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Sample records for 3d image analysis

  1. Tilted planes in 3D image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pargas, Roy P.; Staples, Nancy J.; Malloy, Brian F.; Cantrell, Ken; Chhatriwala, Murtuza

    1998-03-01

    Reliable 3D wholebody scanners which output digitized 3D images of a complete human body are now commercially available. This paper describes a software package, called 3DM, being developed by researchers at Clemson University and which manipulates and extracts measurements from such images. The focus of this paper is on tilted planes, a 3DM tool which allows a user to define a plane through a scanned image, tilt it in any direction, and effectively define three disjoint regions on the image: the points on the plane and the points on either side of the plane. With tilted planes, the user can accurately take measurements required in applications such as apparel manufacturing. The user can manually segment the body rather precisely. Tilted planes assist the user in analyzing the form of the body and classifying the body in terms of body shape. Finally, titled planes allow the user to eliminate extraneous and unwanted points often generated by a 3D scanner. This paper describes the user interface for tilted planes, the equations defining the plane as the user moves it through the scanned image, an overview of the algorithms, and the interaction of the tilted plane feature with other tools in 3DM.

  2. Visualization and analysis of 3D microscopic images.

    PubMed

    Long, Fuhui; Zhou, Jianlong; Peng, Hanchuan

    2012-01-01

    In a wide range of biological studies, it is highly desirable to visualize and analyze three-dimensional (3D) microscopic images. In this primer, we first introduce several major methods for visualizing typical 3D images and related multi-scale, multi-time-point, multi-color data sets. Then, we discuss three key categories of image analysis tasks, namely segmentation, registration, and annotation. We demonstrate how to pipeline these visualization and analysis modules using examples of profiling the single-cell gene-expression of C. elegans and constructing a map of stereotyped neurite tracts in a fruit fly brain.

  3. Visualization and Analysis of 3D Microscopic Images

    PubMed Central

    Long, Fuhui; Zhou, Jianlong; Peng, Hanchuan

    2012-01-01

    In a wide range of biological studies, it is highly desirable to visualize and analyze three-dimensional (3D) microscopic images. In this primer, we first introduce several major methods for visualizing typical 3D images and related multi-scale, multi-time-point, multi-color data sets. Then, we discuss three key categories of image analysis tasks, namely segmentation, registration, and annotation. We demonstrate how to pipeline these visualization and analysis modules using examples of profiling the single-cell gene-expression of C. elegans and constructing a map of stereotyped neurite tracts in a fruit fly brain. PMID:22719236

  4. 3D quantitative analysis of brain SPECT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loncaric, Sven; Ceskovic, Ivan; Petrovic, Ratimir; Loncaric, Srecko

    2001-07-01

    The main purpose of this work is to develop a computer-based technique for quantitative analysis of 3-D brain images obtained by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In particular, the volume and location of ischemic lesion and penumbra is important for early diagnosis and treatment of infracted regions of the brain. SPECT imaging is typically used as diagnostic tool to assess the size and location of the ischemic lesion. The segmentation method presented in this paper utilizes a 3-D deformable model in order to determine size and location of the regions of interest. The evolution of the model is computed using a level-set implementation of the algorithm. In addition to 3-D deformable model the method utilizes edge detection and region growing for realization of a pre-processing. Initial experimental results have shown that the method is useful for SPECT image analysis.

  5. 3-D object-oriented image analysis of geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadel, I.; Kerle, N.; van der Meijde, M.

    2014-07-01

    Geophysical data are the main source of information about the subsurface. Geophysical techniques are, however, highly non-unique in determining specific physical parameters and boundaries of subsurface objects. To obtain actual physical information, an inversion process is often applied, in which measurements at or above the Earth surface are inverted into a 2- or 3-D subsurface spatial distribution of the physical property. Interpreting these models into structural objects, related to physical processes, requires a priori knowledge and expert analysis which is susceptible to subjective choices and is therefore often non-repeatable. In this research, we implemented a recently introduced object-based approach to interpret the 3-D inversion results of a single geophysical technique using the available a priori information and the physical and geometrical characteristics of the interpreted objects. The introduced methodology is semi-automatic and repeatable, and allows the extraction of subsurface structures using 3-D object-oriented image analysis (3-D OOA) in an objective knowledge-based classification scheme. The approach allows for a semi-objective setting of thresholds that can be tested and, if necessary, changed in a very fast and efficient way. These changes require only changing the thresholds used in a so-called ruleset, which is composed of algorithms that extract objects from a 3-D data cube. The approach is tested on a synthetic model, which is based on a priori knowledge on objects present in the study area (Tanzania). Object characteristics and thresholds were well defined in a 3-D histogram of velocity versus depth, and objects were fully retrieved. The real model results showed how 3-D OOA can deal with realistic 3-D subsurface conditions in which the boundaries become fuzzy, the object extensions become unclear and the model characteristics vary with depth due to the different physical conditions. As expected, the 3-D histogram of the real data was

  6. 3D Image Analysis of Geomaterials using Confocal Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulukutla, G.; Proussevitch, A.; Sahagian, D.

    2009-05-01

    Confocal microscopy is one of the most significant advances in optical microscopy of the last century. It is widely used in biological sciences but its application to geomaterials lingers due to a number of technical problems. Potentially the technique can perform non-invasive testing on a laser illuminated sample that fluoresces using a unique optical sectioning capability that rejects out-of-focus light reaching the confocal aperture. Fluorescence in geomaterials is commonly induced using epoxy doped with a fluorochrome that is impregnated into the sample to enable discrimination of various features such as void space or material boundaries. However, for many geomaterials, this method cannot be used because they do not naturally fluoresce and because epoxy cannot be impregnated into inaccessible parts of the sample due to lack of permeability. As a result, the confocal images of most geomaterials that have not been pre-processed with extensive sample preparation techniques are of poor quality and lack the necessary image and edge contrast necessary to apply any commonly used segmentation techniques to conduct any quantitative study of its features such as vesicularity, internal structure, etc. In our present work, we are developing a methodology to conduct a quantitative 3D analysis of images of geomaterials collected using a confocal microscope with minimal amount of prior sample preparation and no addition of fluorescence. Two sample geomaterials, a volcanic melt sample and a crystal chip containing fluid inclusions are used to assess the feasibility of the method. A step-by-step process of image analysis includes application of image filtration to enhance the edges or material interfaces and is based on two segmentation techniques: geodesic active contours and region competition. Both techniques have been applied extensively to the analysis of medical MRI images to segment anatomical structures. Preliminary analysis suggests that there is distortion in the

  7. Accuracy of 3D Imaging Software in Cephalometric Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-21

    Imaging and Communication in Medicine ( DICOM ) files into personal computer-based software to enable 3D reconstruction of the craniofacial skeleton. These...tissue profile. CBCT data can be imported as DICOM files into personal computer–based software to provide 3D reconstruction of the craniofacial...been acquired for the three pig models. The CBCT data were exported into DICOM multi-file format. They will be imported into a proprietary

  8. 3D image analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subasic, Marko; Loncaric, Sven; Sorantin, Erich

    2001-07-01

    In this paper we propose a technique for 3-D segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) from computed tomography angiography (CTA) images. Output data (3-D model) form the proposed method can be used for measurement of aortic shape and dimensions. Knowledge of aortic shape and size is very important in planning of minimally invasive procedure that is for selection of appropriate stent graft device for treatment of AAA. The technique is based on a 3-D deformable model and utilizes the level-set algorithm for implementation of the method. The method performs 3-D segmentation of CTA images and extracts a 3-D model of aortic wall. Once the 3-D model of aortic wall is available it is easy to perform all required measurements for appropriate stent graft selection. The method proposed in this paper uses the level-set algorithm for deformable models, instead of the classical snake algorithm. The main advantage of the level set algorithm is that it enables easy segmentation of complex structures, surpassing most of the drawbacks of the classical approach. We have extended the deformable model to incorporate the a priori knowledge about the shape of the AAA. This helps direct the evolution of the deformable model to correctly segment the aorta. The algorithm has been implemented in IDL and C languages. Experiments have been performed using real patient CTA images and have shown good results.

  9. 3D image analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subasic, Marko; Loncaric, Sven; Sorantin, Erich

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents a method for 3-D segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysm from computed tomography angiography images. The proposed method is automatic and requires minimal user assistance. Segmentation is performed in two steps. First inner and then outer aortic border is segmented. Those two steps are different due to different image conditions on two aortic borders. Outputs of these two segmentations give a complete 3-D model of abdominal aorta. Such a 3-D model is used in measurements of aneurysm area. The deformable model is implemented using the level-set algorithm due to its ability to describe complex shapes in natural manner which frequently occur in pathology. In segmentation of outer aortic boundary we introduced some knowledge based preprocessing to enhance and reconstruct low contrast aortic boundary. The method has been implemented in IDL and C languages. Experiments have been performed using real patient CTA images and have shown good results.

  10. Computerized analysis of pelvic incidence from 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrtovec, Tomaž; Janssen, Michiel M. A.; Pernuš, Franjo; Castelein, René M.; Viergever, Max A.

    2012-02-01

    The sagittal alignment of the pelvis can be evaluated by the angle of pelvic incidence (PI), which is constant for an arbitrary subject position and orientation and can be therefore compared among subjects in standing, sitting or supine position. In this study, PI was measured from three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) images of normal subjects that were acquired in supine position. A novel computerized method, based on image processing techniques, was developed to automatically determine the anatomical references required to measure PI, i.e. the centers of the femoral heads in 3D, and the center and inclination of the sacral endplate in 3D. Multiplanar image reformation was applied to obtain perfect sagittal views with all anatomical structures completely in line with the hip axis, from which PI was calculated. The resulting PI (mean+/-standard deviation) was equal to 46.6°+/-9.2° for male subjects (N = 189), 47.6°+/-10.7° for female subjects (N = 181), and 47.1°+/-10.0° for all subjects (N = 370). The obtained measurements of PI from 3D images were not biased by acquisition projection or structure orientation, because all anatomical structures were completely in line with the hip axis. The performed measurements in 3D therefore represent PI according to the actual geometrical relationships among anatomical structures of the sacrum, pelvis and hips, as observed from the perfect sagittal views.

  11. Efficiency analysis for 3D filtering of multichannel images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhemiakin, Ruslan A.; Rubel, Oleksii; Abramov, Sergey K.; Lukin, Vladimir V.; Vozel, Benoit; Chehdi, Kacem

    2016-10-01

    Modern remote sensing systems basically acquire images that are multichannel (dual- or multi-polarization, multi- and hyperspectral) where noise, usually with different characteristics, is present in all components. If noise is intensive, it is desirable to remove (suppress) it before applying methods of image classification, interpreting, and information extraction. This can be done using one of two approaches - by component-wise or by vectorial (3D) filtering. The second approach has shown itself to have higher efficiency if there is essential correlation between multichannel image components as this often happens for multichannel remote sensing data of different origin. Within the class of 3D filtering techniques, there are many possibilities and variations. In this paper, we consider filtering based on discrete cosine transform (DCT) and pay attention to two aspects of processing. First, we study in detail what changes in DCT coefficient statistics take place for 3D denoising compared to component-wise processing. Second, we analyze how selection of component images united into 3D data array influences efficiency of filtering and can the observed tendencies be exploited in processing of images with rather large number of channels.

  12. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  13. Analysis and dynamic 3D visualization of cerebral blood flow combining 3D and 4D MR image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkert, Nils Daniel; Säring, Dennis; Fiehler, Jens; Illies, Till; Möller, Dietmar; Handels, Heinz

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we present a method for the dynamic visualization of cerebral blood flow. Spatio-temporal 4D magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) image datasets and 3D MRA datasets with high spatial resolution were acquired for the analysis of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). One of the main tasks is the combination of the information of the 3D and 4D MRA image sequences. Initially, in the 3D MRA dataset the vessel system is segmented and a 3D surface model is generated. Then, temporal intensity curves are analyzed voxelwise in the 4D MRA image sequences. A curve fitting of the temporal intensity curves to a patient individual reference curve is used to extract the bolus arrival times in the 4D MRA sequences. After non-linear registration of both MRA datasets the extracted hemodynamic information is transferred to the surface model where the time points of inflow can be visualized color coded dynamically over time. The dynamic visualizations computed using the curve fitting method for the estimation of the bolus arrival times were rated superior compared to those computed using conventional approaches for bolus arrival time estimation. In summary the procedure suggested allows a dynamic visualization of the individual hemodynamic situation and better understanding during the visual evaluation of cerebral vascular diseases.

  14. Evaluation of stereoscopic 3D displays for image analysis tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peinsipp-Byma, E.; Rehfeld, N.; Eck, R.

    2009-02-01

    In many application domains the analysis of aerial or satellite images plays an important role. The use of stereoscopic display technologies can enhance the image analyst's ability to detect or to identify certain objects of interest, which results in a higher performance. Changing image acquisition from analog to digital techniques entailed the change of stereoscopic visualisation techniques. Recently different kinds of digital stereoscopic display techniques with affordable prices have appeared on the market. At Fraunhofer IITB usability tests were carried out to find out (1) with which kind of these commercially available stereoscopic display techniques image analysts achieve the best performance and (2) which of these techniques achieve a high acceptance. First, image analysts were interviewed to define typical image analysis tasks which were expected to be solved with a higher performance using stereoscopic display techniques. Next, observer experiments were carried out whereby image analysts had to solve defined tasks with different visualization techniques. Based on the experimental results (performance parameters and qualitative subjective evaluations of the used display techniques) two of the examined stereoscopic display technologies were found to be very good and appropriate.

  15. 3D photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Roumeliotis, Michael; Chaudhary, Govind; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2010-06-01

    Our group has concentrated on development of a 3D photoacoustic imaging system for biomedical imaging research. The technology employs a sparse parallel detection scheme and specialized reconstruction software to obtain 3D optical images using a single laser pulse. With the technology we have been able to capture 3D movies of translating point targets and rotating line targets. The current limitation of our 3D photoacoustic imaging approach is its inability ability to reconstruct complex objects in the field of view. This is primarily due to the relatively small number of projections used to reconstruct objects. However, in many photoacoustic imaging situations, only a few objects may be present in the field of view and these objects may have very high contrast compared to background. That is, the objects have sparse properties. Therefore, our work had two objectives: (i) to utilize mathematical tools to evaluate 3D photoacoustic imaging performance, and (ii) to test image reconstruction algorithms that prefer sparseness in the reconstructed images. Our approach was to utilize singular value decomposition techniques to study the imaging operator of the system and evaluate the complexity of objects that could potentially be reconstructed. We also compared the performance of two image reconstruction algorithms (algebraic reconstruction and l1-norm techniques) at reconstructing objects of increasing sparseness. We observed that for a 15-element detection scheme, the number of measureable singular vectors representative of the imaging operator was consistent with the demonstrated ability to reconstruct point and line targets in the field of view. We also observed that the l1-norm reconstruction technique, which is known to prefer sparseness in reconstructed images, was superior to the algebraic reconstruction technique. Based on these findings, we concluded (i) that singular value decomposition of the imaging operator provides valuable insight into the capabilities of

  16. Vibration Analysis using 3D Image Correlation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, T.; Splitthof, K.

    2010-06-01

    Digital speckle correlation techniques have already been successfully proven to be an accurate displacement analysis tool for a wide range of applications. With the use of two cameras, three dimensional measurements of contours and displacements can be carried out. With a simple setup it opens a wide range of applications. Rapid new developments in the field of digital imaging and computer technology opens further applications for these measurement methods to high speed deformation and strain analysis, e.g. in the fields of material testing, fracture mechanics, advanced materials and component testing. The high resolution of the deformation measurements in space and time opens a wide range of applications for vibration analysis of objects. Since the system determines the absolute position and displacements of the object in space, it is capable of measuring high amplitudes and even objects with rigid body movements. The absolute resolution depends on the field of view and is scalable. Calibration of the optical setup is a crucial point which will be discussed in detail. Examples of the analysis of harmonic vibration and transient events from material research and industrial applications are presented. The results show typical features of the system.

  17. IMPROMPTU: a system for automatic 3D medical image-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sundaramoorthy, G; Hoford, J D; Hoffman, E A; Higgins, W E

    1995-01-01

    The utility of three-dimensional (3D) medical imaging is hampered by difficulties in extracting anatomical regions and making measurements in 3D images. Presently, a user is generally forced to use time-consuming, subjective, manual methods, such as slice tracing and region painting, to define regions of interest. Automatic image-analysis methods can ameliorate the difficulties of manual methods. This paper describes a graphical user interface (GUI) system for constructing automatic image-analysis processes for 3D medical-imaging applications. The system, referred to as IMPROMPTU, provides a user-friendly environment for prototyping, testing and executing complex image-analysis processes. IMPROMPTU can stand alone or it can interact with an existing graphics-based 3D medical image-analysis package (VIDA), giving a strong environment for 3D image-analysis, consisting of tools for visualization, manual interaction, and automatic processing. IMPROMPTU links to a large library of 1D, 2D, and 3D image-processing functions, referred to as VIPLIB, but a user can easily link in custom-made functions. 3D applications of the system are given for left-ventricular chamber, myocardial, and upper-airway extractions.

  18. Seeing More Is Knowing More: V3D Enables Real-Time 3D Visualization and Quantitative Analysis of Large-Scale Biological Image Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hanchuan; Long, Fuhui

    Everyone understands seeing more is knowing more. However, for large-scale 3D microscopic image analysis, it has not been an easy task to efficiently visualize, manipulate and understand high-dimensional data in 3D, 4D or 5D spaces. We developed a new 3D+ image visualization and analysis platform, V3D, to meet this need. The V3D system provides 3D visualization of gigabyte-sized microscopy image stacks in real time on current laptops and desktops. V3D streamlines the online analysis, measurement and proofreading of complicated image patterns by combining ergonomic functions for selecting a location in an image directly in 3D space and for displaying biological measurements, such as from fluorescent probes, using the overlaid surface objects. V3D runs on all major computer platforms and can be enhanced by software plug-ins to address specific biological problems. To demonstrate this extensibility, we built a V3Dbased application, V3D-Neuron, to reconstruct complex 3D neuronal structures from high-resolution brain images. V3D-Neuron can precisely digitize the morphology of a single neuron in a fruitfly brain in minutes, with about a 17-fold improvement in reliability and tenfold savings in time compared with other neuron reconstruction tools. Using V3D-Neuron, we demonstrate the feasibility of building a high-resolution 3D digital atlas of neurite tracts in the fruitfly brain. V3D can be easily extended using a simple-to-use and comprehensive plugin interface.

  19. Reducing Non-Uniqueness in Satellite Gravity Inversion using 3D Object Oriented Image Analysis Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadel, I.; van der Meijde, M.; Kerle, N.

    2013-12-01

    Non-uniqueness of satellite gravity interpretation has been usually reduced by using a priori information from various sources, e.g. seismic tomography models. The reduction in non-uniqueness has been based on velocity-density conversion formulas or user interpretation for 3D subsurface structures (objects) in seismic tomography models. However, these processes introduce additional uncertainty through the conversion relations due to the dependency on the other physical parameters such as temperature and pressure, or through the bias in the interpretation due to user choices and experience. In this research, a new methodology is introduced to extract the 3D subsurface structures from 3D geophysical data using a state-of-art 3D Object Oriented Image Analysis (OOA) technique. 3D OOA is tested using a set of synthetic models that simulate the real situation in the study area of this research. Then, 3D OOA is used to extract 3D subsurface objects from a real 3D seismic tomography model. The extracted 3D objects are used to reconstruct a forward model and its response is compared with the measured satellite gravity. Finally, the result of the forward modelling, based on the extracted 3D objects, is used to constrain the inversion process of satellite gravity data. Through this work, a new object-based approach is introduced to interpret and extract the 3D subsurface objects from 3D geophysical data. This can be used to constrain modelling and inversion of potential field data using the extracted 3D subsurface structures from other methods. In summary, a new approach is introduced to constrain inversion of satellite gravity measurements and enhance interpretation capabilities.

  20. 3D texture analysis in renal cell carcinoma tissue image grading.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Yun; Cho, Nam-Hoon; Jeong, Goo-Bo; Bengtsson, Ewert; Choi, Heung-Kook

    2014-01-01

    One of the most significant processes in cancer cell and tissue image analysis is the efficient extraction of features for grading purposes. This research applied two types of three-dimensional texture analysis methods to the extraction of feature values from renal cell carcinoma tissue images, and then evaluated the validity of the methods statistically through grade classification. First, we used a confocal laser scanning microscope to obtain image slices of four grades of renal cell carcinoma, which were then reconstructed into 3D volumes. Next, we extracted quantitative values using a 3D gray level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM) and a 3D wavelet based on two types of basis functions. To evaluate their validity, we predefined 6 different statistical classifiers and applied these to the extracted feature sets. In the grade classification results, 3D Haar wavelet texture features combined with principal component analysis showed the best discrimination results. Classification using 3D wavelet texture features was significantly better than 3D GLCM, suggesting that the former has potential for use in a computer-based grading system.

  1. Analysis of scalability of high-performance 3D image processing platform for virtual colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Wu, Yin; Cai, Wenli

    2014-01-01

    One of the key challenges in three-dimensional (3D) medical imaging is to enable the fast turn-around time, which is often required for interactive or real-time response. This inevitably requires not only high computational power but also high memory bandwidth due to the massive amount of data that need to be processed. For this purpose, we previously developed a software platform for high-performance 3D medical image processing, called HPC 3D-MIP platform, which employs increasingly available and affordable commodity computing systems such as the multicore, cluster, and cloud computing systems. To achieve scalable high-performance computing, the platform employed size-adaptive, distributable block volumes as a core data structure for efficient parallelization of a wide range of 3D-MIP algorithms, supported task scheduling for efficient load distribution and balancing, and consisted of a layered parallel software libraries that allow image processing applications to share the common functionalities. We evaluated the performance of the HPC 3D-MIP platform by applying it to computationally intensive processes in virtual colonoscopy. Experimental results showed a 12-fold performance improvement on a workstation with 12-core CPUs over the original sequential implementation of the processes, indicating the efficiency of the platform. Analysis of performance scalability based on the Amdahl’s law for symmetric multicore chips showed the potential of a high performance scalability of the HPC 3D-MIP platform when a larger number of cores is available. PMID:24910506

  2. Knowledge-Based Analysis And Understanding Of 3D Medical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhawan, Atam P.; Juvvadi, Sridhar

    1988-06-01

    The anatomical three-dimensional (3D) medical imaging modalities, such as X-ray CT and MRI, have been well recognized in the diagnostic radiology for several years while the nuclear medicine modalities, such as PET, have just started making a strong impact through functional imaging. Though PET images provide the functional information about the human organs, they are hard to interpret because of the lack of anatomical information. Our objective is to develop a knowledge-based biomedical image analysis system which can interpret the anatomical images (such as CT). The anatomical information thus obtained can then be used in analyzing PET images of the same patient. This will not only help in interpreting PET images but it will also provide a means of studying the correlation between the anatomical and functional imaging. This paper presents the preliminary results of the knowledge based biomedical image analysis system for interpreting CT images of the chest.

  3. Analysis of a 3-D system function measured for magnetic particle imaging.

    PubMed

    Rahmer, Jürgen; Weizenecker, Jürgen; Gleich, Bernhard; Borgert, Jörn

    2012-06-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new tomographic imaging approach that can quantitatively map magnetic nanoparticle distributions in vivo. It is capable of volumetric real-time imaging at particle concentrations low enough to enable clinical applications. For image reconstruction in 3-D MPI, a system function (SF) is used, which describes the relation between the acquired MPI signal and the spatial origin of the signal. The SF depends on the instrumental configuration, the applied field sequence, and the magnetic particle characteristics. Its properties reflect the quality of the spatial encoding process. This work presents a detailed analysis of a measured SF to give experimental evidence that 3-D MPI encodes information using a set of 3-D spatial patterns or basis functions that is stored in the SF. This resembles filling 3-D k-space in magnetic resonance imaging, but is faster since all information is gathered simultaneously over a broad acquisition bandwidth. A frequency domain analysis shows that the finest structures that can be encoded with the presented SF are as small as 0.6 mm. SF simulations are performed to demonstrate that larger particle cores extend the set of basis functions towards higher resolution and that the experimentally observed spatial patterns require the existence of particles with core sizes of about 30 nm in the calibration sample. A simple formula is presented that qualitatively describes the basis functions to be expected at a certain frequency.

  4. Efficient curve-skeleton computation for the analysis of biomedical 3d images - biomed 2010.

    PubMed

    Brun, Francesco; Dreossi, Diego

    2010-01-01

    Advances in three dimensional (3D) biomedical imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT), make it easy to reconstruct high quality 3D models of portions of human body and other biological specimens. A major challenge lies in the quantitative analysis of the resulting models thus allowing a more comprehensive characterization of the object under investigation. An interesting approach is based on curve-skeleton (or medial axis) extraction, which gives basic information concerning the topology and the geometry. Curve-skeletons have been applied in the analysis of vascular networks and the diagnosis of tracheal stenoses as well as a 3D flight path in virtual endoscopy. However curve-skeleton computation is a crucial task. An effective skeletonization algorithm was introduced by N. Cornea in [1] but it lacks in computational performances. Thanks to the advances in imaging techniques the resolution of 3D images is increasing more and more, therefore there is the need for efficient algorithms in order to analyze significant Volumes of Interest (VOIs). In the present paper an improved skeletonization algorithm based on the idea proposed in [1] is presented. A computational comparison between the original and the proposed method is also reported. The obtained results show that the proposed method allows a significant computational improvement making more appealing the adoption of the skeleton representation in biomedical image analysis applications.

  5. 3D carotid plaque MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Dennis L.

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS There has been significant progress made in 3D carotid plaque magnetic resonance imaging techniques in recent years. 3D plaque imaging clearly represents the future in clinical use. With effective flow suppression techniques, choices of different contrast weighting acquisitions, and time-efficient imaging approaches, 3D plaque imaging offers flexible imaging plane and view angle analysis, large coverage, multi-vascular beds capability, and even can be used in fast screening. PMID:26610656

  6. Analysis of scalability of high-performance 3D image processing platform for virtual colonoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Wu, Yin; Cai, Wenli

    2014-03-01

    One of the key challenges in three-dimensional (3D) medical imaging is to enable the fast turn-around time, which is often required for interactive or real-time response. This inevitably requires not only high computational power but also high memory bandwidth due to the massive amount of data that need to be processed. For this purpose, we previously developed a software platform for high-performance 3D medical image processing, called HPC 3D-MIP platform, which employs increasingly available and affordable commodity computing systems such as the multicore, cluster, and cloud computing systems. To achieve scalable high-performance computing, the platform employed size-adaptive, distributable block volumes as a core data structure for efficient parallelization of a wide range of 3D-MIP algorithms, supported task scheduling for efficient load distribution and balancing, and consisted of a layered parallel software libraries that allow image processing applications to share the common functionalities. We evaluated the performance of the HPC 3D-MIP platform by applying it to computationally intensive processes in virtual colonoscopy. Experimental results showed a 12-fold performance improvement on a workstation with 12-core CPUs over the original sequential implementation of the processes, indicating the efficiency of the platform. Analysis of performance scalability based on the Amdahl's law for symmetric multicore chips showed the potential of a high performance scalability of the HPC 3DMIP platform when a larger number of cores is available.

  7. Analysis of 3-D images of dental imprints using computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubin, Michele; Cote, Jean; Laurendeau, Denis; Poussart, Denis

    1992-05-01

    This paper addressed two important aspects of dental analysis: (1) location and (2) identification of the types of teeth by means of 3-D image acquisition and segmentation. The 3-D images of both maxillaries are acquired using a wax wafer as support. The interstices between teeth are detected by non-linear filtering of the 3-D and grey-level data. Two operators are presented: one for the detection of the interstices between incisors, canines, and premolars and one for those between molars. Teeth are then identified by mapping the imprint under analysis on the computer model of an 'ideal' imprint. For the mapping to be valid, a set of three reference points is detected on the imprint. Then, the points are put in correspondence with similar points on the model. Two such points are chosen based on a least-squares fit of a second-order polynomial of the 3-D data in the area of canines. This area is of particular interest since the canines show a very characteristic shape and are easily detected on the imprint. The mapping technique is described in detail in the paper as well as pre-processing of the 3-D profiles. Experimental results are presented for different imprints.

  8. 3D texture analysis for classification of second harmonic generation images of human ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Bruce; Campbell, Kirby R.; Tilbury, Karissa; Nadiarnykh, Oleg; Brewer, Molly A.; Patankar, Manish; Singh, Vikas; Eliceiri, Kevin. W.; Campagnola, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Remodeling of the collagen architecture in the extracellular matrix (ECM) has been implicated in ovarian cancer. To quantify these alterations we implemented a form of 3D texture analysis to delineate the fibrillar morphology observed in 3D Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy image data of normal (1) and high risk (2) ovarian stroma, benign ovarian tumors (3), low grade (4) and high grade (5) serous tumors, and endometrioid tumors (6). We developed a tailored set of 3D filters which extract textural features in the 3D image sets to build (or learn) statistical models of each tissue class. By applying k-nearest neighbor classification using these learned models, we achieved 83–91% accuracies for the six classes. The 3D method outperformed the analogous 2D classification on the same tissues, where we suggest this is due the increased information content. This classification based on ECM structural changes will complement conventional classification based on genetic profiles and can serve as an additional biomarker. Moreover, the texture analysis algorithm is quite general, as it does not rely on single morphological metrics such as fiber alignment, length, and width but their combined convolution with a customizable basis set. PMID:27767180

  9. 3D texture analysis for classification of second harmonic generation images of human ovarian cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Bruce; Campbell, Kirby R.; Tilbury, Karissa; Nadiarnykh, Oleg; Brewer, Molly A.; Patankar, Manish; Singh, Vikas; Eliceiri, Kevin. W.; Campagnola, Paul J.

    2016-10-01

    Remodeling of the collagen architecture in the extracellular matrix (ECM) has been implicated in ovarian cancer. To quantify these alterations we implemented a form of 3D texture analysis to delineate the fibrillar morphology observed in 3D Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy image data of normal (1) and high risk (2) ovarian stroma, benign ovarian tumors (3), low grade (4) and high grade (5) serous tumors, and endometrioid tumors (6). We developed a tailored set of 3D filters which extract textural features in the 3D image sets to build (or learn) statistical models of each tissue class. By applying k-nearest neighbor classification using these learned models, we achieved 83–91% accuracies for the six classes. The 3D method outperformed the analogous 2D classification on the same tissues, where we suggest this is due the increased information content. This classification based on ECM structural changes will complement conventional classification based on genetic profiles and can serve as an additional biomarker. Moreover, the texture analysis algorithm is quite general, as it does not rely on single morphological metrics such as fiber alignment, length, and width but their combined convolution with a customizable basis set.

