidisciplinary areas of interest to geoscience and climate dynamics. The glacial processes that induce seismic events (internal deformation, sliding at the base, disintegration at the calving front, drainage of supra-glacial lakes) are all integral to the overall dynamics of glaciers, and seismic observations of glaciers therefore provide a quantitative means for monitoring changes in their behavior over time. Long-term seismic monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet will contribute to identifying possible unsuspected mechanisms and metrics relevant to ice sheet collapse, and will provide new constraints on Ice Sheet dynamic processes and their potential roles in sea-level rise during the coming decades. GLISN will provide a new, fiducial reference network in and around Greenland for monitoring these phenomena in real-time, and for the broad seismological study of Earth and earthquakes. The 2010 summer field season saw the installation or upgrade of 9 stations in the GLISN network. Sites visited under the GLISN project include Station Nord (NOR

  3. Simulating Ice-Flow and Calving on Store Glacier, West Greenland, with a 3D Full Stokes Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, J.; Christoffersen, P.; Zwinger, T.; Luckman, A. J.; Benn, D.

    2015-12-01

    The mass balance and long-term stability of the ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica depend heavily on the dynamics of their ice-ocean margins. Iceberg calving accounts for the majority of the net annual loss of ice in Antarctica and around half of that from Greenland. Furthermore, climate driven changes to dynamics at these calving margins can be transmitted far inland. Thus, predicting future sea level contribution from the cryosphere requires an improved understanding of calving, and the processes which link it to climate and ice-sheet flow. We present results from a new 3D calving model coupled to a full-Stokes, time evolving glacier dynamic model, implemented for Store Glacier, a 5-km-wide calving glacier in the Uummannaq region of West Greenland, which flows at a rate of 20 m/day at its terminus. The model is developed using the open source finite element package Elmer/Ice, with the criterion that calving occurs when surface and basal crevasses meet. Crevasses open in response to tensile stresses near the terminus and water pressure at the bed. When the model was applied in 2D for the central flowline of Store Glacier, we found that basal topography exerts overarching control on the long term position of the calving front, while ice mélange buttressing allows the seasonal extension of a floating tongue, which collapses in early summer. New results emerging from implementation of calving in a 3D model indicate significant spatial heterogeneity in calving dynamics because the northern half of the terminus is grounded whereas the southern half is floating. This contrasting setting affects calving dynamics, further underlining the importance of geometry and basal topography, and suggesting that lower dimensional calving models may miss important aspects of calving dynamics. Our results also suggest that implementing grounding line dynamics is important for modelling calving, even for glaciers which are, for the most part, firmly grounded.

  4. Validation of 3-D Ice Accretion Measurement Methodology for Experimental Aerodynamic Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Lee, Sam; Monastero, Marianne C.

    2015-01-01

    Determining the adverse aerodynamic effects due to ice accretion often relies on dry-air wind-tunnel testing of artificial, or simulated, ice shapes. Recent developments in ice-accretion documentation methods have yielded a laser-scanning capability that can measure highly three-dimensional (3-D) features of ice accreted in icing wind tunnels. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the aerodynamic accuracy of ice-accretion simulations generated from laser-scan data. Ice-accretion tests were conducted in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel using an 18-in. chord, two-dimensional (2-D) straight wing with NACA 23012 airfoil section. For six ice-accretion cases, a 3-D laser scan was performed to document the ice geometry prior to the molding process. Aerodynamic performance testing was conducted at the University of Illinois low-speed wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of 1.8 × 10(exp 6) and a Mach number of 0.18 with an 18-in. chord NACA 23012 airfoil model that was designed to accommodate the artificial ice shapes. The ice-accretion molds were used to fabricate one set of artificial ice shapes from polyurethane castings. The laser-scan data were used to fabricate another set of artificial ice shapes using rapid prototype manufacturing such as stereolithography. The iced-airfoil results with both sets of artificial ice shapes were compared to evaluate the aerodynamic simulation accuracy of the laser-scan data. For five of the six ice-accretion cases, there was excellent agreement in the iced-airfoil aerodynamic performance between the casting and laser-scan based simulations. For example, typical differences in iced-airfoil maximum lift coefficient were less than 3 percent with corresponding differences in stall angle of approximately 1 deg or less. The aerodynamic simulation accuracy reported in this paper has demonstrated the combined accuracy of the laser-scan and rapid-prototype manufacturing approach to simulating ice accretion for a NACA 23012 airfoil. For several

  5. Greenland Ice Sheet glacier motion and ice loss: New understanding of ice sheet behavior through remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, T. A.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Scambos, T.; Joughin, I.

    2015-12-01

    Ice loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet makes up roughly a third of current sea level rise, also generating substantial local and regional freshwater fluxes. Containing more than 6 meters of sea level rise equivalent in ice, Greenland has the potential to contribute much more to rising ocean levels and freshening water in the future. Understanding the dynamics of the ice sheet, particularly the behavior of fast flowing coastal outlet glaciers, is critical to improving predictions of future ice sheet change and associated impacts. Combining velocity, glacier ice front, sea ice, and ice sheet surface melt data, we made several important advances in characterizing and understanding seasonal glacier behavior and the processes driving change: 1) seasonal velocity patterns fall into at least 3 distinct patterns, 2) these seasonal velocity patterns likely indicate differences in glacier responsiveness to ocean versus subglacial hydrologic processes, and 3) in some regions seasonal versus multi-year velocity changes appear most strongly influenced by different environmental factors. Further progress was previously hampered by limits in measurement resolution across space and time. To address this challenge, we are creating a new - and continuously growing - ice velocity dataset from Landsat 8 imagery. This data stream supports comprehensive global measurements of ice flow, providing a leap in our understanding of ice sheet motion across space and time. We offer a high-level discussion of our research findings and an introduction to the new Landsat 8-enabled data stream. Our results and measurement capabilities deliver critical new knowledge about ice sheet behavior and interaction with ocean and climate factors. These advances, in turn, have important implications for other elements of Earth system research, including climate, oceanography, and biology.

  6. Meteorites and the Antarctic ice sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassidy, W. A.

    1986-01-01

    The majority of the meteorite finds were located in the Allan Hills site. All the expected goals involving the recovery of rare or previously unknown types of meteorites, and even the recovery of lunar ejecta, were realized. The relationship between these remarkable concentrations of meteorites and the Antarctic ice sheet itself were less well documented. Ice flow vector studies were made and concentration models were proposed. Earlier estimates of the abundances of meteorite types were based on the number of falls in the world collections. The accumulated data and the future collected data will allow more reliable estimates of the source region of most meteorites.

  7. Brief communication: Impact of mesh resolution for MISMIP and MISMIP3d experiments using Elmer/Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliardini, O.; Brondex, J.; Gillet-Chaulet, F.; Tavard, L.; Peyaud, V.; Durand, G.

    2016-02-01

    The dynamical contribution of marine ice sheets to sea level rise is largely controlled by grounding line (GL) dynamics. Two marine ice sheet model intercomparison exercises, namely MISMIP and MISMIP3d, have been proposed to the community to test and compare the ability of models to capture the GL dynamics. Both exercises are known to present a discontinuity of the friction at the GL, which is believed to increase the model sensitivity to mesh resolution. Here, using Elmer/Ice, the only Stokes model which completed both intercomparisons, the sensitivity to the mesh resolution is studied from an extended MISMIP experiment in which the friction continuously decreases over a transition distance and equals zero at the GL. Using this MISMIP-like setup, it is shown that the sensitivity to the mesh resolution is not improved for a vanishing friction at the GL. For the original MISMIP experiment, i.e. for a discontinuous friction at the GL, we further show that the results are moreover very sensitive to the way the friction is interpolated in the close vicinity of the GL. In the light of these new insights, and thanks to increased computing resources, new results for the MISMIP3d experiments obtained for higher resolutions than previously published are made available for future comparisons as the Supplement.

  8. Flow-pattern evolution of the last British Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Anna L. C.; Clark, Chris D.; Jordan, Colm J.

    2014-04-01

    We present a 10-stage reconstruction of the evolution in ice-flow patterns of the last British Ice Sheet from build-up to demise derived from geomorphological evidence. 100 flowsets identified in the subglacial bedform record (drumlins, mega-scale glacial lineations, and ribbed moraine) are combined with ancillary evidence (erratic-transport paths, absolute dates and a semi-independently reconstructed retreat pattern) to define flow patterns, ice divides and ice-sheet margins during build-up, maximum glaciation and retreat. Overprinting and cross-cutting of landform assemblages are used to define the relative chronology of flow patterns and a tentative absolute chronology is presented based on a collation of available dates for ice advance and retreat. The ice-flow configuration of the last British Ice Sheet was not static. Some ice divides were remarkably stable, persisting through multiple stages of the ice-sheet evolution, whereas others were transient features existing for a short time and/or shifting in position 10s km. The 10 reconstructed stages of ice-sheet geometry capture two main modes of operation; first as an integrated ice sheet with a broadly N-S orientated ice divide, and second as a multi-domed ice sheet orientated parallel with the shelf edge. A thick integrated ice sheet developed as ice expanded out of source areas in Scotland to envelop southerly ice caps in northern England and Wales, and connect with the Irish Ice Sheet to the west and the Scandinavian Ice Sheet across the North Sea. Following break-up of ice over the North Sea, ice streaming probably drove mass loss and ice-sheet thinning to create a more complex divide structure, where ice-flow patterns were largely controlled by the form of the underlying topography. Ice surface lowering occurred before separation of, and retreat to, multiple ice centres centred over high ground. We consider this 10-stage reconstruction of the evolution in ice-sheet configuration to be the simplest palaeo

  9. 3-D ice shape measurements using mid-infrared laser scanning.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiaoliang; Bansmer, Stephan

    2015-02-23

    A general approach based on mid-infrared (MIR) laser scanning is proposed to measure the 3-D ice shape no matter whether the ice is composed of clear ice, rime ice, mixed ice, or even supercooled water droplets or films. This is possible because MIR radiation penetrates ice and water only within a depth of less than 10 micrometers. First, an MIR laser point scanning technique is implemented and verified on transparent glass and clear ice. Then, to improve efficiency, an MIR laser line scanning method is developed and validated on different models. At last, several sequential MIR laser line scans are applied to trace the 3-D shape evolution of the continuous ice accretion on an airfoil in an icing wind tunnel. The ice growth process can be well observed in the results. The MIR scan shows a good agreement with the traditional visible laser scan on a plastic replication of the final ice shape made by the mold and casting method. PMID:25836526

  10. Ice Sheet System Model as Educational Entertainment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, G.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the importance of polar ice sheets and their role in the evolution of Sea Level Rise (SLR), as well as Climate Change, is of paramount importance for policy makers as well as the public and schools at large. For example, polar ice sheets and glaciers currently account for 1/3 of the SLR signal, a ratio that will increase in the near to long-term future, which has tremendous societal ramifications. Consequently, it is important to increase awareness about our changing planet. In our increasingly digital society, mobile and web applications are burgeoning venues for such outreach. The Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) is a software that was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/CalTech/NASA, in collaboration with University of California Irvine (UCI), with the goal of better understanding the evolution of polar ice sheets. It is a state-of-the-art framework, which relies on higher-end cluster-computing to address some of the aforementioned challenges. In addition, it is a flexible framework that can be deployed on any hardware; in particular, on mobile platforms such as Android or iOS smart phones. Here, we look at how the ISSM development team managed to port their model to these platforms, what the implications are for improving how scientists disseminate their results, and how a broader audience may familiarize themselves with running complex climate models in simplified scenarios which are highly educational and entertaining in content. We also look at the future plans toward a web portal fully integrated with mobile technologies to deliver the best content to the public, and to provide educational plans/lessons that can be used in grades K-12 as well as collegiate under-graduate and graduate programs.

  11. Numerical modeling of Tibetan Plateau formation: Thin-sheet versus fully 3D models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechmann, S. M.; Schmalholz, S. M.; Kaus, B. J. P.

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge about the tectonic evolution of the Tibetan Plateau is still incomplete and many open questions remain concerning the deformation style of the crustal thickening, causing the abnormally high elevation of the Tibetan Plateau. Different models have been suggested explaining the crustal thickening by (1) homogeneous, continuous deformation using thin-sheet models, (2) discrete movement along thrusts developing crustal wedges and (3) lateral crustal flow due to pressure gradients resulting from topography. Most existing models are not fully three-dimensional (3D) models (e.g. thin-sheet models) and assume a certain deformation style a priori, which makes it difficult to judge the applicability of such constrained models to the formation of the Tibetan Plateau. We present a comparison of deformation styles during continent indentation resulting from a fully 3D numerical model and a thin-sheet model. The rheology for both models is power-law. The 3D model consists of four layers representing a simplified lithosphere: strong upper crust, weak lower crust, strong upper mantle and weak lower mantle. From the effective viscosity distribution of the 3D model a vertically averaged effective viscosity is calculated and used for the thin-sheet model to make direct comparisons between the two models. Simulating indentation is achieved by assigning free slip at one lateral side of the model, and fixing two other sides. The boundary at which indentation is taking place, exhibits a tripartite velocity profile: Next to the free slip side a section with constant horizontal velocity is applied. The velocity then gradually decreases towards zero, applying a cosine-function. The last section of the indenting boundary next to the fixed side is also fixed. The 3D model additionally exhibits a free surface and a bottom boundary allowing free slip. The 3D code employs the finite element method with a mixed velocity-pressure formulation to simulate incompressible flow. A Lagrangian

  12. 3D modelling of the Tejeda Caldera cone-sheet swarm, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samrock, Lisa K.; Jensen, Max J.; Burchardt, Steffi; Troll, Valentin R.; Mattsson, Tobias; Geiger, Harri

    2015-04-01

    Cone-sheet swarms provide vital information on the interior of volcanic systems and their plumbing systems (e.g. Burchardt et al. 2013). This information is important for the interpretation of processes and dynamics of modern and ancient volcanic systems, and is therefore vital for assessing volcanic hazards and to reduce risks to modern society. To more realistically model cone-sheet emplacement an approximation of their 3D shape needs to be known. Most cone-sheet swarms are not sufficiently exposed laterally and/or vertically, however, which makes it difficult to determine the geometry of a cone-sheet swarm at depth, especially since different shapes (e.g. convex, straight or concave continuations) would produce a similar trace at the surface (cf. Burchardt et al. 2011, and references therein). The Miocene Tejeda Caldera on Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain, hosts a cone-sheet swarm that was emplaced into volcaniclastic caldera infill at about 12.3-7.3 Ma (Schirnick et al. 1999). The dyke swarm displays over 1000 m of vertical exposure and more than 15 km of horizontal exposure, making it a superb locality to study the evolution of cone-sheet swarms in detail and to determine its actual geometry in 3D space. We have used structural data of Schirnick (1996) to model the geometry of the Tejeda cone-sheet in 3D, using the software Move® by Midland Valley Ltd. Based on previous 2D projections, Schirnick et al. (1999) suggested that the cone-sheet swarm is formed by a stack of parallel intrusive sheets which have a truncated dome geometry and form a concentric structure around a central axis, assuming straight sheet-intrusions. Our 3D model gives insight into the symmetries of the sheets and the overall geometry of the cone-sheet swarm below the surface. This visualization now allows to grasp the complexity of the Tejeda cone-sheet swarm at depth, particularly in relation to different possible cone-sheet geometries suggested in the literature (cf. Burchardt et al

  13. Marine ice sheet profiles and stability under Coulomb basal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Victor; Stewart, Andrew; Thompson, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The behavior of marine-terminating ice sheets, like the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, is of interest due to the possibility of rapid grounding line retreat and consequent catastrophic loss of ice. Critical to modeling this behavior is a choice of basal rheology, where the most popular approach is to relate the ice sheet velocity to a power-law function of basal stress. Recent experiments, however, suggest that near-grounding line tills exhibit Coulomb friction behavior. Here we address how Coulomb conditions modify ice sheet profiles and stability criteria. The basal rheology necessarily transitions to Coulomb friction near the grounding line due to low effective stresses, leading to changes in ice sheet properties within a narrow boundary layer. Ice sheet profiles 'taper off' towards a flatter upper surface, compared to the power-law case, and basal stresses vanish at the grounding line, consistent with observations. In the Coulomb case, the grounding line ice flux also depends more strongly on flotation ice thickness, which implies that ice sheets are more sensitive to climate perturbations. Furthermore, with Coulomb friction, the ice sheet grounds stably in shallower water than with a power-law rheology. This implies that smaller perturbations are required to push the grounding line into regions of negative bed slope, where it would become unstable. These results have important implications for ice sheet stability in a warming climate.

  14. Greenland ice sheet mass balance: a review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shfaqat A; Aschwanden, Andy; Bjørk, Anders A; Wahr, John; Kjeldsen, Kristian K; Kjær, Kurt H

    2015-04-01

    Over the past quarter of a century the Arctic has warmed more than any other region on Earth, causing a profound impact on the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to the rise in global sea level. The loss of ice can be partitioned into processes related to surface mass balance and to ice discharge, which are forced by internal or external (atmospheric/oceanic/basal) fluctuations. Regardless of the measurement method, observations over the last two decades show an increase in ice loss rate, associated with speeding up of glaciers and enhanced melting. However, both ice discharge and melt-induced mass losses exhibit rapid short-term fluctuations that, when extrapolated into the future, could yield erroneous long-term trends. In this paper we review the GrIS mass loss over more than a century by combining satellite altimetry, airborne altimetry, interferometry, aerial photographs and gravimetry data sets together with modelling studies. We revisit the mass loss of different sectors and show that they manifest quite different sensitivities to atmospheric and oceanic forcing. In addition, we discuss recent progress in constructing coupled ice-ocean-atmosphere models required to project realistic future sea-level changes. PMID:25811969

  15. Reprint of: Modeling Antarctic ice sheet and climate variations during Marine Isotope Stage 31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeConto, Robert M.; Pollard, David; Kowalewski, Douglas

    2012-10-01

    Marine Isotope Stage 31 (MIS-31) is one of the major interglacials of the early Pleistocene ~ 1.08 to 1.06 Ma. Data from proximal sediment cores around several sectors of Antarctica indicate strong sea surface warming and ice shelf and sea ice retreat. Benthic deep-sea-core δ18O values at this time are some of the lowest of the Pleistocene, indicating both deep sea warming and reduced global ice volume. A coeval alignment of orbital parameters produces one of the strongest high-latitude summer insolation anomalies of the last several million years. Here we use a 3-D ice sheet-shelf model to simulate the evolution of Antarctic ice sheets through the event, and a global climate model to simulate temperatures and sea ice during peak Antarctic warmth. The ice model predicts nearly complete collapse and subsequent recovery of marine ice in West Antarctica, and the ice and climate model results agree well with proximal sediment core data in the Ross Embayment recovered by the ANDRILL and Cape Roberts drilling projects. The dominant forcing is found to be variations in sub-ice-shelf oceanic melting, with insignificant surface melting of terrestrial ice flanks even during peak warmth. Implications are noted in light of other observations and theories of Pliocene-Pleistocene Antarctic ice sheet variability that do involve surface melt.

  16. Construction of Modular Hydrogel Sheets for Micropatterned Macro-scaled 3D Cellular Architecture.

    PubMed

    Son, Jaejung; Bae, Chae Yun; Park, Je-Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogels can be patterned at the micro-scale using microfluidic or micropatterning technologies to provide an in vivo-like three-dimensional (3D) tissue geometry. The resulting 3D hydrogel-based cellular constructs have been introduced as an alternative to animal experiments for advanced biological studies, pharmacological assays and organ transplant applications. Although hydrogel-based particles and fibers can be easily fabricated, it is difficult to manipulate them for tissue reconstruction. In this video, we describe a fabrication method for micropatterned alginate hydrogel sheets, together with their assembly to form a macro-scale 3D cell culture system with a controlled cellular microenvironment. Using a mist form of the calcium gelling agent, thin hydrogel sheets are easily generated with a thickness in the range of 100 - 200 µm, and with precise micropatterns. Cells can then be cultured with the geometric guidance of the hydrogel sheets in freestanding conditions. Furthermore, the hydrogel sheets can be readily manipulated using a micropipette with an end-cut tip, and can be assembled into multi-layered structures by stacking them using a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) frame. These modular hydrogel sheets, which can be fabricated using a facile process, have potential applications of in vitro drug assays and biological studies, including functional studies of micro- and macrostructure and tissue reconstruction. PMID:26779839

  17. Interhemispheric Ice-Sheet Synchronicity During the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M. E.; Clark, P. U.; Kuhn, G.; Ricken, W.; Sprenk, D.

    2011-12-01

    The timing of the last maximum extent of the Antarctic ice sheets relative to those in the Northern Hemisphere remains poorly understood because only a few findings with robust chronologies exist for Antarctic ice sheets. We developed a chronology for the Weddell Sea sector of the East Antarctic ice sheet that, combined with ages from other Antarctic ice-sheet sectors, indicates the advance to and retreat from their maximum extent was nearly synchronous with Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. As for the deglaciation, modeling studies suggest a late ice-sheet retreat starting around 14 ka BP and ending around 7 ka BP with a large impact of an unstable West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) and a small impact of a stable East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). However, the Weddell Sea sites studied here, as well as sites from the Scotia Sea, provide evidence that specifically the EAIS responded much earlier, possibly provided a significant contribution to the last sea-level rise, and was much more dynamic than previously thought. Deep-sea sediment sites from the central Scotia Sea "iceberg alley" show four phases of enhanced deposition of ice-rated detritus (IRD) occurred at 19.5, 16.5,14.5, and 12 ka. The first two relate to the two ice-sheet retreat signals documented for the Weddell Sea; the third phase indicates an Antarctic component to meltwater pulse 1a; the fourth phase falls roughly into period of the Younger Dryas. Our modeling studies show that surface climate forcing of Antarctic ice sheets would have likely increased ice mass balance during deglaciation, whereby a warming climate would increase accumulation but not surface melting. We propose that sea-level forcing from Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and changes in North Atlantic deepwater formation and attendant heat flux to Antarctic grounding lines provided the teleconnections to synchronize the hemispheric ice sheets.

  18. Validation of 3-D Ice Accretion Measurement Methodology for Experimental Aerodynamic Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Lee, Sam; Monastero, Marianne C.

    2014-01-01

    Determining the adverse aerodynamic effects due to ice accretion often relies on dry-air wind-tunnel testing of artificial, or simulated, ice shapes. Recent developments in ice accretion documentation methods have yielded a laser-scanning capability that can measure highly three-dimensional features of ice accreted in icing wind tunnels. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the aerodynamic accuracy of ice-accretion simulations generated from laser-scan data. Ice-accretion tests were conducted in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel using an 18-inch chord, 2-D straight wing with NACA 23012 airfoil section. For six ice accretion cases, a 3-D laser scan was performed to document the ice geometry prior to the molding process. Aerodynamic performance testing was conducted at the University of Illinois low-speed wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of 1.8 x 10(exp 6) and a Mach number of 0.18 with an 18-inch chord NACA 23012 airfoil model that was designed to accommodate the artificial ice shapes. The ice-accretion molds were used to fabricate one set of artificial ice shapes from polyurethane castings. The laser-scan data were used to fabricate another set of artificial ice shapes using rapid prototype manufacturing such as stereolithography. The iced-airfoil results with both sets of artificial ice shapes were compared to evaluate the aerodynamic simulation accuracy of the laser-scan data. For four of the six ice-accretion cases, there was excellent agreement in the iced-airfoil aerodynamic performance between the casting and laser-scan based simulations. For example, typical differences in iced-airfoil maximum lift coefficient were less than 3% with corresponding differences in stall angle of approximately one degree or less. The aerodynamic simulation accuracy reported in this paper has demonstrated the combined accuracy of the laser-scan and rapid-prototype manufacturing approach to simulating ice accretion for a NACA 23012 airfoil. For several of the ice

  19. Determining Greenland Ice Sheet Accumulation Rates from Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jezek, Kenneth C.

    2001-01-01

    An important component of NASA's Program for Arctic Regional Climate Assessment (PARCA) is a mass balance investigation of the Greenland Ice Sheet. The mass balance is calculated by taking the difference between the snow accumulation and the ice discharge of the ice sheet. Uncertainties in this calculation include the snow accumulation rate, which has traditionally been determined by interpolating data from ice core samples taken throughout the ice sheet. The sparse data associated with ice cores, coupled with the high spatial and temporal resolution provided by remote sensing, have motivated scientists to investigate relationships between accumulation rate and microwave observations.

  20. Front and rear projection autostereoscopic 3D displays based on lenticular sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiong-Hua; Zang, Shang-Fei; Qi, Lin

    2015-03-01

    A front projection autostereoscopic display is proposed. The display is composed of eight projectors and a 3D-imageguided screen which having a lenticular sheet and a retro-reflective diffusion screen. Based on the optical multiplexing and de-multiplexing, the optical functions of the 3D-image-guided screen are parallax image interlacing and viewseparating, which is capable of reconstructing 3D images without quality degradation from the front direction. The operating principle, optical design calculation equations and correction method of parallax images are given. A prototype of the front projection autostereoscopic display is developed, which enhances the brightness and 3D perceptions, and improves space efficiency. The performance of this prototype is evaluated by measuring the luminance and crosstalk distribution along the horizontal direction at the optimum viewing distance. We also propose a rear projection autostereoscopic display. The display consists of eight projectors, a projection screen, and two lenticular sheets. The operation principle and calculation equations are described in detail and the parallax images are corrected by means of homography. A prototype of the rear projection autostereoscopic display is developed. The normalized luminance distributions of viewing zones from the measurement are given. Results agree well with the designed values. The prototype presents high resolution and high brightness 3D images. The research has potential applications in some commercial entertainments and movies for the realistic 3D perceptions.

  1. Reconstructing the last Irish Ice Sheet 2: a geomorphologically-driven model of ice sheet growth, retreat and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, Sarah L.; Clark, Chris D.

    2009-12-01

    The ice sheet that once covered Ireland has a long history of investigation. Much prior work focussed on localised evidence-based reconstructions and ice-marginal dynamics and chronologies, with less attention paid to an ice sheet wide view of the first order properties of the ice sheet: centres of mass, ice divide structure, ice flow geometry and behaviour and changes thereof. In this paper we focus on the latter aspect and use our new, countrywide glacial geomorphological mapping of the Irish landscape (>39 000 landforms), and our analysis of the palaeo-glaciological significance of observed landform assemblages (article Part 1), to build an ice sheet reconstruction yielding these fundamental ice sheet properties. We present a seven stage model of ice sheet evolution, from initiation to demise, in the form of palaeo-geographic maps. An early incursion of ice from Scotland likely coalesced with local ice caps and spread in a south-westerly direction 200 km across Ireland. A semi-independent Irish Ice Sheet was then established during ice sheet growth, with a branching ice divide structure whose main axis migrated up to 140 km from the west coast towards the east. Ice stream systems converging on Donegal Bay in the west and funnelling through the North Channel and Irish Sea Basin in the east emerge as major flow components of the maximum stages of glaciation. Ice cover is reconstructed as extending to the continental shelf break. The Irish Ice Sheet became autonomous (i.e. separate from the British Ice Sheet) during deglaciation and fragmented into multiple ice masses, each decaying towards the west. Final sites of demise were likely over the mountains of Donegal, Leitrim and Connemara. Patterns of growth and decay of the ice sheet are shown to be radically different: asynchronous and asymmetric in both spatial and temporal domains. We implicate collapse of the ice stream system in the North Channel - Irish Sea Basin in driving such asymmetry, since rapid

  2. Internal or induced discharges of the Laurentide ice sheet during the last glacial period ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Solas, J.; Montoya-Redondo, M.; Robinson, A.; Banderas, R.; Rath, V.; Dumas, C.; Ritz, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Last Glacial Period was characterized by the presence of three large ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere (Greenland, Eurasian and Laurentide). The later one occupied the major part of North America and contained a quantity of ice similar than present-day Antarctica. Six major episodes of ice discharges, coincident with the temperature minima registered in Greenland, can be counted during the last ice age. The 3D thermomechanical ice sheet / ice shelf model GRISLI (Ritz et al, 2001) is used here to simulate such millennial-scale ice disharges under two fundamentally different mechanisms: internally triggered ice sheet oscillations and induced ice purges as response of oceanic changes. Such internal oscillations have been classically theorized to be the main cause of quasiperiodic large-scale ice discharges known as Heinrich Events (MacAyeal 1993). However, recent studies proposed other triggering mechanisms involving the effects of oceanic circulation changes on the Laurentide ice sheet (LIS) dynamics (Alvarez-Solas et al, 2011; Marcott et al, 2011; Alvarez-Solas and Ramstein 2011). An analysis of the mechanisms associated with LIS multi-millennial oscillations, including both classical and newest interpretations of HEs, is performed. This task is here possible thanks to the hybrid character of the GRISLI model (i.e. it combines Shallow Ice Approximations (SIA) with Shallow Shelf Approximation (SSA) wich allows first to consider the floating part of the ice sheets and secondly to treat fast flowing ice streams under two different formulations). Our analysis focuses on the examination of the likelihood triggering mechanism behind the periodic LIS discharges, and we finally expose the advantages and weakness of both theories. References: Ritz, C., Rommelaere, V., and Dumas, C.: Modeling the evolution of Antarctic ice sheet over the last 420,000 years: Implications for altitude changes in the Vostok region, J. Geophys.Res.Atmos., 106, 31943-31964, 2001. Mac

  3. 3D Method for the Design of Multi Sheet Beam RF Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2002-08-14

    Lowering the voltage of the RF sources can reduce the cost of future accelerator systems. This can be accomplished using multiple beam guns or guns with sheet beam in tubes creating high RF power. However, the optical design is almost impossible without 3D analysis, since the devices are no longer axis-symmetric. A new approach for 3D analysis of the electron gun and beam optics utilizes a combination of 3D MAFIA and TOPAZ computer programs. An algorithm based on perturbation theory provides a 3D correction to the 2D, self-consistent field solutions. This information is used to study propagated charged particles through the problem domain. Applications of this technique to the design of a high power multiple beam guns is discussed.

  4. Interhemispheric ice-sheet synchronicity during the last glacial maximum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weber, M.E.; Clark, P.U.; Ricken, W.; Mitrovica, J.X.; Hostetler, S.W.; Kuhn, G.

    2011-01-01

    The timing of the last maximum extent of the Antarctic ice sheets relative to those in the Northern Hemisphere remains poorly understood. We develop a chronology for the Weddell Sea sector of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet that, combined with ages from other Antarctic ice-sheet sectors, indicates that the advance to and retreat from their maximum extent was within dating uncertainties synchronous with most sectors of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. Surface climate forcing of Antarctic mass balance would probably cause an opposite response, whereby a warming climate would increase accumulation but not surface melting. Our new data support teleconnections involving sea-level forcing from Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and changes in North Atlantic deep-water formation and attendant heat flux to Antarctic grounding lines to synchronize the hemispheric ice sheets.

  5. Ardnamurchan 3D cone-sheet architecture explained by a single elongate magma chamber.

    PubMed

    Burchardt, Steffi; Troll, Valentin R; Mathieu, Lucie; Emeleus, Henry C; Donaldson, Colin H

    2013-01-01

    The Palaeogene Ardnamurchan central igneous complex, NW Scotland, was a defining place for the development of the classic concepts of cone-sheet and ring-dyke emplacement and has thus fundamentally influenced our thinking on subvolcanic structures. We have used the available structural information on Ardnamurchan to project the underlying three-dimensional (3D) cone-sheet structure. Here we show that a single elongate magma chamber likely acted as the source of the cone-sheet swarm(s) instead of the traditionally accepted model of three successive centres. This proposal is supported by the ridge-like morphology of the Ardnamurchan volcano and is consistent with the depth and elongation of the gravity anomaly underlying the peninsula. Our model challenges the traditional model of cone-sheet emplacement at Ardnamurchan that involves successive but independent centres in favour of a more dynamical one that involves a single, but elongate and progressively evolving magma chamber system. PMID:24100542

  6. Ardnamurchan 3D cone-sheet architecture explained by a single elongate magma chamber

    PubMed Central

    Burchardt, Steffi; Troll, Valentin R.; Mathieu, Lucie; Emeleus, Henry C.; Donaldson, Colin H.

    2013-01-01

    The Palaeogene Ardnamurchan central igneous complex, NW Scotland, was a defining place for the development of the classic concepts of cone-sheet and ring-dyke emplacement and has thus fundamentally influenced our thinking on subvolcanic structures. We have used the available structural information on Ardnamurchan to project the underlying three-dimensional (3D) cone-sheet structure. Here we show that a single elongate magma chamber likely acted as the source of the cone-sheet swarm(s) instead of the traditionally accepted model of three successive centres. This proposal is supported by the ridge-like morphology of the Ardnamurchan volcano and is consistent with the depth and elongation of the gravity anomaly underlying the peninsula. Our model challenges the traditional model of cone-sheet emplacement at Ardnamurchan that involves successive but independent centres in favour of a more dynamical one that involves a single, but elongate and progressively evolving magma chamber system. PMID:24100542

  7. Reconstructing the last Newfoundland Ice Sheet,Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHenry, Maureen; Dunlop, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The Newfoundland Ice Sheet which formed part of the North American Ice Sheet Complex was situated on the margins of the northwest Atlantic Ocean during the Wisconsinan glaciation (~80ka BP to 10ka BP). This complex consisted of the Laurentide, the Cordilleran and Innuitian Ice Sheets, the Canadian Maritime Provinces Ice Cover and the Newfoundland Ice Sheet (NIS). Although all were confluent at the last glacial maximum, the NIS is known to have supported independent ice centres with advances from the Laurentide Ice Sheet being restricted to Newfoundland's northern and western margins. Given its distinctive position, it is likely the evolution of the NIS through the last glacial cycle was influenced by a number of external and internal drivers including configuration changes in the Laurentide Ice Sheet, ice stream initiation and shutdown, changes in oceanic circulation and fluctuating sea levels and climate signals from the wider Amphi-North Atlantic. As such Newfoundland is a key location for investigating ice sheet response to a number of internal and external forcing mechanisms during glacial cycles. An established technique for reconstructing former ice sheet behaviour is the mapping and spatial analysis of glacial landforms. This provides a valuable record of former ice sheet extent and behaviour through time as well as ice sheet retreat during deglaciation. Here we present new mapping based on our interpretation of SPOT satellite imagery and Digital Elevation Models of the entire Island of Newfoundland as well as swath bathymetric imagery from several locations offshore. Our new database consisting of ~150,000 individually mapped subglacial bedforms that includes drumlins, crag and tails, glacially moulded bedrock lineations and ribbed moraines significantly increases the known landform record in this region. The new database shows Newfoundland has a complex palimpsest landscape that records multiple ice sheet events across the island. Here we report our

  8. Greenland ice sheet motion insensitive to exceptional meltwater forcing.

    PubMed

    Tedstone, Andrew J; Nienow, Peter W; Sole, Andrew J; Mair, Douglas W F; Cowton, Thomas R; Bartholomew, Ian D; King, Matt A

    2013-12-01

    Changes to the dynamics of the Greenland ice sheet can be forced by various mechanisms including surface-melt-induced ice acceleration and oceanic forcing of marine-terminating glaciers. We use observations of ice motion to examine the surface melt-induced dynamic response of a land-terminating outlet glacier in southwest Greenland to the exceptional melting observed in 2012. During summer, meltwater generated on the Greenland ice sheet surface accesses the ice sheet bed, lubricating basal motion and resulting in periods of faster ice flow. However, the net impact of varying meltwater volumes upon seasonal and annual ice flow, and thus sea level rise, remains unclear. We show that two extreme melt events (98.6% of the Greenland ice sheet surface experienced melting on July 12, the most significant melt event since 1889, and 79.2% on July 29) and summer ice sheet runoff ~3.9 σ above the 1958-2011 mean resulted in enhanced summer ice motion relative to the average melt year of 2009. However, despite record summer melting, subsequent reduced winter ice motion resulted in 6% less net annual ice motion in 2012 than in 2009. Our findings suggest that surface melt-induced acceleration of land-terminating regions of the ice sheet will remain insignificant even under extreme melting scenarios. PMID:24248343

  9. 3D imaging of the cleared intact murine colon with light sheet microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zufiria, B.; Bocancea, D. I.; Gómez-Gaviro, M. V.; Vaquero, J. J.; Desco, M.; Fresno, M.; Ripoll, J.; Arranz, A.

    2016-03-01

    We here show 3D light sheet microscopy images of fixed and cleared murine colon tissue in-toto, which offer relevant cellular information without the need for physically sectioning the tissue. We have applied the recently developed CUBIC protocol (Susaki et al. Cell 157:726, 2014) for colon tissues and have found that this clearing protocol enables imaging all the way to the central part of the lumen with cellular resolution, thus opening new ways for 3D imaging of colon samples.

  10. Growth of Greenland ice sheet - Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Bindschadler, Robert A.; Marsh, James G.; Brenner, Anita C.; Major, Judy A.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of ice-sheet elevation change by satellite altimetry show that the Greenland surface elevation south of 72 deg north latitude is increasing. The vertical velocity of the surface is 0.20 + or - 0.06 meters/year from measured changes in surface elevations at 5906 intersections between Geosat paths in 1985 and Seasat in 1978, and 0.28 + or - 0.02 meters/year from 256,694 intersections of Geosat paths during a 548-day period of 1985 to 1986.

  11. Growth of greenland ice sheet: measurement.

    PubMed

    Zwally, H J; Bindschadler, R A; Brenner, A C; Major, J A; Marsh, J G

    1989-12-22

    Measurements of ice-sheet elevation change by satellite altimetry show that the Greenland surface elevation south of 72 degrees north latitude is increasing. The vertical velocity of the surface is 0.20 +/- 0.06 meters per year from measured changes in surface elevations at 5906 intersections between Geosat paths in 1985 and Seasat in 1978, and 0.28 +/- 0.02 meters per year from 256,694 intersections of Geosat paths during a 548-day period of 1985 to 1986. PMID:17834422

  12. Interhemispheric ice-sheet synchronicity during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M. E.; Clark, P. U.; Ricken, W.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Hostetler, S. W.; Kuhn, G.

    2012-04-01

    The timing of the last maximum extent of the Antarctic ice sheets relative to those in the Northern Hemisphere remains poorly understood because only a few findings with robust chronologies exist for Antarctic ice sheets. We developed a chronology for the Weddell Sea sector of the East Antarctic ice sheet that, combined with ages from other Antarctic ice-sheet sectors, indicates the advance to their maximum extent at 29 -28 ka, and retreat from their maximum extent at 19 ka was nearly synchronous with Northern Hemisphere ice sheets (Weber, M.E., Clark, P. U., Ricken, W., Mitrovica, J. X., Hostetler, S. W., and Kuhn, G. (2011): Interhemispheric ice-sheet synchronicity during the Last Glacial Maximum. - Science, 334, 1265-1269, doi: 10.1126:science.1209299). As for the deglaciation, modeling studies suggest a late ice-sheet retreat starting around 14 ka BP and ending around 7 ka BP with a large impact of an unstable West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) and a small impact of a stable East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). However, the Weddell Sea sites studied here, as well as sites from the Scotia Sea, provide evidence that specifically the EAIS responded much earlier, possibly provided a significant contribution to the last sea-level rise, and was much more dynamic than previously thought. Using the results of an atmospheric general circulation we conclude that surface climate forcing of Antarctic ice mass balance would likely cause an opposite response, whereby a warming climate would increase accumulation but not surface melting. Furthermore, our new data support teleconnections involving a sea-level fingerprint forced from Northern Hemisphere ice sheets as indicated by gravitational modeling. Also, changes in North Atlantic Deepwater formation and attendant heat flux to Antarctic grounding lines may have contributed to synchronizing the hemispheric ice sheets.

  13. Evidence and implications for a grounded ice sheet in the Central North Sea in the early Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea, Brice; Rose, Phil; Buckley, Francis; Cater, John; Spagnolo, Matteo; Archer, Stuart; Halliyeva, Maral; Howell, John; Cornwell, Dave; Basell, Jon

    2015-04-01

    The rich archive of industry 2D and 3D seismic dataprovide a major opportunity to enlighten us about the Quaternary glacial history of the British and Scandinavian Ice Sheets. Early Quaternary terrestrial records of glaciation are at best highly fragmentary and at worst non-existent and dominated for the most part, by the last deglaciation. The depo-centre along the Central Graben and Viking Graben contains a rich sedimentary archive approaching, in places, 1000 m thick. Evidence is reviewed, from existing and new work, including mapping from 3D seismic of diagnostic ice proximal and subglacial landforms, wireline log and core data. These data indicate that, not only was there grounded ice present on the periphery of the North Sea but, an ice sheet extended far into the Central North Sea. The timing of this is not fully constrained but is it significantly earlier than previously thought, and certainly occurs in the early Quaternary. The possible source areas for this ice sheet and mechanisms by which it could be so extensive early in the Quaternary are explored. These findings are contextualised in terms of other evidence for NW European ice masses from IRD, and evidence for extensive ice sheets in other parts of the world in the early Quaternary e.g. the Laurentide Ice Sheet. The implications for the regolith hypothesis, a mechanism by which orbital forcing is modulated by changing ice sheet dynamics, and landscape evolution are discussed.

  14. Surface Elevation Changes Of The Greenland Ice Sheet- Results From ESA's Ice Sheet CCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinsen, Joanna F.; Khvorostovky, Kirill; Meister, Rakia; Sorensen, Louise S.; Ticconi, Francesca; Forsberg, Rene; Shepherd, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    In order to ensure long-term climate data records for the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), ESA have launched the Cli- mate Change Initiative (CCI). This work presents the preliminary steps towards the Ice Sheet CCI's surface elevation change (SEC) derivation using radar altimeter data. In order to find the most optimal method, a Round Robin exercise was conducted in which the scientific community was asked to provide their best SEC estimate over the Jakobshavn Isbr drainage basin. The participants used both repeat-track (RT), overlapping footprints, and the cross-over (XO) methods, and both ICESat laser and Envisat radar altimeter data were used. Based on this and feedback sheets describing their methods we found that a combination of the RT and XO techniques yielded the best results. In the following, the obtained results will be presented and discussed.

  15. Ice sheets play important role in climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Peter U.; MacAyeal, Douglas R.; Andrews, John T.; Bartlein, Patrick J.

    Ice sheets once were viewed as passive elements in the climate system enslaved to orbitally generated variations in solar radiation. Today, modeling results and new geologic records suggest that ice sheets actively participated in late-Pleistocene climate change, amplifying or driving significant variability at millennial as well as orbital timescales. Although large changes in global ice volume were ultimately caused by orbital variations (the Milankovitch hypothesis), once in existence, the former ice sheets behaved dynamically and strongly influenced regional and perhaps even global climate by altering atmospheric and oceanic circulation and temperature.Experiments with General Circulation Models (GCMs) yielded the first inklings of ice sheets' climatic significance. Manabe and Broccoli [1985], for example, found that the topographic and albedo effects of ice sheets alone explain much of the Northern Hemisphere cooling identified in paleoclimatic records of the last glacial maximum (˜21 ka).

  16. A Record of Antarctic Climate and Ice Sheet History Recovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naish, Tim; Powell, Ross; Levy, Richard; Florindo, Fabio; Harwood, David; Kuhn, Gerhard; Niessen, Frank; Talarico, Franco; Wilson, Gary

    2007-12-01

    Antarctica's late Cenozoic (the past ~15 million years) climate history is poorly known from direct evidence, owing to its remoteness, an extensive sea ice apron, and an ice sheet cover over the region for the past 34 million years. Consequently, knowledge about the role of Antarctica's ice sheets in global sea level and climate has relied heavily upon interpretations of oxygen isotope records from deep-sea cores. Whereas these isotopic records have revolutionized our understanding of climate-ice-ocean interactions, questions still remain about the specific role of Antarctic ice sheets in global climate. Such questions can be addressed from geological records at the marine margin of the ice sheets, recovered by drilling from floating ice platforms [e.g., Davey et al., 2001; Harwood et al., 2006; Barrett, 2007].

  17. Modeling the fracture of ice sheets on parallel computers.

    SciTech Connect

    Waisman, Haim; Bell, Robin; Keyes, David; Boman, Erik Gunnar; Tuminaro, Raymond Stephen

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the complex fracture of ice and understand its role within larger ice sheet simulations and global climate change. At the present time, ice fracture is not explicitly considered within ice sheet models due in part to large computational costs associated with the accurate modeling of this complex phenomena. However, fracture not only plays an extremely important role in regional behavior but also influences ice dynamics over much larger zones in ways that are currently not well understood. Dramatic illustrations of fracture-induced phenomena most notably include the recent collapse of ice shelves in Antarctica (e.g. partial collapse of the Wilkins shelf in March of 2008 and the diminishing extent of the Larsen B shelf from 1998 to 2002). Other fracture examples include ice calving (fracture of icebergs) which is presently approximated in simplistic ways within ice sheet models, and the draining of supraglacial lakes through a complex network of cracks, a so called ice sheet plumbing system, that is believed to cause accelerated ice sheet flows due essentially to lubrication of the contact surface with the ground. These dramatic changes are emblematic of the ongoing change in the Earth's polar regions and highlight the important role of fracturing ice. To model ice fracture, a simulation capability will be designed centered around extended finite elements and solved by specialized multigrid methods on parallel computers. In addition, appropriate dynamic load balancing techniques will be employed to ensure an approximate equal amount of work for each processor.

  18. Users manual for the NASA Lewis three-dimensional ice accretion code (LEWICE 3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin S.; Potapczuk, Mark G.

    1993-01-01

    A description of the methodology, the algorithms, and the input and output data along with an example case for the NASA Lewis 3D ice accretion code (LEWICE3D) has been produced. The manual has been designed to help the user understand the capabilities, the methodologies, and the use of the code. The LEWICE3D code is a conglomeration of several codes for the purpose of calculating ice shapes on three-dimensional external surfaces. A three-dimensional external flow panel code is incorporated which has the capability of calculating flow about arbitrary 3D lifting and nonlifting bodies with external flow. A fourth order Runge-Kutta integration scheme is used to calculate arbitrary streamlines. An Adams type predictor-corrector trajectory integration scheme has been included to calculate arbitrary trajectories. Schemes for calculating tangent trajectories, collection efficiencies, and concentration factors for arbitrary regions of interest for single droplets or droplet distributions have been incorporated. A LEWICE 2D based heat transfer algorithm can be used to calculate ice accretions along surface streamlines. A geometry modification scheme is incorporated which calculates the new geometry based on the ice accretions generated at each section of interest. The three-dimensional ice accretion calculation is based on the LEWICE 2D calculation. Both codes calculate the flow, pressure distribution, and collection efficiency distribution along surface streamlines. For both codes the heat transfer calculation is divided into two regions, one above the stagnation point and one below the stagnation point, and solved for each region assuming a flat plate with pressure distribution. Water is assumed to follow the surface streamlines, hence starting at the stagnation zone any water that is not frozen out at a control volume is assumed to run back into the next control volume. After the amount of frozen water at each control volume has been calculated the geometry is modified by

  19. Evolution of a Greenland Ice sheet Including Shelves and Regional Sea Level Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Sarah; Reerink, Thomas; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.; Helsen, Michiel; Goelzer, Heiko

    2016-04-01

    Observational evidence, including offshore moraines and marine sediment cores infer that at the Last Glacial maximum (LGM) the Greenland ice sheet (GIS) grounded out across the Davis Strait into Baffin Bay, with fast flowing ice streams extending out to the continental shelf break along the NW margin. These observations lead to a number of questions as to weather the GIS and Laurentide ice sheet (LIS) coalesced during glacial maximums, and if so, did a significant ice shelf develop across Baffin Bay and how would such a configuration impact on the relative contribution of these ice sheets to eustatic sea level (ESL). Most previous paleo ice sheet modelling simulations of the GIS recreated an ice sheet that either did not extend out onto the continental shelf or utilised a simplified marine ice parameterisation to recreate an extended GIS, and therefore did not fully include ice shelf dynamics. In this study we simulate the evolution of the GIS from 220 kyr BP to present day using IMAU-ice; a 3D thermodynamical ice sheet model which fully accounts for grounded and floating ice, calculates grounding line migration and ice shelf dynamics. As there are few observational estimates of the long-term (yrs) sub marine basal melting rates (mbm) for the GIS, we developed a mbm parameterization within IMAU-ice controlled primarily by changes in paleo water depth. We also investigate the influence of the LIS on the GIS evolution by including relative sea level forcing's derived from a Glacial Isostatic Adjustment model. We will present results of how changes in the mbm directly impacts on the ice sheet dynamics, timing and spatial extent of the GIS at the glacial maximums, but also on the rate of retreat and spatial extent at the Last interglacial (LIG) minimum. Results indicate that with the inclusion of ice shelf dynamics, a larger GIS is generated which is grounded out into Davis strait, up to a water depth of -750 m, but significantly reduces the GIS contribution to Last

  20. Evolution of a Greenland Ice sheet Including Shelves and Regional Sea Level Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, S.; Reerink, T.; Vandewal, R.; Helsen, M.

    2015-12-01

    Observational evidence, including offshore moraines and marine sediment cores infer that at the Last Glacial maximum (LGM) the Greenland ice sheet (GIS) grounded out across the Davis Strait into Baffin Bay, with fast flowing ice streams extending out to the continental shelf break along the NW margin. These observations lead to a number of questions as to weather the GIS and Laurentide ice sheet (LIS) coalesced during glacial maximums, and if so, did a significant ice shelf develop across Baffin Bay and how would such a configuration impact on the relative contribution of these ice sheets to eustatic sea level (ESL). Most previous paleo ice sheet modelling simulations of the GIS recreated an ice sheet that either did not extend out onto the continental shelf or utilised a simplified marine ice parameterisation to recreate an extended GIS, and therefore did not fully include ice shelf dynamics. In this study we simulate the evolution of the GIS from 220 kyr BP to present day using IMAU-ice; a 3D thermodynamical ice sheet model which fully accounts for grounded and floating ice, calculates grounding line migration and ice shelf dynamics. There is few observational estimates of long-term (yrs) sub marine basal melting rates (mbm) for the GIS. Therefore we investigate a range of relationships to constrain the spatial and temporal parameterisation of mbm within IMAU-ice related to changes in paleo water depth, driven by changes in relative sea level and ocean temperature. We will present results of how changes in the mbm directly impacts on the ice sheet dynamics, timing and spatial extent of the GIS at the glacial maximums, but also on the rate of retreat and spatial extent at the Last interglacial (LIG) minimum. Initial results indicate that with the inclusion of ice shelf dynamics, a larger GIS is generated which is grounded out into Davis strait, up to a water depth of -750 m, but the total contribution to LIG ESL is reduced by up to 0.6 m.

  1. History of the Greenland Ice Sheet: paleoclimatic insights

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, Richard B.; Andrews, John T.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Clarke, G.K.C.; Cuffey, Kurt M.; Fitzpatrick, J.J.; Funder, S.; Marshall, S.J.; Miller, G.H.; Mitrovica, J.X.; Muhs, D.R.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Polyak, L.; White, J.W.C.

    2010-01-01

    Paleoclimatic records show that the GreenlandIce Sheet consistently has lost mass in response to warming, and grown in response to cooling. Such changes have occurred even at times of slow or zero sea-level change, so changing sea level cannot have been the cause of at least some of the ice-sheet changes. In contrast, there are no documented major ice-sheet changes that occurred independent of temperature changes. Moreover, snowfall has increased when the climate warmed, but the ice sheet lost mass nonetheless; increased accumulation in the ice sheet's center has not been sufficient to counteract increased melting and flow near the edges. Most documented forcings and ice-sheet responses spanned periods of several thousand years, but limited data also show rapid response to rapid forcings. In particular, regions near the ice margin have responded within decades. However, major changes of central regions of the ice sheet are thought to require centuries to millennia. The paleoclimatic record does not yet strongly constrain how rapidly a major shrinkage or nearly complete loss of the ice sheet could occur. The evidence suggests nearly total ice-sheet loss may result from warming of more than a few degrees above mean 20th century values, but this threshold is poorly defined (perhaps as little as 2 °C or more than 7 °C). Paleoclimatic records are sufficiently sketchy that the ice sheet may have grown temporarily in response to warming, or changes may have been induced by factors other than temperature, without having been recorded.

  2. Ice-age Ice-sheet Rheology: Constraints from the Last Glacial Maximum Form of the Laurentide Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peltier, W. Richard; Goldsby, David L.; Kohlstedt, David L.; Tarasov, Lev

    2000-01-01

    State-ot-the-art thermomechanical models of the modern Greenland ice and the ancient Laurenticle ice sheet that covered Canada at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are not able to explain simultaneously the observed forms of these cryospheric structures when the same, anisotropy-enhanced, version of the conventional Glen flow law is employed to describe their rheology. The LGM Laurenticle ice sheet. predicted to develop in response to orbital climate forcing, is such that the ratio of its thickness to its horizontal extent is extremely large compared to the aspect ratio inferred on the basis of surface-geomorphological and solid-earth-geophysical constraints. We show that if the Glen flow law representation of the rheology is replaced with a new rheology based upon very high quality laboratory measurements of the stress-strain-rate relation, then the aspect ratios of both the modern Greenland ice sheet and the Laurenticle ice sheet, that existed at the LGM, are simultaneously explained with little or no retuning of the flow law.

  3. West Antarctic Ice Sheet Initiative. Volume 2: Discipline Reviews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, Robert A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Seven discipline review papers are presented on the state of the knowledge of West Antarctica and opinions on how that knowledge must be increased to predict the future behavior of this ice sheet and to assess its potential to collapse, rapidly raising the global sea level. These are the goals of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Initiative (WAIS).

  4. Controls on interior West Antarctic Ice Sheet Elevations: inferences from geologic constraints and ice sheet modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackert, Robert P.; Putnam, Aaron E.; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy; Pollard, David; DeConto, Robert M.; Kurz, Mark D.; Borns, Harold W.

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) response to past sea level and climate forcing is necessary to predict its response to warmer temperatures in the future. The timing and extent of past interior WAIS elevation changes provides insight to WAIS behavior and constraints for ice sheet models. Constraints prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) however, are rare. Surface exposure ages of glacial erratics near the WAIS divide at Mt. Waesche in Marie Byrd Land, and at the Ohio Range in the Transantarctic Mountains, range from ∼10 ka to >500 ka without a dependence on elevation. The probability distribution functions (PDF) of the exposure ages at both locations, are remarkably similar. During the last glaciation, maximum interior ice elevations as recorded by moraines and erratics were reached between 10 ka and 12 ka. However, most exposure ages are older than the LGM and cluster around ∼40 ka and ∼80 ka. The peak in the exposure age distributions at ∼40 ka includes ages of alpine moraine boulders at Mercer Ridge in the Ohio Range. Comparison of the PDF of exposures ages from the Ohio Range and Mt. Waesche with the temperature record from the Fuji Dome ice core indicates that the youngest peak in the exposure age distributions corresponds to the abrupt warming during the Last Glacial termination. A prominent peak in the Ohio Range PDF corresponds to the penultimate termination (stage 5e). During the intervening glacial period, there is not a consistent relationship between the peaks in the PDF at each location and temperature. A combined ice sheet/ice shelf model with forcing scaled to marine δ18O predicts that interior WAIS elevations near the ice divide have varied ∼300 m over the Last Glacial cycle. Peaks in the PDF correspond to model highstands over the last 200 ka. In the simulated elevation history, maximum ice elevations at Ohio Range (+100 m) and Mt. Waesche (+60 m) occur at ∼10 ka, in agreement with observations from these sites

  5. Understanding Recent Mass Balance Changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderVeen, Cornelius

    2003-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this project is to better understand the current transfer of mass between the Greenland Ice Sheet, the world's oceans and the atmosphere, and to identify processes controlling the rate of this transfer, to be able to predict with greater confidence future contributions to global sea level rise. During the first year of this project, we focused on establishing longer-term records of change of selected outlet glaciers, reevaluation of mass input to the ice sheet and analysis of climate records derived from ice cores, and modeling meltwater production and runoff from the margins of the ice sheet.

  6. Response of the ice sheets to fluctuating temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bøgeholm Mikkelsen, Troels; Grinsted, Aslak; Ditlevsen, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Forecasting the future sea level relies on accurate modeling of the response of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to changing tempera- tures. Using coupled climate and ice sheet models long time forecasting is often made computationally feasible by running the ice sheet model in off-line mode, such that the temperature and precipitation fields govern- ing the mass balance of the ice sheets are taken to be constant over time. As the temperature and precipitation fluctuates, the asymmetry in the typical time scales for accumulation and ablation would result in a bias in the resulting mass balance of the ice sheet. We show that the steady state of the ice sheet is biased toward larger size of the ice sheet, if the short time scale fluctuations in temperature are not taken into account. This could potentially imply that the critical global temperature increase for ice sheet collapse is overestimated, thus the risk of collapse in a given climate change scenario underestimated. Our results highlight the need to consider the variability and not only the mean of the forcing of the mass balance of the ice sheet. We estimate that the effect of temperature variability on surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet in recent ensemble forecasting should be adjusted downward by as much as 10 percent of the present day observed value, if assuming a 2 degree warming. We are thus closer to a potential tipping point, than previously anticipated. Many predicted scenarios of the future climate show an increased variability in temperature over much of the Earth. In light of the findings presented here, it is important to gauge the extent to which this increased variability will further influence climate change.