  10. Quantification of Dynamic Morphological Drug Responses in 3D Organotypic Cell Cultures by Automated Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Härmä, Ville; Schukov, Hannu-Pekka; Happonen, Antti; Ahonen, Ilmari; Virtanen, Johannes; Siitari, Harri; Åkerfelt, Malin; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Nees, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Glandular epithelial cells differentiate into complex multicellular or acinar structures, when embedded in three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix. The spectrum of different multicellular morphologies formed in 3D is a sensitive indicator for the differentiation potential of normal, non-transformed cells compared to different stages of malignant progression. In addition, single cells or cell aggregates may actively invade the matrix, utilizing epithelial, mesenchymal or mixed modes of motility. Dynamic phenotypic changes involved in 3D tumor cell invasion are sensitive to specific small-molecule inhibitors that target the actin cytoskeleton. We have used a panel of inhibitors to demonstrate the power of automated image analysis as a phenotypic or morphometric readout in cell-based assays. We introduce a streamlined stand-alone software solution that supports large-scale high-content screens, based on complex and organotypic cultures. AMIDA (Automated Morphometric Image Data Analysis) allows quantitative measurements of large numbers of images and structures, with a multitude of different spheroid shapes, sizes, and textures. AMIDA supports an automated workflow, and can be combined with quality control and statistical tools for data interpretation and visualization. We have used a representative panel of 12 prostate and breast cancer lines that display a broad spectrum of different spheroid morphologies and modes of invasion, challenged by a library of 19 direct or indirect modulators of the actin cytoskeleton which induce systematic changes in spheroid morphology and differentiation versus invasion. These results were independently validated by 2D proliferation, apoptosis and cell motility assays. We identified three drugs that primarily attenuated the invasion and formation of invasive processes in 3D, without affecting proliferation or apoptosis. Two of these compounds block Rac signalling, one affects cellular cAMP/cGMP accumulation. Our approach supports

  11. 3D-modeling of deformed halite hopper crystals by Object Based Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, Christoph; Hofmann, Peter; Marschallinger, Robert

    2014-12-01

    Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) is an established method for analyzing multiscale and multidimensional imagery in a range of disciplines. In the present study this method was used for the 3D reconstruction of halite hopper crystals in a mudrock sample, based on Computed Tomography data. To quantitatively assess the reliability of OBIA results, they were benchmarked against a corresponding "gold standard", a reference 3D model of the halite crystals that was derived by manual expert digitization of the CT images. For accuracy assessment, classical per-scene statistics were extended to per-object statistics. The strength of OBIA was to recognize all objects similar to halite hopper crystals and in particular to eliminate cracks. Using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier on top of OBIA, unsuitable objects like halite crystal clusters, polyhalite-coated crystals and spherical halite crystals were effectively dismissed, but simultaneously the number of well-shaped halites was reduced.

  12. Difference in performance between 3D and 4D CBCT for lung imaging: a dose and image quality analysis.

    PubMed

    Thengumpallil, Sheeba; Smith, Kathleen; Monnin, Pascal; Bourhis, Jean; Bochud, François; Moeckli, Raphaël

    2016-11-08

    The study was to describe and to compare the performance of 3D and 4D CBCT imaging modalities by measuring and analyzing the delivered dose and the image quality. The 3D (Chest) and 4D (Symmetry) CBCT Elekta XVI lung IGRT protocols were analyzed. Dose profiles were measured with TLDs inside a dedicated phantom. The dosimetric indicator cone-beam dose index (CBDI) was evaluated. The image quality analysis was performed by assessing the contrast transfer function (CTF), the noise power spectrum (NPS) and the noise-equivalent quanta (NEQ). Artifacts were also evaluated by simulating irregular breathing variations. The two imaging modalities showed different dose distributions within the phantom. At the center, the 3D CBCT delivered twice the dose of the 4D CBCT. The CTF was strongly reduced by motion compared to static conditions, resulting in a CTF reduction of 85% for the 3D CBCT and 65% for the 4D CBCT. The amplitude of the NPS was two times higher for the 4D CBCT than for the 3D CBCT. In the presence of motion, the NEQ of the 4D CBCT was 50% higher than the 3D CBCT. In the presence of breathing irregularities, the 4D CBCT protocol was mainly affected by view-aliasing artifacts, which were typically cone-beam artifacts, while the 3D CBCT protocol was mainly affected by duplication artifacts. The results showed that the 4D CBCT ensures a reasonable dose and better image quality when mov-ing targets are involved compared to 3D CBCT. Therefore, 4D CBCT is a reliable imaging modality for lung free-breathing radiation therapy.

  13. 3D imaging for ballistics analysis using chromatic white light sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makrushin, Andrey; Hildebrandt, Mario; Dittmann, Jana; Clausing, Eric; Fischer, Robert; Vielhauer, Claus

    2012-03-01

    The novel application of sensing technology, based on chromatic white light (CWL), gives a new insight into ballistic analysis of cartridge cases. The CWL sensor uses a beam of white light to acquire highly detailed topography and luminance data simultaneously. The proposed 3D imaging system combines advantages of 3D and 2D image processing algorithms in order to automate the extraction of firearm specific toolmarks shaped on fired specimens. The most important characteristics of a fired cartridge case are the type of the breech face marking as well as size, shape and location of extractor, ejector and firing pin marks. The feature extraction algorithm normalizes the casing surface and consistently searches for the appropriate distortions on the rim and on the primer. The location of the firing pin mark in relation to the lateral scratches on the rim provides unique rotation invariant characteristics of the firearm mechanisms. Additional characteristics are the volume and shape of the firing pin mark. The experimental evaluation relies on the data set of 15 cartridge cases fired from three 9mm firearms of different manufacturers. The results show very high potential of 3D imaging systems for casing-based computer-aided firearm identification, which is prospectively going to support human expertise.

  14. Analysis of fracture networks in a reservoir dolomite by 3D micro-imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voorn, Maarten; Hoyer, Stefan; Exner, Ulrike; Reuschlé, Thierry

    2013-04-01

    Narrow fractures in reservoir rocks can be of great importance when determining the hydrocarbon potential of such a reservoir. Such fractures can contribute significantly to - or even be dominant for - the porosity and permeability characteristics of such rocks. Investigating these narrow fractures is therefore important, but not always trivial. Standard laboratory measurements on sample plugs from a reservoir are not always suitable for fractured rocks. Thin section analysis can provide very important information, but mostly only in 2D. Also other sources of information have major drawbacks, such as FMI (Formation Micro-Imager) during coring (insufficient resolution) and hand specimen analysis (no internal information). 3D imaging of reservoir rock samples is a good alternative and extension to the methods mentioned above. The 3D information is in our case obtained by X-ray Micro-Computed Tomography (µCT) imaging. Our used samples are 2 and 3 cm diameter plugs of a narrowly fractured (apertures generally <200 µm) reservoir dolomite (Hauptdolomit formation) from below the Vienna Basin, Austria. µCT has the large advantage of being non-destructive to the samples, and with the chosen sample sizes and settings, the sample rocks and fractures can be imaged with sufficient quality at sufficient resolution. After imaging, the fracture networks need to be extracted (segmented) from the background. Unfortunately, available segmentation approaches in the literature do not provide satisfactory results on such narrow fractures. We therefore developed the multiscale Hessian fracture filter, with which we are able to extract the fracture networks from the datasets in a better way. The largest advantages of this technique are that it is inherently 3D, runs on desktop computers with limited resources, and is implemented in public domain software (ImageJ / FIJI). The results from the multiscale Hessian fracture filtering approach serve as input for porosity determination. Also

  15. Quantitative analysis of the central-chest lymph nodes based on 3D MDCT image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Kongkuo; Bascom, Rebecca; Mahraj, Rickhesvar P. M.; Higgins, William E.

    2009-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. In lung-cancer staging, central-chest lymph nodes and associated nodal stations, as observed in three-dimensional (3D) multidetector CT (MDCT) scans, play a vital role. However, little work has been done in relation to lymph nodes, based on MDCT data, due to the complicated phenomena that give rise to them. Using our custom computer-based system for 3D MDCT-based pulmonary lymph-node analysis, we conduct a detailed study of lymph nodes as depicted in 3D MDCT scans. In this work, the Mountain lymph-node stations are automatically defined by the system. These defined stations, in conjunction with our system's image processing and visualization tools, facilitate lymph-node detection, classification, and segmentation. An expert pulmonologist, chest radiologist, and trained technician verified the accuracy of the automatically defined stations and indicated observable lymph nodes. Next, using semi-automatic tools in our system, we defined all indicated nodes. Finally, we performed a global quantitative analysis of the characteristics of the observed nodes and stations. This study drew upon a database of 32 human MDCT chest scans. 320 Mountain-based stations (10 per scan) and 852 pulmonary lymph nodes were defined overall from this database. Based on the numerical results, over 90% of the automatically defined stations were deemed accurate. This paper also presents a detailed summary of central-chest lymph-node characteristics for the first time.

  16. A Workstation for Interactive Display and Quantitative Analysis of 3-D and 4-D Biomedical Images

    PubMed Central

    Robb, R.A.; Heffeman, P.B.; Camp, J.J.; Hanson, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The capability to extract objective and quantitatively accurate information from 3-D radiographic biomedical images has not kept pace with the capabilities to produce the images themselves. This is rather an ironic paradox, since on the one hand the new 3-D and 4-D imaging capabilities promise significant potential for providing greater specificity and sensitivity (i.e., precise objective discrimination and accurate quantitative measurement of body tissue characteristics and function) in clinical diagnostic and basic investigative imaging procedures than ever possible before, but on the other hand, the momentous advances in computer and associated electronic imaging technology which have made these 3-D imaging capabilities possible have not been concomitantly developed for full exploitation of these capabilities. Therefore, we have developed a powerful new microcomputer-based system which permits detailed investigations and evaluation of 3-D and 4-D (dynamic 3-D) biomedical images. The system comprises a special workstation to which all the information in a large 3-D image data base is accessible for rapid display, manipulation, and measurement. The system provides important capabilities for simultaneously representing and analyzing both structural and functional data and their relationships in various organs of the body. This paper provides a detailed description of this system, as well as some of the rationale, background, theoretical concepts, and practical considerations related to system implementation. ImagesFigure 5Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16

  17. Noise analysis for near field 3-D FM-CW radar imaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, David M.

    2015-06-19

    Near field radar imaging systems are used for several applications including concealed weapon detection in airports and other high-security venues. Despite the near-field operation, phase noise and thermal noise can limit the performance in several ways including reduction in system sensitivity and reduction of image dynamic range. In this paper, the effects of thermal noise, phase noise, and processing gain are analyzed in the context of a near field 3-D FM-CW imaging radar as might be used for concealed weapon detection. In addition to traditional frequency domain analysis, a time-domain simulation is employed to graphically demonstrate the effect of these noise sources on a fast-chirping FM-CW system.

  18. Localization of spots in FISH images of breast cancer using 3-D shape analysis.

    PubMed

    Les, T; Markiewicz, T; Osowski, S; Jesiotr, M; Kozlowski, W

    2016-06-01

    The fluorescence in situ (FISH) belongs to the most often used molecular cytogenetic techniques, applied in many areas of diagnosis and research. The analysis of FISH images relies on localization and counting the red and green spots in order to determine HER2 status of the breast cancer samples. The algorithm of spot localization presented in the paper is based on 3-D shape analysis of the image objects. The subsequent regions of the image are matched to the reference pattern and the results of this matching influence localization of spots. The paper compares different shapes of the reference pattern and their efficiency in spot localization. The numerical experiments have been performed on the basis of 12 cases (patients), each represented by three images. Few thousands of cells have been analysed. The quantitative analyses comparing different versions of algorithm are presented and compared to the expert results. The best version of the procedure provides the absolute relative difference to the expert results smaller than 3%. These results confirm high efficiency of the proposed approach to the spot identification. The proposed method of FISH image analysis improves the efficiency of detecting fluorescent signals in FISH images. The evaluation results are encouraging for further testing of the developed automatic system directed to application in medical practice.

  19. Autofocus for 3D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Elkin, Forest

    2008-04-01

    Three dimensional (3D) autofocus remains a significant challenge for the development of practical 3D multipass radar imaging. The current 2D radar autofocus methods are not readily extendable across sensor passes. We propose a general framework that allows a class of data adaptive solutions for 3D auto-focus across passes with minimal constraints on the scene contents. The key enabling assumption is that portions of the scene are sparse in elevation which reduces the number of free variables and results in a system that is simultaneously solved for scatterer heights and autofocus parameters. The proposed method extends 2-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) methods to an arbitrary number of passes allowing the consideration of scattering from multiple height locations. A specific case from the proposed autofocus framework is solved and demonstrates autofocus and coherent multipass 3D estimation across the 8 passes of the "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set" X-Band radar data.

  20. Detailed analysis of an optimized FPP-based 3D imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Dat; Thai, Anh; Duong, Kiet; Nguyen, Thanh; Nehmetallah, Georges

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present detail analysis and a step-by-step implementation of an optimized fringe projection profilometry (FPP) based 3D shape measurement system. First, we propose a multi-frequency and multi-phase shifting sinusoidal fringe pattern reconstruction approach to increase accuracy and sensitivity of the system. Second, phase error compensation caused by the nonlinear transfer function of the projector and camera is performed through polynomial approximation. Third, phase unwrapping is performed using spatial and temporal techniques and the tradeoff between processing speed and high accuracy is discussed in details. Fourth, generalized camera and system calibration are developed for phase to real world coordinate transformation. The calibration coefficients are estimated accurately using a reference plane and several gauge blocks with precisely known heights and by employing a nonlinear least square fitting method. Fifth, a texture will be attached to the height profile by registering a 2D real photo to the 3D height map. The last step is to perform 3D image fusion and registration using an iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm for a full field of view reconstruction. The system is experimentally constructed using compact, portable, and low cost off-the-shelf components. A MATLAB® based GUI is developed to control and synchronize the whole system.

  1. Automatic segmentation and analysis of fibrin networks in 3D confocal microscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Mu, Jian; Machlus, Kellie R.; Wolberg, Alisa S.; Rosen, Elliot D.; Xu, Zhiliang; Alber, Mark S.; Chen, Danny Z.

    2012-02-01

    Fibrin networks are a major component of blood clots that provides structural support to the formation of growing clots. Abnormal fibrin networks that are too rigid or too unstable can promote cardiovascular problems and/or bleeding. However, current biological studies of fibrin networks rarely perform quantitative analysis of their structural properties (e.g., the density of branch points) due to the massive branching structures of the networks. In this paper, we present a new approach for segmenting and analyzing fibrin networks in 3D confocal microscopy images. We first identify the target fibrin network by applying the 3D region growing method with global thresholding. We then produce a one-voxel wide centerline for each fiber segment along which the branch points and other structural information of the network can be obtained. Branch points are identified by a novel approach based on the outer medial axis. Cells within the fibrin network are segmented by a new algorithm that combines cluster detection and surface reconstruction based on the α-shape approach. Our algorithm has been evaluated on computer phantom images of fibrin networks for identifying branch points. Experiments on z-stack images of different types of fibrin networks yielded results that are consistent with biological observations.

  2. Breast Density Analysis with Automated Whole-Breast Ultrasound: Comparison with 3-D Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jeon-Hor; Lee, Yan-Wei; Chan, Si-Wa; Yeh, Dah-Cherng; Chang, Ruey-Feng

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a semi-automatic breast segmentation method was proposed on the basis of the rib shadow to extract breast regions from 3-D automated whole-breast ultrasound (ABUS) images. The density results were correlated with breast density values acquired with 3-D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI images of 46 breasts were collected from 23 women without a history of breast disease. Each subject also underwent ABUS. We used Otsu's thresholding method on ABUS images to obtain local rib shadow information, which was combined with the global rib shadow information (extracted from all slice projections) and integrated with the anatomy's breast tissue structure to determine the chest wall line. The fuzzy C-means classifier was used to extract the fibroglandular tissues from the acquired images. Whole-breast volume (WBV) and breast percentage density (BPD) were calculated in both modalities. Linear regression was used to compute the correlation of density results between the two modalities. The consistency of density measurement was also analyzed on the basis of intra- and inter-operator variation. There was a high correlation of density results between MRI and ABUS (R(2) = 0.798 for WBV, R(2) = 0.825 for PBD). The mean WBV from ABUS images was slightly smaller than the mean WBV from MR images (MRI: 342.24 ± 128.08 cm(3), ABUS: 325.47 ± 136.16 cm(3), p < 0.05). In addition, the BPD calculated from MR images was smaller than the BPD from ABUS images (MRI: 24.71 ± 15.16%, ABUS: 28.90 ± 17.73%, p < 0.05). The intra-operator and inter-operator variant analysis results indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in breast density measurement variation between the two modalities. Our results revealed a high correlation in WBV and BPD between MRI and ABUS. Our study suggests that ABUS provides breast density information useful in the assessment of breast health.

  3. Segmentation of vascular structures and hematopoietic cells in 3D microscopy images and quantitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Jian; Yang, Lin; Kamocka, Malgorzata M.; Zollman, Amy L.; Carlesso, Nadia; Chen, Danny Z.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present image processing methods for quantitative study of how the bone marrow microenvironment changes (characterized by altered vascular structure and hematopoietic cell distribution) caused by diseases or various factors. We develop algorithms that automatically segment vascular structures and hematopoietic cells in 3-D microscopy images, perform quantitative analysis of the properties of the segmented vascular structures and cells, and examine how such properties change. In processing images, we apply local thresholding to segment vessels, and add post-processing steps to deal with imaging artifacts. We propose an improved watershed algorithm that relies on both intensity and shape information and can separate multiple overlapping cells better than common watershed methods. We then quantitatively compute various features of the vascular structures and hematopoietic cells, such as the branches and sizes of vessels and the distribution of cells. In analyzing vascular properties, we provide algorithms for pruning fake vessel segments and branches based on vessel skeletons. Our algorithms can segment vascular structures and hematopoietic cells with good quality. We use our methods to quantitatively examine the changes in the bone marrow microenvironment caused by the deletion of Notch pathway. Our quantitative analysis reveals property changes in samples with deleted Notch pathway. Our tool is useful for biologists to quantitatively measure changes in the bone marrow microenvironment, for developing possible therapeutic strategies to help the bone marrow microenvironment recovery.

  4. 3D texture analysis of solitary pulmonary nodules using co-occurrence matrix from volumetric lung CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhara, Ashis Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we have investigated a new approach for texture features extraction using co-occurrence matrix from volumetric lung CT image. Traditionally texture analysis is performed in 2D and is suitable for images collected from 2D imaging modality. The use of 3D imaging modalities provide the scope of texture analysis from 3D object and 3D texture feature are more realistic to represent 3D object. In this work, Haralick's texture features are extended in 3D and computed from volumetric data considering 26 neighbors. The optimal texture features to characterize the internal structure of Solitary Pulmonary Nodules (SPN) are selected based on area under curve (AUC) values of ROC curve and p values from 2-tailed Student's t-test. The selected texture feature in 3D to represent SPN can be used in efficient Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) design plays an important role in fast and accurate lung cancer screening. The reduced number of input features to the CAD system will decrease the computational time and classification errors caused by irrelevant features. In the present work, SPN are classified from Ground Glass Nodule (GGN) using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) classifier considering top five 3D texture features and top five 2D texture features separately. The classification is performed on 92 SPN and 25 GGN from Imaging Database Resources Initiative (IDRI) public database and classification accuracy using 3D texture features and 2D texture features provide 97.17% and 89.1% respectively.

  5. F3D Image Processing and Analysis for Many - and Multi-core Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-01

    F3D is written in OpenCL, so it achieve[sic] platform-portable parallelism on modern mutli-core CPUs and many-core GPUs. The interface and mechanims to access F3D core are written in Java as a plugin for Fiji/ImageJ to deliver several key image-processing algorithms necessary to remove artifacts from micro-tomography data. The algorithms consist of data parallel aware filters that can efficiently utilizes[sic] resources and can work on out of core datasets and scale efficiently across multiple accelerators. Optimizing for data parallel filters, streaming out of core datasets, and efficient resource and memory and data managements over complex execution sequence of filters greatly expedites any scientific workflow with image processing requirements. F3D performs several different types of 3D image processing operations, such as non-linear filtering using bilateral filtering and/or median filtering and/or morphological operators (MM). F3D gray-level MM operators are one-pass constant time methods that can perform morphological transformations with a line-structuring element oriented in discrete directions. Additionally, MM operators can be applied to gray-scale images, and consist of two parts: (a) a reference shape or structuring element, which is translated over the image, and (b) a mechanism, or operation, that defines the comparisons to be performed between the image and the structuring element. This tool provides a critical component within many complex pipelines such as those for performing automated segmentation of image stacks. F3D is also called a "descendent" of Quant-CT, another software we developed in the past. These two modules are to be integrated in a next version. Further details were reported in: D.M. Ushizima, T. Perciano, H. Krishnan, B. Loring, H. Bale, D. Parkinson, and J. Sethian. Structure recognition from high-resolution images of ceramic composites. IEEE International Conference on Big Data, October 2014.

  6. 3D imaging in forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sam; Jones, Carl; Plassmann, Peter

    2010-06-16

    This paper describes the investigation of a new 3D capture method for acquiring and subsequent forensic analysis of bite mark injuries on human skin. When documenting bite marks with standard 2D cameras errors in photographic technique can occur if best practice is not followed. Subsequent forensic analysis of the mark is problematic when a 3D structure is recorded into a 2D space. Although strict guidelines (BAFO) exist, these are time-consuming to follow and, due to their complexity, may produce errors. A 3D image capture and processing system might avoid the problems resulting from the 2D reduction process, simplifying the guidelines and reducing errors. Proposed Solution: a series of experiments are described in this paper to demonstrate that the potential of a 3D system might produce suitable results. The experiments tested precision and accuracy of the traditional 2D and 3D methods. A 3D image capture device minimises the amount of angular distortion, therefore such a system has the potential to create more robust forensic evidence for use in courts. A first set of experiments tested and demonstrated which method of forensic analysis creates the least amount of intra-operator error. A second set tested and demonstrated which method of image capture creates the least amount of inter-operator error and visual distortion. In a third set the effects of angular distortion on 2D and 3D methods of image capture were evaluated.

  7. RADStation3G: a platform for cardiovascular image analysis integrating PACS, 3D+t visualization and grid computing.

    PubMed

    Perez, F; Huguet, J; Aguilar, R; Lara, L; Larrabide, I; Villa-Uriol, M C; López, J; Macho, J M; Rigo, A; Rosselló, J; Vera, S; Vivas, E; Fernàndez, J; Arbona, A; Frangi, A F; Herrero Jover, J; González Ballester, M A

    2013-06-01

    RADStation3G is a software platform for cardiovascular image analysis and surgery planning. It provides image visualization and management in 2D, 3D and 3D+t; data storage (images or operational results) in a PACS (using DICOM); and exploitation of patients' data such as images and pathologies. Further, it provides support for computationally expensive processes with grid technology. In this article we first introduce the platform and present a comparison with existing systems, according to the platform's modules (for cardiology, angiology, PACS archived enriched searching and grid computing), and then RADStation3G is described in detail.

  8. HIPERCIR: a low-cost high-performance 3D radiology image analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanquer, Ignacio; Hernandez, Vincente; Ramirez, Javier; Vidal, Antonio M.; Alcaniz-Raya, Mariano L.; Grau Colomer, Vincente; Monserrat, Carlos A.; Concepcion, Luis; Marti-Bonmati, Luis

    1999-07-01

    Clinics have to deal currently with hundreds of 3D images a day. The processing and visualization using currently affordable systems is very costly and slow. The present work shows the features of a software integrated parallel computing package developed at the Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (UPV), under the European Project HIPERCIR, which is aimed at reducing the time and requirements for processing and visualizing the 3D images with low-cost solutions, such as networks of PCs running standard operating systems. HIPERCIR is targeted to Radiology Departments of Hospitals and Radiology System Providers to provide them with a tool for easing the day-to-day diagnosis. This project is being developed by a consortium formed by medical image processing and parallel computing experts from the Computing Systems Department of the UPV, experts on biomedical software and radiology and tomography clinic experts.

  9. Integrated Idl Tool For 3d Modeling And Imaging Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nita, Gelu M.; Fleishman, G. D.; Gary, D. E.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Kontar, E. P.

    2012-05-01

    Addressing many key problems in solar physics requires detailed analysis of non-simultaneous imaging data obtained in various wavelength domains with different spatial resolution and their comparison with each other supplied by advanced 3D physical models. To facilitate achieving this goal, we have undertaken a major enhancement and improvements of IDL-based simulation tools developed earlier for modeling microwave and X-ray emission. The greatly enhanced object-based architecture provides interactive graphic user interface that allows the user i) to import photospheric magnetic field maps and perform magnetic field extrapolations to almost instantly generate 3D magnetic field models, ii) to investigate the magnetic topology of these models by interactively creating magnetic field lines and associated magnetic field tubes, iii) to populate them with user-defined nonuniform thermal plasma and anisotropic nonuniform nonthermal electron distributions; and iv) to calculate the spatial and spectral properties of radio and X-ray emission. The application integrates DLL and Shared Libraries containing fast gyrosynchrotron emission codes developed in FORTRAN and C++, soft and hard X-ray codes developed in IDL, and a potential field extrapolation DLL produced based on original FORTRAN code developed by V. Abramenko and V. Yurchishin. The interactive interface allows users to add any user-defined IDL or external callable radiation code, as well as user-defined magnetic field extrapolation routines. To illustrate the tool capabilities, we present a step-by-step live computation of microwave and X-ray images from realistic magnetic structures obtained from a magnetic field extrapolation preceding a real event, and compare them with the actual imaging data produced by NORH and RHESSI instruments. This work was supported in part by NSF grants AGS-0961867, AST-0908344, AGS-0969761, and NASA grants NNX10AF27G and NNX11AB49G to New Jersey Institute of Technology, by a UK STFC

  10. 3D endobronchial ultrasound reconstruction and analysis for multimodal image-guided bronchoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Xiaonan; Bascom, Rebecca; Gilbert, Christopher R.; Toth, Jennifer W.; Higgins, William E.

    2014-03-01

    State-of-the-art image-guided intervention (IGI) systems for lung-cancer management draw upon high-resolution three-dimensional multi-detector computed-tomography (MDCT) images and bronchoscopic video. An MDCT scan provides a high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) image of the chest that is used for preoperative procedure planning, while bronchoscopy gives live intraoperative video of the endobronchial airway tree structure. However, because neither source provides live extraluminal information on suspect nodules or lymph nodes, endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is often introduced during a procedure. Unfortunately, existing IGI systems provide no direct synergistic linkage between the MDCT/video data and EBUS data. Hence, EBUS proves difficult to use and can lead to inaccurate interpretations. To address this drawback, we present a prototype of a multimodal IGI system that brings together the various image sources. The system enables 3D reconstruction and visualization of structures depicted in the 2D EBUS video stream. It also provides a set of graphical tools that link the EBUS data directly to the 3D MDCT and bronchoscopic video. Results using phantom and human data indicate that the new system could potentially enable smooth natural incorporation of EBUS into the system-level work flow of bronchoscopy.

  11. Fibrillogenesis from nanosurfaces: multiphoton imaging and stereological analysis of collagen 3D self-assembly dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bancelin, Stéphane; Decencière, Etienne; Machairas, Vaïa; Albert, Claire; Coradin, Thibaud; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire; Aimé, Carole

    2014-09-21

    The assembly of proteins into fibrillar structures is an important process that concerns different biological contexts, including molecular medicine and functional biomaterials. Engineering of hybrid biomaterials can advantageously provide synergetic interactions of the biopolymers with an inorganic component to ensure specific supramolecular organization and dynamics. To this aim, we designed hybrid systems associating collagen and surface-functionalized silica particles and we built a new strategy to investigate fibrillogenesis processes in such multicomponents systems, working at the crossroads of chemistry, physics and mathematics. The self-assembly process was investigated by bimodal multiphoton imaging coupling second harmonic generation (SHG) and 2 photon excited fluorescence (2PEF). The in-depth spatial characterization of the system was further achieved using the three-dimensional analysis of the SHG/2PEF data via mathematical morphology processing. Quantitation of collagen distribution around particles offers strong evidence that the chemically induced confinement of the protein on the silica nanosurfaces has a key influence on the spatial extension of fibrillogenesis. This new approach is unique in the information it can provide on 3D dynamic hybrid systems and may be extended to other associations of fibrillar molecules with optically responsive nano-objects.

  12. Perineal body anatomy in living women: 3-D analysis using thin-slice magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Kindra A.; Yousuf, Aisha; Lewicky-Gaupp, Christina; Fenner, Dee E.; DeLancey, John O.L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe a framework for visualizing the perineal body's complex anatomy using thin-slice MR imaging. Study Design Two mm-thick MR images were acquired in 11 women with normal pelvic support and no incontinence/prolapse symptoms. Anatomic structures were analyzed in axial, sagittal and coronal slices. 3-D models were generated from these images. Results Three distinct perineal body regions are visible on MRI: (1) a superficial region at the level of the vestibular bulb, (2) a mid region at the proximal end of the superficial transverse perineal muscle, and (3) a deep region at the level of the midurethra and puborectalis muscle. Structures are best visualized on axial scans while cranio-caudal relationships are appreciated on sagittal scans. The 3-D model further clarifies inter-relationships. Conclusion Advances in MR technology allow visualization of perineal body anatomy in living women and development of 3D models which enhance our understanding of its three different regions: superficial, mid and deep. PMID:21055513

  13. Pore detection in Computed Tomography (CT) soil 3D images using singularity map analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotoca, Juan J. Martin; Tarquis, Ana M.; Saa Requejo, Antonio; Grau, Juan B.

    2016-04-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) images have significantly helped the study of the internal soil structure. This technique has two main advantages: 1) it is a non-invasive technique, i.e., it doesńt modify the internal soil structure, and 2) it provides a good resolution. The major disadvantage is that these images are sometimes low-contrast in the solid/pore interface. One of the main problems in analyzing soil structure through CT images is to segment them in solid/pore space. To do so, we have different segmentation techniques at our disposal that are mainly based on thresholding methods in which global or local thresholds are calculated to separate pore space from solid space. The aim of this presentation is to develop the fractal approach to soil structure using "singularity maps" and the "Concentration-Area (CA) method". We will establish an analogy between mineralization processes in ore deposits and morphogenesis processes in soils. Resulting from this analogy a new 3D segmentation method is proposed, the "3D Singularity-CA" method. A comparison with traditional 3D segmentation methods will be performed to show the main differences among them.

  14. Acquisition and applications of 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterian, Paul; Mocanu, Elena

    2007-08-01

    The moiré fringes method and their analysis up to medical and entertainment applications are discussed in this paper. We describe the procedure of capturing 3D images with an Inspeck Camera that is a real-time 3D shape acquisition system based on structured light techniques. The method is a high-resolution one. After processing the images, using computer, we can use the data for creating laser fashionable objects by engraving them with a Q-switched Nd:YAG. In medical field we mention the plastic surgery and the replacement of X-Ray especially in pediatric use.

  15. Analysis of nuclear organization with TANGO, software for high-throughput quantitative analysis of 3D fluorescence microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Ollion, Jean; Cochennec, Julien; Loll, François; Escudé, Christophe; Boudier, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The cell nucleus is a highly organized cellular organelle that contains the genome. An important step to understand the relationships between genome positioning and genome functions is to extract quantitative data from three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence imaging. However, such approaches are limited by the requirement for processing and analyzing large sets of images. Here we present a practical approach using TANGO (Tools for Analysis of Nuclear Genome Organization), an image analysis tool dedicated to the study of nuclear architecture. TANGO is a generic tool able to process large sets of images, allowing quantitative study of nuclear organization. In this chapter a practical description of the software is drawn in order to give an overview of its different concepts and functionalities. This description is illustrated with a precise example that can be performed step-by-step on experimental data provided on the website http://biophysique.mnhn.fr/tango/HomePage.

  16. Nondestructive 3D confocal laser imaging with deconvolution of seven whole stardust tracks with complementary XRF and quantitative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, M.; Ebel, D.S.

    2009-03-19

    We present a nondestructive 3D system for analysis of whole Stardust tracks, using a combination of Laser Confocal Scanning Microscopy and synchrotron XRF. 3D deconvolution is used for optical corrections, and results of quantitative analyses of several tracks are presented. The Stardust mission to comet Wild 2 trapped many cometary and ISM particles in aerogel, leaving behind 'tracks' of melted silica aerogel on both sides of the collector. Collected particles and their tracks range in size from submicron to millimeter scale. Interstellar dust collected on the obverse of the aerogel collector is thought to have an average track length of {approx}15 {micro}m. It has been our goal to perform a total non-destructive 3D textural and XRF chemical analysis on both types of tracks. To that end, we use a combination of Laser Confocal Scanning Microscopy (LCSM) and X Ray Florescence (XRF) spectrometry. Utilized properly, the combination of 3D optical data and chemical data provides total nondestructive characterization of full tracks, prior to flattening or other destructive analysis methods. Our LCSM techniques allow imaging at 0.075 {micro}m/pixel, without the use of oil-based lenses. A full textural analysis on track No.82 is presented here as well as analysis of 6 additional tracks contained within 3 keystones (No.128, No.129 and No.140). We present a method of removing the axial distortion inherent in LCSM images, by means of a computational 3D Deconvolution algorithm, and present some preliminary experiments with computed point spread functions. The combination of 3D LCSM data and XRF data provides invaluable information, while preserving the integrity of the samples for further analysis. It is imperative that these samples, the first extraterrestrial solids returned since the Apollo era, be fully mapped nondestructively in 3D, to preserve the maximum amount of information prior to other, destructive analysis.

  17. Evaluation by quantitative image analysis of anticancer drug activity on multicellular spheroids grown in 3D matrices

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Aurélie; Russo, Adrien; Vidal, Guillaume; Demange, Elise; Pannetier, Pauline; Souguir, Zied; Lagarde, Jean-Michel; Ducommun, Bernard; Lobjois, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological evaluation of anticancer drugs using 3D in vitro models provides invaluable information for predicting in vivo activity. Artificial matrices are currently available that scale up and increase the power of such 3D models. The aim of the present study was to propose an efficient and robust imaging and analysis pipeline to assess with quantitative parameters the efficacy of a particular cytotoxic drug. HCT116 colorectal adenocarcinoma tumor cell multispheres were grown in a 3D physiological hyaluronic acid matrix. 3D microscopy was performed with structured illumination, whereas image processing and feature extraction were performed with custom analysis tools. This procedure makes it possible to automatically detect spheres in a large volume of matrix in 96-well plates. It was used to evaluate drug efficacy in HCT116 spheres treated with different concentrations of topotecan, a DNA topoisomerase inhibitor. Following automatic detection and quantification, changes in cluster size distribution with a topotecan concentration-dependent increase of small clusters according to drug cytotoxicity were observed. Quantitative image analysis is thus an effective means to evaluate and quantify the cytotoxic and cytostatic activities of anticancer drugs on 3D multicellular models grown in a physiological matrix. PMID:28105152

  18. True 3d Images and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; wang@hzgeospace., zheng.

    2012-07-01

    A true 3D image is a geo-referenced image. Besides having its radiometric information, it also has true 3Dground coordinates XYZ for every pixels of it. For a true 3D image, especially a true 3D oblique image, it has true 3D coordinates not only for building roofs and/or open grounds, but also for all other visible objects on the ground, such as visible building walls/windows and even trees. The true 3D image breaks the 2D barrier of the traditional orthophotos by introducing the third dimension (elevation) into the image. From a true 3D image, for example, people will not only be able to read a building's location (XY), but also its height (Z). true 3D images will fundamentally change, if not revolutionize, the way people display, look, extract, use, and represent the geospatial information from imagery. In many areas, true 3D images can make profound impacts on the ways of how geospatial information is represented, how true 3D ground modeling is performed, and how the real world scenes are presented. This paper first gives a definition and description of a true 3D image and followed by a brief review of what key advancements of geospatial technologies have made the creation of true 3D images possible. Next, the paper introduces what a true 3D image is made of. Then, the paper discusses some possible contributions and impacts the true 3D images can make to geospatial information fields. At the end, the paper presents a list of the benefits of having and using true 3D images and the applications of true 3D images in a couple of 3D city modeling projects.

  19. Automated detection, 3D segmentation and analysis of high resolution spine MR images using statistical shape models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubert, A.; Fripp, J.; Engstrom, C.; Schwarz, R.; Lauer, L.; Salvado, O.; Crozier, S.

    2012-12-01

    Recent advances in high resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the spine provide a basis for the automated assessment of intervertebral disc (IVD) and vertebral body (VB) anatomy. High resolution three-dimensional (3D) morphological information contained in these images may be useful for early detection and monitoring of common spine disorders, such as disc degeneration. This work proposes an automated approach to extract the 3D segmentations of lumbar and thoracic IVDs and VBs from MR images using statistical shape analysis and registration of grey level intensity profiles. The algorithm was validated on a dataset of volumetric scans of the thoracolumbar spine of asymptomatic volunteers obtained on a 3T scanner using the relatively new 3D T2-weighted SPACE pulse sequence. Manual segmentations and expert radiological findings of early signs of disc degeneration were used in the validation. There was good agreement between manual and automated segmentation of the IVD and VB volumes with the mean Dice scores of 0.89 ± 0.04 and 0.91 ± 0.02 and mean absolute surface distances of 0.55 ± 0.18 mm and 0.67 ± 0.17 mm respectively. The method compares favourably to existing 3D MR segmentation techniques for VBs. This is the first time IVDs have been automatically segmented from 3D volumetric scans and shape parameters obtained were used in preliminary analyses to accurately classify (100% sensitivity, 98.3% specificity) disc abnormalities associated with early degenerative changes.

  20. Semi-automated 3D leaf reconstruction and analysis of trichome patterning from light microscopic images.

    PubMed

    Failmezger, Henrik; Jaegle, Benjamin; Schrader, Andrea; Hülskamp, Martin; Tresch, Achim

    2013-04-01

    Trichomes are leaf hairs that are formed by single cells on the leaf surface. They are known to be involved in pathogen resistance. Their patterning is considered to emerge from a field of initially equivalent cells through the action of a gene regulatory network involving trichome fate promoting and inhibiting factors. For a quantitative analysis of single and double mutants or the phenotypic variation of patterns in different ecotypes, it is imperative to statistically evaluate the pattern reliably on a large number of leaves. Here we present a method that enables the analysis of trichome patterns at early developmental leaf stages and the automatic analysis of various spatial parameters. We focus on the most challenging young leaf stages that require the analysis in three dimensions, as the leaves are typically not flat. Our software TrichEratops reconstructs 3D surface models from 2D stacks of conventional light-microscope pictures. It allows the GUI-based annotation of different stages of trichome development, which can be analyzed with respect to their spatial distribution to capture trichome patterning events. We show that 3D modeling removes biases of simpler 2D models and that novel trichome patterning features increase the sensitivity for inter-accession comparisons.

  1. Semi-automated 3D Leaf Reconstruction and Analysis of Trichome Patterning from Light Microscopic Images

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, Andrea; Hülskamp, Martin; Tresch, Achim

    2013-01-01

    Trichomes are leaf hairs that are formed by single cells on the leaf surface. They are known to be involved in pathogen resistance. Their patterning is considered to emerge from a field of initially equivalent cells through the action of a gene regulatory network involving trichome fate promoting and inhibiting factors. For a quantitative analysis of single and double mutants or the phenotypic variation of patterns in different ecotypes, it is imperative to statistically evaluate the pattern reliably on a large number of leaves. Here we present a method that enables the analysis of trichome patterns at early developmental leaf stages and the automatic analysis of various spatial parameters. We focus on the most challenging young leaf stages that require the analysis in three dimensions, as the leaves are typically not flat. Our software TrichEratops reconstructs 3D surface models from 2D stacks of conventional light-microscope pictures. It allows the GUI-based annotation of different stages of trichome development, which can be analyzed with respect to their spatial distribution to capture trichome patterning events. We show that 3D modeling removes biases of simpler 2D models and that novel trichome patterning features increase the sensitivity for inter-accession comparisons. PMID:23637587

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Vascular Heterogeneity in Breast Lesions Using Contrast-Enhanced 3-D Harmonic and Subharmonic Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Anush; Eisenbrey, John R.; Machado, Priscilla; Ojeda-Fournier, Haydee; Wilkes, Annina; Sevrukov, Alexander; Mattrey, Robert F.; Wallace, Kirk; Chalek, Carl L.; Thomenius, Kai E.; Forsberg, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Ability to visualize breast lesion vascularity and quantify the vascular heterogeneity using contrast-enhanced 3-D harmonic (HI) and subharmonic (SHI) ultrasound imaging was investigated in a clinical population. Patients (n = 134) identified with breast lesions on mammography were scanned using power Doppler imaging, contrast-enhanced 3-D HI, and 3-D SHI on a modified Logiq 9 scanner (GE Healthcare). A region of interest corresponding to ultrasound contrast agent flow was identified in 4D View (GE Medical Systems) and mapped to raw slice data to generate a map of time-intensity curves for the lesion volume. Time points corresponding to baseline, peak intensity, and washout of ultrasound contrast agent were identified and used to generate and compare vascular heterogeneity plots for malignant and benign lesions. Vascularity was observed with power Doppler imaging in 84 lesions (63 benign and 21 malignant). The 3-D HI showed flow in 8 lesions (5 benign and 3 malignant), whereas 3-D SHI visualized flow in 68 lesions (49 benign and 19 malignant). Analysis of vascular heterogeneity in the 3-D SHI volumes found benign lesions having a significant difference in vascularity between central and peripheral sections (1.71 ± 0.96 vs. 1.13 ± 0.79 dB, p < 0.001, respectively), whereas malignant lesions showed no difference (1.66 ± 1.39 vs. 1.24 ± 1.14 dB, p = 0.24), indicative of more vascular coverage. These preliminary results suggest quantitative evaluation of vascular heterogeneity in breast lesions using contrast-enhanced 3-D SHI is feasible and able to detect variations in vascularity between central and peripheral sections for benign and malignant lesions. PMID:25935933

  3. Quantitative analysis of vascular heterogeneity in breast lesions using contrast-enhanced 3-D harmonic and subharmonic ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Anush; Eisenbrey, John R; Machado, Priscilla; Ojeda-Fournier, Haydee; Wilkes, Annina; Sevrukov, Alexander; Mattrey, Robert F; Wallace, Kirk; Chalek, Carl L; Thomenius, Kai E; Forsberg, Flemming

    2015-03-01

    Ability to visualize breast lesion vascularity and quantify the vascular heterogeneity using contrast-enhanced 3-D harmonic (HI) and subharmonic (SHI) ultrasound imaging was investigated in a clinical population. Patients (n = 134) identified with breast lesions on mammography were scanned using power Doppler imaging, contrast-enhanced 3-D HI, and 3-D SHI on a modified Logiq 9 scanner (GE Healthcare). A region of interest corresponding to ultrasound contrast agent flow was identified in 4D View (GE Medical Systems) and mapped to raw slice data to generate a map of time-intensity curves for the lesion volume. Time points corresponding to baseline, peak intensity, and washout of ultrasound contrast agent were identified and used to generate and compare vascular heterogeneity plots for malignant and benign lesions. Vascularity was observed with power Doppler imaging in 84 lesions (63 benign and 21 malignant). The 3-D HI showed flow in 8 lesions (5 benign and 3 malignant), whereas 3-D SHI visualized flow in 68 lesions (49 benign and 19 malignant). Analysis of vascular heterogeneity in the 3-D SHI volumes found benign lesions having a significant difference in vascularity between central and peripheral sections (1.71 ± 0.96 vs. 1.13 ± 0.79 dB, p < 0.001, respectively), whereas malignant lesions showed no difference (1.66 ± 1.39 vs. 1.24 ± 1.14 dB, p = 0.24), indicative of more vascular coverage. These preliminary results suggest quantitative evaluation of vascular heterogeneity in breast lesions using contrast-enhanced 3-D SHI is feasible and able to detect variations in vascularity between central and peripheral sections for benign and malignant lesions.

  4. 3D image analysis and artificial intelligence for bone disease classification.

    PubMed

    Akgundogdu, Abdurrahim; Jennane, Rachid; Aufort, Gabriel; Benhamou, Claude Laurent; Ucan, Osman Nuri

    2010-10-01

    In order to prevent bone fractures due to disease and ageing of the population, and to detect problems while still in their early stages, 3D bone micro architecture needs to be investigated and characterized. Here, we have developed various image processing and simulation techniques to investigate bone micro architecture and its mechanical stiffness. We have evaluated morphological, topological and mechanical bone features using artificial intelligence methods. A clinical study is carried out on two populations of arthritic and osteoporotic bone samples. The performances of Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) in classifying the different samples have been compared. Results show that the best separation success (100 %) is achieved with Genetic Algorithm.

  5. Local plate/rod descriptors of 3D trabecular bone micro-CT images from medial axis topologic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Peyrin, Francoise; Attali, Dominique; Chappard, Christine; Benhamou, Claude Laurent

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: Trabecular bone microarchitecture is made of a complex network of plate and rod structures evolving with age and disease. The purpose of this article is to propose a new 3D local analysis method for the quantitative assessment of parameters related to the geometry of trabecular bone microarchitecture. Methods: The method is based on the topologic classification of the medial axis of the 3D image into branches, rods, and plates. Thanks to the reversibility of the medial axis, the classification is next extended to the whole 3D image. Finally, the percentages of rods and plates as well as their mean thicknesses are calculated. The method was applied both to simulated test images and 3D micro-CT images of human trabecular bone. Results: The classification of simulated phantoms made of plates and rods shows that the maximum error in the quantitative percentages of plate and rods is less than 6% and smaller than with the structure model index (SMI). Micro-CT images of human femoral bone taken in osteoporosis and early or advanced osteoarthritis were analyzed. Despite the large physiological variability, the present method avoids the underestimation of rods observed with other local methods. The relative percentages of rods and plates were not significantly different between osteoarthritis and osteoporotic groups, whereas their absolute percentages were in relation to an increase of rod and plate thicknesses in advanced osteoarthritis with also higher relative and absolute number of nodes. Conclusions: The proposed method is model-independent, robust to surface irregularities, and enables geometrical characterization of not only skeletal structures but entire 3D images. Its application provided more accurate results than the standard SMI on simple simulated phantoms, but the discrepancy observed on the advanced osteoarthritis group raises questions that will require further investigations. The systematic use of such a local method in the characterization of

  6. Three-dimensional analysis of alveolar bone resorption by image processing of 3-D dental CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Jiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Mori, Kensaku; Suenaga, Yasuhito; Yamada, Shohzoh; Naitoh, Munetaka

    2006-03-01

    We have developed a novel system that provides total support for assessment of alveolar bone resorption, caused by periodontitis, based on three-dimensional (3-D) dental CT images. In spite of the difficulty in perceiving the complex 3-D shape of resorption, dentists assessing resorption location and severity have been relying on two-dimensional radiography and probing, which merely provides one-dimensional information (depth) about resorption shape. However, there has been little work on assisting assessment of the disease by 3-D image processing and visualization techniques. This work provides quantitative evaluation results and figures for our system that measures the three-dimensional shape and spread of resorption. It has the following functions: (1) measures the depth of resorption by virtually simulating probing in the 3-D CT images, taking advantage of image processing of not suffering obstruction by teeth on the inter-proximal sides and much smaller measurement intervals than the conventional examination; (2) visualizes the disposition of the depth by movies and graphs; (3) produces a quantitative index and intuitive visual representation of the spread of resorption in the inter-radicular region in terms of area; and (4) calculates the volume of resorption as another severity index in the inter-radicular region and the region outside it. Experimental results in two cases of 3-D dental CT images and a comparison of the results with the clinical examination results and experts' measurements of the corresponding patients confirmed that the proposed system gives satisfying results, including 0.1 to 0.6mm of resorption measurement (probing) error and fairly intuitive presentation of measurement and calculation results.

  7. Singular value decomposition analysis of a photoacoustic imaging system and 3D imaging at 0.7 FPS.

    PubMed

    Roumeliotis, Michael B; Stodilka, Robert Z; Anastasio, Mark A; Ng, Eldon; Carson, Jeffrey J L

    2011-07-04

    Photoacoustic imaging is a non-ionizing imaging modality that provides contrast consistent with optical imaging techniques while the resolution and penetration depth is similar to ultrasound techniques. In a previous publication [Opt. Express 18, 11406 (2010)], a technique was introduced to experimentally acquire the imaging operator for a photoacoustic imaging system. While this was an important foundation for future work, we have recently improved the experimental procedure allowing for a more densely populated imaging operator to be acquired. Subsets of the imaging operator were produced by varying the transducer count as well as the measurement space temporal sampling rate. Examination of the matrix rank and the effect of contributing object space singular vectors to image reconstruction were performed. For a PAI system collecting only limited data projections, matrix rank increased linearly with transducer count and measurement space temporal sampling rate. Image reconstruction using a regularized pseudoinverse of the imaging operator was performed on photoacoustic signals from a point source, line source, and an array of point sources derived from the imaging operator. As expected, image quality increased for each object with increasing transducer count and measurement space temporal sampling rate. Using the same approach, but on experimentally sampled photoacoustic signals from a moving point-like source, acquisition, data transfer, reconstruction and image display took 1.4 s using one laser pulse per 3D frame. With relatively simple hardware improvements to data transfer and computation speed, our current imaging results imply that acquisition and display of 3D photoacoustic images at laser repetition rates of 10Hz is easily achieved.

  8. Acute effects of delayed reperfusion following myocardial infarction: a 3D x-ray imaging analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simari, Robert D.; Bell, M. R.; Pao, Y. C.; Gersh, B. J.; Ritman, Erik L.

    1996-04-01

    Clinical and experimental data suggest that delayed reperfusion of the infarct related artery may limit infarct expansion without increasing myocardial salvage. In order to assess the potential mechanisms involved, an acute closed chest canine model of myocardial infarction and delayed reperfusion was studied. Nineteen dogs underwent 3D computed tomography in the Dynamic Spatial Reconstructor (a fast, volume imaging, CT scanner) at baseline and three and four hours later to estimate left ventricular chamber volumes, global distensibility and regional myocardial stiffness. A control group was scanned without intervention. An occlusion group underwent four hours of coronary artery occlusion. A reperfusion group underwent three hours of coronary artery occlusion followed by one hour of reperfusion. Similar infarct sizes were seen in the occlusion and reperfusion groups. Globally reperfusion was associated with increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure and prolongation of global relaxation. Regionally reperfusion was associated with increased myocardial stiffness, intramyocardial blood volume and wall thickness within the infarct zone relative to the not reperfused myocardium.

  9. 3-D deformable image registration: a topology preservation scheme based on hierarchical deformation models and interval analysis optimization.

    PubMed

    Noblet, Vincent; Heinrich, Christian; Heitz, Fabrice; Armspach, Jean-Paul

    2005-05-01

    This paper deals with topology preservation in three-dimensional (3-D) deformable image registration. This work is a nontrivial extension of, which addresses the case of two-dimensional (2-D) topology preserving mappings. In both cases, the deformation map is modeled as a hierarchical displacement field, decomposed on a multiresolution B-spline basis. Topology preservation is enforced by controlling the Jacobian of the transformation. Finding the optimal displacement parameters amounts to solving a constrained optimization problem: The residual energy between the target image and the deformed source image is minimized under constraints on the Jacobian. Unlike the 2-D case, in which simple linear constraints are derived, the 3-D B-spline-based deformable mapping yields a difficult (until now, unsolved) optimization problem. In this paper, we tackle the problem by resorting to interval analysis optimization techniques. Care is taken to keep the computational burden as low as possible. Results on multipatient 3-D MRI registration illustrate the ability of the method to preserve topology on the continuous image domain.

  10. Quantitative 3D Analysis of Plant Roots Growing in Soil Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kochs, Johannes; Pflugfelder, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Precise measurements of root system architecture traits are an important requirement for plant phenotyping. Most of the current methods for analyzing root growth require either artificial growing conditions (e.g. hydroponics), are severely restricted in the fraction of roots detectable (e.g. rhizotrons), or are destructive (e.g. soil coring). On the other hand, modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are noninvasive and allow high-quality three-dimensional imaging of roots in soil. Here, we present a plant root imaging and analysis pipeline using MRI together with an advanced image visualization and analysis software toolbox named NMRooting. Pots up to 117 mm in diameter and 800 mm in height can be measured with the 4.7 T MRI instrument used here. For 1.5 l pots (81 mm diameter, 300 mm high), a fully automated system was developed enabling measurement of up to 18 pots per day. The most important root traits that can be nondestructively monitored over time are root mass, length, diameter, tip number, and growth angles (in two-dimensional polar coordinates) and spatial distribution. Various validation measurements for these traits were performed, showing that roots down to a diameter range between 200 μm and 300 μm can be quantitatively measured. Root fresh weight correlates linearly with root mass determined by MRI. We demonstrate the capabilities of MRI and the dedicated imaging pipeline in experimental series performed on soil-grown maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants. PMID:26729797

  11. Quantitative 3D Analysis of Plant Roots Growing in Soil Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    van Dusschoten, Dagmar; Metzner, Ralf; Kochs, Johannes; Postma, Johannes A; Pflugfelder, Daniel; Bühler, Jonas; Schurr, Ulrich; Jahnke, Siegfried

    2016-03-01

    Precise measurements of root system architecture traits are an important requirement for plant phenotyping. Most of the current methods for analyzing root growth require either artificial growing conditions (e.g. hydroponics), are severely restricted in the fraction of roots detectable (e.g. rhizotrons), or are destructive (e.g. soil coring). On the other hand, modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are noninvasive and allow high-quality three-dimensional imaging of roots in soil. Here, we present a plant root imaging and analysis pipeline using MRI together with an advanced image visualization and analysis software toolbox named NMRooting. Pots up to 117 mm in diameter and 800 mm in height can be measured with the 4.7 T MRI instrument used here. For 1.5 l pots (81 mm diameter, 300 mm high), a fully automated system was developed enabling measurement of up to 18 pots per day. The most important root traits that can be nondestructively monitored over time are root mass, length, diameter, tip number, and growth angles (in two-dimensional polar coordinates) and spatial distribution. Various validation measurements for these traits were performed, showing that roots down to a diameter range between 200 μm and 300 μm can be quantitatively measured. Root fresh weight correlates linearly with root mass determined by MRI. We demonstrate the capabilities of MRI and the dedicated imaging pipeline in experimental series performed on soil-grown maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants.

  12. Digital holography and 3-D imaging.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Partha; Barbastathis, George; Kim, Myung; Kukhtarev, Nickolai

    2011-03-01

    This feature issue on Digital Holography and 3-D Imaging comprises 15 papers on digital holographic techniques and applications, computer-generated holography and encryption techniques, and 3-D display. It is hoped that future work in the area leads to innovative applications of digital holography and 3-D imaging to biology and sensing, and to the development of novel nonlinear dynamic digital holographic techniques.

  13. Feasibility of 3D harmonic contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Voormolen, M M; Bouakaz, A; Krenning, B J; Lancée, C T; ten Cate, F J; de Jong, N

    2004-04-01

    Improved endocardial border delineation with the application of contrast agents should allow for less complex and faster tracing algorithms for left ventricular volume analysis. We developed a fast rotating phased array transducer for 3D imaging of the heart with harmonic capabilities making it suitable for contrast imaging. In this study the feasibility of 3D harmonic contrast imaging is evaluated in vitro. A commercially available tissue mimicking flow phantom was used in combination with Sonovue. Backscatter power spectra from a tissue and contrast region of interest were calculated from recorded radio frequency data. The spectra and the extracted contrast to tissue ratio from these spectra were used to optimize the excitation frequency, the pulse length and the receive filter settings of the transducer. Frequencies ranging from 1.66 to 2.35 MHz and pulse lengths of 1.5, 2 and 2.5 cycles were explored. An increase of more than 15 dB in the contrast to tissue ratio was found around the second harmonic compared with the fundamental level at an optimal excitation frequency of 1.74 MHz and a pulse length of 2.5 cycles. Using the optimal settings for 3D harmonic contrast recordings volume measurements of a left ventricular shaped agar phantom were performed. Without contrast the extracted volume data resulted in a volume error of 1.5%, with contrast an accuracy of 3.8% was achieved. The results show the feasibility of accurate volume measurements from 3D harmonic contrast images. Further investigations will include the clinical evaluation of the presented technique for improved assessment of the heart.

  14. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-07

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability.

  15. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  16. 3D Backscatter Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, D. Clark (Inventor); Whitaker, Ross (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for imaging an object using backscattered radiation are described. The imaging system comprises both a radiation source for irradiating an object that is rotationally movable about the object, and a detector for detecting backscattered radiation from the object that can be disposed on substantially the same side of the object as the source and which can be rotationally movable about the object. The detector can be separated into multiple detector segments with each segment having a single line of sight projection through the object and so detects radiation along that line of sight. Thus, each detector segment can isolate the desired component of the backscattered radiation. By moving independently of each other about the object, the source and detector can collect multiple images of the object at different angles of rotation and generate a three dimensional reconstruction of the object. Other embodiments are described.

  17. 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  18. 3-D imaging and analysis of neurons infected in vivo with Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Koshy, Anita A; Cabral, Carla M

    2014-12-09

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate, intracellular parasite with a broad host range, including humans and rodents. In both humans and rodents, Toxoplasma establishes a lifelong persistent infection in the brain. While this brain infection is asymptomatic in most immunocompetent people, in the developing fetus or immunocompromised individuals such as acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, this predilection for and persistence in the brain can lead to devastating neurologic disease. Thus, it is clear that the brain-Toxoplasma interaction is critical to the symptomatic disease produced by Toxoplasma, yet we have little understanding of the cellular or molecular interaction between cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and the parasite. In the mouse model of CNS toxoplasmosis it has been known for over 30 years that neurons are the cells in which the parasite persists, but little information is available about which part of the neuron is generally infected (soma, dendrite, axon) and if this cellular relationship changes between strains. In part, this lack is secondary to the difficulty of imaging and visualizing whole infected neurons from an animal. Such images would typically require serial sectioning and stitching of tissue imaged by electron microscopy or confocal microscopy after immunostaining. By combining several techniques, the method described here enables the use of thick sections (160 µm) to identify and image whole cells that contain cysts, allowing three-dimensional visualization and analysis of individual, chronically infected neurons without the need for immunostaining, electron microscopy, or serial sectioning and stitching. Using this technique, we can begin to understand the cellular relationship between the parasite and the infected neuron.

  19. 3D imaging of the Corinth rift from a new passive seismic tomography and receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godano, Maxime; Gesret, Alexandrine; Noble, Mark; Lyon-Caen, Hélène; Gautier, Stéphanie; Deschamps, Anne

    2016-04-01

    model and earthquake location. In addition to the tomographic imaging, we perform a preliminary receiver function analysis of teleseismic data recorded by the broadband stations of the CRL network. The RF analysis should provide the interface depths beneath seismometers and increase the imaging resolution of the upper crustal structures provided by the 3D tomography. In this first attempt, we adjust the 1D velocity model that produces a synthetic RF as similar as possible to the observed RF for a subset of data. We compare the identified interfaces with structures imaged by the tomography.

  20. Image segmentation and registration for the analysis of joint motion from 3D MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yangqiu; Haynor, David R.; Fassbind, Michael; Rohr, Eric; Ledoux, William

    2006-03-01

    We report an image segmentation and registration method for studying joint morphology and kinematics from in vivo MRI scans and its application to the analysis of ankle joint motion. Using an MR-compatible loading device, a foot was scanned in a single neutral and seven dynamic positions including maximal flexion, rotation and inversion/eversion. A segmentation method combining graph cuts and level sets was developed which allows a user to interactively delineate 14 bones in the neutral position volume in less than 30 minutes total, including less than 10 minutes of user interaction. In the subsequent registration step, a separate rigid body transformation for each bone is obtained by registering the neutral position dataset to each of the dynamic ones, which produces an accurate description of the motion between them. We have processed six datasets, including 3 normal and 3 pathological feet. For validation our results were compared with those obtained from 3DViewnix, a semi-automatic segmentation program, and achieved good agreement in volume overlap ratios (mean: 91.57%, standard deviation: 3.58%) for all bones. Our tool requires only 1/50 and 1/150 of the user interaction time required by 3DViewnix and NIH Image Plus, respectively, an improvement that has the potential to make joint motion analysis from MRI practical in research and clinical applications.

  1. Infrastructure for 3D Imaging Test Bed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-11

    analysis. (c.) Real time detection & analysis of human gait: using a video camera we capture walking human silhouette for pattern modeling and gait ... analysis . Fig. 5 shows the scanning result result that is fed into a Geo-magic software tool for 3D meshing. Fig. 5: 3D scanning result In

  2. Performance analysis of different surface reconstruction algorithms for 3D reconstruction of outdoor objects from their digital images.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Abhik; Chakravarty, Debashish

    2016-01-01

    3D reconstruction of geo-objects from their digital images is a time-efficient and convenient way of studying the structural features of the object being modelled. This paper presents a 3D reconstruction methodology which can be used to generate photo-realistic 3D watertight surface of different irregular shaped objects, from digital image sequences of the objects. The 3D reconstruction approach described here is robust, simplistic and can be readily used in reconstructing watertight 3D surface of any object from its digital image sequence. Here, digital images of different objects are used to build sparse, followed by dense 3D point clouds of the objects. These image-obtained point clouds are then used for generation of photo-realistic 3D surfaces, using different surface reconstruction algorithms such as Poisson reconstruction and Ball-pivoting algorithm. Different control parameters of these algorithms are identified, which affect the quality and computation time of the reconstructed 3D surface. The effects of these control parameters in generation of 3D surface from point clouds of different density are studied. It is shown that the reconstructed surface quality of Poisson reconstruction depends on Samples per node (SN) significantly, greater SN values resulting in better quality surfaces. Also, the quality of the 3D surface generated using Ball-Pivoting algorithm is found to be highly depend upon Clustering radius and Angle threshold values. The results obtained from this study give the readers of the article a valuable insight into the effects of different control parameters on determining the reconstructed surface quality.

  3. Investigating Cardiac Motion Patterns Using Synthetic High-Resolution 3D Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Images and Statistical Shape Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Biffi, Benedetta; Bruse, Jan L.; Zuluaga, Maria A.; Ntsinjana, Hopewell N.; Taylor, Andrew M.; Schievano, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosis of ventricular dysfunction in congenital heart disease is more and more based on medical imaging, which allows investigation of abnormal cardiac morphology and correlated abnormal function. Although analysis of 2D images represents the clinical standard, novel tools performing automatic processing of 3D images are becoming available, providing more detailed and comprehensive information than simple 2D morphometry. Among these, statistical shape analysis (SSA) allows a consistent and quantitative description of a population of complex shapes, as a way to detect novel biomarkers, ultimately improving diagnosis and pathology understanding. The aim of this study is to describe the implementation of a SSA method for the investigation of 3D left ventricular shape and motion patterns and to test it on a small sample of 4 congenital repaired aortic stenosis patients and 4 age-matched healthy volunteers to demonstrate its potential. The advantage of this method is the capability of analyzing subject-specific motion patterns separately from the individual morphology, visually and quantitatively, as a way to identify functional abnormalities related to both dynamics and shape. Specifically, we combined 3D, high-resolution whole heart data with 2D, temporal information provided by cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance images, and we used an SSA approach to analyze 3D motion per se. Preliminary results of this pilot study showed that using this method, some differences in end-diastolic and end-systolic ventricular shapes could be captured, but it was not possible to clearly separate the two cohorts based on shape information alone. However, further analyses on ventricular motion allowed to qualitatively identify differences between the two populations. Moreover, by describing shape and motion with a small number of principal components, this method offers a fully automated process to obtain visually intuitive and numerical information on cardiac shape and motion

  4. Research of range-gated 3D imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haitao; Zhao, Hongli; Youchen, Fan

    2016-10-01

    Laser image data-based target recognition technology is one of the key technologies of laser active imaging systems. This paper discussed the status quo of 3-D imaging development at home and abroad, analyzed the current technological bottlenecks, and built a prototype of range-gated systems to obtain a set of range-gated slice images, and then constructed the 3-D images of the target by binary method and centroid method, respectively, and by constructing different numbers of slice images explored the relationship between the number of images and the reconstruction accuracy in the 3-D image reconstruction process. The experiment analyzed the impact of two algorithms, binary method and centroid method, on the results of 3-D image reconstruction. In the binary method, a comparative analysis was made on the impact of different threshold values on the results of reconstruction, where 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and adaptive threshold values were selected for 3-D reconstruction of the slice images. In the centroid method, 15, 10, 6, 3, and 2 images were respectively used to realize 3-D reconstruction. Experimental results showed that with the same number of slice images, the accuracy of centroid method was higher than the binary algorithm, and the binary algorithm had a large dependence on the selection of threshold; with the number of slice images dwindling, the accuracy of images reconstructed by centroid method continued to reduce, and at least three slice images were required in order to obtain one 3-D image.