  7. Fully coupled ice sheet-earth system model: How does the Greenlandic ice sheet interact in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodehacke, C.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Vizcaino, M.

    2012-04-01

    As ice sheets belong to the slowest climate components, they are usually not interactively coupled in current climate models. Therefore, long-term climate projections are incomplete and only the consideration of ice sheet interactions allows tackling fundamental questions, such as how do ice sheets modify the reaction of the climate systems under a strong CO2 forcing? The earth system model MPI-ESM, with the atmosphere model ECHAM6 and ocean model MPIOM, is coupled to the modified ice sheet model PISM. This ice sheet model, which is developed at the University of Fairbanks, represents the ice sheet of Greenland at a horizontal resolution of 10 km. The coupling is performed by calculating the surface mass balance based on 6-hourly atmospheric data to determine the boundary condition for the ice sheet model. The response of the ice sheet to this forcing, which includes orographic changes and fresh water fluxes, are passed back to the ESM. In contrast to commonly used strategies, we use a mass conserving scheme and do therefore neither apply flux corrections nor utilize anomaly coupling. Under a strong CO2 forcing a disintegrating Greenlandic ice sheet contributes to a rising sea level and has the potential to alter the formation of deep water masses in the adjacent formation sites Labrador Sea and Nordic Seas. We will present results for an idealized forcing with a growing atmospheric CO2 concentration that rises by 1% per year until four-times the pre-industrial level has been reached. We will discuss the reaction of the ice sheet and immediate responses of the ocean to ice loss.

  8. Modelling the Climate - Greenland Ice Sheet Interaction in the Coupled Ice-sheet/Climate Model EC-EARTH - PISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.; Madsen, M. S.; Rodehacke, C. B.; Svendsen, S. H.; Adalgeirsdottir, G.

    2014-12-01

    Recent observations show that the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has been losing mass with an increasing speed during the past decades. Predicting the GrIS changes and their climate consequences relies on the understanding of the interaction of the GrIS with the climate system on both global and local scales, and requires climate model systems with an explicit and physically consistent ice sheet module. A fully coupled global climate model with a dynamical ice sheet model for the GrIS has recently been developed. The model system, EC-EARTH - PISM, consists of the EC-EARTH, an atmosphere, ocean and sea ice model system, and the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM). The coupling of PISM includes a modified surface physical parameterization in EC-EARTH adapted to the land ice surface over glaciated regions in Greenland. The PISM ice sheet model is forced with the surface mass balance (SMB) directly computed inside the EC-EARTH atmospheric module and accounting for the precipitation, the surface evaporation, and the melting of snow and ice over land ice. PISM returns the simulated basal melt, ice discharge and ice cover (extent and thickness) as boundary conditions to EC-EARTH. This coupled system is mass and energy conserving without being constrained by any anomaly correction or flux adjustment, and hence is suitable for investigation of ice sheet - climate feedbacks. Three multi-century experiments for warm climate scenarios under (1) the RCP85 climate forcing, (2) an abrupt 4xCO2 and (3) an idealized 1% per year CO2 increase are performed using the coupled model system. The experiments are compared with their counterparts of the standard CMIP5 simulations (without the interactive ice sheet) to evaluate the performance of the coupled system and to quantify the GrIS feedbacks. In particular, the evolution of the Greenland ice sheet under the warm climate and its impacts on the climate system are investigated. Freshwater fluxes from the Greenland ice sheet melt to the Arctic

  9. Phreatomagmatic eruptions under the West Antarctic Ice Sheet: potential hazard for ice sheet stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, N. A.; Dunbar, N. W.; Lieb-Lappen, R.; Kim, E. J.; Golden, E. J.; Obbard, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic tephra layers have been seen in most ice cores in Antarctica. These tephra layers are deposited almost instantaneously across wide areas of ice sheets, creating horizons that can provide "pinning points" to adjust ice time scales that may otherwise be lacking detailed chronology. A combination of traditional particle morphology characterization by SEM with new non-destructive X-ray micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT) has been used to analyze selected coarse grained tephra in the West Antarctica Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide WDC06A ice core. Micro-CT has the ability to image particles as small as 50µm in length (15µm resolution), quantifying both particle shape and size. The WDC06A contains hundreds of dusty layers of which 36 have so far been identified as primary tephra layers. Two of these tephra layers have been characterized as phreatomagmatic eruptions based on SEM imagery and are blocky and platy in nature, with rare magmatic particles. These layers are strikingly different in composition from the typical phonolitic and trachytic tephra produced from West Antarctic volcanoes. These two layers are coarser in grain size, with many particles (including feldspar crystals) exceeding 100µm in length. One tephra layer found at 3149.138m deep in the ice core is a coarse ~1mm thick basanitic tephra layer with a WDC06-7 ice core age of 45,381±2000yrs. The second layer is a ~1.3 cm thick zoned trachyandesite to trachydacite tephra found at 2569.205m deep with an ice core age 22,470±835yrs. Micro-CT analysis shows that WDC06A-3149.138 has normal grading with the largest particles at the bottom of the sample (~160μm). WDC06A-2569.205 has a bimodal distribution of particles with large particles at the top and bottom of the layer. These large particles are more spherical in shape at the base and become more irregular and finer grained higher in the layer, likely showing changes in eruption dynamics. The distinct chemistry as well as the blocky and large grain size

  10. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in a current-vortex sheet at a 3D magnetic null

    SciTech Connect

    Wyper, P. F.; Pontin, D. I.

    2013-03-15

    We report here, for the first time, an observed instability of a Kelvin-Helmholtz nature occurring in a fully three-dimensional (3D) current-vortex sheet at the fan plane of a 3D magnetic null point. The current-vortex layer forms self-consistently in response to foot point driving around the spine lines of the null. The layer first becomes unstable at an intermediate distance from the null point, with the instability being characterized by a rippling of the fan surface and a filamentation of the current density and vorticity in the shear layer. Owing to the 3D geometry of the shear layer, a branching of the current filaments and vortices is observed. The instability results in a mixing of plasma between the two topologically distinct regions of magnetic flux on either side of the fan separatrix surface, as flux is reconnected across this surface. We make a preliminary investigation of the scaling of the system with the dissipation parameters. Our results indicate that the fan plane separatrix surface is an ideal candidate for the formation of current-vortex sheets in complex magnetic fields and, therefore, the enhanced heating and connectivity change associated with the instabilities of such layers.

  11. Monitoring southwest Greenland's ice sheet melt with ambient seismic noise.

    PubMed

    Mordret, Aurélien; Mikesell, T Dylan; Harig, Christopher; Lipovsky, Bradley P; Prieto, Germán A

    2016-05-01

    The Greenland ice sheet presently accounts for ~70% of global ice sheet mass loss. Because this mass loss is associated with sea-level rise at a rate of 0.7 mm/year, the development of improved monitoring techniques to observe ongoing changes in ice sheet mass balance is of paramount concern. Spaceborne mass balance techniques are commonly used; however, they are inadequate for many purposes because of their low spatial and/or temporal resolution. We demonstrate that small variations in seismic wave speed in Earth's crust, as measured with the correlation of seismic noise, may be used to infer seasonal ice sheet mass balance. Seasonal loading and unloading of glacial mass induces strain in the crust, and these strains then result in seismic velocity changes due to poroelastic processes. Our method provides a new and independent way of monitoring (in near real time) ice sheet mass balance, yielding new constraints on ice sheet evolution and its contribution to global sea-level changes. An increased number of seismic stations in the vicinity of ice sheets will enhance our ability to create detailed space-time records of ice mass variations. PMID:27386524

  12. Collapse of polar ice sheets during the stage 11 interglacial.

    PubMed

    Raymo, Maureen E; Mitrovica, Jerry X

    2012-03-22

    Contentious observations of Pleistocene shoreline features on the tectonically stable islands of Bermuda and the Bahamas have suggested that sea level about 400,000 years ago was more than 20 metres higher than it is today. Geochronologic and geomorphic evidence indicates that these features formed during interglacial marine isotope stage (MIS) 11, an unusually long interval of warmth during the ice age. Previous work has advanced two divergent hypotheses for these shoreline features: first, significant melting of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, in addition to the collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the Greenland Ice Sheet; or second, emplacement by a mega-tsunami during MIS 11 (ref. 4, 5). Here we show that the elevations of these features are corrected downwards by ∼10 metres when we account for post-glacial crustal subsidence of these sites over the course of the anomalously long interglacial. On the basis of this correction, we estimate that eustatic sea level rose to ∼6-13 m above the present-day value in the second half of MIS 11. This suggests that both the Greenland Ice Sheet and the West Antarctic Ice Sheet collapsed during the protracted warm period while changes in the volume of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet were relatively minor, thereby resolving the long-standing controversy over the stability of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet during MIS 11. PMID:22419155

  13. Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet evolution during the Cenozoic Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Bethan J.; Hambrey, Michael J.; Smellie, John L.; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Glasser, Neil F.

    2012-01-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula region is currently undergoing rapid environmental change, resulting in the thinning, acceleration and recession of glaciers and the sequential collapse of ice shelves. It is important to view these changes in the context of long-term palaeoenvironmental complexity and to understand the key processes controlling ice sheet growth and recession. In addition, numerical ice sheet models require detailed geological data for tuning and testing. Therefore, this paper systematically and holistically reviews published geological evidence for Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet variability for each key locality throughout the Cenozoic, and brings together the prevailing consensus of the extent, character and behaviour of the glaciations of the Antarctic Peninsula region. Major contributions include a downloadable database of 186 terrestrial and marine calibrated dates; an original reconstruction of the LGM ice sheet; and a new series of isochrones detailing ice sheet retreat following the LGM. Glaciation of Antarctica was initiated around the Eocene/Oligocene transition in East Antarctica. Palaeogene records of Antarctic Peninsula glaciation are primarily restricted to King George Island, where glacigenic sediments provide a record of early East Antarctic glaciations, but with modification of far-travelled erratics by local South Shetland Island ice caps. Evidence for Neogene glaciation is derived primarily from King George Island and James Ross Island, where glaciovolcanic strata indicate that ice thicknesses reached 500-850 m during glacials. This suggests that the Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet draped, rather than drowned, the topography. Marine geophysical investigations indicate multiple ice sheet advances during this time. Seismic profiling of continental shelf-slope deposits indicates up to ten large advances of the Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet during the Early Pleistocene, when the ice sheet was dominated by 40 kyr cycles. Glacials became more

  14. Atmospheric Response to a Hypothetical Tibetan Ice Sheet.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lautenschlager, M.; Santer, B. D.

    1991-04-01

    The atmospheric response to a hypothetical Tibetan ice sheet was tested with the T21 Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The model response is discussed in terms of an `autocycle' hypothesis of the ice ages proposed by Kuhle. According to this hypothesis, ice-albedo feedbacks associated with the growth and retreat of the Tibetan ice sheet are the mechanism that amplifies the variation of solar insolation on astronomical time scales, producing conditions that favor glaciation or deglaciation in North America and Eurasia.The imposed Tibetan ice sheet forcing did not increase the annual snow balance at the locations of the Laurentide and Eurasian ice sheets. Analysis of the seasonal cycle results indicated that there were small areas of locally significant temperature decreases in July (at the ice sheet locations), but no corresponding precipitation increases in January. The upper-tropospheric response to the elevated Tibetan plateau is not confined to the vicinity of the forcing, but changes in the global energetics of the atmosphere are small (less than 5%) relative to the control.The results of this experiment do not permit a conclusive decision regarding the validity of Kuhle's autocycle hypothesis. Future modeling studies need to consider ocean-atmosphere-ice sheet feedbacks and to investigate the transient response of the climate system over a complete ice age cycle.

  15. Radiostratigraphy and age structure of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, Joseph A; Fahnestock, Mark A; Catania, Ginny A; Paden, John D; Prasad Gogineni, S; Young, S Keith; Rybarski, Susan C; Mabrey, Alexandria N; Wagman, Benjamin M; Morlighem, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Several decades of ice-penetrating radar surveys of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have observed numerous widespread internal reflections. Analysis of this radiostratigraphy has produced valuable insights into ice sheet dynamics and motivates additional mapping of these reflections. Here we present a comprehensive deep radiostratigraphy of the Greenland Ice Sheet from airborne deep ice-penetrating radar data collected over Greenland by The University of Kansas between 1993 and 2013. To map this radiostratigraphy efficiently, we developed new techniques for predicting reflection slope from the phase recorded by coherent radars. When integrated along track, these slope fields predict the radiostratigraphy and simplify semiautomatic reflection tracing. Core-intersecting reflections were dated using synchronized depth-age relationships for six deep ice cores. Additional reflections were dated by matching reflections between transects and by extending reflection-inferred depth-age relationships using the local effective vertical strain rate. The oldest reflections, dating to the Eemian period, are found mostly in the northern part of the ice sheet. Within the onset regions of several fast-flowing outlet glaciers and ice streams, reflections typically do not conform to the bed topography. Disrupted radiostratigraphy is also observed in a region north of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream that is not presently flowing rapidly. Dated reflections are used to generate a gridded age volume for most of the ice sheet and also to determine the depths of key climate transitions that were not observed directly. This radiostratigraphy provides a new constraint on the dynamics and history of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Key Points Phase information predicts reflection slope and simplifies reflection tracing Reflections can be dated away from ice cores using a simple ice flow model Radiostratigraphy is often disrupted near the onset of fast ice flow PMID:26213664

  16. Anthropogenic climate change and the Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikolajewicz, U.; Vizcaíno, M.; Rodehacke, C.; Ziemen, F.

    2012-04-01

    In the standard CMIP5 simulations the ice sheets are kept fixed. Only few groups have been able to perform CMIP5 simulations with interactively coupled ice sheet models. Beside its importance for the future evolution of global mean sea level, the Greenland ice sheet also has the potential to strongly affect deep water formation, especially in the Labrador Sea, but also in the Nordic Seas. Here we present a set of simulations with two interactively coupled ice sheet models, which allows to assess the uncertainty arising from both the ice sheet model as well as the coupling technique. The climate model ECHAM5/MPIOM is coupled interactively to two different ice sheet models using two different coupling strategies. The ice sheet models are a Greenland set-up of SICOPOLIS with 10 km horizontal resolution and a northern hemisphere set-up of PISM with a horizontal resolution of 20 km. The coupling is done either with a simple positive degree days approach or a mass-balance scheme calculating the surface melting with an energy-balance scheme. The atmospheric forcing is applied directly to the ice sheet model without flux correction or anomaly coupling, which avoids inconsistencies between the models. The resulting net mass loss rates for the Greenland ice sheet in a 1-percent-scenario capped at 4x preindustrial atmospheric CO2 concentrations show a considerable dependence on both ice sheet model and coupling technique. The resulting differences in atmospheric climate, however, are small within the first centuries and restricted to the immediate vicinity of Greenland. The feedbacks between atmosphere, ocean and the Greenland ice sheet are studied in a series of sensitivity experiments, where individual feedbacks were suppressed. It turns out that the future development of the Atlantic overturning and its associated heat transport are quite important for the future evolution of the Greenland ice sheet: The stronger the Atlantic overturning remains, the stronger the mass loss

  17. Measurements of Past Ice Sheet Elevations in Interior West Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Ackert; Barclay; Borns; Calkin; Kurz; Fastook; Steig

    1999-10-01

    A lateral moraine band on Mount Waesche, a volcanic nunatak in Marie Byrd Land, provides estimates of past ice sheet surface elevations in West Antarctica. Helium-3 and chlorine-36 surface exposure ages indicate that the proximal part of the moraine, up to 45 meters above the present ice surface, was deposited about 10,000 years ago, substantially later than the maximum ice extent in the Ross Embayment. The upper distal part of the moraine may record multiple earlier ice sheet high stands. A nonequilibrium ice sheet model predicts a delay of several thousand years in maximum ice levels at Mount Waesche relative to the maximum ice extent in the Ross Sea. The glacial geologic evidence, coupled with the ice sheet model, indicates that the contribution of the Ross Sea sector of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet to Holocene sea level rise was only about 3 meters. These results eliminate West Antarctic ice as the principle source of the large meltwater pulse during the early Holocene. PMID:10514368

  18. Tropical Pacific response to continental ice sheet topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shih-Yu; Chiang, John C. H.; Chang, Ping

    2015-05-01

    The last glacial maximum was marked by maximum land ice extent and lowest greenhouse gases concentration during the last ice age. We explore the impact of glacial continental ice sheet topography on the large-scale tropical ocean-atmosphere climate, in particular the tropical Pacific, in an intermediate complexity coupled model. Increasing the thickness of continental ice sheets causes a southward displaced Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and a strengthening (weakening) of northern (southern) hemisphere winter Hadley cell. The equatorial zonal sea surface temperature gradient weakened with an increased continental ice sheets thickness, the reduction being caused by cooling in the western equatorial Pacific and warming in the eastern equatorial Pacific. The evolution of the tropical climate with changing ice thickness has distinct quasi-linear and nonlinear parts. While the linear part is a direct response to the ice topographic changes, the nonlinear part was a result of the tropical thermocline adjustment. Our analysis of a fully-coupled transient deglacial simulation strongly indicates the dominant role of ice sheet topography in determining the deglacial evolution of the simulated Pacific climate. The thickness of continental ice sheet, separate from ice albedo effect, has significant impact on the tropical ocean-atmosphere climate in particular with the meridional displacement in the Pacific ITCZ. The altered circulation states seen in the model may aid understanding of the relationship between tropical and high-latitude climate records in glacial-interglacial cycles.

  19. Progress in Tridimensional (3d) Laser Forming of Stainless Steel Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gisario, Annamaria; Barletta, Massimiliano; Venettacci, Simone; Veniali, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    Achievement of complex shapes with high dimensional accuracy and precision by forming process is a demanding challenge for scientists and practitioners. Available technologies are numerous, with laser forming being progressively emerging because of limited springback, lack of molds and sophisticated auxiliary equipments. However, laser forming finds limited applications, especially when forming of tridimensional (3d) complex shapes is required. In this case, cost savings are often counterbalanced by the need for troublesome forming strategies. Therefore, traditional alternatives based on mechanical devices are usually preferred to laser systems. In the present work, 3d laser forming of stainless steel sheets by high power diode laser is investigated. In particular, the set of scanning patterns to form domes from flat blanks by simple and easy-to-manage radial paths alone was found. Numerous 3d items were also processed by diode laser to manufacture a number of complex shapes with high flexibility and limited efforts to modify the auxiliary forming equipment. Based on the experimental results and analytical data, the high power diode laser was found able to form arbitrary 3d shapes through the implementation of tailored laser scanning patterns and appropriate settings of the operational parameters.

  20. Monitoring of Apoptosis in 3D Cell Cultures by FRET and Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Petra; Schickinger, Sarah; Wagner, Michael; Angres, Brigitte; Bruns, Thomas; Schneckenburger, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Non-radiative cell membrane associated Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) from an enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP) to an enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) is used for detection of apoptosis in 3-dimensional cell cultures. FRET is visualized in multi-cellular tumor spheroids by light sheet based fluorescence microscopy in combination with microspectral analysis and fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). Upon application of staurosporine and to some extent after treatment with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), a specific activator of protein kinase c, the caspase-3 sensitive peptide linker DEVD is cleaved. This results in a reduction of acceptor (EYFP) fluorescence as well as a prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of the donor (ECFP). Fluorescence spectra and lifetimes may, therefore, be used for monitoring of apoptosis in a realistic 3-dimensional system, while light sheet based microscopy appears appropriate for 3D imaging at low light exposure. PMID:25761242

  1. Evidence for a former large ice sheet in the Orville Coast- Ronne Ice Shelf area, Antarctica.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrara, P.

    1981-01-01

    The Orville Coast area of the Antarctic Peninsula was extensively glacierized in the past. Striations, polished rock surfaces, and erratics on nunatak summits indicate that this area was covered by a broad regional ice sheet whose grounded ice margin was on the continental shelf, in the present-day Ronne Ice Shelf area. If the glacial history of Antarctica has been controlled by eustatic sea-level changes, the destruction of this ice sheet would have been contemporaneous with that of the Ross Sea ice sheet due to the world-wide rise of eustatic sea-level at the end of the Wisconsin glaciation. -Author

  2. Modeling the Fracture of Ice Sheets on Parallel Computers

    SciTech Connect

    Waisman, Haim; Tuminaro, Ray

    2013-10-10

    The objective of this project was to investigate the complex fracture of ice and understand its role within larger ice sheet simulations and global climate change. This objective was achieved by developing novel physics based models for ice, novel numerical tools to enable the modeling of the physics and by collaboration with the ice community experts. At the present time, ice fracture is not explicitly considered within ice sheet models due in part to large computational costs associated with the accurate modeling of this complex phenomena. However, fracture not only plays an extremely important role in regional behavior but also influences ice dynamics over much larger zones in ways that are currently not well understood. To this end, our research findings through this project offers significant advancement to the field and closes a large gap of knowledge in understanding and modeling the fracture of ice sheets in the polar regions. Thus, we believe that our objective has been achieved and our research accomplishments are significant. This is corroborated through a set of published papers, posters and presentations at technical conferences in the field. In particular significant progress has been made in the mechanics of ice, fracture of ice sheets and ice shelves in polar regions and sophisticated numerical methods that enable the solution of the physics in an efficient way.

  3. Ocean temperature thresholds for Last Interglacial West Antarctic Ice Sheet collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, Johannes; Gierz, Paul; Grosfeld, Klaus; Thoma, Malte; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2016-03-01

    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) is considered the major contributor to global sea level rise in the Last Interglacial (LIG) and potentially in the future. Exposed fossil reef terraces suggest sea levels in excess of 7 m in the last warm era, of which probably not much more than 2 m are considered to originate from melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet. We simulate the evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet during the LIG with a 3-D thermomechanical ice sheet model forced by an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM). Our results show that high LIG sea levels cannot be reproduced with the atmosphere-ocean forcing delivered by current AOGCMs. However, when taking reconstructed Southern Ocean temperature anomalies of several degrees, sensitivity studies indicate a Southern Ocean temperature anomaly threshold for total WAIS collapse of 2-3°C, accounting for a sea level rise of 3-4 m during the LIG. Potential future Antarctic Ice Sheet dynamics range from a moderate retreat to a complete collapse, depending on rate and amplitude of warming.

  4. Obliquity-paced Pliocene West Antarctic ice sheet oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naish, T.; Powell, R.; Levy, R.; Wilson, G.; Scherer, R.; Talarico, F.; Krissek, L.; Niessen, F.; Pompilio, M.; Wilson, T.; Carter, L.; Deconto, R.; Huybers, P.; McKay, R.; Pollard, D.; Ross, J.; Winter, D.; Barrett, P.; Browne, G.; Cody, R.; Cowan, E.; Crampton, J.; Dunbar, G.; Dunbar, N.; Florindo, F.; Gebhardt, C.; Graham, I.; Hannah, M.; Hansaraj, D.; Harwood, D.; Helling, D.; Henrys, S.; Hinnov, L.; Kuhn, G.; Kyle, P.; Läufer, A.; Maffioli, P.; Magens, D.; Mandernack, K.; McIntosh, W.; Millan, C.; Morin, R.; Ohneiser, C.; Paulsen, T.; Persico, D.; Raine, I.; Reed, J.; Riesselman, C.; Sagnotti, L.; Schmitt, D.; Sjunneskog, C.; Strong, P.; Taviani, M.; Vogel, S.; Wilch, T.; Williams, T.

    2009-03-01

    Thirty years after oxygen isotope records from microfossils deposited in ocean sediments confirmed the hypothesis that variations in the Earth's orbital geometry control the ice ages, fundamental questions remain over the response of the Antarctic ice sheets to orbital cycles. Furthermore, an understanding of the behaviour of the marine-based West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) during the `warmer-than-present' early-Pliocene epoch (~5-3Myr ago) is needed to better constrain the possible range of ice-sheet behaviour in the context of future global warming. Here we present a marine glacial record from the upper 600m of the AND-1B sediment core recovered from beneath the northwest part of the Ross ice shelf by the ANDRILL programme and demonstrate well-dated, ~40-kyr cyclic variations in ice-sheet extent linked to cycles in insolation influenced by changes in the Earth's axial tilt (obliquity) during the Pliocene. Our data provide direct evidence for orbitally induced oscillations in the WAIS, which periodically collapsed, resulting in a switch from grounded ice, or ice shelves, to open waters in the Ross embayment when planetary temperatures were up to ~3°C warmer than today and atmospheric CO2 concentration was as high as ~400p.p.m.v. (refs 5, 6). The evidence is consistent with a new ice-sheet/ice-shelf model that simulates fluctuations in Antarctic ice volume of up to +7m in equivalent sea level associated with the loss of the WAIS and up to +3m in equivalent sea level from the East Antarctic ice sheet, in response to ocean-induced melting paced by obliquity. During interglacial times, diatomaceous sediments indicate high surface-water productivity, minimal summer sea ice and air temperatures above freezing, suggesting an additional influence of surface melt under conditions of elevated CO2.

  5. Obliquity-paced Pliocene West Antarctic ice sheet oscillations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naish, T.; Powell, R.; Levy, R.; Wilson, G.; Scherer, R.; Talarico, F.; Krissek, L.; Niessen, F.; Pompilio, M.; Wilson, T.; Carter, L.; DeConto, R.; Huybers, P.; McKay, R.; Pollard, D.; Ross, J.; Winter, D.; Barrett, P.; Browne, G.; Cody, R.; Cowan, E.; Crampton, J.; Dunbar, G.; Dunbar, N.; Florindo, F.; Gebhardt, C.; Graham, I.; Hannah, M.; Hansaraj, D.; Harwood, D.; Helling, D.; Henrys, S.; Hinnov, L.; Kuhn, G.; Kyle, P.; Laufer, A.; Maffioli, P.; Magens, D.; Mandernack, K.; McIntosh, W.; Millan, C.; Morin, R.; Ohneiser, C.; Paulsen, T.; Persico, D.; Raine, I.; Reed, J.; Riesselman, C.; Sagnotti, L.; Schmitt, D.; Sjunneskog, C.; Strong, P.; Taviani, M.; Vogel, S.; Wilch, T.; Williams, T.

    2009-01-01

    Thirty years after oxygen isotope records from microfossils deposited in ocean sediments confirmed the hypothesis that variations in the Earth's orbital geometry control the ice ages, fundamental questions remain over the response of the Antarctic ice sheets to orbital cycles. Furthermore, an understanding of the behaviour of the marine-based West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) during the 'warmer-than-present' early-Pliocene epoch (???5-3 Myr ago) is needed to better constrain the possible range of ice-sheet behaviour in the context of future global warming. Here we present a marine glacial record from the upper 600 m of the AND-1B sediment core recovered from beneath the northwest part of the Ross ice shelf by the ANDRILL programme and demonstrate well-dated, ???40-kyr cyclic variations in ice-sheet extent linked to cycles in insolation influenced by changes in the Earth's axial tilt (obliquity) during the Pliocene. Our data provide direct evidence for orbitally induced oscillations in the WAIS, which periodically collapsed, resulting in a switch from grounded ice, or ice shelves, to open waters in the Ross embayment when planetary temperatures were up to ???3??C warmer than today and atmospheric CO 2 concentration was as high as ???400 p.p.m.v. (refs 5, 6). The evidence is consistent with a new ice-sheet/ice-shelf model that simulates fluctuations in Antarctic ice volume of up to +7 m in equivalent sea level associated with the loss of the WAIS and up to +3 m in equivalent sea level from the East Antarctic ice sheet, in response to ocean-induced melting paced by obliquity. During interglacial times, diatomaceous sediments indicate high surface-water productivity, minimal summer sea ice and air temperatures above freezing, suggesting an additional influence of surface melt under conditions of elevated CO2. ??2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  6. Obliquity-paced Pliocene West Antarctic ice sheet oscillations.

    PubMed

    Naish, T; Powell, R; Levy, R; Wilson, G; Scherer, R; Talarico, F; Krissek, L; Niessen, F; Pompilio, M; Wilson, T; Carter, L; DeConto, R; Huybers, P; McKay, R; Pollard, D; Ross, J; Winter, D; Barrett, P; Browne, G; Cody, R; Cowan, E; Crampton, J; Dunbar, G; Dunbar, N; Florindo, F; Gebhardt, C; Graham, I; Hannah, M; Hansaraj, D; Harwood, D; Helling, D; Henrys, S; Hinnov, L; Kuhn, G; Kyle, P; Läufer, A; Maffioli, P; Magens, D; Mandernack, K; McIntosh, W; Millan, C; Morin, R; Ohneiser, C; Paulsen, T; Persico, D; Raine, I; Reed, J; Riesselman, C; Sagnotti, L; Schmitt, D; Sjunneskog, C; Strong, P; Taviani, M; Vogel, S; Wilch, T; Williams, T

    2009-03-19

    Thirty years after oxygen isotope records from microfossils deposited in ocean sediments confirmed the hypothesis that variations in the Earth's orbital geometry control the ice ages, fundamental questions remain over the response of the Antarctic ice sheets to orbital cycles. Furthermore, an understanding of the behaviour of the marine-based West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) during the 'warmer-than-present' early-Pliocene epoch ( approximately 5-3 Myr ago) is needed to better constrain the possible range of ice-sheet behaviour in the context of future global warming. Here we present a marine glacial record from the upper 600 m of the AND-1B sediment core recovered from beneath the northwest part of the Ross ice shelf by the ANDRILL programme and demonstrate well-dated, approximately 40-kyr cyclic variations in ice-sheet extent linked to cycles in insolation influenced by changes in the Earth's axial tilt (obliquity) during the Pliocene. Our data provide direct evidence for orbitally induced oscillations in the WAIS, which periodically collapsed, resulting in a switch from grounded ice, or ice shelves, to open waters in the Ross embayment when planetary temperatures were up to approximately 3 degrees C warmer than today and atmospheric CO(2) concentration was as high as approximately 400 p.p.m.v. (refs 5, 6). The evidence is consistent with a new ice-sheet/ice-shelf model that simulates fluctuations in Antarctic ice volume of up to +7 m in equivalent sea level associated with the loss of the WAIS and up to +3 m in equivalent sea level from the East Antarctic ice sheet, in response to ocean-induced melting paced by obliquity. During interglacial times, diatomaceous sediments indicate high surface-water productivity, minimal summer sea ice and air temperatures above freezing, suggesting an additional influence of surface melt under conditions of elevated CO(2). PMID:19295607

  7. A Grand (Ensemble) Design For Ice Sheet Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Tamsin

    2015-04-01

    For projections of the probability of sea level rise from the ice sheets to be considered robust, they ought to be founded in both glaciological theory (represented by dynamical ice sheet models) and statistical inference (formal uncertainty quantification, UQ). No such studies yet exist for either the Greenland or Antarctic ice sheet. Ice sheet projections are therefore at risk of being physically implausible, difficult to interpret, or both. But ice sheet models have many advantages over climate models for UQ. They are computationally cheaper, simpler to understand, have fewer input parameters and output variables, and it is often straightforward to switch between different model structures. Just as importantly, the ice sheet modelling community is not yet constrained methodologically or culturally by the legacy - and pitfalls - of the CMIP multi-model "ensemble of opportunity". These advantages present us with a golden opportunity for policy relevant sea level projections: we can design a "grand ensemble" that quantifies multiple modelling uncertainties in a statistically rigorous and efficient way. Such an ensemble would systematically sample model parameters and structures, initial and boundary conditions, in the most informative way (given available computational resources), and would also allow statistical inference i.e. probabilistic estimates. I will present a design that draws on useful UQ techniques that have recently applied in ice sheet modelling (and others that have not). Such a design has the potential not only to generate more robust and meaningful sea level projections but also to provide thorough sensitivity analyses for prioritising model development and observational campaigns.

  8. High-resolution coupled ice sheet-ocean modeling using the POPSICLES model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, E. G.; Martin, D. F.; Asay-Davis, X.; Price, S. F.; Collins, W.

    2014-12-01

    It is expected that a primary driver of future change of the Antarctic ice sheet will be changes in submarine melting driven by incursions of warm ocean water into sub-ice shelf cavities. Correctly modeling this response on a continental scale will require high-resolution modeling of the coupled ice-ocean system. We describe the computational and modeling challenges in our simulations of the full Southern Ocean coupled to a continental-scale Antarctic ice sheet model at unprecedented spatial resolutions (0.1 degree for the ocean model and adaptive mesh refinement down to 500m in the ice sheet model). The POPSICLES model couples the POP2x ocean model, a modified version of the Parallel Ocean Program (Smith and Gent, 2002), with the BISICLES ice-sheet model (Cornford et al., 2012) using a synchronous offline-coupling scheme. Part of the PISCEES SciDAC project and built on the Chombo framework, BISICLES makes use of adaptive mesh refinement to fully resolve dynamically-important regions like grounding lines and employs a momentum balance similar to the vertically-integrated formulation of Schoof and Hindmarsh (2009). Results of BISICLES simulations have compared favorably to comparable simulations with a Stokes momentum balance in both idealized tests like MISMIP3D (Pattyn et al., 2013) and realistic configurations (Favier et al. 2014). POP2x includes sub-ice-shelf circulation using partial top cells (Losch, 2008) and boundary layer physics following Holland and Jenkins (1999), Jenkins (2001), and Jenkins et al. (2010). Standalone POP2x output compares well with standard ice-ocean test cases (e.g., ISOMIP; Losch, 2008) and other continental-scale simulations and melt-rate observations (Kimura et al., 2013; Rignot et al., 2013). For the POPSICLES Antarctic-Southern Ocean simulations, ice sheet and ocean models communicate at one-month coupling intervals.

  9. Permafrost-ice-sheet interactions during the Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willeit, Matteo; Ganopolski, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Permafrost influences a number of processes which are relevant for local and global climate. For example, it is well known that permafrost plays an important role in global carbon and methane cycles. Less is known about the interaction between permafrost and ice sheets. We recently included a permafrost module in the Earth system model CLIMBER-2 to explore the coupled Northern Hemisphere (NH) permafrost-ice-sheet evolution during the Quaternary. The model has been shown to perform generally well at reproducing present-day permafrost extent and thickness. Modelled permafrost extent at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) agrees well with reconstructions and previous modeling estimates. In a previous study we showed that over the last glacial cycle permafrost has a relatively modest impact on simulated NH ice sheet volume except at LGM, when including permafrost increases ice volume by about 15 m sea level equivalent in our model. This is explained by a delayed melting of the ice base from below by the geothermal heat flux when the ice sheet sits on a porous sediment layer and permafrost has to be melted first. Permafrost affects ice sheet dynamics only when ice extends over areas covered by thick sediments, which is the case at LGM. In transient model simulations of the "40 kyr world" of the early Pleistocene we show that when all continents are covered by a thick sediment layer the response of ice volume to the obliquity component of orbital forcing is enhanced while the response to precession is dampened. We therefore argue that permafrost could have played a role for ice sheet evolution when all continents were covered by a thick sediment layer, as was likely the case in the early Pleistocene before the sediment layer was gradually eroded by expanding ice sheets over parts of northern Canada and Scandinavia.

  10. Global ice-sheet system interlocked by sea level

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, G.H.; Hughes, T.J.; Karlen, W.

    1986-01-01

    Denton and Hughes postulated that sea level linked a global ice-sheet system with both terrestrial and grounded marine components during later Quaternary ice ages. Summer temperature changes near Northern Hemisphere melting margins initiated sea-level fluctuations that controlled marine components in both polar hemispheres. It was further proposed that variations of this ice-sheet system amplified and transmitted Milankovitch summer half-year insolation changes between 45 and 75/sup 0/N into global climatic changes. New tests of this hypothesis implicate sea level as a major control of the areal extent of grounded portions of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. But factors other than areal changes of the grounded Antarctic Ice Sheet may have strongly influenced Southern Hemisphere climate and terminated the last ice age simultaneously in both polar hemispheres. Atmospheric carbon dioxide linked to high-latitude oceans is the most likely candidate, but another potential influence was high-frequency climatic oscillations. It is postulated that variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide acted through an Antarctic ice shelf linked to the grounded ice sheet to produce and terminate Southern Hemisphere ice-age climate. It is further postulated that Milankovitch summer insolation combined with a warm-high frequency oscillation caused marked recession of Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet melting margins and the North Atlantic polar front about 14,000 /sup 14/C yr B.P. This permitted renewed formation of North Atlantic Deep Water, which could well have controlled atmospheric carbon dioxide. Combined melting and consequent sea-level rise from the three warming factors initiated irreversible collapse of the interlocked global ice-sheet system, which was at its largest but most vulnerable configuration.

  11. Mass Balance Changes and Ice Dynamics of Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets from Laser Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babonis, G. S.; Csatho, B.; Schenk, T.

    2016-06-01

    During the past few decades the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have lost ice at accelerating rates, caused by increasing surface temperature. The melting of the two big ice sheets has a big impact on global sea level rise. If the ice sheets would melt down entirely, the sea level would rise more than 60 m. Even a much smaller rise would cause dramatic damage along coastal regions. In this paper we report about a major upgrade of surface elevation changes derived from laser altimetry data, acquired by NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite mission (ICESat) and airborne laser campaigns, such as Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) and Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS). For detecting changes in ice sheet elevations we have developed the Surface Elevation Reconstruction And Change detection (SERAC) method. It computes elevation changes of small surface patches by keeping the surface shape constant and considering the absolute values as surface elevations. We report about important upgrades of earlier results, for example the inclusion of local ice caps and the temporal extension from 1993 to 2014 for the Greenland Ice Sheet and for a comprehensive reconstruction of ice thickness and mass changes for the Antarctic Ice Sheets.

  12. The climate - Greenland ice sheet Feedback as simulated by the coupled ice sheet/climate model EC-EARTH - PISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuting; Madsen, Marianne S.; Rodehacke, Christian; Svendsen, Synne H.

    2014-05-01

    Recent observations show that mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet has increased during the past decades, in line with the warming trend in the Arctic. Studies have suggested that the ice sheet mass discharge through fast moving outlet glaciers and ice streams may be triggered by intrusions of warm seawater into fjords, implying the possibility for fjord-terminating glaciers to respond to ocean and atmospheric changes on annual to decadal time scales. Meanwhile, the rapid changes in ice sheet topography and surface runoff could alter the atmospheric and ocean circulation. To understand the interactions of ice sheet and atmosphere and ocean, process based, climate - ice sheet coupled models are needed. Recently a fully coupled global climate model with a dynamical ice sheet model for the Greenland ice sheet, EC-EARTH - PISM, has been developed. The model system consists of the atmosphere, ocean and sea ice model system, EC-EARTH, and the Parallel Ice Sheet Model, PISM. The coupling of the PISM includes a modified surface physical parameterization in EC-EARTH adapted to the land ice surface over glaciated regions in Greenland. The PISM ice sheet model is forced with the surface mass balance (SMB) directly computed inside the EC-EARTH atmospheric module and accounting for the precipitation, the surface evaporation, and the melting of snow and ice over land ice. PISM returns the simulated basal melt, ice discharge and ice cover (extent and thickness) as boundary conditions to EC-EARTH. This coupled system is mass and energy conserving without being constrained by any anomaly correction or flux adjustment, and hence is suitable for investigation of ice sheet - climate feedbacks. PISM is initialized with the standard paleo-climatological spin-up followed by forcing with the EC-EARTH preindustrial climate to reach an equilibrium state with the model preindustrial climate. The EC-EARTH - PISM system is then integrated under preindustrial conditions until it has reached a

  13. Basal Dynamics and Internal Structure of Ice Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolovick, Michael J.

    The internal structure of ice sheets reflects the history of flow and deformation experienced by the ice mass. Flow and deformation are controlled by processes occurring within the ice mass and at its boundaries, including surface accumulation or ablation, ice rheology, basal topography, basal sliding, and basal melting or freezing. The internal structure and basal environment of ice sheets is studied with ice-penetrating radar. Recently, radar observations in Greenland and Antarctica have imaged large englacial structures rising from near the bed that deform the overlying stratigraphy into anticlines, synclines, and overturned folds. The mechanisms that may produce these structures include basal freeze-on, travelling slippery patches at the ice base, and rheological contrasts within the ice column. In this thesis, I explore the setting and mechanisms that produce large basal stratigraphic structures inside ice sheets. First, I use radar data to map subglacial hydrologic networks that deliver meltwater uphill towards freeze-on structures in East Antarctica. Next, I use a thermomechanical flowline model to demonstrate that trains of alternating slippery and sticky patches can form underneath ice sheets and travel downstream over time. The disturbances to the ice flow field produced by these travelling patches produce stratigraphic folds resembling the observations. I then examine the overturned folds produced by a single travelling sticky patch using a kinematic flowline model. This model is used to interpret stratigraphic measurements in terms of the dynamic properties of basal slip. Finally, I use a simple local one-dimensional model to estimate the thickness of basal freeze-on that can be produced based on the supply of available meltwater, the thermal boundary conditions, ice sheet geometry, and the ice flow regime.

  14. 3D Light-Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy of Cranial Neurons and Vasculature during Zebrafish Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ok Kyu; Kwak, Jina; Jung, Yoo Jung; Kim, Young Ho; Hong, Hyun-Seok; Hwang, Byung Joon; Kwon, Seung-Hae; Kee, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Precise 3D spatial mapping of cells and their connections within living tissues is required to fully understand developmental processes and neural activities. Zebrafish embryos are relatively small and optically transparent, making them the vertebrate model of choice for live in vivo imaging. However, embryonic brains cannot be imaged in their entirety by confocal or two-photon microscopy due to limitations in optical range and scanning speed. Here, we use light-sheet fluorescence microscopy to overcome these limitations and image the entire head of live transgenic zebrafish embryos. We simultaneously imaged cranial neurons and blood vessels during embryogenesis, generating comprehensive 3D maps that provide insight into the coordinated morphogenesis of the nervous system and vasculature during early development. In addition, blood cells circulating through the entire head, vagal and cardiac vasculature were also visualized at high resolution in a 3D movie. These data provide the foundation for the construction of a complete 4D atlas of zebrafish embryogenesis and neural activity. PMID:26429501

  15. Sturgis and Tekonsha ice advances: Evidence for thin ice sheets in southern Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Straw, W.T.; Kehew, A.E.; Passero, R.N. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Advance of an ice sheet through the Saginaw Lowland to the position of Sturgis, in St. Joseph County, Michigan initially produced the Sturgis Moraine and adjacent outwash apron. As this ice sheet down wasted, meltwater impounded by it overtopped ice divides to form meltwater streams that cut canyons in the ice and underlying glacial sediments. Continued wasting was attended by formation of supraglacial streams that developed waterfalls as they eroded headward. Complete melting of the ice revealed a subglacial topography marked by drumlins, many of which are irregular, attesting to formation near the attenuated margin of the ice sheet. Prior to complete wasting of this stagnant ice mass, ice of the Lake Michigan Lobe advanced from the west-northwest to form the Tekonsha Moraine. Exposed only where this relatively thin ice sheet advanced onto a highland in east-central Kalamazoo County, the southwestern extension of this moraine was buried by outwash from ice that formed the very prominent Kalamazoo Moraine. That the Tekonsha ice sheet stagnated and wasted in place is revealed by two prominent elongate kames, several escarpments, lake and wetland basins produced by melting of ice masses buried by glacial outwash, and sequential filling of the lowland produced by melting of this ice sheet by a series of alluvial fans. The sequence of fan emplacement is indicated by marginal relationships of the fans and the number and size of depressions formed by melting of relic blocks of ice. The first-formed Dry Prairie fan is marked by numerous large depressions while the Prairie Ronde, the last formed fan exhibits only small widely spaced depressions formed by melting of the last vestiges of this ice sheet.

  16. Seasonal Greenland Ice Sheet ice flow variations in regions of differing bed and surface topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sole, A. J.; Livingstone, S. J.; Rippin, D. M.; Hill, J.; McMillan, M.; Quincey, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The contribution of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) to future sea-level rise is uncertain. Observations reveal the important role of basal water in controlling ice-flow to the ice sheet margin. In Greenland, drainage of large volumes of surface meltwater to the ice sheet bed through moulins and hydrofracture beneath surface lakes dominates the subglacial hydrological system and provides an efficient means of moving mass and heat through the ice sheet. Ice surface and bed topography influence where meltwater can access the bed, and the nature of its subsequent flow beneath the ice. However, no systematic investigation into the influence of topographic variability on Greenland hydrology and dynamics exists. Thus, physical processes controlling storage and drainage of surface and basal meltwater, and the way these affect ice flow are not comprehensively understood. This presents a critical obstacle in efforts to predict the future evolution of the GrIS. Here we present high-resolution satellite mapping of the ice-surface drainage network (e.g. lakes, channels and moulins) and measurements of seasonal variations in ice flow in south west Greenland. The region is comprised of three distinct subglacial terrains which vary in terms of the amplitude and wavelength and thus the degree to which basal topography is reflected in the ice sheet surface. We find that the distribution of surface hydrological features is related to the transfer of bed topography to the ice sheet surface. For example, in areas of thinner ice and high bed relief, moulins occur more frequently and are more uniformly dispersed, indicating a more distributed influx of surface-derived meltwater to the ice sheet bed. We investigate the implications of such spatial variations in surface hydrology on seasonal ice flow rates.

  17. Subglacial lake and meltwater flow predictions of the last North American and European Ice Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingstone, S. J.; Clark, C. D.; Tarasov, L.

    2012-04-01

    where on the bed that subglacial lakes are likely to have occurred. This includes modelled output of palaeo ice and bed topographies from ICE-5G (Peltier, 2004); CLIMAP (CLIMAP Project Members, 1984); GRISLI (e.g. Alvarez-Solas, 2011); Glimmer-CISM (e.g. Gregoire, 2010); and a Bayesian calibration of a 3D glaciological model against a large set of observational constraints (Tarasov et al., In press). Predictions are also calculated at discrete time-slices throughout the evolution of the sheets thus allowing us to assess the temporal variability and stability of subglacial lakes and drainage networks. These lake likelihood predictions could usefully form targets for detailed field investigations.

  18. Ice sheets viewed from the ocean: the contribution of marine science to understanding modern and past ice sheets.

    PubMed

    Ó Cofaigh, Colm

    2012-12-13

    Over the last two decades, marine science, aided by technological advances in sediment coring, geophysical imaging and remotely operated submersibles, has played a major role in the investigation of contemporary and former ice sheets. Notable advances have been achieved with respect to reconstructing the extent and flow dynamics of the large polar ice sheets and their mid-latitude counterparts during the Quaternary from marine geophysical and geological records of landforms and sediments on glacier-influenced continental margins. Investigations of the deep-sea ice-rafted debris record have demonstrated that catastrophic collapse of large (10(5)-10(6) km(2)) ice-sheet drainage basins occurred on millennial and shorter time scales and had a major influence on oceanography. In the last few years, increasing emphasis has been placed on understanding physical processes at the ice-ocean interface, particularly at the grounding line, and on determining how these processes affect ice-sheet stability. This remains a major challenge, however, owing to the logistical constraints imposed by working in ice-infested polar waters and ice-shelf cavities. Furthermore, despite advances in reconstructing the Quaternary history of mid- and high-latitude ice sheets, major unanswered questions remain regarding West Antarctic ice-sheet stability, and the long-term offshore history of the East Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets remains poorly constrained. While these are major research frontiers in glaciology, and ones in which marine science has a pivotal role to play, realizing such future advances will require an integrated collaborative approach between oceanographers, glaciologists, marine geologists and numerical modellers. PMID:23129711

  19. Radar attenuation and temperature within the Greenland Ice Sheet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacGregor, Joseph A; Li, Jilu; Paden, John D; Catania, Ginny A; Clow, Gary D.; Fahnestock, Mark A; Gogineni, Prasad S.; Grimm, Robert E.; Morlighem, Mathieu; Nandi, Soumyaroop; Seroussi, Helene; Stillman, David E

    2015-01-01

    The flow of ice is temperature-dependent, but direct measurements of englacial temperature are sparse. The dielectric attenuation of radio waves through ice is also temperature-dependent, and radar sounding of ice sheets is sensitive to this attenuation. Here we estimate depth-averaged radar-attenuation rates within the Greenland Ice Sheet from airborne radar-sounding data and its associated radiostratigraphy. Using existing empirical relationships between temperature, chemistry, and radar attenuation, we then infer the depth-averaged englacial temperature. The dated radiostratigraphy permits a correction for the confounding effect of spatially varying ice chemistry. Where radar transects intersect boreholes, radar-inferred temperature is consistently higher than that measured directly. We attribute this discrepancy to the poorly recognized frequency dependence of the radar-attenuation rate and correct for this effect empirically, resulting in a robust relationship between radar-inferred and borehole-measured depth-averaged temperature. Radar-inferred englacial temperature is often lower than modern surface temperature and that of a steady state ice-sheet model, particularly in southern Greenland. This pattern suggests that past changes in surface boundary conditions (temperature and accumulation rate) affect the ice sheet's present temperature structure over a much larger area than previously recognized. This radar-inferred temperature structure provides a new constraint for thermomechanical models of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  20. Radiostratigraphy and age structure of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, Joseph A.; Fahnestock, Mark A.; Catania, Ginny A.; Paden, John D.; Prasad Gogineni, S.; Young, S. Keith; Rybarski, Susan C.; Mabrey, Alexandria N.; Wagman, Benjamin M.; Morlighem, Mathieu

    2015-02-01

    Several decades of ice-penetrating radar surveys of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have observed numerous widespread internal reflections. Analysis of this radiostratigraphy has produced valuable insights into ice sheet dynamics and motivates additional mapping of these reflections. Here we present a comprehensive deep radiostratigraphy of the Greenland Ice Sheet from airborne deep ice-penetrating radar data collected over Greenland by The University of Kansas between 1993 and 2013. To map this radiostratigraphy efficiently, we developed new techniques for predicting reflection slope from the phase recorded by coherent radars. When integrated along track, these slope fields predict the radiostratigraphy and simplify semiautomatic reflection tracing. Core-intersecting reflections were dated using synchronized depth-age relationships for six deep ice cores. Additional reflections were dated by matching reflections between transects and by extending reflection-inferred depth-age relationships using the local effective vertical strain rate. The oldest reflections, dating to the Eemian period, are found mostly in the northern part of the ice sheet. Within the onset regions of several fast-flowing outlet glaciers and ice streams, reflections typically do not conform to the bed topography. Disrupted radiostratigraphy is also observed in a region north of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream that is not presently flowing rapidly. Dated reflections are used to generate a gridded age volume for most of the ice sheet and also to determine the depths of key climate transitions that were not observed directly. This radiostratigraphy provides a new constraint on the dynamics and history of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  1. Ice streams in the Laurentide Ice Sheet: a new mapping inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margold, Martin; Stokes, Chris R.; Clark, Chris D.

    2014-05-01

    Rapidly-flowing ice streams dominate the drainage of continental ice sheets and are a key component of their mass balance. Due to their potential impact on sea level, their activity in the Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheets has undergone detailed scrutiny in recent decades. However, these observations only cover a fraction of their 'life-span' and the subglacial processes that facilitate their rapid flow are very difficult to observe. To circumvent these problems, numerous workers have highlighted the potential of investigating palaeo-ice streams tracks, preserved in the landform and sedimentary record of former ice sheets. As such, it is becoming increasingly important to know where and when palaeo-ice streams operated. We present a new examination of ice streams in the North American Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS), which was the largest of the ephemeral Pleistocene ice sheets and where numerous ice streams have been hypothesised. We compile previously-published evidence of ice stream activity and complement it with new mapping to generate the most complete and consistent inventory to date. Our map identifies close to three times as many ice streams (117 in total) compared to previous inventories, and categorises them according to the evidence they left behind, with some locations more speculative than others. We note that LIS ice streams span a broad range of size and shapes. The majority of large ice streams, thought to have operated during the Last Glacial Maximum, are comparable in size and shape to modern Antarctic ice streams, but we note a group of ice streams with low length-to-width ratios that do not have modern-day analogues and might be unique to deglacial conditions in which they operated. This study of Laurentide ice streams considerably refines our understanding of LIS dynamics, but there is a clear requirement for improved dating of ice stream activity.

  2. Holocene accumulation and ice flow near the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide ice core site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutnik, Michelle R.; Fudge, T. J.; Conway, Howard; Waddington, Edwin D.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Cuffey, Kurt M.; Buizert, Christo; Taylor, Kendrick C.

    2016-05-01

    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide Core (WDC) provided a high-resolution climate record from near the Ross-Amundsen Divide in Central West Antarctica. In addition, radar-detected internal layers in the vicinity of the WDC site have been dated directly from the ice core to provide spatial variations in the age structure of the region. Using these two data sets together, we first infer a high-resolution Holocene accumulation-rate history from 9.2 kyr of the ice-core timescale and then confirm that this climate history is consistent with internal layers upstream of the core site. Even though the WDC was drilled only 24 km from the modern ice divide, advection of ice from upstream must be taken into account. We evaluate histories of accumulation rate by using a flowband model to generate internal layers that we compare to observed layers. Results show that the centennially averaged accumulation rate was over 20% lower than modern at 9.2 kyr before present (B.P.), increased by 40% from 9.2 to 2.3 kyr B.P., and decreased by at least 10% over the past 2 kyr B.P. to the modern values; these Holocene accumulation-rate changes in Central West Antarctica are larger than changes inferred from East Antarctic ice-core records. Despite significant changes in accumulation rate, throughout the Holocene the regional accumulation pattern has likely remained similar to today, and the ice-divide position has likely remained on average within 5 km of its modern position. Continent-scale ice-sheet models used for reconstructions of West Antarctic ice volume should incorporate this accumulation history.

  3. Evidence for an extensive Antarctic Ice Sheet by 37 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Andrew; Riley, Teal; Hillenbrand, Claus-Dieter; Rittner, Martin

    2016-04-01

    We present observational evidence that both the East and West Antarctic ice sheets had expanded to the coast by 37 Ma, predating, by at least 3 Myr, a major drop in atmospheric CO2 at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary widely considered responsible for Antarctic Ice Sheet expansion. Our evidence comes from the provenance (geochronology, thermochronometry, mineralogy) of iceberg-rafted debris identified in Late Eocene marine sediments from (ODP) Leg 113 Site 696 in the NW Weddell Sea. The existence of an significant Antarctic Ice Sheet in a Late Eocene high pCO2 world calls into question the role of atmospheric CO2 concentrations as the dominant mechanism for ice sheet expansion and whether topography and ocean circulation only play a secondary role.

  4. The Greenland Ice Sheet, now in HD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howat, I. M.; Noh, M. J.; Porter, C. C.; Morin, P. J.; Herried, B.

    2014-12-01

    We are constructing very-high resolution (2 m of the margin, 10 m of the interior) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and orthoimage mosaics of the the Greenland Ice Sheet from stereoscopic-mode satellite imagery acquired by the Worldview constellation and archived at the Polar Geospatial Center. The DEMs are constructed with the fully-automated Surface Extraction from TIN-based Search Minimization (SETSM) software developed by Ohio State University specifically for DEM extraction over high latitude terrains. The SETSM algorithm features an iterative process for correcting biases in the imagery geolocation information, improving DEM success over low-contrast and repetitively-textured surfaces such as snow and mountain shadows. The imagery are orthorectified using the corresponding DEM and individual orthoimages and DEMs are mosaiced into continuous tiles of coverage. To facilitate change detection, each pixel contains an acquisition date stamp and a flag indicating if the DEM pixel was measured or interpolated. The data are openly available online with registration at http://www.pgc.umn.edu/elevation/stereo . Here we present the Greenland DEM and orthoimage mosaics with examples of applications and comparisons to existing datasets. We compare the DEM's to coincident laser altimeter measurements to examine accuracies and potential biases, as well as discuss the feasibility of merging the DEMs with coordinated laser altimeter surveys to improve the spatial coverage of high-precision elevation data.

  5. Dynamic Antarctic ice-sheet response to deglacial meltwater pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Michael; Clark, Peter U.; Timmermann, Axel; Lohmann, Gerrit; Kuhn, Gerhard; Sprenk, Daniela; Gladstone, Rupert

    2013-04-01

    Reconstruction of the last global sea level rise faces uncertainties because only a few robust data evidences are available for Antarctic ice sheets. Deglacial dynamics have mostly been inferred from shallow-water cores on the shelf, where decisive changes are either erased by grounding ice or occur in condensed, lithologically complex successions with partially reversed and generally unreliable 14C ages. Previous modeling studies reconstruct a late ice-sheet retreat starting around 12 ka BP and ending around 7 ka BP with a large impact of an unstable West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) and a small impact of a stable East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). However, new findings from two deepwater cores from the Scotia Sea challenge these reconstructions and call for a principal revision of the Antarctic deglacial history. The well-dated sites (Weber et al., 2012, Quaternary Science Reviews) provide the first integrative and representative record of Antarctic Ice Sheet instability. They are located in the central transport route of virtually all Antarctic icebergs, the so-called Iceberg Alley, and demonstrate a highly dynamic Antarctic Ice Sheet during the last deglaciation with eight distinct phases of enhanced iceberg routing, dubbed Antarctic Ice Sheet Events (AIE), in contrast to existing models of a late and monotonous ice-sheet retreat which implied only little contribution to the last, natural, sea-level rise 19,000 to 9,000 years ago. We found the first direct evidence for an Antarctic contribution to Meltwater Pulse 1A in the flux rates of ice-rafted debris. Using an ensemble of transient deglacial model simulations we could show that increased export of warmer Circumpolar Deep Water towards Antarctica contributed to Antarctic Ice Sheet melt by ocean thermal forcing (Weber et al., Science, in review). These new findings hold the potential to substantially revise and improve our understanding of the transient response of the ice sheet to external and internal forcings

  6. Subglacial lake drainage detected beneath the Greenland ice sheet

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Steven; McMillan, Malcolm; Morlighem, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of the Greenland ice sheet to sea-level rise has accelerated in recent decades. Subglacial lake drainage events can induce an ice sheet dynamic response—a process that has been observed in Antarctica, but not yet in Greenland, where the presence of subglacial lakes has only recently been discovered. Here we investigate the water flow paths from a subglacial lake, which drained beneath the Greenland ice sheet in 2011. Our observations suggest that the lake was fed by surface meltwater flowing down a nearby moulin, and that the draining water reached the ice margin via a subglacial tunnel. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar-derived measurements of ice surface motion acquired in 1995 suggest that a similar event may have occurred 16 years earlier, and we propose that, as the climate warms, increasing volumes of surface meltwater routed to the bed will cause such events to become more common in the future. PMID:26450175

  7. Subglacial lake drainage detected beneath the Greenland ice sheet.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Steven; McMillan, Malcolm; Morlighem, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of the Greenland ice sheet to sea-level rise has accelerated in recent decades. Subglacial lake drainage events can induce an ice sheet dynamic response--a process that has been observed in Antarctica, but not yet in Greenland, where the presence of subglacial lakes has only recently been discovered. Here we investigate the water flow paths from a subglacial lake, which drained beneath the Greenland ice sheet in 2011. Our observations suggest that the lake was fed by surface meltwater flowing down a nearby moulin, and that the draining water reached the ice margin via a subglacial tunnel. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar-derived measurements of ice surface motion acquired in 1995 suggest that a similar event may have occurred 16 years earlier, and we propose that, as the climate warms, increasing volumes of surface meltwater routed to the bed will cause such events to become more common in the future. PMID:26450175

  8. Spatial patterns in backscatter strength across the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jezek, K. C.

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between the physical properties of the Greenland ice sheet and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data collected from aircraft and from ERS-1 is addressed. Limited aircraft data are combined with a description of the glacier surface to predict qualitatively the spatial and seasonal variation in backscatter strength across the ice sheet. In particular the model predicts relatively low backscatter near the ice edge where scattering is dominated by rough surface effects. Backscatter increases through the lake zone as volume scattering becomes important. Strongest backscatter is found in the percolation facies where volume scatter from snow grains and volume scatter from large, buried ice bodies becomes important. Backscatter weakens in the interior ice sheet where fine grained snow is the only mechanism producing backscatter.

  9. Evidence of Meltwater Retention within the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennermalm, A. K.; Smith, L. C.; Chu, V. W.; Box, J. E.; Forster, R. R.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    Greenland ice sheet water release, and the magnitude of sub- and englacial storage, firn densification, internal refreezing and other hydrologic processes that delay or reduce true water export to the global ocean remain poorly understood. This problem is compounded by scant hydrometerological measurements. Here, ice sheet surface meltwater runoff and proglacial river discharge determined between 2008 and 2010 for three sites near Kangerlussuaq, western Greenland were used to establish the water budget for a small ice sheet watershed. The water budget could not be closed in the three years, even when uncertainty ranges were considered. Instead, between 12% and 53% of ice sheet surface runoff is retained within the catchment each melt year (time between onset of ice sheet runoff in two consecutive years) most likely in en- and subglacial storages. Evidence suggests that while some holdover summer meltwater may escape during the cold-season, this water volume is too small to close the budget. Thus, this study indicates that the Greenland ice sheet cryo-hydrologic system may remain active year round, and that meltwater may be retained in the pro glacial area, internally, or in firn layers for prolonged time periods before release to the ocean.

  10. Data assimilation methods for ice-sheet model initialisation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nodet, M.; Ritz, C.; Bonan, B.

    2012-04-01

    A hot topic in ice-sheet modelling is to run prognostic simulations over the next 100 years, to investigate the impact of Antarctica and Greenland ice-sheets on sea-level change. Such simulations require an initial state of the ice-sheets which must be as close as possible to what is currently observed. The use of advanced inverse methods appears to be the adequate tool to produce such an initial state. Criteria for a good initial state are: an optimal fit to available observations, such as surface and (sparse) bedrock topography, surface velocities, surface elevation trend. Large scale ice-sheet dynamical models are mostly governed by the following input parameters and variables: basal dragging coefficient, bedrock topography, surface elevation, temperature field. We use variational and sequential data assimilation methods to infer these inputs parameters from available observations. To address this problem we perform identical twin experiments on the realistic flow-line large-scale ice-sheet model GRISLI. Thanks to the model, we simulate observations from a set of given input parameters (bedrock topography, basal sliding field, surface elevation), and we then try to recover these parameters with the generated observations. We also run several diagnostics to assess the quality of the recovered parameters. In the light of the results of our numerical twin experiments, we will discuss advantages and drawbacks of the state-of-the-art data assimilation methods currently used for the initialization problem of ice-sheet models.

  11. The 3-D description of vertical current sheets with application to solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, Juan M.; Davis, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    Following a brief review of the processes which have been suggested for explaining the occurrence of solar flares we suggest a new scenario which builds on the achievements of the previous suggestion that the current sheets, which develop naturally in 3-D cases with gravity from impacting independent magnetic structures (i.e., approaching current systems), do not consist of horizontal currents but are instead predominantly vertical current systems. This suggestion is based on the fact that as the subphotospheric sources of the magnetic field displace the upper photosphere and lower chromosphere regions, where plasma beta is near unity, will experience predominantly horizontal mass motions which will lead to a distorted 3-D configurations of the magnetic field having stored free energy. In our scenario, a vertically flowing current sheet separates the plasma regions associated with either of the subphotospheric sources. This reflects the balanced tension of the two stressed fields which twist around each other. This leads naturally to a metastable or unstable situation as the twisted field emerges into a low beta region where vertical motions are not inhibited by gravity. In our flare scenario the impulsive energy release occurs, initially, not by reconnection but mainly by the rapid change of the magnetic field which has become unstable. During the impulsive phase the field lines contort in such way as to realign the electric current sheet into a minimum energy horizontal flow. This contortion produces very large electric fields which will accelerate particles. As the current evolves to a horizontal configuration the magnetic field expands vertically, which can be accompanied by eruptions of material. The instability of a horizontal current is well known and causes the magnetic field to undergo a rapid outward expansion. In our scenario, fast reconnection is not necessary to trigger the flare, however, slow reconnection would occur continuously in the current layer

  12. Microfibrillated cellulose sheets coating oxygen-permeable PDMS membranes induce rat hepatocytes 3D aggregation into stably-attached 3D hemispheroids.

    PubMed

    Evenou, Fanny; Couderc, Sandrine; Kim, Beomjoon; Fujii, Teruo; Sakai, Yasuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Here we report the use of natural, chemically-unmodified, microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) as a matrix for hepatocyte culture. We developed an original cell-culture design composed of a thin 3D-microstructured fibrous substrate consisting of a MFC sheet coating a highly O(2)-permeable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane. The MFC-coated PDMS membranes were obtained according to a simple process where cellulose fibres were deposited from an aqueous suspension on the PDMS surfaces and the films were dried under mild conditions. To enable oxygen diffusion through the membranes, they were assembled on bottomless frames ('O(2)+' condition). Rat hepatocytes primary-cultured on such MFC-PDMS membranes quickly organized themselves into large hemispherical 3D aggregates which were tightly anchored to the MFC sheets. In contrast, hepatocytes cultured on smooth PDMS membranes in the O(2)+ system (O(2)+, PDMS) organized into unstable 2D monolayers which easily detached from the surfaces. Hepatocyte 3D cultures obtained on MFC-PDMS membranes exhibited higher liver-specific functions over a 2-week culture period, as assessed by both the higher albumin secretion and urea synthesis rate. The MFC-PDMS membranes appear suitable for obtaining stably-attached and functional hepatocyte 3D cultures and appear interesting for drug/chemical screenings in a microplate format, but also for microfluidic applications. PMID:20626957

  13. Deglacial ice sheet meltdown: orbital pacemaking and CO2 effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinemann, M.; Timmermann, A.; Elison Timm, O.; Saito, F.; Abe-Ouchi, A.

    2014-08-01

    One hundred thousand years of ice sheet buildup came to a rapid end ∼25-10 thousand years before present (ka BP), when ice sheets receded quickly and multi-proxy reconstructed global mean surface temperatures rose by ∼3-5 °C. It still remains unresolved whether insolation changes due to variations of earth's tilt and orbit were sufficient to terminate glacial conditions. Using a coupled three-dimensional climate-ice sheet model, we simulate the climate and Northern Hemisphere ice sheet evolution from 78 ka BP to 0 ka BP in good agreement with sea level and ice topography reconstructions. Based on this simulation and a series of deglacial sensitivity experiments with individually varying orbital parameters and prescribed CO2, we find that enhanced calving led to a slowdown of ice sheet growth as early as ∼8 ka prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The glacial termination was then initiated by enhanced ablation due to increasing obliquity and precession, in agreement with the Milankovitch theory. However, our results also support the notion that the ∼100 ppmv rise of atmospheric CO2 after ∼18 ka BP was a key contributor to the deglaciation. Without it, the present-day ice volume would be comparable to that of the LGM and global mean temperatures would be about 3 °C lower than today. We further demonstrate that neither orbital forcing nor rising CO2 concentrations alone were sufficient to complete the deglaciation.

  14. Sensitivity of Pliocene ice sheets to orbital forcing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolan, A.M.; Haywood, A.M.; Hill, D.J.; Dowsett, H.J.; Hunter, S.J.; Lunt, D.J.; Pickering, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    The stability of the Earth's major ice sheets is a critical uncertainty in predictions of future climate and sea level change. One method of investigating the behaviour of the Greenland and the Antarctic ice sheets in a warmer-than-modern climate is to look back at past warm periods of Earth history, for example the Pliocene. This paper presents climate and ice sheet modelling results for the mid-Pliocene warm period (mPWP; 3.3 to 3.0 million years ago), which has been identified as a key interval for understanding warmer-than-modern climates (Jansen et al., 2007). Using boundary conditions supplied by the United States Geological Survey PRISM Group (Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping), the Hadley Centre coupled ocean–atmosphere climate model (HadCM3) and the British Antarctic Survey Ice Sheet Model (BASISM), we show large reductions in the Greenland and East Antarctic Ice Sheets (GrIS and EAIS) compared to modern in standard mPWP experiments. We also present the first results illustrating the variability of the ice sheets due to realistic orbital forcing during the mid-Pliocene. While GrIS volumes are lower than modern under even the most extreme (cold) mid-Pliocene orbit (losing at least 35% of its ice mass), the EAIS can both grow and shrink, losing up to 20% or gaining up to 10% of its present-day volume. The changes in ice sheet volume incurred by altering orbital forcing alone means that global sea level can vary by more than 25 m during the mid-Pliocene. However, we have also shown that the response of the ice sheets to mPWP orbital hemispheric forcing can be in anti-phase, whereby the greatest reductions in EAIS volume are concurrent with the smallest reductions of the GrIS. If this anti-phase relationship is in operation throughout the mPWP, then the total eustatic sea level response would be dampened compared to the ice sheet fluctuations that are theoretically possible. This suggests that maximum eustatic sea level rise does not

  15. Dynamics and development of the last North Sea ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nygård, A.; Sejrup, H. P.; Haflidason, H.

    2008-12-01

    The last decade there has been an increasing attention on the dynamics and history of the marine based parts of the large Pleistocene ice sheets. This interest has grown both from the potential influence the stability of these features could have on ocean circulation through rapid meltwater delivery and from the understanding of the critical role these parts have in terms of the dynamics of the large ice sheets. During the last glacial stage the northern North Sea has experienced a number of glacial advances of ice from UK and Fennoscandia. Acoustic data and core data from two contrasting areas are presented. The Norwegian Channel represents the highly dynamic ice stream system draining large parts of the southern Fennoscandian ice sheet. The adjacent Witch Ground basin shows in contrast evidence of smaller scale tidewater glaciers active in a shallow environment, which constituted the eastern limit of the north-eastern British Ice sheet during the deglaciation. Seabed imagery (Olex data) reveals fresh glacial morphology inside (west of) the interpreted ice limits, while the seabed outside (east of) the interpreted ice limits shows very few features, due to a thick cover of glacimarine sediments. The seabed imprint of these systems as well as geometry, genesis and chronology of the sediments from this region will be discussed and their implications for our understanding of the glacial development of the region will be explored.

  16. Investigation of Greenland Russell glacier with remote sensing observations and ice sheet/hydrodynamic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Hyewon; Kim, Jungrack; Tsai, YaLun; Lin, ShihYuan; Choi, Yunsoo

    2016-04-01

    There is great interest in the mechanism and consequences of arctic ice sheet migration in the context of worldwide climate change. An in-depth investigation of glacial movement involving supra/under glacial hydrological channel activities is key to understanding the acceleration of Greenland's ice sheet changes and needs to be established as an integrated model. In terms of the glacial migration involving basal hydrology, we have conducted a case study over the Russell glacier in western Greenland. Remote sensed image analyses combined with a numerical model in its melt water outflow channels, such as the Akuliarusiarsuup Kuua and Qinnguata Kuussua rivers, and ice sheet simulations were performed. Employed technical approaches are summarized as follows: 1) Collecting 3D migration vectors combining differential interferometric SAR (D-InSAR) analysis, together with the in-house pixel tracking method employing optical flow and sub-pixel refinement with C band Sentinel-1 and L band ALOS PALSAR-2 images; 2) a 2D hydrodynamic simulation based on the channel bathymetry, which was driven from calibrated LANDSAT images together with along-track stereo DTM, and 3) an ice sheet model to extract the bedrock and basal characteristics of the glaciers. In addition, we tried Sentinel-1 InSAR time series to monitor ice sheet migrations over a certain time domain. The results revealed the importance of hydrological channel morphology as a governing factor over migration speeds of glaciers. Specifically, the sub glacial processes and underlying morphology traced by remote sensing observation and the numerical model were correlated with the observed local migration speeds in terminus of the Russell glacier. Those experiences naturally will lead to a more comprehensive understanding of the processes of artic glaciers. Thus, based on the output of this study, the proposed method will be extended to tackle the issues of ice sheet change occurring in the Greenland costal area

  17. Smart three-dimensional lightweight structure triggered from a thin composite sheet via 3D printing technique

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Gengkai

    2016-01-01

    Complex fabrication process and expensive materials have restricted the development of smart three-dimensional (3D) lightweight structures, which are expected to possess self-shaping, self-folding and self-unfolding performances. Here we present a simple approach to fabricate smart lightweight structures by triggering shape transformation from thin printed composite sheets. The release of the internal strain in printed polymer materials enables the printed composite sheet to keep flat under heating and transform into a designed 3D configuration when cooled down to room temperature. The 3D lightweight structure can be switched between flat and 3D configuration under appropriate thermal stimuli. Our work exploits uniform internal strain in printed materials as a controllable tool to fabricate smart 3D lightweight structures, opening an avenue for possible applications in engineering fields. PMID:26926357

  18. Smart three-dimensional lightweight structure triggered from a thin composite sheet via 3D printing technique.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Gengkai

    2016-01-01

    Complex fabrication process and expensive materials have restricted the development of smart three-dimensional (3D) lightweight structures, which are expected to possess self-shaping, self-folding and self-unfolding performances. Here we present a simple approach to fabricate smart lightweight structures by triggering shape transformation from thin printed composite sheets. The release of the internal strain in printed polymer materials enables the printed composite sheet to keep flat under heating and transform into a designed 3D configuration when cooled down to room temperature. The 3D lightweight structure can be switched between flat and 3D configuration under appropriate thermal stimuli. Our work exploits uniform internal strain in printed materials as a controllable tool to fabricate smart 3D lightweight structures, opening an avenue for possible applications in engineering fields. PMID:26926357

  19. Smart three-dimensional lightweight structure triggered from a thin composite sheet via 3D printing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Gengkai

    2016-02-01

    Complex fabrication process and expensive materials have restricted the development of smart three-dimensional (3D) lightweight structures, which are expected to possess self-shaping, self-folding and self-unfolding performances. Here we present a simple approach to fabricate smart lightweight structures by triggering shape transformation from thin printed composite sheets. The release of the internal strain in printed polymer materials enables the printed composite sheet to keep flat under heating and transform into a designed 3D configuration when cooled down to room temperature. The 3D lightweight structure can be switched between flat and 3D configuration under appropriate thermal stimuli. Our work exploits uniform internal strain in printed materials as a controllable tool to fabricate smart 3D lightweight structures, opening an avenue for possible applications in engineering fields.

  20. SPICE: Sentinel-3 Performance Improvement for Ice Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Malcolm; Shepherd, Andrew; Roca, Monica; Escorihuela, Maria Jose; Thibaut, Pierre; Remy, Frederique; Escola, Roger; Benveniste, Jerome; Ambrozio, Americo; Restano, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Since the launch of ERS-1 in 1991, polar-orbiting satellite radar altimeters have provided a near continuous record of ice sheet elevation change, yielding estimates of ice sheet mass imbalance at the scale of individual ice sheet basins. One of the principle challenges associated with radar altimetry comes from the relatively large ground footprint of conventional pulse-limited radars, which limits their capacity to make reliable measurements in areas of complex topographic terrain. In recent years, progress has been made towards improving ground resolution, through the implementation of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), or Delay-Doppler, techniques. In 2010, the launch of CryoSat heralded the start of a new era of SAR altimetry, although full SAR coverage of the polar ice sheets will only be achieved with the launch of the first Sentinel-3 satellite in January 2016. Because of the heritage of SAR altimetry provided by CryoSat, current SAR altimeter processing techniques have to some extent been optimized and evaluated for water and sea ice surfaces. This leaves several outstanding issues related to the development and evaluation of SAR altimetry for ice sheets, including improvements to SAR processing algorithms and SAR altimetry waveform retracking procedures. Here we will outline SPICE (Sentinel-3 Performance Improvement for Ice Sheets), a 2 year project which began in September 2015 and is funded by ESA's SEOM (Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions) programme. This project aims to contribute to the development and understanding of ice sheet SAR altimetry through the emulation of Sentinel-3 data from dedicated CryoSat SAR acquisitions made at several sites in Antarctica. More specifically, the project aims to (1) evaluate and improve the current Delay-Doppler processing and SAR waveform retracking algorithms, (2) evaluate higher level SAR altimeter data, and (3) investigate radar wave interaction with the snowpack. We will provide a broad overview of

  1. Cryosphere Science Outreach using the Ice Sheet System Model and a Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, D. L. C.; Halkides, D. J.; Larour, E. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the role of Cryosphere Science within the larger context of Sea Level Rise is both a technical and educational challenge that needs to be addressed if the public at large is to trulyunderstand the implications and consequences of Climate Change. Within this context, we propose a new approach in which scientific tools are used directly inside a mobile/website platform geared towards Education/Outreach. Here, we apply this approach by using the Ice Sheet System Model, a state of the art Cryosphere model developed at NASA, and integrated within a Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory, with the goal is to outreach Cryospherescience to K-12 and College level students. The approach mixes laboratory experiments, interactive classes/lessons on a website, and a simplified interface to a full-fledged instance of ISSM to validate the classes/lessons. This novel approach leverages new insights from the Outreach/Educational community and the interest of new generations in web based technologies and simulation tools, all of it delivered in a seamlessly integrated web platform. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory undera contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cryosphere Science Program.

  2. Deciphering the evolution of the last Eurasian ice sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Anna; Gyllencreutz, Richard; Mangerud, Jan; Svendsen, John Inge

    2016-04-01

    Glacial geologists need ice sheet-scale chronological reconstructions of former ice extent to set individual records in a wider context and compare interpretations of ice sheet response to records of past environmental changes. Ice sheet modellers require empirical reconstructions on size and volume of past ice sheets that are fully documented, specified in time and include uncertainty estimates for model validation or constraints. Motivated by these demands, in 2005 we started a project (Database of the Eurasian Deglaciation, DATED) to compile and archive all published dates relevant to constraining the build-up and retreat of the last Eurasian ice sheets, including the British-Irish, Scandinavian and Svalbard-Barents-Kara Seas ice sheets (BIIS, SIS and SBKIS respectively). Over 5000 dates were assessed for reliability and used together with published ice-sheet margin positions to reconstruct time-slice maps of the ice sheets' extent, with uncertainty bounds, every 1000 years between 25-10 kyr ago and at four additional periods back to 40 kyr ago. Ten years after the idea for a database was conceived, the first version of results (DATED-1) has now been released (Hughes et al. 2016). We observe that: i) both the BIIS and SBKIS achieve maximum extent, and commence retreat earlier than the larger SIS; ii) the eastern terrestrial margin of the SIS reached its maximum extent up to 7000 years later than the westernmost marine margin; iii) the combined maximum ice volume (~24 m sea-level equivalent) was reached c. 21 ka; iv) large uncertainties exist; predominantly across marine sectors (e.g. the timing of coalescence and separation of the SIS and BKIS) but also in well-studied areas due to conflicting yet equally robust data. In just three years since the DATED-1 census (1 January 2013), the volume of new information (from both dates and mapped glacial geomorphology) has grown significantly (~1000 new dates). Here, we present the DATED-1 results in the context of the

  3. Simulating the Antarctic ice sheet in the late-Pliocene warm period: PLISMIP-ANT, an ice-sheet model intercomparison project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, B.; Dolan, A. M.; Bernales, J.; Gasson, E.; Goelzer, H.; Golledge, N. R.; Sutter, J.; Huybrechts, P.; Lohmann, G.; Rogozhina, I.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Saito, F.; van de Wal, R. S. W.

    2015-05-01

    In the context of future climate change, understanding the nature and behaviour of ice sheets during warm intervals in Earth history is of fundamental importance. The late Pliocene warm period (also known as the PRISM interval: 3.264 to 3.025 million years before present) can serve as a potential analogue for projected future climates. Although Pliocene ice locations and extents are still poorly constrained, a significant contribution to sea-level rise should be expected from both the Greenland ice sheet and the West and East Antarctic ice sheets based on palaeo sea-level reconstructions. Here, we present results from simulations of the Antarctic ice sheet by means of an international Pliocene Ice Sheet Modeling Intercomparison Project (PLISMIP-ANT). For the experiments, ice-sheet models including the shallow ice and shelf approximations have been used to simulate the complete Antarctic domain (including grounded and floating ice). We compare the performance of six existing numerical ice-sheet models in simulating modern control and Pliocene ice sheets by a suite of five sensitivity experiments. We include an overview of the different ice-sheet models used and how specific model configurations influence the resulting Pliocene Antarctic ice sheet. The six ice-sheet models simulate a comparable present-day ice sheet, considering the models are set up with their own parameter settings. For the Pliocene, the results demonstrate the difficulty of all six models used here to simulate a significant retreat or re-advance of the East Antarctic ice grounding line, which is thought to have happened during the Pliocene for the Wilkes and Aurora basins. The specific sea-level contribution of the Antarctic ice sheet at this point cannot be conclusively determined, whereas improved grounding line physics could be essential for a correct representation of the migration of the grounding-line of the Antarctic ice sheet during the Pliocene.

  4. Proposed Design of the Third Marine Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornford, S. L.; Gudmundsson, G. H.; Pattyn, F.; Durand, G.; Martin, D. F.; Payne, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The MISMIP and MISMIP3D marine ice sheet model intercomparison exercises have become popular benchmarks, and several modeling groups have used them to show how their models compare to both analytical results and other models. Both sets of experiments studied grounding line migration in response to changes to (in effect) properties of the grounded ice, either perturbations to the basal traction coefficient (C), or to ice softness (A). In particular, both exercises concluded that careful treatment of the grounding line was required in numerical models, either through fine resolution (typically better than 1 km), or higher order methods, or modifications to the discretization scheme. Given the success of these experiments, we propose a sequel. Like MISMIP3D, the experiments take place in a idealized, three-dimensional setting and compare full 3D (Stokes) and reduced, hydrostatic flow models. Unlike the earlier exercises, the primary focus will be the response of models to changes in ice shelf conditions, especially sub-shelf melting. The chosen configuration features an ice shelf that experiences substantial lateral shear and buttresses the upstream ice, and so is well suited to melting experiments. We also aim to design an experiment in which differences between the steady states of each model are minor compared to the response to melt-rate perturbations, a choice that reflects typical real-world applications where parameters are chosen so that the initial states of all models tend to match observations (and hence each other). We will present the MISMIP+ experiments, and show how results computed with the BISICLES ice sheet model are affected by mesh resolution, choice of flow model, and choice of melt-rate.

  5. Global ice-sheet system interlocked by sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, George H.; Hughes, Terence J.; Karlén, Wibjörn

    1986-07-01

    Denton and Hughes (1983, Quaternary Research20, 125-144) postulated that sea level linked a global ice-sheet system with both terrestrial and grounded marine components during late Quaternary ice ages. Summer temperature changes near Northern Hemisphere melting margins initiated sea-level fluctuations that controlled marine components in both polar hemispheres. It was further proposed that variations of this ice-sheet system amplified and transmitted Milankovitch summer half-year insolation changes between 45 and 75°N into global climatic changes. New tests of this hypothesis implicate sea level as a major control of the areal extent of grounded portions of the Antarctic Ice Sheet, thus fitting the concept of a globally interlocked ice-sheet system. But recent atmospheric modeling results ( Manabe and Broccoli, 1985, Journal of Geophysical Research90, 2167-2190) suggest that factors other than areal changes of the grounded Antarctic Ice Sheet strongly influenced Southern Hemisphere climate and terminated the last ice age simultaneously in both polar hemispheres. Atmospheric carbon dioxide linked to high-latitude oceans is the most likely candidate ( Shackleton and Pisias, 1985, Atmospheric carbon dioxide, orbital forcing, and climate. In "The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric CO 2: Natural Variations Archean to Present" (E. T. Sundquest and W. S. Broecker, Eds.), pp. 303-318. Geophysical Monograph 32, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C.), but another potential influence was high-frequency climatic oscillations (2500 yr). It is postulated that variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide acted through an Antarctic ice shelf linked to the grounded ice sheet to produce and terminate Southern Hemisphere ice-age climate. It is further postulated that Milankovitch summer insolation combined with a warm high-frequency oscillation caused marked recession of Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet melting margins and the North Atlantic polar front about 14,000 14C yr B.P. This

  6. The future of ice sheets and sea ice: Between reversible retreat and unstoppable loss

    PubMed Central

    Notz, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the existence of cryospheric “tipping points” in the Earth's climate system. Such critical thresholds have been suggested to exist for the disappearance of Arctic sea ice and the retreat of ice sheets: Once these ice masses have shrunk below an anticipated critical extent, the ice–albedo feedback might lead to the irreversible and unstoppable loss of the remaining ice. We here give an overview of our current understanding of such threshold behavior. By using conceptual arguments, we review the recent findings that such a tipping point probably does not exist for the loss of Arctic summer sea ice. Hence, in a cooler climate, sea ice could recover rapidly from the loss it has experienced in recent years. In addition, we discuss why this recent rapid retreat of Arctic summer sea ice might largely be a consequence of a slow shift in ice-thickness distribution, which will lead to strongly increased year-to-year variability of the Arctic summer sea-ice extent. This variability will render seasonal forecasts of the Arctic summer sea-ice extent increasingly difficult. We also discuss why, in contrast to Arctic summer sea ice, a tipping point is more likely to exist for the loss of the Greenland ice sheet and the West Antarctic ice sheet. PMID:19884496

  7. Commitments to future retreat of Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeConto, Robert; Pollard, David

    2016-04-01

    The agreement reached at the COP21 United Nations Conference on Climate Change is aimed at limiting future increases in global mean temperature below 2°C. Here, we use a continental ice sheet/shelf model with new treatments of meltwater-enhanced calving (hydrofracturing) and marine terminating ice-cliffs, to explore future commitments to sea-level rise given limits of global mean warming between 1 and 3°C. In this case, ice-sheet model physics are calibrated against past ice-sheet response to temperatures warmer than today. The ice-sheet model is coupled to highly resolved atmosphere and ocean-model components, with imposed limits on future warming designed to mimic the idealized limits discussed at COP21. Both the short and long-term potential rise in global mean sea level are discussed in light of the range of allowances agreed in Paris. We also explore the sensitivity of Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to plausible ranges of atmospheric versus ocean warming consistent with global mean temperatures between 1 and 3°C; and the resulting long-term commitments to sea-level rise over the coming centuries and millennia.

  8. Greenland Ice Sheet: High-Elevation Balance and Peripheral Thinning.

    PubMed

    Krabill; Abdalati; Frederick; Manizade; Martin; Sonntag; Swift; Thomas; Wright; Yungel

    2000-07-21

    Aircraft laser-altimeter surveys over northern Greenland in 1994 and 1999 have been coupled with previously reported data from southern Greenland to analyze the recent mass-balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Above 2000 meters elevation, the ice sheet is in balance on average but has some regions of local thickening or thinning. Thinning predominates at lower elevations, with rates exceeding 1 meter per year close to the coast. Interpolation of our results between flight lines indicates a net loss of about 51 cubic kilometers of ice per year from the entire ice sheet, sufficient to raise sea level by 0.13 millimeter per year-approximately 7% of the observed rise. PMID:10903198

  9. Obliquity-paced Pliocene West Antarctic Ice Sheet oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naish, T.; Powell, R.; Levy, R.; Deconto, R.; Pollard, D.; Andrill Mis Science Team

    2009-04-01

    Thirty years after the first deep-sea oxygen isotope records confirmed Milankovitch's orbital hypothesis of the ice ages, fundamental questions remain over the response of Antarctica's ice sheets to cycles in Earth's orbital geometry. Furthermore, an understanding of the behaviour of the marine-based, West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) during "warmer-than-present" Early Pliocene Epoch (~5-3 million years ago) is needed in the context of future global warming. Here we present a marine glacial record from the upper 600m of a sediment core (AND-1B) recovered from beneath the northwest part of the Ross Ice Shelf by the ANDRILL Program . Well-dated, cyclic variations in the core link ice sheet extent to cycles in insolation controlled by the ~40,000 year period of Earth's axial tilt (obliquity) during the Pliocene. Our data provide the first direct evidence for orbitally-induced oscillations in the WAIS, which periodically collapsed resulting in a switch from grounded ice, or ice shelves, to open waters in the Ross Embayment when planetary temperatures were up to ~3°C warmer than today and atmospheric pCO2 as high as ~400 ppm. The evidence is consistent with a new ice sheet-ice shelf model that simulates fluctuations in Antarctic ice volume of up to +8 m equivalent sea level, in response to ocean-induced melting paced by obliquity. During interglacial times, diatomaceous sediments indicate high surface water productivity, minimal summer sea ice and air temperatures above freezing, suggesting an additional influence of surface melt under conditions of elevated CO2.

  10. Unusual radar echoes from the Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, E. J.; Vanzyl, J. J.; Ostro, S. J.; Jezek, K. C.

    1993-01-01

    In June 1991, the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory airborne synthetic-aperture radar (AIRSAR) instrument collected the first calibrated data set of multifrequency, polarimetric, radar observations of the Greenland ice sheet. At the time of the AIRSAR overflight, ground teams recorded the snow and firn (old snow) stratigraphy, grain size, density, and temperature at ice camps in three of the four snow zones identified by glaciologists to characterize four different degrees of summer melting of the Greenland ice sheet. The four snow zones are: (1) the dry-snow zone, at high elevation, where melting rarely occurs; (2) the percolation zone, where summer melting generates water that percolates down through the cold, porous, dry snow and then refreezes in place to form massive layers and pipes of solid ice; (3) the soaked-snow zone where melting saturates the snow with liquid water and forms standing lakes; and (4) the ablation zone, at the lowest elevations, where melting is vigorous enough to remove the seasonal snow cover and ablate the glacier ice. There is interest in mapping the spatial extent and temporal variability of these different snow zones repeatedly by using remote sensing techniques. The objectives of the 1991 experiment were to study changes in radar scattering properties across the different melting zones of the Greenland ice sheet, and relate the radar properties of the ice sheet to the snow and firn physical properties via relevant scattering mechanisms. Here, we present an analysis of the unusual radar echoes measured from the percolation zone.

  11. Determining Greenland Ice Sheet Accumulation Rates from Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jezek, Kenneth C.

    2002-01-01

    An important component of NASA's Program for Arctic Regional Climate Assessment (PARCA) is a mass balance investigation of the Greenland Ice Sheet. The mass balance is calculated by taking the difference between the areally Integrated snow accumulation and the net ice discharge of the ice sheet. Uncertainties in this calculation Include the snow accumulation rate, which has traditionally been determined by interpolating data from ice core samples taken from isolated spots across the ice sheet. The sparse data associated with ice cores juxtaposed against the high spatial and temporal resolution provided by remote sensing , has motivated scientists to investigate relationships between accumulation rate and microwave observations as an option for obtaining spatially contiguous estimates. The objective of this PARCA continuation proposal was to complete an estimate of surface accumulation rate on the Greenland Ice Sheet derived from C-band radar backscatter data compiled in the ERS-1 SAR mosaic of data acquired during, September-November, 1992. An empirical equation, based on elevation and latitude, is used to determine the mean annual temperature. We examine the influence of accumulation rate, and mean annual temperature on C-band radar backscatter using a forward model, which incorporates snow metamorphosis and radar backscatter components. Our model is run over a range of accumulation and temperature conditions. Based on the model results, we generate a look-up table, which uniquely maps the measured radar backscatter, and mean annual temperature to accumulation rate. Our results compare favorably with in situ accumulation rate measurements falling within our study area.

  12. Paleozoic ice sheet inception; a study of paleogeographic sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, D. E.; Poulsen, C. J.; Torsvik, T. H.

    2011-12-01

    Large-scale continental glaciation is thought to have been episodic throughout the Paleozoic era. Evidence of short-lived glaciation in the Ordovician, a period of questionable glaciation in the Devonian, and extensive glaciation in the Permo-Carboniferous are variously supported by the geologic record. The climatic conditions that allowed Earth to descend into icehouse conditions during these periods are not well understood. Traditionally, Paleozoic glaciation was thought to be driven by the drift of continents over the austral pole, yet a myriad of other factors play a role in global mean temperatures and the ability of an icehouse climate to initiate. In this sensitivity study we utilize a coupled GCM-ice sheet-biome model in conjunction with updated paleogeographic reconstructions to examine ice sheet initiation at 30 million year time slices throughout the Paleozoic. Each time slice is subjected to an ice-favorable orbital alignment and a range of atmospheric pCO2 concentrations in an effort to determine the influence of continent distribution and greenhouse gas concentration on ice sheet initiation. Our modeling results demonstrate that both continental configuration and atmospheric pCO2 concentration play a significant role in ice sheet initiation, ice sheet areal extent, and ice sheet volume. Our results indicate that the geographic configurations most conducive to continental glaciation occurred from the mid-Devonian to the early Carboniferous, a result that is inconsistent with the geologic record and suggests that continental drift wasn't the sole driving force behind the occurrence of Paleozoic ice ages.

  13. The Ice Sheet Mass Balance Inter-comparison Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, A.; Ivins, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    Fluctuations in the mass of ice stored in Antarctica and Greenland are of considerable societal importance. The Ice Sheet Mass Balance Inter-Comparison Exercise (IMBIE) is a joint-initiative of ESA and NASA aimed at producing a single estimate of the global sea level contribution to polar ice sheet losses. Within IMBIE, estimates of ice sheet mass balance are developed from a variety of satellite geodetic techniques using a common spatial and temporal reference frame and a common appreciation of the contributions due to external signals. The project brings together the laboratories and space agencies that have been instrumental in developing independent estimates of ice sheet mass balance to date. In its first phase, IMBIE involved 27 science teams, and delivered a first community assessment of ice sheet mass imbalance to replace 40 individual estimates. The project established that (i) there is good agreement between the three main satellite-based techniques for estimating ice sheet mass balance, (ii) combining satellite data sets leads to significant improvement in certainty, (iii) the polar ice sheets contributed 11 ± 4 mm to global sea levels between 1992 and 2012, and (iv) that combined ice losses from Antarctica and Greenland have increased over time, rising from 10% of the global trend in the early 1990's to 30% in the late 2000's. Demand for an updated assessment has grown, and there are now new satellite missions, new geophysical corrections, new techniques, and new teams producing data. The period of overlap between independent satellite techniques has increased from 5 to 12 years, and the full period of satellite data over which an assessment can be performed has increased from 19 to 40 years. It is also clear that multiple satellite techniques are required to confidently separate mass changes associated with snowfall and ice dynamical imbalance - information that is of critical importance for climate modelling. This presentation outlines the approach

  14. Using Coastal Ice Cap Records to Investigate Maritime Climate and Ice Sheet Processes in West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S. B.; Evans, M. J.; Frey, K. E.; Osman, M. B.; Smith, B. E.; Stevens, L. A.; Trusel, L. D.; York, A.; Bingham, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent changes, including outlet glacier retreat and speedup, and increased rates of surface melting, have dramatically increased the Greenland ice sheet contribution to sea-level rise over the past few decades. Increasingly studies point towards the influence of coupled ocean-ice processes in modulating Greenland ice sheet mass balance and glacier behavior in response to climate change, but many of these studies are limited to the past few years to decades, restricting our ability to understand these ocean-ice relationships over longer time periods. Ice core records have the potential to provide unique, high-resolution records of interest (e.g. accumulation and melt variability, as well as contemporaneous proxy records of regional air temperature and sea surface conditions), but suitable Greenland ice sheet coring regions are often located far inland (>200 km) from many maritime regions of interest. In this study we focus on new records from previously unstudied maritime ice caps (10-30 km from the coast) to reconstruct past environmental conditions in the Disko, Ummannaq and Baffin Bay regions. Here we present results from our recent 2014 field investigation of three high altitude ice caps (1300-2000 m) on Disko Island and the Nuussuaq Peninsula, as well as complementary results from two sites in the western ice sheet accumulation zone. Geophysical observations provide constraints on ice thickness, layering, and ice flow. Physical and chemical stratigraphic observations from snow pits and shallow firn cores are used to reconstruct recent accumulation rate and melt variability, as well as to develop and test environmental proxy relationships over the satellite era. Multi-century records from longer coastal ice cores, to be drilled in 2015, will contribute a key missing component to the existing observational record documenting ice, ocean and atmospheric changes in this region over a time period of dramatic change in Greenland ice sheet behavior (retreat and

  15. Improving Surface Mass Balance Over Ice Sheets and Snow Depth on Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Lora Suzanne; Box, Jason; Kurtz, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Surface mass balance (SMB) over ice sheets and snow on sea ice (SOSI) are important components of the cryosphere. Large knowledge gaps remain in scientists' abilities to monitor SMB and SOSI, including insufficient measurements and difficulties with satellite retrievals. On ice sheets, snow accumulation is the sole mass gain to SMB, and meltwater runoff can be the dominant single loss factor in extremely warm years such as 2012. SOSI affects the growth and melt cycle of the Earth's polar sea ice cover. The summer of 2012 saw the largest satellite-recorded melt area over the Greenland ice sheet and the smallest satellite-recorded Arctic sea ice extent, making this meeting both timely and relevant.

  16. A simple holistic hypothesis for the self-destruction of ice sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, T.

    2011-07-01

    Ice sheets are the only components of Earth's climate system that can self-destruct. This paper presents the quantitative force balance for bottom-up modeling of ice sheets, as first presented qualitatively in this journal as a way to quantify ice-bed uncoupling leading to self-destruction of ice sheets ( Hughes, 2009a). Rapid changes in sea level and climate can result if a large ice-sheet self-destructs quickly, as did the former Laurentide Ice Sheet of North America between 8100 and 7900 BP, thereby terminating the last cycle of Quaternary glaciation. Ice streams discharge up to 90 percent of ice from past and present ice sheets. A hypothesis is presented in which self-destruction of an ice sheet begins when ubiquitous ice-bed decoupling, quantified as a floating fraction of ice, proceeds along ice streams. This causes ice streams to surge and reduce thickness by some 90 percent, and height above sea level by up to 99 percent for floating ice, so the ice sheet undergoes gravitational collapse. Ice collapsing over marine embayments becomes floating ice shelves that may then disintegrate rapidly. This floods the world ocean with icebergs that reduce the ocean-to-atmosphere heat exchange, thereby triggering climate change. Calving bays migrate up low stagnating ice streams and carve out the accumulation zone of the collapsed ice sheet, which prevents its recovery, decreases Earth's albedo, and terminates the glaciation cycle. This sequence of events may coincide with a proposed life cycle of ice streams that drain the ice sheet. A first-order treatment of these life cycles is presented that depends on the longitudinal force balance along the flowbands of ice streams and gives a first approximation to ice-bed uncoupling at snapshots during gravitational collapse into ice shelves that disintegrate, thereby removing the ice sheet. The stability of the Antarctic Ice Sheet is assessed using this bottom-up approach.

  17. Determination of HCME 3-D parameters using a full ice-cream cone model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Yong-Jae; Lee, Harim

    2016-05-01

    It is very essential to determine three dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, source location) of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) for space weather forecast. Several cone models (e.g., an elliptical cone model, an ice-cream cone model, an asymmetric cone model) have been examined to estimate these parameters. In this study, we investigate which cone type is close to a halo CME morphology using 26 CMEs: halo CMEs by one spacecraft (SOHO or STEREO-A or B) and as limb CMEs by the other ones. From cone shape parameters of these CMEs such as their front curvature, we find that near full ice-cream cone type CMEs are much closer to observations than shallow ice-cream cone type CMEs. Thus we develop a new cone model in which a full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths. This model is carried out by the following steps: (1) construct a cone for given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, and (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection speeds with the observed ones. By applying this model to 12 SOHO/LASCO halo CMEs, we find that 3-D parameters from our method are similar to those from other stereoscopic methods (a geometrical triangulation method and a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model) based on multi-spacecraft data. We are developing a general ice-cream cone model whose front shape is a free parameter determined by observations.

  18. Ice Velocity Measurements From The First Sentinel-1a Full Antarctic Ice Sheet Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, A. E.; Shepherd, A.; Gourmelen, N.; Nagler, T.

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview of ice velocity measurements produced from data acquired during the first Sentinel-1 full Antarctic ice sheet campaign. Satellite observations acquired over the past 25 years have shown marked ice velocity speed up on individual Antarctic ice streams, with ice velocity increases of over 42% observed on Pine Island Glacier. In Antarctica, areas of ice velocity speed up are dynamically unstable and comprise the largest component of ice sheet sea level rise contribution. However, despite a clear long term trend for increasing ice velocity in many regions, speed up has not been constant through time and multiple years with no significant change have also been observed. It is necessary to make present day measurements of ice velocity to provide an independent means of measuring ice mass loss from the most rapidly changing ice sheet regions. However the spatiotemporal coverage of historical ice velocity measurements has been limited by a paucity of suitable data over the full Antarctic ice sheet and to date, parts of east Antarctica have been observed only a few times during the last 25 years. We present 12 months of ice velocity measurements on 10 key Antarctic ice streams, produced from the normalised cross-correlation of real-valued intensity features in Interferometric Wide Swath (IW) mode Sentinel-1a data. A time series of ice velocity measurements produced from short 12-day repeat Sentinel-1a data over Pine Island Glacier shows that in 2014 and 2015 the ice surface speed has remained constant at ~4 km/year. A Sentinel-1a ice velocity map of the Antarctic Peninsula demonstrates that good quality measurements can be obtained along the full length of the Peninsula using Sentinel-1a. TOPS mode SAR Interferometry (InSAR) results shows that interferometric coherence can be preserved over the 12-day repeat period on stable slower flowing ice covered terrain, however on fast flowing ice streams such as Totten Glacier in East Antarctica and Pine

  19. Records of past ice sheet fluctuations in interior East Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Xiaohan; Huang, Feixin; Kong, Ping; Fang, Aimin; Li, Xiaoli

    2007-01-01

    The results of a land-based multi-disciplinary study of the past ice surface elevation in the Grove Mountains of interior East Antarctica support a dynamic evolution of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). Moraine boulders of sedimentary rocks and spore pollen assemblage imply a significant shrinkage of the EAIS, with its margin retreating south of the Grove Mountains (~450 km south of recent coast line) before the middle Pliocene. The exposure ages indicate that the ice sheet subsequently re-advanced, with the ice surface rising locally at least 450 m higher than today. It then went back down constantly from before 2.3 Ma to 1.6 Ma. The glacial topography and existence of soil show that the ice surface fluctuation continued since the early Quaternary, but with highest levels never exceeding ~100 m higher than today.

  20. Entrainment, transport and concentration of meteorites in polar ice sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drewry, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    Glaciers and ice sheets act as slow-moving conveyancing systems for material added to both their upper and lower surfaces. Because the transit time for most materials is extremely long the ice acts as a major global storage facility. The effects of horizontal and vertical motions on the flow patterns of Antarctic ice sheets are summarized. The determination of the source areas of meteorites and their transport paths is a problem of central importance since it relates not only directly to concentration mechanisms but also to the wider issues in glaciology and meteorites. The ice and snow into which a meteorite falls, and which moves with it to the concentration area, encodes information about the infall area. The principle environmental conditions being former elevation, temperature (also related to elevation), and age of the ice. This encoded information could be used to identify the infall area.

  1. Fluvial supraglacial landscape evolution on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlstrom, Leif; Yang, Kang

    2016-03-01

    Supraglacial stream networks incise via thermal erosion of underlying ice, reflecting a balance between localized fluvial incision and dynamic topography from underlying ice flow. We analyze high-resolution digital elevation models of the ice surface and bedrock in the southwest Greenland Ice Sheet from 1000-1600 m elevation to quantify the importance of fluvial erosion. At wavelengths greater than ice thickness, bedrock dominates surface topography so supraglacial drainage basins are fixed spatially. At smaller wavelengths, fluvial erosion significantly affects topography. Stream longitudinal profiles exhibit positive mean curvature and consistent power law scaling between local channel slope and drainage area, suggestive of adjustment toward topographic steady state. We interpret these observations with a model for fluvial thermal erosion on top of a flowing ice substrate that predicts concave up steady state longitudinal profiles, where average concavity is most sensitive to melt rate and the relative magnitudes of ice flow and fluvial erosion.

  2. SPH non-Newtonian Model for Ice Sheet and Ice Shelf Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Pan, Wenxiao; Monaghan, Joseph J.

    2012-07-07

    We propose a new three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) non-Newtonian model to study coupled ice sheet and ice shelf dynamics. Most existing ice sheet numerical models use a grid-based Eulerian approach, and are usually restricted to shallow ice sheet and ice shelf approximations of the momentum conservation equation. SPH, a fully Lagrangian particle method, solves the full momentum conservation equation. SPH method also allows modeling of free-surface flows, large material deformation, and material fragmentation without employing complex front-tracking schemes, and does not require re-meshing. As a result, SPH codes are highly scalable. Numerical accuracy of the proposed SPH model is first verified by simulating a plane shear flow with a free surface and the propagation of a blob of ice along a horizontal surface. Next, the SPH model is used to investigate the grounding line dynamics of ice sheet/shelf. The steady position of the grounding line, obtained from our SPH simulations, is in good agreement with laboratory observations for a wide range of bedrock slopes, ice-to-fluid density ratios, and flux. We examine the effect of non-Newtonian behavior of ice on the grounding line dynamics. The non-Newtonian constitutive model is based on Glen's law for a creeping flow of a polycrystalline ice. Finally, we investigate the effect of a bedrock geometry on a steady-state position of the grounding line.

  3. The GreenLand Ice Sheet monitoring Network (GLISN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, K. R.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Butler, R.; Clinton, J. F.; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Ekstrom, G.; Giardini, D.; Hanka, W.; Kanao, M.; Larsen, T.; McCormack, D.; Mykkeltveit, S.; Nettles, M.; Piana Agostinetti, N.; Tsuboi, S.; Voss, P.

    2009-12-01

    The GreenLand Ice Sheet monitoring Network (GLISN) is a new, international, broadband seismic capability for Greenland, being installed and implemented through the joint collaboration of Denmark, Canada, Germany, Italy, Japan, Norway, Switzerland, and USA. GLISN is a real-time sensor array of 25 stations to enhance and upgrade the performance of the scarce existing Greenland seismic infrastructure for detecting, locating, and characterizing glacial earthquakes and other cryo-seismic phenomena, and contribute to our understanding of Ice Sheet dynamics. Complementing data from satellites, geodesy, and other sources, and in concert with these technologies, GLISN will provide a powerful tool for detecting change, and will advance new frontiers of research in the glacial systems; the underlying geological and geophysical processes affecting the Greenland Ice Sheet; interactions between oceans, climate, and the cryosphere; and other multidisciplinary areas of interest to geoscience and climate dynamics. The glacial processes that induce seismic events (internal deformation, sliding at the base, disintegration at the calving front, drainage of supra-glacial lakes) are all integral to the overall dynamics of glaciers, and seismic observations of glaciers therefore provide a quantitative means for monitoring changes in their behavior over time. Long-term seismic monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet will contribute to identifying possible unsuspected mechanisms and metrics relevant to ice sheet collapse, and will provide new constraints on Ice Sheet dynamic processes and their potential roles in sea-level rise during the coming decades. GLISN will provide a new, fiducial reference network in and around Greenland for monitoring these phenomena in real-time, and for the broad seismological study of Earth and earthquakes. The GLISN development is focused on 1) upgrading equipment and adding real-time telemetry to existing seismic infrastructure in Greenland, 2) installing new

  4. Geological and geomorphological insights into Antarctic ice sheet evolution.

    PubMed

    Sugden, David E; Bentley, Michael J; O Cofaigh, Colm

    2006-07-15

    Technical advances in the study of ice-free parts of Antarctica can provide quantitative records that are useful for constraining and refining models of ice sheet evolution and behaviour. Such records improve our understanding of system trajectory, influence the questions we ask about system stability and help to define the ice-sheet processes that are relevant on different time-scales. Here, we illustrate the contribution of cosmogenic isotope analysis of exposed bedrock surfaces and marine geophysical surveying to the understanding of Antarctic ice sheet evolution on a range of time-scales. In the Dry Valleys of East Antarctica, 3He dating of subglacial flood deposits that are now exposed on mountain summits provide evidence of an expanded and thicker Mid-Miocene ice sheet. The survival of surface boulders for approximately 14Myr, the oldest yet measured, demonstrates exceptionally low rates of subsequent erosion and points to the persistence and stability of the dry polar desert climate since that time. Increasingly, there are constraints on West Antarctic ice sheet fluctuations during Quaternary glacial cycles. In the Sarnoff Mountains of Marie Byrd Land in West Antarctica, 10Be and 26Al cosmogenic isotope analysis of glacial erratics and bedrock reveal steady thinning of the ice sheet from 10400 years ago to the present, probably as a result of grounding line retreat. In the Antarctic Peninsula, offshore analysis reveals an extensive ice sheet at the last glacial maximum. Based on radiocarbon dating, deglaciation began by 17000cal yr BP and was complete by 9500cal yr BP. Deglaciation of the west and east sides of the Antarctic Peninsula ice sheet occurred at different times and rates, but was largely complete by the Early Holocene. At that time ice shelves were less extensive on the west side of the Antarctic Peninsula than they are today. The message from the past is that individual glacier drainage basins in Antarctica respond in different and distinctive

  5. CLIVAR Exchanges No. 62: Sea Level Rise, Ocean/Ice Shelf Interactions and Ice Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Pirani, Anna; Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Griffies, Stephen; Marsland, Simon

    2013-08-01

    This special issue of CLIVAR Exchanges is devoted to presenting a selection of the science contributed by both speakers and poster presenters at the CLIVAR Workshop on Sea Level Rise, Ocean/Ice Shelf Interactions and Ice Sheets at CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research in Hobart, Australia, on 18-20 February 2013. The workshop brought together leading international scientists and early-career researchers from the ocean, ice-sheet, ice-shelf, and sea-level rise modelling and observational communities to explore the state-of-science and emerging pathways for development of the next generation of coupled climate models.

  6. Capabilities and performance of Elmer/Ice, a new-generation ice sheet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliardini, O.; Zwinger, T.; Gillet-Chaulet, F.; Durand, G.; Favier, L.; de Fleurian, B.; Greve, R.; Malinen, M.; Martín, C.; Råback, P.; Ruokolainen, J.; Sacchettini, M.; Schäfer, M.; Seddik, H.; Thies, J.

    2013-08-01

    The Fourth IPCC Assessment Report concluded that ice sheet flow models, in their current state, were unable to provide accurate forecast for the increase of polar ice sheet discharge and the associated contribution to sea level rise. Since then, the glaciological community has undertaken a huge effort to develop and improve a new generation of ice flow models, and as a result a significant number of new ice sheet models have emerged. Among them is the parallel finite-element model Elmer/Ice, based on the open-source multi-physics code Elmer. It was one of the first full-Stokes models used to make projections for the evolution of the whole Greenland ice sheet for the coming two centuries. Originally developed to solve local ice flow problems of high mechanical and physical complexity, Elmer/Ice has today reached the maturity to solve larger-scale problems, earning the status of an ice sheet model. Here, we summarise almost 10 yr of development performed by different groups. Elmer/Ice solves the full-Stokes equations, for isotropic but also anisotropic ice rheology, resolves the grounding line dynamics as a contact problem, and contains various basal friction laws. Derived fields, like the age of the ice, the strain rate or stress, can also be computed. Elmer/Ice includes two recently proposed inverse methods to infer badly known parameters. Elmer is a highly parallelised code thanks to recent developments and the implementation of a block preconditioned solver for the Stokes system. In this paper, all these components are presented in detail, as well as the numerical performance of the Stokes solver and developments planned for the future.

  7. Modelling the Laurentide Ice Sheet using improved ice margin chronologies and glacio-isostatic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowan, Evan; Tregoning, Paul; Purcell, Anthony; Lambeck, Kurt

    2013-04-01

    Creating models of the Laurentide ice sheet is challenging, due to the deficiency of chronological constraints and the uneven spatial resolution of data to determine the evolution of the glacio-isostatic response after deglaciation. Previous models relied on uncalibrated radiocarbon constrained margins that proved to have deficiencies in recent studies. Additionally, many recent Laurentide ice sheet models have been developed by incorporating climatic parameters that are poorly resolved for the late glacial period. We present a new ice sheet model by an iterative process of changing basal shear stress values and ice sheet margin location. A particular focus of this study is to determine the thickness and extent of the western Laurentide ice sheet, where there were few well dated observations of glacio-isostatic motion until recently. The volume of an ice sheet during long periods depends mostly on basal shear stress and margin position, which are the main parameters that we vary to fit our model to glacio-isostatic observations. We build our ice model using the assumption of perfectly plastic, steady-state conditions, with variable basal shear stress. Basal shear stress values depend on the surficial geology underlying the ice, and are at a minimum in offshore regions that have soft, deformable sediments, and at a maximum in areas with exposed crystalline bedrock. This approach may not capture dynamic and short lived features of the ice sheet, such as ice streams and stagnant ice, but gives an approximation of average conditions to produce ice volumes that fit geophysical observations. We adjust the margin location when the shear stress conditions alone cannot account for the observed glacio-isostatic response. The constraints on the response include relative sea level benchmarks, sea level highstand positions and proglacial lakes. We repeat the analysis using different rheological profiles to determine the dependence the Earth model has on the estimation of ice

  8. CO2 evasion from the Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, J.; Jacobson, A. D.

    2010-12-01

    Greenland figures prominently in climate change predictions owing to the impact ice sheet melting will have on temperature, sea level, and possibly, ocean circulation. Here, we demonstrate that melting of the Greenland ice sheet also yields a sizable flux of atmospheric CO2 that will likely increase in a warmer world. We analyzed the major ion and dissolved carbonate geochemistry of the Akuliarusiarsuup Kuua River draining the Russell Glacier near Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. Water emerges from beneath the ice sheet with CO2 partial pressures 3 - 10X supersaturated with respect to atmospheric equilibrium. This CO2 may originate from microbial respiration beneath the ice sheet. During downstream transport, CO2 evades to the atmosphere, but the chemical weathering of highly reactive glacial till sequesters 2 - 7X more as HCO3, a temporary carbon sink. However, only a 2X increase in the initial CO2 partial pressure is required to reverse the balance between evasion and weathering, and we suggest that significantly greater increases could occur as retreat of the ice sheet margin and expansion of moulins exposes melt water to interior basal ice, which has CO2 partial pressures over 450X higher than the current atmospheric value (Souchez et al., 1995). Extrapolated across all of Greenland, worst-case model predictions suggest net evasion fluxes of 0.14 - 0.27 Pg C/yr by 2100 depending whether melting increases linearly or exponentially with time. These estimates are close to the lower range recently identified for permafrost thaw (Schuur et al., 2009). This study highlights a new and potentially important positive feedback between anthropogenic greenhouse forcing, ice sheet decay, and climate change.