  5. 3D and Multispectral Imaging For Subcutaneous Structures Classification And Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Paquit, Vincent C; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William; Price, Jeffery R; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2009-01-01

    A classification method to differentiate subcutaneous structures is presented. To obtain characteristic spectral signatures, we are investigating light propagation phenomena in biological tissues by combining visible to near-infrared multi-wavelength skin imaging and three dimensional topographic imaging of the skin surface.

  6. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  7. Utilising E-on Vue and Unity 3D scenes to generate synthetic images and videos for visible signature analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, Christopher S.; Richards, Noel J.; Culpepper, Joanne B.

    2016-10-01

    This paper investigates the ability to develop synthetic scenes in an image generation tool, E-on Vue, and a gaming engine, Unity 3D, which can be used to generate synthetic imagery of target objects across a variety of conditions in land environments. Developments within these tools and gaming engines have allowed the computer gaming industry to dramatically enhance the realism of the games they develop; however they utilise short cuts to ensure that the games run smoothly in real-time to create an immersive effect. Whilst these short cuts may have an impact upon the realism of the synthetic imagery, they do promise a much more time efficient method of developing imagery of different environmental conditions and to investigate the dynamic aspect of military operations that is currently not evaluated in signature analysis. The results presented investigate how some of the common image metrics used in target acquisition modelling, namely the Δμ1, Δμ2, Δμ3, RSS, and Doyle metrics, perform on the synthetic scenes generated by E-on Vue and Unity 3D compared to real imagery of similar scenes. An exploration of the time required to develop the various aspects of the scene to enhance its realism are included, along with an overview of the difficulties associated with trying to recreate specific locations as a virtual scene. This work is an important start towards utilising virtual worlds for visible signature evaluation, and evaluating how equivalent synthetic imagery is to real photographs.

  8. Analysis of 3-D Tongue Motion from Tagged and Cine Magnetic Resonance Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xing, Fangxu; Woo, Jonghye; Lee, Junghoon; Murano, Emi Z.; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Measuring tongue deformation and internal muscle motion during speech has been a challenging task because the tongue deforms in 3 dimensions, contains interdigitated muscles, and is largely hidden within the vocal tract. In this article, a new method is proposed to analyze tagged and cine magnetic resonance images of the tongue during…

  9. 3D integral imaging with optical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Martínez-Cuenca, Raúl; Saavedra, Genaro; Javidi, Bahram

    2008-04-01

    Integral imaging (InI) systems are imaging devices that provide auto-stereoscopic images of 3D intensity objects. Since the birth of this new technology, InI systems have faced satisfactorily many of their initial drawbacks. Basically, two kind of procedures have been used: digital and optical procedures. The "3D Imaging and Display Group" at the University of Valencia, with the essential collaboration of Prof. Javidi, has centered its efforts in the 3D InI with optical processing. Among other achievements, our Group has proposed the annular amplitude modulation for enlargement of the depth of field, dynamic focusing for reduction of the facet-braiding effect, or the TRES and MATRES devices to enlarge the viewing angle.

  10. Automatic segmentation of solitary pulmonary nodules based on local intensity structure analysis and 3D neighborhood features in 3D chest CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Honma, Hirotoshi; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Natori, Hiroshi; Mori, Kensaku

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) segmentation method based on local intensity structure analysis and neighborhood feature analysis in chest CT images. Automated segmentation of SPNs is desirable for a chest computer-aided detection/diagnosis (CAS) system since a SPN may indicate early stage of lung cancer. Due to the similar intensities of SPNs and other chest structures such as blood vessels, many false positives (FPs) are generated by nodule detection methods. To reduce such FPs, we introduce two features that analyze the relation between each segmented nodule candidate and it neighborhood region. The proposed method utilizes a blob-like structure enhancement (BSE) filter based on Hessian analysis to augment the blob-like structures as initial nodule candidates. Then a fine segmentation is performed to segment much more accurate region of each nodule candidate. FP reduction is mainly addressed by investigating two neighborhood features based on volume ratio and eigenvector of Hessian that are calculates from the neighborhood region of each nodule candidate. We evaluated the proposed method by using 40 chest CT images, include 20 standard-dose CT images that we randomly chosen from a local database and 20 low-dose CT images that were randomly chosen from a public database: LIDC. The experimental results revealed that the average TP rate of proposed method was 93.6% with 12.3 FPs/case.

  11. ICER-3D Hyperspectral Image Compression Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Hua; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, matthew; Aranki, Nazeeh

    2010-01-01

    Software has been developed to implement the ICER-3D algorithm. ICER-3D effects progressive, three-dimensional (3D), wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images. If a compressed data stream is truncated, the progressive nature of the algorithm enables reconstruction of hyperspectral data at fidelity commensurate with the given data volume. The ICER-3D software is capable of providing either lossless or lossy compression, and incorporates an error-containment scheme to limit the effects of data loss during transmission. The compression algorithm, which was derived from the ICER image compression algorithm, includes wavelet-transform, context-modeling, and entropy coding subalgorithms. The 3D wavelet decomposition structure used by ICER-3D exploits correlations in all three dimensions of sets of hyperspectral image data, while facilitating elimination of spectral ringing artifacts, using a technique summarized in "Improving 3D Wavelet-Based Compression of Spectral Images" (NPO-41381), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 3 (March 2009), page 7a. Correlation is further exploited by a context-modeling subalgorithm, which exploits spectral dependencies in the wavelet-transformed hyperspectral data, using an algorithm that is summarized in "Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images" (NPO-43239), which follows this article. An important feature of ICER-3D is a scheme for limiting the adverse effects of loss of data during transmission. In this scheme, as in the similar scheme used by ICER, the spatial-frequency domain is partitioned into rectangular error-containment regions. In ICER-3D, the partitions extend through all the wavelength bands. The data in each partition are compressed independently of those in the other partitions, so that loss or corruption of data from any partition does not affect the other partitions. Furthermore, because compression is progressive within each partition, when data are lost, any data from that partition received

  12. RGB color calibration for quantitative image analysis: the "3D thin-plate spline" warping approach.

    PubMed

    Menesatti, Paolo; Angelini, Claudio; Pallottino, Federico; Antonucci, Francesca; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Costa, Corrado

    2012-01-01

    In the last years the need to numerically define color by its coordinates in n-dimensional space has increased strongly. Colorimetric calibration is fundamental in food processing and other biological disciplines to quantitatively compare samples' color during workflow with many devices. Several software programmes are available to perform standardized colorimetric procedures, but they are often too imprecise for scientific purposes. In this study, we applied the Thin-Plate Spline interpolation algorithm to calibrate colours in sRGB space (the corresponding Matlab code is reported in the Appendix). This was compared with other two approaches. The first is based on a commercial calibration system (ProfileMaker) and the second on a Partial Least Square analysis. Moreover, to explore device variability and resolution two different cameras were adopted and for each sensor, three consecutive pictures were acquired under four different light conditions. According to our results, the Thin-Plate Spline approach reported a very high efficiency of calibration allowing the possibility to create a revolution in the in-field applicative context of colour quantification not only in food sciences, but also in other biological disciplines. These results are of great importance for scientific color evaluation when lighting conditions are not controlled. Moreover, it allows the use of low cost instruments while still returning scientifically sound quantitative data.

  13. Active segmentation of 3D axonal images.

    PubMed

    Muralidhar, Gautam S; Gopinath, Ajay; Bovik, Alan C; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2012-01-01

    We present an active contour framework for segmenting neuronal axons on 3D confocal microscopy data. Our work is motivated by the need to conduct high throughput experiments involving microfluidic devices and femtosecond lasers to study the genetic mechanisms behind nerve regeneration and repair. While most of the applications for active contours have focused on segmenting closed regions in 2D medical and natural images, there haven't been many applications that have focused on segmenting open-ended curvilinear structures in 2D or higher dimensions. The active contour framework we present here ties together a well known 2D active contour model [5] along with the physics of projection imaging geometry to yield a segmented axon in 3D. Qualitative results illustrate the promise of our approach for segmenting neruonal axons on 3D confocal microscopy data.

  14. 3-D imaging of the CNS.

    PubMed

    Runge, V M; Gelblum, D Y; Wood, M L

    1990-01-01

    3-D gradient echo techniques, and in particular FLASH, represent a significant advance in MR imaging strategy allowing thin section, high resolution imaging through a large region of interest. Anatomical areas of application include the brain, spine, and extremities, although the majority of work to date has been performed in the brain. Superior T1 contrast and thus sensitivity to the presence of GdDTPA is achieved with 3-D FLASH when compared to 2-D spin echo technique. There is marked arterial and venous enhancement following Gd DTPA administration on 3-D FLASH, a less common finding with 2-D spin echo. Enhancement of the falx and tentorium is also more prominent. From a single data acquisition, requiring less than 11 min of scan time, high resolution reformatted sagittal, coronal, and axial images can obtained in addition to sections in any arbitrary plane. Tissue segmentation techniques can be applied and lesions displayed in three dimensions. These results may lead to the replacement of 2-D spin echo with 3-D FLASH for high resolution T1-weighted MR imaging of the CNS, particularly in the study of mass lesions and structural anomalies. The application of similar T2-weighted gradient echo techniques may follow, however the signal-to-noise ratio which can be achieved remains a potential limitation.

  15. Walker Ranch 3D seismic images

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Mellors

    2016-03-01

    Amplitude images (both vertical and depth slices) extracted from 3D seismic reflection survey over area of Walker Ranch area (adjacent to Raft River). Crossline spacing of 660 feet and inline of 165 feet using a Vibroseis source. Processing included depth migration. Micro-earthquake hypocenters on images. Stratigraphic information and nearby well tracks added to images. Images are embedded in a Microsoft Word document with additional information. Exact location and depth restricted for proprietary reasons. Data collection and processing funded by Agua Caliente. Original data remains property of Agua Caliente.

  16. Backhoe 3D "gold standard" image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorham, LeRoy; Naidu, Kiranmai D.; Majumder, Uttam; Minardi, Michael A.

    2005-05-01

    ViSUAl-D (VIsual Sar Using ALl Dimensions), a 2004 DARPA/IXO seedling effort, is developing a capability for reliable high confidence ID from standoff ranges. Recent conflicts have demonstrated that the warfighter would greatly benefit from the ability to ID targets beyond visual and electro-optical ranges[1]. Forming optical-quality SAR images while exploiting full polarization, wide angles, and large bandwidth would be key evidence such a capability is achievable. Using data generated by the Xpatch EM scattering code, ViSUAl-D investigates all degrees of freedom available to the radar designer, including 6 GHz bandwidth, full polarization and angle sampling over 2π steradians (upper hemisphere), in order to produce a "literal" image or representation of the target. This effort includes the generation of a "Gold Standard" image that can be produced at X-band utilizing all available target data. This "Gold Standard" image of the backhoe will serve as a test bed for future more relevant military targets and their image development. The seedling team produced a public release data which was released at the 2004 SPIE conference, as well as a 3D "Gold Standard" backhoe image using a 3D image formation algorithm. This paper describes the full backhoe data set, the image formation algorithm, the visualization process and the resulting image.

  17. A radiobiological analysis of the effect of 3D versus 4D image-based planning in lung cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Roland, Teboh; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Gutierrez, Alonso; Goytia, Virginia; Papanikolaou, Niko

    2009-09-21

    Dose distributions generated on a static anatomy may differ significantly from those delivered to temporally varying anatomy such as for abdominal and thoracic tumors, due largely in part to the unavoidable organ motion and deformation effects stemming from respiration. In this work, the degree of such variation for three treatment techniques, namely static conventional, gating and target tracking radiotherapy, was investigated. The actual delivered dose was approximated by planning all the phases of a 4DCT image set. Data from six (n = 6) previously treated lung cancer patients were used for this study with tumor motion ranging from 2 to 10 mm. Complete radiobiological analyses were performed to assess the clinical significance of the observed discrepancies between the 3D and 4DCT image-based dose distributions. Using the complication-free tumor control probability (P+) objective, we observed small differences in P+ between the 3D and 4DCT image-based plans (<2.0% difference on average) for the gating and static conventional regimens and higher differences in P+ (4.0% on average) for the tracking regimen. Furthermore, we observed, as a general trend, that the 3D plan underestimated the P+ values. While it is not possible to draw any general conclusions from a small patient cohort, our results suggest that there exists a patient population in which 4D planning does not provide any additional benefits beyond that afforded by 3D planning for static conventional or gated radiotherapy. This statement is consistent with previous studies based on physical dosimetric evaluations only. The higher differences observed with the tracking technique suggest that individual patient plans should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis to assess if 3D or 4D imaging is appropriate for the tracking technique.

  18. Digital holography and 3D imaging: introduction to feature issue.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung K; Hayasaki, Yoshio; Picart, Pascal; Rosen, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This feature issue of Applied Optics on Digital Holography and 3D Imaging is the sixth of an approximately annual series. Forty-seven papers are presented, covering a wide range of topics in phase-shifting methods, low coherence methods, particle analysis, biomedical imaging, computer-generated holograms, integral imaging, and many others.

  19. 3D imaging system for biometric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Kevin; Abramovich, Gil; Paruchura, Vijay; Manickam, Swaminathan; Vemury, Arun

    2010-04-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of 3D data for many new applications beyond traditional metrology areas. In particular, using 3D data to obtain shape information of both people and objects for applications ranging from identification to game inputs does not require high degrees of calibration or resolutions in the tens of micron range, but does require a means to quickly and robustly collect data in the millimeter range. Systems using methods such as structured light or stereo have seen wide use in measurements, but due to the use of a triangulation angle, and thus the need for a separated second viewpoint, may not be practical for looking at a subject 10 meters away. Even when working close to a subject, such as capturing hands or fingers, the triangulation angle causes occlusions, shadows, and a physically large system that may get in the way. This paper will describe methods to collect medium resolution 3D data, plus highresolution 2D images, using a line of sight approach. The methods use no moving parts and as such are robust to movement (for portability), reliable, and potentially very fast at capturing 3D data. This paper will describe the optical methods considered, variations on these methods, and present experimental data obtained with the approach.

  20. TU-CD-207-09: Analysis of the 3-D Shape of Patients’ Breast for Breast Imaging and Surgery Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Agasthya, G; Sechopoulos, I

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Develop a method to accurately capture the 3-D shape of patients’ external breast surface before and during breast compression for mammography/tomosynthesis. Methods: During this IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant study, 50 women were recruited to undergo 3-D breast surface imaging during breast compression and imaging for the cranio-caudal (CC) view on a digital mammography/breast tomosynthesis system. Digital projectors and cameras mounted on tripods were used to acquire 3-D surface images of the breast, in three conditions: (a) positioned on the support paddle before compression, (b) during compression by the compression paddle and (c) the anterior-posterior view with the breast in its natural, unsupported position. The breast was compressed to standard full compression with the compression paddle and a tomosynthesis image was acquired simultaneously with the 3-D surface. The 3-D surface curvature and deformation with respect to the uncompressed surface was analyzed using contours. The 3-D surfaces were voxelized to capture breast shape in a format that can be manipulated for further analysis. Results: A protocol was developed to accurately capture the 3-D shape of patients’ breast before and during compression for mammography. Using a pair of 3-D scanners, the 50 patient breasts were scanned in three conditions, resulting in accurate representations of the breast surfaces. The surfaces were post processed, analyzed using contours and voxelized, with 1 mm{sup 3} voxels, converting the breast shape into a format that can be easily modified as required. Conclusion: Accurate characterization of the breast curvature and shape for the generation of 3-D models is possible. These models can be used for various applications such as improving breast dosimetry, accurate scatter estimation, conducting virtual clinical trials and validating compression algorithms. Ioannis Sechopoulos is consultant for Fuji Medical Systems USA.

  1. Pattern based 3D image Steganography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiyagarajan, P.; Natarajan, V.; Aghila, G.; Prasanna Venkatesan, V.; Anitha, R.

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes a new high capacity Steganographic scheme using 3D geometric models. The novel algorithm re-triangulates a part of a triangle mesh and embeds the secret information into newly added position of triangle meshes. Up to nine bits of secret data can be embedded into vertices of a triangle without causing any changes in the visual quality and the geometric properties of the cover image. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is secure, with high capacity and low distortion rate. Our algorithm also resists against uniform affine transformations such as cropping, rotation and scaling. Also, the performance of the method is compared with other existing 3D Steganography algorithms. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. 3D goes digital: from stereoscopy to modern 3D imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerwien, N.

    2014-11-01

    In the 19th century, English physicist Charles Wheatstone discovered stereopsis, the basis for 3D perception. His construction of the first stereoscope established the foundation for stereoscopic 3D imaging. Since then, many optical instruments were influenced by these basic ideas. In recent decades, the advent of digital technologies revolutionized 3D imaging. Powerful readily available sensors and displays combined with efficient pre- or post-processing enable new methods for 3D imaging and applications. This paper draws an arc from basic concepts of 3D imaging to modern digital implementations, highlighting instructive examples from its 175 years of history.

  3. 3D seismic image processing for interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xinming

    Extracting fault, unconformity, and horizon surfaces from a seismic image is useful for interpretation of geologic structures and stratigraphic features. Although interpretation of these surfaces has been automated to some extent by others, significant manual effort is still required for extracting each type of these geologic surfaces. I propose methods to automatically extract all the fault, unconformity, and horizon surfaces from a 3D seismic image. To a large degree, these methods just involve image processing or array processing which is achieved by efficiently solving partial differential equations. For fault interpretation, I propose a linked data structure, which is simpler than triangle or quad meshes, to represent a fault surface. In this simple data structure, each sample of a fault corresponds to exactly one image sample. Using this linked data structure, I extract complete and intersecting fault surfaces without holes from 3D seismic images. I use the same structure in subsequent processing to estimate fault slip vectors. I further propose two methods, using precomputed fault surfaces and slips, to undo faulting in seismic images by simultaneously moving fault blocks and faults themselves. For unconformity interpretation, I first propose a new method to compute a unconformity likelihood image that highlights both the termination areas and the corresponding parallel unconformities and correlative conformities. I then extract unconformity surfaces from the likelihood image and use these surfaces as constraints to more accurately estimate seismic normal vectors that are discontinuous near the unconformities. Finally, I use the estimated normal vectors and use the unconformities as constraints to compute a flattened image, in which seismic reflectors are all flat and vertical gaps correspond to the unconformities. Horizon extraction is straightforward after computing a map of image flattening; we can first extract horizontal slices in the flattened space

  4. Computer-aided 2D and 3D quantification of human stem cell fate from in vitro samples using Volocity high performance image analysis software.

    PubMed

    Piltti, Katja M; Haus, Daniel L; Do, Eileen; Perez, Harvey; Anderson, A J; Cummings, B J

    2011-11-01

    Accurate automated cell fate analysis of immunostained human stem cells from 2- and 3-dimensional (2D-3D) images would improve efficiency in the field of stem cell research. Development of an accurate and precise tool that reduces variability and the time needed for human stem cell fate analysis will improve productivity and interpretability of the data across research groups. In this study, we have created protocols for high performance image analysis software Volocity® to classify and quantify cytoplasmic and nuclear cell fate markers from 2D-3D images of human neural stem cells after in vitro differentiation. To enhance 3D image capture efficiency, we optimized the image acquisition settings of an Olympus FV10i® confocal laser scanning microscope to match our quantification protocols and improve cell fate classification. The methods developed in this study will allow for a more time efficient and accurate software based, operator validated, stem cell fate classification and quantification from 2D and 3D images, and yield the highest ≥94.4% correspondence with human recognized objects.

  5. Interactive 3D segmentation of the prostate in magnetic resonance images using shape and local appearance similarity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahedi, Maysam; Fenster, Aaron; Cool, Derek W.; Romagnoli, Cesare; Ward, Aaron D.

    2013-03-01

    3D segmentation of the prostate in medical images is useful to prostate cancer diagnosis and therapy guidance, but is time-consuming to perform manually. Clinical translation of computer-assisted segmentation algorithms for this purpose requires a comprehensive and complementary set of evaluation metrics that are informative to the clinical end user. We have developed an interactive 3D prostate segmentation method for 1.5T and 3.0T T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T2W MRI) acquired using an endorectal coil. We evaluated our method against manual segmentations of 36 3D images using complementary boundary-based (mean absolute distance; MAD), regional overlap (Dice similarity coefficient; DSC) and volume difference (ΔV) metrics. Our technique is based on inter-subject prostate shape and local boundary appearance similarity. In the training phase, we calculated a point distribution model (PDM) and a set of local mean intensity patches centered on the prostate border to capture shape and appearance variability. To segment an unseen image, we defined a set of rays - one corresponding to each of the mean intensity patches computed in training - emanating from the prostate centre. We used a radial-based search strategy and translated each mean intensity patch along its corresponding ray, selecting as a candidate the boundary point with the highest normalized cross correlation along each ray. These boundary points were then regularized using the PDM. For the whole gland, we measured a mean+/-std MAD of 2.5+/-0.7 mm, DSC of 80+/-4%, and ΔV of 1.1+/-8.8 cc. We also provided an anatomic breakdown of these metrics within the prostatic base, mid-gland, and apex.

  6. Quantification and geometric analysis of coiling patterns in gastropod shells based on 3D and 2D image data.

    PubMed

    Noshita, Koji

    2014-12-21

    The morphology of gastropod shells has been a focus of analyses in ecology and evolution. It has recently emerged as an important issue in developmental biology, thanks to recent advancements in molecular biological techniques. The growing tube model is a theoretical morphological model for describing various coiling patterns of molluscan shells, and it is a useful theoretical tool to relate local tissue growth with global shell morphology. However, the growing tube model has rarely been adopted in empirical research owing to the difficulty in estimating the parameters of the model from morphological data. In this article, I solve this problem by developing methods of parameter estimation when (1) 3D Computed Tomography (CT) data are available and (2) only 2D image data (such as photographs) are available. When 3D CT data are available, the parameters can be estimated by fitting an analytical solution of the growing tube model to the data. When only 2D image data are available, we first fit Raup׳s model to the 2D image data and then convert the parameters of Raup׳s model to those of the growing tube model. To illustrate the use of these methods, I apply them to data generated by a computer simulation of the model. Both methods work well, except when shells grow without coiling. I also demonstrate the effectiveness of the methods by applying the model to actual 3D CT data and 2D image data of land snails. I conclude that the method proposed in this article can reconstruct the coiling pattern from observed data.

  7. 3D GPR Imaging of Wooden Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halabe, Udaya B.; Pyakurel, Sandeep

    2007-03-01

    There has been a lack of an effective NDE technique to locate internal defects within wooden logs. The few available elastic wave propagation based techniques are limited to predicting E values. Other techniques such as X-rays have not been very successful in detecting internal defects in logs. If defects such as embedded metals could be identified before the sawing process, the saw mills could significantly increase their production by reducing the probability of damage to the saw blade and the associated downtime and the repair cost. Also, if the internal defects such as knots and decayed areas could be identified in logs, the sawing blade can be oriented to exclude the defective portion and optimize the volume of high valued lumber that can be obtained from the logs. In this research, GPR has been successfully used to locate internal defects (knots, decays and embedded metals) within the logs. This paper discusses GPR imaging and mapping of the internal defects using both 2D and 3D interpretation methodology. Metal pieces were inserted in a log and the reflection patterns from these metals were interpreted from the radargrams acquired using 900 MHz antenna. Also, GPR was able to accurately identify the location of knots and decays. Scans from several orientations of the log were collected to generate 3D cylindrical volume. The actual location of the defects showed good correlation with the interpreted defects in the 3D volume. The time/depth slices from 3D cylindrical volume data were useful in understanding the extent of defects inside the log.

  8. Quantitative fractography by digital image processing: NIH Image macro tools for stereo pair analysis and 3-D reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hein, L R

    2001-10-01

    A set of NIH Image macro programs was developed to make qualitative and quantitative analyses from digital stereo pictures produced by scanning electron microscopes. These tools were designed for image alignment, anaglyph representation, animation, reconstruction of true elevation surfaces, reconstruction of elevation profiles, true-scale elevation mapping and, for the quantitative approach, surface area and roughness calculations. Limitations on time processing, scanning techniques and programming concepts are also discussed.

  9. In vivo application of 3D-line skeleton graph analysis (LSGA) technique with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of trabecular bone structure.

    PubMed

    Pothuaud, Laurent; Newitt, David C; Lu, Ying; MacDonald, Brian; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2004-05-01

    Over the last several years magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has emerged as a means of measuring in vivo 3D trabecular bone structure. In particular, MR based diagnosis could be used to complement standard bone mineral density (BMD) methods for assessing osteoporosis and evaluating longitudinal changes. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using the 3D-LSGA technique for the evaluation of trabecular bone structure of high-resolution MR images, particularly for assessing longitudinal changes, in vivo. First, the reproducibility of topological 3D-LSGA based measurements was evaluated in a set of seven volunteers, and coefficients of variations ranged from 3.5% to 6%. Second, high-resolution MR images of the radius in 30 postmenopausal women from a placebo controlled drug study (Idoxifene), divided into placebo ( n=9) and treated ( n=21) groups, were obtained at baseline (BL) and after 1 year of treatment (follow-up, FU). In addition, dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measures of BMD were obtained in the distal radius. Standard morphological measurements based on the mean intercept length (MIL) technique as well as 3D-LSGA based measurements were applied to the 3D MR images. Significant changes from BL to FU were detected, in the treated group, using the topological 3D-LSGA based measurements, morphological measures of volume of connected trabeculae and App Tb.N from MIL analysis. The duration of the study was short, and the number of patients remaining in the study was small, hence these results cannot be interpreted with regard to a true therapeutic response. Furthermore, the site (wrist) and the drug (idoxifene) are not optimal for follow-up study. However, this paper demonstrated the feasibility of using 3D-LSGA based evaluation coupled with in vivo high-resolution MR imaging as a complementary approach for the monitoring of trabecular bone changes in individual subjects.

  10. MExLab Planetary Geoportal: 3D-access to planetary images and results of spatial data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachevtseva, I.; Garov, A.

    2015-10-01

    MExLab Planetary Geoportal was developed as Geodesy and Cartography Node which provide access to results of study of celestial bodies such as DEM and orthoimages, as well as basemaps, crater catalogues and derivative products: slope, roughness, crater density (http://cartsrv.mexlab.ru/geoportal). The main feature of designed Geoportal is the ability of spatial queries and access to the contents selecting from the list of available data set (Phobos, Mercury, Moon, including Lunokhod's archive data). Prior version of Geoportal has been developed using Flash technology. Now we are developing new version which will use 3D-API (OpenGL, WebGL) based on shaders not only for standard 3D-functionality, but for 2D-mapping as well. Users can obtain quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the objects in graphical, tabular and 3D-forms. It will bring the advantages of unification of code and speed of processing and provide a number of functional advantages based on GIS-tools such as: - possibility of dynamic raster transform for needed map projection; - effective implementation of the co-registration of planetary images by combining spatial data geometries; - presentation in 3D-form different types of data, including planetary atmospheric measurements, subsurface radar data, ect. The system will be created with a new software architecture, which has a potential for development and flexibility in reconfiguration based on cross platform solution: - an application for the three types of platforms: desktop (Windows, Linux, OSX), web platform (any HTML5 browser), and mobile application (Android, iOS); - a single codebase shared between platforms (using cross compilation for Web); - a new telecommunication solution to connect between modules and external system like PROVIDE WebGIS (http://www.provide-space.eu/progis/). The research leading to these result was partly supported by the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n

  11. Evaluation of reproducibility and reliability of 3D soft tissue analysis using 3D stereophotogrammetry.

    PubMed

    Plooij, J M; Swennen, G R J; Rangel, F A; Maal, T J J; Schutyser, F A C; Bronkhorst, E M; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Bergé, S J

    2009-03-01

    In 3D photographs the bony structures are neither available nor palpable, therefore, the bone-related landmarks, such as the soft tissue gonion, need to be redefined. The purpose of this study was to determine the reproducibility and reliability of 49 soft tissue landmarks, including newly defined 3D bone-related soft tissue landmarks with the use of 3D stereophotogrammetric images. Two observers carried out soft-tissue analysis on 3D photographs twice for 20 patients. A reference frame and 49 landmarks were identified on each 3D photograph. Paired Student's t-test was used to test the reproducibility and Pearson's correlation coefficient to determine the reliability of the landmark identification. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility of the landmarks were high. The study showed a high reliability coefficient for intraobserver (0.97 (0.90 - 0.99)) and interobserver reliability (0.94 (0.69 - 0.99)). Identification of the landmarks in the midline was more precise than identification of the paired landmarks. In conclusion, the redefinition of bone-related soft tissue 3D landmarks in combination with the 3D photograph reference system resulted in an accurate and reliable 3D photograph based soft tissue analysis. This shows that hard tissue data are not needed to perform accurate soft tissue analysis.

  12. 3D Imaging with Holographic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Colin J. R.; Kou, Shan Shan

    2010-04-01

    There are two main types of tomography that enable the 3D internal structures of objects to be reconstructed from scattered data. The commonly known computerized tomography (CT) give good results in the x-ray wavelength range where the filtered back-projection theorem and Radon transform can be used. These techniques rely on the Fourier projection-slice theorem where rays are considered to propagate straight through the object. Another type of tomography called `diffraction tomography' applies in applications in optics and acoustics where diffraction and scattering effects must be taken into account. The latter proves to be a more difficult problem, as light no longer travels straight through the sample. Holographic tomography is a popular way of performing diffraction tomography and there has been active experimental research on reconstructing complex refractive index data using this approach recently. However, there are two distinct ways of doing tomography: either by rotation of the object or by rotation of the illumination while fixing the detector. The difference between these two setups is intuitive but needs to be quantified. From Fourier optics and information transformation point of view, we use 3D transfer function analysis to quantitatively describe how spatial frequencies of the object are mapped to the Fourier domain. We first employ a paraxial treatment by calculating the Fourier transform of the defocused OTF. The shape of the calculated 3D CTF for tomography, by scanning the illumination in one direction only, takes on a form that we might call a 'peanut,' compared to the case of object rotation, where a diablo is formed, the peanut exhibiting significant differences and non-isotropy. In particular, there is a line singularity along one transverse direction. Under high numerical aperture conditions, the paraxial treatment is not accurate, and so we make use of 3D analytical geometry to calculate the behaviour in the non-paraxial case. This time, we

  13. A rapid and efficient 2D/3D nuclear segmentation method for analysis of early mouse embryo and stem cell image data.

    PubMed

    Lou, Xinghua; Kang, Minjung; Xenopoulos, Panagiotis; Muñoz-Descalzo, Silvia; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina

    2014-03-11

    Segmentation is a fundamental problem that dominates the success of microscopic image analysis. In almost 25 years of cell detection software development, there is still no single piece of commercial software that works well in practice when applied to early mouse embryo or stem cell image data. To address this need, we developed MINS (modular interactive nuclear segmentation) as a MATLAB/C++-based segmentation tool tailored for counting cells and fluorescent intensity measurements of 2D and 3D image data. Our aim was to develop a tool that is accurate and efficient yet straightforward and user friendly. The MINS pipeline comprises three major cascaded modules: detection, segmentation, and cell position classification. An extensive evaluation of MINS on both 2D and 3D images, and comparison to related tools, reveals improvements in segmentation accuracy and usability. Thus, its accuracy and ease of use will allow MINS to be implemented for routine single-cell-level image analyses.