  9. Application of GRACE to the Evaluation of an Ice Flow Model of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlegel, N.; Wiese, D. N.; Watkins, M. M.; Larour, E. Y.; Box, J. E.; Fettweis, X.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Morlighem, M.; Boening, C.; Seroussi, H. L.

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying Greenland's future contribution to sea level rise is a challenging task and requires accurate estimates of ice flow sensitivity to climate change. Transient ice flow models are promising tools for estimating future ice sheet behavior. However, confidence in these types of future projections is low, especially because evaluation of model historical runs is so challenging due to the scarcity of continental-wide data for validation. For more than a decade, NASA's GRACE has continuously acquired time-variable measurements of the Earth's gravity field and has provided unprecedented surveillance of mass balance of the ice sheets, offering an opportunity for ice sheet model evaluation. Here, we take advantage of a new high-resolution (~300 km) monthly mascon solution for the purpose of mass balance comparison with an independent, historical ice flow model simulation using the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM). The comparison highlights which regions of the ice sheet differ most from GRACE. Investigation of regional differences in trends and seasonal amplitudes between simulations forced with three different Regional Climate Model (RCM)-based estimates of surface mass balance (SMB) allows us to make conclusions about the relative contributions of various error sources in the model hindcast. This study constitutes the first regional comparison of GRACE data and an ice sheet model. Conclusions will aid in the improvement of RCM SMB estimates as well as ice sheet simulation estimates of present and future rates of sea level rise. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cryosphere Program and President's and Director's Fund Program.

  10. Greenland ice sheet melting during the last interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langebroek, Petra M.; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.

    2016-04-01

    During the last interglacial period (LIG) peak temperatures over Greenland were several degrees warmer than today. The Greenland ice sheet (GIS) retreated causing a global sea-level rise in the order of several meters. Large uncertainties still exist in the exact amount of melt and on the source location of this melt. Here we examine the GIS response to LIG temperature and precipitation patterns using the SICOPOLIS ice sheet model. The LIG climate was simulated by forcing the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) with the appropriate greenhouse gases and orbital settings. The resulting LIG ice volume evolution strongly depends on the chosen value of uncertain model parameters for the ice sheet (e.g. basal sliding parameter, PDD factors, and atmospheric temperature lapse rate). We reduce the uncertainty by evaluating an ensemble of model results against present-day observations of ice sheet size, elevation and stability, together with paleo information from deep ice cores. We find a maximum GIS reduction equivalent to 0.8 to 2.2m of global sea-level rise. In this model set-up most of the melting occurs in southwestern Greenland.

  11. An ice sheet model of reduced complexity for paleoclimate studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, Basil; Born, Andreas; Stocker, Thomas F.

    2016-04-01

    IceBern2D is a vertically integrated ice sheet model to investigate the ice distribution on long timescales under different climatic conditions. It is forced by simulated fields of surface temperature and precipitation of the Last Glacial Maximum and present-day climate from a comprehensive climate model. This constant forcing is adjusted to changes in ice elevation. Due to its reduced complexity and computational efficiency, the model is well suited for extensive sensitivity studies and ensemble simulations on extensive temporal and spatial scales. It shows good quantitative agreement with standardized benchmarks on an artificial domain (EISMINT). Present-day and Last Glacial Maximum ice distributions in the Northern Hemisphere are also simulated with good agreement. Glacial ice volume in Eurasia is underestimated due to the lack of ice shelves in our model. The efficiency of the model is utilized by running an ensemble of 400 simulations with perturbed model parameters and two different estimates of the climate at the Last Glacial Maximum. The sensitivity to the imposed climate boundary conditions and the positive degree-day factor β, i.e., the surface mass balance, outweighs the influence of parameters that disturb the flow of ice. This justifies the use of simplified dynamics as a means to achieve computational efficiency for simulations that cover several glacial cycles. Hysteresis simulations over 5 million years illustrate the stability of the simulated ice sheets to variations in surface air temperature.

  12. Bayesian Inversion for Large Scale Antarctic Ice Sheet Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghattas, O.; Isaac, T.; Petra, N.; Stadler, G.

    2014-12-01

    The flow of ice from the interior of polar ice sheets is the primarycontributor to projected sea level rise. One of the main difficultiesfaced in modeling ice sheet flow is the uncertain spatially-varyingRobin boundary condition that describes the resistance to sliding atthe base of the ice. Satellite observations of the surface ice flowvelocity, along with a model of ice as a creeping incompressibleshear-thinning fluid, can be used to infer this uncertain basalboundary condition. We cast this ill-posed inverse problem in theframework of Bayesian inference, which allows us to infer not only thebasal sliding parameters, but also the associated uncertainty. Toovercome the prohibitive nature of Bayesian methods for large-scaleinverse problems, we exploit the fact that, despite the large size ofobservational data, they typically provide only sparse information onmodel parameters. We show results for Bayesian inversion of the basalsliding parameter field for the full Antarctic continent, anddemonstrate that the work required to solve the inverse problem,measured in number of forward (and adjoint) ice sheet model solves, isindependent of the parameter dimension, data dimension, and number ofprocessor cores.

  13. SPICE: Sentinel-3 Performance Improvement for Ice Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Escolà, Roger; Roca, Mònica; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; McMillan, Malcolm; Escorihuela, Maria Jose; Shepherd, Andrew; Thibaut, Pierre; Remy, Frederique

    2016-07-01

    Since the launch of ERS-1 in 1991, polar-orbiting satellite radar altimeters have provided a near continuous record of ice sheet elevation change, yielding estimates of ice sheet mass imbalance at the scale of individual ice sheet basins. One of the principle challenges associated with radar altimetry comes from the relatively large ground footprint of conventional pulse-limited radars, which limits their capacity to make reliable measurements in areas of complex topographic terrain. In recent years, progress has been made towards improving ground resolution, through the implementation of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), or Delay-Doppler, techniques. In 2010, the launch of CryoSat-2 by the European Space Agency heralded the start of a new era of SAR altimetry, although full SAR coverage of the polar ice sheets will only be achieved with the launch of the first Sentinel-3 satellite in February 2016. Because of the heritage of SAR altimetry provided by CryoSat-2, current SAR altimeter processing techniques have been optimized and evaluated for water and sea ice surfaces. This leaves several outstanding issues related to the development and evaluation of SAR altimetry for ice sheets, including improvements to SAR processing algorithms and SAR altimetry waveform retracking procedures. Here we will present interim results from SPICE (Sentinel-3 Performance Improvement for Ice Sheets), a 2 year project that focuses on the expected performance of Sentinel-3 SAR altimetry over the Polar ice sheets. The project, which began in September 2015 and is funded by ESA's SEOM (Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions) programme, aims to contribute to the development and understanding of ice sheet SAR altimetry through the emulation of Sentinel-3 data from dedicated CryoSat SAR acquisitions made at several sites in Antarctica and Greenland. More specifically, the project aims to (1) evaluate and improve the current Delay-Doppler processing and SAR waveform retracking

  14. A Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Model for Ice Sheet and Ice Shelf Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wenxiao; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Monaghan, Joseph J.

    2012-02-08

    Mathematical modeling of ice sheets is complicated by the non-linearity of the governing equations and boundary conditions. Standard grid-based methods require complex front tracking techniques and have limited capability to handle large material deformations and abrupt changes in bottom topography. As a consequence, numerical methods are usually restricted to shallow ice sheet and ice shelf approximations. We propose a new smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) model for coupled ice sheet and ice shelf dynamics. SPH is a fully Lagrangian particle method. It is highly scalable and its Lagrangian nature and meshless discretization are well suited to the simulation of free surface flows, large material deformation, and material fragmentation. In this paper SPH is used to study ice sheet/ice shelf behavior, and the dynamics of the grounding line. The steady state position of the grounding line obtained from the SPH simulations is in good agreement with laboratory observations for a wide range of simulated bedrock slopes, and density ratios similar to those of ice and sea water. The numerical accuracy of the SPH algorithm is further verified by simulating the plane shear flow of two immiscible fluids and the propagation of a highly viscous blob of fluid along a horizontal surface. In the experiment, the ice was represented with a viscous newtonian fluid. For consistency, in the described SPH model the ice is also modeled as a viscous newtonian fluid. Typically, ice sheets are modeled as a non-Newtonian fluid, accounting for the changes in the mechanical properties of ice. Implementation of a non-Newtonian rheology in the SPH model is the subject of our ongoing research.

  15. A Reconciled Estimate of Ice-Sheet Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Andrew; Ivins, Erik R.; Geruo, A.; Barletta, Valentia R.; Bentley, Mike J.; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Briggs, Kate H.; Bromwich, David H.; Forsberg, Rene; Galin, Natalia; Horwath, Martin; Jacobs, Stan; Joughin, Ian; King, Matt A.; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Li, Jilu; Ligtenberg, Stefan R. M.; Luckman, Adrian; Luthcke, Scott B.; McMillan, Malcolm; Meister, Rakia; Milne, Glenn; Mouginot, Jeremie; Muir, Alan; Nicolas,Julien P.; Paden, John; Payne, Antony J.; Pritchard, Hamish; Rignot, Eric; Rott, Helmut; Sorensen, Louise Sandberg; Scambos, Ted A.; Yi, Dohngui; Zwally, H. Jay

    2012-01-01

    We combined an ensemble of satellite altimetry, interferometry, and gravimetry data sets using common geographical regions, time intervals, and models of surface mass balance and glacial isostatic adjustment to estimate the mass balance of Earth's polar ice sheets. We find that there is good agreement between different satellite methods-especially in Greenland and West Antarctica-and that combining satellite data sets leads to greater certainty. Between 1992 and 2011, the ice sheets of Greenland, East Antarctica, West Antarctica, and the Antarctic Peninsula changed in mass by -142 plus or minus 49, +14 plus or minus 43, -65 plus or minus 26, and -20 plus or minus 14 gigatonnes year(sup -1), respectively. Since 1992, the polar ice sheets have contributed, on average, 0.59 plus or minus 0.20 millimeter year(sup -1) to the rate of global sea-level rise.

  16. Younger Dryas interval and outflow from the Laurentide ice sheet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, T.C., Jr.; Walker, J.C.G.; Rea, David K.; Lewis, C.F.M.; Shane, L.C.K.; Smith, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    A boxmodel of the Great Lakes is used to estimate meltwater flow into the North Atlantic between 8000 and 14,000 calendar years B.P. Controls on the model include the oxygen isotopic composition of meltwaters and lake waters as measured in the shells of ostracodes. Outflow rates are highest when oxygen isotopic values of the lake waters are most negative, denoting a maximum glacial meltwater component. Flow rates reach maximum values before the onset of the Younger Dryas and after it ends. These maxima appear to be correlative with the major meltwater pulses MWP 1A and 1B. Although the resumption of North Atlantic Deep Water formation may be tied to the reduction in ice sheet melting, neither the onset nor the end of the Younger Dryas, as recorded in the Greenland Ice Sheet Project (GISP2) records, appear tied to maxima in meltwater outflow from the Laurentide ice sheet. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. A reconciled estimate of ice-sheet mass balance.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Andrew; Ivins, Erik R; A, Geruo; Barletta, Valentina R; Bentley, Mike J; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Briggs, Kate H; Bromwich, David H; Forsberg, René; Galin, Natalia; Horwath, Martin; Jacobs, Stan; Joughin, Ian; King, Matt A; Lenaerts, Jan T M; Li, Jilu; Ligtenberg, Stefan R M; Luckman, Adrian; Luthcke, Scott B; McMillan, Malcolm; Meister, Rakia; Milne, Glenn; Mouginot, Jeremie; Muir, Alan; Nicolas, Julien P; Paden, John; Payne, Antony J; Pritchard, Hamish; Rignot, Eric; Rott, Helmut; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Scambos, Ted A; Scheuchl, Bernd; Schrama, Ernst J O; Smith, Ben; Sundal, Aud V; van Angelen, Jan H; van de Berg, Willem J; van den Broeke, Michiel R; Vaughan, David G; Velicogna, Isabella; Wahr, John; Whitehouse, Pippa L; Wingham, Duncan J; Yi, Donghui; Young, Duncan; Zwally, H Jay

    2012-11-30

    We combined an ensemble of satellite altimetry, interferometry, and gravimetry data sets using common geographical regions, time intervals, and models of surface mass balance and glacial isostatic adjustment to estimate the mass balance of Earth's polar ice sheets. We find that there is good agreement between different satellite methods--especially in Greenland and West Antarctica--and that combining satellite data sets leads to greater certainty. Between 1992 and 2011, the ice sheets of Greenland, East Antarctica, West Antarctica, and the Antarctic Peninsula changed in mass by -142 ± 49, +14 ± 43, -65 ± 26, and -20 ± 14 gigatonnes year(-1), respectively. Since 1992, the polar ice sheets have contributed, on average, 0.59 ± 0.20 millimeter year(-1) to the rate of global sea-level rise. PMID:23197528

  18. Using ice-penetrating radars to date ice-rise formation and Late Holocene ice-sheet retreat in the Ronne Ice Shelf region, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingslake, Jonathan; Hindmarsh, Richard; King, Edward; Corr, Hugh

    2015-04-01

    The history of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet in the region currently occupied by the Ronne Ice Shelf is poorly known. This reflects a lack of accessible recently deglaciated surfaces, which prohibits conventional paleo glaciological techniques that can provide evidence of past ice-sheet extent and retreat, for example ocean coring or exposure-dating of geological material. We use a glaciological technique, Raymond Effect Dating, to constrain the retreat of the ice sheet through the Ronne Ice Shelf region. During two Antarctic field seasons, we used a pulse-echo ice-penetrating radar to image the base and internal stratigraphy of four ice rises - areas of grounded ice containing ice divides. Towing the radar with skidoos, we conducted over 2000 km of surveys on the Skytrain, Korff, Henry and Fowler Ice Rises and the ice shelf between them. We also used a step-frequency radar called pRES to measure the vertical ice flow in the vicinity of each ice divide. Isochronal ice layers imaged during the surveys deforming in a predictable way with ice flow, meaning that their shape contains information about past ice flow. Directly beneath ice divides the downward motion of the ice is impeded by an ice-dynamical phenomenon called the Raymond Effect. This causes layers beneath the divides to form 'Raymond Arches' that grow over time. We will present the data and simulate the growth of the Raymond Arches using our pRES-measured vertical ice velocities and date the onset of ice-divide flow at each ice rise by comparing the size of simulated arches to the arches imaged during our radar surveys. We consider the main sources of uncertainty associated with these ice-rise formation dates and discuss what they can tell us about the retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet through this region during the last few thousand years.

  19. Characteristics of basal ice and subglacial water at Dome Fuji, Antarctica ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motoyama, H.; Uemura, R.; Hirabayashi, M.; Miyake, T.; Kuramoto, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Dome Fuji Ice Core Project, M.

    2008-12-01

    (Introduction): The second deep ice coring project at Dome Fuji, Antarctica reached a depth of 3035.22 m during the austral summer season in 2006/2007. The recovered ice cores contain records of global environmental changes going back about 720,000 years. (Estimation of basal ice melt): The borehole measurement was carried out on January 2nd in 2007 when the temperature disturbance in the borehole calmed down by the rest of drilling for 2 days. Temperature measurement was performed after 0 C thermometer test was done in the ground. The temperature sensor of pt100 installed in the skate-like anti-torque was used. We did not have the enough time until the temperature of thermometer was matched with the temperature of ice sheet. Some error was included in ice temperature data. The resistance of pt100 sensor was converted to temperature in the borehole measurement machine. But we used only two electrical lines for pt100 sensor. Rate of heat flow in the ice sheet was calculated using the vertical temperature gradient of the ice sheet and rate of heat conductivity of ice. The deepest part of heat flux using temperatures at 3000m and 3030m was about 45mW/m2. We assumed that this value was the heat flux from the bedrock in the ice sheet. Heat flux to the bedrock surface in the ground was assumed 54.6mW/m2 adopted by ice sheet model (P. Huybrechts, 2006). Then the heat flux for basal ice melt was about 10mW/m2. This value was equaled to melting of 1.1mm of ice thickness per year. On the other hand, the annual layer thickness under 2500m was not changed so much and its average was 1.3mm of ice thickness. So the annual layer thickness and melting rate of basal ice was the same in ordering way. Or ice equivalent in annual layer is melting every year. The age of the deepest part of ice core is guessed at 720,000 years old and the ice older than basal ice has melted away. (The state of basal ice): When the ice core drilling depth passed 3031.44m, amount of ice chip more abundant

  20. Ice-sheet modelling accelerated by graphics cards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brædstrup, Christian Fredborg; Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David Lundbek

    2014-11-01

    Studies of glaciers and ice sheets have increased the demand for high performance numerical ice flow models over the past decades. When exploring the highly non-linear dynamics of fast flowing glaciers and ice streams, or when coupling multiple flow processes for ice, water, and sediment, researchers are often forced to use super-computing clusters. As an alternative to conventional high-performance computing hardware, the Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) is capable of massively parallel computing while retaining a compact design and low cost. In this study, we present a strategy for accelerating a higher-order ice flow model using a GPU. By applying the newest GPU hardware, we achieve up to 180× speedup compared to a similar but serial CPU implementation. Our results suggest that GPU acceleration is a competitive option for ice-flow modelling when compared to CPU-optimised algorithms parallelised by the OpenMP or Message Passing Interface (MPI) protocols.

  1. Antarctic Ice Sheet melting in the southeast Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Stanley S.; Hellmer, Hartmut H.; Jenkins, Adrian

    The first oceanographic measurements across a deep channel beneath the calving front of Pine Island Glacier reveal a sub-ice circulation driven by basal melting of 10-12 m yr-1. A salt box model described here gives a melt rate similar to that of ice balance and numerical models, 5-50 times higher than averages for the George VI and Ross Ice Shelves. Melting is fueled by relatively warm Circumpolar Deep Water that floods the deep floor of the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Sea continental shelves, reaching the deep draft of this floating glacier. A revised melt rate for ice shelves in the Southeast Pacific sector raises circumpolar ice shelf melting to 756 Gt yr-1. Given prior estimates of surface accumulation and iceberg calving, this suggests that the Antarctic Ice Sheet is currently losing mass to the ocean.

  2. Modelling water flow under glaciers and ice sheets

    PubMed Central

    Flowers, Gwenn E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations of dynamic water systems beneath the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have sparked renewed interest in modelling subglacial drainage. The foundations of today's models were laid decades ago, inspired by measurements from mountain glaciers, discovery of the modern ice streams and the study of landscapes evacuated by former ice sheets. Models have progressed from strict adherence to the principles of groundwater flow, to the incorporation of flow ‘elements’ specific to the subglacial environment, to sophisticated two-dimensional representations of interacting distributed and channelized drainage. Although presently in a state of rapid development, subglacial drainage models, when coupled to models of ice flow, are now able to reproduce many of the canonical phenomena that characterize this coupled system. Model calibration remains generally out of reach, whereas widespread application of these models to large problems and real geometries awaits the next level of development. PMID:27547082

  3. The role of ice shelves in the Holocene evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernales, Jorge; Rogozhina, Irina; Thomas, Maik

    2014-05-01

    Using the continental-scale ice sheet-shelf model SICOPOLIS (Greve, 1997 [1]; Sato and Greve, 2012 [2]), we assess the influence of ice shelves on the Holocene evolution and present-day geometry of the Antarctic ice sheet. We have designed a series of paleoclimate simulations driven by a time-evolved climate forcing that couples the surface temperature record from the Vostok ice core with precipitation pattern using an empirical relation of Dahl-Jensen et al., (1998) [3]. Our numerical experiments show that the geometry of ice shelves is determined by the evolution of climate and ocean conditions over time scales of 15 to 25 kyr. This implies that the initial configuration of ice shelves at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, about 21 kyr before present) has a significant effect on the modelled Early Holocene volume of ice shelves (up to 20%) that gradually diminishes to a negligible level for the present-day ice shelf configuration. Thus, the present-day geometry of the Antarctic ice shelves can be attained even if an ice-shelf-free initial condition is chosen at the LGM. However, the grounded ice volume, thickness and dynamic states are found to be sensitive to the ice shelf dynamics over a longer history spanning several tens of thousands of years. A presence of extensive marine ice at the LGM, supported by sediment core reconstructions (e.g. Naish et al., 2009 [4]), has a clear buttressing effect on the grounded ice that remains significant over a period of 30 to 50 kyr. If ice-shelf-free conditions are prescribed at the LGM, the modelled Early Holocene and present-day grounded ice volumes are underestimated by up to 10%, as opposed to simulations incorporating ice shelf dynamics over longer periods. The use of ice-shelf-free LGM conditions thus results in 50 to over 200 meters thinner ice sheet across much of East Antarctica. References [1] Greve, R. (1997). Application of a polythermal three-dimensional ice sheet model to the Greenland ice sheet: response to

  4. Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet - Ice Surface Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, S. B.; Ahlstrom, A. P.; Boncori, J. M.; Dall, J.

    2011-12-01

    In 2007, the Danish Ministry of Climate and Energy launched the Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet (PROMICE) as an ongoing effort to assess changes in the mass budget of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Iceberg calving from the outlet glaciers of the Greenland Ice Sheet, often termed the ice-dynamic mass loss, is responsible for an important part of the mass loss during the last decade. To quantify this part of the mass loss, we combine airborne surveys yielding ice-sheet thickness along the entire margin, with surface velocities derived from satellite synthetic-aperture radar (SAR). In order to derive ice sheet surface velocities from SAR a processing chain has been developed for GEUS by DTU Space based on a commercial software package distributed by GAMMA Remote Sensing. The processor, named SUSIE (Scripts and Utilities for SAR Ice-motion Estimation), can use both differential SAR interferometry and offset-tracking techniques to measure the horizontal velocity components, providing also an estimate of the corresponding measurement error. So far surface velocities have been derived for a number of sites including Nioghalvfjerdsfjord Glacier, the Kangerlussuaq region, the Nuuk region, Helheim Glacier and Daugaard-Jensen Glacier using data from ERS-1/ERS-2, ENVISAT ASAR and ALOS Palsar. Here we will present these first results.

  5. Elastic response of a grounded ice sheet coupled to a floating ice shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worster, M. G.; Sayag, R.

    2011-12-01

    An ice sheet that spreads into an ocean is forced to bend owing to its buoyancy, and detaches from the ground to form an ice shelf. The detachment position, called the grounding-line, behaves as a free boundary. Observational evidence suggests that the surface elevation of the ice at the grounding zone can be undulated and that the bed beneath the ice can deform. We present a theoretical and experimental study of an elastic sheet resting on a deformable elastic bed, coupled to an elastic shelf, with a free grounding line. We find that the grounding-line position is determined by the geometry of the bed and a lengthscale representing a balance of bending and buoyancy forces. We show that the undulated structure of the floating shelf depends on the bending-buoyancy lengthscale only, allowing us to calculate the bending stiffness of the elastic shelf independently of the bed slope or bed stiffness. We also find relations between features on the surface of the floating shelf and the grounding-line position. Our theoretical predictions agree with laboratory experiments made using thick elastic sheets acting as the ice, and a dense salt solution acting as the ocean. Our findings provide new insights on the dynamics near grounding lines, which may have important implications for ice-sheet dynamics and stability, as well as methods to infer the bending stiffness of ice sheets and the grounding line position from satellite altimetery.

  6. Single objective light-sheet microscopy for high-speed whole-cell 3D super-resolution

    PubMed Central

    Meddens, Marjolein B. M.; Liu, Sheng; Finnegan, Patrick S.; Edwards, Thayne L.; James, Conrad D.; Lidke, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a method for performing light-sheet microscopy with a single high numerical aperture lens by integrating reflective side walls into a microfluidic chip. These 45° side walls generate light-sheet illumination by reflecting a vertical light-sheet into the focal plane of the objective. Light-sheet illumination of cells loaded in the channels increases image quality in diffraction limited imaging via reduction of out-of-focus background light. Single molecule super-resolution is also improved by the decreased background resulting in better localization precision and decreased photo-bleaching, leading to more accepted localizations overall and higher quality images. Moreover, 2D and 3D single molecule super-resolution data can be acquired faster by taking advantage of the increased illumination intensities as compared to wide field, in the focused light-sheet. PMID:27375939

  7. Single objective light-sheet microscopy for high-speed whole-cell 3D super-resolution

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Meddens, Marjolein B. M.; Liu, Sheng; Finnegan, Patrick S.; Edwards, Thayne L.; James, Conrad D.; Lidke, Keith A.

    2016-05-01

    Here, we have developed a method for performing light-sheet microscopy with a single high numerical aperture lens by integrating reflective side walls into a microfluidic chip. These 45° side walls generate light-sheet illumination by reflecting a vertical light-sheet into the focal plane of the objective. Light-sheet illumination of cells loaded in the channels increases image quality in diffraction limited imaging via reduction of out-of-focus background light. Single molecule super-resolution is also improved by the decreased background resulting in better localization precision and decreased photo-bleaching, leading to more accepted localizations overall and higher quality images. Moreover, 2D and 3D single moleculemore » super-resolution data can be acquired faster by taking advantage of the increased illumination intensities as compared to wide field, in the focused light-sheet.« less

  8. Single objective light-sheet microscopy for high-speed whole-cell 3D super-resolution.

    PubMed

    Meddens, Marjolein B M; Liu, Sheng; Finnegan, Patrick S; Edwards, Thayne L; James, Conrad D; Lidke, Keith A

    2016-06-01

    We have developed a method for performing light-sheet microscopy with a single high numerical aperture lens by integrating reflective side walls into a microfluidic chip. These 45° side walls generate light-sheet illumination by reflecting a vertical light-sheet into the focal plane of the objective. Light-sheet illumination of cells loaded in the channels increases image quality in diffraction limited imaging via reduction of out-of-focus background light. Single molecule super-resolution is also improved by the decreased background resulting in better localization precision and decreased photo-bleaching, leading to more accepted localizations overall and higher quality images. Moreover, 2D and 3D single molecule super-resolution data can be acquired faster by taking advantage of the increased illumination intensities as compared to wide field, in the focused light-sheet. PMID:27375939

  9. Single objective light-sheet microscopy for high-speed whole-cell 3D super-resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Meddens, Marjolein B. M.; Liu, Sheng; Finnegan, Patrick S.; Edwards, Thayne L.; James, Conrad D.; Lidke, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we have developed a method for performing light-sheet microscopy with a single high numerical aperture lens by integrating reflective side walls into a microfluidic chip. These 45° side walls generate light-sheet illumination by reflecting a vertical light-sheet into the focal plane of the objective. Light-sheet illumination of cells loaded in the channels increases image quality in diffraction limited imaging via reduction of out-of-focus background light. Single molecule super-resolution is also improved by the decreased background resulting in better localization precision and decreased photo-bleaching, leading to more accepted localizations overall and higher quality images. Moreover, 2D and 3D single molecule super-resolution data can be acquired faster by taking advantage of the increased illumination intensities as compared to wide field, in the focused light-sheet.

  10. Ice sheet surface elevation retrieval from CALIPSO lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaomei; Hu, Yongxiang

    2013-05-01

    The primary objective of the atmospheric profiling lidar aboard Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) mission launched in April 2006 has been studying the climate impact of clouds and aerosols in the atmosphere. However, CALIPSO lidar also collects information about other components of the Earth's ecosystem, such as polar ice sheets. The purpose of this study is to propose a new technique to provide high resolution of polar ice sheet surface elevation from CALIPSO single shot lidar measurements (70 m spot size). The new technique relies on an empirical relationship between the peak signal ratio and the distance between the surface and the peak signal range bin center to achieve high altimetry resolution. The ice sheet surface elevation results in the region of Greenland and Antarctic compare very well with the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimetry measurements. The comparisons suggest that the obtained CALIPSO ice sheet surface elevation by the new technique is accurate to within 1 m. Based on the new technique, the preliminary data product of along-track topography retrieved from the CALIPSO lidar measurements is available to the altimetry community for evaluation.

  11. Discussing Progress in Understanding Ice Sheet-Ocean Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herraiz Borreguero, Laura; Mottram, Ruth; Cvijanovic, Ivana

    2010-11-01

    Advanced Climate Dynamics Course 2010: Ice Sheet-Ocean Interactions; Lyngen, Norway, 8-19 June 2010; Sea level rise is one of many expected consequences of climate change, with accompanying complex social and economic challenges. Major uncertainties in sea level rise projections relate to the response of ice sheets to sea level rise and the key role that interactions with the ocean may play. Recognizing that probably no comprehensive curriculum currently exists at any single university that covers this novel and interdisciplinary subject, the Advanced Climate Dynamics Courses (ACDC) team brought together a group of 40 international students, postdocs, and lecturers from diverse backgrounds to provide an overview and discussion of state-of-the-art research into ocean-ice sheet interactions and to propose research priorities for the next decade. Among the key issues addressed were small-scale processes near the Antarctic ice shelves and Greenland outlet glaciers. These are fast changing components in the climate system, often related to large-scale forcings (atmospheric teleconnections and oceanic circulation). Progress in understanding and modeling is hampered by the range of scales involved, the lack of observations, and the difficulties in constraining, initializing, and providing adequate boundary conditions for ice sheet and ocean models.

  12. The extreme melt across the Greenland ice sheet in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Hall, D. K.; Mote, T. L.; Tedesco, M.; Albert, M. R.; Keegan, K.; Shuman, C. A.; DiGirolamo, N. E.; Neumann, G.

    2012-10-01

    The discovery of the 2012 extreme melt event across almost the entire surface of the Greenland ice sheet is presented. Data from three different satellite sensors - including the Oceansat-2 scatterometer, the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder - are combined to obtain composite melt maps, representing the most complete melt conditions detectable across the ice sheet. Satellite observations reveal that melt occurred at or near the surface of the Greenland ice sheet across 98.6% of its entire extent on 12 July 2012, including the usually cold polar areas at high altitudes like Summit in the dry snow facies of the ice sheet. This melt event coincided with an anomalous ridge of warm air that became stagnant over Greenland. As seen in melt occurrences from multiple ice core records at Summit reported in the published literature, such a melt event is rare with the last significant one occurring in 1889 and the next previous one around seven centuries earlier in the Medieval Warm Period. Given its rarity, the 2012 extreme melt across Greenland provides an exceptional opportunity for new studies in broad interdisciplinary geophysical research.

  13. Antarctic ice-sheet loss driven by basal melting of ice shelves.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, H D; Ligtenberg, S R M; Fricker, H A; Vaughan, D G; van den Broeke, M R; Padman, L

    2012-04-26

    Accurate prediction of global sea-level rise requires that we understand the cause of recent, widespread and intensifying glacier acceleration along Antarctic ice-sheet coastal margins. Atmospheric and oceanic forcing have the potential to reduce the thickness and extent of floating ice shelves, potentially limiting their ability to buttress the flow of grounded tributary glaciers. Indeed, recent ice-shelf collapse led to retreat and acceleration of several glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula. But the extent and magnitude of ice-shelf thickness change, the underlying causes of such change, and its link to glacier flow rate are so poorly understood that its future impact on the ice sheets cannot yet be predicted. Here we use satellite laser altimetry and modelling of the surface firn layer to reveal the circum-Antarctic pattern of ice-shelf thinning through increased basal melt. We deduce that this increased melt is the primary control of Antarctic ice-sheet loss, through a reduction in buttressing of the adjacent ice sheet leading to accelerated glacier flow. The highest thinning rates occur where warm water at depth can access thick ice shelves via submarine troughs crossing the continental shelf. Wind forcing could explain the dominant patterns of both basal melting and the surface melting and collapse of Antarctic ice shelves, through ocean upwelling in the Amundsen and Bellingshausen seas, and atmospheric warming on the Antarctic Peninsula. This implies that climate forcing through changing winds influences Antarctic ice-sheet mass balance, and hence global sea level, on annual to decadal timescales. PMID:22538614

  14. The eigenvalue problem for ice-shelf vibrations: comparison of a full 3-D model with the thin plate approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, Y. V.

    2015-09-01

    Ice-shelf forced vibration modelling is performed using a full 3-D finite-difference elastic model, which also takes into account sub-ice seawater flow. The ocean flow in the cavity is described by the wave equation; therefore, ice-shelf flexures result from hydrostatic pressure perturbations in sub-ice seawater layer. Numerical experiments have been carried out for idealized rectangular and trapezoidal ice-shelf geometries. The ice-plate vibrations are modelled for harmonic ingoing pressure perturbations and for high-frequency spectra of the ocean swells. The spectra show distinct resonance peaks, which demonstrate the ability to model a resonant-like motion in the suitable conditions of forcing. The spectra and ice-shelf deformations obtained by the developed full 3-D model are compared with the spectra and the deformations modelled by the thin-plate Holdsworth and Glynn model (1978). The main resonance peaks and ice-shelf deformations in the corresponding modes, derived by the full 3-D model, are in agreement with the peaks and deformations obtained by the Holdsworth and Glynn model. The relative deviation between the eigenvalues (periodicities) in the two compared models is about 10 %. In addition, the full model allows observation of 3-D effects, for instance, the vertical distribution of the stress components in the plate. In particular, the full model reveals an increase in shear stress, which is neglected in the thin-plate approximation, from the terminus towards the grounding zone with a maximum at the grounding line in the case of the considered high-frequency forcing. Thus, the high-frequency forcing can reinforce the tidal impact on the ice-shelf grounding zone causing an ice fracture therein.

  15. connecting the dots between Greenland ice sheet surface melting and ice flow dynamics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Box, J. E.; Colgan, W. T.; Fettweis, X.; Phillips, T. P.; Stober, M.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation is of a 'unified theory' in glaciology that first identifies surface albedo as a key factor explaining total ice sheet mass balance and then surveys a mechanistic self-reinforcing interaction between melt water and ice flow dynamics. The theory is applied in a near-real time total Greenland mass balance retrieval based on surface albedo, a powerful integrator of the competing effects of accumulation and ablation. New snowfall reduces sunlight absorption and increases meltwater retention. Melting amplifies absorbed sunlight through thermal metamorphism and bare ice expansion in space and time. By ';following the melt'; we reveal mechanisms linking existing science into a unified theory. Increasing meltwater softens the ice sheet in three ways: 1.) sensible heating given the water temperature exceeds that of the ice sheet interior; 2.) Some infiltrating water refreezes, transferring latent heat to the ice; 3.) Friction from water turbulence heats the ice. It has been shown that for a point on the ice sheet, basal lubrication increases ice flow speed to a time when an efficient sub-glacial drainage network develops that reduces this effect. Yet, with an increasing melt duration the point where the ice sheet glides on a wet bed increases inland to a larger area. This effect draws down the ice surface elevation, contributing to the ';elevation feedback'. In a perpetual warming scenario, the elevation feedback ultimately leads to ice sheet loss reversible only through much slower ice sheet growth in an ice age environment. As the inland ice sheet accelerates, the horizontal extension pulls cracks and crevasses open, trapping more sunlight, amplifying the effect of melt accelerated ice. As the bare ice area increases, the direct sun-exposed crevassed and infiltration area increases further allowing the ice warming process to occur more broadly. Considering hydrofracture [a.k.a. hydrofracking]; surface meltwater fills cracks, attacking the ice integrity

  16. Hydraulic geometry of Greenland Ice Sheet supraglacial streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, V. W.; Smith, L. C.; Rennermalm, A. K.; Forster, R. R.; Gleason, C. J.; Pitcher, L. H.; Moustafa, S.; Overstreet, B. T.; Legleiter, C. J.; Behar, A. E.; Tedesco, M.; Yang, K.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing surface melting on the Greenland ice sheet and rising sea level have heightened the need for understanding the complex pathways transporting meltwater from the ice sheet surface to the ice edge and the ocean. Supraglacial streams are abundant throughout the ablation zone, transporting large volumes of meltwater into moulins and the ice edge, yet these streams remain poorly studied. Here we present a study of supraglacial stream hydraulics and geometry in the ablation zone of western Greenland during summer 2012. We measured flow width, depth, velocity, and water surface slope at different elevations and stream network types at five locations in a 70 km transect spanning the ice edge at 500 m to 1420 m elevation. This transect includes two highly sampled catchments in very different environments, one at 500 m and one at 875 m elevation. Our data show that stream width is correlated with width-depth ratios, providing possibilities for extrapolating depths from high-resolution satellite imagery. Furthermore, we explore using average stream velocities and thalweg depths to determine discharge and provide confidence intervals to these calculations by utilizing over 30 full cross-sectional profiles of flow width, depth, velocity, and discharge. These relationships may be useful for scaling up to larger supraglacial rivers and estimating ablation zone meltwater fluxes at other ice sheet locations using high-resolution satellite imagery.

  17. Analysis and retracking of continental ice sheet radar altimeter waveforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, T. V.; Brenner, A. C.; Zwally, H. J.; Bindschadler, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    The Seasat-1 radar altimeter data set acquired over both the Antarctic and Greenland continental ice sheets is analyzed to obtain corrected ranges to the ice surface. The radar altimeter functional response over the continental ice sheets is considerably more complex than over the oceans. Causal factors identified in this complicated response include sloping surfaces, undulating ice surfaces with characteristic wavelengths on the same spatial scale as the altimeter beam-limited footprint, off-track reflections, and dynamic lag of the altimeter tracking circuit. Retracking methods using the altimeter return pulse waveforms give range corrections that are typically several meters. The entire set of Seasat-1 altimetry over the continental ice sheets is being retracked by fitting a multi-parameter function to each waveform. Many waveforms have double ramps indicating near-normal reflections from two distinct portions of the ice surface within the altimeter beam. Two independent range measurements differing by less than 25 m are obtained from retracking the double-ramp waveforms.

  18. Quantifying Ice-sheet/Ice-shelf Dynamics and Variability with Meter-scale DEM and Velocity Timeseries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shean, D. E.; Joughin, I. R.; Smith, B. E.; Moratto, Z. M.; Porter, C.; Morin, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Both the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets are losing mass at an increasing rate, although loss due to accelerating flow and dynamic thinning remains poorly understood. We are using complementary data from repeat satellite and airborne observations to investigate the relationship between ice-sheet/ice-shelf dynamics and geometry on seasonal to interannual timescales. High-resolution along-track stereo imagery from commercial satellite vendors DigitalGlobe and GeoEye provides unprecedented spatial (~0.5 m/px with ~17 km swath width) and temporal (weekly/monthly) resolution for these efforts. We have developed an automated pipeline using open-source software to produce orthoimage, DEM, and surface velocity products from DigitalGlobe imagery. High-contrast surface texture (e.g. sastrugi, crevasses) visible at sub-meter resolution provides near-perfect image correlation (~99% success rate) during DEM and velocity map derivation. Elevation data from IceBridge ATM/LVIS, ICESat GLAS, and GPS campaigns are used to correct DEMs and perform accuracy assessment. Preliminary tests over exposed bedrock provide relative vertical accuracy estimates of <1-2 m for Worldview-1/2 DEMs. Velocity data from TerraSAR-X and GPS campaigns provide validation for surface velocity products, with horizontal error estimates of <10 m. Velocity and elevation change products with 2-4 m/px spatial resolution allow for unprecedented 3D dynamic characterization of sub-km flow transition zones (e.g. grounding lines, shear margins), capturing both local and regional variations due to melting and dynamic thinning. We present timeseries for West Greenland (Jakobshavn front - 20 observations, Jakobshavn south catchment - 10) and West Antarctica (Pine Island and Thwaites - 5 each) from 2009-2012. These observations complement ongoing efforts to measure and model outlet glacier dynamics, with implications for future ice-sheet mass balance estimates.

  19. 3-D Topographic Thermal and Radiative Modeling of Ice Stability and Migration on Callisto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Stephen E.; Ivarson, K. L.; Danilina, I.; Griffiths, S. D.; Moore, J. M.; Howard, A. D.; Schenk, P. M.

    2010-10-01

    We have been modeling landscape evolution on the Galilean satellites driven by volatile transport. Callisto's landscape shows evidence of widespread erosion hypothesized by Moore et al. (1999) to result from sublimation of near-surface ice followed by mass wasting. Bright material thought to be re-deposited frost is commonly seen on upper flanks and summits of ridges, crater rims, and Callisto's ubiquitous knobs. In order to test hypotheses related to these landform and albedo patterns, we have developed a 3-D thermal model that calculates surface and subsurface temperatures for any given topographic shape, accounting for shadowing, reflected solar radiation, and thermal radiation from surrounding points. The temperatures are then used to calculate sublimation and subsurface diffusion rates for both CO2 and H2O ice. These rates are used to compute area-averaged downward vapor fluxes within ballistic molecular jump distances from vapor sources. Where net deposition is predicted, surface albedo in increased proportional to frost thickness. Where net sublimation occurs, the thickness of a dark dust lag is increased accordingly. We will present results pertaining to the stability of bright frost-covered knobs as well as observed distribution patterns of frost on the interior walls of craters. This work is supported by NASA through the Jupiter Data Analysis Program.

  20. An assessment of the contribution of the Greenland ice sheet to future sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, M.; Melia, D. Salas y.

    2012-04-01

    We assess the order of magnitude of future sea level rise due to the melting of the Greenland ice sheet. To this end, we forced GRISLI ice sheet model (LGGE, France) with output from climate simulations run with CNRM-CM5 in the framework of CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5). GRISLI is a 3D thermo-mechanically coupled ice sheet model which mixes shallow ice approximation and shallow shelf approximation. The horizontal resolution is 15km. We use surface mass balance modeled by CNRM-CM5 as a top boundary conditions. CNRM-CM5 is a global coupled climate model developed by CNRM/CERFACS (France). This new global coupled climate model is based on the ocean-atmosphere core formed by the most up-to-date versions of NEMO and ARPEGE-Climat. Surface-atmosphere exchanges, sea ice and river routing are respectively represented by SURFEX v5, Gelato v5 and TRIP models. The atmospheric component of CNRM-CM5 has 31 vertical levels and a horizontal resolution of 1.4°, and the ocean has 42 levels and a horizontal resolution of 1°. GRISLI was forced with the output of a preindustrial simulation run with CNRM-CM5 in order to generate an initial state for the ice sheet that is in near-equilibrium with the preindustrial climate. Then, GRISLI was forced with CNRM-CM5 data from a 1850-2005 historical experiment. From 2006, several scenario experiments run with CNRM-CM5 were run: RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 over 2006-2300. We estimate the additional sea level rise over the whole 21st century. It should be noted that for the RCP8.5 scenario the melting rate of Greenland accelerates very rapidly after the 21st century, which results in almost total melting of Greenland ice sheet before year 2800. This acceleration phenomenon is probably amplified by topographic changes induced by the shrinking of the ice sheet.

  1. ESA Ice Sheets CCI: Overview and surface elevation change results for the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinsen, J. F.; Forsberg, R.; Meister, R.; Hogg, A.; Shepherd, A.; Khvorostovsky, K.; Dall, J.; Kusk, A.; Nagler, T.; Scharrer, K.; Andersen, S. B.; Andersen, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    With the climate changing and the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) losing mass at an accelerating rate, the European Space Agency has established the Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI) project in order to provide selected Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) for the GIS. The ECV presented here is the Ice Sheets (http://www.esa-icesheets-cci.org/) in which four parameters are to be determined: Surface elevation changes (SEC), ice velocities, grounding line locations, and calving front locations. The resulting data sets are to be openly distributed via the CCI web-site in transparent and easy-to-use formats. The production of the final data sets, dating from 1991 - present, is well underway. This presentation will provide a status overview of all four ECV parameters. As a preparation for the final data set computations, all ECVs carried out an open Round Robin (RR) exercise in order to find the most optimal method for producing the most reliable estimates. In the RR, the scientific community was asked to submit their best estimate of the given parameters along with a feedback sheet describing methodology, pre- and post-processing steps, etc. We outline the results of the SEC RR, where 11 participants from various US and European institutions provided estimates over the Jakobshavn Isbræ drainage basin. The participants used either Envisat radar or ICESat laser altimetry, and cross-over (XO), repeat-track (RT), and overlapping footprint analyses were made. Especially one of the results, based on Envisat RT, provided the first evidence for the possibility of using radar altimetry to accurately derive SEC estimates in both interior and margin parts of the GIS. This illustrates the potential for the final SEC product, which will be based on Envisat, Cryosat-2, and Sentinel-3 data. Through inter-comparisons and validation of the submissions, the most optimal method for deriving SEC values was found to be a combination of RT and XO algorithms, exploiting the high spatial

  2. Ice Sheet Monitoring Using Latest Generation SAR Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuchl, B.; Mouginot, J.; Rignot, E. J.; Li, X.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing is a crucial component to gain insight in the worlds ice sheets and glaciers. Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar data have proven to be a key resource to monitor the great ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland. International efforts undertaken during the last International Polar Year resulted in the collection of vast amounts of data to generate the first continent-wide ice velocity map of Antarctica, a series of full velocity maps of Greenland, and time series data in key regions. The Antarctic grounding line was also mapped at unprecedented accuracy using InSAR. The end of several SAR missions since 2010 has posed a significant challenge in the effort to provide ongoing data acquisitions. New generation missions show potential to not only fill the data gap, but to make the collection of ice sheet data part of the ongoing acquisition scenarios, therefore ensuring data continuity. New modes, like the TOPSAR mode used for Sentinel-1A, provide new opportunities but also pose processing challenges, particularly if the entire area monitored is in motion. Several future missions are in various stages of development, thus further adding to the suite of sensors potentially available to collect data in Polar Regions going forward. The NASA-ISRO L-and S-band mission, planned for launch in 2020, will be a pure science mission with an open data policy, thus again changing the data availability and data access situation for the better. In international collaboration through the Polar Space Task Group, space agencies coordinate their science acquisitions in Polar Regions. With broad input from the larger ice sheet science community, we have worked closely with space agencies to define science requirements and to develop acquisition scenarios that maximize science value for ice sheets. Here we highlight the collaboration effort, summarize the input of the ice sheet science community to the Polar Space Task Group, and present the acquisition plans that resulted

  3. Observationally constrained projections of Antarctic ice sheet instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Tamsin; Ritz, Catherine; Durand, Gael; Payne, Anthony; Peyaud, Vincent; Hindmarsh, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Large parts of the Antarctic ice sheet lie on bedrock below sea level and may be vulnerable to a positive feedback known as Marine Ice Sheet Instability (MISI), a self-sustaining retreat of the grounding line triggered by oceanic or atmospheric changes. There is growing evidence MISI may be underway throughout the Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE) of West Antarctica, induced by circulation of warm Circumpolar Deep Water. If this retreat is sustained the region could contribute up to 1-2 m to global mean sea level, and if triggered in other areas the potential contribution to sea level on centennial to millennial timescales could be two to three times greater. However, physically plausible projections of Antarctic MISI are challenging: numerical ice sheet models are too low in spatial resolution to resolve grounding line processes or else too computationally expensive to assess modelling uncertainties, and no dynamical models exist of the ocean-atmosphere-ice sheet system. Furthermore, previous numerical ice sheet model projections for Antarctica have not been calibrated with observations, which can reduce uncertainties. Here we estimate the probability of dynamic mass loss in the event of MISI under a medium climate scenario, assessing 16 modelling uncertainties and calibrating the projections with observed mass losses in the ASE from 1992-2011. We project losses of up to 30 cm sea level equivalent (SLE) by 2100 and 72 cm SLE by 2200 (95% credibility interval: CI). Our results are substantially lower than previous estimates. The ASE sustains substantial losses, 83% of the continental total by 2100 and 67% by 2200 (95% CI), but in other regions losses are limited by ice dynamical theory, observations, or a lack of projected triggers.

  4. Surface Drifters Track the Fate of Greenland Ice Sheet Meltwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauri, Claudine; Truffer, Martin; Winsor, Peter; Lennert, Kunuk

    2014-07-01

    Understanding the fate and influence of glacial meltwater in heavily ice-covered fjord systems has proven difficult because previous measurement platforms were con­strained to deeper water to keep instrumentation safe from drifting icebergs. Now, using novel, satellite-tracked devices that can with­ stand multiple collisions with ice blocks (see Figure 1) without incurring much damage, scientists have obtained new and detailed data about the role of Greenland Ice Sheet meltwater and its trajectories through God­thåbsfjord in western Greenland.

  5. Modelling the marine advance of the last Cordilleran ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seguinot, Julien; Rogozhina, Irina

    2014-05-01

    Marine advance of the last Cordilleran ice sheet onto the north-eastern Pacific continental shelf may have caused rapid fluctuations of sea level and potentially impacted upon human migration into North America. However the position of the former ice front was critically controlled by a process that remains poorly understood: glacier calving. Geomorphological reconstructions show that part of the presently oceanic areas were ice-covered, allowing for downstream formation of the well-studied Puget and Juan de Fuca lobes. Here we use a numerical glacier model (PISM) to reconstruct the former marine front of the Cordilleran ice sheet and its impact on upstream ice dynamics. Our simulations show that the use of a thickness-based calving law leads to a strong deficit of marine ice cover in the areas where existing reconstructions suggest its advance. In contrast, a physically-based parametrization of glacier calving using the main components of the strain rate tensor (eigencalving; A. Levermann, T. Albrecht, R. Winkelmann, M. A. Martin, M. Haseloff, and I. Joughin, The Cryosphere, 6, 273-286, 2012) reproduces the geomorphologically inferred ice extent.

  6. Moulin distribution and formation on the southwest Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, V. W.; Smith, L. C.; Gleason, C. J.; Yang, K.; Poinar, K.; Joughin, I.; Pitcher, L. H.

    2015-12-01

    River moulins represent a significant connection between surface meltwater generated on the Greenland ice sheet and subglacial drainage networks, where increased meltwater can enhance ice sliding dynamics. In this study, a new high-resolution moulin map is created from WorldView-1/2 imagery acquired during the 2012 record melt year for a 12,500 km2 area near Russell Glacier in southwest Greenland. A total of 1,236 moulins are mapped and categorized as being located: in crevasse fields, along a single ice fracture, within drained lake basins, or having no visible formation mechanism. We find the presence of moulins up to 1787 m elevation, with 11% of moulins found above 1600 m elevation: higher than previously mapped moulins and where glaciological theory suggests few moulins should form. Our study observes moulins in both extensional and compressional ice flow regimes (28% of moulins are found in areas of high extensional strain rate >0.005 yr-1), suggesting that strain rates are not a strong indicator of the likelihood for moulin formation. Overall, moulin density tends to increase with higher bed elevation, thinner ice, lower surface slope, higher velocity, and higher strain rate. In sum, moulins are most common in crevassed, thinner ice near the ice sheet edge, but significant quantities also develop at high elevations. This indicates that future inland expansion of melting may create hydrologic connections between the surface and the bed at higher elevations than previously thought.

  7. The impact of the North American ice sheet on the evolution of the Eurasian ice sheet during the last glacial cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liakka, J.; Löfverström, M.; Colleoni, F.

    2015-11-01

    Modeling studies show that the massive ice sheet expanding over the North American and Eurasian continents in the last glacial cycle has a large impact on the atmospheric stationary waves and thus yielded a glacial climate distinctly different from the present. However, to what extent the two ice sheets influenced each others growth trajectories remains largely unexplored. In this study we investigate how ice sheets in North America influence the downstream evolution of the Eurasian ice sheet, using a thermomechanical ice-sheet model forced by climate data from snapshot simulations of three distinctly different phases of the last glacial cycle: the Marine Isotope Stages 5b, 4 and 2 (LGM). Our results suggest that changes in the North American paleo-topography may have had a large influence on evolution of the Eurasian ice sheet. In the MIS4 and LGM experiments, the Eurasian ice sheet migrates westward towards the Atlantic sector - largely consistent with geological data and contemporary ice-sheet reconstructions - due to a low wavenumber stationary wave response, which yields a cooling in Europe and a warming in northeastern Siberia. The expansion of the North American ice sheet between MIS4 and LGM amplifies the Siberian warm anomaly, which limits the glaciation there and may therefore help to explain the progressive westward migration of the Eurasian ice sheet over this time period. While the Eurasian ice sheet in the MIS4 and LGM experiments appears to be in equilibrium with the simulated climate conditions, the MIS5b climate forcing is too warm to grow an ice sheet. First-order sensitivity experiments suggest that most of the MIS5b ice sheet was established during preceding colder stages.

  8. Mantle viscosity and ice-age ice sheet topography

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, W.R.

    1996-09-06

    Ice-age paleotopography and mantle viscosity can both be inferred from observations of Earth`s response to the most recent deglaciation event of the current ice age. This procedure requires iterative application of a theoretical model of the global process of glacial isostatic adjustment. Results demonstrate that the iterative inversion procedure converges to a paleotopography that is extremely close to that from the ICE-4G model. The accompanying mantle viscosity profile is furthermore shown to reconcile the requirements of aspherical geoid anomalies related to the mantle convection process, thus resolving a fundamental issue concerning mantle rheology. The combined model also explains postglacial sea level histories for the east cost of the United States. 28 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Simulating the Antarctic ice sheet in the Late-Pliocene warm period: PLISMIP-ANT, an ice-sheet model intercomparison project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Bas; Dolan, Aisling; Bernales, Jorge; Gasson, Edward; Goelzer, Heiko; Golledge, Nick; Sutter, Johannes; Huybrechts, Phillipe; Lohmann, Gerrit; Rogozhina, Irina; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Saito, Fuyuki; van de Wal, Roderik

    2015-04-01

    In the context of future climate change, understanding the nature and behaviour of ice sheets during warm intervals in Earth history is of fundamental importance. The Late-Pliocene warm period (also known as the PRISM interval: 3.264 to 3.025 million years before present) can serve as a potential analogue for projected future climates. Although Pliocene ice locations and extents are still poorly constrained, a significant contribution to sea-level rise should be expected from both the Greenland ice sheet and the West and East Antarctic ice sheets based on palaeo sea-level reconstructions. Here, we present results from simulations of the Antarctic ice sheet by means of an international Pliocene Ice Sheet Modeling Intercomparison Project (PLISMIP-ANT). For the experiments, ice-sheet models including the shallow ice and shelf approximations have been used to simulate the complete Antarctic domain (including grounded and floating ice). We compare the performance of six existing numerical ice-sheet models in simulating modern control and Pliocene ice sheets by a suite of four sensitivity experiments. Ice-sheet model forcing fields are taken from the HadCM3 atmosphere-ocean climate model runs for the pre-industrial and the Pliocene. We include an overview of the different ice-sheet models used and how specific model configurations influence the resulting Pliocene Antarctic ice sheet. The six ice-sheet models simulate a comparable present-day ice sheet, although the models are setup with their own parameter settings. For the Pliocene simulations using the Bedmap1 bedrock topography, some models show a small retreat of the East Antarctic ice sheet, which is thought to have happened during the Pliocene for the Wilkes and Aurora basins. This can be ascribed to either the surface mass balance, as the HadCM3 Pliocene climate shows a significant increase over the Wilkes and Aurora basin, or the initial bedrock topography. For the latter, our simulations with the recently

  10. Supraglacial meltwater runoff from the Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. C.; Chu, V.; Yang, K.; Rennermalm, A. K.; Legleiter, C. J.; Gleason, C. J.; Pitcher, L. H.; Moustafa, S.; Overstreet, B. T.; Behar, A.; Tedesco, M.; Forster, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation summarizes collaborative field and remote sensing research studying Greenland ice sheet meltwater flux through supraglacial rivers flowing over its surface and in proglacial rivers that emerge along its edge. High-resolution visible/near-infrared WorldView-2 satellite images were acquired simultaneously with in situ measurements of river hydraulic properties, including flow velocities from autonomous GPS drifters and ADCP, bathymetric depth soundings, water surface slopes, and hydraulic roughness. High-resolution mapping of supraglacial lake and river depths across the ablation zone were enabled through calibration of WorldView-2 images with in situ field spectra and water depth soundings collected from an unmanned autonomous watercraft. Fusion of these satellite and in situ datasets permits quantitative estimation of meltwater flux flowing over the ice sheet surface and entering moulins, and in situ proglacial measurements enable estimation of total meltwater export leaving the ice sheet. Analysis suggests that these supra- and pro-glacial rivers represent critical pathways for transport of meltwater runoff from the ice sheet surface to the global ocean.