  14. 3D thermography imaging standardization technique for inflammation diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Xiangyang; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Siebert, J. Paul

    2005-01-01

    We develop a 3D thermography imaging standardization technique to allow quantitative data analysis. Medical Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging is very sensitive and reliable mean of graphically mapping and display skin surface temperature. It allows doctors to visualise in colour and quantify temperature changes in skin surface. The spectrum of colours indicates both hot and cold responses which may co-exist if the pain associate with an inflammatory focus excites an increase in sympathetic activity. However, due to thermograph provides only qualitative diagnosis information, it has not gained acceptance in the medical and veterinary communities as a necessary or effective tool in inflammation and tumor detection. Here, our technique is based on the combination of visual 3D imaging technique and thermal imaging technique, which maps the 2D thermography images on to 3D anatomical model. Then we rectify the 3D thermogram into a view independent thermogram and conform it a standard shape template. The combination of these imaging facilities allows the generation of combined 3D and thermal data from which thermal signatures can be quantified.

  15. Predicting Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Freshness by a Novel Combined Technique of 3D Imaging and SW-NIR Spectral Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ivorra, Eugenio; Verdu, Samuel; Sánchez, Antonio J; Grau, Raúl; Barat, José M

    2016-10-19

    A technique that combines the spatial resolution of a 3D structured-light (SL) imaging system with the spectral analysis of a hyperspectral short-wave near infrared system was developed for freshness predictions of gilthead sea bream on the first storage days (Days 0-6). This novel approach allows the hyperspectral analysis of very specific fish areas, which provides more information for freshness estimations. The SL system obtains a 3D reconstruction of fish, and an automatic method locates gilthead's pupils and irises. Once these regions are positioned, the hyperspectral camera acquires spectral information and a multivariate statistical study is done. The best region is the pupil with an R² of 0.92 and an RMSE of 0.651 for predictions. We conclude that the combination of 3D technology with the hyperspectral analysis offers plenty of potential and is a very promising technique to non destructively predict gilthead freshness.

  16. Predicting Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Freshness by a Novel Combined Technique of 3D Imaging and SW-NIR Spectral Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ivorra, Eugenio; Verdu, Samuel; Sánchez, Antonio J.; Grau, Raúl; Barat, José M.

    2016-01-01

    A technique that combines the spatial resolution of a 3D structured-light (SL) imaging system with the spectral analysis of a hyperspectral short-wave near infrared system was developed for freshness predictions of gilthead sea bream on the first storage days (Days 0–6). This novel approach allows the hyperspectral analysis of very specific fish areas, which provides more information for freshness estimations. The SL system obtains a 3D reconstruction of fish, and an automatic method locates gilthead’s pupils and irises. Once these regions are positioned, the hyperspectral camera acquires spectral information and a multivariate statistical study is done. The best region is the pupil with an R2 of 0.92 and an RMSE of 0.651 for predictions. We conclude that the combination of 3D technology with the hyperspectral analysis offers plenty of potential and is a very promising technique to non destructively predict gilthead freshness. PMID:27775556

  17. High-resolution 3-D T1*-mapping and quantitative image analysis of GRAY ZONE in chronic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pop, Mihaela; Ramanan, Venkat; Yang, Franklin; Zhang, Li; Newbigging, Susan; Ghugre, Nilesh R; Wright, Graham A

    2014-12-01

    The substrate of potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmias often resides in the gray zone (GZ), a mixture of viable myocytes and collagen strands found between healthy myocardium and infarct core (IC). The specific aims of this paper are to demonstrate correspondence between regions delineated in T1* (apparent T1) maps and tissue characteristics seen in histopathology and to determine the MR imaging resolution needed to adequately identify GZ-associated substrate in chronic infarct. For this, a novel 3-D multicontrast late enhancement (MCLE) MR method was used to image ex vivo swine hearts with chronic infarction, at high resolution ( 0.6×0.6×1.25 mm). Pixel-wise classified tissue maps were calculated using steady-state and T1* images as input to a fuzzy-clustering algorithm. Quantitative histology based on collagen stains was performed in n = 10 selected slabs and showed very good correlations between histologically-determined areas of heterogeneous and dense fibrosis, and the corresponding GZ ( R2 = 0.96) and IC ( R2 = 0.97 ) in tissue classified maps. Furthermore, in n = 24 slabs, we performed volumetric measurements of GZ and IC, at the original and decreased image resolutions. Our results demonstrated that the IC volume remained relatively unchanged across all resolutions, whereas the GZ volume progressively increased with diminished image resolution, with changes reaching significance at 1×1×5 mm resolution (p < 0.05 ) but not at 1×1×2.5 mm, suggesting that this resolution may be sufficient to adequately identify the GZ from MCLE images, enabling an effective MR probing of remodeled myocardium in late infarct. Future work will focus on translating these findings to optimizing the current in vivo MCLE imaging of the GZ.

  18. Photogrammetric 3D reconstruction using mobile imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsch, Dieter; Syll, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    In our paper we demonstrate the development of an Android Application (AndroidSfM) for photogrammetric 3D reconstruction that works on smartphones and tablets likewise. The photos are taken with mobile devices, and can thereafter directly be calibrated using standard calibration algorithms of photogrammetry and computer vision, on that device. Due to still limited computing resources on mobile devices, a client-server handshake using Dropbox transfers the photos to the sever to run AndroidSfM for the pose estimation of all photos by Structure-from-Motion and, thereafter, uses the oriented bunch of photos for dense point cloud estimation by dense image matching algorithms. The result is transferred back to the mobile device for visualization and ad-hoc on-screen measurements.

  19. Ames Lab 101: Real-Time 3D Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Song

    2010-01-01

    Ames Laboratory scientist Song Zhang explains his real-time 3-D imaging technology. The technique can be used to create high-resolution, real-time, precise, 3-D images for use in healthcare, security, and entertainment applications.

  20. Ames Lab 101: Real-Time 3D Imaging

    ScienceCinema

    Zhang, Song

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory scientist Song Zhang explains his real-time 3-D imaging technology. The technique can be used to create high-resolution, real-time, precise, 3-D images for use in healthcare, security, and entertainment applications.

  1. Continuous section extraction and over-underbreak detection of tunnel based on 3D laser technology and image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weixing; Wang, Zhiwei; Han, Ya; Li, Shuang; Zhang, Xin

    2015-03-01

    Over Underbreak detection of road and solve the problemof the roadway data collection difficulties, this paper presents a new method of continuous section extraction and Over Underbreak detection of road based on 3D laser scanning technology and image processing, the method is divided into the following three steps: based on Canny edge detection, local axis fitting, continuous extraction section and Over Underbreak detection of section. First, after Canny edge detection, take the least-squares curve fitting method to achieve partial fitting in axis. Then adjust the attitude of local roadway that makes the axis of the roadway be consistent with the direction of the extraction reference, and extract section along the reference direction. Finally, we compare the actual cross-sectional view and the cross-sectional design to complete Overbreak detected. Experimental results show that the proposed method have a great advantage in computing costs and ensure cross-section orthogonal intercept terms compared with traditional detection methods.

  2. 2D/3D Image Registration using Regression Learning

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chen-Rui; Frederick, Brandon; Mageras, Gig; Chang, Sha; Pizer, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In computer vision and image analysis, image registration between 2D projections and a 3D image that achieves high accuracy and near real-time computation is challenging. In this paper, we propose a novel method that can rapidly detect an object’s 3D rigid motion or deformation from a 2D projection image or a small set thereof. The method is called CLARET (Correction via Limited-Angle Residues in External Beam Therapy) and consists of two stages: registration preceded by shape space and regression learning. In the registration stage, linear operators are used to iteratively estimate the motion/deformation parameters based on the current intensity residue between the target projec-tion(s) and the digitally reconstructed radiograph(s) (DRRs) of the estimated 3D image. The method determines the linear operators via a two-step learning process. First, it builds a low-order parametric model of the image region’s motion/deformation shape space from its prior 3D images. Second, using learning-time samples produced from the 3D images, it formulates the relationships between the model parameters and the co-varying 2D projection intensity residues by multi-scale linear regressions. The calculated multi-scale regression matrices yield the coarse-to-fine linear operators used in estimating the model parameters from the 2D projection intensity residues in the registration. The method’s application to Image-guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) requires only a few seconds and yields good results in localizing a tumor under rigid motion in the head and neck and under respiratory deformation in the lung, using one treatment-time imaging 2D projection or a small set thereof. PMID:24058278

  3. [3D display of sequential 2D medical images].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yisong; Chen, Yazhu

    2003-12-01

    A detailed review is given in this paper on various current 3D display methods for sequential 2D medical images and the new development in 3D medical image display. True 3D display, surface rendering, volume rendering, 3D texture mapping and distributed collaborative rendering are discussed in depth. For two kinds of medical applications: Real-time navigation system and high-fidelity diagnosis in computer aided surgery, different 3D display methods are presented.

  4. Progress in 3D imaging and display by integral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Cuenca, R.; Saavedra, G.; Martinez-Corral, M.; Pons, A.; Javidi, B.

    2009-05-01

    Three-dimensionality is currently considered an important added value in imaging devices, and therefore the search for an optimum 3D imaging and display technique is a hot topic that is attracting important research efforts. As main value, 3D monitors should provide the observers with different perspectives of a 3D scene by simply varying the head position. Three-dimensional imaging techniques have the potential to establish a future mass-market in the fields of entertainment and communications. Integral imaging (InI), which can capture true 3D color images, has been seen as the right technology to 3D viewing to audiences of more than one person. Due to the advanced degree of development, InI technology could be ready for commercialization in the coming years. This development is the result of a strong research effort performed along the past few years by many groups. Since Integral Imaging is still an emerging technology, the first aim of the "3D Imaging and Display Laboratory" at the University of Valencia, has been the realization of a thorough study of the principles that govern its operation. Is remarkable that some of these principles have been recognized and characterized by our group. Other contributions of our research have been addressed to overcome some of the classical limitations of InI systems, like the limited depth of field (in pickup and in display), the poor axial and lateral resolution, the pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion, the production of 3D images with continuous relief, or the limited range of viewing angles of InI monitors.

  5. Detecting Radiation-Induced Injury Using Rapid 3D Variogram Analysis of CT Images of Rat Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Richard E.; Murphy, Mark K.; Creim, Jeffrey A.; Carson, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives To investigate the ability of variogram analysis of octree-decomposed CT images and volume change maps to detect radiation-induced damage in rat lungs. Materials and Methods The lungs of female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to one of five absorbed doses (0, 6, 9, 12, or 15 Gy) of gamma radiation from a Co-60 source. At 6 months post-exposure, pulmonary function tests were performed and 4DCT images were acquired using a respiratory-gated microCT scanner. Volume change maps were then calculated from the 4DCT images. Octree decomposition was performed on CT images and volume change maps, and variogram analysis was applied to the decomposed images. Correlations of measured parameters with dose were evaluated. Results The effects of irradiation were not detectable from measured parameters, indicating only mild lung damage. Additionally, there were no significant correlations of pulmonary function results or CT densitometry with radiation dose. However, the variogram analysis did detect a significant correlation with dose in both the CT images (r=−0.57, p=0.003) and the volume change maps (r=−0.53, p=0.008). Conclusion This is the first study to utilize variogram analysis of lung images to assess pulmonary damage in a model of radiation injury. Results show that this approach is more sensitive to detecting radiation damage than conventional measures such as pulmonary function tests or CT densitometry. PMID:24029058

  6. Experimental validation of 3D printed patient-specific implants using digital image correlation and finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Sutradhar, Alok; Park, Jaejong; Carrau, Diana; Miller, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    With the dawn of 3D printing technology, patient-specific implant designs are set to have a paradigm shift. A topology optimization method in designing patient-specific craniofacial implants has been developed to ensure adequate load transfer mechanism and restore the form and function of the mid-face. Patient-specific finite element models are used to design these implants and to validate whether they are viable for physiological loading such as mastication. Validation of these topology optimized finite element models using mechanical testing is a critical step. Instead of inserting the implants into a cadaver or patient, we embed the implants into the computer-aided skull model of a patient and, fuse them together to 3D print the complete skull model with the implant. Masticatory forces are applied in the molar region to simulate chewing and measure the stress-strain trajectory. Until recently, strain gages have been used to measure strains for validation. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method is a relatively new technique for full-field strain measurement which provides a continuous deformation field data. The main objective of this study is to validate the finite element model of patient-specific craniofacial implants against the strain data from the DIC obtained during the mastication simulation and show that the optimized shapes provide adequate load-transfer mechanism. Patient-specific models are obtained from CT scans. The principal maximum and minimum strains are compared. The computational and experimental approach to designing patient-specific implants proved to be a viable technique for mid-face craniofacial reconstruction.

  7. Organ-wide 3D-imaging and topological analysis of the continuous microvascular network in a murine lymph node

    PubMed Central

    Kelch, Inken D.; Bogle, Gib; Sands, Gregory B.; Phillips, Anthony R. J.; LeGrice, Ian J.; Rod Dunbar, P.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the microvasculature has previously been limited by the lack of methods capable of capturing and modelling complete vascular networks. We used novel imaging and computational techniques to establish the topology of the entire blood vessel network of a murine lymph node, combining 63706 confocal images at 2 μm pixel resolution to cover a volume of 3.88 mm3. Detailed measurements including the distribution of vessel diameters, branch counts, and identification of voids were subsequently re-visualised in 3D revealing regional specialisation within the network. By focussing on critical immune microenvironments we quantified differences in their vascular topology. We further developed a morphology-based approach to identify High Endothelial Venules, key sites for lymphocyte extravasation. These data represent a comprehensive and continuous blood vessel network of an entire organ and provide benchmark measurements that will inform modelling of blood vessel networks as well as enable comparison of vascular topology in different organs. PMID:26567707

  8. Multifractal analysis of white matter structural changes on 3D magnetic resonance imaging between normal aging and early Alzheimer’s disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Huang-Jing; Zhou, Lu-Ping; Zeng, Peng; Huang, Xiao-Lin; Liu, Hong-Xing; Ning, Xin-Bao

    2015-07-01

    Applications of multifractal analysis to white matter structure changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have recently received increasing attentions. Although some progresses have been made, there is no evident study on applying multifractal analysis to evaluate the white matter structural changes on MRI for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) research. In this paper, to explore multifractal analysis of white matter structural changes on 3D MRI volumes between normal aging and early AD, we not only extend the traditional box-counting multifractal analysis (BCMA) into the 3D case, but also propose a modified integer ratio based BCMA (IRBCMA) algorithm to compensate for the rigid division rule in BCMA. We verify multifractal characteristics in 3D white matter MRI volumes. In addition to the previously well studied multifractal feature, Δα, we also demonstrated Δf as an alternative and effective multifractal feature to distinguish NC from AD subjects. Both Δα and Δf are found to have strong positive correlation with the clinical MMSE scores with statistical significance. Moreover, the proposed IRBCMA can be an alternative and more accurate algorithm for 3D volume analysis. Our findings highlight the potential usefulness of multifractal analysis, which may contribute to clarify some aspects of the etiology of AD through detection of structural changes in white matter. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61271079), the Vice Chancellor Research Grant in University of Wollongong, and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China.

  9. Characterizing accuracy of total hemoglobin recovery using contrast-detail analysis in 3D image-guided near infrared spectroscopy with the boundary element method

    PubMed Central

    Ghadyani, Hamid R.; Srinivasan, Subhadra; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2010-01-01

    The quantification of total hemoglobin concentration (HbT) obtained from multi-modality image-guided near infrared spectroscopy (IG-NIRS) was characterized using the boundary element method (BEM) for 3D image reconstruction. Multi-modality IG-NIRS systems use a priori information to guide the reconstruction process. While this has been shown to improve resolution, the effect on quantitative accuracy is unclear. Here, through systematic contrast-detail analysis, the fidelity of IG-NIRS in quantifying HbT was examined using 3D simulations. These simulations show that HbT could be recovered for medium sized (20mm in 100mm total diameter) spherical inclusions with an average error of 15%, for the physiologically relevant situation of 2:1 or higher contrast between background and inclusion. Using partial 3D volume meshes to reduce the ill-posed nature of the image reconstruction, inclusions as small as 14mm could be accurately quantified with less than 15% error, for contrasts of 1.5 or higher. This suggests that 3D IG-NIRS provides quantitatively accurate results for sizes seen early in treatment cycle of patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy when the tumors are larger than 30mm. PMID:20720975

  10. Detecting Radiation-Induced Injury Using Rapid 3D Variogram Analysis of CT Images of Rat Lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, Rick E.; Murphy, Mark K.; Creim, Jeffrey A.; Carson, James P.

    2013-10-01

    A new heterogeneity analysis approach to discern radiation-induced lung damage was tested on CT images of irradiated rats. The method, combining octree decomposition with variogram analysis, demonstrated a significant correlation with radiation exposure levels, whereas conventional measurements and pulmonary function tests did not. The results suggest the new approach may be highly sensitive for assessing even subtle radiation-induced changes

  11. Imaging fault zones using 3D seismic image processing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacopini, David; Butler, Rob; Purves, Steve

    2013-04-01

    Significant advances in structural analysis of deep water structure, salt tectonic and extensional rift basin come from the descriptions of fault system geometries imaged in 3D seismic data. However, even where seismic data are excellent, in most cases the trajectory of thrust faults is highly conjectural and still significant uncertainty exists as to the patterns of deformation that develop between the main faults segments, and even of the fault architectures themselves. Moreover structural interpretations that conventionally define faults by breaks and apparent offsets of seismic reflectors are commonly conditioned by a narrow range of theoretical models of fault behavior. For example, almost all interpretations of thrust geometries on seismic data rely on theoretical "end-member" behaviors where concepts as strain localization or multilayer mechanics are simply avoided. Yet analogue outcrop studies confirm that such descriptions are commonly unsatisfactory and incomplete. In order to fill these gaps and improve the 3D visualization of deformation in the subsurface, seismic attribute methods are developed here in conjunction with conventional mapping of reflector amplitudes (Marfurt & Chopra, 2007)). These signal processing techniques recently developed and applied especially by the oil industry use variations in the amplitude and phase of the seismic wavelet. These seismic attributes improve the signal interpretation and are calculated and applied to the entire 3D seismic dataset. In this contribution we will show 3D seismic examples of fault structures from gravity-driven deep-water thrust structures and extensional basin systems to indicate how 3D seismic image processing methods can not only build better the geometrical interpretations of the faults but also begin to map both strain and damage through amplitude/phase properties of the seismic signal. This is done by quantifying and delineating the short-range anomalies on the intensity of reflector amplitudes

  12. Automated curved planar reformation of 3D spine images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrtovec, Tomaz; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2005-10-01

    Traditional techniques for visualizing anatomical structures are based on planar cross-sections from volume images, such as images obtained by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, planar cross-sections taken in the coordinate system of the 3D image often do not provide sufficient or qualitative enough diagnostic information, because planar cross-sections cannot follow curved anatomical structures (e.g. arteries, colon, spine, etc). Therefore, not all of the important details can be shown simultaneously in any planar cross-section. To overcome this problem, reformatted images in the coordinate system of the inspected structure must be created. This operation is usually referred to as curved planar reformation (CPR). In this paper we propose an automated method for CPR of 3D spine images, which is based on the image transformation from the standard image-based to a novel spine-based coordinate system. The axes of the proposed spine-based coordinate system are determined on the curve that represents the vertebral column, and the rotation of the vertebrae around the spine curve, both of which are described by polynomial models. The optimal polynomial parameters are obtained in an image analysis based optimization framework. The proposed method was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated on five CT spine images. The method performed well on both normal and pathological cases and was consistent with manually obtained ground truth data. The proposed spine-based CPR benefits from reduced structural complexity in favour of improved feature perception of the spine. The reformatted images are diagnostically valuable and enable easier navigation, manipulation and orientation in 3D space. Moreover, reformatted images may prove useful for segmentation and other image analysis tasks.

  13. Effects of spacer orientations on the cake formation during membrane fouling: Quantitative analysis based on 3D OCT imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Li, Weiyi; Chong, Tzyy Haur; Fane, Anthony G

    2017-03-01

    Spacer design plays an important role in improving the performance of membrane processes for water/wastewater treatment. This work focused on a fundamental issue of spacer design, i.e., investigating the effects of spacer orientations on the fouling behavior during a membrane process. A series of fouling experiments with different spacer orientation were carried out to in situ characterize the formation of a cake layer in a spacer unit cell via 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. The cake layers formed at different times were digitalized for quantitatively analyzing the variation in the cake morphology as a function of time. In particular, the local deposition rates were evaluated to determine the active regions where the instantaneous changes in deposit thickness were significant. The characterization results indicate that varying the spacer orientation could substantially change the evolution of membrane fouling by particulate foulants and thereby result in a cake layer with various morphologies; the competition between growth and erosion at different locations would instantaneously respond to the micro-hydrodynamic environment that might change with time. This work confirms that the OCT-based characterization method is a powerful tool for exploring novel spacer design.

  14. 3D digital image processing for biofilm quantification from confocal laser scanning microscopy: Multidimensional statistical analysis of biofilm modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Jerzy S.

    The dramatic increase in number and volume of digital images produced in medical diagnostics, and the escalating demand for rapid access to these relevant medical data, along with the need for interpretation and retrieval has become of paramount importance to a modern healthcare system. Therefore, there is an ever growing need for processed, interpreted and saved images of various types. Due to the high cost and unreliability of human-dependent image analysis, it is necessary to develop an automated method for feature extraction, using sophisticated mathematical algorithms and reasoning. This work is focused on digital image signal processing of biological and biomedical data in one- two- and three-dimensional space. Methods and algorithms presented in this work were used to acquire data from genomic sequences, breast cancer, and biofilm images. One-dimensional analysis was applied to DNA sequences which were presented as a non-stationary sequence and modeled by a time-dependent autoregressive moving average (TD-ARMA) model. Two-dimensional analyses used 2D-ARMA model and applied it to detect breast cancer from x-ray mammograms or ultrasound images. Three-dimensional detection and classification techniques were applied to biofilm images acquired using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Modern medical images are geometrically arranged arrays of data. The broadening scope of imaging as a way to organize our observations of the biophysical world has led to a dramatic increase in our ability to apply new processing techniques and to combine multiple channels of data into sophisticated and complex mathematical models of physiological function and dysfunction. With explosion of the amount of data produced in a field of biomedicine, it is crucial to be able to construct accurate mathematical models of the data at hand. Two main purposes of signal modeling are: data size conservation and parameter extraction. Specifically, in biomedical imaging we have four key problems

  15. Glasses-free 3D viewing systems for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhães, Daniel S. F.; Serra, Rolando L.; Vannucci, André L.; Moreno, Alfredo B.; Li, Li M.

    2012-04-01

    In this work we show two different glasses-free 3D viewing systems for medical imaging: a stereoscopic system that employs a vertically dispersive holographic screen (VDHS) and a multi-autostereoscopic system, both used to produce 3D MRI/CT images. We describe how to obtain a VDHS in holographic plates optimized for this application, with field of view of 7 cm to each eye and focal length of 25 cm, showing images done with the system. We also describe a multi-autostereoscopic system, presenting how it can generate 3D medical imaging from viewpoints of a MRI or CT image, showing results of a 3D angioresonance image.

  16. Image-based analysis of the internal microstructure of bone replacement scaffolds fabricated by 3D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irsen, Stephan H.; Leukers, Barbara; Bruckschen, Björn; Tille, Carsten; Seitz, Hermann; Beckmann, Felix; Müller, Bert

    2006-08-01

    Rapid Prototyping and especially the 3D printing, allows generating complex porous ceramic scaffolds directly from powders. Furthermore, these technologies allow manufacturing patient-specific implants of centimeter size with an internal pore network to mimic bony structures including vascularization. Besides the biocompatibility properties of the base material, a high degree of open, interconnected porosity is crucial for the success of the synthetic bone graft. Pores with diameters between 100 and 500 μm are the prerequisite for vascularization to supply the cells with nutrients and oxygen, because simple diffusion transport is ineffective. The quantification of porosity on the macro-, micro-, and nanometer scale using well-established techniques such as Hg-porosimetry and electron microscopy is restricted. Alternatively, we have applied synchrotron-radiation-based micro computed tomography (SRμCT) to determine the porosity with high precision and to validate the macroscopic internal structure of the scaffold. We report on the difficulties in intensity-based segmentation for nanoporous materials but we also elucidate the power of SRμCT in the quantitative analysis of the pores at the different length scales.

  17. An automated 3D reconstruction method of UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Wang, He; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Feng; Sun, Guangtong; Song, Ping

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a novel fully automated 3D reconstruction approach based on low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle system (UAVs) images will be presented, which does not require previous camera calibration or any other external prior knowledge. Dense 3D point clouds are generated by integrating orderly feature extraction, image matching, structure from motion (SfM) and multi-view stereo (MVS) algorithms, overcoming many of the cost, time limitations of rigorous photogrammetry techniques. An image topology analysis strategy is introduced to speed up large scene reconstruction by taking advantage of the flight-control data acquired by UAV. Image topology map can significantly reduce the running time of feature matching by limiting the combination of images. A high-resolution digital surface model of the study area is produced base on UAV point clouds by constructing the triangular irregular network. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is robust and feasible for automatic 3D reconstruction of low-altitude UAV images, and has great potential for the acquisition of spatial information at large scales mapping, especially suitable for rapid response and precise modelling in disaster emergency.

  18. 3D geometry-based quantification of colocalizations in multichannel 3D microscopy images of human soft tissue tumors.

    PubMed

    Wörz, Stefan; Sander, Petra; Pfannmöller, Martin; Rieker, Ralf J; Joos, Stefan; Mechtersheimer, Gunhild; Boukamp, Petra; Lichter, Peter; Rohr, Karl

    2010-08-01

    We introduce a new model-based approach for automatic quantification of colocalizations in multichannel 3D microscopy images. The approach uses different 3D parametric intensity models in conjunction with a model fitting scheme to localize and quantify subcellular structures with high accuracy. The central idea is to determine colocalizations between different channels based on the estimated geometry of the subcellular structures as well as to differentiate between different types of colocalizations. A statistical analysis was performed to assess the significance of the determined colocalizations. This approach was used to successfully analyze about 500 three-channel 3D microscopy images of human soft tissue tumors and controls.

  19. The effect of spatial micro-CT image resolution and surface complexity on the morphological 3D analysis of open porous structures

    SciTech Connect

    Pyka, Grzegorz; Kerckhofs, Greet

    2014-01-15

    In material science microfocus X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) is one of the most popular non-destructive techniques to visualise and quantify the internal structure of materials in 3D. Despite constant system improvements, state-of-the-art micro-CT images can still hold several artefacts typical for X-ray CT imaging that hinder further image-based processing, structural and quantitative analysis. For example spatial resolution is crucial for an appropriate characterisation as the voxel size essentially influences the partial volume effect. However, defining the adequate image resolution is not a trivial aspect and understanding the correlation between scan parameters like voxel size and the structural properties is crucial for comprehensive material characterisation using micro-CT. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the spatial image resolution on the micro-CT based morphological analysis of three-dimensional (3D) open porous structures with a high surface complexity. In particular the correlation between the local surface properties and the accuracy of the micro-CT-based macro-morphology of 3D open porous Ti6Al4V structures produced by selective laser melting (SLM) was targeted and revealed for rough surfaces a strong dependence of the resulting structure characteristics on the scan resolution. Reducing the surface complexity by chemical etching decreased the sensitivity of the overall morphological analysis to the spatial image resolution and increased the detection limit. This study showed that scan settings and image processing parameters need to be customized to the material properties, morphological parameters under investigation and the desired final characteristics (in relation to the intended functional use). Customization of the scan resolution can increase the reliability of the micro-CT based analysis and at the same time reduce its operating costs. - Highlights: • We examine influence of the image resolution

  20. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Tokola, Ryan A; Mikkilineni, Aravind K; Boehnen, Chris Bensing

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  1. Chrysotile effects on human lung cell carcinoma in culture: 3-D reconstruction and DNA quantification by image analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, Beatriz A; Machado-Santelli, Glaucia M

    2008-01-01

    Background Chrysotile is considered less harmful to human health than other types of asbestos fibers. Its clearance from the lung is faster and, in comparison to amphibole forms of asbestos, chrysotile asbestos fail to accumulate in the lung tissue due to a mechanism involving fibers fragmentation in short pieces. Short exposure to chrysotile has not been associated with any histopathological alteration of lung tissue. Methods The present work focuses on the association of small chrysotile fibers with interphasic and mitotic human lung cancer cells in culture, using for analyses confocal laser scanning microscopy and 3D reconstructions. The main goal was to perform the analysis of abnormalities in mitosis of fibers-containing cells as well as to quantify nuclear DNA content of treated cells during their recovery in fiber-free culture medium. Results HK2 cells treated with chrysotile for 48 h and recovered in additional periods of 24, 48 and 72 h in normal medium showed increased frequency of multinucleated and apoptotic cells. DNA ploidy of the cells submitted to the same chrysotile treatment schedules showed enhanced aneuploidy values. The results were consistent with the high frequency of multipolar spindles observed and with the presence of fibers in the intercellular bridge during cytokinesis. Conclusion The present data show that 48 h chrysotile exposure can cause centrosome amplification, apoptosis and aneuploid cell formation even when long periods of recovery were provided. Internalized fibers seem to interact with the chromatin during mitosis, and they could also interfere in cytokinesis, leading to cytokinesis failure which forms aneuploid or multinucleated cells with centrosome amplification. PMID:18588678

  2. 3D ultrasound imaging for prosthesis fabrication and diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Morimoto, A.K.; Bow, W.J.; Strong, D.S.

    1995-06-01

    The fabrication of a prosthetic socket for a below-the-knee amputee requires knowledge of the underlying bone structure in order to provide pressure relief for sensitive areas and support for load bearing areas. The goal is to enable the residual limb to bear pressure with greater ease and utility. Conventional methods of prosthesis fabrication are based on limited knowledge about the patient`s underlying bone structure. A 3D ultrasound imaging system was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The imaging system provides information about the location of the bones in the residual limb along with the shape of the skin surface. Computer assisted design (CAD) software can use this data to design prosthetic sockets for amputees. Ultrasound was selected as the imaging modality. A computer model was developed to analyze the effect of the various scanning parameters and to assist in the design of the overall system. The 3D ultrasound imaging system combines off-the-shelf technology for image capturing, custom hardware, and control and image processing software to generate two types of image data -- volumetric and planar. Both volumetric and planar images reveal definition of skin and bone geometry with planar images providing details on muscle fascial planes, muscle/fat interfaces, and blood vessel definition. The 3D ultrasound imaging system was tested on 9 unilateral below-the- knee amputees. Image data was acquired from both the sound limb and the residual limb. The imaging system was operated in both volumetric and planar formats. An x-ray CT (Computed Tomography) scan was performed on each amputee for comparison. Results of the test indicate beneficial use of ultrasound to generate databases for fabrication of prostheses at a lower cost and with better initial fit as compared to manually fabricated prostheses.

  3. Rigid model-based 3D segmentation of the bones of joints in MR and CT images for motion analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiamin; Udupa, Jayaram K; Saha, Punam K; Odhner, Dewey; Hirsch, Bruce E; Siegler, Sorin; Simon, Scott; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2008-08-01

    There are several medical application areas that require the segmentation and separation of the component bones of joints in a sequence of images of the joint acquired under various loading conditions, our own target area being joint motion analysis. This is a challenging problem due to the proximity of bones at the joint, partial volume effects, and other imaging modality-specific factors that confound boundary contrast. In this article, a two-step model-based segmentation strategy is proposed that utilizes the unique context of the current application wherein the shape of each individual bone is preserved in all scans of a particular joint while the spatial arrangement of the bones alters significantly among bones and scans. In the first step, a rigid deterministic model of the bone is generated from a segmentation of the bone in the image corresponding to one position of the joint by using the live wire method. Subsequently, in other images of the same joint, this model is used to search for the same bone by minimizing an energy function that utilizes both boundary- and region-based information. An evaluation of the method by utilizing a total of 60 data sets on MR and CT images of the ankle complex and cervical spine indicates that the segmentations agree very closely with the live wire segmentations, yielding true positive and false positive volume fractions in the range 89%-97% and 0.2%-0.7%. The method requires 1-2 minutes of operator time and 6-7 min of computer time per data set, which makes it significantly more efficient than live wire-the method currently available for the task that can be used routinely.

  4. 3D Imaging by Mass Spectrometry: A New Frontier

    PubMed Central

    Seeley, Erin H.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Imaging mass spectrometry can generate three-dimensional volumes showing molecular distributions in an entire organ or animal through registration and stacking of serial tissue sections. Here we review the current state of 3D imaging mass spectrometry as well as provide insights and perspectives on the process of generating 3D mass spectral data along with a discussion of the process necessary to generate a 3D image volume. PMID:22276611

  5. Reconstruction-based 3D/2D image registration.

    PubMed

    Tomazevic, Dejan; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel 3D/2D registration method, where first, a 3D image is reconstructed from a few 2D X-ray images and next, the preoperative 3D image is brought into the best possible spatial correspondence with the reconstructed image by optimizing a similarity measure. Because the quality of the reconstructed image is generally low, we introduce a novel asymmetric mutual information similarity measure, which is able to cope with low image quality as well as with different imaging modalities. The novel 3D/2D registration method has been evaluated using standardized evaluation methodology and publicly available 3D CT, 3DRX, and MR and 2D X-ray images of two spine phantoms, for which gold standard registrations were known. In terms of robustness, reliability and capture range the proposed method outperformed the gradient-based method and the method based on digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs).

  6. Validation of image processing tools for 3-D fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dieterlen, Alain; Xu, Chengqi; Gramain, Marie-Pierre; Haeberlé, Olivier; Colicchio, Bruno; Cudel, Christophe; Jacquey, Serge; Ginglinger, Emanuelle; Jung, Georges; Jeandidier, Eric

    2002-04-01

    3-D optical fluorescent microscopy becomes nowadays an efficient tool for volumic investigation of living biological samples. Using optical sectioning technique, a stack of 2-D images is obtained. However, due to the nature of the system optical transfer function and non-optimal experimental conditions, acquired raw data usually suffer from some distortions. In order to carry out biological analysis, raw data have to be restored by deconvolution. The system identification by the point-spread function is useful to obtain the knowledge of the actual system and experimental parameters, which is necessary to restore raw data. It is furthermore helpful to precise the experimental protocol. In order to facilitate the use of image processing techniques, a multi-platform-compatible software package called VIEW3D has been developed. It integrates a set of tools for the analysis of fluorescence images from 3-D wide-field or confocal microscopy. A number of regularisation parameters for data restoration are determined automatically. Common geometrical measurements and morphological descriptors of fluorescent sites are also implemented to facilitate the characterisation of biological samples. An example of this method concerning cytogenetics is presented.

  7. Optical 3D imaging and visualization of concealed objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berginc, G.; Bellet, J.-B.; Berechet, I.; Berechet, S.

    2016-09-01

    This paper gives new insights on optical 3D imagery. In this paper we explore the advantages of laser imagery to form a three-dimensional image of the scene. 3D laser imaging can be used for three-dimensional medical imaging and surveillance because of ability to identify tumors or concealed objects. We consider the problem of 3D reconstruction based upon 2D angle-dependent laser images. The objective of this new 3D laser imaging is to provide users a complete 3D reconstruction of objects from available 2D data limited in number. The 2D laser data used in this paper come from simulations that are based on the calculation of the laser interactions with the different meshed objects of the scene of interest or from experimental 2D laser images. We show that combining the Radom transform on 2D laser images with the Maximum Intensity Projection can generate 3D views of the considered scene from which we can extract the 3D concealed object in real time. With different original numerical or experimental examples, we investigate the effects of the input contrasts. We show the robustness and the stability of the method. We have developed a new patented method of 3D laser imaging based on three-dimensional reflective tomographic reconstruction algorithms and an associated visualization method. In this paper we present the global 3D reconstruction and visualization procedures.

  8. 3D Slicer as an Image Computing Platform for the Quantitative Imaging Network

    PubMed Central

    Fedorov, Andriy; Beichel, Reinhard; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Finet, Julien; Fillion-Robin, Jean-Christophe; Pujol, Sonia; Bauer, Christian; Jennings, Dominique; Fennessy, Fiona; Sonka, Milan; Buatti, John; Aylward, Stephen; Miller, James V.; Pieper, Steve; Kikinis, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative analysis has tremendous but mostly unrealized potential in healthcare to support objective and accurate interpretation of the clinical imaging. In 2008, the National Cancer Institute began building the Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN) initiative with the goal of advancing quantitative imaging in the context of personalized therapy and evaluation of treatment response. Computerized analysis is an important component contributing to reproducibility and efficiency of the quantitative imaging techniques. The success of quantitative imaging is contingent on robust analysis methods and software tools to bring these methods from bench to bedside. 3D Slicer is a free open source software application for medical image computing. As a clinical research tool, 3D Slicer is similar to a radiology workstation that supports versatile visualizations but also provides advanced functionality such as automated segmentation and registration for a variety of application domains. Unlike a typical radiology workstation, 3D Slicer is free and is not tied to specific hardware. As a programming platform, 3D Slicer facilitates translation and evaluation of the new quantitative methods by allowing the biomedical researcher to focus on the implementation of the algorithm, and providing abstractions for the common tasks of data communication, visualization and user interface development. Compared to other tools that provide aspects of this functionality, 3D Slicer is fully open source and can be readily extended and redistributed. In addition, 3D Slicer is designed to facilitate the development of new functionality in the form of 3D Slicer extensions. In this paper, we present an overview of 3D Slicer as a platform for prototyping, development and evaluation of image analysis tools for clinical research applications. To illustrate the utility of the platform in the scope of QIN, we discuss several use cases of 3D Slicer by the existing QIN teams, and we elaborate on the future

  9. 3D imaging: how to achieve highest accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    The generation of 3D information from images is a key technology in many different areas, e.g. in 3D modeling and representation of architectural or heritage objects, in human body motion tracking and scanning, in 3D scene analysis of traffic scenes, in industrial applications and many more. The basic concepts rely on mathematical representations of central perspective viewing as they are widely known from photogrammetry or computer vision approaches. The objectives of these methods differ, more or less, from high precision and well-structured measurements in (industrial) photogrammetry to fully-automated non-structured applications in computer vision. Accuracy and precision is a critical issue for the 3D measurement of industrial, engineering or medical objects. As state of the art, photogrammetric multi-view measurements achieve relative precisions in the order of 1:100000 to 1:200000, and relative accuracies with respect to retraceable lengths in the order of 1:50000 to 1:100000 of the largest object diameter. In order to obtain these figures a number of influencing parameters have to be optimized. These are, besides others: physical representation of object surface (targets, texture), illumination and light sources, imaging sensors, cameras and lenses, calibration strategies (camera model), orientation strategies (bundle adjustment), image processing of homologue features (target measurement, stereo and multi-image matching), representation of object or workpiece coordinate systems and object scale. The paper discusses the above mentioned parameters and offers strategies for obtaining highest accuracy in object space. Practical examples of high-quality stereo camera measurements and multi-image applications are used to prove the relevance of high accuracy in different applications, ranging from medical navigation to static and dynamic industrial measurements. In addition, standards for accuracy verifications are presented and demonstrated by practical examples

  10. Image Appraisal for 2D and 3D Electromagnetic Inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Alumbaugh, D.L.; Newman, G.A.

    1999-01-28

    Linearized methods are presented for appraising image resolution and parameter accuracy in images generated with two and three dimensional non-linear electromagnetic inversion schemes. When direct matrix inversion is employed, the model resolution and posterior model covariance matrices can be directly calculated. A method to examine how the horizontal and vertical resolution varies spatially within the electromagnetic property image is developed by examining the columns of the model resolution matrix. Plotting the square root of the diagonal of the model covariance matrix yields an estimate of how errors in the inversion process such as data noise and incorrect a priori assumptions about the imaged model map into parameter error. This type of image is shown to be useful in analyzing spatial variations in the image sensitivity to the data. A method is analyzed for statistically estimating the model covariance matrix when the conjugate gradient method is employed rather than a direct inversion technique (for example in 3D inversion). A method for calculating individual columns of the model resolution matrix using the conjugate gradient method is also developed. Examples of the image analysis techniques are provided on 2D and 3D synthetic cross well EM data sets, as well as a field data set collected at the Lost Hills Oil Field in Central California.

  11. Automated Recognition of 3D Features in GPIR Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Han; Stough, Timothy; Fijany, Amir

    2007-01-01

    A method of automated recognition of three-dimensional (3D) features in images generated by ground-penetrating imaging radar (GPIR) is undergoing development. GPIR 3D images can be analyzed to detect and identify such subsurface features as pipes and other utility conduits. Until now, much of the analysis of GPIR images has been performed manually by expert operators who must visually identify and track each feature. The present method is intended to satisfy a need for more efficient and accurate analysis by means of algorithms that can automatically identify and track subsurface features, with minimal supervision by human operators. In this method, data from multiple sources (for example, data on different features extracted by different algorithms) are fused together for identifying subsurface objects. The algorithms of this method can be classified in several different ways. In one classification, the algorithms fall into three classes: (1) image-processing algorithms, (2) feature- extraction algorithms, and (3) a multiaxis data-fusion/pattern-recognition algorithm that includes a combination of machine-learning, pattern-recognition, and object-linking algorithms. The image-processing class includes preprocessing algorithms for reducing noise and enhancing target features for pattern recognition. The feature-extraction algorithms operate on preprocessed data to extract such specific features in images as two-dimensional (2D) slices of a pipe. Then the multiaxis data-fusion/ pattern-recognition algorithm identifies, classifies, and reconstructs 3D objects from the extracted features. In this process, multiple 2D features extracted by use of different algorithms and representing views along different directions are used to identify and reconstruct 3D objects. In object linking, which is an essential part of this process, features identified in successive 2D slices and located within a threshold radius of identical features in adjacent slices are linked in a

  12. Light field display and 3D image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwane, Toru

    2016-06-01

    Light field optics and its applications become rather popular in these days. With light field optics or light field thesis, real 3D space can be described in 2D plane as 4D data, which we call as light field data. This process can be divided in two procedures. First, real3D scene is optically reduced with imaging lens. Second, this optically reduced 3D image is encoded into light field data. In later procedure we can say that 3D information is encoded onto a plane as 2D data by lens array plate. This transformation is reversible and acquired light field data can be decoded again into 3D image with the arrayed lens plate. "Refocusing" (focusing image on your favorite point after taking a picture), light-field camera's most popular function, is some kind of sectioning process from encoded 3D data (light field data) to 2D image. In this paper at first I show our actual light field camera and our 3D display using acquired and computer-simulated light field data, on which real 3D image is reconstructed. In second I explain our data processing method whose arithmetic operation is performed not in Fourier domain but in real domain. Then our 3D display system is characterized by a few features; reconstructed image is of finer resolutions than density of arrayed lenses and it is not necessary to adjust lens array plate to flat display on which light field data is displayed.

  13. A spherical harmonics intensity model for 3D segmentation and 3D shape analysis of heterochromatin foci.

    PubMed

    Eck, Simon; Wörz, Stefan; Müller-Ott, Katharina; Hahn, Matthias; Biesdorf, Andreas; Schotta, Gunnar; Rippe, Karsten; Rohr, Karl

    2016-08-01

    The genome is partitioned into regions of euchromatin and heterochromatin. The organization of heterochromatin is important for the regulation of cellular processes such as chromosome segregation and gene silencing, and their misregulation is linked to cancer and other diseases. We present a model-based approach for automatic 3D segmentation and 3D shape analysis of heterochromatin foci from 3D confocal light microscopy images. Our approach employs a novel 3D intensity model based on spherical harmonics, which analytically describes the shape and intensities of the foci. The model parameters are determined by fitting the model to the image intensities using least-squares minimization. To characterize the 3D shape of the foci, we exploit the computed spherical harmonics coefficients and determine a shape descriptor. We applied our approach to 3D synthetic image data as well as real 3D static and real 3D time-lapse microscopy images, and compared the performance with that of previous approaches. It turned out that our approach yields accurate 3D segmentation results and performs better than previous approaches. We also show that our approach can be used for quantifying 3D shape differences of heterochromatin foci.

  14. 3D Imaging with Structured Illumination for Advanced Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Dagel, Amber Lynn; Kast, Brian A.; Smith, Collin S.

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) information in a physical security system is a highly useful dis- criminator. The two-dimensional data from an imaging systems fails to provide target dis- tance and three-dimensional motion vector, which can be used to reduce nuisance alarm rates and increase system effectiveness. However, 3D imaging devices designed primarily for use in physical security systems are uncommon. This report discusses an architecture favorable to physical security systems; an inexpensive snapshot 3D imaging system utilizing a simple illumination system. The method of acquiring 3D data, tests to understand illumination de- sign, and software modifications possible to maximize information gathering capability are discussed.

  15. 3D Frame Buffers For Interactive Analysis Of 3D Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Gregory M.

    1984-10-01

    Two-dimensional data such as photos, X rays, various types of satellite images, sonar, radar, seismic plots, etc., in many cases must be analyzed using frame buffers for purposes of medical diagnoses, crop estimates, mineral exploration, and so forth. In many cases the same types of sensors used to gather such samples in two dimensions can gather 3D data for even more effective analysis. Just as 2D arrays of data can be analyzed using frame buffers, three-dimensional data can be analyzed using SOLIDS-BUFFEPmemories. Image processors deal with samples from two-dimensional arrays, and are based on frame buffers. The SOLIDS PROCESSOR system, deals with samples from a three-dimensional volume, or solid, and is based on a 3D frame buffer. This paper focuses upon the SOLIDS-BUFFER system, as used in the INSIGHT SOLIDS-PROCESSOR system from Phoenix Data Systems.

  16. Volumetric image display for complex 3D data visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Che-Chih; Chen, Jyh Shing

    2000-05-01

    A volumetric image display is a new display technology capable of displaying computer generated 3D images in a volumetric space. Many viewers can walk around the display and see the image from omni-directions simultaneously without wearing any glasses. The image is real and possesses all major elements in both physiological and psychological depth cues. Due to the volumetric nature of its image, the VID can provide the most natural human-machine interface in operations involving 3D data manipulation and 3D targets monitoring. The technology creates volumetric 3D images by projecting a series of profiling images distributed in the space form a volumetric image because of the after-image effect of human eyes. Exemplary applications in biomedical image visualization were tested on a prototype display, using different methods to display a data set from Ct-scans. The features of this display technology make it most suitable for applications that require quick understanding of the 3D relations, need frequent spatial interactions with the 3D images, or involve time-varying 3D data. It can also be useful for group discussion and decision making.

  17. 3D tongue motion from tagged and cine MR images.

    PubMed

    Xing, Fangxu; Woo, Jonghye; Murano, Emi Z; Lee, Junghoon; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the deformation of the tongue during human speech is important for head and neck surgeons and speech and language scientists. Tagged magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can be used to image 2D motion, and data from multiple image planes can be combined via post-processing to yield estimates of 3D motion. However, lacking boundary information, this approach suffers from inaccurate estimates near the tongue surface. This paper describes a method that combines two sources of information to yield improved estimation of 3D tongue motion. The method uses the harmonic phase (HARP) algorithm to extract motion from tags and diffeomorphic demons to provide surface deformation. It then uses an incompressible deformation estimation algorithm to incorporate both sources of displacement information to form an estimate of the 3D whole tongue motion. Experimental results show that use of combined information improves motion estimation near the tongue surface, a problem that has previously been reported as problematic in HARP analysis, while preserving accurate internal motion estimates. Results on both normal and abnormal tongue motions are shown.

  18. Automated spatial alignment of 3D torso images.

    PubMed

    Bose, Arijit; Shah, Shishir K; Reece, Gregory P; Crosby, Melissa A; Beahm, Elisabeth K; Fingeret, Michelle C; Markey, Mia K; Merchant, Fatima A

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an algorithm for automated spatial alignment of three-dimensional (3D) surface images in order to achieve a pre-defined orientation. Surface images of the torso are acquired from breast cancer patients undergoing reconstructive surgery to facilitate objective evaluation of breast morphology pre-operatively (for treatment planning) and/or post-operatively (for outcome assessment). Based on the viewing angle of the multiple cameras used for stereophotography, the orientation of the acquired torso in the images may vary from the normal upright position. Consequently, when translating this data into a standard 3D framework for visualization and analysis, the co-ordinate geometry differs from the upright position making robust and standardized comparison of images impractical. Moreover, manual manipulation and navigation of images to the desired upright position is subject to user bias. Automating the process of alignment and orientation removes operator bias and permits robust and repeatable adjustment of surface images to a pre-defined or desired spatial geometry.

  19. 3D augmented reality with integral imaging display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xin; Hua, Hong; Javidi, Bahram

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) integral imaging display for augmented reality is presented. By implementing the pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion method, elemental image arrays with different capturing parameters can be transferred into the identical format for 3D display. With the proposed merging algorithm, a new set of elemental images for augmented reality display is generated. The newly generated elemental images contain both the virtual objects and real world scene with desired depth information and transparency parameters. The experimental results indicate the feasibility of the proposed 3D augmented reality with integral imaging.

  20. On Alternative Approaches to 3D Image Perception: Monoscopic 3D Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blundell, Barry G.

    2015-06-01

    In the eighteenth century, techniques that enabled a strong sense of 3D perception to be experienced without recourse to binocular disparities (arising from the spatial separation of the eyes) underpinned the first significant commercial sales of 3D viewing devices and associated content. However following the advent of stereoscopic techniques in the nineteenth century, 3D image depiction has become inextricably linked to binocular parallax and outside the vision science and arts communities relatively little attention has been directed towards earlier approaches. Here we introduce relevant concepts and terminology and consider a number of techniques and optical devices that enable 3D perception to be experienced on the basis of planar images rendered from a single vantage point. Subsequently we allude to possible mechanisms for non-binocular parallax based 3D perception. Particular attention is given to reviewing areas likely to be thought-provoking to those involved in 3D display development, spatial visualization, HCI, and other related areas of interdisciplinary research.

  1. 3D-Modeling of deformed halite hopper crystals: Object based image analysis and support vector machine, a first evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, Christoph; Hofmann, Peter; Marschallinger, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Halite hopper crystals are thought to develop by displacive growth in unconsolidated mud (Gornitz & Schreiber, 1984). The Alpine Haselgebirge, but also e.g. the salt deposits of the Rhine graben (mined at the beginning of the 20th century), comprise hopper crystals with shapes of cuboids, parallelepipeds and rhombohedrons (Görgey, 1912). Obviously, they deformed under oriented stress, which had been tried to reconstruct with respect to the sedimentary layering (Leitner et al., 2013). In the present work, deformed halite hopper crystals embedded in mudrock were automated reconstructed. Object based image analysis (OBIA) has been used successfully in remote sensing for 2D images before. The present study represents the first time that the method was used for reconstruction of three dimensional geological objects. First, manually a reference (gold standard) was created by redrawing contours of the halite crystals on each HRXCT scanning slice. Then, for OBIA, the computer program eCognition was used. For the automated reconstruction a rule set was developed. Thereby, the strength of OBIA was to recognize all objects similar to halite hopper crystals and in particular to eliminate cracks. In a second step, all the objects unsuitable for a structural deformation analysis were dismissed using a support vector machine (SVM) (clusters, polyhalite-coated crystals and spherical halites) The SVM simultaneously drastically reduced the number of halites. From 184 OBIA-objects 67 well shaped remained, which comes close to the number of pre-selected 52 objects. To assess the accuracy of the automated reconstruction, the result before and after SVM was compared to the reference, i.e. the gold standard. State-of the art per-scene statistics were extended to a per-object statistics. Görgey R (1912) Zur Kenntnis der Kalisalzlager von Wittelsheim im Ober-Elsaß. Tschermaks Mineral Petrogr Mitt 31:339-468 Gornitz VM, Schreiber BC (1981) Displacive halite hoppers from the dead sea

  2. Synchrotron microtomography and 3D image analysis for studying the degradability of biocompatible ceramics within biopsies sampled after sinus floor augmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rack, Alexander; Stiller, M.; Knabe, C.; Dalügge, O.; Koch, Ch.; Weidemann, G.; Riesemeier, H.; Goebbels, J.

    2007-02-01

    This article presents a novel approach to evaluate two-dimensional histomorphometric studies of biodegradable ceramic particles by means of element-sensitive, three-dimensional and non-destructive synchrotron-microtomography (SCT). An in vivo study was performed in which bone substitute materials (Cerasorb) were implanted in the mandible to support the bone regeneration. After 6 months of implantation samples were prepared and investigated using SCT and subsequent 3D image analysis as well as histological evaluation. A comparison of corresponding tomographical and histological slices delivers information about the newly formed bone and its stage of development. Additionally SCT gives insights into the structural changes of the bony tissue in a given defect and the local biodegradation of the bone substitute material in a three-dimensional manner. This emphasizes the fact that the completion of investigations by 2D histological images with 3D tomographical images is required in order to be able to draw conclusions concerning the influence of different bioceramics on the bone regeneration.

  3. Objective breast symmetry evaluation using 3-D surface imaging.

    PubMed

    Eder, Maximilian; Waldenfels, Fee V; Swobodnik, Alexandra; Klöppel, Markus; Pape, Ann-Kathrin; Schuster, Tibor; Raith, Stefan; Kitzler, Elena; Papadopulos, Nikolaos A; Machens, Hans-Günther; Kovacs, Laszlo

    2012-04-01

    This study develops an objective breast symmetry evaluation using 3-D surface imaging (Konica-Minolta V910(®) scanner) by superimposing the mirrored left breast over the right and objectively determining the mean 3-D contour difference between the 2 breast surfaces. 3 observers analyzed the evaluation protocol precision using 2 dummy models (n = 60), 10 test subjects (n = 300), clinically tested it on 30 patients (n = 900) and compared it to established 2-D measurements on 23 breast reconstructive patients using the BCCT.core software (n = 690). Mean 3-D evaluation precision, expressed as the coefficient of variation (VC), was 3.54 ± 0.18 for all human subjects without significant intra- and inter-observer differences (p > 0.05). The 3-D breast symmetry evaluation is observer independent, significantly more precise (p < 0.001) than the BCCT.core software (VC = 6.92 ± 0.88) and may play a part in an objective surgical outcome analysis after incorporation into clinical practice.

  4. 3D imaging of biological specimen using MS.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, John S

    2015-01-01

    Imaging MS can provide unique information about the distribution of native and non-native compounds in biological specimen. MALDI MS and secondary ion MS are the two most commonly applied imaging MS techniques and can provide complementary information about a sample. MALDI offers access to high mass species such as proteins while secondary ion MS can operate at higher spatial resolution and provide information about lower mass species including elemental signals. Imaging MS is not limited to two dimensions and different approaches have been developed that allow 3D molecular images to be generated of chemicals in whole organs down to single cells. Resolution in the z-dimension is often higher than in x and y, so such analysis offers the potential for probing the distribution of drug molecules and studying drug action by MS with a much higher precision - possibly even organelle level.

  5. 3D Gabor wavelet based vessel filtering of photoacoustic images.

    PubMed

    Haq, Israr Ul; Nagoaka, Ryo; Makino, Takahiro; Tabata, Takuya; Saijo, Yoshifumi

    2016-08-01

    Filtering and segmentation of vasculature is an important issue in medical imaging. The visualization of vasculature is crucial for the early diagnosis and therapy in numerous medical applications. This paper investigates the use of Gabor wavelet to enhance the effect of vasculature while eliminating the noise due to size, sensitivity and aperture of the detector in 3D Optical Resolution Photoacoustic Microscopy (OR-PAM). A detailed multi-scale analysis of wavelet filtering and Hessian based method is analyzed for extracting vessels of different sizes since the blood vessels usually vary with in a range of radii. The proposed algorithm first enhances the vasculature in the image and then tubular structures are classified by eigenvalue decomposition of the local Hessian matrix at each voxel in the image. The algorithm is tested on non-invasive experiments, which shows appreciable results to enhance vasculature in photo-acoustic images.

  6. Performance prediction for 3D filtering of multichannel images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubel, Oleksii; Kozhemiakin, Ruslan A.; Abramov, Sergey K.; Lukin, Vladimir V.; Vozel, Benoit; Chehdi, Kacem

    2015-10-01

    Performance of denoising based on discrete cosine transform applied to multichannel remote sensing images corrupted by additive white Gaussian noise is analyzed. Images obtained by satellite Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) mission using hyperspectral imager instrument (Hyperion) that have high input SNR are taken as test images. Denoising performance is characterized by improvement of PSNR. For hard-thresholding 3D DCT-based denoising, simple statistics (probabilities to be less than a certain threshold) are used to predict denoising efficiency using curves fitted into scatterplots. It is shown that the obtained curves (approximations) provide prediction of denoising efficiency with high accuracy. Analysis is carried out for different numbers of channels processed jointly. Universality of prediction for different number of channels is proven.

  7. Imaging hypoxia using 3D photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stantz, Keith M.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: The objective is to develop a multivariate in vivo hemodynamic model of tissue oxygenation (MiHMO2) based on 3D photoacoustic spectroscopy. Introduction: Low oxygen levels, or hypoxia, deprives cancer cells of oxygen and confers resistance to irradiation, some chemotherapeutic drugs, and oxygen-dependent therapies (phototherapy) leading to treatment failure and poor disease-free and overall survival. For example, clinical studies of patients with breast carcinomas, cervical cancer, and head and neck carcinomas (HNC) are more likely to suffer local reoccurrence and metastasis if their tumors are hypoxic. A novel method to non invasively measure tumor hypoxia, identify its type, and monitor its heterogeneity is devised by measuring tumor hemodynamics, MiHMO2. Material and Methods: Simulations are performed to compare tumor pO2 levels and hypoxia based on physiology - perfusion, fractional plasma volume, fractional cellular volume - and its hemoglobin status - oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration - based on in vivo measurements of breast, prostate, and ovarian tumors. Simulations of MiHMO2 are performed to assess the influence of scanner resolutions and different mathematic models of oxygen delivery. Results: Sensitivity of pO2 and hypoxic fraction to photoacoustic scanner resolution and dependencies on model complexity will be presented using hemodynamic parameters for different tumors. Conclusions: Photoacoustic CT spectroscopy provides a unique ability to monitor hemodynamic and cellular physiology in tissue, which can be used to longitudinally monitor tumor oxygenation and its response to anti-angiogenic therapies.

  8. Feature detection on 3D images of dental imprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtari, Marielle; Laurendeau, Denis

    1994-09-01

    A computer vision approach for the extraction of feature points on 3D images of dental imprints is presented. The position of feature points are needed for the measurement of a set of parameters for automatic diagnosis of malocclusion problems in orthodontics. The system for the acquisition of the 3D profile of the imprint, the procedure for the detection of the interstices between teeth, and the approach for the identification of the type of tooth are described, as well as the algorithm for the reconstruction of the surface of each type of tooth. A new approach for the detection of feature points, called the watershed algorithm, is described in detail. The algorithm is a two-stage procedure which tracks the position of local minima at four different scales and produces a final map of the position of the minima. Experimental results of the application of the watershed algorithm on actual 3D images of dental imprints are presented for molars, premolars and canines. The segmentation approach for the analysis of the shape of incisors is also described in detail.

  9. Quantification of thyroid volume using 3-D ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Kollorz, E K; Hahn, D A; Linke, R; Goecke, T W; Hornegger, J; Kuwert, T

    2008-04-01

    Ultrasound (US) is among the most popular diagnostic techniques today. It is non-invasive, fast, comparably cheap, and does not require ionizing radiation. US is commonly used to examine the size, and structure of the thyroid gland. In clinical routine, thyroid imaging is usually performed by means of 2-D US. Conventional approaches for measuring the volume of the thyroid gland or its nodules may therefore be inaccurate due to the lack of 3-D information. This work reports a semi-automatic segmentation approach for the classification, and analysis of the thyroid gland based on 3-D US data. The images are scanned in 3-D, pre-processed, and segmented. Several pre-processing methods, and an extension of a commonly used geodesic active contour level set formulation are discussed in detail. The results obtained by this approach are compared to manual interactive segmentations by a medical expert in five representative patients. Our work proposes a novel framework for the volumetric quantification of thyroid gland lobes, which may also be expanded to other parenchymatous organs.

  10. Dedicated 3D photoacoustic breast imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Robert A.; Kuzmiak, Cherie M.; Lam, Richard B.; Reinecke, Daniel R.; Del Rio, Stephen P.; Steed, Doreen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report the design and imaging methodology of a photoacoustic scanner dedicated to imaging hemoglobin distribution throughout a human breast. Methods: The authors developed a dedicated breast photoacoustic mammography (PAM) system using a spherical detector aperture based on our previous photoacoustic tomography scanner. The system uses 512 detectors with rectilinear scanning. The scan shape is a spiral pattern whose radius varies from 24 to 96 mm, thereby allowing a field of view that accommodates a wide range of breast sizes. The authors measured the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) using a target comprised of 1-mm dots printed on clear plastic. Each dot absorption coefficient was approximately the same as a 1-mm thickness of whole blood at 756 nm, the output wavelength of the Alexandrite laser used by this imaging system. The target was immersed in varying depths of an 8% solution of stock Liposyn II-20%, which mimics the attenuation of breast tissue (1.1 cm−1). The spatial resolution was measured using a 6 μm-diameter carbon fiber embedded in agar. The breasts of four healthy female volunteers, spanning a range of breast size from a brassiere C cup to a DD cup, were imaged using a 96-mm spiral protocol. Results: The CNR target was clearly visualized to a depth of 53 mm. Spatial resolution, which was estimated from the full width at half-maximum of a profile across the PAM image of a carbon fiber, was 0.42 mm. In the four human volunteers, the vasculature was well visualized throughout the breast tissue, including to the chest wall. Conclusions: CNR, lateral field-of-view and penetration depth of our dedicated PAM scanning system is sufficient to image breasts as large as 1335 mL, which should accommodate up to 90% of the women in the United States. PMID:24320471

  11. 3-D capacitance density imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, G.E.