  11. Workshop Advances Interdisciplinary Polar Science and Fast Ice Sheet Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulaczyk, Slawek; Clow, Gary D.; Elliott, David H.; Powell, Ross D.; Priscu, John C.

    Over the last 50 years, the polar ice sheets covering Antarctica and Greenland have become natural scientific laboratories. Thanks to their unique environments, they yield discoveries that advance different geophysical disciplines and capture the imagination of the general public. The scientific community interested in sampling polar ice sheets and their substrata has been growing recently, and now incorporates biologists, geologists, geophysicists, glaciologists,and paleo-climatologists. This multidisciplinary interest is opening new research frontiers. Significantly advancing our scientific understanding along many of these frontiers will require targeted sampling strategies and the acquisition of data from arrays of deep access holes on spatial scales ranging from local to continent-wide. With this challenge in mind, more than 50 polar researchers and drilling engineers convened at a workshop to discuss scientific opportunities and technological challenges of fast-access ice sheet drilling. The overarching goal of the workshop was to begin the process of matching specific drilling and sampling technologies to broad objectives of interdisciplinary polar sciences. For convenience, the planned technological platform has been dubbed FASTDRILL. All scientific disciplines represented at the workshop identified several top-level questions that can be addressed with aid of the FASTDRILL platform. Biologists are interested in investigating life in icy environments as a potential analog for extraterrestrial life, and to better understand the origin and evolution of life on our planet. Interactions between tectonic processes and ice-sheet evolution are of primary importance to geologists and geophysicists.

  12. Microbial nitrogen cycling on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telling, J.; Stibal, M.; Anesio, A. M.; Tranter, M.; Nias, I.; Cook, J.; Bellas, C.; Lis, G.; Wadham, J. L.; Sole, A.; Nienow, P.; Hodson, A.

    2012-07-01

    Nitrogen inputs and microbial nitrogen cycling were investigated along a 79 km transect into the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) during the main ablation season in summer 2010. The depletion of dissolved nitrate and production of ammonium (relative to icemelt) in cryoconite holes on Leverett Glacier, within 7.5 km of the ice sheet margin, suggested microbial uptake and ammonification respectively. Positive in situ acetylene assays indicated nitrogen fixation both in a debris-rich 100 m marginal zone and up to 5.7 km upslope on Leverett Glacier (with rates up to 16.3 μmoles C2H4 m-2 day-1). No positive acetylene assays were detected > 5.7 km into the ablation zone of the ice sheet. Potential nitrogen fixation only occurred when concentrations of dissolved and sediment-bound inorganic nitrogen were undetectable. Estimates of nitrogen fluxes onto the transect suggest that nitrogen fixation is likely of minor importance to the overall nitrogen budget of Leverett Glacier and of negligible importance to the nitrogen budget on the main ice sheet itself. Nitrogen fixation is however potentially important as a source of nitrogen to microbial communities in the debris-rich marginal zone close to the terminus of the glacier, where nitrogen fixation may aid the colonization of subglacial and moraine-derived debris.

  13. West Antarctic Ice Sheet formed earlier than thought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-10-01

    About 34 million years ago, Earth transitioned from a warm "greenhouse" climate to a cold "icehouse" climate, marking the transition between the Eocene and Oligocene epochs. This transition has been associated with the formation of a large ice sheet on Antarctica.

  14. An ice sheet model of reduced complexity for paleoclimate studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, B.; Born, A.; Stocker, T. F.

    2015-08-01

    IceBern2D is a vertically integrated ice sheet model to investigate the ice distribution on long timescales under different climatic conditions. It is forced by simulated fields of surface temperature and precipitation of the last glacial maximum and present day climate from a comprehensive climate model. This constant forcing is adjusted to changes in ice elevation. Bedrock sinking and sea level are a function of ice volume. Due to its reduced complexity and computational efficiency, the model is well-suited for extensive sensitivity studies and ensemble simulations on extensive temporal and spatial scales. It shows good quantitative agreement with standardized benchmarks on an artificial domain (EISMINT). Present day and last glacial maximum ice distributions on the Northern Hemisphere are also simulated with good agreement. Glacial ice volume in Eurasia is underestimated due to the lack of ice shelves in our model. The efficiency of the model is utilized by running an ensemble of 400 simulations with perturbed model parameters and two different estimates of the climate at the last glacial maximum. The sensitivity to the imposed climate boundary conditions and the positive degree day factor β, i.e., the surface mass balance, outweighs the influence of parameters that disturb the flow of ice. This justifies the use of simplified dynamics as a means to achieve computational efficiency for simulations that cover several glacial cycles. The sensitivity of the model to changes in surface temperature is illustrated as a hysteresis based on 5 million year long simulations.

  15. Results of the Marine Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project, MISMIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattyn, F.; Schoof, C.; Perichon, L.; Hindmarsh, R. C. A.; Bueler, E.; de Fleurian, B.; Durand, G.; Gagliardini, O.; Gladstone, R.; Goldberg, D.; Gudmundsson, G. H.; Huybrechts, P.; Lee, V.; Nick, F. M.; Payne, A. J.; Pollard, D.; Rybak, O.; Saito, F.; Vieli, A.

    2012-05-01

    Predictions of marine ice-sheet behaviour require models that are able to robustly simulate grounding line migration. We present results of an intercomparison exercise for marine ice-sheet models. Verification is effected by comparison with approximate analytical solutions for flux across the grounding line using simplified geometrical configurations (no lateral variations, no effects of lateral buttressing). Unique steady state grounding line positions exist for ice sheets on a downward sloping bed, while hysteresis occurs across an overdeepened bed, and stable steady state grounding line positions only occur on the downward-sloping sections. Models based on the shallow ice approximation, which does not resolve extensional stresses, do not reproduce the approximate analytical results unless appropriate parameterizations for ice flux are imposed at the grounding line. For extensional-stress resolving "shelfy stream" models, differences between model results were mainly due to the choice of spatial discretization. Moving grid methods were found to be the most accurate at capturing grounding line evolution, since they track the grounding line explicitly. Adaptive mesh refinement can further improve accuracy, including fixed grid models that generally perform poorly at coarse resolution. Fixed grid models, with nested grid representations of the grounding line, are able to generate accurate steady state positions, but can be inaccurate over transients. Only one full-Stokes model was included in the intercomparison, and consequently the accuracy of shelfy stream models as approximations of full-Stokes models remains to be determined in detail, especially during transients.

  16. Results of the Marine Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project, MISMIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattyn, F.; Schoof, C.; Perichon, L.; Hindmarsh, R. C. A.; Bueler, E.; de Fleurian, B.; Durand, G.; Gagliardini, O.; Gladstone, R.; Goldberg, D.; Gudmundsson, G. H.; Lee, V.; Nick, F. M.; Payne, A. J.; Pollard, D.; Rybak, O.; Saito, F.; Vieli, A.

    2012-01-01

    Predictions of marine ice-sheet behaviour require models that are able to robustly simulate grounding line migration. We present results of an intercomparison exercise for marine ice-sheet models. Verification is effected by comparison with approximate analytical solutions for flux across the grounding line using simplified geometrical configurations (no lateral variations, no effects of lateral buttressing). Unique steady-state grounding line positions exist for ice sheets on a downward sloping bed, while hysteresis occurs across an overdeepened bed, and stable steady state grounding line positions only occur on the downward-sloping sections. Models based on the shallow ice approximation, which does not resolve extensional stresses, do not reproduce the approximate analytical results unless appropriate parameterizations for ice flux are imposed at the grounding line. For extensional-stress resolving "shelfy stream" models, differences between model results were mainly due to the choice of spatial discretization. Moving grid methods were found to be the most accurate at capturing grounding line evolution, since they track the grounding line explicitly. Adaptive mesh refinement can further improve accuracy, including in fixed-grid models that generally perform poorly at coarse resolution. Fixed grid models with nested grid representations of the grounding line are able to generate accurate steady-state positions, but can be inaccurate over transients. Only one full Stokes model was included in the intercomparison, and consequently the accuracy of shelfy stream models as approximations of full Stokes models remains to be determined in detail, especially during transients.

  17. Effect of microorganism on Greenland ice sheet surface temperature change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, R.; Takeuchi, N.; Aoki, T.

    2012-12-01

    Greenland ice sheet holds approximately 10% of the fresh water on earth. If it melts all, sea level rises about 7.2meter. It is reported that mass of Greenland ice sheet is decreasing with temperature rising of climate change. Melting of the coastal area is particularly noticeable. It is established that 4 to 23% of the sea level rising from 1993 to 2005 is caused by the melting of Greenland ice sheet. In 2010, amount of melting per year became the largest than the past. However many climate models aren't able to simulate the recent melting of snow and ice in the Arctic including Greenland. One of the possible causes is albedo reduction of snow and ice surface by light absorbing snow impurities such as black carbon and dust and by glacial microorganisms. But there are few researches for effect of glacial microorganism in wide area. So it is important to clarify the impact of glacial microorganisms in wide area. The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of microorganism on Greenland ice sheet surface temperature change using satellite images of visible, near infrared and thermal infrared wavelength range and observation carried out in northwestern Greenland. We use MODIS Land Surface Temperature Product as ice sheet surface temperature. It estimates land surface temperature based on split window method using thermal infrared bands. MODIS data is bound to cover the whole of Greenland, and calculated the ratio of the temperature change per year. Analysis period is from December 2002 to November 2010. Results of calculating Greenland ice sheet surface temperature change using the MODIS data, our analysis shows that it is upward trend in the whole region. We find a striking upward trend in northern and western part of Greenland. The rate is 0.33±0.03 degree Celsius per a year from 47.5°W to 49°W. While in the coastal area from 49°W to 50.7°W, the rate is 0.26±0.06 degree Celsius per a year. This large upward trend area is the same area as dark region

  18. Sedimentary record of ice divide migration and ice streams in the Keewatin core region of the Laurentide Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodder, Tyler J.; Ross, Martin; Menzies, John

    2016-06-01

    The Aberdeen Lake region of central mainland Nunavut is a former core region of the Laurentide Ice Sheet that is characterized by streamlined glacial landforms classified into multiple crosscutting flow sets and near continuous till blanket. The presence of widespread till near the centre of the Keewatin Ice Dome raises questions about its origin. Detailed drillcore logging revealed a complex stratigraphy consisting of at least 6 till units, variably preserved across the study area. Till provenance analysis indicates deposition by near opposite-trending ice flow phases, interpreted as evidence of reconfiguration of the Keewatin Ice Divide. At the surface, large north-northwesterly aligned landforms are present across the study area. The till stratigraphy within these landforms indicates the same NNW ice flow phase is responsible for considerable till production. This ice flow phase is also correlated to a long regional dispersal train of erratics toward the Gulf of Boothia. The production of an extensive, thick (~ 12 m), till sheet during the NNW-trending ice flow phase occurred far from the ice margin at a time of extensive ice cover of mainland Nunavut, likely from an east-west oriented ice divide. A deglacial westerly trending ice flow phase formed small drumlins atop the larger NNW streamlined till ridges and deposited a surficial till unit that is too thin to mask the NNW flow set across the study area. It is proposed that the Boothia paleo-ice stream catchment area propagated deep into the Laurentide Ice Sheet and contributed to significant till production in this core region of the Keewatin Sector prior to the westerly ice flow shift. The apparent relationship between till thickness and the size of the associated or correlated drumlins, flow sets, and dispersal trains indicates complex erosion/deposition interplay is involved in the formation of streamlined subglacial landforms.

  19. Changes in ice dynamics and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet.

    PubMed

    Rignot, Eric

    2006-07-15

    The concept that the Antarctic ice sheet changes with eternal slowness has been challenged by recent observations from satellites. Pronounced regional warming in the Antarctic Peninsula triggered ice shelf collapse, which led to a 10-fold increase in glacier flow and rapid ice sheet retreat. This chain of events illustrated the vulnerability of ice shelves to climate warming and their buffering role on the mass balance of Antarctica. In West Antarctica, the Pine Island Bay sector is draining far more ice into the ocean than is stored upstream from snow accumulation. This sector could raise sea level by 1m and trigger widespread retreat of ice in West Antarctica. Pine Island Glacier accelerated 38% since 1975, and most of the speed up took place over the last decade. Its neighbour Thwaites Glacier is widening up and may double its width when its weakened eastern ice shelf breaks up. Widespread acceleration in this sector may be caused by glacier ungrounding from ice shelf melting by an ocean that has recently warmed by 0.3 degrees C. In contrast, glaciers buffered from oceanic change by large ice shelves have only small contributions to sea level. In East Antarctica, many glaciers are close to a state of mass balance, but sectors grounded well below sea level, such as Cook Ice Shelf, Ninnis/Mertz, Frost and Totten glaciers, are thinning and losing mass. Hence, East Antarctica is not immune to changes. PMID:16782604

  20. Radar measurements of melt zones on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jezek, Kenneth C.; Gogineni, Prasad; Shanableh, M.

    1994-01-01

    Surface-based microwave radar measurements were performed at a location on the western flank of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Here, firn metamorphasis is dominated by seasonal melt, which leads to marked contrasts in the vertical structure of winter and summer firn. This snow regime is also one of the brightest radar targets on Earth with an average backscatter coefficient of 0 dB at 5.3 GHz and an incidence angle of 25 deg. By combining detailed observations of firn physical properties with ranging radar measurements we find that the glaciological mechanism associated with this strong electromagnetic response is summer ice lens formation within the previous winter's snow pack. This observation has important implications for monitoring and understanding changes in ice sheet volume using spaceborne microwave sensors.

  1. Latest Word on Retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, R.

    2000-01-01

    The West Antarctic ice sheet during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is estimated to have been three times its present volume and to have extended close to the edge of the continental shelf Holocene retreat of this ice sheet in the Ross Sea began between 11,000 and 12,000 years ago. This history implies an average contribution of this ice sheet to sea level of 0.9 mm/a. Evidence of dateable past grounding line positions in the Ross sector are broadly consistent with a linear retreat model. However, inferred rates of retreat for some of these grounding line positions are not consistent with a linear retreat model. More rapid retreat approximately 7600 years ago and possible near-stability in the Ross Sea sector at present suggest a slow rate of initial retreat followed by a more rapid-than-average retreat during the late Holocene, returning to a near-zero rate of retreat currently. This model is also consistent with the mid-Holocene high stand observations of eustatic sea level. Recent compilation of Antarctic bed elevations (BEDMAP) illustrates that the LGM and present grounding lines occur in the shallowest waters, further supporting the model of a middle phase of rapid retreat bracketed by an older and a more recent phase of modest retreat. Extension of these hypotheses into the future make subsequent behavior of the West Antarctic ice sheet more difficult to predict but suggest that if it loses its hold on the present shallow bed, the final retreat of the ice sheet could be very rapid.

  2. How might the North American ice sheet influence the Northwestern Eurasian climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beghin, P.; Charbit, S.; Kageyama, M.; Dumas, C.; Ritz, C.

    2015-01-01

    During the last glacial period (∼21 000 years ago), two continental-scale ice sheets covered the Canada and northern Europe. It is now widely acknowledged that these past ice sheets exerted a strong influence on climate by causing changes in atmospheric and oceanic circulations. In turn, these changes may have impacted the development of the ice sheets themselves through a combination of different feedback mechanisms. The present study is designed to investigate the potential impact of the North American ice sheet on the surface mass balance (SMB) of the Eurasian ice sheet through simulated changes in the past glacial atmospheric circulation. Using the LMDz5 atmospheric circulation model, we carried out twelve experiments run under constant Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) conditions for insolation, greenhouse gases and ocean. In the all experiments, the Eurasian ice sheet is removed. The twelve experiments differ in the North American ice-sheet topography, ranging from a white and flat (present-day topography) ice sheet to a full-size LGM ice sheet. This experimental design allows to disentangle the albedo and the topographic impacts of the North American ice sheet onto the climate. The results are compared to our baseline experiment where both the North American and the Eurasian ice sheets have been removed. In summer, we show that the only albedo effect of the American ice sheet modifies the pattern of planetary waves with respect to the no-ice sheet case, causing a cooling of the Eurasian region. By contrast, the atmospheric circulation changes induced by the topography of the North American ice sheet imply summer warming in Northwestern Eurasia. In winter, the Scandinavian and the Barents-Kara regions respond differently to the albedo effect: in response to atmospheric circulation changes, Scandinavia is warmed up and precipitation is more abundant whereas Barents-Kara area is cooled down, decreasing convection process and thus leading to less precipitation. The

  3. Reducing uncertainties in Antarctic ice sheet mass loss projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattyn, Frank; Durand, Gaël

    2014-05-01

    Climate model projections are often aggregated into multi-model averages of all models participating in an Intercomparison Project, such as CMIP. Several authors have questioned whether this is the best use of the information and whether the community is ready to move beyond the 'one-model-one-vote' approach, based on the intrinsic quality of each of the models. Ice sheet models are not as far developed as climate or ocean models. Many of these models are still struggling over basic thermo-mechanical issues related to ice deformation, while at the same time disproportionate efforts are made on the interaction with the atmosphere, basal hydrology, sliding, sediment deformation, ice/ocean interaction, calving, grounding-line migration, etc. We can therefore reasonably question whether averaging all model results at equal weight is the best strategy and to which extent coupling of ice sheet models that are lacking the representation of crucial physical processes, to other components of the climate system could lead to spurious errors. We now have tools available to test parts of the response of marine ice sheet models to perturbations of climatic and/or oceanic origin. Results show that the type of model as well as the way boundary conditions are implemented greatly affects the response of each ice sheet system. Based on MISMIP experimental output as well as the experimental response of Antarctic glaciers and drainage basins to ocean perturbations (e.g. Favier et al., 2014), we provide a guidance for the evaluation of model-response to perturbations on Century time scales.

  4. ICESHEET 1.0: a program to produce paleo-ice sheet reconstructions with minimal assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowan, Evan J.; Tregoning, Paul; Purcell, Anthony; Lea, James; Fransner, Oscar J.; Noormets, Riko; Dowdeswell, J. A.

    2016-05-01

    We describe a program that produces paleo-ice sheet reconstructions using an assumption of steady-state, perfectly plastic ice flow behaviour. It incorporates three input parameters: ice margin, basal shear stress and basal topography. Though it is unlikely that paleo-ice sheets were ever in complete steady-state conditions, this method can produce an ice sheet without relying on complicated and unconstrained parameters such as climate and ice dynamics. This makes it advantageous to use in glacial-isostatic adjustment ice sheet modelling, which are often used as input parameters in global climate modelling simulations. We test this program by applying it to the modern Greenland Ice Sheet and Last Glacial Maximum Barents Sea Ice Sheet and demonstrate the optimal parameters that balance computational time and accuracy.

  5. Simulating the Antarctic ice sheet in the Late-Pliocene warm period: PLISMIP-ANT, an ice-sheet model intercomparison project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, B.; Dolan, A. M.; Bernales, J.; Gasson, E.; Goelzer, H.; Golledge, N. R.; Sutter, J.; Huybrechts, P.; Lohmann, G.; Rogozhina, I.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Saito, F.; van de Wal, R. S. W.

    2014-11-01

    In the context of future climate change, understanding the nature and behaviour of ice sheets during warm intervals in Earth history is of fundamental importance. The Late-Pliocene warm period (also known as the PRISM interval: 3.264 to 3.025 million years before present) can serve as a potential analogue for projected future climates. Although Pliocene ice locations and extents are still poorly constrained, a significant contribution to sea-level rise should be expected from both the Greenland ice sheet and the West and East Antarctic ice sheets based on palaeo sea-level reconstructions. Here, we present results from simulations of the Antarctic ice sheet by means of an international Pliocene Ice Sheet Modeling Intercomparison Project (PLISMIP-ANT). For the experiments, ice-sheet models including the shallow ice and shelf approximations have been used to simulate the complete Antarctic domain (including grounded and floating ice). We compare the performance of six existing numerical ice-sheet models in simulating modern control and Pliocene ice sheets by a suite of four sensitivity experiments. Ice-sheet model forcing fields are taken from the HadCM3 atmosphere-ocean climate model runs for the pre-industrial and the Pliocene. We include an overview of the different ice-sheet models used and how specific model configurations influence the resulting Pliocene Antarctic ice sheet. The six ice-sheet models simulate a comparable present-day ice sheet, although the models are setup with their own parameter settings. For the Pliocene simulations using the Bedmap1 bedrock topography, some models show a small retreat of the East Antarctic ice sheet, which is thought to have happened during the Pliocene for the Wilkes and Aurora basins. This can be ascribed to either the surface mass balance, as the HadCM3 Pliocene climate shows a significant increase over the Wilkes and Aurora basin, or the initial bedrock topography. For the latter, our simulations with the recently

  6. Modeling of Firn Compaction for Estimating Ice-Sheet Mass Change from Observed Ice-Sheet Elevation Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jun; Zwally, H. Jay

    2011-01-01

    Changes in ice-sheet surface elevation are caused by a combination of ice-dynamic imbalance, ablation, temporal variations in accumulation rate, firn compaction and underlying bedrock motion. Thus, deriving the rate of ice-sheet mass change from measured surface elevation change requires information on the rate of firn compaction and bedrock motion, which do not involve changes in mass, and requires an appropriate firn density to associate with elevation changes induced by recent accumulation rate variability. We use a 25 year record of surface temperature and a parameterization for accumulation change as a function of temperature to drive a firn compaction model. We apply this formulation to ICESat measurements of surface elevation change at three locations on the Greenland ice sheet in order to separate the accumulation-driven changes from the ice-dynamic/ablation-driven changes, and thus to derive the corresponding mass change. Our calculated densities for the accumulation-driven changes range from 410 to 610 kg/cu m, which along with 900 kg/cu m for the dynamic/ablation-driven changes gives average densities ranging from 680 to 790 kg/cu m. We show that using an average (or "effective") density to convert elevation change to mass change is not valid where the accumulation and the dynamic elevation changes are of opposite sign.

  7. Potential Antarctic Ice Sheet retreat driven by hydrofracturing and ice cliff failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, David; DeConto, Robert M.; Alley, Richard B.

    2015-02-01

    Geological data indicate that global mean sea level has fluctuated on 103 to 106 yr time scales during the last ∼25 million years, at times reaching 20 m or more above modern. If correct, this implies substantial variations in the size of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). However, most climate and ice sheet models have not been able to simulate significant EAIS retreat from continental size, given that atmospheric CO2 levels were relatively low throughout this period. Here, we use a continental ice sheet model to show that mechanisms based on recent observations and analysis have the potential to resolve this model-data conflict. In response to atmospheric and ocean temperatures typical of past warm periods, floating ice shelves may be drastically reduced or removed completely by increased oceanic melting, and by hydrofracturing due to surface melt draining into crevasses. Ice at deep grounding lines may be weakened by hydrofracturing and reduced buttressing, and may fail structurally if stresses exceed the ice yield strength, producing rapid retreat. Incorporating these mechanisms in our ice-sheet model accelerates the expected collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet to decadal time scales, and also causes retreat into major East Antarctic subglacial basins, producing ∼17 m global sea-level rise within a few thousand years. The mechanisms are highly parameterized and should be tested by further process studies. But if accurate, they offer one explanation for past sea-level high stands, and suggest that Antarctica may be more vulnerable to warm climates than in most previous studies.

  8. Comparative forecast simulations of the Greenland ice-sheet using Elmer/Ice and GRISLI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritz, C.; Gillet-chaulet, F.; Gagliardini, O.; Quiquet, A.; Durand, G.; Peyaud, V.

    2012-12-01

    The total mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is a matter of concern when considering its possible contribution to sea level rise. Both surface mass balance (smb) and ice discharge are contributing increasingly to the observed GrIS imbalance. Simple extrapolation of the recent observed trends cannot be justified. Therefore realistic projections of the contribution of GrIS to sea-level rise on decadal to century timescales must be derived from the forecasts of verified ice-flow models driven by the most reliable projections of climatic (atmosphere and ocean) forcing. Here we compare the results of two ice-flow models that have been used to run the forecast simulations of the GrIS 200 years into the future within the ice2sea project: Elmer/Ice a full stokes ice flow model using an unstructured grid with a resolution ranging from 1km in the outlets to 30km in the central parts; and GRISLI an hybrid Shallow Ice / Shallow Shelf model running on a regular 5km grid. For the spin-up both models use inverse methods to constrain the basal friction field to match the current observations of the GrIS state. The models are then forced using the surface mass balance computed with the regional climate model MAR. We compare the sensitivities of ice sheet volume computed by both model (i) to basal lubrication by applying a parametrization that link ice-flow speed-up to runoff and (ii) to the feedback between surface elevation and smb by applying a parametrization derived from MAR simulations on several GrIS topographies. The two models lead to similar volume changes and large scale flow patterns. Basal lubrication affects the flow pattern of the ice-sheet but has little effect on the whole mass budget. On the other hand, considering the surface elevation/smb feedback increases the total mass loss by 10%.

  9. Elastic response of a grounded ice sheet coupled to a floating ice shelf.

    PubMed

    Sayag, Roiy; Worster, M Grae

    2011-09-01

    An ice sheet that spreads into an ocean is forced to bend owing to its buoyancy and detaches from the bedrock to form a floating ice shelf. The location of the transition between the grounded sheet and the floating shelf, defined as the grounding line, behaves as a free boundary. We develop a model of an elastic grounded sheet resting on a deformable elastic bed and coupled to an elastic floating shelf. We find that the grounding-line position is determined by the geometry of the bed and the bending-buoyancy length scale of the system. These two contributions depend on the reaction modulus of the bed in opposite ways. We show that the structure of the floating shelf depends on the bending-buoyancy length scale only, allowing us to calculate the bending stiffness of the elastic sheet independently of the properties of the bed. Relations between the structure of the floating shelf and the grounding-line position are also developed. Our theoretical predictions agree with laboratory experiments made using thick elastic sheets and a dense salt solution. Our findings may provide new insights into the dynamics near grounding lines, as well as methods to infer the bending stiffness of ice sheets and the grounding-line position from satellite altimetery that can be applied to elastic sheets in general. PMID:22060460

  10. Modelling the climate, ice sheet and thermohaline circulation during the ice age termination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe-Ouchi, A.; Saito, F.; Kawamura, K.; Ohgaito, R.; Chikamoto, M. O.; Oka, A.; Yoshimori, M.; Yokoyama, Y.

    2009-12-01

    One of the challenges of earth system modeling is to explain the mechanism of ice age cycle by simulating it and to understand the uniqueness or necessity of the present state of climate and cryosphere. Whether Milankovitch cycle or CO2 is the driver and why the dominant periodicity of ice age cycle switched from 40 ka cycle to 100ka cycle and why a sharp termination occur for each ice age cycle have been remained unsolved. Here we simulate the glacial cycle and investigate the origin of saw-tooth shape 100ka cycle using a three dimensional ice sheet model with the input examined by GCM. The model is forced by the orbital parameters (Berger, 1978) and atmospheric CO2 content obtained by ice cores (Vostok, EPICA and DomeF), whose dating is partly given by a new method using the N2/O2 ratio. The ice sheet model includes the thermo-mechanical coupling process of ice sheet with the process of delayed isostatic rebound with a typical time constant. In order to estimate the climate sensitivity to Milankovitch forcing and atmospheric CO2 indicated by ice core data we used an atmospheric GCM (part of MIROC GCM) coupled to a slab ocean and full MIROC AOGCM in part of the work. Within the range of possibilities of the model, ice age cycles with a saw-tooth shape 100 ka cycle, the major NH ice sheets’ volume and the geographical distribution at the glacial maximum are successfully simulated. Moreover the role of Atmospheric stationary wave feedback are found to be important to sharpen the termination. It is shown by sensitivity studies that this 100ka cycle is mainly obtained by the slowly acting ice sheet response to Milankovitch forcing even without the CO2 cycle. The CO2 change amplifies the cycle and affects the global climate change, while the delay of crustal rebound sharpens the termination of every ice age cycle. In order to study the effect of thermohaline circulation, the sensitivity of AOGCM (by MIROC) is separately studied by applying time slice experiments of

  11. Reconstruction of Greenland Ice Sheet Changes from Laser Altimetry Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csatho, B. M.; Schenk, A. F.; van der Veen, C. J.; Krabill, W. B.

    2009-12-01

    The ability to predict rates of global climatic change, melting ice, and rising seas through the next century relies on an accurate understanding and modeling of glacier and ice-sheet behavior. To quantify ice sheet mass balance, investigate dynamic behavior and to improve predictive ice-sheet models, accurate seasonal, annual and inter-annual elevation changes are of paramount importance. Starting in 1978 an ever-increasing fleet of satellites are monitoring the polar ice sheets. These measurements as well as elevations from NASA’s Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) laser altimeter campaigns provide estimates of ice sheet volume changes and mass balance. However, comparison of mass balance estimates derived from these data reveal some glaring differences. The bias between different estimates can be attributed to various factors, for example uncertainties in firn-compaction rates, preferential sampling of local high points by radar altimetry or errors introduced by the interpolation of sparse laser altimetry observations. Moreover change detection methods have significant difficulty to estimate changes over rugged, steep slopes, especially when repeat measurements not perfectly overlap. We have developed a new, comprehensive method, called Surface Elevation Reconstruction And Change detection (SERAC), which determines surface changes by a simultaneous reconstruction of surface topography. The method is based on fitting analytical functions to laser points within repeat tracks or cross-over areas for estimating the ice sheet surface topography. The mathematical model of the change detection algorithm is based on the assumption that for a small surface area, e.g. 1 km by 1 km, only the absolute elevation changes over time but not the shape of the surface patch. Therefore, laser points of all time epochs of a small surface patch contribute to the shape parameters, and the laser points of each time period determine the absolute elevation of the surface patch at that

  12. Greenland Ice Sheet sediment dynamics with Landsat: Island-wide mapping shows sediment export controlled by ice discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, B. D.; Overeem, I.; Syvitski, J. P.; Mikkelsen, A. B.; Hasholt, B.; Morlighem, M.

    2014-12-01

    We conducted a satellite-based survey of Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) sediment processes using all images of Greenland in the Landsat7 archive (1999 - 2013). Imaging over 150 proglacial rivers near their ice sheet source to calculate median suspended sediment concentration (SSC) for the Landsat7 era, we find ice sheet evacuation of suspended sediment via rivers is highly spatially variable, with a small percentage of ice sheet termini evacuating sediment at elevated SSCs. Most (67 %) of termini had a median SSC value less than 1000 mg/l, while only 8% had values greater than 2000 mg/l, yet these termini with SSC in excess of 2000 mg/l export ~90 % of suspended sediment from the ice sheet. Combining surface ice velocity data and ice thickness data we find that ice discharge at ice sheet termini largely drives this spatial variability in SSC. Though 1% of the Earth's land surface area, using modeled ice sheet runoff we estimate that the GrIS exports 6 to 11 % of the total sediment export to the global ocean if all sediment is assumed to reach the ocean. Finally, we find river mouth SSC high enough to cause hyperpycnal flow to occur. Hence, sediment can at times be efficiently mobilized from ice sheet directly to fjord bottom/continental shelf.

  13. Sheet 280—Fossombrone 3D: A study project for a new geological map of Italy in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Donatis, Mauro; Borraccini, Francesco; Susini, Sara

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this project is to define and test a method for building a three-dimensional (3D) geological model of Italy based on maps at a 1:50,000 scale, using the new national geological mapping program (CARG project). A structural model of Sheet 280—Fossombrone (Northern Apennines, central Italy) was produced using recently developed 3D visualization techniques. This area is characterized by faulted anticlines and broad synclines, involving a Triassic-Palaeogene succession detached from its underlying basement. Exhaustive knowledge of the regional and local geology, combined with available subsurface (well and seismic) data, makes this area a good test site for developing a 3D geological modeling method. The model of Sheet 280—Fossombrone was built in two steps. In the first step, we built a 2.5D geological model using the digital elevation model combined with the new 1:50,000 scale geological map of the area. This 2.5D model shows relationships between topographic elements, geology and major structures much better than traditional 2D geological maps. In the second step, we constructed an in-depth model integrating a large amount of subsurface data with field data from the recent mapping project. The geological model of Sheet 280—Fossombrone clarifies structural geometries and kinematics of this external part of the Northern Apennines. Structural and geomorphic analyses were performed on the 3D model to evaluate how additional information can be obtained from 3D cartography in order to improve knowledge of the study area. We present results of these analyses as examples.

  14. The GreenLand Ice Sheet monitoring Network (GLISN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Tine B.; Anderson, K. R.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Butler, R.; Clinton, J. F.; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Ekstrom, G.; Giardini, D.; Hanka, W.; Kanao, M.; McCormack, D.; Mykkelveit, S.; Nettles, M.; Piana Agostinetti, N.; Tsuboi, S.; Voss, P.

    2010-05-01

    The GreenLand Ice Sheet monitoring Network (GLISN) is a new, international, broadband seismic capability for Greenland, being installed and implemented through the joint collaboration of USA, Denmark, Switzerland, Germany, Canada, Italy, Japan and Norway. GLISN is a real-time sensor array consisting of more than 20 broad band stations. The purpose of the project is to enhance and upgrade the performance of the scarce existing Greenland seismic infrastructure for detecting, locating, and characterizing both tectonic and in particular glacial earthquakes and other cryo-seismic phenomena. Complementing data from satellites, geodesy, and other sources, and in concert with these technologies, GLISN will provide a powerful tool for detecting change, and will advance new frontiers of research in the glacial systems as well as in the underlying geological and geophysical processes affecting the Greenland Ice Sheet. The glacial processes that induce seismic events are all integral to the overall dynamics of glaciers, and seismic observations of glaciers therefore provide a quantitative means for monitoring changes in their behaviour over time. Long-term seismic monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet will contribute to identifying possible unsuspected mechanisms, and also detect if the areas of cryo-seismic events change and expand in the coming decades. GLISN will provide a new reference network in and around Greenland for monitoring these phenomena in real-time, and for the broad seismological study of Earth and earthquakes. The GLISN development takes its starting point in the existing permanent and long-time stations in and around Greenland operated by members of GLISN. These stations will be upgraded to a common standard with real-time telemetry. The network will be expanded by installing new, telemetered, broadband seismic stations on Greenland's perimeter and ice sheet. An open virtual network is established were all GLISN data can be downloaded. In collaboration with

  15. A Grand Design for Future Ice Sheet Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, T.

    2014-12-01

    If we are to make robust projections of the probability of sea level rise from the ice sheets, these must be founded in both glaciological theory, represented by dynamical ice sheet models, and statistical inference, i.e. formal uncertainty quantification (UQ). No such studies yet exist for either the Greenland or Antarctic ice sheet. Therefore projections risk being physically implausible, difficult to interpret, or both. More optimistically, ice sheet models have many advantages over climate models with respect to uncertainty quantification. They are computationally cheaper, simpler to understand, and have fewer input parameters and output variables. It is relatively straightforward to switch between different model structures, such as physics approximations, basal drag laws, and resolution. Moreover the ice sheet modelling community is relatively small and is not constrained methodologically or culturally by the legacy - and pitfalls - of the CMIP multi-model "ensemble of opportunity". These advantages present us with a golden opportunity to create a new vision for policy-relevant sea level projections: we can design a grand ensemble that quantifies multiple modelling uncertainties in a statistically rigorous and efficient way. Such an ensemble systematically samples model parameters and structures, initial and boundary conditions, in the most informative way given the available resources and also allows statistical inference. I will review some of the UQ steps that have been taken in ice sheet modelling, such as Bayesian calibration of parameters and projections, history matching (statistically-formalised ruling out of poor parameter values), and emulation (statistical surrogates of numerical models). I will then describe how to implement these and other techniques in a multi-model ensemble design, including: sequential experimental design, which is more efficient than the usual Latin Hypercube; quantifying uncertainty in Full Stokes and high resolution models

  16. Integrated 3D macro-trapping and light-sheet imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhengyi; Piksarv, Peeter; Ferrier, David E. K.; Gunn-Moore, Frank J.; Dholakia, Kishan

    2015-08-01

    Biological research requires high-speed and low-damage imaging techniques for live specimens in areas such as development study in embryos. Light sheet microscopy provides fast imaging speed whilst keeps the photo-damage and photo-blenching to minimum. Conventional sample embedding methods in light sheet imaging involves using agent such as agarose which potentially affects the behavior and the develop pattern of the specimens. Here we demonstrate integrating dual-beam trapping method into light sheet imaging system to confine and translate the specimen whilst light sheet images are taken. Tobacco plant cells as well as Spirobranchus lamarcki larva were trapped solely with optical force and sectional images were acquired. This now approach has the potential to extend the applications of light sheet imaging significantly.

  17. Mass Gains of the Antarctic Ice Sheet Exceed Losses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Li, Jun; Robbins, John; Saba, Jack L.; Yi, Donghui; Brenner, Anita; Bromwich, David

    2012-01-01

    During 2003 to 2008, the mass gain of the Antarctic ice sheet from snow accumulation exceeded the mass loss from ice discharge by 49 Gt/yr (2.5% of input), as derived from ICESat laser measurements of elevation change. The net gain (86 Gt/yr) over the West Antarctic (WA) and East Antarctic ice sheets (WA and EA) is essentially unchanged from revised results for 1992 to 2001 from ERS radar altimetry. Imbalances in individual drainage systems (DS) are large (-68% to +103% of input), as are temporal changes (-39% to +44%). The recent 90 Gt/yr loss from three DS (Pine Island, Thwaites-Smith, and Marie-Bryd Coast) of WA exceeds the earlier 61 Gt/yr loss, consistent with reports of accelerating ice flow and dynamic thinning. Similarly, the recent 24 Gt/yr loss from three DS in the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) is consistent with glacier accelerations following breakup of the Larsen B and other ice shelves. In contrast, net increases in the five other DS of WA and AP and three of the 16 DS in East Antarctica (EA) exceed the increased losses. Alternate interpretations of the mass changes driven by accumulation variations are given using results from atmospheric-model re-analysis and a parameterization based on 5% change in accumulation per degree of observed surface temperature change. A slow increase in snowfall with climate waRMing, consistent with model predictions, may be offsetting increased dynamic losses.

  18. A microbial ecosystem beneath the West Antarctic ice sheet.

    PubMed

    Christner, Brent C; Priscu, John C; Achberger, Amanda M; Barbante, Carlo; Carter, Sasha P; Christianson, Knut; Michaud, Alexander B; Mikucki, Jill A; Mitchell, Andrew C; Skidmore, Mark L; Vick-Majors, Trista J

    2014-08-21

    Liquid water has been known to occur beneath the Antarctic ice sheet for more than 40 years, but only recently have these subglacial aqueous environments been recognized as microbial ecosystems that may influence biogeochemical transformations on a global scale. Here we present the first geomicrobiological description of water and surficial sediments obtained from direct sampling of a subglacial Antarctic lake. Subglacial Lake Whillans (SLW) lies beneath approximately 800 m of ice on the lower portion of the Whillans Ice Stream (WIS) in West Antarctica and is part of an extensive and evolving subglacial drainage network. The water column of SLW contained metabolically active microorganisms and was derived primarily from glacial ice melt with solute sources from lithogenic weathering and a minor seawater component. Heterotrophic and autotrophic production data together with small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequencing and biogeochemical data indicate that SLW is a chemosynthetically driven ecosystem inhabited by a diverse assemblage of bacteria and archaea. Our results confirm that aquatic environments beneath the Antarctic ice sheet support viable microbial ecosystems, corroborating previous reports suggesting that they contain globally relevant pools of carbon and microbes that can mobilize elements from the lithosphere and influence Southern Ocean geochemical and biological systems. PMID:25143114

  19. Supraglacial bacterial community structures vary across the Greenland ice sheet.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Karen A; Stibal, Marek; Zarsky, Jakub D; Gözdereliler, Erkin; Schostag, Morten; Jacobsen, Carsten S

    2016-02-01

    The composition and spatial variability of microbial communities that reside within the extensive (>200 000 km(2)) biologically active area encompassing the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is hypothesized to be variable. We examined bacterial communities from cryoconite debris and surface ice across the GrIS, using sequence analysis and quantitative PCR of 16S rRNA genes from co-extracted DNA and RNA. Communities were found to differ across the ice sheet, with 82.8% of the total calculated variation attributed to spatial distribution on a scale of tens of kilometers separation. Amplicons related to Sphingobacteriaceae, Pseudanabaenaceae and WPS-2 accounted for the greatest portion of calculated dissimilarities. The bacterial communities of ice and cryoconite were moderately similar (global R = 0.360, P = 0.002) and the sampled surface type (ice versus cryoconite) did not contribute heavily towards community dissimilarities (2.3% of total variability calculated). The majority of dissimilarities found between cryoconite 16S rRNA gene amplicons from DNA and RNA was calculated to be the result of changes in three taxa, Pseudanabaenaceae, Sphingobacteriaceae and WPS-2, which together contributed towards 80.8 ± 12.6% of dissimilarities between samples. Bacterial communities across the GrIS are spatially variable active communities that are likely influenced by localized biological inputs and physicochemical conditions. PMID:26691594

  20. The formation of ice rises, their dynamics and role in the deglaciation of the Antarctic ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favier, Lionel; Pattyn, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Numerous underwater mountains emerge from the edge of the continental shelf around the Antarctic ice sheet. During the last deglaciation, those features gave birth to ice rises, each being small scale copies of a continental ice sheet characterised by an ice divide and a local flow going outwards embedded within the fringing ice shelves. The well-known millenium-scale stability of ice rises can be strong indicators for the past deglaciation termination. However, the interpretation of physical measurements of an ice rise is not straightforward due to unknown past ice dynamics. Here, using the Bisicles ice-sheet model, we investigate for the first time the formation of an ice rise on top of an underwater mountain during the retreat of an ideal Antarctic-like ice sheet (i.e., including both grounded and floating ice flow). Prior to the retreat, the underwater mountain is barely detectable from the ice surface geometry and velocity. During the ice sheet retreat, induced by an increase of the sea level, an ice divide develops quickly above the underwater mountain. Within a short period of hundreds of years, the ice rise adopts a thousand years stability along with two main features: (i) a shifted upstream position of the ice rise compared to the mountain underneath and (ii) a geometrical asymmetry of the ice rise showing a gentle slope upstream and a steep slope downstream. We also investigate the influence of a non uniform surface mass balance on the migration of the ice divide. Our results provide additional ice dynamical constraints to facilitate numerical reconstructions of the last deglacial history in Antarctica as we demonstrate that ice rises are stable, but transient features of the ice shelf, stabilizing fast outlet flow. The timing of pinning and unpinning therefore becomes crucial in simulating the episodes of slow and fast grounding line retreat, respectively.

  1. Simulating the Antarctic ice sheet in the Late-Pliocene warm period: PLISMIP-ANT, an ice-sheet model intercomparison project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Bas; Dolan, Aisling M.; Hill, Daniel J.; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.

    2014-05-01

    In the context of future climate change, understanding the nature and behaviour of ice sheets during warm intervals in Earth history is of fundamental importance. The Late-Pliocene Warm Period (also known as the PRISM interval: 3.29 to 2.97 million years before present) can serve as a potential analogue for projected future climates, with a global annual mean surface-air temperature warming of 1.76 °C. Although Pliocene ice locations and surface extents are still poorly constrained, a significant contribution to sea-level rise should be expected from Greenland and West and, possibly, East Antarctica based on palaeo sea-level reconstructions. Here, we present results from simulations of the Antarctic ice sheet by means of an international Pliocene Ice Sheet Modeling Intercomparison Project (PLISMIP-ANT). We include an overview of the different ice-sheet models used and how specific model configurations influence the resulting Pliocene Antarctic ice sheet. For the experiments, ice-sheet models including the shallow ice and shelf approximations have been used to simulate the complete Antarctic domain (including grounded and floating ice). We compare the performance of the ice-sheet models in simulating modern control and Pliocene ice sheets by a suite of sensitivity experiments. Ice-sheet model forcing fields are taken from the PlioMIP results incorporating multiple coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (GCM). We show that ice-sheet models simulate a present-day ice sheet which is comparable to the observations, and find no systematic biases introduced when using different GCM forcing relative to observational climate forcing. This project includes multiple ice-sheet models forced with multiple climate model output, from which a comprehensive assessment can be made as to the uncertainties of ice-sheet extent on Antarctica. These results may eventually serve as a new constraint on the extent of the Antarctic ice sheet during the Late-Pliocene Warm Period

  2. Evaluating ice sheet model spinup procedures using chronological data constraining ice margin positions over time on Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applegate, P. J.; Kirchner, N.; Levy, L.; Kelly, M. A.; Lowell, T. V.; Greve, R.

    2011-12-01

    We compare a recently-published ice sheet model run to field data constraining ice margin positions over time on Greenland, to assess presently-accepted model spinup procedures. Computer models describing ice flow and mass balance are important tools for learning about the future behavior of ice sheets in a warming world. Because ice softness is temperature-sensitive and the thermal field within the ice sheet is mostly unknown, ice sheet models must be "spun up" using paleoclimate data before future changes can be estimated. The models produce ice margin positions over time during the spinup, allowing comparison with field data such as cosmogenic exposure dates and radiocarbon dating of organic matter. If the agreement between modeled and reconstructed ice margin positions is good, we can have increased confidence in the models' ability to forecast future changes. For the present study, we use a model setup from Greve et al. (2011; Annals of Glaciology 52, 23-30; sicopolis.greveweb.net), and a preliminary collection of chronological data. We aggregate the chronological data to the model grid, then plot the data and modeled ice margin positions as time-distance diagrams along west-east transects. Our results have implications for the use of the Summit ice cores to predict mass balance around the margins of the ice sheet and future projections of sea level rise using ice sheet models.

  3. An ice-sheet-wide framework for englacial attenuation from ice-penetrating radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, T. M.; Bamber, J. L.; Williams, C. N.; Paden, J. D.; Siegert, M. J.; Huybrechts, P.; Gagliardini, O.; Gillet-Chaulet, F.

    2016-07-01

    Radar inference of the bulk properties of glacier beds, most notably identifying basal melting, is, in general, derived from the basal reflection coefficient. On the scale of an ice sheet, unambiguous determination of basal reflection is primarily limited by uncertainty in the englacial attenuation of the radio wave, which is an Arrhenius function of temperature. Existing bed-returned power algorithms for deriving attenuation assume that the attenuation rate is regionally constant, which is not feasible at an ice-sheet-wide scale. Here we introduce a new semi-empirical framework for deriving englacial attenuation, and, to demonstrate its efficacy, we apply it to the Greenland Ice Sheet. A central feature is the use of a prior Arrhenius temperature model to estimate the spatial variation in englacial attenuation as a first guess input for the radar algorithm. We demonstrate regions of solution convergence for two input temperature fields and for independently analysed field campaigns. The coverage achieved is a trade-off with uncertainty and we propose that the algorithm can be "tuned" for discrimination of basal melt (attenuation loss uncertainty ˜ 5 dB). This is supported by our physically realistic ( ˜ 20 dB) range for the basal reflection coefficient. Finally, we show that the attenuation solution can be used to predict the temperature bias of thermomechanical ice sheet models and is in agreement with known model temperature biases at the Dye 3 ice core.

  4. The Last Interglacial History of the Antarctic Ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Sarah; Siddall, Mark; Milne, Glenn A.; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Wolff, Eric; Hindmarsh, Richard C. A.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we present a summary of the work which was conducted as part of the 'PAST4FUTURE -WP4.1: Sea Level and Ice sheets' project. The overall aim of this study was to understand the response of the Antarctic Ice sheet (AIS) to climate forcing during the Last interglacial (LIG) and its contribution to the observed higher than present sea level during this period. The study involved the application and development of a novel technique which combined East Antarctic stable isotope ice core data with the output from a Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) model [Bradley et al., 2012]. We investigated if the stable isotope ice core data are sensitive to detecting isostatically driven changes in the surface elevation driven by changes in the ice-loading history of the AIS and if so, could we address some key questions relating to the LIG history of the AIS. Although it is believed that the West Antarctic Ice sheet (WAIS) reduced in size during the LIG compared to the Holocene, major uncertainties and unknowns remain unresolved: Did the WAIS collapse? What would the contribution of such a collapse be the higher than present LIG eustatic sea level (ESL)? We will show that a simulated collapse of the WAIS does not generate a significant elevation driven signal at the EAIS LIG ice core sites, and as such, these ice core records cannot be used to assess WAIS stability over this period. However, we will present 'treasure maps' [Bradley et al., 2012] to identify regions of the AIS where results from geological studies and/or new paleoclimate data may be sensitive to detecting a WAIS collapse. These maps can act as a useful tool for the wider science community/field scientists as a guide to highlight sites suitable to constrain the evolution of the WAIS during the LIG. Studies have proposed that the surface temperature across the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) was significantly warmer, 2-5°C during the LIG compared to present [Lang and Wolff, 2011]. These higher

  5. Particle acceleration in 3D single current sheets formed in the solar corona and heliosphere: PIC approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharkova, V. V.; Siversky, T.

    2015-09-01

    Acceleration of protons and electrons in a reconnecting current sheet (RCS) is investigated with the test particle and particle-in-cell (PIC) approaches in a 3D magnetic topology. PIC simulations confirm a spatial separation of electrons and protons with respect to the midplane depending on the guiding field. Simulation reveals that the separation occurs in magnetic topologies with strong guiding fields and lasts as long as the particles are kept dragged into a current sheet. This separation produces a polarisation electric field induced by the plasma feedback to a presence of accelerated particles, which shape can change from symmetric towards the midplane (for weak guiding field) to fully asymmetric (for strong guiding field). Particles are found accelerated at a midplane of any current sheets present in the heliosphere to the energies up to hundred keV for electrons and hundred MeV for protons. The maximum energy gained by particles during their motion inside the current sheet is defined by its magnetic field topology (the ratio of magnetic field components), the side and location from the X-nullpoint, where the particles enter a current sheet. In strong magnetic fields of the solar corona with weaker guiding fields, electrons are found circulating about the midplane to large distances where proton are getting accelerated, creating about the current sheet midplane clouds of high energy electrons, which can be the source of hard X-ray emission in the coronal sources of flares. These electrons are ejected into the same footpoint as protons after the latter reach the energy sufficicent to break from a current sheet. In a weaker magnetic field of the heliosphere the bounced electrons with lower energies cannot reach the midplane turning instead at some distance D before the current sheet midplane by 180 degrees from their initial motion. Also the beams of accelerated transit and bounced particles are found to generate turbulent electric fields in a form of Langmuir

  6. How might the North American ice sheet influence the northwestern Eurasian climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beghin, P.; Charbit, S.; Dumas, C.; Kageyama, M.; Ritz, C.

    2015-10-01

    It is now widely acknowledged that past Northern Hemisphere ice sheets covering Canada and northern Europe at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) exerted a strong influence on climate by causing changes in atmospheric and oceanic circulations. In turn, these changes may have impacted the development of the ice sheets themselves through a combination of different feedback mechanisms. The present study is designed to investigate the potential impact of the North American ice sheet on the surface mass balance (SMB) of the Eurasian ice sheet driven by simulated changes in the past glacial atmospheric circulation. Using the LMDZ5 atmospheric circulation model, we carried out 12 experiments under constant LGM conditions for insolation, greenhouse gases and ocean. In these experiments, the Eurasian ice sheet is removed. The 12 experiments differ in the North American ice-sheet topography, ranging from a white and flat (present-day topography) ice sheet to a full-size LGM ice sheet. This experimental design allows the albedo and the topographic impacts of the North American ice sheet onto the climate to be disentangled. The results are compared to our baseline experiment where both the North American and the Eurasian ice sheets have been removed. In summer, the sole albedo effect of the American ice sheet modifies the pattern of planetary waves with respect to the no-ice-sheet case, resulting in a cooling of the northwestern Eurasian region. By contrast, the atmospheric circulation changes induced by the topography of the North American ice sheet lead to a strong decrease of this cooling. In winter, the Scandinavian and the Barents-Kara regions respond differently to the American ice-sheet albedo effect: in response to atmospheric circulation changes, Scandinavia becomes warmer and total precipitation is more abundant, whereas the Barents-Kara area becomes cooler with a decrease of convective processes, causing a decrease of total precipitation. The gradual increase of the

  7. The First Annual West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Science Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, Robert A. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    A compilation of abstracts presented at the workshop are presented. The goal was to answer the question, what is the future behavior and potential for rapid collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS)? The workshop was organized into four sessions corresponding to the four objectives identified as necessary to reach the WAIS workshop goal: history, current behavior, internal dynamics, and environmental interactions. Presentations were organized by their relevance to each objective, rather than by discipline.

  8. Ice stream reorganization and ice sheet mass balance following the reactivation of Kamb Ice Stream, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougamont, Marion; Christoffersen, Poul; Price, Stephen; Carter, Sasha

    2015-04-01

    Ice streams in Antarctica account for most of the ice volume discharged to the ocean, and their flow variability greatly influences the mass balance of the ice sheet. Today, the Siple Coast region of West Antarctica is the only one to experience a positive mass balance (~36Gt/yr), as a consequence of the stagnation of Kamb Ice Stream about 170 years ago and the ongoing slowdown of Whillans Ice Stream. However, this positive trend could be temporary; past studies have shown that both ice streams experienced significant flow variability over the past millennia, with stagnation typically followed by reactivation on centennial timescales, occurring in response to internal processes. The impact this variability may have on the future mass balance of the WAIS remains unknown. Here, we explore the future flow variability of the Siple Coast ice streams by using a three-dimensional higher-order ice sheet model (CISM), coupled to a physically-based basal processes model and a model of regional hydrology. To obtain realistic initial flow conditions, we assimilate available velocity data for this region from 1997. We perform forward simulations over a 200 year period, during which the basal properties evolve according to the distribution of meltwater beneath the ice and its drainage/flow through a subglacial till layer. First, we assume that the bed evolves according to ice-till interactions with only local exchange of water between the ice and till. Next, we include a model of the regional basal water system capable of transporting water over long distances, so that meltwater is routed laterally along the bed before interacting with the till layer. We also explore the effect of geothermal heat flux uncertainties. We find that ice discharge to the grounding line is larger and more sustained in time when the regional water system is included in the simulations. Still, in all experiments, the main future perturbation to the current state of flow follows from the reactivation of

  9. Radiostratigraphy of the Greenland ice sheet from the 2009-2012 Operation IceBridge surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, J. A.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Catania, G. A.; Paden, J. D.; Wagman, B. M.; Rybarski, S. C.; Young, S. K.; Mabrey, A. N.

    2012-12-01

    We are developing a comprehensive radiostratigraphy of the Greenland ice sheet from the nearly two decades (1993-2012) of airborne radar-sounding surveys collected by the University of Kansas and other institutions. This radiostratigraphy will be used to investigate the ice sheet's basal condition in conjunction with 1-D vertical strain-rate modeling and other remote-sensing data. It will also be gridded at the same resolution as upcoming surface- and bed-elevation models, so that next-generation ice-sheet models can treat these isochrones as internal boundary conditions. To trace this stratigraphy efficiently, we are using several new and recently developed semi-automatic methods (phase tracking, layer-dip mapping, and amplitude flattening). Here we present initial results derived from Operation IceBridge surveys between 2009 and 2012. These radar surveys recorded the common depth pattern of the Greenland ice sheet's internal stratigraphy across thousands of line kilometers (strong reflections in the Holocene, a hiatus between ~15-30 ka, and then a distinct reflector triplet). This pattern is most easily observed in its northern sector. However, intermittent basal freeze-on within this sector can disrupt the overlying internal stratigraphy significantly, despite high-resolution along-track sampling (< 1 m). This disruption is likely due to the unusual depth profiles of vertical strain rate there. In heavily disrupted regions, fewer than half a dozen reflectors can typically be traced reliably, whereas in undisrupted regions more than two dozen reflectors can often be traced across distances of several hundred kilometers. This dataset includes multiple reflectors dated to the last glacial period and which are widely observable throughout the Greenland ice sheet. Thus, radiostratigraphy has the potential to strongly constrain models of its evolution since the last interglacial period.