    1988-03-18

    A three-dimensional capacitance density imaging of a gasified bed or the like in a containment vessel is achieved using a plurality of electrodes provided circumferentially about the bed in levels and along the bed in channels. The electrodes are individually and selectively excited electrically at each level to produce a plurality of current flux field patterns generated in the bed at each level. The current flux field patterns are suitably sensed and a density pattern of the bed at each level determined. By combining the determined density patterns at each level, a three-dimensional density image of the bed is achieved. 7 figs.

  12. 3-D seismic imaging of complex geologies

    SciTech Connect

    Womble, D.E.; Dosanjh, S.S.; VanDyke, J.P.; Oldfield, R.A.; Greenberg, D.S.

    1995-02-01

    We present three codes for the Intel Paragon that address the problem of three-dimensional seismic imaging of complex geologies. The first code models acoustic wave propagation and can be used to generate data sets to calibrate and validate seismic imaging codes. This code reported the fastest timings for acoustic wave propagation codes at a recent SEG (Society of Exploration Geophysicists) meeting. The second code implements a Kirchhoff method for pre-stack depth migration. Development of this code is almost complete, and preliminary results are presented. The third code implements a wave equation approach to seismic migration and is a Paragon implementation of a code from the ARCO Seismic Benchmark Suite.

  13. SU-E-T-296: Dosimetric Analysis of Small Animal Image-Guided Irradiator Using High Resolution Optical CT Imaging of 3D Dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Na, Y; Qian, X; Wuu, C; Adamovics, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To verify the dosimetric characteristics of a small animal image-guided irradiator using a high-resolution of optical CT imaging of 3D dosimeters. Methods: PRESAEGE 3D dosimeters were used to determine dosimetric characteristics of a small animal image-guided irradiator and compared with EBT2 films. Cylindrical PRESAGE dosimeters with 7cm height and 6cm diameter were placed along the central axis of the beam. The films were positioned between 6×6cm{sup 2} cubed plastic water phantoms perpendicular to the beam direction with multiple depths. PRESAGE dosimeters and EBT2 films were then irradiated with the irradiator beams at 220kVp and 13mA. Each of irradiated PRESAGE dosimeters named PA1, PA2, PB1, and PB2, was independently scanned using a high-resolution single laser beam optical CT scanner. The transverse images were reconstructed with a 0.1mm high-resolution pixel. A commercial Epson Expression 10000XL flatbed scanner was used for readout of irradiated EBT2 films at a 0.4mm pixel resolution. PDD curves and beam profiles were measured for the irradiated PRESAGE dosimeters and EBT2 films. Results: The PDD agreements between the irradiated PRESAGE dosimeter PA1, PA2, PB1, PB2 and the EB2 films were 1.7, 2.3, 1.9, and 1.9% for the multiple depths at 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 and 50mm, respectively. The FWHM measurements for each PRESAEGE dosimeter and film agreed with 0.5, 1.1, 0.4, and 1.7%, respectively, at 30mm depth. Both PDD and FWHM measurements for the PRESAGE dosimeters and the films agreed overall within 2%. The 20%–80% penumbral widths of each PRESAGE dosimeter and the film at a given depth were respectively found to be 0.97, 0.91, 0.79, 0.88, and 0.37mm. Conclusion: Dosimetric characteristics of a small animal image-guided irradiator have been demonstrated with the measurements of PRESAGE dosimeter and EB2 film. With the high resolution and accuracy obtained from this 3D dosimetry system, precise targeting small animal irradiation can be

  14. Polarimetric 3D integral imaging in photon-starved conditions.

    PubMed

    Carnicer, Artur; Javidi, Bahram

    2015-03-09

    We develop a method for obtaining 3D polarimetric integral images from elemental images recorded in low light illumination conditions. Since photon-counting images are very sparse, calculation of the Stokes parameters and the degree of polarization should be handled carefully. In our approach, polarimetric 3D integral images are generated using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation and subsequently reconstructed by means of a Total Variation Denoising filter. In this way, polarimetric results are comparable to those obtained in conventional illumination conditions. We also show that polarimetric information retrieved from photon starved images can be used in 3D object recognition problems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on 3D polarimetric photon counting integral imaging.

  15. Phase Sensitive Cueing for 3D Objects in Overhead Images

    SciTech Connect

    Paglieroni, D

    2005-02-04

    Locating specific 3D objects in overhead images is an important problem in many remote sensing applications. 3D objects may contain either one connected component or multiple disconnected components. Solutions must accommodate images acquired with diverse sensors at various times of the day, in various seasons of the year, or under various weather conditions. Moreover, the physical manifestation of a 3D object with fixed physical dimensions in an overhead image is highly dependent on object physical dimensions, object position/orientation, image spatial resolution, and imaging geometry (e.g., obliqueness). This paper describes a two-stage computer-assisted approach for locating 3D objects in overhead images. In the matching stage, the computer matches models of 3D objects to overhead images. The strongest degree of match over all object orientations is computed at each pixel. Unambiguous local maxima in the degree of match as a function of pixel location are then found. In the cueing stage, the computer sorts image thumbnails in descending order of figure-of-merit and presents them to human analysts for visual inspection and interpretation. The figure-of-merit associated with an image thumbnail is computed from the degrees of match to a 3D object model associated with unambiguous local maxima that lie within the thumbnail. This form of computer assistance is invaluable when most of the relevant thumbnails are highly ranked, and the amount of inspection time needed is much less for the highly ranked thumbnails than for images as a whole.

  16. 3D laser imaging for concealed object identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berechet, Ion; Berginc, Gérard; Berechet, Stefan

    2014-09-01

    This paper deals with new optical non-conventional 3D laser imaging. Optical non-conventional imaging explores the advantages of laser imaging to form a three-dimensional image of the scene. 3D laser imaging can be used for threedimensional medical imaging, topography, surveillance, robotic vision because of ability to detect and recognize objects. In this paper, we present a 3D laser imaging for concealed object identification. The objective of this new 3D laser imaging is to provide the user a complete 3D reconstruction of the concealed object from available 2D data limited in number and with low representativeness. The 2D laser data used in this paper come from simulations that are based on the calculation of the laser interactions with the different interfaces of the scene of interest and from experimental results. We show the global 3D reconstruction procedures capable to separate objects from foliage and reconstruct a threedimensional image of the considered object. In this paper, we present examples of reconstruction and completion of three-dimensional images and we analyse the different parameters of the identification process such as resolution, the scenario of camouflage, noise impact and lacunarity degree.

  17. Evaluating quantitative 3-D image analysis as a design tool for low enriched uranium fuel compacts for the transient reactor test facility: A preliminary study

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, J. J.; van Rooyen, I. J.; Craft, A. E.; Roney, T. J.; Morrell, S. R.

    2016-02-05

    In this study, 3-D image analysis when combined with a non-destructive examination technique such as X-ray computed tomography (CT) provides a highly quantitative tool for the investigation of a material’s structure. In this investigation 3-D image analysis and X-ray CT were combined to analyze the microstructure of a preliminary subsized fuel compact for the Transient Reactor Test Facility’s low enriched uranium conversion program to assess the feasibility of the combined techniques for use in the optimization of the fuel compact fabrication process. The quantitative image analysis focused on determining the size and spatial distribution of the surrogate fuel particles and the size, shape, and orientation of voids within the compact. Additionally, the maximum effect of microstructural features on heat transfer through the carbonaceous matrix of the preliminary compact was estimated. The surrogate fuel particles occupied 0.8% of the compact by volume with a log-normal distribution of particle sizes with a mean diameter of 39 μm and a standard deviation of 16 μm. Roughly 39% of the particles had a diameter greater than the specified maximum particle size of 44 μm suggesting that the particles agglomerate during fabrication. The local volume fraction of particles also varies significantly within the compact although uniformities appear to be evenly dispersed throughout the analysed volume. The voids produced during fabrication were on average plate-like in nature with their major axis oriented perpendicular to the compaction direction of the compact. Finally, the microstructure, mainly the large preferentially oriented voids, may cause a small degree of anisotropy in the thermal diffusivity within the compact. α∥/α⊥, the ratio of thermal diffusivities parallel to and perpendicular to the compaction direction are expected to be no less than 0.95 with an upper bound of 1.

  18. Evaluating quantitative 3-D image analysis as a design tool for low enriched uranium fuel compacts for the transient reactor test facility: A preliminary study

    DOE PAGES

    Kane, J. J.; van Rooyen, I. J.; Craft, A. E.; ...

    2016-02-05

    In this study, 3-D image analysis when combined with a non-destructive examination technique such as X-ray computed tomography (CT) provides a highly quantitative tool for the investigation of a material’s structure. In this investigation 3-D image analysis and X-ray CT were combined to analyze the microstructure of a preliminary subsized fuel compact for the Transient Reactor Test Facility’s low enriched uranium conversion program to assess the feasibility of the combined techniques for use in the optimization of the fuel compact fabrication process. The quantitative image analysis focused on determining the size and spatial distribution of the surrogate fuel particles andmore » the size, shape, and orientation of voids within the compact. Additionally, the maximum effect of microstructural features on heat transfer through the carbonaceous matrix of the preliminary compact was estimated. The surrogate fuel particles occupied 0.8% of the compact by volume with a log-normal distribution of particle sizes with a mean diameter of 39 μm and a standard deviation of 16 μm. Roughly 39% of the particles had a diameter greater than the specified maximum particle size of 44 μm suggesting that the particles agglomerate during fabrication. The local volume fraction of particles also varies significantly within the compact although uniformities appear to be evenly dispersed throughout the analysed volume. The voids produced during fabrication were on average plate-like in nature with their major axis oriented perpendicular to the compaction direction of the compact. Finally, the microstructure, mainly the large preferentially oriented voids, may cause a small degree of anisotropy in the thermal diffusivity within the compact. α∥/α⊥, the ratio of thermal diffusivities parallel to and perpendicular to the compaction direction are expected to be no less than 0.95 with an upper bound of 1.« less

  19. Critical comparison of 3D imaging approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C L

    1999-06-03

    Currently three imaging spectrometer architectures, tunable filter, dispersive, and Fourier transform, are viable for imaging the universe in three dimensions. There are domains of greatest utility for each of these architectures. The optimum choice among the various alternative architectures is dependent on the nature of the desired observations, the maturity of the relevant technology, and the character of the backgrounds. The domain appropriate for each of the alternatives is delineated; both for instruments having ideal performance as well as for instrumentation based on currently available technology. The environment and science objectives for the Next Generation Space Telescope will be used as a specific representative case to provide a basis for comparison of the various alternatives.

  20. 3-D Imaging Based, Radiobiological Dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Sgouros, George; Frey, Eric; Wahl, Richard; He, Bin; Prideaux, Andrew; Hobbs, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy holds promise as a new treatment against cancer. Advances in imaging are making it possible to evaluate the spatial distribution of radioactivity in tumors and normal organs over time. Matched anatomical imaging such as combined SPECT/CT and PET/CT have also made it possible to obtain tissue density information in conjunction with the radioactivity distribution. Coupled with sophisticated iterative reconstruction algorithims, these advances have made it possible to perform highly patient-specific dosimetry that also incorporates radiobiological modeling. Such sophisticated dosimetry techniques are still in the research investigation phase. Given the attendant logistical and financial costs, a demonstrated improvement in patient care will be a prerequisite for the adoption of such highly-patient specific internal dosimetry methods. PMID:18662554

  1. A 3D Level Set Method for Microwave Breast Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Colgan, Timothy J.; Hagness, Susan C.; Van Veen, Barry D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Conventional inverse-scattering algorithms for microwave breast imaging result in moderate resolution images with blurred boundaries between tissues. Recent 2D numerical microwave imaging studies demonstrate that the use of a level set method preserves dielectric boundaries, resulting in a more accurate, higher resolution reconstruction of the dielectric properties distribution. Previously proposed level set algorithms are computationally expensive and thus impractical in 3D. In this paper we present a computationally tractable 3D microwave imaging algorithm based on level sets. Methods We reduce the computational cost of the level set method using a Jacobian matrix, rather than an adjoint method, to calculate Frechet derivatives. We demonstrate the feasibility of 3D imaging using simulated array measurements from 3D numerical breast phantoms. We evaluate performance by comparing full 3D reconstructions to those from a conventional microwave imaging technique. We also quantitatively assess the efficacy of our algorithm in evaluating breast density. Results Our reconstructions of 3D numerical breast phantoms improve upon those of a conventional microwave imaging technique. The density estimates from our level set algorithm are more accurate than those of conventional microwave imaging, and the accuracy is greater than that reported for mammographic density estimation. Conclusion Our level set method leads to a feasible level of computational complexity for full 3D imaging, and reconstructs the heterogeneous dielectric properties distribution of the breast more accurately than conventional microwave imaging methods. Significance 3D microwave breast imaging using a level set method is a promising low-cost, non-ionizing alternative to current breast imaging techniques. PMID:26011863

  2. Acoustic 3D imaging of dental structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.K.; Hume, W.R.; Douglass, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    Our goals for the first year of this three dimensional electodynamic imaging project was to determine how to combine flexible, individual addressable; preprocessing of array source signals; spectral extrapolation or received signals; acoustic tomography codes; and acoustic propagation modeling code. We investigated flexible, individually addressable acoustic array material to find the best match in power, sensitivity and cost and settled on PVDF sheet arrays and 3-1 composite material.

  3. 3D/3D registration of coronary CTA and biplane XA reconstructions for improved image guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Dibildox, Gerardo Baka, Nora; Walsum, Theo van; Punt, Mark; Aben, Jean-Paul; Schultz, Carl; Niessen, Wiro

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: The authors aim to improve image guidance during percutaneous coronary interventions of chronic total occlusions (CTO) by providing information obtained from computed tomography angiography (CTA) to the cardiac interventionist. To this end, the authors investigate a method to register a 3D CTA model to biplane reconstructions. Methods: The authors developed a method for registering preoperative coronary CTA with intraoperative biplane x-ray angiography (XA) images via 3D models of the coronary arteries. The models are extracted from the CTA and biplane XA images, and are temporally aligned based on CTA reconstruction phase and XA ECG signals. Rigid spatial alignment is achieved with a robust probabilistic point set registration approach using Gaussian mixture models (GMMs). This approach is extended by including orientation in the Gaussian mixtures and by weighting bifurcation points. The method is evaluated on retrospectively acquired coronary CTA datasets of 23 CTO patients for which biplane XA images are available. Results: The Gaussian mixture model approach achieved a median registration accuracy of 1.7 mm. The extended GMM approach including orientation was not significantly different (P > 0.1) but did improve robustness with regards to the initialization of the 3D models. Conclusions: The authors demonstrated that the GMM approach can effectively be applied to register CTA to biplane XA images for the purpose of improving image guidance in percutaneous coronary interventions.

  4. Research on the aero-thermal effects by 3D analysis model of the optical window of the infrared imaging guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bo; Li, Lin; Zhu, Ying

    2014-11-01

    Researches on hypersonic vehicles have been a hotspot in the field of aerospace because of the pursuits for higher speed by human being. Infrared imaging guidance is playing a very important role in modern warfare. When an Infrared Ray(IR) imaging guided missile is flying in the air at high speed, its optical dome suffers from serious aero-optic effects because of air flow. The turbulence around the dome and the thermal effects of the optical window would cause disturbance to the wavefront from the target. Therefore, detected images will be biased, dithered and blurred, and the capabilities of the seeker for detecting, tracking and recognizing are weakened. In this paper, methods for thermal and structural analysis with Heat Transfer and Elastic Mechanics are introduced. By studying the aero-thermal effects and aero-thermal radiation effects of the optical window, a 3D analysis model of the optical window is established by using finite element method. The direct coupling analysis is employed as a solving strategy. The variation regularity of the temperature field is obtained. For light with different incident angles, the influence on the ray propagation caused by window deformation is analyzed with theoretical calculation and optical/thermal/structural integrated analysis method respectively.

  5. Horizontal structure and propagation characteristics of mesospheric gravity waves observed by Antarctic Gravity Wave Imaging/Instrument Network (ANGWIN), using a 3-D spectral analysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Takashi S.; Nakamura, Takuji; Murphy, Damian; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Moffat-Griffin, Tracy; Zhao, Yucheng; Pautet, Pierre-Dominique; Ejiri, Mitsumu K.; Taylor, Michael

    2016-07-01

    ANGWIN (Antarctic Gravity Wave Imaging/Instrument Network) is an international airglow imager/instrument network in the Antarctic, which commenced observations in 2011. It seeks to reveal characteristics of mesospheric gravity waves, and to study sources, propagation, breaking of the gravity waves over the Antarctic and the effects on general circulation and upper atmosphere. In this study, we compared distributions of horizontal phase velocity of the gravity waves at around 90 km altitude observed in the mesospheric airglow imaging over different locations using our new statistical analysis method of 3-D Fourier transform, developed by Matsuda et al. (2014). Results from the airglow imagers at four stations at Syowa (69S, 40E), Halley (76S, 27W), Davis (69S, 78E) and McMurdo (78S, 156E) out of the ANGWIN imagers have been compared, for the observation period between April 6 and May 21 in 2013. In addition to the horizontal distribution of propagation and phase speed, gravity wave energies have been quantitatively compared, indicating a smaller GW activity in higher latitude stations. We further investigated frequency dependence of gravity wave propagation direction, as well as nightly variation of the gravity wave direction and correlation with the background wind variations. We found that variation of propagation direction is partly due to the effect of background wind in the middle atmosphere, but variation of wave sources could play important role as well. Secondary wave generation is also needed to explain the observed results.

  6. Combined registration of 3D tibia and femur implant models in 3D magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englmeier, Karl-Hans; Siebert, Markus; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Ruediger; Graichen, Heiko

    2008-03-01

    The most frequent reasons for revision of total knee arthroplasty are loosening and abnormal axial alignment leading to an unphysiological kinematic of the knee implant. To get an idea about the postoperative kinematic of the implant, it is essential to determine the position and orientation of the tibial and femoral prosthesis. Therefore we developed a registration method for fitting 3D CAD-models of knee joint prostheses into an 3D MR image. This rigid registration is the basis for a quantitative analysis of the kinematics of knee implants. Firstly the surface data of the prostheses models are converted into a voxel representation; a recursive algorithm determines all boundary voxels of the original triangular surface data. Secondly an initial preconfiguration of the implants by the user is still necessary for the following step: The user has to perform a rough preconfiguration of both remaining prostheses models, so that the fine matching process gets a reasonable starting point. After that an automated gradient-based fine matching process determines the best absolute position and orientation: This iterative process changes all 6 parameters (3 rotational- and 3 translational parameters) of a model by a minimal amount until a maximum value of the matching function is reached. To examine the spread of the final solutions of the registration, the interobserver variability was measured in a group of testers. This variability, calculated by the relative standard deviation, improved from about 50% (pure manual registration) to 0.5% (rough manual preconfiguration and subsequent fine registration with the automatic fine matching process).

  7. Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    1 Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization David N. Ford...2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization 5a...Manufacturing ( 3D printing ) 2 Research Context Problem: Learning curve savings forecasted in SHIPMAIN maintenance initiative have not materialized

  8. Morphometrics, 3D Imaging, and Craniofacial Development

    PubMed Central

    Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Percival, Christopher J.; Green, Rebecca; Young, Nathan M.; Mio, Washington; Marcucio, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown how volumetric imaging and morphometrics can add significantly to our understanding of morphogenesis, the developmental basis for variation and the etiology of structural birth defects. On the other hand, the complex questions and diverse imaging data in developmental biology present morphometrics with more complex challenges than applications in virtually any other field. Meeting these challenges is necessary in order to understand the mechanistic basis for variation in complex morphologies. This chapter reviews the methods and theory that enable the application of modern landmark-based morphometrics to developmental biology and craniofacial development, in particular. We discuss the theoretical foundations of morphometrics as applied to development and review the basic approaches to the quantification of morphology. Focusing on geometric morphometrics, we discuss the principal statistical methods for quantifying and comparing morphological variation and covariation structure within and among groups. Finally, we discuss the future directions for morphometrics in developmental biology that will be required for approaches that enable quantitative integration across the genotype-phenotype map. PMID:26589938

  9. 3D quantitative phase imaging of neural networks using WDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taewoo; Liu, S. C.; Iyer, Raj; Gillette, Martha U.; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    White-light diffraction tomography (WDT) is a recently developed 3D imaging technique based on a quantitative phase imaging system called spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM). The technique has achieved a sub-micron resolution in all three directions with high sensitivity granted by the low-coherence of a white-light source. Demonstrations of the technique on single cell imaging have been presented previously; however, imaging on any larger sample, including a cluster of cells, has not been demonstrated using the technique. Neurons in an animal body form a highly complex and spatially organized 3D structure, which can be characterized by neuronal networks or circuits. Currently, the most common method of studying the 3D structure of neuron networks is by using a confocal fluorescence microscope, which requires fluorescence tagging with either transient membrane dyes or after fixation of the cells. Therefore, studies on neurons are often limited to samples that are chemically treated and/or dead. WDT presents a solution for imaging live neuron networks with a high spatial and temporal resolution, because it is a 3D imaging method that is label-free and non-invasive. Using this method, a mouse or rat hippocampal neuron culture and a mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron culture have been imaged in order to see the extension of processes between the cells in 3D. Furthermore, the tomogram is compared with a confocal fluorescence image in order to investigate the 3D structure at synapses.

  10. Accommodation response measurements for integral 3D image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiura, H.; Mishina, T.; Arai, J.; Iwadate, Y.

    2014-03-01

    We measured accommodation responses under integral photography (IP), binocular stereoscopic, and real object display conditions, and viewing conditions of binocular and monocular viewing conditions. The equipment we used was an optometric device and a 3D display. We developed the 3D display for IP and binocular stereoscopic images that comprises a high-resolution liquid crystal display (LCD) and a high-density lens array. The LCD has a resolution of 468 dpi and a diagonal size of 4.8 inches. The high-density lens array comprises 106 x 69 micro lenses that have a focal length of 3 mm and diameter of 1 mm. The lenses are arranged in a honeycomb pattern. The 3D display was positioned 60 cm from an observer under IP and binocular stereoscopic display conditions. The target was presented at eight depth positions relative to the 3D display: 15, 10, and 5 cm in front of the 3D display, on the 3D display panel, and 5, 10, 15 and 30 cm behind the 3D display under the IP and binocular stereoscopic display conditions. Under the real object display condition, the target was displayed on the 3D display panel, and the 3D display was placed at the eight positions. The results suggest that the IP image induced more natural accommodation responses compared to the binocular stereoscopic image. The accommodation responses of the IP image were weaker than those of a real object; however, they showed a similar tendency with those of the real object under the two viewing conditions. Therefore, IP can induce accommodation to the depth positions of 3D images.

  11. Low cost 3D scanning process using digital image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, David; Romero, Carlos; Martínez, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    This paper shows the design and building of a low cost 3D scanner, able to digitize solid objects through contactless data acquisition, using active object reflection. 3D scanners are used in different applications such as: science, engineering, entertainment, etc; these are classified in: contact scanners and contactless ones, where the last ones are often the most used but they are expensive. This low-cost prototype is done through a vertical scanning of the object using a fixed camera and a mobile horizontal laser light, which is deformed depending on the 3-dimensional surface of the solid. Using digital image processing an analysis of the deformation detected by the camera was done; it allows determining the 3D coordinates using triangulation. The obtained information is processed by a Matlab script, which gives to the user a point cloud corresponding to each horizontal scanning done. The obtained results show an acceptable quality and significant details of digitalized objects, making this prototype (built on LEGO Mindstorms NXT kit) a versatile and cheap tool, which can be used for many applications, mainly by engineering students.

  12. 3-D imaging and illustration of mouse intestinal neurovascular complex.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ya-Yuan; Peng, Shih-Jung; Lin, Hsin-Yao; Pasricha, Pankaj J; Tang, Shiue-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Because of the dispersed nature of nerves and blood vessels, standard histology cannot provide a global and associated observation of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and vascular network. We prepared transparent mouse intestine and combined vessel painting and three-dimensional (3-D) neurohistology for joint visualization of the ENS and vasculature. Cardiac perfusion of the fluorescent wheat germ agglutinin (vessel painting) was used to label the ileal blood vessels. The pan-neuronal marker PGP9.5, sympathetic neuronal marker tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), serotonin, and glial markers S100B and GFAP were used as the immunostaining targets of neural tissues. The fluorescently labeled specimens were immersed in the optical clearing solution to improve photon penetration for 3-D confocal microscopy. Notably, we simultaneously revealed the ileal microstructure, vasculature, and innervation with micrometer-level resolution. Four examples are given: 1) the morphology of the TH-labeled sympathetic nerves: sparse in epithelium, perivascular at the submucosa, and intraganglionic at myenteric plexus; 2) distinct patterns of the extrinsic perivascular and intrinsic pericryptic innervation at the submucosal-mucosal interface; 3) different associations of serotonin cells with the mucosal neurovascular elements in the villi and crypts; and 4) the periganglionic capillary network at the myenteric plexus and its contact with glial fibers. Our 3-D imaging approach provides a useful tool to simultaneously reveal the nerves and blood vessels in a space continuum for panoramic illustration and analysis of the neurovascular complex to better understand the intestinal physiology and diseases.

  13. 3D Whole Heart Imaging for Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Greil, Gerald; Tandon, Animesh (Aashoo); Silva Vieira, Miguel; Hussain, Tarique

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) whole heart techniques form a cornerstone in cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging of congenital heart disease (CHD). It offers significant advantages over other CHD imaging modalities and techniques: no ionizing radiation; ability to be run free-breathing; ECG-gated dual-phase imaging for accurate measurements and tissue properties estimation; and higher signal-to-noise ratio and isotropic voxel resolution for multiplanar reformatting assessment. However, there are limitations, such as potentially long acquisition times with image quality degradation. Recent advances in and current applications of 3D whole heart imaging in CHD are detailed, as well as future directions. PMID:28289674

  14. Image based 3D city modeling : Comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-06-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based 3D city modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete 3D city model by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based 3D modeling approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output 3D model products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). This 3D campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can't do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of 3D project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For 3D documentation record, Photomodeler gives good result. For Large city

  15. A colour image reproduction framework for 3D colour printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Kaida; Sohiab, Ali; Sun, Pei-li; Yates, Julian M.; Li, Changjun; Wuerger, Sophie

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the current technologies in full colour 3D printing technology were introduced. A framework of colour image reproduction process for 3D colour printing is proposed. A special focus was put on colour management for 3D printed objects. Two approaches, colorimetric colour reproduction and spectral based colour reproduction are proposed in order to faithfully reproduce colours in 3D objects. Two key studies, colour reproduction for soft tissue prostheses and colour uniformity correction across different orientations are described subsequently. Results are clear shown that applying proposed colour image reproduction framework, performance of colour reproduction can be significantly enhanced. With post colour corrections, a further improvement in colour process are achieved for 3D printed objects.

  16. Optical 3D watermark based digital image watermarking for telemedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao Wei; Kim, Seok Tae

    2013-12-01

    Region of interest (ROI) of a medical image is an area including important diagnostic information and must be stored without any distortion. This algorithm for application of watermarking technique for non-ROI of the medical image preserving ROI. The paper presents a 3D watermark based medical image watermarking scheme. In this paper, a 3D watermark object is first decomposed into 2D elemental image array (EIA) by a lenslet array, and then the 2D elemental image array data is embedded into the host image. The watermark extraction process is an inverse process of embedding. The extracted EIA through the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) technique, the 3D watermark can be reconstructed. Because the EIA is composed of a number of elemental images possesses their own perspectives of a 3D watermark object. Even though the embedded watermark data badly damaged, the 3D virtual watermark can be successfully reconstructed. Furthermore, using CAT with various rule number parameters, it is possible to get many channels for embedding. So our method can recover the weak point having only one transform plane in traditional watermarking methods. The effectiveness of the proposed watermarking scheme is demonstrated with the aid of experimental results.

  17. Automatic abdominal lymph node detection method based on local intensity structure analysis from 3D x-ray CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Nimura, Yukitaka; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Mizuno, Shinji; Furukawa, Kazuhiro; Goto, Hidemi; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Misawa, Kazunari; Ito, Masaaki; Nawano, Shigeru; Mori, Kensaku

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents an automated method of abdominal lymph node detection to aid the preoperative diagnosis of abdominal cancer surgery. In abdominal cancer surgery, surgeons must resect not only tumors and metastases but also lymph nodes that might have a metastasis. This procedure is called lymphadenectomy or lymph node dissection. Insufficient lymphadenectomy carries a high risk for relapse. However, excessive resection decreases a patient's quality of life. Therefore, it is important to identify the location and the structure of lymph nodes to make a suitable surgical plan. The proposed method consists of candidate lymph node detection and false positive reduction. Candidate lymph nodes are detected using a multi-scale blob-like enhancement filter based on local intensity structure analysis. To reduce false positives, the proposed method uses a classifier based on support vector machine with the texture and shape information. The experimental results reveal that it detects 70.5% of the lymph nodes with 13.0 false positives per case.

  18. RGB Color Calibration for Quantitative Image Analysis: The “3D Thin-Plate Spline” Warping Approach

    PubMed Central

    Menesatti, Paolo; Angelini, Claudio; Pallottino, Federico; Antonucci, Francesca; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Costa, Corrado

    2012-01-01

    In the last years the need to numerically define color by its coordinates in n-dimensional space has increased strongly. Colorimetric calibration is fundamental in food processing and other biological disciplines to quantitatively compare samples' color during workflow with many devices. Several software programmes are available to perform standardized colorimetric procedures, but they are often too imprecise for scientific purposes. In this study, we applied the Thin-Plate Spline interpolation algorithm to calibrate colours in sRGB space (the corresponding Matlab code is reported in the Appendix). This was compared with other two approaches. The first is based on a commercial calibration system (ProfileMaker) and the second on a Partial Least Square analysis. Moreover, to explore device variability and resolution two different cameras were adopted and for each sensor, three consecutive pictures were acquired under four different light conditions. According to our results, the Thin-Plate Spline approach reported a very high efficiency of calibration allowing the possibility to create a revolution in the in-field applicative context of colour quantification not only in food sciences, but also in other biological disciplines. These results are of great importance for scientific color evaluation when lighting conditions are not controlled. Moreover, it allows the use of low cost instruments while still returning scientifically sound quantitative data. PMID:22969337

  19. Radiologic-Pathologic Analysis of Contrast-enhanced and Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging in Patients with HCC after TACE: Diagnostic Accuracy of 3D Quantitative Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chapiro, Julius; Wood, Laura D.; Lin, MingDe; Duran, Rafael; Cornish, Toby; Lesage, David; Charu, Vivek; Schernthaner, Rüdiger; Wang, Zhijun; Tacher, Vania; Savic, Lynn Jeanette; Kamel, Ihab R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic performance of three-dimensional (3Dthree-dimensional) quantitative enhancement-based and diffusion-weighted volumetric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCChepatocellular carcinoma) lesions in determining the extent of pathologic tumor necrosis after transarterial chemoembolization (TACEtransarterial chemoembolization). Materials and Methods This institutional review board–approved retrospective study included 17 patients with HCChepatocellular carcinoma who underwent TACEtransarterial chemoembolization before surgery. Semiautomatic 3Dthree-dimensional volumetric segmentation of target lesions was performed at the last MR examination before orthotopic liver transplantation or surgical resection. The amount of necrotic tumor tissue on contrast material–enhanced arterial phase MR images and the amount of diffusion-restricted tumor tissue on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCapparent diffusion coefficient) maps were expressed as a percentage of the total tumor volume. Visual assessment of the extent of tumor necrosis and tumor response according to European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASLEuropean Association for the Study of the Liver) criteria was performed. Pathologic tumor necrosis was quantified by using slide-by-slide segmentation. Correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the predictive values of the radiologic techniques. Results At histopathologic examination, the mean percentage of tumor necrosis was 70% (range, 10%–100%). Both 3Dthree-dimensional quantitative techniques demonstrated a strong correlation with tumor necrosis at pathologic examination (R2 = 0.9657 and R2 = 0.9662 for quantitative EASLEuropean Association for the Study of the Liver and quantitative ADCapparent diffusion coefficient, respectively) and a strong intermethod agreement (R2 = 0.9585). Both methods showed a significantly lower discrepancy with pathologically measured necrosis (residual

  20. Progresses in 3D integral imaging with optical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Martínez-Cuenca, Raúl; Saavedra, Genaro; Navarro, Héctor; Pons, Amparo; Javidi, Bahram

    2008-11-01

    Integral imaging is a promising technique for the acquisition and auto-stereoscopic display of 3D scenes with full parallax and without the need of any additional devices like special glasses. First suggested by Lippmann in the beginning of the 20th century, integral imaging is based in the intersection of ray cones emitted by a collection of 2D elemental images which store the 3D information of the scene. This paper is devoted to the study, from the ray optics point of view, of the optical effects and interaction with the observer of integral imaging systems.