  10. Abrupt glacial climate shifts controlled by ice sheet changes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Lohmann, Gerrit; Knorr, Gregor; Purcell, Conor

    2014-08-21

    During glacial periods of the Late Pleistocene, an abundance of proxy data demonstrates the existence of large and repeated millennial-scale warming episodes, known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events. This ubiquitous feature of rapid glacial climate change can be extended back as far as 800,000 years before present (BP) in the ice core record, and has drawn broad attention within the science and policy-making communities alike. Many studies have been dedicated to investigating the underlying causes of these changes, but no coherent mechanism has yet been identified. Here we show, by using a comprehensive fully coupled model, that gradual changes in the height of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets (NHISs) can alter the coupled atmosphere-ocean system and cause rapid glacial climate shifts closely resembling DO events. The simulated global climate responses--including abrupt warming in the North Atlantic, a northward shift of the tropical rainbelts, and Southern Hemisphere cooling related to the bipolar seesaw--are generally consistent with empirical evidence. As a result of the coexistence of two glacial ocean circulation states at intermediate heights of the ice sheets, minor changes in the height of the NHISs and the amount of atmospheric CO2 can trigger the rapid climate transitions via a local positive atmosphere-ocean-sea-ice feedback in the North Atlantic. Our results, although based on a single model, thus provide a coherent concept for understanding the recorded millennial-scale variability and abrupt climate changes in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system, as well as their linkages to the volume of the intermediate ice sheets during glacials. PMID:25119027

  11. Abrupt glacial climate shifts controlled by ice sheet changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu; Lohmann, Gerrit; Knorr, Gregor; Purcell, Conor

    2014-08-01

    During glacial periods of the Late Pleistocene, an abundance of proxy data demonstrates the existence of large and repeated millennial-scale warming episodes, known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events. This ubiquitous feature of rapid glacial climate change can be extended back as far as 800,000 years before present (BP) in the ice core record, and has drawn broad attention within the science and policy-making communities alike. Many studies have been dedicated to investigating the underlying causes of these changes, but no coherent mechanism has yet been identified. Here we show, by using a comprehensive fully coupled model, that gradual changes in the height of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets (NHISs) can alter the coupled atmosphere-ocean system and cause rapid glacial climate shifts closely resembling DO events. The simulated global climate responses--including abrupt warming in the North Atlantic, a northward shift of the tropical rainbelts, and Southern Hemisphere cooling related to the bipolar seesaw--are generally consistent with empirical evidence. As a result of the coexistence of two glacial ocean circulation states at intermediate heights of the ice sheets, minor changes in the height of the NHISs and the amount of atmospheric CO2 can trigger the rapid climate transitions via a local positive atmosphere-ocean-sea-ice feedback in the North Atlantic. Our results, although based on a single model, thus provide a coherent concept for understanding the recorded millennial-scale variability and abrupt climate changes in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system, as well as their linkages to the volume of the intermediate ice sheets during glacials.

  12. Designing 3D Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheets Merging Magnetic and Fluorescent Features: When Cell Sheet Technology Meets Image-Guided Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rahmi, Gabriel; Pidial, Laetitia; Silva, Amanda K. A.; Blondiaux, Eléonore; Meresse, Bertrand; Gazeau, Florence; Autret, Gwennhael; Balvay, Daniel; Cuenod, Charles André; Perretta, Silvana; Tavitian, Bertrand; Wilhelm, Claire; Cellier, Christophe; Clément, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Cell sheet technology opens new perspectives in tissue regeneration therapy by providing readily implantable, scaffold-free 3D tissue constructs. Many studies have focused on the therapeutic effects of cell sheet implantation while relatively little attention has concerned the fate of the implanted cells in vivo. The aim of the present study was to track longitudinally the cells implanted in the cell sheets in vivo in target tissues. To this end we (i) endowed bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) with imaging properties by double labeling with fluorescent and magnetic tracers, (ii) applied BMMSC cell sheets to a digestive fistula model in mice, (iii) tracked the BMMSC fate in vivo by MRI and probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE), and (iv) quantified healing of the fistula. We show that image-guided longitudinal follow-up can document both the fate of the cell sheet-derived BMMSCs and their healing capacity. Moreover, our theranostic approach informs on the mechanism of action, either directly by integration of cell sheet-derived BMMSCs into the host tissue or indirectly through the release of signaling molecules in the host tissue. Multimodal imaging and clinical evaluation converged to attest that cell sheet grafting resulted in minimal clinical inflammation, improved fistula healing, reduced tissue fibrosis and enhanced microvasculature density. At the molecular level, cell sheet transplantation induced an increase in the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (TGF-ß2 and IL-10) and host intestinal growth factors involved in tissue repair (EGF and VEGF). Multimodal imaging is useful for tracking cell sheets and for noninvasive follow-up of their regenerative properties. PMID:27022420

  13. Abrupt drainage cycles of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet

    PubMed Central

    Soulet, Guillaume; Ménot, Guillemette; Bayon, Germain; Rostek, Frauke; Ponzevera, Emmanuel; Toucanne, Samuel; Lericolais, Gilles; Bard, Edouard

    2013-01-01

    Continental ice sheets are a key component of the Earth’s climate system, but their internal dynamics need to be further studied. Since the last deglaciation, the northern Eurasian Fennoscandian Ice Sheet (FIS) has been connected to the Black Sea (BS) watershed, making this basin a suitable location to investigate former ice-sheet dynamics. Here, from a core retrieved in the BS, we combine the use of neodymium isotopes, high-resolution elemental analysis, and biomarkers to trace changes in sediment provenance and river runoff. We reveal cyclic releases of meltwater originating from Lake Disna, a proglacial lake linked to the FIS during Heinrich Stadial 1. Regional interactions within the climate–lake–FIS system, linked to changes in the availability of subglacial water, led to abrupt drainage cycles of the FIS into the BS watershed. This phenomenon raised the BS water level by ∼100 m until the sill of the Bosphorus Strait was reached, flooding the vast northwestern BS shelf and deeply affecting the hydrology and circulation of the BS and, probably, of the Marmara and Aegean Seas. PMID:23569264

  14. Abrupt drainage cycles of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet.

    PubMed

    Soulet, Guillaume; Ménot, Guillemette; Bayon, Germain; Rostek, Frauke; Ponzevera, Emmanuel; Toucanne, Samuel; Lericolais, Gilles; Bard, Edouard

    2013-04-23

    Continental ice sheets are a key component of the Earth's climate system, but their internal dynamics need to be further studied. Since the last deglaciation, the northern Eurasian Fennoscandian Ice Sheet (FIS) has been connected to the Black Sea (BS) watershed, making this basin a suitable location to investigate former ice-sheet dynamics. Here, from a core retrieved in the BS, we combine the use of neodymium isotopes, high-resolution elemental analysis, and biomarkers to trace changes in sediment provenance and river runoff. We reveal cyclic releases of meltwater originating from Lake Disna, a proglacial lake linked to the FIS during Heinrich Stadial 1. Regional interactions within the climate-lake-FIS system, linked to changes in the availability of subglacial water, led to abrupt drainage cycles of the FIS into the BS watershed. This phenomenon raised the BS water level by ∼100 m until the sill of the Bosphorus Strait was reached, flooding the vast northwestern BS shelf and deeply affecting the hydrology and circulation of the BS and, probably, of the Marmara and Aegean Seas. PMID:23569264

  15. Microbial nitrogen cycling on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telling, J.; Stibal, M.; Anesio, A. M.; Tranter, M.; Nias, I.; Cook, J.; Lis, G.; Wadham, J. L.; Sole, A.; Nienow, P.; Hodson, A.

    2011-10-01

    Microbial nitrogen cycling was investigated along a 79 km transect into the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) in early August 2010. The depletion of dissolved nitrate and production of ammonium (relative to icemelt) in cryoconite holes within 7.5 km of the ice sheet margin suggested microbial uptake and ammonification respectively. Nitrogen fixation (<4.2 μmoles C2H4 m-2 day-1 to 16.3 μmoles C2H4 m-2 day-1) was active in some cryoconite holes at sites up to 5.7 km from the ice sheet margin, with nitrogen fixation inversely correlated to concentrations of inorganic nitrogen. There may be the potential for the zone of nitrogen fixation to progressively extend further into the interior of the GrIS as the melt season progresses as reserves of available nitrogen are depleted. Estimated annual inputs of nitrogen from nitrogen fixation along the transect were at least two orders of magnitude lower than inputs from precipitation, with the exception of a 100 m long marginal debris-rich zone where nitrogen fixation could potentially equal or exceed that of precipitation. The average estimated contribution of nitrogen fixation to the nitrogen demand of net microbial growth at sites along the transect ranged from 0% to 17.5%.

  16. Experimental design for three interrelated Marine Ice-Sheet and Ocean Model Intercomparison Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asay-Davis, X. S.; Cornford, S. L.; Durand, G.; Galton-Fenzi, B. K.; Gladstone, R. M.; Gudmundsson, G. H.; Hattermann, T.; Holland, D. M.; Holland, D.; Holland, P. R.; Martin, D. F.; Mathiot, P.; Pattyn, F.; Seroussi, H.

    2015-11-01

    Coupled ice sheet-ocean models capable of simulating moving grounding lines are just becoming available. Such models have a broad range of potential applications in studying the dynamics of marine ice sheets and tidewater glaciers, from process studies to future projections of ice mass loss and sea level rise. The Marine Ice Sheet-Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (MISOMIP) is a community effort aimed at designing and coordinating a series of model intercomparison projects (MIPs) for model evaluation in idealized setups, model verification based on observations, and future projections for key regions in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). Here we describe computational experiments constituting three interrelated MIPs for marine ice sheet models and regional ocean circulation models incorporating ice shelf cavities. These consist of ice sheet experiments under the Marine Ice Sheet MIP third phase (MISMIP+), ocean experiments under the ice shelf-ocean MIP second phase (ISOMIP+) and coupled ice sheet-ocean experiments under the MISOMIP first phase (MISOMIP1). All three MIPs use a shared domain with idealized bedrock topography and forcing, allowing the coupled simulations (MISOMIP1) to be compared directly to the individual component simulations (MISMIP+ and ISOMIP+). The experiments, which have qualitative similarities to Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf and the adjacent region of the Amundsen Sea, are designed to explore the effects of changes in ocean conditions, specifically the temperature at depth, on basal melting and ice dynamics. In future work, differences between model results will form the basis for evaluation of the participating models.

  17. Unimpeded permeation of water through biocidal graphene oxide sheets anchored on to 3D porous polyolefinic membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mural, Prasanna Kumar S.; Jain, Shubham; Kumar, Sachin; Madras, Giridhar; Bose, Suryasarathi

    2016-04-01

    3D porous membranes were developed by etching one of the phases (here PEO, polyethylene oxide) from melt-mixed PE/PEO binary blends. Herein, we have systematically discussed the development of these membranes using X-ray micro-computed tomography. The 3D tomograms of the extruded strands and hot-pressed samples revealed a clear picture as to how the morphology develops and coarsens over a function of time during post-processing operations like compression molding. The coarsening of PE/PEO blends was traced using X-ray micro-computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of annealed blends at different times. It is now understood from X-ray micro-computed tomography that by the addition of a compatibilizer (here lightly maleated PE), a stable morphology can be visualized in 3D. In order to anchor biocidal graphene oxide sheets onto these 3D porous membranes, the PE membranes were chemically modified with acid/ethylene diamine treatment to anchor the GO sheets which were further confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface Raman mapping. The transport properties through the membrane clearly reveal unimpeded permeation of water which suggests that anchoring GO on to the membranes does not clog the pores. Antibacterial studies through the direct contact of bacteria with GO anchored PE membranes resulted in 99% of bacterial inactivation. The possible bacterial inactivation through physical disruption of the bacterial cell wall and/or reactive oxygen species (ROS) is discussed herein. Thus this study opens new avenues in designing polyolefin based antibacterial 3D porous membranes for water purification.3D porous membranes were developed by etching one of the phases (here PEO, polyethylene oxide) from melt-mixed PE/PEO binary blends. Herein, we have systematically discussed the development of these membranes using X-ray micro-computed tomography. The 3D tomograms of the extruded strands and

  18. Electronic and magnetic properties of monolayer SiC sheet doped with 3d-transition metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezi Javan, Masoud

    2016-03-01

    We theoretically studied the electronic and magnetic properties of the monolayer SiC sheet doped by 3d transition-metal (TM) atoms. The structural properties, induced strain, electronic and magnetic properties were studied for cases that a carbon or silicon of the SiC sheet replaced with TM atoms. We found that the mount of induced strain to the lattice structure of the SiC sheet with substituting TM atoms is different for Si (TMSi) and C (TMC) sites as the TMSi structures have lower value of the strain. Also the TM atoms can be substituted in the lattice of the SiC sheet with different binding energy values for TMSi and TMC structures as the TMSi structures have higher value of the binding energies. Dependent to the structural properties, the TM doped SiC sheets show magnetic or nonmagnetic properties. We found that some structures such as MnSi, CuSi and CoC configurations have significant total magnetic moment about 3 μB.

  19. Unimpeded permeation of water through biocidal graphene oxide sheets anchored on to 3D porous polyolefinic membranes.

    PubMed

    Mural, Prasanna Kumar S; Jain, Shubham; Kumar, Sachin; Madras, Giridhar; Bose, Suryasarathi

    2016-04-14

    3D porous membranes were developed by etching one of the phases (here PEO, polyethylene oxide) from melt-mixed PE/PEO binary blends. Herein, we have systematically discussed the development of these membranes using X-ray micro-computed tomography. The 3D tomograms of the extruded strands and hot-pressed samples revealed a clear picture as to how the morphology develops and coarsens over a function of time during post-processing operations like compression molding. The coarsening of PE/PEO blends was traced using X-ray micro-computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of annealed blends at different times. It is now understood from X-ray micro-computed tomography that by the addition of a compatibilizer (here lightly maleated PE), a stable morphology can be visualized in 3D. In order to anchor biocidal graphene oxide sheets onto these 3D porous membranes, the PE membranes were chemically modified with acid/ethylene diamine treatment to anchor the GO sheets which were further confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface Raman mapping. The transport properties through the membrane clearly reveal unimpeded permeation of water which suggests that anchoring GO on to the membranes does not clog the pores. Antibacterial studies through the direct contact of bacteria with GO anchored PE membranes resulted in 99% of bacterial inactivation. The possible bacterial inactivation through physical disruption of the bacterial cell wall and/or reactive oxygen species (ROS) is discussed herein. Thus this study opens new avenues in designing polyolefin based antibacterial 3D porous membranes for water purification. PMID:27020773

  20. Antarctic last interglacial isotope peak in response to sea ice retreat not ice-sheet collapse.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Max D; Sime, Louise C; Singarayer, Joy S; Tindall, Julia C; Bunch, Pete; Valdes, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that sea-level rise during the last interglacial implies retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). The prevalent hypothesis is that the retreat coincided with the peak Antarctic temperature and stable water isotope values from 128,000 years ago (128 ka); very early in the last interglacial. Here, by analysing climate model simulations of last interglacial WAIS loss featuring water isotopes, we show instead that the isotopic response to WAIS loss is in opposition to the isotopic evidence at 128 ka. Instead, a reduction in winter sea ice area of 65±7% fully explains the 128 ka ice core evidence. Our finding of a marked retreat of the sea ice at 128 ka demonstrates the sensitivity of Antarctic sea ice extent to climate warming. PMID:27526639

  1. Antarctic last interglacial isotope peak in response to sea ice retreat not ice-sheet collapse

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Max D.; Sime, Louise C.; Singarayer, Joy S.; Tindall, Julia C.; Bunch, Pete; Valdes, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that sea-level rise during the last interglacial implies retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). The prevalent hypothesis is that the retreat coincided with the peak Antarctic temperature and stable water isotope values from 128,000 years ago (128 ka); very early in the last interglacial. Here, by analysing climate model simulations of last interglacial WAIS loss featuring water isotopes, we show instead that the isotopic response to WAIS loss is in opposition to the isotopic evidence at 128 ka. Instead, a reduction in winter sea ice area of 65±7% fully explains the 128 ka ice core evidence. Our finding of a marked retreat of the sea ice at 128 ka demonstrates the sensitivity of Antarctic sea ice extent to climate warming. PMID:27526639

  2. New eyes in the sky measure glaciers and ice sheets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, Hugh; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Barry, Roger G.; Bindschadler, Robert; Bishop, Michael P.; MacKinnon, David; Ohmura, Atsumu; Raup, Bruce; Antoninetti, Massimo; Bamber, Jonathan; Braun, Mattias; Brown, Ian; Cohen, Denis; Copland, Luke; DueHagen, Jon; Engeset, Rune V.; Fitzharris, Blair; Fujita, Koji; Haeberli, Wilfried; Hagen, Jon Oue; Hall, Dorothy; Hoelzle, Martin; Johansson, Maria; Kaab, Andi; Koenig, Max; Konovalov, Vladimir; Maisch, Max; Paul, Frank; Rau, Frank; Reeh, Niels; Rignot, Eric; Rivera, Andres; De Ruyter de Wildt, Martiyn; Scambos, Ted; Schaper, Jesko; Scharfen, Greg; Shroder, Jack; Solomina, Olga; Thompson, David; van der Veen, Kees; Wohlleben, Trudy; Young, Neal

    2000-01-01

    The mapping and measurement of glaciers and their changes are useful in predicting sea-level and regional water supply, studying hazards and climate change [Haeberli et al., 1998],and in the hydropower industry Existing inventories cover only about 67,000 of the world's estimated 160,000 glaciers and are based on data collected over 50 years or more [e.g.,Haeberli et al., 1998]. The data available have proven that small ice bodies are disappearing at an accelerating rate and that the Antarctic ice sheet and its fringing ice shelves are undergoing unexpected, rapid change. According to many glaciologists, much larger fluctuations in land ice—with vast implications for society—are possible in the coming decades and centuries due to natural and anthropogenic climate change [Oppenheimer, 1998].

  3. Combining ice core records and ice sheet models to explore the evolution of the East Antarctic Ice sheet during the Last Interglacial period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, S. L.; Siddall, M.; Milne, G. A.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Wolff, E.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the influence of plausible changes in East Antarctic Ice sheet (EAIS) thickness and the subsequent glacio-isostatic response as a contributor to the Antarctic warming indicated by ice core records during the Last Interglacial period (LIG). These higher temperatures have been estimated primarily using the difference in the δD peak (on average ~ 15‰) in these LIG records relative to records for the Present Interglacial (PIG). Using a preliminary exploratory modelling study, it is shown that introducing a relatively moderate reduction in the amount of thickening of the EAIS over the LIG period introduces a significant increase (up to 8‰) in the predicted elevation-driven only δD signal at the central Antarctic Ice sheet (AIS) ice core sites compared to the PIG. A sensitivity test in response to a large prescribed retreat of marine-based ice in the Wilkes and Aurora subglacial basins (equivalent to ~ 7 m of global mean sea-level rise) results in a distinct elevation signal that is resolvable within the ice core stable isotope records at three sites (Taylor Dome, TALDICE and EPICA Dome C). These findings have two main implications. First, EAIS elevation's only effects could account for a significant fraction of the LIG warming interpreted from ice core records. This result highlights the need for an improved estimate to be made of the uncertainty and size of this elevation-driven δD signal which contributes to this LIG warming and that these effects need to be deconvolved prior to attempting to extract a climatic-only signal from the stable isotope data. Second, a fingerprint of significant retreat of ice in the Wilkes and Aurora basins should be detectable from ice core δD records proximal to these basins and therefore used to constrain their contribution to elevated LIG sea levels, after accounting for ice sheet-climate interactions not considered in our approach.

  4. Retrieving Ice Basal Motion Using the Hydrologically Coupled JPL/UCI Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakbaz, B.; Morlighem, M.; Seroussi, H. L.; Larour, E. Y.

    2011-12-01

    The study of basal sliding in ice sheets requires coupling ice-flow models with subglacial water flow. In fact, subglacial hydrology models can be used to model basal water-pressure explicitly and to generate basal sliding velocities. This study addresses the addition of a thin-film-based subglacial hydrologic module to the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) developed by JPL in collaboration with the University of California Irvine (UCI). The subglacial hydrology model follows the study of J. Johnson (2002) who assumed a non-arborscent distributed drainage system in the form of a thin film beneath ice sheets. The differential equation that arises from conservation of mass in the water system is solved numerically with the finite element method in order to obtain the spatial distribution of basal water over the study domain. The resulting sheet water thickness is then used to model the basal water-pressure and subsequently the basal sliding velocity. In this study, an introduction and preliminary results of the subglacial water flow and basal sliding velocity will be presented for the Pine Island Glacier west Antarctica.This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Modeling, Analysis and Prediction (MAP) Program.

  5. Backscatter for Ice Sheet 2 Growth Phase in the Winter 1994 Winter Sea Ice Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.

    1996-01-01

    None. This is raw data from a data set taken during the CRRELEX94 experiment. The data are polarimetric C-band radar measurements of a saline ice sheet grown in the outdoor Geophysical Research Facility at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab. See references for other descriptions of data.

  6. Extensive mapping of ice marginal landforms in northern Russia (25°E - 112°E); new precise constraints on ice sheet limits of the Eurasian ice sheets in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredin, O.; Rubensdotter, L.; van Welden, A.; Larsen, E.; Lyså, A.; Jensen, M.

    2009-12-01

    Ice sheet extent for the last glaciation(s) are well established in most previously glaciated areas, most notably in North America and Europe. However, in Russia, which have hosted major sectors of the Scandinavian-, Barents sea-, and Kara sea ice sheets, knowledge of exact ice marginal positions is sporadic. Most evidence of ice sheet extent so far, have been from drift distribution, and only limited attempts have been made to use remote sensing data to precisely locate ice marginal zones. This is probably because of difficulties in using optical remote sensing data (typically Landsat ETM+ and ASTER) in low relief, densely forested areas (Taiga), and sheer scale of the mapped areas. Furthermore, no reliable elevation model has existed north of 60°N, aiding interpretation of optical remote sensing data. We have used recently digitized Russian topographic maps (scale 1:100,000) and the new ASTER GDEM 15 m resolution elevation model to map ice marginal moraines in Russia (25°E - 112°E), thereby covering most formerly glaciated areas in Russia. The majority of the mapping was made using shaded relief maps. Critical interpretation was made using the ASTER GDEM elevation model combined with multispectral Landsat ETM+ data to construct a synthetic stereo-model, which was analyzed in 3D using ERDAS Stereo Analyst® software. Several operators have worked independently to insure unbiased interpretation of the landforms. So far we have mapped about 2.1E6 km2. Many of the mapped moraines are distinct at the mapping scale, with a typical relief of 20 - 120 m, and a cross-sectional width of 500 - 1500 m. Moreover, several moraines are hundreds kilometers long! Many mapped ice marginal moraines exhibit a very lobate morphology, reflecting low gradient ice lobes extending into the low relief river valleys. We infer very low basal shear stresses in the valleys, indicating glacier flow on soft sediments and possible flotation of ice tongues on ice dammed lakes. There are

  7. From Outlet Glacier Changes to Ice Sheet Mass Balance - Evolution of Greenland Ice Sheet from Laser Altimetry Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csatho, B. M.; Schenk, A.; Nagarajan, S.; Babonis, G. S.

    2010-12-01

    Investigations of ice sheet mass balance and the changing dynamics of outlet glaciers have been hampered by the lack of comprehensive data. In recent years, this situation has been remedied. Satellite laser altimetry data from the Ice Cloud and land Elevation Satellite mission (ICESat), combined with airborne laser altimetry, provide accurate measurements of surface elevation changes, and surface velocities derived from various satellite platforms yield crucial information on changing glacier dynamics. Taken together, a rich and diverse data set is emerging that allows for characterizing the spatial and temporal evolution of ice sheets and outlet glaciers. In particular, it enables quantitative studies of outlet glaciers undergoing rapid and complex changes. Although airborne and laser altimetry have been providing precise measurements of ice sheet topography since the early 1990s, determining detailed and accurate spatial and temporal distribution of surface changes remains a challenging problem. We have developed a new, comprehensive method, called Surface Elevation Reconstruction And Change detection (SERAC), which estimates surface changes by a simultaneous reconstruction of surface topography from fused multisensor data. The mathematical model is based on the assumption that for a small surface area, only the absolute elevation changes over time but not the shape of the surface patch. Therefore, laser points of all time epochs contribute to the shape parameters; points of each time period determine the absolute elevation of the surface patch at that period. This method provides high-resolution surface topography, precise changes and a rigorous error estimate of the quantities. By using SERAC we combined ICESat and ATM laser altimetry data to determine the evolution of surface change rates of the whole Greenland Ice Sheet between 2003 and 2009 on a high-resolution grid. Our reconstruction, consistent with GRACE results, shows ice sheet thinning propagating

  8. Preservation of a Preglacial Landscape Under the Center of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bierman, Paul R.; Corbett, Lee B.; Graly, Joseph A.; Neumann, Thomas Allen; Lini, Andrea; Crosby, Benjamin T.; Rood, Dylan H.

    2014-01-01

    Continental ice sheets typically sculpt landscapes via erosion; under certain conditions, ancient landscapes can be preserved beneath ice and can survive extensive and repeated glaciation. We used concentrations of atmospherically produced cosmogenic beryllium-10, carbon, and nitrogen to show that ancient soil has been preserved in basal ice for millions of years at the center of the ice sheet at Summit, Greenland. This finding suggests ice sheet stability through the Pleistocene (i.e., the past 2.7 million years). The preservation of this soil implies that the ice has been non-erosive and frozen to the bed for much of that time, that there was no substantial exposure of central Greenland once the ice sheet became fully established, and that preglacial landscapes can remain preserved for long periods under continental ice sheets

  9. Shallow ice approximation, second order shallow ice approximation, and full Stokes models: A discussion of their roles in palaeo-ice sheet modelling and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, N.; Ahlkrona, J.; Gowan, E. J.; Lötstedt, P.; Lea, J. M.; Noormets, R.; von Sydow, L.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Benham, T.

    2016-03-01

    Full Stokes ice sheet models provide the most accurate description of ice sheet flow, and can therefore be used to reduce existing uncertainties in predicting the contribution of ice sheets to future sea level rise on centennial time-scales. The level of accuracy at which millennial time-scale palaeo-ice sheet simulations resolve ice sheet flow lags the standards set by Full Stokes models, especially, when Shallow Ice Approximation (SIA) models are used. Most models used in paleo-ice sheet modeling were developed at a time when computer power was very limited, and rely on several assumptions. At the time there was no means of verifying the assumptions by other than mathematical arguments. However, with the computer power and refined Full Stokes models available today, it is possible to test these assumptions numerically. In this paper, we review (Ahlkrona et al., 2013a) where such tests were performed and inaccuracies in commonly used arguments were found. We also summarize (Ahlkrona et al., 2013b) where the implications of the inaccurate assumptions are analyzed for two paleo-models - the SIA and the SOSIA. We review these works without resorting to mathematical detail, in order to make them accessible to a wider audience with a general interest in palaeo-ice sheet modelling. Specifically, we discuss two implications of relevance for palaeo-ice sheet modelling. First, classical SIA models are less accurate than assumed in their original derivation. Secondly, and contrary to previous recommendations, the SOSIA model is ruled out as a practicable tool for palaeo-ice sheet simulations. We conclude with an outlook concerning the new Ice Sheet Coupled Approximation Level (ISCAL) method presented in Ahlkrona et al. (2016), that has the potential to match the accuracy standards of full Stokes model on palaeo-timescales of tens of thousands of years, and to become an alternative to hybrid models currently used in palaeo-ice sheet modelling. The method is applied to an ice

  10. Contrasting ice sheet response to early and late summer rapid supraglacial lake drainage events on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, L. A.; Behn, M. D.; Das, S. B.; Joughin, I. R.; Herring, T.; King, M. A.; McGuire, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Across much of the ablation region of the western Greenland Ice Sheet, hydro-fracture events related to supraglacial lake drainages rapidly deliver large volumes of meltwater to the bed and create conduits providing efficient surface-to-bed drainage networks for the remainder of the summer melt season. Using a network of 20 GPS stations installed in 2011, and supplemented with a smaller network operating back to 2006, we observe ice surface motion during a series of lake draining hydro-fracture events. These data are used to investigate (1) the location and propagation geometry of the fracture opening and (2) the acceleration of ice in response to the rapid input of surface meltwater to the bed. Observations at the same location show varying surface motion following early versus late summer rapid lake drainage events from multiple years. During a late-season (July 29) rapid drainage in 2006, results from a single GPS station show velocity in the direction of mean ice flow and surface uplift returned to pre-drainage values within ~24 hours (Das et al., 2008), indicating the large subglacial meltwater pulse was efficiently dissipated into the subglacial hydrologic network. In contrast, an early-season (June 11) rapid drainage at the same lake in 2011 induced uplift that persisted for much longer. Specifically, we find that elevations at stations nearest the moulin did not return to pre-drainage elevations for 4 to 8 days post-drainage, suggesting a more inefficient subglacial hydrologic system during the early summer season. These results indicate that the ice-sheet response is modulated, at least in part, by the seasonal evolution of the subglacial hydrological system. We also plan to investigate new GPS data from 2 rapid drainage events in the early portion of the melt season in 2012 and 2013. Findings from these events will ultimately improve our understanding of the mechanics of ice-sheet hydro-fracture and the influence of surface meltwater on ice-sheet flow.

  11. Non-linear Tearing and Flux rope Formation in 3D Null Current Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyper, P. F.; Pontin, D. I.

    2014-12-01

    The manner in which small scale structure affects the large scale reconnection process in realistic 3D geometries is still an unsolved problem. With the increase in computational resources and improvements in satellite instrumentation, signatures of flux ropes or "plasmoids" are now observed with increasing regularity, yet their formation and dynamics are poorly understood. It has been demonstrated that even at MHD scales, in 2D rapid non-linear tearing of Sweet-Parker-like layers forms multiple magnetic islands ("plasmoids") and allows the reconnection rate to become almost independent of the Lundquist number (the "plasmoid instability"). This work presents some of our recent theoretical work focussing on an analogous instability in a fully 3D geometry. Using results from a series of 3D high resolution MHD simulations, the formation and evolution of fully three dimensional "flux rope" structures following the 3D plasmoid instability will be presented, and their effects on the manner of the reconnection process as a whole discussed.

  12. Numerical and theoretical treatment of grounding line movement and ice shelf buttressing in marine ice sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Daniel N.

    Understanding the dynamics of marine ice sheets is integral to studying the evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet in both the short and long terms. An important component of the dynamics, grounding line migration, has proved difficult to represent in numerical models, with undesirable behavior such as sensitivity to grid resolution having been observed. Most successful attempts at representing grounding line migration have made use of techniques that are only readily applicable to flowline models, such as Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian schemes. It remains unclear whether a purely Eulerian flowline model can reproduce the actual solution of the governing differential equations, as well as what the theoretical properties of that solution are. In addition, in order to capture the stress transmission involved in another important dynamic component, the buttressing of a marine ice sheet by its ice shelf, the transverse flow direction must also be resolved. Here a numerical model is developed that solves the time-dependent Shelfy-Stream equations [MacAyeal, 1989] and makes use of mesh adaption techniques to overcome the difficulties typically associated with the numerics of grounding line migration. In the special case of a flowline model, it is shown that the Shelfy-Stream equations have a unique solution provided constraints on the initial condition and the forcing are satisfied, and the convergence properties of the model are examined. Model output is also compared with a recent benchmark for flowline models. It is shown that our model yields an accurate solution while using far less resources than would be required without mesh adaption. It is also shown that the mesh adapting techniques extend to two horizontal dimensions. Experiments are carried out to determine how both ice shelf buttressing and ice rises affect the marine instability predicted for an ice sheet on a foredeepened bed. It is found that buttressing is not always sufficient to stabilize such a sheet but

  13. A ``triple sea-ice state'' mechanism for the abrupt warming and synchronous ice sheet collapses during Heinrich events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspi, Yohai; Sayag, Roiy; Tziperman, Eli

    2004-09-01

    Abrupt, switch-like, changes in sea ice cover are proposed as a mechanism for the large-amplitude abrupt warming that seemed to have occurred after each Heinrich event. Sea ice changes are also used to explain the colder-than-ambient glacial conditions around the time of the glacier discharge. The abrupt warming events occur in this mechanism, owing to rapid sea ice melting which warmed the atmosphere via the strong sea ice albedo and insulating feedbacks. Such abrupt sea ice changes can also account for the warming observed during Dansgaard-Oeschger events. The sea ice changes are caused by a weak (order of 5 Sv) response of the thermohaline circulation (THC) to glacier discharges. The main point of this work is therefore that sea ice may be thought of as a very effective amplifier of a weak THC variability, explaining the abrupt temperature changes over Greenland. Synchronous ice sheet collapses from different ice sheets around the North Atlantic, indicated by some proxy records, are shown to be possible via the weak coupling between the different ice sheets by the atmospheric temperature changes caused by the sea ice changes. This weak coupling can lead to a "nonlinear phase locking" of the different ice sheets which therefore discharge synchronously. It is shown that the phase locking may also lead to "precursor" glacier discharge events from smaller ice sheets before the Laurentide Ice Sheet discharges. The precursor events in this mechanism are the result rather than the cause of the major glacier discharges from the Laurentide Ice Sheet.

  14. Nature and History of Cenozoic Polar Ice Covers: The Case of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spielhagen, R.; Thiede, J.

    2009-04-01

    The nature of the modern climate System is characterized by steep temperature gradients between the tropical and polar climatic zones and finds its most spectacular expression in the formation of ice caps in high Northern and Southern latitudes. While polar regions of Planet Earth have been glaciated repeatedly in the long course of their geological history, the Cenozoic transition from a „greenhouse" to an „icehouse" has in fact produced a unique climatic scenario with bipolar glacation, different from all previous glacial events. The Greenland ice sheet is a remainder of the Northern Hemisphere last glacial maximum ice sheets and represents hence a spectacular anomaly. Geological records from Tertiary and Quaternary terrestrial and oceanic sections have documented the presence of ice caps and sea ice covers both on the Southern as well on the Northern hemisphere since Eocene times, aqpprox. 45 Mio. years ago. While this was well known in the case of Antarctica already for some time, previous ideas about the origin of Northern hemisphere glaciation during Pliocene times (approx. 2-3 Mio. years ago) have been superceded by the dramatic findings of coarse, terrigenous ice rafted detritus in Eocene sediments from Lomonosov Ridge (close to the North Pole) apparently slightly older than the oldest Antarctic records of ice rafting.The histories of the onset of Cenozoic glaciation in high Northern and Southern latitudes remain enigmatic and are presently subjects of international geological drilling projects, with prospects to reveal some of their secrets over the coming decades. By virtue of the physical porperties of ice and the processes controlling the dynamics of the turn-over of the ice-sheets only young records of glacial ice caps on Antarctica and on Greemnland have been preserved, on Greenland with ice probably not older than a few hundred thousand years, on Antarctica potentially as old as 1.5-2 Mio. years. Deep-sea cores with their records od ice

  15. Co-incident 3D mapping of sea ice surface elevation and ice draft in the Beaufort Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doble, M. J.; Forsberg, R.; Haas, C.; Hanson, S.; Hendriks, S.; Martin, T.; Skourup, H.; Wadhams, P.

    2007-12-01

    Co-incident measurements of sea ice freeboard, thickness and draft were made during the Applied Physics Laboratory Ice Station (APLIS), in April 2007. The campaign was the first time that full three-dimensional mapping of sea ice freeboard and sea ice draft have been achieved simultaneously. Freeboard was measured across a swath width of 300 m at 1 m spatial resolution, using a laser profilometer flown aboard a Twin Otter aircraft. Ice draft was measured across a swath width of approximately 80 m at 0.5 m spatial resolution, using a Gavia AUV fitted with a GeoAcoustics phase-measuring swath sonar. Ice thickness was also measured along co-incident tracks using a helicopter-borne electromagnetic sounding instrument (HEM bird). The laser profilometer and AUV-mounted sonar rely on the assumption of isostatic balance when deriving ice thickness estimates from the ice surface and underside profiles, while the HEM bird records both surfaces simultaneously and independently, though averaging over a significant footprint (30 m) for the underside of the ice. Though the extent of the APLIS dataset was limited by the radius of AUV operations, the dataset will significantly improve our understanding of ice volume in deformed ice areas, particularly our understanding of the contribution of ridges and rubble fields to total Arctic ice volume, their isostatic balance and questions of block-scale porosity. The data will serve to better constrain the effects of porosity and footprint on the operational HEM measurements and, conversely, the HEM measurements will allow conclusions about the impact of the isostatic balance assumption on ice thickness estimates derived from mapping of one surface.

  16. Geophysical constraints on the dynamics and retreat of the Barents Sea ice sheet as a paleobenchmark for models of marine ice sheet deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Henry; Andreassen, Karin; Bjarnadóttir, Lilja R.; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Winsborrow, Monica C. M.; Noormets, Riko; Polyak, Leonid; Auriac, Amandine; Hubbard, Alun

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of processes relating to the retreat of marine-based ice sheets, such as the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and tidewater-terminating glaciers in Greenland today, is still limited. In particular, the role of ice stream instabilities and oceanographic dynamics in driving their collapse are poorly constrained beyond observational timescales. Over numerous glaciations during the Quaternary, a marine-based ice sheet has waxed and waned over the Barents Sea continental shelf, characterized by a number of ice streams that extended to the shelf edge and subsequently collapsed during periods of climate and ocean warming. Increasing availability of offshore and onshore geophysical data over the last decade has significantly enhanced our knowledge of the pattern and timing of retreat of this Barents Sea ice sheet (BSIS), particularly so from its Late Weichselian maximum extent. We present a review of existing geophysical constraints that detail the dynamic evolution of the BSIS through the last glacial cycle, providing numerical modelers and geophysical workers with a benchmark data set with which to tune ice sheet reconstructions and explore ice sheet sensitivities and drivers of dynamic behavior. Although constraining data are generally spatially sporadic across the Barents and Kara Seas, behaviors such as ice sheet thinning, major ice divide migration, asynchronous and rapid flow switching, and ice stream collapses are all evident. Further investigation into the drivers and mechanisms of such dynamics within this unique paleo-analogue is seen as a key priority for advancing our understanding of marine-based ice sheet deglaciations, both in the deep past and in the short-term future.

  17. Tertiary ice sheet dynamics: The snow gun hypothesis

    SciTech Connect

    Prentice, M.L. ); Matthews, R.K. )

    1991-04-10

    The authors abserve strong negative correlation between Tertiary low- to mid-latitude planktonic foraminiferal {delta}{sup 18}O and the difference between these data and coeval benthic foraminiferal {delta}{sup 18}O. Late Quaternary data do not show this correlation. Coupling statistical model/{delta}{sup 18}O comparisons and evidence for Antarctic ice and ocean temperature variation, they infer that Tertiary ice volume, recorded by tropical planktonic {delta}{sup 18}O became lost in the noise. This renders low correlation between Teritiary planktonic and benthic {delta}{sup 18}O time series compared to late Quaternary data. They contend that Tertiary ice sheet growth was commonly driven by warming of deep water from low- to mid-latitude, cooled. Because tectonic forcing and orbital forcing at low-latitude primarily controlled production and temperature variations of this Warm Saline Deep Water, these influences largely dictated Tertiary ice volume fluctuations. Through the Tertiary, they infer ice volume fluctuations to be an important component of sea level history on timescales between 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 7} years.

  18. Simulated and Real Sheet-of-Light 3D Object Scanning Using a-Si:H Thin Film PSD Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Javier; Tornero, Josep; Ferreira, Isabel; Martins, Rodrigo; Gomes, Luis; Fortunato, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    A MATLAB/SIMULINK software simulation model (structure and component blocks) has been constructed in order to view and analyze the potential of the PSD (Position Sensitive Detector) array concept technology before it is further expanded or developed. This simulation allows changing most of its parameters, such as the number of elements in the PSD array, the direction of vision, the viewing/scanning angle, the object rotation, translation, sample/scan/simulation time, etc. In addition, results show for the first time the possibility of scanning an object in 3D when using an a-Si:H thin film 128 PSD array sensor and hardware/software system. Moreover, this sensor technology is able to perform these scans and render 3D objects at high speeds and high resolutions when using a sheet-of-light laser within a triangulation platform. As shown by the simulation, a substantial enhancement in 3D object profile image quality and realism can be achieved by increasing the number of elements of the PSD array sensor as well as by achieving an optimal position response from the sensor since clearly the definition of the 3D object profile depends on the correct and accurate position response of each detector as well as on the size of the PSD array. PMID:26633403

  19. Simulated and Real Sheet-of-Light 3D Object Scanning Using a-Si:H Thin Film PSD Arrays.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Javier; Tornero, Josep; Ferreira, Isabel; Martins, Rodrigo; Gomes, Luis; Fortunato, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    A MATLAB/SIMULINK software simulation model (structure and component blocks) has been constructed in order to view and analyze the potential of the PSD (Position Sensitive Detector) array concept technology before it is further expanded or developed. This simulation allows changing most of its parameters, such as the number of elements in the PSD array, the direction of vision, the viewing/scanning angle, the object rotation, translation, sample/scan/simulation time, etc. In addition, results show for the first time the possibility of scanning an object in 3D when using an a-Si:H thin film 128 PSD array sensor and hardware/software system. Moreover, this sensor technology is able to perform these scans and render 3D objects at high speeds and high resolutions when using a sheet-of-light laser within a triangulation platform. As shown by the simulation, a substantial enhancement in 3D object profile image quality and realism can be achieved by increasing the number of elements of the PSD array sensor as well as by achieving an optimal position response from the sensor since clearly the definition of the 3D object profile depends on the correct and accurate position response of each detector as well as on the size of the PSD array. PMID:26633403

  20. Climate Model Dependency and Understanding the Antarctic Ice Sheet during the Warm Late Pliocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, Aisling; de Boer, Bas; Bernales, Jorge; Hunter, Stephen; Haywood, Alan

    2016-04-01

    In the context of future climate change, understanding the nature and behaviour of ice sheets during warm intervals of Earth history is fundamentally important. A warm period in the Late Pliocene (3.264 to 3.025 million years before present) can serve as a potential analogue for projected future climates. Although Pliocene ice locations and extents are still poorly constrained, a significant contribution to sea-level rise should be expected from both the Greenland ice sheet and the West and East Antarctic ice sheets based on palaeo sea-level reconstructions and geological evidence. Following a five year international project PLISMIP (Pliocene Ice Sheet Modeling Intercomparison Project) we present the final set of results which quantify uncertainty in climate model-based predictions of the Antarctic ice sheet. In this study we use an ensemble of climate model forcings within a multi-ice sheet model framework to assess the climate (model) dependency of large scale features of the Antarctic ice sheet. Seven coupled atmosphere-ocean climate models are used to derive surface temperature, precipitation and oceanic forcing that drive three ice sheet models (over the grounded and floating domain). Similar to results presented over Greenland, we show that the reconstruction of the Antarctic ice sheet is sensitive to which climate model is used to provide the forcing field. Key areas of uncertainty include West Antarctica, the large subglacial basins of East Antarctica and the overall thickness of the continental interior of East Antarctica. We relate the results back to geological proxy data, such as those relating to exposure rates which provide information on potential ice sheet thickness. Finally we discuss as to whether the choice of modelling framework (i.e. climate model and ice sheet model used) or the choice of boundary conditions causes the greatest uncertainty in ice sheet reconstructions of the warm Pliocene.

  1. Ice-rafted debris associated with binge/purge oscillations of the Laurentide Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, R. B.; Macayeal, D. R.

    1994-08-01

    The North Atlantic sediment record suggests quasi-periodic (7000- to 12,000-year period) ice-rafted debris (IRD) depositions during at least the last glacial period. The cause of these Heinrich events, as they are commonly known, is not fully understood; however, they may point to surges of the ice stream that drained the Hudson Bay/Hudson Strait region of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. We investigate a simple conceptual model of ice stream instability (the binge/purge model) to suggest ways in which the ice stream could have entrained sufficient debris to account for the estimated mass of IRD associated with a typical Heinrich IRD layer in the North Atlantic (1.0 ± 0.3 × 1015 kg). We find that freezing of debris-laden ice at the bed of the ice stream during the brief (≈ 750 years) surge phase of the ice stream's hypothesized binge/purge cycle can incorporate up to 5.1 × 1015 kg. This amount is sufficient to meet the constraints of the North Atlantic sediment record but by no means verifies the binge/purge model as the cause of Heinrich events.

  2. Refreezing on the Greenland ice sheet: a model comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steger, Christian; Reijmer, Carleen; van den Broeke, Michiel; Ligtenberg, Stefan; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Noël, Brice

    2016-04-01

    Mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is an important contributor to global sea level rise. Besides calving, surface melt is the dominant source of mass loss. However, only part of the surface melt leaves the ice sheet as runoff whereas the other part percolates into the snow cover and refreezes. Due to this process, part of the meltwater is (intermediately) stored. Refreezing thus impacts the surface mass balance of the ice sheet but it also affects the vertical structure of the snow cover due to transport of mass and energy. Due to the sparse availability of in situ data and the demand of future projections, it is inevitable to use numerical models to simulate refreezing and related processes. Currently, the magnitude of refrozen mass is neither well constrained nor well validated. In this study, we model the snow and firn layer, and compare refreezing on the GrIS as modelled with two different numerical models. Both models are forced with meteorological data from the regional climate model RACMO 2 that has been shown to simulate realistic conditions for Greenland. One model is the UU/IMAU firn densification model (FDM) that can be used both in an on- and offline mode with RACMO 2. The other model is SNOWPACK; a model originally designed to simulate seasonal snow cover in alpine conditions. In contrast to FDM, SNOWPACK accounts for snow metamorphism and microstructure and contains a more physically based snow densification scheme. A first comparison of the models indicates that both seem to be able to capture the general spatial and temporal pattern of refreezing. Spatially, refreezing occurs mostly in the ablation zone and decreases in the accumulation zone towards the interior of the ice sheet. Below the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) where refreezing occurs in seasonal snow cover on bare ice, the storage effect is only intermediate. Temporal patterns on a seasonal range indicate two peaks in refreezing; one at the beginning of the melt season where

  3. Expanded Late Wisconsinan ice cap and ice sheet margins in the western Queen Elizabeth Islands, Arctic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, F. Chantel; England, John H.

    2014-05-01

    Recent mapping of surficial geology and geomorphology in the western Canadian High Arctic (Melville and Eglinton islands), together with new radiocarbon dates acquired from ice-contact raised marine sediments, document expanded late Wisconsinan ice limits for the northwest Laurentide Ice Sheet and the western Innuitian Ice Sheet. An extension of the northwestern margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet onto Eglinton Island is proposed based on evidence from till containing erratics derived from the Canadian Shield and a pattern of meltwater channels indicating ice retreat offshore into M'Clure Strait. Expansion of the western Melville Island Ice Cap (part of the western, lowland sector of the Innuitian Ice Sheet) to its offshore late Wisconsinan limit was facilitated by coalescence with the Laurentide Ice Sheet, whose buttressing allowed thickening to occur. Estimates of ice extent and thickness (>500 m) of the western Melville Island Ice Cap are in agreement with high marine limits (≤70 m asl). Lateral and proglacial meltwater channels, moraines and glaciomarine, glaciolacustrine and glaciofluvial deposits indicate radial retreat of the western Melville Island Ice Cap onto central highlands after ˜13.0 cal ka BP. Older marine limit shorelines on southern Eglinton Island (˜13.6 cal ka BP) are broadly synchronous with the early and rapid deglaciation of other areas formerly glaciated by the northwestern Laurentide Ice Sheet to the southeast and southwest (˜14.2-13.6 cal ka BP). The collapse of the northwest Laurentide Ice Sheet in M'Clure Strait beginning at ˜14.2 cal ka BP, in addition to prior inferred thinning, opens the possibility that it made a significant contribution to meltwater pulse 1A.

  4. Decadal slowdown of a land-terminating sector of the Greenland Ice Sheet during sustained climate warming - implications for wider ice sheet hydrology-dynamics coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nienow, P. W.; Tedstone, A. J.; Gourmelen, N.; Dehecq, A.; Goldberg, D. N.; Hanna, E.

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between surface melting and ice motion will affect how the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) responds to climate and the structure of the subglacial drainage system may be crucial in controlling how changing melt-rates impact ice motion. Ice sheet motion varies over seasonal time-scales in response to varying surface meltwater inputs to the ice-sheet bed which lubricate the ice-bed interface, resulting in periods of faster ice motion. However, the impact of hydro-dynamic coupling on ice motion over decadal timescales remains poorly constrained. Here we utilise remotely-sensed optical Landsat imagery to generate a record of annual motion spanning three decades extending back to 1985. Our observations cover an ˜8000 km2 area along ˜170 km of predominantly land-terminating margin of the west GrIS, and extend ˜50 km inland to 1100 m asl. We find that that annual ice motion was 12% slower in 2007-2014 compared to 1985-1994, despite a corresponding 50% increase in surface meltwater production. Less than 1/3 of the observed slowdown can be explained by a reduction in internal deformation caused by marginal ice sheet thinning, and we therefore hypothesise that increases in subglacial drainage efficiency, associated with sustained larger melt volumes, have reduced basal lubrication resulting in slower ice flow. Our findings suggest that hydro-dynamic coupling in this section of the ablation zone resulted in net ice motion slowdown over decadal timescales — not speedup as previously postulated. Increases in meltwater production from projected climate warming may therefore further reduce the motion of land-terminating margins of the ice-sheet indicating such margins are more resilient to the dynamic impacts of enhanced meltwater production than previously thought. The implications of these observations for wider ice sheet hydrology-dynamics coupling are considered.

  5. Documenting Melting Features of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedesco, M.

    2011-12-01

    There is an increasing interest in studying the Greenland Ice Sheet, its hydrology and dynamics over the short term and longer term because of the potential impact of a warming Arctic. Major studies concern about whether increased surface melting will lead to changes in production of supraglacial lakes and subglacial water pressures and hence , potentially, rates of ice movement. In this talk I will show movies recorded over the past three years form fieldwork activities carried out over the West Greenland ice sheet. In particular, I will project and comment movies concerning surface streams and supraglacial lakes, as the one at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QbuFphwJn4c. I will discuss the importance of observing such phenomena and how the recorded videos can be used to summarize scientific studies and communicate the relevance of scientific findings. I will also show, for the first time, the video of the drainage of a supraglacial lake, an event during which a lake ~ 6 m deep and ~ 1 km drained in ~ 1.5 hours. This section of the movie is under development as video material was collected during our latest expedition in June 2011.

  6. How does ice sheet loading affect ocean flow around Antarctica?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, H. A.; Rugenstein, M. A.; Stocchi, P.; von der Heydt, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    Interactions and dynamical feedbacks between ocean circulation, heat and atmospheric moisture transport, ice sheet evolution, and Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) are overlooked issues in paleoclimatology. Here we will present first results on how ocean flows were possibly affected by the glaciation of Antarctica across the Eocene-Oligocene Transition (~ 34 Ma) through GIA and bathymetry variations. GIA-induced gravitationally self-consistent bathymetry variations are determined by solving the Sea Level Equation (SLE), which describes the time dependent shape of (i) the solid Earth and (ii) the equipotential surface of gravity. Since the ocean circulation equations are defined relative to the equipotential surface of gravity, only bathymetry variations can influence ocean flows, although the sea surface slope will also change through time due to gravitational attraction. We use the Hallberg Isopycnal Model under late Eocene conditions to calculate equilibrium ocean flows in a domain in which the bathymetry evolves under ice loading according to the SLE. The bathymetric effects of the glaciation of Antarctica lead to substantial spatial changes in ocean flows, and close to the coast, the flow even reverses direction. Volume transports through the Drake Passage and Tasman Seaway adjust to the new bathymetry. The results indicate that GIA-induced ocean flow variations alone may have had an impact on sedimentation and erosion patterns, the repositioning of fronts, ocean heat transport and grounding line and ice sheet stability.

  7. Surface elevation contours of Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. J.; Bindschadler, R. A.; Brenner, A. C.; Martin, T. V.; Thomas, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary results from Seasat radar altimetry over Antarctica north of 72 deg S and Greenland south of 72 deg N are presented. Surface elevations of the ice sheets, obtained from computer retracking of the radar altimeter waveforms, are contoured at 50-m intervals for Greenland and at 100-m intervals for Antarctica. Elevation differences at orbital crossover points are analyzed to obtain a precision of 1.9 m; this figure is partly determined by radial errors of approximately 1.0 m in orbital determination and partly by noise due to ice surface irregularities. Adjustment of the radial components of the orbits to minimize the differences in elevations at crossovers over a small, relatively flat region reduces the rms difference to 0.25 m, which is indicative of the optimum precision obtainable over the ice sheets. However, the precision degrades as the slope of the surface or amplitude of the undulations increases, yielding an overall precision of + or - 1.6 m.

  8. Reconstructing the last Irish Ice Sheet 1: changing flow geometries and ice flow dynamics deciphered from the glacial landform record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, Sarah L.; Clark, Chris D.

    2009-12-01

    The glacial geomorphological record provides an effective means to reconstruct former ice sheets at ice sheet scale. In this paper we document our approach and methods for synthesising and interpreting a glacial landform record for its palaeo-ice flow information, applied to landforms of Ireland. New, countrywide glacial geomorphological maps of Ireland comprising >39,000 glacial landforms are interpreted for the spatial, glaciodynamic and relative chronological information they reveal. Seventy one 'flowsets' comprising glacial lineations, and 19 ribbed moraine flowsets are identified based on the spatial properties of these landforms, yielding information on palaeo-ice flow geometry. Flowset cross-cutting is prevalent and reveals a highly complex flow geometry; major ice divide migrations are interpreted with commensurate changes in the flow configuration of the ice sheet. Landform superimposition is the key to deciphering the chronology of such changes, and documenting superimposition relationships yields a relative 'age-stack' of all Irish flowsets. We use and develop existing templates for interpreting the glaciodynamic context of each flowset - its palaeo-glaciology. Landform patterns consistent with interior ice sheet flow, ice stream flow, and with time-transgressive bedform generation behind a retreating margin, under a thinning ice sheet, and under migrating palaeo-flowlines are each identified. Fast ice flow is found to have evacuated ice from central and northern Ireland into Donegal Bay, and across County Clare towards the south-west. Ice-marginal landform assemblages form a coherent system across southern Ireland marking stages of ice sheet retreat. Time-transgressive, 'smudged' landform imprints are particularly abundant; in several ice sheet sectors ice flow geometry was rapidly varying at timescales close to the timescale of bedform generation. The methods and approach we document herein could be useful for interpreting other ice sheet histories

  9. Ice-templated Self-assembly of VOPO4–Graphene Nanocomposites for Vertically Porous 3D Supercapacitor Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwang Hoon; Lee, Young-Woo; Lee, Seung Woo; Ha, Jeong Sook; Lee, Sang-Soo; Son, Jeong Gon

    2015-01-01

    A simple ice-templated self-assembly process is used to prepare a three-dimensional (3D) and vertically porous nanocomposite of layered vanadium phosphates (VOPO4) and graphene nanosheets with high surface area and high electrical conductivity. The resulting 3D VOPO4–graphene nanocomposite has a much higher capacitance of 527.9 F g−1 at a current density of 0.5 A g−1, compared with ~247 F g−1 of simple 3D VOPO4, with solid cycling stability. The enhanced pseudocapacitive behavior mainly originates from vertically porous structures from directionally grown ice crystals and simultaneously inducing radial segregation and forming inter-stacked structures of VOPO4–graphene nanosheets. This VOPO4–graphene nanocomposite electrode exhibits high surface area, vertically porous structure to the separator, structural stability from interstacked structure and high electrical conductivity, which would provide the short diffusion paths of electrolyte ions and fast transportation of charges within the conductive frameworks. In addition, an asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) is fabricated by using vertically porous VOPO4–graphene as the positive electrode and vertically porous 3D graphene as the negative electrode; it exhibits a wide cell voltage of 1.6 V and a largely enhanced energy density of 108 Wh kg−1. PMID:26333591

  10. Simulations of Antarctic ice shelves and the Southern Ocean in the POP2x ocean model coupled with the BISICLES ice-sheet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asay-Davis, Xylar; Martin, Daniel; Price, Stephen; Maltrud, Mathew

    2014-05-01

    We present initial results from Antarctic, ice-ocean coupled simulations using large-scale ocean circulation and ice-sheet evolution models. This presentation focuses on the ocean model, POP2x, which is a modified version of POP, a fully eddying, global-scale ocean model (Smith and Gent, 2002). POP2x allows for circulation beneath ice shelf cavities using the method of partial top cells (Losch, 2008). Boundary layer physics, which control fresh water and salt exchange at the ice-ocean interface, are implemented following Holland and Jenkins (1999), Jenkins (2001), and Jenkins et al. (2010). Standalone POP2x output compares well with standard ice-ocean test cases (e.g., ISOMIP; Losch, 2008) and other continental-scale simulations and melt-rate observations (Kimura et al., 2013; Rignot et al., 2013) and with results from other idealized ice-ocean coupling test cases (e.g., Goldberg et al., 2012). A companion presentation, 'Fully resolved whole-continent Antarctica simulations using the BISICLES AMR ice sheet model coupled with the POP2x Ocean Model', concentrates more on the ice-sheet model, BISICLES (Cornford et al., 2012), which includes a 1st-order accurate momentum balance (L1L2) and uses block structured, adaptive-mesh refinement to more accurately model regions of dynamic complexity, such as ice streams, outlet glaciers, and grounding lines. For idealized test cases focused on marine-ice sheet dynamics, BISICLES output compares very favorably relative to simulations based on the full, nonlinear Stokes momentum balance (MISMIP-3d; Pattyn et al., 2013). Here, we present large-scale (Southern Ocean) simulations using POP2x at 0.1 degree resolution with fixed ice shelf geometries, which are used to obtain and validate modeled submarine melt rates against observations. These melt rates are, in turn, used to force evolution of the BISICLES model. An offline-coupling scheme, which we compare with the ice-ocean coupling work of Goldberg et al. (2012), is then used to

  11. Combustion of available fossil fuel resources sufficient to eliminate the Antarctic Ice Sheet.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, Ricarda; Levermann, Anders; Ridgwell, Andy; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-09-01

    The Antarctic Ice Sheet stores water equivalent to 58 m in global sea-level rise. We show in simulations using the Parallel Ice Sheet Model that burning the currently attainable fossil fuel resources is sufficient to eliminate the ice sheet. With cumulative fossil fuel emissions of 10,000 gigatonnes of carbon (GtC), Antarctica is projected to become almost ice-free with an average contribution to sea-level rise exceeding 3 m per century during the first millennium. Consistent with recent observations and simulations, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet becomes unstable with 600 to 800 GtC of additional carbon emissions. Beyond this additional carbon release, the destabilization of ice basins in both West and East Antarctica results in a threshold increase in global sea level. Unabated carbon emissions thus threaten the Antarctic Ice Sheet in its entirety with associated sea-level rise that far exceeds that of all other possible sources. PMID:26601273

  12. Combustion of available fossil-fuel resources sufficient to eliminate the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, R.; Levermann, A.; Ridgwell, A.; Caldeira, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Antarctic Ice Sheet stores water equivalent to 58 meters in global sea-level rise. Here we show in simulations with the Parallel Ice Sheet Model that burning the currently attainable fossil-fuel resources is sufficient to eliminate the ice sheet. With cumulative fossil-fuel emissions of 10 000 GtC, Antarctica is projected to become almost ice-free with an average contribution to sea-level rise exceeding 3 meters per century during the first millennium. Consistent with recent observations and simulations, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet becomes unstable with 600 to 800 GtC of additional carbon emissions. Beyond this additional carbon release, the destabilization of ice basins in both West- and East Antarctica results in a threshold-increase in global sea level. Unabated carbon emissions thus threaten the Antarctic Ice Sheet in its entirety with associated sea-level rise that far exceeds that of all other possible sources.

  13. Combustion of available fossil fuel resources sufficient to eliminate the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    PubMed Central

    Winkelmann, Ricarda; Levermann, Anders; Ridgwell, Andy; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-01-01

    The Antarctic Ice Sheet stores water equivalent to 58 m in global sea-level rise. We show in simulations using the Parallel Ice Sheet Model that burning the currently attainable fossil fuel resources is sufficient to eliminate the ice sheet. With cumulative fossil fuel emissions of 10,000 gigatonnes of carbon (GtC), Antarctica is projected to become almost ice-free with an average contribution to sea-level rise exceeding 3 m per century during the first millennium. Consistent with recent observations and simulations, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet becomes unstable with 600 to 800 GtC of additional carbon emissions. Beyond this additional carbon release, the destabilization of ice basins in both West and East Antarctica results in a threshold increase in global sea level. Unabated carbon emissions thus threaten the Antarctic Ice Sheet in its entirety with associated sea-level rise that far exceeds that of all other possible sources. PMID:26601273

  14. Rapid Ice-Sheet Changes and Mechanical Coupling to Solid-Earth/Sea-Level and Space Geodetic Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, S.; Ivins, E. R.; Larour, E. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Perturbations in gravitational and rotational potentials caused by climate driven mass redistribution on the earth's surface, such as ice sheet melting and terrestrial water storage, affect the spatiotemporal variability in global and regional sea level. Here we present a numerically accurate, computationally efficient, high-resolution model for sea level. Unlike contemporary models that are based on spherical-harmonic formulation, the model can operate efficiently in a flexible embedded finite-element mesh system, thus capturing the physics operating at km-scale yet capable of simulating geophysical quantities that are inherently of global scale with minimal computational cost. One obvious application is to compute evolution of sea level fingerprints and associated geodetic and astronomical observables (e.g., geoid height, gravity anomaly, solid-earth deformation, polar motion, and geocentric motion) as a companion to a numerical 3-D thermo-mechanical ice sheet simulation, thus capturing global signatures of climate driven mass redistribution. We evaluate some important time-varying signatures of GRACE inferred ice sheet mass balance and continental hydrological budget; for example, we identify dominant sources of ongoing sea-level change at the selected tide gauge stations, and explain the relative contribution of different sources to the observed polar drift. We also report our progress on ice-sheet/solid-earth/sea-level model coupling efforts toward realistic simulation of Pine Island Glacier over the past several hundred years.

  15. Rate-limiting processes during rapid deglaciation of marine ice sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, D. G.

    2009-04-01

    The debate concerning the stability of marine ice sheets has continued for many years. Recent contributions have advanced the debate substantially, and shown that under specific conditions, marine ice sheet margins could be unstable. This insight has reinforced widely held concerns that marine ice-sheet collapse could substantially add to sea-level rise in coming centuries. However, determination of the stability-condition of marine ice sheet margins is only one step towards evaluating the risk inherent in such ice sheets. This risk crucially depends on the rate at which collapse could occur. For example; if collapse occurred over several millennia then the additional rate of sea-level rise would be comparable to that arising from other sources, and would probably be considered manageable by many coastal defence planners; conversely, collapse of a major marine ice sheet in less than one millennia, would have profound and costly implications. In this paper, I will consider the most rapidly changing, and probably the most vulnerable marine ice sheet remaining on the planet; the Amundsen Sea Embayment of West Antarctica. And in particular, ask what would be required to deglaciate this ice sheet within a period of around 500 years. This rate of collapse implies a loss of ice from the ice sheet, at roughly 10-times the current balance flux. To maintain such a retreat, would require that the extra ice-loss would either have to be melted in situ, or exported from the continental shelf as icebergs. I will argue that it is highly unlikely that ice-loss at this rate could be achieved while maintaining an ice-sheet configuration comparable to what we see today, and in particular, that the maintenance of ice shelves is unlikely. With this constraint in mind, I discuss two possible configurations that could maintain ice-loss at this rate, and discuss the rate-limiting processes that might govern the retreat rates that could be achieved. I conclude that the critical processes

  16. An investigation of the astronomical theory of the ice ages using a simple climate-ice sheet model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollard, D.

    1978-01-01

    The astronomical theory of the Quaternary ice ages is incorporated into a simple climate model for global weather; important features of the model include the albedo feedback, topography and dynamics of the ice sheets. For various parameterizations of the orbital elements, the model yields realistic assessments of the northern ice sheet. Lack of a land-sea heat capacity contrast represents one of the chief difficulties of the model.

  17. How do icebergs affect the Greenland ice sheet under pre-industrial conditions? - a model study with a fully coupled ice-sheet-climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bügelmayer, M.; Roche, D. M.; Renssen, H.

    2015-05-01

    Icebergs have a potential impact on climate since they release freshwater over a widespread area and cool the ocean due to the take-up of latent heat. Yet, so far, icebergs have never been modelled using an ice-sheet model coupled to a global climate model. Thus, in climate models their impact on climate has been restricted to the ocean. In this study, we investigate the effect of icebergs on the climate of the mid- to high latitudes and the Greenland ice sheet itself within a fully coupled ice-sheet (GRenoble model for Ice Shelves and Land Ice, or GRISLI)-earth-system (iLOVECLIM) model set-up under pre-industrial climate conditions. This set-up enables us to dynamically compute the calving sites as well as the ice discharge and to close the water cycle between the climate and the cryosphere model components. Further, we analyse the different impact of moving icebergs compared to releasing the ice discharge at the calving sites directly. We performed a suite of sensitivity experiments to investigate the individual role of the different factors that influence the impact of the ice release on the ocean: release of ice discharge as icebergs versus as freshwater fluxes, and freshening and latent heat effects. We find that icebergs enhance the sea-ice thickness around Greenland, thereby cooling the atmosphere and increasing the Greenland ice sheet's height. Melting the ice discharge directly at the calving sites, thereby cooling and freshening the ocean locally, results in a similar ice-sheet configuration and climate as the simulation where icebergs are explicitly modelled. Yet, the simulation where the ice discharge is released into the ocean at the calving sites while taking up the latent heat homogeneously underestimates the cooling effect close to the ice-sheet margin and overestimates it further away, thereby causing a reduced ice-sheet thickness in southern Greenland. We conclude that in our fully coupled atmosphere-ocean-cryosphere model set-up the spatial

  18. Dynamic Inland Propagation of Thinning Due to Ice Loss at the Margins of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Wei Li; Li, Jun J.; Zwally, H. Jay

    2012-01-01

    Mass-balance analysis of the Greenland ice sheet based on surface elevation changes observed by the European Remote-sensing Satellite (ERS) (1992-2002) and Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) (2003-07) indicates that the strongly increased mass loss at lower elevations (<2000 m) of the ice sheet, as observed during 2003-07, appears to induce interior ice thinning at higher elevations. In this paper, we perform a perturbation experiment with a three-dimensional anisotropic ice-flow model (AIF model) to investigate this upstream propagation. Observed thinning rates in the regions below 2000m elevation are used as perturbation inputs. The model runs with perturbation for 10 years show that the extensive mass loss at the ice-sheet margins does in fact cause interior thinning on short timescales (i.e. decadal). The modeled pattern of thinning over the ice sheet agrees with the observations, which implies that the strong mass loss since the early 2000s at low elevations has had a dynamic impact on the entire ice sheet. The modeling results also suggest that even if the large mass loss at the margins stopped, the interior ice sheet would continue thinning for 300 years and would take thousands of years for full dynamic recovery.

  19. A surface mass balance model for the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougamont, Marion; Bamber, Jonathan L.; Greuell, Wouter

    2005-12-01

    A surface mass balance model aimed at being coupled to a Global Circulation Model (GCM) for future climate prediction is described and tested for the Greenland Ice Sheet. The model builds on previous modeling designed to be forced by automatic weather station data, and includes surface energy balance as well as processes occurring near the surface such as water percolation and refreezing. Surface albedo is calculated with a new scheme that differentiates the timescale for aging of wet and dry snow and incorporates the effect of a thin layer of water and/or fresh snow at the surface. The model was driven with automatic weather station data from two sites located in the ablation zone in the Kangerlussuaq area (West Greenland), and calculated reasonable annual mass balance values (within 10% in seven out of eight cases) for four individual and consecutive years (1998-2001), using both measured and calculated albedo. This implies that the albedo parameterization is adequate and climate feedbacks affecting the mass balance are well captured. The model was then applied to a distributed 20-km-resolution grid covering the whole ice sheet, and forced with 10 years of the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) reanalysis (ERA-40) data. With the aim of coupling the model to a GCM, this study focuses on the ability to model the interannual variability in mass balance rather than to assess the present state of balance of the ice sheet. Modeled spatial and temporal wet zone extent compares well with information derived from passive microwave satellite data.

  20. Controls on Greenland Ice Sheet Runoff from a Land Terminating Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennermalm, A. K.; Smith, L. C.; Chu, V. W.; Forster, R. R.; Hagedorn, B.; Box, J. E.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    Modeling studies show that ice sheet mass loss in the form of meltwater runoff constitutes a large fraction of the total mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet. However, the controls on Greenland ice sheet runoff to the ocean are not well understood in part because few direct observations of ice sheet meteorological conditions and meltwater runoff in rivers draining the ice sheet are available to constrain model development. Here, analysis and modeling using such observational data were carried out. West-central Greenland's ice sheet margin near Kangerlussuaq was monitored between 2008 - 2010, yielding data from two automatic weather stations on the ice sheet, and three pro-glacial riverine discharge stations. These data were used to construct regression models to separate influences from fast flowing supra glacial meltwater runoff, and delayed runoff from meltwater releases from en- and pro-glacial storages. These models show that supra glacial runoff explains the majority of meltwater runoff, with en- and pro-glacial storages also significant and less predictable. Finally, a simple extrapolation model confirms that most meltwater runoff originates from the ice sheet margin, with only a small amount released from the ice sheet interior.

  1. Fractals in fluctuations of Antarctic ice sheet surface elevation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotlyakov, V. M.; Vasiliev, L. N.; Kachalin, A. B.; Moskalevsky, M. Yu.; Tyuflin, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    Progress in reconstructing the mechanism of the influence of drifting snow on changes in the ice surface elevation, when it moves with velocity of 2-5 m/year, was achieved owing to space-based laser altimetry and the discovery of fractal patterns of the elevation fluctuations. They consist in the growth of variance of elevation changes by an increased lag. The variance grows in the power law dependence in the scaling range of 70 km. The wavelet analysis revealed a wide spectrum of spatial frequencies and demonstrated that they occur in the range of 1.4-22.5 km-1. The discovered properties of changes in the surface elevation subordinate to the Gaussian distribution with zero mean indicate dynamic equilibrium of the present-day Antarctic ice sheet.

  2. Ice tectonics during the rapid tapping of a supraglacial lake on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, S. H.; Hubbard, A. L.; Dow, C. F.; Jones, G. A.; Fitzpatrick, A.; Gusmeroli, A.; Kulessa, B.; Lindback, K.; Pettersson, R.; Box, J. E.

    2012-09-01

    The hydraulic fracture of ice during the rapid tapping of supraglacial lakes is proposed as one mechanism to establish efficient surface-to-bed hydraulic pathways through kilometre-thick ice. This study presents detailed records of lake discharge, ice motion, and passive seismicity capturing the behaviour and processes preceding, during and following the rapid (~2 h) tapping of a large (~4 km2) supraglacial lake through 1.1 km of the western margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Peak discharge (3300 m3s-1) was coincident with maximal rates of horizontal displacement and vertical uplift, indicating that surface water accessed the ice-bed interface causing widespread hydraulic separation and enhanced basal motion. The differential motion of four GPS located around the lake, record the opening and closure of fractures suggesting that on short time-scales the brittle fracture of ice dominates ice flow. We hypothesise that during lake tapping, drainage occurred through a ~3 km long longitudinal fracture with a mean width of ~0.4 m. The perennial location of the supraglacial lake and the observed pattern of fracturing and surface uplift evince control by the local subglacial topography and the gradient of hydraulic potential. Our observations support the assertion that water-filled crevasses can propagate without longitudinal extension. The tapping of the lake coincided with the rapid drainage of a cluster of supraglacial lakes located within the same elevation band coincident with a notable and isolated peak in the catchment-wide, proglacial Watson River hydrograph.

  3. The Impact of Geothermal Heat on the Scandinavian Ice Sheet's LGM Extent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szuman, Izabela; Ewertowski, Marek W.; Kalita, Jakub Z.

    2016-04-01

    The last Scandinavian ice sheet attained its most southern extent over Poland and Germany, protruding c. 200 km south of the main ice sheet mass. There are number of factors that may control ice sheet dynamics and extent. One of the less recognised is geothermal heat, which is heat that is supplied to the base of the ice sheet. A heat at the ice/bed interface plays a crucial role in controlling ice sheet stability, as well as impacting basal temperatures, melting, and ice flow velocities. However, the influence of geothermal heat is still virtually neglected in reconstructions and modelling of paleo-ice sheets behaviour. Only in a few papers is geothermal heat recalled though often in the context of past climatic conditions. Thus, the major question is if and how spatial differences in geothermal heat had influenced paleo-ice sheet dynamics and in consequence their extent. Here, we assumed that the configuration of the ice sheet along its southern margin was moderately to strongly correlated with geothermal heat for Poland and non or negatively correlated for Germany.

  4. Rapid thinning of parts of the southern greenland ice sheet

    PubMed

    Krabill; Frederick; Manizade; Martin; Sonntag; Swift; Thomas; Wright; Yungel

    1999-03-01

    Aircraft laser-altimeter surveys over southern Greenland in 1993 and 1998 show three areas of thickening by more than 10 centimeters per year in the southern part of the region and large areas of thinning, particularly in the east. Above 2000 meters elevation the ice sheet is in balance but thinning predominates at lower elevations, with rates exceeding 1 meter per year on east coast outlet glaciers. These high thinning rates occur at different latitudes and at elevations up to 1500 meters, which suggests that they are caused by increased rates of creep thinning rather than by excessive melting. Taken as a whole, the surveyed region is in negative balance. PMID:10066172

  5. A numerically optimized, computationally efficient method to couple Full-Stokes and simpler models of ice sheet flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seroussi, H. L.; Rignot, E. J.; Morlighem, M.; Larour, E. Y.; Ben Dhia, H.; Aubry, D.

    2010-12-01

    The recent development of new higher-order, higher-resolution ice sheet models has shown that sophisticated models, such as Full-Stokes, were essential in some parts of the ice sheets, including the grounding line region. These areas are crucial for ice flow projections and can only be rigorously simulated using full 3d models. Higher-order models are well-suited to ice stream dynamics, whereas the shallow-shelf approximation is sufficient for modeling ice shelf flow. Higher-order and full-Stokes model are computationally intensive and prohibitive for large-scale modeling. There is therefore a strong need to combine such different models in order to balance computational cost and physical accuracy for the whole ice sheet. Here we present a new methodology adapted from the Arlequin framework to couple finite element shelfy-stream, higher-order and Full-Stokes models. We achieve this by strongly coupling the different approximations within the same large scale simulation. This technique is applied to the Greenland ice sheet, and compared with single-model approaches. Our new method preserves the conditioning number of the stiffness matrix, and ensures seamless stress regimes across model transition zones, hence improving numerical accuracy compared to existing techniques that use penalties or kinematical constrains. Furthermore, it optimizes the number of degrees of freedom leading to reduced computational cost. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Modeling, Analysis and Prediction (MAP) Program.

  6. Dynamic cycles, ice streams and their impact on the extent, chronology and deglaciation of the British-Irish ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Alun; Bradwell, Tom; Golledge, Nicholas; Hall, Adrian; Patton, Henry; Sugden, David; Cooper, Rhys; Stoker, Martyn

    2009-04-01

    We present results from a suite of forward transient numerical modelling experiments of the British and Irish Ice Sheet (BIIS), consisting of Scottish, Welsh and Irish accumulation centres, spanning the last Glacial period from 38 to 10 ka BP. The 3D thermomechanical model employed uses higher-order physics to solve longitudinal (membrane) stresses and to reproduce grounding-line dynamics. Surface mass balance is derived using a distributed degree-day calculation based on a reference climatology from mean (1961-1990) precipitation and temperature patterns. The model is perturbed from this reference state by a scaled NGRIP oxygen isotope curve and the SPECMAP sea-level reconstruction. Isostatic response to ice loading is computed using an elastic lithosphere/relaxed asthenosphere scheme. A suite of 350 simulations were designed to explore the parameter space of model uncertainties and sensitivities, to yield a subset of experiments that showed close correspondence to offshore and onshore ice-directional indicators, broad BIIS chronology, and the relative sea-level record. Three of these simulations are described in further detail and indicate that the separate ice centres of the modelled BIIS complex are dynamically interdependent during the build up to maximum conditions, but remain largely independent throughout much of the simulation. The modelled BIIS is extremely dynamic, drained mainly by a number of transient but recurrent ice streams which dynamically switch and fluctuate in extent and intensity on a centennial time-scale. A series of binge/purge, advance/retreat, cycles are identified which correspond to alternating periods of relatively cold-based ice, (associated with a high aspect ratio and net growth), and wet-based ice with a lower aspect ratio, characterised by streaming. The timing and dynamics of these events are determined through a combination of basal thermomechanical switching spatially propagated and amplified through longitudinal coupling, but

  7. Modelling heterogeneous meltwater percolation on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligtenberg, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has experienced an increase of surface meltwater production over the last decades, with the latest record set in the summer of 2012. For current and future ice sheet mass balance assessments, it is important to quantify what part of this meltwater reaches the ocean and contributes to sea level change. Meltwater produced at the surface has several options: it can infiltrate the local firn pack, where it is either stored temporarily or refrozen, or it can run off along the surface or via en-glacial drainage systems. In this study, we focus on the first; more specifically, in which manner meltwater percolates the firn column. Over the past years, GrIS research has shown that meltwater does not infiltrate the firn pack homogeneously (i.e. matrix flow), but that inhomogeneities in horizontal firn layers causes preferential flow paths for meltwater (i.e. piping). Although this process has been observed and studied on a few isolated sites, it has never been examined on the entire GrIS. To do so, we use the firn model IMAU-FDM with new parameterizations for preferential flow, impermeable ice lenses and sub-surface runoff. At the surface, IMAU-FDM is forced with realistic climate data from the regional climate model RACMO2.3. The model results are evaluated with temperatures and density measurements from firn cores across the GrIS. By allowing for heterogeneous meltwater percolation, the model is able to store heat and mass much deeper in the firn column. This is, however, in part counteracted by the inclusion of impermeability of ice lenses, which causes part of the meltwater to run off horizontally.

  8. Observations from the Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, S. B.; Ahlstrom, A. P.; Andersen, M. L.; Box, J. E.; Citterio, M.; Colgan, W. T.; Fausto, R. S.; van As, D.; Forsberg, R.; Skourup, H.; Sandberg Sørensen, L.; Kristensen, S. S.; Dall, J.; Kusk, A.; Petersen, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet (PROMICE) is as an on-going effort initiated in 2007 to monitor changes in the mass budget of the Greenland Ice Sheet. The aim of the programme is to quantify the mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet and track changes in the extent of the glaciers, ice caps and ice sheet margin. Specifically, PROMICE aims to estimate the mass loss derived from three fundamentally different sources: Surface melt water runoff from the ice sheet margin Iceberg production Mass loss of individual glaciers and ice caps surrounding the ice sheet The first is observed by a network of automatic weather stations (AWS) on the ice sheet margin measuring ice ablation as well as meteorological parameters. The second is determined by establishing a so-called 'flux gate' along the entire ice sheet margin and keeping track of the ice passing through this gate. The flux gate is obtained from airborne surveys of ice sheet surface elevation and thickness. The volume of the ice passing through the gate is derived from maps of the surface velocity of the ice sheet, produced from satellite radar. The third is investigated through regular mapping of area and elevation of the approximately 20.000 individual glaciers and ice caps in Greenland. Mapping is carried out using recent satellite imagery as well as aerial ortho-photos. Within PROMICE data sets from these activities are collected. They include observations from the network of currently about 20 AWS on the margin of the Greenland ice sheet. Airborne surveys, yielding surface elevation and ice depth along the entire margin of the Greenland ice sheet carried out in 2007 and 2011. A map of all Greenland ice masses, based on the highest detail aero-photogrammetric maps produced from mid-80's aerial photographs. Real-time data from the PROMICE AWS network is shown at the web site www.promice.org and the data is freely available for download. Data from the airborne surveys and mapping activities are

  9. Disulfide-Based Diblock Copolymer Worm Gels: A Wholly-Synthetic Thermoreversible 3D Matrix for Sheet-Based Cultures.

    PubMed

    Simon, Karen A; Warren, Nicholas J; Mosadegh, Bobak; Mohammady, Marym R; Whitesides, George M; Armes, Steven P

    2015-12-14

    It is well-known that 3D in vitro cell cultures provide a much better model than 2D cell cultures for understanding the in vivo microenvironment of cells. However, significant technical challenges in handling and analyzing 3D cell cultures remain, which currently limits their widespread application. Herein, we demonstrate the application of wholly synthetic thermoresponsive block copolymer worms in sheet-based 3D cell culture. These worms form a soft, free-standing gel reversibly at 20-37 °C, which can be rapidly converted into a free-flowing dispersion of spheres on cooling to 5 °C. Functionalization of the worms with disulfide groups was found to be essential for ensuring sufficient mechanical stability of these hydrogels to enable long-term cell culture. These disulfide groups are conveniently introduced via statistical copolymerization of a disulfide-based dimethacrylate under conditions that favor intramolecular cyclization and subsequent thiol/disulfide exchange leads to the formation of reversible covalent bonds between adjacent worms within the gel. This new approach enables cells to be embedded within micrometer-thick slabs of gel with good viability, permits cell culture for at least 12 days, and facilitates recovery of viable cells from the gel simply by incubating the culture in buffer at 4 °C (thus, avoiding the enzymatic degradation required for cell harvesting when using commercial protein-based gels, such as Matrigel). PMID:26509930

  10. Synergistic Behavior of Tubes, Junctions, and Sheets Imparts Mechano-Mutable Functionality in 3D Porous Boron Nitride Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) and 2D hexagonal BN (h-BN) are attractive for demonstrating fundamental physics and promising applications in nano-/microscale devices. However, there is a high anisotropy associated with these BN allotropes as their excellent properties are either along the tube axis or in-plane directions, posing an obstacle in their widespread use in technological and industrial applications. Herein, we report a series of 3D BN prototypes, namely, pillared boron nitride (PBN), by fusing single-wall BNNT and monolayer h-BN aimed at filling this gap. We use density functional theory and molecular dynamics simulations to probe the diverse mechano-mutable properties of PBN prototypes. Our results demonstrate that the synergistic effect of the tubes, junctions, and sheets imparts cooperative deformation mechanisms, which overcome the intrinsic limitations of the PBN constituents and provide a number of superior characteristics including 3D balance of strength and toughness, emergence of negative Poisson’s ratio, and elimination of strain softening along the armchair orientation. These features, combined with the ultrahigh surface area and lightweight structure, render PBN as a 3D multifunctional template for applications in graphene-based nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, gas storage, and functional composites with fascinating in-plane and out-of-plane tailorable properties. PMID:25289114

  11. Ice sheet runoff and Dansgaard-Oeschger Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, Ian; Wolff, Eric; Fowler, Andrew; Clark, Chris; Evatt, Geoff; Johnson, Helen; Munday, David; Rickaby, Ros; Stokes, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Many northern hemisphere climate records, particularly those from around the North Atlantic, show a series of rapid climate changes that recurred on centennial to millennial timescales throughout most of the last glacial period. These Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) sequences are observed most prominently in Greenland ice cores, although they have a global signature, including an out of phase Antarctic signal. They consist of warming jumps of order 10°C, occurring in typically 40 years, followed generally by a slow cooling (Greenland Interstadial, GI) lasting between a few centuries and a few millennia, and then a final rapid temperature drop into a cold Greenland Stadial (GS) that lasts for a similar period. Most explanations for D-O events call on changes in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation strength, and the majority of such explanations use changes in freshwater delivery from ice sheets as a trigger. Many have relied on large inputs of freshwater from singular events (such as lake outbursts or iceberg armadas) to push the AMOC into its cold state. However the evidence for such events at the right time in each cycle is sparse. Here we investigate mechanisms that would arise from a change in the rate of ice sheet runoff, which would be a natural feedback from each rapid warming or cooling event. Recent work has suggested that AMOC is most easily disrupted by freshwater delivered through the Arctic. We investigate whether the proposed AMOC changes could have occurred as part of a natural oscillation, in which runoff from the Laurentide ice sheet into the Arctic is controlled by temperature around the North Atlantic. The Arctic buffers the salinity changes, but under warm conditions, high runoff eventually leads to water entering the North Atlantic with low enough salinity to switch AMOC into its weaker state. Under the colder conditions now prevailing, the Arctic is starved of runoff, and the salinity rises until a further switch occurs. Contrary to many

  12. Large-Ensemble modeling of past and future variations of the Antarctic Ice Sheet with a coupled ice-Earth-sea level model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, David; DeConto, Robert; Gomez, Natalya

    2016-04-01

    To date, most modeling of the Antarctic Ice Sheet's response to future warming has been calibrated using recent and modern observations. As an alternate approach, we apply a hybrid 3-D ice sheet-shelf model to the last deglacial retreat of Antarctica, making use of geologic data of the last ~20,000 years to test the model against the large-scale variations during this period. The ice model is coupled to a global Earth-sea level model to improve modeling of the bedrock response and to capture ocean-ice gravitational interactions. Following several recent ice-sheet studies, we use Large Ensemble (LE) statistical methods, performing sets of 625 runs from 30,000 years to present with systematically varying model parameters. Objective scores for each run are calculated using modern data and past reconstructed grounding lines, relative sea level records, cosmogenic elevation-age data and uplift rates. The LE results are analyzed to calibrate 4 particularly uncertain model parameters that concern marginal ice processes and interaction with the ocean. LE's are extended into the future with climates following RCP scenarios. An additional scoring criterion tests the model's ability to reproduce estimated sea-level high stands in the warm mid-Pliocene, for which drastic retreat mechanisms of hydrofracturing and ice-cliff failure are needed in the model. The LE analysis provides future sea-level-rise envelopes with well-defined parametric uncertainty bounds. Sensitivities of future LE results to Pliocene sea-level estimates, coupling to the Earth-sea level model, and vertical profiles of Earth properties, will be presented.

  13. Full-physics 3D heterogeneous simulations of electromagnetic induction fields on level and deformed sea ice

    SciTech Connect

    Samluk, Jesse P.; Geiger, Cathleen A.; Weiss, Chester J.; Kolodzey, James

    2015-10-01

    In this article we explore simulated responses of electromagnetic (EM) signals relative to in situ field surveys and quantify the effects that different values of conductivity in sea ice have on the EM fields. We compute EM responses of ice types with a three-dimensional (3-D) finite-volume discretization of Maxwell's equations and present 2-D sliced visualizations of their associated EM fields at discrete frequencies. Several interesting observations result: First, since the simulator computes the fields everywhere, each gridcell acts as a receiver within the model volume, and captures the complete, coupled interactions between air, snow, sea ice and sea water as a function of their conductivity; second, visualizations demonstrate how 1-D approximations near deformed ice features are violated. But the most important new finding is that changes in conductivity affect EM field response by modifying the magnitude and spatial patterns (i.e. footprint size and shape) of current density and magnetic fields. These effects are demonstrated through a visual feature we define as 'null lines'. Null line shape is affected by changes in conductivity near material boundaries as well as transmitter location. Our results encourage the use of null lines as a planning tool for better ground-truth field measurements near deformed ice types.

  14. Full-physics 3D heterogeneous simulations of electromagnetic induction fields on level and deformed sea ice

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Samluk, Jesse P.; Geiger, Cathleen A.; Weiss, Chester J.; Kolodzey, James

    2015-10-01

    In this article we explore simulated responses of electromagnetic (EM) signals relative to in situ field surveys and quantify the effects that different values of conductivity in sea ice have on the EM fields. We compute EM responses of ice types with a three-dimensional (3-D) finite-volume discretization of Maxwell's equations and present 2-D sliced visualizations of their associated EM fields at discrete frequencies. Several interesting observations result: First, since the simulator computes the fields everywhere, each gridcell acts as a receiver within the model volume, and captures the complete, coupled interactions between air, snow, sea ice and sea water asmore » a function of their conductivity; second, visualizations demonstrate how 1-D approximations near deformed ice features are violated. But the most important new finding is that changes in conductivity affect EM field response by modifying the magnitude and spatial patterns (i.e. footprint size and shape) of current density and magnetic fields. These effects are demonstrated through a visual feature we define as 'null lines'. Null line shape is affected by changes in conductivity near material boundaries as well as transmitter location. Our results encourage the use of null lines as a planning tool for better ground-truth field measurements near deformed ice types.« less

  15. Response of a marine ice sheet to changes at the grounding line

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Veen, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    A numerical model was designed to study the stability of a marine ice sheet, and used to do some basic experiments. The ice-shelf/ice-sheet interaction enters through the flow law in which the longitudinal stress is also taken into account. Instead of applying the model to some (measured) profile and showing that this is unstable (as is common practice in other studies), an attempt is made to simulate a whole cycle of growth and retreat of a marine ice sheet, although none of the model sheets is particularly sensitive to changes in environmental conditions. The question as to what might happen to the West Antarctic Ice Sheet in the near future when a climatic warming can be expected as a result of the CO/sub 2/ effect, seems to be open for discussion again. From the results presented in this paper one can infer that a collapse, caused by increased melting on the ice shelves, is not very likely.

  16. Numerical modeling of subglacial erosion and sediment transport beneath the Laurentide Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melanson, A.; Bell, T.; Tarasov, L.

    2012-04-01

    Present-day sediment distribution offers a potentially strong constraint on past ice sheet evolution. However, glacial system models (GSMs) cannot address this while lacking physically-based representations of subglacial sediment generation and transport. Incorporation of these elements in GSMs is also required in order to understand the impact of changing sediment cover on glacial cycle dynamics. Towards this goal, we present a subglacial process model that incorporates mechanisms for sediment production, entrainment, transport, and deposition. An abrasion law based on Hallet's model and a quarrying law dependent on basal water pressure and bed roughness are used to calculate bedrock erosion. The incorporation of loose debris in the basal ice is modeled by regelation intrusion and basal freeze-on, depending on the thermal condition and the availability of water at the base. The entrained debris is subsequently transported along the ice sheet's internal velocity field and vertically mixed through a diffusion equation that accounts for folding and thrust faulting. The inclusion of vertical mixing lowers the basal debris concentration and allows more regelation entrainment. Soft bed deformation is included as an advective component within the subglacial sediment, the rheology of which is assumed to be weakly non-linear. Deposition occurs whenever the basal ice is debris-laden and the melting rate exceeds the entrainment rate. The model is coupled to the MUN 3D GSM, which includes a newly developed subglacial hydrology module. The GSM itself has been subject to Bayesian calibration for North American and Eurasian deglaciation and thus a probabilistic ensemble of deglacial chronologies is available. With this calibrated ensemble, we compare the range of calculated sediment thickness fields and cumulative erosion over the last glacial cycle against the present-day pattern of glacigenic sediment and the geological estimates of glacial erosion over North America

  17. Large-Ensemble modeling of last deglacial and future variations of the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, David; DeConto, Robert; Chang, Won; Applegate, Patrick; Haran, Murali

    2015-04-01

    Recent observations of thinning and retreat of the Pine Island and Thwaites Glaciers identify the Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE) sector of West Antarctica as particularly vulnerable to future climate change. To date, most future modeling of these glaciers has been calibrated using recent and modern observations. As an alternate approach, we apply a hybrid 3-D ice sheet-shelf model to the last deglacial retreat of Antarctica, making use of geologic data from ~20,000 years BP to present, focusing on the ASE but including other sectors of Antarctica. Following several recent ice-sheet studies, we use Large-Ensemble statistical techniques, performing sets of ~500 to 1000 runs with varying model parameters. The model is run for the last 40 kyrs on 10 to 20-km grids, both on continental domains and also on nested domains over West Antarctica. Various types of objective scores for each run are calculated using reconstructed past grounding lines, relative sea level records, measured uplift rates, and cosmogenic elevation-age data. Runs are extended into the future few millennia using RCP scenarios. The goal is to produce calibrated probabilistic ranges of model parameter values and quantified envelopes of future ice retreat. Preliminary results are presented for Large Ensembles with (i) Latin HyperCube sampling in high-dimensional parameter space, using statistical emulators and Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques, and (ii) dense "factorial" sampling with a smaller number of parameters. Different ways of combining the types of scores listed above are explored. One robust conclusion is that for the warmer future RCP scenarios, most reasonable parameter combinations produce retreat deep into the West Antarctic interior. Recently proposed mechanisms of hydrofracturing and ice-cliff failure accelerate future West Antarctic retreat, and later produce retreat into East Antarctic basins.

  18. Ice-age simulations with a caving ice-sheet model

    SciTech Connect

    Pollard, D.

    1982-01-01

    Further extensions and results of a simple northern hemispheric ice-sheet model are described for the Quaternary ice ages. The basic model predicts ice thickness and bedrock deformation in a north-south cross section, with a prescribed snow-budget distribution shifted uniformly in space to represent the orbital perturbations. An ice calving parameterization crudely representing proglacial lakes or marine incursions can attack the ice whenever the tip drops below sea level. As in Pollard (1982a) the basic model produces a large approx. 100,000-yr response and agrees fairly well with the delta/sup 18/O deep-sea core records. Three extensions of the model are described: an alternative treatment of bedrock deformation, a more realistic ice-shelf model of ice calving, and a generalized parameterization for such features as the North Atlantic deglacial meltwater layer. Much the same ice-age simulations and agreement with the delta/sup 18/O records as with the original model are still obtained. The observed phase-correlation between the 100,000-yr cycles and eccentricity is examined. First, the model is shown to give a approx. 100,000-yr response to nearly any kind of higher-frequency forcing. Although over the last two million years the model phase is mainly controlled by the precessional modulation due to eccentricity, over just the last 600,000-yr the observed phase can also be simulated with eccentricity held constant. A definitive conclusion on the phase-control of the Quaternary ice ages is prevented by uncertainty in the deep-sea core time scales before approx. 600,000-yr B.P. In an appendix the model is applied to West Antarctica where unforced internal oscillations occur with periods of about 50,000-yr.

  19. Particle Trajectory and Icing Analysis of the E(sup 3) Turbofan Engine Using LEWICE3D Version 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin S.

    2011-01-01

    Particle trajectory and ice shape calculations were made for the Energy Efficient Engine (E(sup 3)) using the LEWICE3D Version 3 software. The particle trajectory and icing computations were performed using the new "block-to-block" collection efficiency method which has been incorporated into the LEWICE3D Version 3 software. The E(sup 3) was developed by NASA and GE in the early 1980 s as a technology demonstrator and is representative of a modern high bypass turbofan engine. The E(sup 3) flow field was calculated using the NASA Glenn ADPAC turbomachinery flow solver. Computations were performed for the low pressure compressor of the E(sup 3) for a Mach 0.8 cruise condition at 11,887 m assuming a standard warm day for three drop sizes and two drop distributions typically used in aircraft design and certification. Particle trajectory computations were made for water drop sizes of 5, 20, and 100 microns. Particle trajectory and ice shape predictions were made for a 20 micron Langmuir-D distribution and for a 92 mm Super-cooled Large Droplet (SLD) distribution with and without splashing effects for a Liquid Water Content (LWC) of 0.3 g/cu m and an icing time of 30 min. The E3 fan and spinner combination proved to be an effective ice removal mechanism as they removed greater than 36 percent of the mass entering the inlet for the icing cases. The maximum free stream catch fraction for the fan and spinner combination was 0.60 while that on the elements downstream of the fan was 0.03. The non-splashing trajectory and collection efficiency results showed that as drop size increased impingement rates increased on the spinner and fan leaving less mass to impinge on downstream components. The SLD splashing case yielded more mass downstream of the fan than the SLD non-splashing case due to mass being splashed from the upstream inlet lip, spinner and fan components. The ice shapes generated downstream of the fan were either small or nonexistent due to the small available mass

  20. ISMIP6 - initMIP: Greenland ice sheet model initialisation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goelzer, Heiko; Nowicki, Sophie; Payne, Tony; Larour, Eric; Abe Ouchi, Ayako; Gregory, Jonathan; Lipscomb, William; Seroussi, Helene; Shepherd, Andrew; Edwards, Tamsin

    2016-04-01

    Earlier large-scale Greenland ice sheet sea-level projections e.g. those run during ice2sea and SeaRISE initiatives have shown that ice sheet initialisation can have a large effect on the projections and gives rise to important uncertainties. This intercomparison exercise (initMIP) aims at comparing, evaluating and improving the initialization techniques used in the ice sheet modeling community and to estimate the associated uncertainties. It is the first in a series of ice sheet model intercomparison activities within ISMIP6 (Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project for CMIP6). The experiments are conceived for the large-scale Greenland ice sheet and are designed to allow intercomparison between participating models of 1) the initial present-day state of the ice sheet and 2) the response in two schematic forward experiments. The latter experiments serve to evaluate the initialisation in terms of model drift (forward run without any forcing) and response to a large perturbation (prescribed surface mass balance anomaly). We present and discuss first results of the intercomparison and highlight important uncertainties with respect to projections of the Greenland ice sheet sea-level contribution.

  1. Preliminary 3D In-situ measurements of the texture evolution of strained H2O ice during annealing using neutron Laue diffractometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Journaux, Baptiste; Montagnat, Maurine; Chauve, Thomas; Ouladdiaf, Bachir; Allibon, John

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) strongly affects the evolution of microstructure (grain size and shape) and texture (crystal preferred orientation) in materials during deformation at high temperature. Since texturing leads to anisotropic physical properties, predicting the effect of DRX is essential for industrial applications, for interpreting geophysical data and modeling geodynamic flows, and predicting ice sheet flow and climate evolution. A large amount of literature is available related to metallurgy, geology or glaciology, but there remains overall fundamental questions about the relationship between nucleation, grain boundary migration and texture development at the microscopic scale. Previous measurements of DRX in ice were either conducted using 2D ex-situ techniques such as AITA [1,2] or Electron Backscattering Diffraction (EBSD) [3], or using 3D statistical ex-situ [4] or in-situ [5] techniques. Nevertheless, all these techniques failed to observe at the scale of nucleation processes during DRX in full 3D. Here we present a new approach using neutron Laue diffraction, which enable to perform 3D measurements of in-situ texture evolution of strained polycrystalline H2O ice (>2% at 266 K) during annealing at the microscopic scale. Thanks the CYCLOPS instrument [6] (Institut Laue Langevin Grenoble, France) and the intrinsic low background of this setup, preliminary observations enabled us to follow, in H2O ice, the evolution of serrated grain boundaries, and kink-band during annealing. Our observations show a significant evolution of the texture and internal misorientation over the course of few hours at an annealing temperature of 268.5 K. In the contrary, ice kink-band structures seem to be very stable over time at near melting temperatures. The same samples have been analyzed ex-situ using EBSD for comparison. These results represent a first step toward in-situ microscopic measurements of dynamic recrystallization processes in ice during strain. This

  2. Inter-annual and geographical variations in the extent of bare ice and dark ice on the Greenland ice sheet derived from MODIS satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Rigen; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Aoki, Teruo

    2016-04-01

    Areas of dark ice have appeared on the Greenland ice sheet every summer in recent years. These are likely to have a great impact on the mass balance of the ice sheet because of their low albedo. We report annual and geographical variations in the bare ice and dark ice areas that appeared on the Greenland Ice Sheet from 2000 to 2014 by using MODIS satellite images. The July monthly mean of the extent of bare ice showed a positive trend over these 15 years, and large annual variability ranging from 89,975 km2 to 279,075 km2, 5% and 16% of the entire ice sheet, respectively. The extent of dark ice also showed a positive trend and varied annually, ranging from 3,575 km2 to 26,975 km2, 4% and 10% of the bare ice extent. These areas are geographically varied, and their expansion is the greatest on the western side, particularly the southwestern side of the ice sheet. The bare ice extent correlates strongly with the monthly mean air temperature in July, suggesting that the extent was determined by snow melt. The dark ice extent also correlates with the air temperature; however, the correlation is weaker. The dark ice extent further correlates negatively with solar radiation. This suggests that the extent of dark ice is not only controlled by snow melt on the ice, but also by changes in the surface structures of the bare ice surface, such as cryoconite holes, which are associated with impurities appearing on the ice surface.

  3. Potential subglacial lake locations and meltwater drainage pathways beneath the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingstone, S. J.; Clark, C. D.; Woodward, J.; Kingslake, J.

    2013-11-01

    We use the Shreve hydraulic potential equation as a simplified approach to investigate potential subglacial lake locations and meltwater drainage pathways beneath the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. We validate the method by demonstrating its ability to recall the locations of >60% of the known subglacial lakes beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet. This is despite uncertainty in the ice-sheet bed elevation and our simplified modelling approach. However, we predict many more lakes than are observed. Hence we suggest that thousands of subglacial lakes remain to be found. Applying our technique to the Greenland Ice Sheet, where very few subglacial lakes have so far been observed, recalls 1607 potential lake locations, covering 1.2% of the bed. Our results will therefore provide suitable targets for geophysical surveys aimed at identifying lakes beneath Greenland. We also apply the technique to modelled past ice-sheet configurations and find that during deglaciation both ice sheets likely had more subglacial lakes at their beds. These lakes, inherited from past ice-sheet configurations, would not form under current surface conditions, but are able to persist, suggesting a retreating ice-sheet will have many more subglacial lakes than advancing ones. We also investigate subglacial drainage pathways of the present-day and former Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Key sectors of the ice sheets, such as the Siple Coast (Antarctica) and NE Greenland Ice Stream system, are suggested to have been susceptible to subglacial drainage switching. We discuss how our results impact our understanding of meltwater drainage, basal lubrication and ice-stream formation.

  4. Photophysiology and albedo-changing potential of the ice algal community on the surface of the Greenland ice sheet.

    PubMed

    Yallop, Marian L; Anesio, Alexandre M; Perkins, Rupert G; Cook, Joseph; Telling, Jon; Fagan, Daniel; MacFarlane, James; Stibal, Marek; Barker, Gary; Bellas, Chris; Hodson, Andy; Tranter, Martyn; Wadham, Jemma; Roberts, Nicholas W

    2012-12-01

    Darkening of parts of the Greenland ice sheet surface during the summer months leads to reduced albedo and increased melting. Here we show that heavily pigmented, actively photosynthesising microalgae and cyanobacteria are present on the bare ice. We demonstrate the widespread abundance of green algae in the Zygnematophyceae on the ice sheet surface in Southwest Greenland. Photophysiological measurements (variable chlorophyll fluorescence) indicate that the ice algae likely use screening mechanisms to downregulate photosynthesis when exposed to high intensities of visible and ultraviolet radiation, rather than non-photochemical quenching or cell movement. Using imaging microspectrophotometry, we demonstrate that intact cells and filaments absorb light with characteristic spectral profiles across ultraviolet and visible wavelengths, whereas inorganic dust particles typical for these areas display little absorption. Our results indicate that the phototrophic community growing directly on the bare ice, through their photophysiology, most likely have an important role in changing albedo, and subsequently may impact melt rates on the ice sheet. PMID:23018772

  5. Photophysiology and albedo-changing potential of the ice algal community on the surface of the Greenland ice sheet

    PubMed Central

    Yallop, Marian L; Anesio, Alexandre M; Perkins, Rupert G; Cook, Joseph; Telling, Jon; Fagan, Daniel; MacFarlane, James; Stibal, Marek; Barker, Gary; Bellas, Chris; Hodson, Andy; Tranter, Martyn; Wadham, Jemma; Roberts, Nicholas W

    2012-01-01

    Darkening of parts of the Greenland ice sheet surface during the summer months leads to reduced albedo and increased melting. Here we show that heavily pigmented, actively photosynthesising microalgae and cyanobacteria are present on the bare ice. We demonstrate the widespread abundance of green algae in the Zygnematophyceae on the ice sheet surface in Southwest Greenland. Photophysiological measurements (variable chlorophyll fluorescence) indicate that the ice algae likely use screening mechanisms to downregulate photosynthesis when exposed to high intensities of visible and ultraviolet radiation, rather than non-photochemical quenching or cell movement. Using imaging microspectrophotometry, we demonstrate that intact cells and filaments absorb light with characteristic spectral profiles across ultraviolet and visible wavelengths, whereas inorganic dust particles typical for these areas display little absorption. Our results indicate that the phototrophic community growing directly on the bare ice, through their photophysiology, most likely have an important role in changing albedo, and subsequently may impact melt rates on the ice sheet. PMID:23018772

  6. Dynamic Antarctic ice sheet during the early to mid-Miocene.

    PubMed

    Gasson, Edward; DeConto, Robert M; Pollard, David; Levy, Richard H

    2016-03-29

    Geological data indicate that there were major variations in Antarctic ice sheet volume and extent during the early to mid-Miocene. Simulating such large-scale changes is problematic because of a strong hysteresis effect, which results in stability once the ice sheets have reached continental size. A relatively narrow range of atmospheric CO2 concentrations indicated by proxy records exacerbates this problem. Here, we are able to simulate large-scale variability of the early to mid-Miocene Antarctic ice sheet because of three developments in our modeling approach. (i) We use a climate-ice sheet coupling method utilizing a high-resolution atmospheric component to account for ice sheet-climate feedbacks. (ii) The ice sheet model includes recently proposed mechanisms for retreat into deep subglacial basins caused by ice-cliff failure and ice-shelf hydrofracture. (iii) We account for changes in the oxygen isotopic composition of the ice sheet by using isotope-enabled climate and ice sheet models. We compare our modeling results with ice-proximal records emerging from a sedimentological drill core from the Ross Sea (Andrill-2A) that is presented in a companion article. The variability in Antarctic ice volume that we simulate is equivalent to a seawater oxygen isotope signal of 0.52-0.66‰, or a sea level equivalent change of 30-36 m, for a range of atmospheric CO2 between 280 and 500 ppm and a changing astronomical configuration. This result represents a substantial advance in resolving the long-standing model data conflict of Miocene Antarctic ice sheet and sea level variability. PMID:26903645

  7. Dynamic Antarctic ice sheet during the early to mid-Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasson, Edward; DeConto, Robert M.; Pollard, David; Levy, Richard H.

    2016-03-01

    Geological data indicate that there were major variations in Antarctic ice sheet volume and extent during the early to mid-Miocene. Simulating such large-scale changes is problematic because of a strong hysteresis effect, which results in stability once the ice sheets have reached continental size. A relatively narrow range of atmospheric CO2 concentrations indicated by proxy records exacerbates this problem. Here, we are able to simulate large-scale variability of the early to mid-Miocene Antarctic ice sheet because of three developments in our modeling approach. (i) We use a climate-ice sheet coupling method utilizing a high-resolution atmospheric component to account for ice sheet-climate feedbacks. (ii) The ice sheet model includes recently proposed mechanisms for retreat into deep subglacial basins caused by ice-cliff failure and ice-shelf hydrofracture. (iii) We account for changes in the oxygen isotopic composition of the ice sheet by using isotope-enabled climate and ice sheet models. We compare our modeling results with ice-proximal records emerging from a sedimentological drill core from the Ross Sea (Andrill-2A) that is presented in a companion article. The variability in Antarctic ice volume that we simulate is equivalent to a seawater oxygen isotope signal of 0.52-0.66‰, or a sea level equivalent change of 30-36 m, for a range of atmospheric CO2 between 280 and 500 ppm and a changing astronomical configuration. This result represents a substantial advance in resolving the long-standing model data conflict of Miocene Antarctic ice sheet and sea level variability.

  8. Recent Changes in High-Latitude Glaciers, Ice Caps, and Ice Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdalati, Waleed

    2006-01-01

    The glaciers and ice sheets of the world contain enough ice to raise sea level by approximately 70 meters if they were to disappear entirely, and most of this ice is located in the climatically sensitive polar regions. Fortunately changes of this magnitude would probably take many thousands of years to occur, but recent discoveries indicate that these ice masses are responding to changes in today s climate more rapidly than previously thought. These responses are likely to be of great societal significance, primarily in terms of their implications for sea level, but also in terms of how their discharge of freshwater, through melting or calving, may impact ocean circulation. For millions of years, oceans have risen and fallen as the Earth has warmed and cooled, and ice on land has shrunk and grown. Today is no different in that respect, as sea levels have been rising at a rate of nearly 2 m per year during the last century (Miller and Douglas 2004), and 3 mm/yr in the last 12 years (Leuliette et al. 2004). What is different today, however, is that tens - perhaps hundreds - of millions of people live in coastal areas that are vulnerable to changes in sea level. Rising seas erode beaches, increase flood potential, and reduce the ability of barrier islands and coastal wetlands to mitigate the effects of major storms and hurricanes. The costs associated with a one-meter rise in sea level are estimated to be in the hundreds of billions of dollars in the United States alone. The worldwide costs in human terms would be far greater as some vulnerable low-lying coastal regions would become inundated, especially in poorer nations that do not have the resources to deal with such changes. Such considerations are particularly important in light of the fact that a one meter sea level rise is not significantly outside the 0.09 to 0.88 range of predictions for this century (IPCC 2001), and rises of this magnitude have occurred in the past in as little as 20 years (Fairbanks 1989

  9. Evolution of a Directional Wave Spectrum in a 3D Marginal Ice Zone with Random Floe Size Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montiel, F.; Squire, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    A new ocean wave/sea-ice interaction model is proposed that simulates how a directional wave spectrum evolves as it travels through a realistic marginal ice zone (MIZ), where wave/ice dynamics are entirely governed by coherent conservative wave scattering effects. Field experiments conducted by Wadhams et al. (1986) in the Greenland Sea generated important data on wave attenuation in the MIZ and, particularly, on whether the wave spectrum spreads directionally or collimates with distance from the ice edge. The data suggest that angular isotropy, arising from multiple scattering by ice floes, occurs close to the edge and thenceforth dominates wave propagation throughout the MIZ. Although several attempts have been made to replicate this finding theoretically, including by the use of numerical models, none have confronted this problem in a 3D MIZ with fully randomised floe distribution properties. We construct such a model by subdividing the discontinuous ice cover into adjacent infinite slabs of finite width parallel to the ice edge. Each slab contains an arbitrary (but finite) number of circular ice floes with randomly distributed properties. Ice floes are modeled as thin elastic plates with uniform thickness and finite draught. We consider a directional wave spectrum with harmonic time dependence incident on the MIZ from the open ocean, defined as a continuous superposition of plane waves traveling at different angles. The scattering problem within each slab is then solved using Graf's interaction theory for an arbitrary incident directional plane wave spectrum. Using an appropriate integral representation of the Hankel function of the first kind (see Cincotti et al., 1993), we map the outgoing circular wave field from each floe on the slab boundaries into a directional spectrum of plane waves, which characterizes the slab reflected and transmitted fields. Discretizing the angular spectrum, we can obtain a scattering matrix for each slab. Standard recursive

  10. Bedrock structure and the interpretation of palaeo ice stream footprints: examples from the Pleistocene British Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabbendam, M.; Bradwell, T.

    2009-04-01

    To model past and future behaviour of ice sheets, a good understanding of both modern and ancient ice streams is required. The study of present-day ice streams provides detailed data of short-term dynamic changes, whilst the study of Pleistocene palaeo-ice streams can provide crucial constraints on the longer-term evolution of ice sheets. To date, palaeo-ice streams, such as the classical Dubawnt Lake palaeo-ice stream of the former Laurentide Ice Sheet, have been recognised largely on the basis of extremely elongate drumlins and megascale glacial lineations; all soft-sediment features. Whilst it appears that topographically unconstrained ice streams (eg. within the West Antarctic Ice Sheet) are generally underlain by deformable till, topographically constrained ice streams such as Jakobshavn Isbrae do not require deformable sediment and may occur on a bedrock-dominated bed. Analysis of DEM data and geomorphology and structural geology fieldwork in Northern Scotland and Northern England has shown the occurrence of highly streamlined bedforms in bedrock of the former base of topographically controlled palaeo-ice streams, which drained parts of the British Ice Sheet. The bedforms are predominantly bedrock megagrooves with asymmetric cross-profiles. In the Ullapool tributary of the Minch palaeo ice stream, bedrock megagrooves form the dominant evidence for ice streaming. The megagrooves are typically 5-15 m deep, 10-30 m wide and 500 - 3000 m long. Spacing of megagrooves is typically 100 - 200 m. In both study areas, the bedrock is strongly anisotropic, either consisting of thin-bedded strata or strongly foliated metasedimentary rocks, with the strata or foliation having a gentle dip. Megagrooves are best developed where the strike of the anisotropy is sub-parallel (within 10 - 20°) with palaeo ice flow. The bedrock in both areas has a well-developed, relatively densely spaced (< 1m), conjugate joint system. We suggest that asymmetric megagrooves are formed by

  11. Global Geodetic Signatures of the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Thomas S.; Ivins, Erik R.

    1997-01-01

    Four scenarios of present day Antarctic ice sheet mass change are developed from comprehensive reviews of the available glaciological and oceanographic evidence. The gridded scenarios predict widely varying contributions to secular sea level change xi ranging from -1.1 to 0.45 mm/yr, and predict polar motion m and time-varying low-degree gravitational coefficients J(sub l) that differ significantly from earlier estimates. A reasonably linear relationship between the rate of sea level change from Antarctica xi(sub A) and the predicted Antarctic J(sub l) is found for the four scenarios. This linearity permits a series of forward models to be constructed that incorporate the effects of ice mass changes in Antarctica, Greenland, and distributed smaller glaciers, as well as postglacial rebound (assuming the ICE-3G deglaciation history), with the goal of obtaining optimum reconciliation between observed constraints on J(sub l) and sea level rise xi. Numerous viable combinations of lower mantle viscosity and hydrologic sources are found that safely "observed" in the range of 1 to 2-2.5 mm/yr and observed J(sub l) for degrees 2, 3, and 4. In contrast, rates of global sea level rise above 2.5 mm/yr are inconsistent with available J(sub l) observations. The successful composite models feature a pair of lower mantle viscosity solutions arising from the sensitivity of J(sub l) to glacial rebound. The paired values are well separated at xi = 1 mm/yr, but move closer together as xi is increased, and, in fact, merge around xi = 2 - 2.5 mm/yr, revealing an intimate relation between xi and preferred lower mantle viscosity. This general pattern is quite robust and persists for different J(sub l) solutions, for variations in source assumptions, and for different styles of lower mantle viscosity stratification. Tighter J(sub l) constraints for l greater than 2 may allow some viscosity stratification schemes and source assumptions to be excluded in the future. For a given total

  12. Glacial isostatic stress shadowing by the Antarctic ice sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivins, E. R.; James, T. S.; Klemann, V.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous examples of fault slip that offset late Quaternary glacial deposits and bedrock polish support the idea that the glacial loading cycle causes earthquakes in the upper crust. A semianalytical scheme is presented for quantifying glacial and postglacial lithospheric fault reactivation using contemporary rock fracture prediction methods. It extends previous studies by considering differential Mogi-von Mises stresses, in addition to those resulting from a Coulomb analysis. The approach utilizes gravitational viscoelastodynamic theory and explores the relationships between ice mass history and regional seismicity and faulting in a segment of East Antarctica containing the great Antarctic Plate (Balleny Island) earthquake of 25 March 1998 (Mw 8.1). Predictions of the failure stress fields within the seismogenic crust are generated for differing assumptions about background stress orientation, mantle viscosity, lithospheric thickness, and possible late Holocene deglaciation for the D91 Antarctic ice sheet history. Similar stress fracture fields are predicted by Mogi-von Mises and Coulomb theory, thus validating previous rebound Coulomb analysis. A thick lithosphere, of the order of 150-240 km, augments stress shadowing by a late melting (middle-late Holocene) coastal East Antarctic ice complex and could cause present-day earthquakes many hundreds of kilometers seaward of the former Last Glacial Maximum grounding line.

  13. Laser altimetry reveals complex pattern of Greenland Ice Sheet dynamics.

    PubMed

    Csatho, Beata M; Schenk, Anton F; van der Veen, Cornelis J; Babonis, Gregory; Duncan, Kyle; Rezvanbehbahani, Soroush; van den Broeke, Michiel R; Simonsen, Sebastian B; Nagarajan, Sudhagar; van Angelen, Jan H

    2014-12-30

    We present a new record of ice thickness change, reconstructed at nearly 100,000 sites on the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) from laser altimetry measurements spanning the period 1993-2012, partitioned into changes due to surface mass balance (SMB) and ice dynamics. We estimate a mean annual GrIS mass loss of 243 ± 18 Gt ⋅ y(-1), equivalent to 0.68 mm ⋅ y(-1) sea level rise (SLR) for 2003-2009. Dynamic thinning contributed 48%, with the largest rates occurring in 2004-2006, followed by a gradual decrease balanced by accelerating SMB loss. The spatial pattern of dynamic mass loss changed over this time as dynamic thinning rapidly decreased in southeast Greenland but slowly increased in the southwest, north, and northeast regions. Most outlet glaciers have been thinning during the last two decades, interrupted by episodes of decreasing thinning or even thickening. Dynamics of the major outlet glaciers dominated the mass loss from larger drainage basins, and simultaneous changes over distances up to 500 km are detected, indicating climate control. However, the intricate spatiotemporal pattern of dynamic thickness change suggests that, regardless of the forcing responsible for initial glacier acceleration and thinning, the response of individual glaciers is modulated by local conditions. Recent projections of dynamic contributions from the entire GrIS to SLR have been based on the extrapolation of four major outlet glaciers. Considering the observed complexity, we question how well these four glaciers represent all of Greenland's outlet glaciers. PMID:25512537

  14. Ice sheet sensitivity experiments as part of an assessment of long-term safety for a planned repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wekerle, Claudia; Colleoni, Florence; Masina, Simona; Näslund, Jens-Ove; Brandefelt, Jenny

    2014-05-01

    An application to build a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark in south-central Sweden is currently under consideration by Swedish authorities. As part of the safety assessment, the response of the repository to an extensive glaciation over time scales of several hundred thousand years, in terms of ice thickness, bedrock depression and hydrostatic pressure, has to be evaluated. The most extensive glaciation over Eurasia recorded in geological proxies occurred during the MIS 6, at around 140 kyrs BP (Late Saalian glaciation). At this time, the few existing numerical ice-sheet reconstructions suggest that the Eurasian ice volume reached more than 70 m SLE, which is at least three times larger than during the Last Glacial Maximum (21 kyrs BP). The reconstruction of this ice sheet is complicated by the fact that the timing of the maximum ice volume may not have been coeval with the maximum eastern and southern extent of the Saalian ice sheet. In the present study, the maximum geographical extension of the Late Saalian glaciation serves as an extreme test case to assess the impact of ice thickness over the Forsmark repository site. We use the 3D-thermodynamical ice sheet-ice shelves and ice stream model GRISLI (Ritz et al. 2001) to simulate the Northern Hemisphere ice sheet topography of the Late Saalian glaciation. The model is forced by steady-state climatic fields (surface air temperature and precipitation) computed using the coupled atmosphere-ocean Community Earth System Model (CESM, NCAR) at ~1°x1° resolution, with boundary and forcing conditions representative for the MIS6 glacial maximum. Ice sheet simulations are run on a 20 km regular rectangular grid over the northern high latitudes and allow for floating ice. First, as part of the model validation, we show a numerical reconstruction of the MIS 6 Eurasian ice sheet using standard parameters for lapse rate, PDD coefficients and basal hydrology. Second, sensitivity experiments are

  15. Evolution of the subglacial hydrologic system beneath the rapidly decaying Cordilleran Ice Sheet caused by ice-dammed lake drainage: implications for meltwater-induced ice acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Matthew J.; Brennand, Tracy A.; Perkins, Andrew J.

    2012-09-01

    A positive correlation between ice-dammed lake drainage and ice acceleration at Antarctic Ice Sheets (AIS) and land-terminating sections of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has been implicated in enhanced ice sheet decay. However, the paucity of direct measurements at the ice sheet bed restricts our understanding of subglacial drainage system evolution in response to transient water inputs. We present evidence that two meltwater corridors on the former bed of the thin (˜600 m at Last Glacial Maximum over the interior Plateaus of British Columbia) and rapidly decaying Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS) were generated subglacially in response to the drainage of an ice-dammed lake and operated as canals (tunnel channels). Geomorphological, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data reveal a simple event sequence that includes initial propagation of a broad (at least 2.5 km wide) floodwave (inefficient drainage) from an ice-dammed lake, over relatively short (3-24 km) zones at the corridor heads that collapsed into efficient canals (large (up to 0.25-2.5 km wide) channels incised down into the sediment bed and up into the ice) downglacier. Canal formation on the southern Fraser Plateau involved synchronous (along the full canal length) system development, including elements of headward erosion and plunge pool formation. Our data suggest that ice-dammed lake drainage beneath a rapidly decaying thin ice mass that has an efficient antecedent drainage network is not conducive to large-scale ice acceleration. These data may aid better assessment of the role of ice-dammed lake drainage on the dynamics of former, as well as contemporary, ice sheets.

  16. Novel polythreaded coordination polymer: from an armed-polyrotaxane sheet to a 3D polypseudorotaxane array, photo- and thermochromic behaviors.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qing-Xia; Ju, Zhan-Feng; Jin, Xu-Hui; Zhang, Jie

    2009-02-16

    A novel coordination compound, {[Cd(BDC)(Bpybc)(1.5)].10H(2)O}(n), obtained by the reaction of CdCl(2) with 1,1'-bis(4-carboxybenzyl)-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride (H(2)BpybcCl(2)) and 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (H(2)BDC), contains 1D polymeric chains that are comprised of alternating rings and rods and dangling lateral arms. These 1D polymeric motifs are interlaced via rotaxane-like mechanical linkages to give 2D armed-polyrotaxane sheets, which are further mutually polythreaded via pseudorotaxane-like mechanical linkages to form a 3D polypseudorotaxane array. Notably, a sandwich-type donor-acceptor-donor stacking is formed within each ring as a consequence of both types of polythreading in this species, and photoinduced and thermal-induced reduction of bipyridinium occurs with a color change from light yellow to blue. PMID:19166285

  17. Efficient 3D conducting networks built by graphene sheets and carbon nanoparticles for high-performance silicon anode.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaosi; Yin, Ya-Xia; Cao, An-Min; Wan, Li-Jun; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2012-05-01

    The utilization of silicon particles as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries is hindered by their low intrinsic electric conductivity and large volume changes during cycling. Here we report a novel Si nanoparticle-carbon nanoparticle/graphene composite, in which the addition of carbon nanoparticles can effectively alleviate the aggregation of Si nanoparticles by separating them from each other, and help graphene sheets build efficient 3D conducting networks for Si nanoparticles. Such Si-C/G composite shows much improved electrochemical properties in terms of specific capacity and cycling performance (ca. 1521 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 C after 200 cycles), as well as a favorable high-rate capability. PMID:22563769

  18. The Svalbard-Barents Sea ice-sheet - Historical, current and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingólfsson, Ólafur; Landvik, Jon Y.

    2013-03-01

    The history of research on the Late Quaternary Svalbard-Barents Sea ice sheet mirrors the developments of ideas and the shifts of paradigms in glacial theory over the past 150 years. Since the onset of scientific research there in the early 19th Century, Svalbard has been a natural laboratory where ideas and concepts have been tested, and played an important (but rarely acknowledged) role in the break-through of the Ice Age theory in the 1870's. The history of how the scientific perception of the Svalbard-Barents sea ice sheet developed in the mid-20th Century also tells a story of how a combination of fairly scattered and often contradictory observational data, and through both deductive and inductive reasoning, could outline a major ice sheet that had left but few tangible fingerprints. Since the 1980's, with increased terrestrial stratigraphical data, ever more marine geological evidence and better chronological control of glacial events, our perception of the Svalbard-Barents Sea ice sheet has changed. The first reconstructions depicted it as a static, concentric, single-domed ice sheet, with ice flowing from an ice divide over the central northern Barents Sea that expanded and declined in response to large-scale, Late Quaternary climate fluctuations, and which was more or less in tune with other major Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. We now increasingly perceive it as a very dynamic, multidomed ice sheet, controlled by climate fluctuations, relative sea-level change, as well as subglacial topography, substrate properties and basal temperature. In this respect, the Svalbard-Barents Sea ice sheet will increasingly hold the key for understanding the dynamics and processes of how marine-based ice sheets build-up and decay.

  19. Ice-sheet configuration in the CMIP5/PMIP3 Last Glacial Maximum experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe-Ouchi, A.; Saito, F.; Kageyama, M.; Braconnot, P.; Harrison, S. P.; Lambeck, K.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Peltier, W. R.; Tarasov, L.; Peterschmitt, J.-Y.; Takahashi, K.

    2015-11-01

    We describe the creation of a data set describing changes related to the presence of ice sheets, including ice-sheet extent and height, ice-shelf extent, and the distribution and elevation of ice-free land at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), which were used in LGM experiments conducted as part of the fifth phase of the Coupled Modelling Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) and the third phase of the Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP3). The CMIP5/PMIP3 data sets were created from reconstructions made by three different groups, which were all obtained using a model-inversion approach but differ in the assumptions used in the modelling and in the type of data used as constraints. The ice-sheet extent in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) does not vary substantially between the three individual data sources. The difference in the topography of the NH ice sheets is also moderate, and smaller than the differences between these reconstructions (and the resultant composite reconstruction) and ice-sheet reconstructions used in previous generations of PMIP. Only two of the individual reconstructions provide information for Antarctica. The discrepancy between these two reconstructions is larger than the difference for the NH ice sheets, although still less than the difference between the composite reconstruction and previous PMIP ice-sheet reconstructions. Although largely confined to the ice-covered regions, differences between the climate response to the individual LGM reconstructions extend over the North Atlantic Ocean and Northern Hemisphere continents, partly through atmospheric stationary waves. Differences between the climate response to the CMIP5/PMIP3 composite and any individual ice-sheet reconstruction are smaller than those between the CMIP5/PMIP3 composite and the ice sheet used in the last phase of PMIP (PMIP2).

  20. Ice-Sheet Enhancement of Volcanism and Geothermal Heat Flux: a Stress Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, N. T.; Parizek, B. R.; Alley, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Bore-hole and geophysically inferred geothermal heat fluxes beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet, particularly at the head of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream, are in some places higher than suggested by the underlying geology. Geologically rapid changes in lithospheric loading during ice-sheet growth and decay produce large changes in the effective stress state beneath and nearby. Oscillating loads will cause oscillating melt volume in deep rocks, and the nonlinear increase of melt migration velocity with melt fraction means that extended ice-age cycling will enhance upward melt migration. Our numerically efficient simulations of ice-sheet/lithosphere interactions produce crustal stresses similar to values estimated to allow dike emplacement and vug-wave migration. Maximum tensile and shear stresses shift both horizontally and vertically during ice sheet growth and decay, suggesting multi-step transport of melt upwards to or near the base of the ice sheet. We thus suggest that regions of high geothermal heat flux arose from cyclic ice-sheet loading, which enhanced melt extraction from a deep source (possibly linked to passage of the Iceland hot spot). We further suggest that similar processes may have been important elsewhere beneath or near present or former ice sheets, potentially enhancing volcanism as well as geothermal flux.

  1. Digital-Particle-Image-Velocimetry (DPIV) in a scanning light-sheet: 3D starting flow around a short cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brücker, Ch.

    1995-08-01

    Scanning-Particle-Image-Velocimetry Technique (SPIV), introduced by Brücker (1992) and Brücker and Althaus (1992), offers the quantitative investigation of three-dimensional vortical structures in unsteady flows. On principle, this technique combines classical Particle-Image-Velocimetry (PIV) with volume scanning using a scanning light-sheet. In our previous studies, single scans obtained from photographic frame series were evaluated to show the instantaneous vortical structure of the respective flow phenomena. Here, continuous video recordings are processed to capture also the temporal information for the study of the set-up of 3D effects in the cylinder wake. The flow is continuously sampled in depth by the scanning light-sheet and in each of the parallel planes frame-to-frame cross-correlation of the video images (DPIV) is applied to obtain the 2D velocity field. Because the scanning frequency and repetition rate is high in comparison with the characteristic time-scale of the flow, the evaluation provides a complete time-record of the 3D flow during the starting process. With use of the continuity concept as described by Robinson and Rockwell (1993), we obtained in addition the out-of-plane component of the velocity in spanwise direction. This in view, the described technique enabled the reconstruction of the three-dimensional time-dependent velocity and vorticity field. The visualization of the dynamical behaviour of these quantities as, e.g. by video, gave a good impression of the spanwise flow showing the “tornado-like” suction effect of the starting vortices.

  2. A model of the western Laurentide Ice Sheet, using observations of glacial isostatic adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowan, Evan J.; Tregoning, Paul; Purcell, Anthony; Montillet, Jean-Philippe; McClusky, Simon

    2016-05-01

    We present the results of a new numerical model of the late glacial western Laurentide Ice Sheet, constrained by observations of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), including relative sea level indicators, uplift rates from permanent GPS stations, contemporary differential lake level change, and postglacial tilt of glacial lake level indicators. The later two datasets have been underutilized in previous GIA based ice sheet reconstructions. The ice sheet model, called NAICE, is constructed using simple ice physics on the basis of changing margin location and basal shear stress conditions in order to produce ice volumes required to match GIA. The model matches the majority of the observations, while maintaining a relatively realistic ice sheet geometry. Our model has a peak volume at 18,000 yr BP, with a dome located just east of Great Slave Lake with peak thickness of 4000 m, and surface elevation of 3500 m. The modelled ice volume loss between 16,000 and 14,000 yr BP amounts to about 7.5 m of sea level equivalent, which is consistent with the hypothesis that a large portion of Meltwater Pulse 1A was sourced from this part of the ice sheet. The southern part of the ice sheet was thin and had a low elevation profile. This model provides an accurate representation of ice thickness and paleo-topography, and can be used to assess present day uplift and infer past climate.

  3. Multiphase flow of the late Wisconsinan Cordilleran ice sheet in Western Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stumpf, A.J.; Broster, B.E.; Levson, V.M.

    2000-01-01

    In central British Columbia, ice flow during the late Wisconsinan Fraser glaciation (ca. 25-10 ka) occurred in three phases. The ice expansion phase occurred during an extended period when glaciers flowed westward to the Pacific Ocean and east-southeastward onto the Nechako Plateau from ice centers in the Skeena, Hazelton, Coast, and Omineca Mountains. Initially, glacier flow was confined by topography along major valleys, but eventually piedmont and montane glaciers coalesced to form an integrated glacier system, the Cordilleran ice sheet. In the maximum phase, a Cordilleran ice divide developed over the Nechako Plateau to 300 km inland from the Pacific coast. At this time, the surface of the ice sheet extended well above 2500 m above sea level, and flowed westward over the Skeena, Hazelton, and Coast Mountains onto the continental shelf, and eastward across the Rocky Mountains into Alberta. In the late glacial phase, a rapid rise of the equilibrium line caused ice lobes to stagnate in valleys, and restricted accumulation centers to high mountains. Discordant directions in ice flow are attributed to fluctuations of the ice divide representing changes in the location of accumulation centers and ice thickness. Ice centers probably shifted in response to climate, irregular growth in the ice sheet, rapid calving, ice streaming, and drainage of proglacial and subglacial water bodies. Crosscutting ice-flow indicators and preservation of early (valley parallel) flow features in areas exposed to later (cross-valley) glacier erosion indicate that the ice expansion phase was the most erosive and protracted event.

  4. Modeling North American Ice Sheet Response to Changes in Precession and Obliquity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabor, C.; Poulsen, C. J.; Pollard, D.

    2012-12-01

    Milankovitch theory proposes that changes in insolation due to orbital perturbations dictate the waxing and waning of the ice sheets (Hays et al., 1976). However, variations in solar forcing alone are insufficient to produce the glacial oscillations observed in the climate record. Non-linear feedbacks in the Earth system likely work in concert with the orbital cycles to produce a modified signal (e.g. Berger and Loutre, 1996), but the nature of these feedbacks remain poorly understood. To gain a better understand of the ice dynamics and climate feedbacks associated with changes in orbital configuration, we use a complex Earth system model consisting of the GENESIS GCM and land surface model (Pollard and Thompson, 1997), the Pennsylvania State University ice sheet model (Pollard and DeConto, 2009), and the BIOME vegetation model (Kaplan et al., 2001). We began this study by investigating ice sheet sensitivity to a range of commonly used ice sheet model parameters, including mass balance and albedo, to optimize simulations for Pleistocene orbital cycles. Our tests indicate that choice of mass balance and albedo parameterizations can lead to significant differences in ice sheet behavior and volume. For instance, use of an insolation-temperature mass balance scheme (van den Berg, 2008) allows for a larger ice sheet response to orbital changes than the commonly employed positive degree-day method. Inclusion of a large temperature dependent ice albedo, representing phenomena such as melt ponds and dirty ice, also enhances ice sheet sensitivity. Careful tuning of mass balance and albedo parameterizations can help alleviate the problem of insufficient ice sheet retreat during periods of high summer insolation (Horton and Poulsen, 2007) while still accurately replicating the modern climate. Using our optimized configuration, we conducted a series of experiments with idealized transient orbits in an asynchronous coupling scheme to investigate the influence of obliquity and

  5. Coring to the West Antarctic ice sheet bed with a new Deep Ice Sheet Coring (DISC) drill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, C. R.; Taylor, K. C.; Shturmakov, A. J.; Mason, W. P.; Emmel, G. R.; Lebar, D. A.

    2005-05-01

    As a contribution to IPY 2007-2008, the U.S. ice core research community, supported by the National Science Foundation, plans to core through the West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) at the ice-flow divide between the Ross Sea and Amundsen Sea drainage systems. The aim is to develop a unique series of interrelated climatic, ice-dynamic, and biologic records focused on understanding interactions among global earth systems. There will be approximately 15 separate but synergistic projects to analyze the ice and interpret the records. The most significant expected outcome of the WAIS Divide program will be climate records for the last ~40,000 years with an annually resolved chronology (through layer counting), comparable to the records from central Greenland. The data will also extend, at lower temporal resolution, to approximately 100,000 BP. These records will permit comparison of environmental conditions between the northern and southern hemispheres, and study of greenhouse gas concentrations in the paleoatmosphere, with unprecedented detail. To accomplish the coring, an innovative new Deep Ice Sheet Coring (DISC) drill is being built at the University of Wisconsin. The modular design of the bore-hole assembly (sonde) provides high flexibility for producing a 122 mm diameter ice core to depths of 4,000 m with maximum core lengths of 4 m. The DISC drill has a rotating outer barrel that can be used with or without an inner barrel designed to improve core recovery in brittle ice. Separate and independent motors for the drill and pump allow cutter speeds from 0 to 150 rpm and pump rates from 0 to 140 gpm. The high pumping rate should alleviate problems drilling in warm ice near the bed; it also helps make tripping speeds several times faster than with the old US drill. Other innovations include vibration and acoustic sensors for monitoring the drilling process, a segmented core barrel to avoid the formerly persistent problem of bent core barrels, and a high-speed data

  6. Analogue modelling of the influence of ice shelf collapse on the flow of ice sheets grounded below sea-level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corti, Giacomo; Zeoli, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The sudden breakup of ice shelves is expected to result in significant acceleration of inland glaciers, a process related to the removal of the buttressing effect exerted by the ice shelf on the tributary glaciers. This effect has been tested in previous analogue models, which however applied to ice sheets grounded above sea level (e.g., East Antarctic Ice Sheet; Antarctic Peninsula and the Larsen Ice Shelf). In this work we expand these previous results by performing small-scale laboratory models that analyse the influence of ice shelf collapse on the flow of ice streams draining an ice sheet grounded below sea level (e.g., the West Antarctic Ice Sheet). The analogue models, with dimensions (width, length, thickness) of 120x70x1.5cm were performed at the Tectonic Modelling Laboratory of CNR-IGG of Florence, Italy, by using Polydimethilsyloxane (PDMS) as analogue for the flowing ice. This transparent, Newtonian silicone has been shown to well approximate the rheology of natural ice. The silicone was allowed to flow into a water reservoir simulating natural conditions in which ice streams flow into the sea, terminating in extensive ice shelves which act as a buttress for their glaciers and slow their flow. The geometric scaling ratio was 10(-5), such that 1cm in the models simulated 1km in nature; velocity of PDMS (a few mm per hour) simulated natural velocities of 100-1000 m/year. Instability of glacier flow was induced by manually removing a basal silicone platform (floating on water) exerting backstresses to the flowing analogue glacier: the simple set-up adopted in the experiments isolates the effect of the removal of the buttressing effect that the floating platform exerts on the flowing glaciers, thus offering insights into the influence of this parameter on the flow perturbations resulting from a collapse event. The experimental results showed a significant increase in glacier velocity close to its outlet following ice shelf breakup, a process similar to what

  7. Sonification of cryoconite landscapes over the Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedesco, M.

    2015-12-01

    Sonification is the use of non-speech audio to convey information. In sonification, several elements can be altered, modified or manipulated to change the perception of the sound, and in turn, the perception of the information being transmitted. For example, an increase or decrease in pitch, tempo and amplitude can be used to convey the information but this can also happen by varying other less commonly used components. One of the advantages of using sonification lies in the temporal, spatial, amplitude, and frequency resolution that offer complementary and supplementary possibilities with respect to visualization techniques. Two years ago, the outcomes of the PolarSEEDS project (www.polaseeds.org), consisting of sonification of time series of albedo, melting and surface temperature over the Greenland ice sheet, were presented in this very same session. The work that I will discuss in this presentation builds on the PolarSEEDS experience, focusing on the fascinating microcosm of cryoconite. Cryoconite is a unique and extremely fascinating form of glacial cover consisting of aggregated rock dust, inorganic and detrital organic matter, and active microbial colonies. It can be seen as 'living stones', with this ecosystem containing the only form of life that is sustained on the majestic surface of the Greenland ice sheet. Microbes are, indeed, the catalyst for cryoconite formation and growth. The cryoconite constituents radiate metabolic heat promoting glacier hole development, melt water formation, and decreasing glacier surface albedo. Lower albedos cause a positive feedback that further contributes to glacier ablation. Despite their importance, cryoconite systems are poorly studied and little is known about their evolution. In the talk, I will first present and discuss previous sonification projects whose main focus was on the polar regions; then, I will present new sonifications based on data quantifying the distribution and evolution of cryoconite over the west

  8. BRITICE-CHRONO: Constraining rates and style of marine-influenced ice sheet decay to provide a data-rich playground for ice sheet modellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Uncertainty exists regarding the fate of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets and how they will respond to forcings from sea level and atmospheric and ocean temperatures. If we want to know more about the mechanisms and rate of change of shrinking ice sheets, then why not examine an ice sheet that has fully disappeared and track its retreat through time? If achieved in enough detail such information could become a data-rich playground for improving the next breed of numerical ice sheet models to be used in ice and sea level forecasting. We regard that the last British-Irish Ice Sheet is a good target for this work, on account of its small size, density of information and with its numerous researchers already investigating it. BRITICE-CHRONO is a large (>45 researchers) NERC-funded consortium project comprising Quaternary scientists and glaciologists who will search the seafloor around Britain and Ireland and parts of the landmass in order to find and extract samples of sand, rock and organic matter that can be dated (OSL; Cosmogenic; 14C) to reveal the timing and rate of change of the collapsing British-Irish Ice Sheet. The purpose is to produce a high resolution dataset on the demise on an ice sheet - from the continental shelf edge and across the marine to terrestrial transition. Some 800 new date assessments will be added to those that already exist. This poster reports on the hypotheses that underpin the work. Data on retreat will be collected by focusing on 8 transects running from the continental shelf edge to a short distance (10s km) onshore and acquiring marine and terrestrial samples for geochronometric dating. The project includes funding for 587 radiocarbon, 140 OSL and 158 TCN samples for surface exposure dating; with sampling accomplished by two research cruises and 16 fieldwork campaigns. Results will reveal the timing and rate of change of ice margin recession for each transect, and combined with existing landform and dating databases, will be

  9. Physical properties and microstructures of nanocrystals reinforced ice laser 3D print layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia-Ning; Liu, Ke-Gao; Gong, Shui-Li; Zhang, Yuan-Bin; Liu, Peng

    2015-02-01

    Rapid prototyping based on laser alloying by the pre-placed mixed powders has been used to produce the nanocrystals reinforced three-dimensional layer in this study. Such a layer was fabricated on a TC17 titanium alloy by laser rapid prototyping (LRP) of the Co-Sb-TiB2 mixed powders in ice. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) test results indicated that the ice addition was able to decrease the maximum temperature of molten pool during the LRP process, favoring the formation of nanocrystals; growth of such nanocrystals was retarded by the surrounded amorphous in a certain extent, favoring the formations of ultrafine nanoparticles (UN), and the twin crystals and the high-angle grain boundaries were also observed; differential thermal analysis (DTA) test was used to explain the physical properties and formation mechanism of amorphous-nanocrystals, and also the relationship between the amorphous and nanocrystalline phases in such a LRP layer.

  10. The NE Greenland Ice Sheet during the last glacial - a dynamic retreat from the shelf edge triggered by ice melting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sverre Laberg, Jan; Forwick, Matthias; Husum, Katrine

    2014-05-01

    The dynamics of the north-eastern sector of the Greenland Ice Sheet during the last glacial are still poorly constrained and large uncertainties about its extent exist. We present new swath-bathymetry data and sub-bottom profiles acquired from the outer parts of a shelf-crossing trough. These data reveal glacial landforms suggesting that grounded ice extended to the shelf break. Thus, the hypothesis of a mid-shelf position of the ice sheet in this area during the last glacial maximum is rejected, instead other studies predicting an ice expansion to the shelf break is reinforced. The results presented here also add further details on the behavior of the ice sheet during the initial deglaciation. The outer trough studied was characterized by the formation of a complex pattern of moraine ridges and sediment wedges overlying mega-scale glacial lineations, providing evidence of repeated halts and readvances of the ice sheet during an early phase of its decay. This suggests that the early deglaciation was related to melting of the grounded ice due to temperature increase in the ocean, rather than being triggered by abrupt sea level rise. The latter should, according to established models, result in ice lift-off and a sea floor dominated by landforms formed during full-glacial conditions (mega-scale glacial lineations) and ice disintegration (iceberg plough-marks).

  11. Ross Sea Till Properties: Implications for Ice Sheet Bed Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halberstadt, A. R.; Anderson, J. B.; Simkins, L.; Prothro, L. O.; Bart, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Since the discovery of a pervasive shearing till layer underlying Ice Stream B, the scientific community has categorized subglacial diamictons as either deformation till or lodgement till primarily based on shear strength. Deformation till is associated with streaming ice, formed through subglacial deformation of unconsolidated sediments. Lodgement till is believed to be deposited by the plastering of sediment entrained at the base of slow-flowing ice onto a rigid bed. Unfortunately, there has been a paucity of quantitative data on the spatial distribution of shear strength across the continental shelf. Cores collected from the Ross Sea on cruises NBP1502 and NBP9902 provide a rich dataset that can be used to interpret till shear strength variability. Till strengths are analyzed within the context of: (1) geologic substrate; (2) water content and other geotechnical properties; (3) ice sheet retreat history; and (4) geomorphic framework. Tills display a continuum of shear strengths rather than a bimodal distribution, suggesting that shear strength cannot be used to distinguish between lodgement and deformation till. Where the substrate below the LGM unconformity is comprised of older lithified deposits, till shear strengths are both highly variable within the till unit, as well as highly variable between cores. Conversely, where ice streams flowed across unconsolidated Plio-Pleistocene deposits, shear strengths are low and less variable within the unit and between cores. This suggests greater homogenization of cannibalized tills, and possibly a deeper pervasive shear layer. Coarser-grained tills are observed on banks and bank slopes, with finer tills in troughs. Highly variable and more poorly sorted tills are found in close proximity to sediment-based subglacial meltwater channels, attesting to a change in ice-bed interaction as subglacial water increases. Pellets (rounded sedimentary clasts of till matrix) are observed in Ross Sea cores, suggesting a history of

  12. Sensitivity of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets to AMOC variability during the last glacial cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinemann, Malte; Timmermann, Axel; Friedrich, Tobias; Pollard, David

    2016-04-01

    The ocean played an instrumental role during the last glacial cycle, not only as a carbon trap but also during Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events. But did the variability of the ocean circulation on timescales of hundreds to a few thousand years also affect the long-term evolution of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets? We address this question using stand-alone ice sheet - ice shelf model simulations of the last glacial cycle. The boundary conditions for these simulations are derived from simulations with the intermediate complexity earth system model LOVECLIM, and from an estimate of past Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) changes based on SST reconstructions. First ice model results suggest that interruptions of the AMOC may have supported the ice sheet build-up during the glacial inception. In particular, during Marine Isotope Stage 3, the AMOC interruptions may have stabilised the Laurentide ice sheet via surface cooling, rather than destabilised it via subsurface warming.

  13. Annual accumulation over the Greenland ice sheet interpolated from historical and newly compiled observation data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shen, Dayong; Liu, Yuling; Huang, Shengli

    2012-01-01

    The estimation of ice/snow accumulation is of great significance in quantifying the mass balance of ice sheets and variation in water resources. Improving the accuracy and reducing uncertainty has been a challenge for the estimation of annual accumulation over the Greenland ice sheet. In this study, we kriged and analyzed the spatial pattern of accumulation based on an observation data series including 315 points used in a recent research, plus 101 ice cores and snow pits and newly compiled 23 coastal weather station data. The estimated annual accumulation over the Greenland ice sheet is 31.2 g cm−2 yr−1, with a standard error of 0.9 g cm−2 yr−1. The main differences between the improved map developed in this study and the recently published accumulation maps are in the coastal areas, especially southeast and southwest regions. The analysis of accumulations versus elevation reveals the distribution patterns of accumulation over the Greenland ice sheet.

  14. Late Wisconsinan ice sheet flow across northern and central Vermont, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Stephen F.

    2015-12-01

    A compilation of over 2000 glacial striation azimuths across northern and central Vermont, northeastern USA, provides the basis for interpreting a sequence of ice flow directions across this area. The oldest striations indicate widespread ice flow to the southeast, obliquely across the mountains. Similarly oriented striations between northern Vermont and the ice sheet's terminus in the Gulf of Maine suggest that a broad area of southeast ice flow existed at the Last Glacial Maximum. Younger striations with more southerly azimuths on both the mountain ridgelines and within adjacent valleys indicate that ice sheet flow trajectories in most areas rotated from southeast to south, parallel to the North-South alignment of the mountains, as the ice sheet thinned. This transition in ice flow direction was time transgressive from south to north with the Green Mountains eventually separating a thick south-flowing lobe of ice in the Champlain Valley from a much thinner lobe of south-flowing ice east of the mountains. While this transition was taking place yet ice was still thick enough to flow across the mountains, ice flow along a narrow ˜65 km long section of the Green Mountains shifted to the southwest such that ice was flowing into the Champlain Valley. The most likely process driving this change was a limited period of fast ice flow in the Champlain Valley, a short-lived ice streaming event, that drew down the ice surface in the valley. The advancing ice front during this period of fast ice flow may be responsible for the Luzerne Readvance south of Glens Falls, New York. Valley-parallel striations across the area indicate strong topographic control on ice flow as the ice sheet thinned.

  15. Numerical Ice-Sheet Modeling of the Long-Term Development of Prydz Bay, Antarctica: Tectonic Controls on Ice-Sheet Dynamics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J.; Hambrey, M. J.; Siegert, M. J.; Payne, A. J.

    2002-12-01

    A large quantity of geological data are now available from both offshore and onshore Prydz Bay and the Lambert Graben, East Antarctica, covering the growth and change of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) since early Oligocene time. We have collated much of this information, in order to constrain the rates of deposition of ice-sheet erosional products in this important sector of the EAIS, together with changes in the limits and styles of glaciation. Sedimentological data and indications of past climate from geological archives therefore formed the basis for constructing time-slice snapshots of possible morphological and climatic settings throughout the past 30-35 Ma. All of these data have then been used to constrain, or been tested by, a three-dimensional numerical ice-sheet model, which incorporates grounding-line physics. The primary concern was to assess likely ice-sheet configurations which can be forced to match the geological data, in particular, examining the possible causes of the onset of ice-stream formation in Prydz Bay after the late Miocene epoch. We suggest that tectonically induced changes in the bathymetry of the Lambert Graben and Prydz Bay are one of the major likely causes of changes in ice-sheet dynamics, and thus ice-sheet extent, in this sector of the EAIS. The results of the numerical ice-sheet modeling show clearly that tectonically induced bathymetric changes are sufficient to alter the glacial environment in this region significantly, in particular by controling the grounding and stability of ice within the Lambert Graben and by focusing ice flow from the surrounding area. The history of positive topographic features such as the bounding Prince Charles Mountains are probably not that significant in controlling ice flow, however. Glacial erosion may also have played a role in excavating the Lambert Graben by promoting fast-flowing ice in a positive feedback. We have also assessed possible changes in mass balance regime (climate) and find

  16. Thermal insights of the Greenland ice sheet perennial firn aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, R. R.; Miège, C.; Koenig, L.; Brucker, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Greenland ice sheet hydrology is characterized by a complex system and is triggered essentially by surface melt starting late spring to early summer each year. Understanding the hydrologic system for the ice sheet remains important to address ice dynamics and surface mass balance questions. In April 2011, in Southeast Greenland, field work was conducted and firn-core drilling identified the presence of liquid water persisting through the winter without freezing. This observed feature is named perennial firn aquifer (PFA) and can be mapped by the Accumulation Radar on board of the NASA Operation IceBridge mission. Even if the extent of this feature can be constrained by remote sensing techniques its formation and persistence mechanism remain unclear. Thermal behavior of the PFA is a key parameter to monitor in order to understand melting and refreezing processes at the PFA location. The PFA-13 site (66.18°N, 39.04°W and 1563 m), located near the 2011 site where the PFA was first identified, was revisited in early April 2013 for further investigations of the aquifer. To characterize the PFA thermal regime and seasonal evolution, we installed two thermistor strings . They are used to record the vertical temperature evolution for a year, from the surface to the bottom of the PFA and below. The data are being uploaded daily via satellite link. Progressive heating of the firn pack is observed from June 15th to the end of July 2013, by then, the entire firn column from the surface to 12 m depth (top of PFA) is at 0 °C. This observation brings evidence that meltwater can reach the depth of 12 m in the firn, during one and a half months. By the end of the summer, refreezing is expected from near the surface and the cold surface temperatures will slowly penetrate into the firn. In addition, freshly fallen snow, usually > 2 m over the course of a winter, will help insulate the remaining liquid water within the firn from the surface. We will present the time series of

  17. Hydrologic controls on coastal suspended sediment plumes around the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, V. W.; Smith, L. C.; Rennermalm, A. K.; Forster, R. R.; Box, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing surface melting on the Greenland ice sheet and rising sea level have furthered the need for direct observations of meltwater release from the ice sheet to ocean. Buoyant sediment plumes develop in fjords downstream of outlet glaciers and are controlled by a variety of complex factors, including ice sheet meltwater runoff and fluvial processes. This study classifies average plume suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) around the Greenland ice sheet derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite imagery and field data over the period 2000-2009. Spatial and temporal variations in SSC are compared with ice sheet positive-degree-days (PDD), a proxy for ice sheet surface melting, as modeled from the Polar MM5 regional climate model, and outlet glacier environment, as represented by land- or marine-terminating glaciers. Buoyant plume SSCs are successfully retrieved around most of Greenland. Higher ice sheet melting around Greenland produces higher SSCs in surrounding coastal waters. The southwest region, dominated by land-terminating glaciers, experiences highest PDDs and produces plumes with highest SSCs, which typically persist late into the meltwater runoff season. Interannual variations in ice sheet PDD and plume SSC are not coupled as previously demonstrated in Kangerlussuaq Fjord (Chu et al. 2009), suggesting plume dimensions better capture interannual runoff dynamics than SSC. This first exploration of coastal sediment plumes around Greenland demonstrates that while complex factors influence their development and detection, ice sheet hydrology is a dominant control on plume distribution. Satellite remote sensing thus offers a unique methodology for detecting meltwater release from the ice sheet to global ocean.

  18. Dynamics of the last glacial maximum Antarctic ice-sheet and its response to ocean forcing.

    PubMed

    Golledge, Nicholas R; Fogwill, Christopher J; Mackintosh, Andrew N; Buckley, Kevin M

    2012-10-01

    Retreat of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) Antarctic ice sheet is thought to have been initiated by changes in ocean heat and eustatic sea level propagated from the Northern Hemisphere (NH) as northern ice sheets melted under rising atmospheric temperatures. The extent to which spatial variability in ice dynamics may have modulated the resultant pattern and timing of decay of the Antarctic ice sheet has so far received little attention, however, despite the growing recognition that dynamic effects account for a sizeable proportion of mass-balance changes observed in modern ice sheets. Here we use a 5-km resolution whole-continent numerical ice-sheet model to assess whether differences in the mechanisms governing ice sheet flow could account for discrepancies between geochronological studies in different parts of the continent. We first simulate the geometry and flow characteristics of an equilibrium LGM ice sheet, using pan-Antarctic terrestrial and marine geological data for constraint, then perturb the system with sea level and ocean heat flux increases to investigate ice-sheet vulnerability. Our results identify that fast-flowing glaciers in the eastern Weddell Sea, the Amundsen Sea, central Ross Sea, and in the Amery Trough respond most rapidly to ocean forcings, in agreement with empirical data. Most significantly, we find that although ocean warming and sea-level rise bring about mainly localized glacier acceleration, concomitant drawdown of ice from neighboring areas leads to widespread thinning of entire glacier catchments-a discovery that has important ramifications for the dynamic changes presently being observed in modern ice sheets. PMID:22988078

  19. Improving Climate Literacy Using The Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM): A Prototype Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory For Use In K-12 Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halkides, D. J.; Larour, E. Y.; Perez, G.; Petrie, K.; Nguyen, L.

    2013-12-01

    Statistics indicate that most Americans learn what they will know about science within the confines of our public K-12 education system and the media. Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) aim to remedy science illiteracy and provide guidelines to exceed the Common Core State Standards that most U.S. state governments have adopted, by integrating disciplinary cores with crosscutting ideas and real life practices. In this vein, we present a prototype ';Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory' (I-Lab), geared to K-12 students, educators and interested members of the general public. I-Lab will allow users to perform experiments using a state-of-the-art dynamical ice sheet model and provide detailed downloadable lesson plans, which incorporate this model and are consistent with NGSS Physical Science criteria for different grade bands (K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12). The ultimate goal of this website is to improve public climate science literacy, especially in regards to the crucial role of the polar ice sheets in Earth's climate and sea level. The model used will be the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM), an ice flow model developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and UC Irvine, that simulates the near-term evolution of polar ice sheets (Greenland and Antarctica) and includes high spatial resolution capabilities and data assimilation to produce realistic simulations of ice sheet dynamics at the continental scale. Open sourced since 2011, ISSM is used in cutting edge cryosphere research around the globe. Thru I-Lab, students will be able to access ISSM using a simple, online graphical interface that can be launched from a web browser on a computer, tablet or smart phone. The interface will allow users to select different climate conditions and watch how the polar ice sheets evolve in time under those conditions. Lesson contents will include links to background material and activities that teach observation recording, concept articulation, hypothesis formulation and testing, and

  20. How do icebergs affect the Greenland ice sheet under pre-industrial conditions? - A model study with a fully coupled ice sheet-climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bügelmayer, M.; Roche, D. M.; Renssen, H.

    2014-01-01

    Icebergs have a potential impact on climate since they release freshwater over a wide spread area and cool the ocean due to the take up of latent heat. Yet, so far, icebergs have never been modelled using an ice sheet model coupled to a global climate model. Thus, in climate models their impact on climate was restricted to the ocean. In this study, we investigate the effect of icebergs on the Northern Hemisphere climate and the Greenland ice sheet itself within a fully coupled ice sheet (GRISLI)-Earth system (iLOVECLIM) model set-up under pre-industrial climate conditions. This set-up enables us to dynamically compute the calving sites as well as the ice discharge and to close the water cycle between the climate and the cryosphere model components. Further, we analyse the different impact of moving icebergs compared to releasing the ice discharge at the calving sites directly. We performed a suite of sensitivity experiments to investigate the individual role of the different factors presiding at the impact of ice release to the ocean: release of ice discharge as icebergs vs. as freshwater fluxes; freshening and latent heat effects. We find that icebergs enhance the sea ice thickness south and east of Greenland, thereby cooling the atmosphere and decreasing the Greenland ice sheet's height. In contrast, melting the ice discharge locally at the calving sites, causes an increased ice sheet thickness due to enhanced precipitation. Yet, releasing the ice discharge into the ocean at the calving sites while taking up the latent heat homogeneously, results in a similar ice sheet configuration and climate as the icebergs. Therefore, we conclude that in our fully coupled atmosphere-ocean-cryosphere model set-up, the spatial distribution of the take-up of latent heat related to icebergs melting has a bigger impact on the climate than the input of their melt water. Moreover, we find that icebergs affect the ice sheet's geometry even under pre-industrial equilibrium conditions.

  1. Past ice-sheet behaviour: retreat scenarios and changing controls in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halberstadt, Anna Ruth W.; Simkins, Lauren M.; Greenwood, Sarah L.; Anderson, John B.

    2016-05-01

    Studying the history of ice-sheet behaviour in the Ross Sea, Antarctica's largest drainage basin can improve our understanding of patterns and controls on marine-based ice-sheet dynamics and provide constraints for numerical ice-sheet models. Newly collected high-resolution multibeam bathymetry data, combined with two decades of legacy multibeam and seismic data, are used to map glacial landforms and reconstruct palaeo ice-sheet drainage. During the Last Glacial Maximum, grounded ice reached the continental shelf edge in the eastern but not western Ross Sea. Recessional geomorphic features in the western Ross Sea indicate virtually continuous back-stepping of the ice-sheet grounding line. In the eastern Ross Sea, well-preserved linear features and a lack of small-scale recessional landforms signify rapid lift-off of grounded ice from the bed. Physiography exerted a first-order control on regional ice behaviour, while sea floor geology played an important subsidiary role. Previously published deglacial scenarios for Ross Sea are based on low-spatial-resolution marine data or terrestrial observations; however, this study uses high-resolution basin-wide geomorphology to constrain grounding-line retreat on the continental shelf. Our analysis of retreat patterns suggests that (1) retreat from the western Ross Sea was complex due to strong physiographic controls on ice-sheet drainage; (2) retreat was asynchronous across the Ross Sea and between troughs; (3) the eastern Ross Sea largely deglaciated prior to the western Ross Sea following the formation of a large grounding-line embayment over Whales Deep; and (4) our glacial geomorphic reconstruction converges with recent numerical models that call for significant and complex East Antarctic ice sheet and West Antarctic ice sheet contributions to the ice flow in the Ross Sea.

  2. Testing the Mass Balance of the Laurentide Ice Sheet During the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullman, D. J.; Carlson, A. E.; Legrande, A. N.; Anslow, F. S.; Licciardi, J. M.; Caffee, M. W.

    2010-12-01

    Recent findings have suggested that the global Last Glacial Maximum occurred 26.5-20 ka. During this time, ice sheets were at their maximum extent and eustatic sea level was nearly 130 m lower than present. Such stability of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets suggests a nearly neutral net mass balance. Here we test the mass balance of the Laurentide Ice Sheet at the Last Glacial Maximum using an energy-mass balance model and two different ice sheet configurations. The energy-mass balance model is forced by simulated climate from the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies Model E-R, consistent with Last Glacial Maximum conditions. This coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate model contains water isotope tracers throughout the hydrologic cycle, which are used to constrain model skill against water isotopic records. Two model experiments are performed with different Laurentide Ice Sheet configurations: one using the ICE-5G geophysical reconstruction and the other using an alternative reconstruction based on a flow-line model that simulates glacier dynamics over deformable and rigid beds. These two reconstructions have widely contrasting ice sheet geometries at the Last Glacial Maximum, with the ICE-5G reconstruction having a much larger Keewatin Dome over west-central Canada, while the largest mass center according to the flow-line model is in the Labrador Dome over eastern Canada. This disparity in ice sheet geometry may result in large differences in simulated climate and net ice sheet mass balance. Initial results suggest that 1) the ICE-5G ice sheet forces a Last Glacial Maximum climate in conflict with paleoceanographic reconstructions of ocean circulation, whereas the flow-line ice sheet is in better agreement with circulation reconstructions; and 2) the initial increase in boreal summer insolation could trigger a negative mass balance for the Laurentide Ice Sheet by 21 ka, driving ice retreat. We will also compare our mass balance results with existing

  3. Greenland Ice Sheet Melt from MODIS and Associated Atmospheric Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Hall, Dorothy K.; Shuman, Christopher A.; Worthen, Denise L.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.

    2014-01-01

    Daily June-July melt fraction variations over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) derived from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) (2000-2013) are associated with atmospheric blocking forming an omega-shape ridge over the GIS at 500hPa height (from NCEPNCAR). Blocking activity with a range of time scales, from synoptic waves breaking poleward ( 5 days) to full-fledged blocks (5 days), brings warm subtropical air masses over the GIS controlling daily surface temperatures and melt. The temperature anomaly of these subtropical air mass intrusions is also important for melting. Based on the largest MODIS melt years (2002 and 2012), the area-average temperature anomaly of 2 standard deviations above the 14-year June-July mean, results in a melt fraction of 40 or more. Summer 2007 had the most blocking days, however atmospheric temperature anomalies were too small to instigate extreme melting.

  4. Drifting snow climate of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenaerts, J. T. M.

    2013-02-01

    This study presents the drifting snow climate of the Earth's ice sheets, Antarctica and Greenland. For that purpose we use a regional atmospheric climate model, RACMO2. We included a routine that is able to calculate the drifting snow fluxes and accounts for the interaction between drifting snow on the one hand and the atmosphere and snow surface on the other. RACMO2 is run at 27 km resolution for Antarctica, and 11 km resolution for Greenland, and forced at its lateral boundaries by ECMWF reanalyses (32 years for Antarctica and 52 years for Greenland). Because direct evaluation for drifting snow is challenging due to sparseness of observational data, we focussed the model evaluation on the ability of RACMO2 to represent near-surface wind climate, temperature, surface mass balance, the extent of ablation areas and remote-sensed drifting snow frequency. We show that RACMO2 is very well able to represent the present-day near-surface climate of Antarctica and Greenland. Drifting snow occurs 20-80% of the time on Antarctica, depending on the local wind climate. Highest frequencies are found in the coastal areas, where drifting snow sublimation (SUds) removes up to 150 mm water equivalent of snow, whereas the high-elevation areas experience little or no SUds. Drifting snow erosion (ER­ds) can be negative (deposition) or positive (erosion), and varies generally between -50 and 50 mm in regions where the wind field convergences and diverges, respectively. Integrated over the ice sheet, SUds removes around 165 Gt of snow, which is equivalent to ~6% of the precipitated snow. The impact of ER­ds on the Antarctic ice sheet SMB is negligible . We found several feedbacks between SUds and the atmosphere. SUds moistens the near-surface atmosphere, limiting its own potential, but also enhancing precipitation in some coastal areas. By removing mass from the snow surface, drifting snow processes increase the top snow layer density, increasing the threshold wind speed for further

  5. The Gamburtsev mountains and the origin and early evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet.

    PubMed

    Bo, Sun; Siegert, Martin J; Mudd, Simon M; Sugden, David; Fujita, Shuji; Xiangbin, Cui; Yunyun, Jiang; Xueyuan, Tang; Yuansheng, Li

    2009-06-01

    Ice-sheet development in Antarctica was a result of significant and rapid global climate change about 34 million years ago. Ice-sheet and climate modelling suggest reductions in atmospheric carbon dioxide (less than three times the pre-industrial level of 280 parts per million by volume) that, in conjunction with the development of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, led to cooling and glaciation paced by changes in Earth's orbit. Based on the present subglacial topography, numerical models point to ice-sheet genesis on mountain massifs of Antarctica, including the Gamburtsev mountains at Dome A, the centre of the present ice sheet. Our lack of knowledge of the present-day topography of the Gamburtsev mountains means, however, that the nature of early glaciation and subsequent development of a continental-sized ice sheet are uncertain. Here we present radar information about the base of the ice at Dome A, revealing classic Alpine topography with pre-existing river valleys overdeepened by valley glaciers formed when the mean summer surface temperature was around 3 degrees C. This landscape is likely to have developed during the initial phases of Antarctic glaciation. According to Antarctic climate history (estimated from offshore sediment records) the Gamburtsev mountains are probably older than 34 million years and were the main centre for ice-sheet growth. Moreover, the landscape has most probably been preserved beneath the present ice sheet for around 14 million years. PMID:19494912

  6. Airborne Laser Altimetry Mapping of the Greenland Ice Sheet: Application to Mass Balance Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdalati, W.; Krabill, W.; Frederick, E.; Manizade, S.; Martin, C.; Sonntag, J.; Swift, R.; Thomas, R.; Wright, W.; Yungel, J.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998 and '99, the Arctic Ice Mapping (AIM) program completed resurveys of lines occupied 5 years earlier revealing elevation changes of the Greenland ice sheet and identifying areas of significant thinning, thickening and balance. In planning these surveys, consideration had to be given to the spatial constraints associated with aircraft operation, the spatial nature of ice sheet behavior, and limited resources, as well as temporal issues, such as seasonal and interannual variability in the context of measurement accuracy. This paper examines the extent to which the sampling and survey strategy is valid for drawing conclusions on the current state of balance of the Greenland ice sheet. The surveys covered the entire ice sheet with an average distance of 21.4 km between each location on the ice sheet and the nearest flight line. For most of the ice sheet, the elevation changes show relatively little spatial variability, and their magnitudes are significantly smaller than the observed elevation change signal. As a result, we conclude that the density of the sampling and the accuracy of the measurements are sufficient to draw meaningful conclusions on the state of balance of the entire ice sheet over the five-year survey period. Outlet glaciers, however, show far more spatial and temporal variability, and each of the major ones is likely to require individual surveys in order to determine its balance.

  7. Evolution of a coupled marine ice sheet-sea level model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Natalya; Pollard, David; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Huybers, Peter; Clark, Peter U.

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the stability of marine ice sheets by coupling a gravitationally self-consistent sea level model valid for a self-gravitating, viscoelastically deforming Earth to a 1-D marine ice sheet-shelf model. The evolution of the coupled model is explored for a suite of simulations in which we vary the bed slope and the forcing that initiates retreat. We find that the sea level fall at the grounding line associated with a retreating ice sheet acts to slow the retreat; in simulations with shallow reversed bed slopes and/or small external forcing, the drop in sea level can be sufficient to halt the retreat. The rate of sea level change at the grounding line has an elastic component due to ongoing changes in ice sheet geometry, and a viscous component due to past ice and ocean load changes. When the ice sheet model is forced from steady state, on short timescales (<˜500 years), viscous effects may be ignored and grounding-line migration at a given time will depend on the local bedrock topography and on contemporaneous sea level changes driven by ongoing ice sheet mass flux. On longer timescales, an accurate assessment of the present stability of a marine ice sheet requires knowledge of its past evolution.

  8. Monitoring southwest Greenland’s ice sheet melt with ambient seismic noise

    PubMed Central

    Mordret, Aurélien; Mikesell, T. Dylan; Harig, Christopher; Lipovsky, Bradley P.; Prieto, Germán A.

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet presently accounts for ~70% of global ice sheet mass loss. Because this mass loss is associated with sea-level rise at a rate of 0.7 mm/year, the development of improved monitoring techniques to observe ongoing changes in ice sheet mass balance is of paramount concern. Spaceborne mass balance techniques are commonly used; however, they are inadequate for many purposes because of their low spatial and/or temporal resolution. We demonstrate that small variations in seismic wave speed in Earth’s crust, as measured with the correlation of seismic noise, may be used to infer seasonal ice sheet mass balance. Seasonal loading and unloading of glacial mass induces strain in the crust, and these strains then result in seismic velocity changes due to poroelastic processes. Our method provides a new and independent way of monitoring (in near real time) ice sheet mass balance, yielding new constraints on ice sheet evolution and its contribution to global sea-level changes. An increased number of seismic stations in the vicinity of ice sheets will enhance our ability to create detailed space-time records of ice mass variations. PMID:27386524

  9. Long-term future contribution of the Greenland ice sheet to sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calov, Reinhard; Robinson, Alex; Ganopolski, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the impact of future cumulative anthropogenic emissions on the fate of the Greenland ice sheet. For this study, we use the polythermal ice sheet model SICOPOLIS, which is bi-directionally coupled with the regional climate model of intermediate complexity REMBO. We constrain our model parameters with simulations over two glacial cycles employing anomalies from the global CLIMBER-2 model. CLIMBER-2 treats the major components or the Earth system, including atmosphere, ocean, terrestrial vegetation and carbon cycle. As constraints we include the cumulative error in ice thickness, the surface mass balance partition (ratio between precipitation and ice discharge) and the ice elevation drop between Eemian and present-day at the NEEM ice core location. Our model includes a new ice discharge parameterization, which describes the ice loss via small-scale outlet glaciers in a heuristic statistical approach. Using the large-ensemble of model versions consistent with our constraints, we estimate the range of the long-term future contribution of the Greenland ice sheet to sea-level rise under global warming. On the 100,000-year time scale, there is a visible modulation over the CO2 signal in the simulated Greenland ice volume caused by the 20,000 years precessional cycle of insolation. In nearly all of our scenarios (500 to 5000 Gt carbon cumulative emissions), the Greenland is sheet fully decays in the future after at least 40,000 years. For the extreme scenario (5000 Gt), the Greenland ice sheet decays much faster - after about 5000 years, while there is still 80% of the ice sheet left after 40,000 years only for the model versions with a low temperature sensitivity and the low cumulative carbon emission scenario (500 Gt). Our results underline that without future negative CO2 emissions, irreversible loss of Greenland ice sheet is essentially unavoidable.