  1. DCT and DST Based Image Compression for 3D Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddeq, Mohammed M.; Rodrigues, Marcos A.

    2017-03-01

    This paper introduces a new method for 2D image compression whose quality is demonstrated through accurate 3D reconstruction using structured light techniques and 3D reconstruction from multiple viewpoints. The method is based on two discrete transforms: (1) A one-dimensional Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is applied to each row of the image. (2) The output from the previous step is transformed again by a one-dimensional Discrete Sine Transform (DST), which is applied to each column of data generating new sets of high-frequency components followed by quantization of the higher frequencies. The output is then divided into two parts where the low-frequency components are compressed by arithmetic coding and the high frequency ones by an efficient minimization encoding algorithm. At decompression stage, a binary search algorithm is used to recover the original high frequency components. The technique is demonstrated by compressing 2D images up to 99% compression ratio. The decompressed images, which include images with structured light patterns for 3D reconstruction and from multiple viewpoints, are of high perceptual quality yielding accurate 3D reconstruction. Perceptual assessment and objective quality of compression are compared with JPEG and JPEG2000 through 2D and 3D RMSE. Results show that the proposed compression method is superior to both JPEG and JPEG2000 concerning 3D reconstruction, and with equivalent perceptual quality to JPEG2000.

  2. Effect of Clouds on Optical Imaging of the Space Shuttle During the Ascent Phase: A Statistical Analysis Based on a 3D Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, David A.; Lane, Robert E., Jr.; Winters, Katherine A.; Madura, John T.

    2004-01-01

    Clouds are highly effective in obscuring optical images of the Space Shuttle taken during its ascent by ground-based and airborne tracking cameras. Because the imagery is used for quick-look and post-flight engineering analysis, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) recommended the return-to-flight effort include an upgrade of the imaging system to enable it to obtain at least three useful views of the Shuttle from lift-off to at least solid rocket booster (SRB) separation (NASA 2003). The lifetimes of individual cloud elements capable of obscuring optical views of the Shuttle are typically 20 minutes or less. Therefore, accurately observing and forecasting cloud obscuration over an extended network of cameras poses an unprecedented challenge for the current state of observational and modeling techniques. In addition, even the best numerical simulations based on real observations will never reach "truth." In order to quantify the risk that clouds would obscure optical imagery of the Shuttle, a 3D model to calculate probabilistic risk was developed. The model was used to estimate the ability of a network of optical imaging cameras to obtain at least N simultaneous views of the Shuttle from lift-off to SRB separation in the presence of an idealized, randomized cloud field.

  3. SU-E-J-200: A Dosimetric Analysis of 3D Versus 4D Image-Based Dose Calculation for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Lung Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, M; Rouabhi, O; Flynn, R; Xia, J; Bayouth, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric difference between 3D and 4Dweighted dose calculation using patient specific respiratory trace and deformable image registration for stereotactic body radiation therapy in lung tumors. Methods: Two dose calculation techniques, 3D and 4D-weighed dose calculation, were used for dosimetric comparison for 9 lung cancer patients. The magnitude of the tumor motion varied from 3 mm to 23 mm. Breath-hold exhale CT was used for 3D dose calculation with ITV generated from the motion observed from 4D-CT. For 4D-weighted calculation, dose of each binned CT image from the ten breathing amplitudes was first recomputed using the same planning parameters as those used in the 3D calculation. The dose distribution of each binned CT was mapped to the breath-hold CT using deformable image registration. The 4D-weighted dose was computed by summing the deformed doses with the temporal probabilities calculated from their corresponding respiratory traces. Dosimetric evaluation criteria includes lung V20, mean lung dose, and mean tumor dose. Results: Comparing with 3D calculation, lung V20, mean lung dose, and mean tumor dose using 4D-weighted dose calculation were changed by −0.67% ± 2.13%, −4.11% ± 6.94% (−0.36 Gy ± 0.87 Gy), −1.16% ± 1.36%(−0.73 Gy ± 0.85 Gy) accordingly. Conclusion: This work demonstrates that conventional 3D dose calculation method may overestimate the lung V20, MLD, and MTD. The absolute difference between 3D and 4D-weighted dose calculation in lung tumor may not be clinically significant. This research is supported by Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc and Iowa Center for Research By Undergraduates.

  4. 3D Subharmonic Ultrasound Imaging In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Eisenbrey, John R.; Sridharan, Anush; Machado, Priscilla; Zhao, Hongjia; Halldorsdottir, Valgerdur G.; Dave, Jaydev K.; Liu, Ji-Bin; Park, Suhyun; Dianis, Scott; Wallace, Kirk; Thomenius, Kai E.; Forsberg, F.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives While contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging techniques such as harmonic imaging (HI) have evolved to reduce tissue signals using the nonlinear properties of the contrast agent, levels of background suppression have been mixed. Subharmonic imaging (SHI) offers near-complete tissue suppression by centering the receive bandwidth at half the transmitting frequency. In this work we demonstrate the feasibility of 3D SHI and compare it to 3D HI. Materials and Methods 3D HI and SHI were implemented on a Logiq 9 ultrasound scanner (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, Wisconsin) with a 4D10L probe. Four-cycle SHI was implemented to transmit at 5.8 MHz and receive at 2.9 MHz, while 2-cycle HI was implemented to transmit at 5 MHz and receive at 10 MHz. The ultrasound contrast agent Definity (Lantheus Medical Imaging, North Billerica, MA) was imaged within a flow phantom and the lower pole of two canine kidneys in both HI and SHI modes. Contrast to tissue ratios (CTR) and rendered images were compared offline. Results SHI resulted in significant improvement in CTR levels relative to HI both in vitro (12.11±0.52 vs. 2.67±0.77, p<0.001) and in vivo (5.74±1.92 vs. 2.40±0.48, p=0.04). Rendered 3D SHI images provided better tissue suppression and a greater overall view of vessels in a flow phantom and canine renal vasculature. Conclusions The successful implementation of SHI in 3D allows imaging of vascular networks over a heterogeneous sample volume and should improve future diagnostic accuracy. Additionally, 3D SHI provides improved CTR values relative to 3D HI. PMID:22464198

  5. Low Dose, Low Energy 3d Image Guidance during Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. J.; Marchant, T.; Amer, A.; Sharrock, P.; Price, P.; Burton, D.

    2006-04-01

    Patient kilo-voltage X-ray cone beam volumetric imaging for radiotherapy was first demonstrated on an Elekta Synergy mega-voltage X-ray linear accelerator. Subsequently low dose, reduced profile reconstruction imaging was shown to be practical for 3D geometric setup registration to pre-treatment planning images without compromising registration accuracy. Reconstruction from X-ray profiles gathered between treatment beam deliveries was also introduced. The innovation of zonal cone beam imaging promises significantly reduced doses to patients and improved soft tissue contrast in the tumour target zone. These developments coincided with the first dynamic 3D monitoring of continuous body topology changes in patients, at the moment of irradiation, using a laser interferometer. They signal the arrival of low dose, low energy 3D image guidance during radiotherapy itself.

  6. SU-E-J-55: End-To-End Effectiveness Analysis of 3D Surface Image Guided Voluntary Breath-Holding Radiotherapy for Left Breast

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M; Feigenberg, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose To evaluate the effectiveness of using 3D-surface-image to guide breath-holding (BH) left-side breast treatment. Methods Two 3D surface image guided BH procedures were implemented and evaluated: normal-BH, taking BH at a comfortable level, and deep-inspiration-breath-holding (DIBH). A total of 20 patients (10 Normal-BH and 10 DIBH) were recruited. Patients received a BH evaluation using a commercialized 3D-surface- tracking-system (VisionRT, London, UK) to quantify the reproducibility of BH positions prior to CT scan. Tangential 3D/IMRT plans were conducted. Patients were initially setup under free-breathing (FB) condition using the FB surface obtained from the untaged CT to ensure a correct patient position. Patients were then guided to reach the planned BH position using the BH surface obtained from the BH CT. Action-levels were set at each phase of treatment process based on the information provided by the 3D-surface-tracking-system for proper interventions (eliminate/re-setup/ re-coaching). We reviewed the frequency of interventions to evaluate its effectiveness. The FB-CBCT and port-film were utilized to evaluate the accuracy of 3D-surface-guided setups. Results 25% of BH candidates with BH positioning uncertainty > 2mm are eliminated prior to CT scan. For >90% of fractions, based on the setup deltas from3D-surface-trackingsystem, adjustments of patient setup are needed after the initial-setup using laser. 3D-surface-guided-setup accuracy is comparable as CBCT. For the BH guidance, frequency of interventions (a re-coaching/re-setup) is 40%(Normal-BH)/91%(DIBH) of treatments for the first 5-fractions and then drops to 16%(Normal-BH)/46%(DIBH). The necessity of re-setup is highly patient-specific for Normal-BH but highly random among patients for DIBH. Overall, a −0.8±2.4 mm accuracy of the anterior pericardial shadow position was achieved. Conclusion 3D-surface-image technology provides effective intervention to the treatment process and ensures

  7. Accelerated 3D catheter visualization from triplanar MR projection images.

    PubMed

    Schirra, Carsten Oliver; Weiss, Steffen; Krueger, Sascha; Caulfield, Denis; Pedersen, Steen F; Razavi, Reza; Kozerke, Sebastian; Schaeffter, Tobias

    2010-07-01

    One major obstacle for MR-guided catheterizations is long acquisition times associated with visualizing interventional devices. Therefore, most techniques presented hitherto rely on single-plane imaging to visualize the catheter. Recently, accelerated three-dimensional (3D) imaging based on compressed sensing has been proposed to reduce acquisition times. However, frame rates with this technique remain low, and the 3D reconstruction problem yields a considerable computational load. In X-ray angiography, it is well understood that the shape of interventional devices can be derived in 3D space from a limited number of projection images. In this work, this fact is exploited to develop a method for 3D visualization of active catheters from multiplanar two-dimensional (2D) projection MR images. This is favorable to 3D MRI as the overall number of acquired profiles, and consequently the acquisition time, is reduced. To further reduce measurement times, compressed sensing is employed. Furthermore, a novel single-channel catheter design is presented that combines a solenoidal tip coil in series with a single-loop antenna, enabling simultaneous tip tracking and shape visualization. The tracked tip and catheter properties provide constraints for compressed sensing reconstruction and subsequent 2D/3D curve fitting. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated in phantoms and in an in vivo pig experiment.

  8. Prostate Mechanical Imaging: 3-D Image Composition and Feature Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Egorov, Vladimir; Ayrapetyan, Suren; Sarvazyan, Armen P.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a method and a device entitled prostate mechanical imager (PMI) for the real-time imaging of prostate using a transrectal probe equipped with a pressure sensor array and position tracking sensor. PMI operation is based on measurement of the stress pattern on the rectal wall when the probe is pressed against the prostate. Temporal and spatial changes in the stress pattern provide information on the elastic structure of the gland and allow two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of prostate anatomy and assessment of prostate mechanical properties. The data acquired allow the calculation of prostate features such as size, shape, nodularity, consistency/hardness, and mobility. The PMI prototype has been validated in laboratory experiments on prostate phantoms and in a clinical study. The results obtained on model systems and in vivo images from patients prove that PMI has potential to become a diagnostic tool that could largely supplant DRE through its higher sensitivity, quantitative record storage, ease-of-use and inherent low cost. PMID:17024836

  9. Object Segmentation and Ground Truth in 3D Embryonic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, Bhavna; Uriu, Koichiro; Valentin, Guillaume; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Oates, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    Many questions in developmental biology depend on measuring the position and movement of individual cells within developing embryos. Yet, tools that provide this data are often challenged by high cell density and their accuracy is difficult to measure. Here, we present a three-step procedure to address this problem. Step one is a novel segmentation algorithm based on image derivatives that, in combination with selective post-processing, reliably and automatically segments cell nuclei from images of densely packed tissue. Step two is a quantitative validation using synthetic images to ascertain the efficiency of the algorithm with respect to signal-to-noise ratio and object density. Finally, we propose an original method to generate reliable and experimentally faithful ground truth datasets: Sparse-dense dual-labeled embryo chimeras are used to unambiguously measure segmentation errors within experimental data. Together, the three steps outlined here establish a robust, iterative procedure to fine-tune image analysis algorithms and microscopy settings associated with embryonic 3D image data sets. PMID:27332860

  10. Object Segmentation and Ground Truth in 3D Embryonic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Bhavna; Uriu, Koichiro; Valentin, Guillaume; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Oates, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    Many questions in developmental biology depend on measuring the position and movement of individual cells within developing embryos. Yet, tools that provide this data are often challenged by high cell density and their accuracy is difficult to measure. Here, we present a three-step procedure to address this problem. Step one is a novel segmentation algorithm based on image derivatives that, in combination with selective post-processing, reliably and automatically segments cell nuclei from images of densely packed tissue. Step two is a quantitative validation using synthetic images to ascertain the efficiency of the algorithm with respect to signal-to-noise ratio and object density. Finally, we propose an original method to generate reliable and experimentally faithful ground truth datasets: Sparse-dense dual-labeled embryo chimeras are used to unambiguously measure segmentation errors within experimental data. Together, the three steps outlined here establish a robust, iterative procedure to fine-tune image analysis algorithms and microscopy settings associated with embryonic 3D image data sets.

  11. Single-lens 3D digital image correlation system based on a bilateral telecentric lens and a bi-prism: Systematic error analysis and correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lifu; Zhu, Jianguo; Xie, Huimin; Zhou, Mengmeng

    2016-12-01

    Recently, we proposed a single-lens 3D digital image correlation (3D DIC) method and established a measurement system on the basis of a bilateral telecentric lens (BTL) and a bi-prism. This system can retrieve the 3D morphology of a target and measure its deformation using a single BTL with relatively high accuracy. Nevertheless, the system still suffers from systematic errors caused by manufacturing deficiency of the bi-prism and distortion of the BTL. In this study, in-depth evaluations of these errors and their effects on the measurement results are performed experimentally. The bi-prism deficiency and the BTL distortion are characterized by two in-plane rotation angles and several distortion coefficients, respectively. These values are obtained from a calibration process using a chessboard placed into the field of view of the system; this process is conducted after the measurement of tested specimen. A modified mathematical model is proposed, which takes these systematic errors into account and corrects them during 3D reconstruction. Experiments on retrieving the 3D positions of the chessboard grid corners and the morphology of a ceramic plate specimen are performed. The results of the experiments reveal that ignoring the bi-prism deficiency will induce attitude error to the retrieved morphology, and the BTL distortion can lead to its pseudo out-of-plane deformation. Correcting these problems can further improve the measurement accuracy of the bi-prism-based single-lens 3D DIC system.

  12. Exposing digital image forgeries by 3D reconstruction technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongqiang; Xu, Xiaojing; Li, Zhihui; Liu, Haizhen; Li, Zhigang; Huang, Wei

    2009-11-01

    Digital images are easy to tamper and edit due to availability of powerful image processing and editing software. Especially, forged images by taking from a picture of scene, because of no manipulation was made after taking, usual methods, such as digital watermarks, statistical correlation technology, can hardly detect the traces of image tampering. According to image forgery characteristics, a method, based on 3D reconstruction technology, which detect the forgeries by discriminating the dimensional relationship of each object appeared on image, is presented in this paper. This detection method includes three steps. In the first step, all the parameters of images were calibrated and each crucial object on image was chosen and matched. In the second step, the 3D coordinates of each object were calculated by bundle adjustment. In final step, the dimensional relationship of each object was analyzed. Experiments were designed to test this detection method; the 3D reconstruction and the forged image 3D reconstruction were computed independently. Test results show that the fabricating character in digital forgeries can be identified intuitively by this method.

  13. Building 3D scenes from 2D image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristea, Paul D.

    2006-05-01

    Sequences of 2D images, taken by a single moving video receptor, can be fused to generate a 3D representation. This dynamic stereopsis exists in birds and reptiles, whereas the static binocular stereopsis is common in mammals, including humans. Most multimedia computer vision systems for stereo image capture, transmission, processing, storage and retrieval are based on the concept of binocularity. As a consequence, their main goal is to acquire, conserve and enhance pairs of 2D images able to generate a 3D visual perception in a human observer. Stereo vision in birds is based on the fusion of images captured by each eye, with previously acquired and memorized images from the same eye. The process goes on simultaneously and conjointly for both eyes and generates an almost complete all-around visual field. As a consequence, the baseline distance is no longer fixed, as in the case of binocular 3D view, but adjustable in accordance with the distance to the object of main interest, allowing a controllable depth effect. Moreover, the synthesized 3D scene can have a better resolution than each individual 2D image in the sequence. Compression of 3D scenes can be achieved, and stereo transmissions with lower bandwidth requirements can be developed.

  14. D3D augmented reality imaging system: proof of concept in mammography

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, David B; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Liotta, Lance; Wilson, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to present images from simulated breast microcalcifications and assess the pattern of the microcalcifications with a technical development called “depth 3-dimensional (D3D) augmented reality”. Materials and methods A computer, head display unit, joystick, D3D augmented reality software, and an in-house script of simulated data of breast microcalcifications in a ductal distribution were used. No patient data was used and no statistical analysis was performed. Results The D3D augmented reality system demonstrated stereoscopic depth perception by presenting a unique image to each eye, focal point convergence, head position tracking, 3D cursor, and joystick fly-through. Conclusion The D3D augmented reality imaging system offers image viewing with depth perception and focal point convergence. The D3D augmented reality system should be tested to determine its utility in clinical practice. PMID:27563261

  15. A 3D surface imaging system for assessing human obesity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, B.; Yu, W.; Yao, M.; Yao, X.; Li, Q.; Pepper, M. R.; Freeland-Graves, J. H.

    2009-08-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity suggests a need to develop a convenient, reliable and economical tool for assessment of this condition. Three-dimensional (3D) body surface imaging has emerged as an exciting technology for estimation of body composition. This paper presents a new 3D body imaging system, which was designed for enhanced portability, affordability, and functionality. In this system, stereo vision technology was used to satisfy the requirements for a simple hardware setup and fast image acquisitions. The portability of the system was created via a two-stand configuration, and the accuracy of body volume measurements was improved by customizing stereo matching and surface reconstruction algorithms that target specific problems in 3D body imaging. Body measurement functions dedicated to body composition assessment also were developed. The overall performance of the system was evaluated in human subjects by comparison to other conventional anthropometric methods, as well as air displacement plethysmography, for body fat assessment.

  16. 3D Image Reconstruction: Determination of Pattern Orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenbecler, Richard

    2003-03-13

    The problem of determining the euler angles of a randomly oriented 3-D object from its 2-D Fraunhofer diffraction patterns is discussed. This problem arises in the reconstruction of a positive semi-definite 3-D object using oversampling techniques. In such a problem, the data consists of a measured set of magnitudes from 2-D tomographic images of the object at several unknown orientations. After the orientation angles are determined, the object itself can then be reconstructed by a variety of methods using oversampling, the magnitude data from the 2-D images, physical constraints on the image and then iteration to determine the phases.

  17. 3D Image Display Courses for Information Media Students.

    PubMed

    Yanaka, Kazuhisa; Yamanouchi, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional displays are used extensively in movies and games. These displays are also essential in mixed reality, where virtual and real spaces overlap. Therefore, engineers and creators should be trained to master 3D display technologies. For this reason, the Department of Information Media at the Kanagawa Institute of Technology has launched two 3D image display courses specifically designed for students who aim to become information media engineers and creators.

  18. Gastric Contraction Imaging System Using a 3-D Endoscope.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Kayo; Yamada, Kenji; Watabe, Kenji; Takeda, Maki; Nishimura, Takahiro; Kido, Michiko; Nagakura, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Hideya; Nishida, Tsutomu; Iijima, Hideki; Tsujii, Masahiko; Takehara, Tetsuo; Ohno, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a gastric contraction imaging system for assessment of gastric motility using a 3-D endoscope. Gastrointestinal diseases are mainly based on morphological abnormalities. However, gastrointestinal symptoms are sometimes apparent without visible abnormalities. One of the major factors for these diseases is abnormal gastrointestinal motility. For assessment of gastric motility, a gastric motility imaging system is needed. To assess the dynamic motility of the stomach, the proposed system measures 3-D gastric contractions derived from a 3-D profile of the stomach wall obtained with a developed 3-D endoscope. After obtaining contraction waves, their frequency, amplitude, and speed of propagation can be calculated using a Gaussian function. The proposed system was evaluated for 3-D measurements of several objects with known geometries. The results showed that the surface profiles could be obtained with an error of [Formula: see text] of the distance between two different points on images. Subsequently, we evaluated the validity of a prototype system using a wave simulated model. In the experiment, the amplitude and position of waves could be measured with 1-mm accuracy. The present results suggest that the proposed system can measure the speed and amplitude of contractions. This system has low invasiveness and can assess the motility of the stomach wall directly in a 3-D manner. Our method can be used for examination of gastric morphological and functional abnormalities.

  19. Analysis of temporal stability of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubiño, Manuel; Salas, Carlos; Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, J. J.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    An analysis has been made of the stability of the images generated by electronic autostereoscopic 3D displays, studying the time course of the photometric and colorimetric parameters. The measurements were made on the basis of the procedure recommended in the European guideline EN 61747-6 for the characterization of electronic liquid-crystal displays (LCD). The study uses 3 different models of autostereoscopic 3D displays of different sizes and numbers of pixels, taking the measurements with a spectroradiometer (model PR-670 SpectraScan of PhotoResearch). For each of the displays, the time course is shown for the tristimulus values and the chromaticity coordinates in the XYZ CIE 1931 system and values from the time periods required to reach stable values of these parameters are presented. For the analysis of how the procedure recommended in the guideline EN 61747-6 for 2D displays influenced the results, and for the adaption of the procedure to the characterization of 3D displays, the experimental conditions of the standard procedure were varied, making the stability analysis in the two ocular channels (RE and LE) of the 3D mode and comparing the results with those corresponding to the 2D. The results of our study show that the stabilization time of a autostereoscopic 3D display with parallax barrier technology depends on the tristimulus value analysed (X, Y, Z) as well as on the presentation mode (2D, 3D); furthermore, it was found that whether the 3D mode is used depends on the ocular channel evaluated (RE, LE).

  20. 3-D analysis of grain selection process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arao, Tomoka; Esaka, Hisao; Shinozuka, Kei

    2012-07-01

    It is known that the grain selection plays an important role in the manufacturing process for turbine blades. There are some analytical or numerical models to treat the grain selection. However, the detailed mechanism of grain selection in 3-D is still uncertain. Therefore, an experimental research work using Al-Cu alloy has been carried out in order to understand the grain selection in 3-D.A mold made by Al2O3 was heated to 600 °C ( = liquids temperature of the alloy) and was set on a water-colded copper chill plate. Molten Al-20 wt%Cu alloy was cast into the mold and unidirectional solidified ingot was prepared. The size of ingot was approximately phi25×65H mm. To obtain the thermal history, 4 thermocouples were placed in the mold. It is confirmed that the alloy solidified unidirectionally from bottom to top. Solidified structure on a longitudinal cross section was observed and unidirectional solidification up to 40 mm was ensured. EBSD analysis has been performed on horizontal cross section at an interval of ca.200 μm. These observations were carried out 7-5 mm from the bottom surface. Crystallographic orientation of primary Al phase and size of solidified grains were characterized. A large solidified grain, the crystallographic orientation of which is approximately <101> along heat flow direction, is observed near the lowest cross section. The area of <101> grain decreased as solidification proceeded. On the other hand, it is found that the area of <001> grain increased.

  1. Validation of hip joint center localization methods during gait analysis using 3D EOS imaging in typically developing and cerebral palsy children.

    PubMed

    Assi, Ayman; Sauret, Christophe; Massaad, Abir; Bakouny, Ziad; Pillet, Hélène; Skalli, Wafa; Ghanem, Ismat

    2016-07-01

    Localization of the hip joint center (HJC) is essential in computation of gait data. EOS low dose biplanar X-rays have been shown to be a good reference in evaluating various methods of HJC localization in adults. The aim is to evaluate predictive and functional techniques for HJC localization in typically developing (TD) and cerebral palsy (CP) children, using EOS as an image based reference. Eleven TD and 17 CP children underwent 3D gait analysis. Six HJC localization methods were evaluated in each group bilaterally: 3 predictive (Plug in Gait, Bell and Harrington) and 3 functional methods based on the star arc technique (symmetrical center of rotation estimate, center transformation technique and geometrical sphere fitting). All children then underwent EOS low dose biplanar radiographs. Pelvis, lower limbs and their corresponding external markers were reconstructed in 3D. The center of the femoral head was considered as the reference (HJCEOS). Euclidean distances between HJCs estimated by each of the 6 methods and the HJCEOS were calculated; distances were shown to be lower in predictive compared to functional methods (p<0.0001). Contrarily to findings in adults, functional methods were shown to be less accurate than predictive methods in TD and CP children, which could be mainly due to the shorter thigh segment in children. Harrington method was shown to be the most accurate in the prediction of HJC (mean error≈18mm, SD=9mm) and quasi-equivalent to the Bell method. The bias for each method was quantified, allowing its correction for an improved HJC estimation.

  2. 3D and multispectral imaging for subcutaneous veins detection.

    PubMed

    Paquit, Vincent C; Tobin, Kenneth W; Price, Jeffery R; Mèriaudeau, Fabrice

    2009-07-06

    The first and perhaps most important phase of a surgical procedure is the insertion of an intravenous (IV) catheter. Currently, this is performed manually by trained personnel. In some visions of future operating rooms, however, this process is to be replaced by an automated system. Experiments to determine the best NIR wavelengths to optimize vein contrast for physiological differences such as skin tone and/or the presence of hair on the arm or wrist surface are presented. For illumination our system is composed of a mercury arc lamp coupled to a 10nm band-pass spectrometer. A structured lighting system is also coupled to our multispectral system in order to provide 3D information of the patient arm orientation. Images of each patient arm are captured under every possible combinations of illuminants and the optimal combination of wavelengths for a given subject to maximize vein contrast using linear discriminant analysis is determined.

  3. Interactive visualization of multiresolution image stacks in 3D.

    PubMed

    Trotts, Issac; Mikula, Shawn; Jones, Edward G

    2007-04-15

    Conventional microscopy, electron microscopy, and imaging techniques such as MRI and PET commonly generate large stacks of images of the sectioned brain. In other domains, such as neurophysiology, variables such as space or time are also varied along a stack axis. Digital image sizes have been progressively increasing and in virtual microscopy, it is now common to work with individual image sizes that are several hundred megapixels and several gigabytes in size. The interactive visualization of these high-resolution, multiresolution images in 2D has been addressed previously [Sullivan, G., and Baker, R., 1994. Efficient quad-tree coding of images and video. IEEE Trans. Image Process. 3 (3), 327-331]. Here, we describe a method for interactive visualization of multiresolution image stacks in 3D. The method, characterized as quad-tree based multiresolution image stack interactive visualization using a texel projection based criterion, relies on accessing and projecting image tiles from multiresolution image stacks in such a way that, from the observer's perspective, image tiles all appear approximately the same size even though they are accessed from different tiers within the images comprising the stack. This method enables efficient navigation of high-resolution image stacks. We implement this method in a program called StackVis, which is a Windows-based, interactive 3D multiresolution image stack visualization system written in C++ and using OpenGL. It is freely available at http://brainmaps.org.

  4. Extended gray level co-occurrence matrix computation for 3D image volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salih, Nurulazirah M.; Dewi, Dyah Ekashanti Octorina

    2017-02-01

    Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) is one of the main techniques for texture analysis that has been widely used in many applications. Conventional GLCMs usually focus on two-dimensional (2D) image texture analysis only. However, a three-dimensional (3D) image volume requires specific texture analysis computation. In this paper, an extended 2D to 3D GLCM approach based on the concept of multiple 2D plane positions and pixel orientation directions in the 3D environment is proposed. The algorithm was implemented by breaking down the 3D image volume into 2D slices based on five different plane positions (coordinate axes and oblique axes) resulting in 13 independent directions, then calculating the GLCMs. The resulted GLCMs were averaged to obtain normalized values, then the 3D texture features were calculated. A preliminary examination was performed on a 3D image volume (64 x 64 x 64 voxels). Our analysis confirmed that the proposed technique is capable of extracting the 3D texture features from the extended GLCMs approach. It is a simple and comprehensive technique that can contribute to the 3D image analysis.

  5. Episcopic 3D Imaging Methods: Tools for Researching Gene Function

    PubMed Central

    Weninger, Wolfgang J; Geyer, Stefan H

    2008-01-01

    This work aims at describing episcopic 3D imaging methods and at discussing how these methods can contribute to researching the genetic mechanisms driving embryogenesis and tissue remodelling, and the genesis of pathologies. Several episcopic 3D imaging methods exist. The most advanced are capable of generating high-resolution volume data (voxel sizes from 0.5x0.5x1 µm upwards) of small to large embryos of model organisms and tissue samples. Beside anatomy and tissue architecture, gene expression and gene product patterns can be three dimensionally analyzed in their precise anatomical and histological context with the aid of whole mount in situ hybridization or whole mount immunohistochemical staining techniques. Episcopic 3D imaging techniques were and are employed for analyzing the precise morphological phenotype of experimentally malformed, randomly produced, or genetically engineered embryos of biomedical model organisms. It has been shown that episcopic 3D imaging also fits for describing the spatial distribution of genes and gene products during embryogenesis, and that it can be used for analyzing tissue samples of adult model animals and humans. The latter offers the possibility to use episcopic 3D imaging techniques for researching the causality and treatment of pathologies or for staging cancer. Such applications, however, are not yet routine and currently only preliminary results are available. We conclude that, although episcopic 3D imaging is in its very beginnings, it represents an upcoming methodology, which in short terms will become an indispensable tool for researching the genetic regulation of embryo development as well as the genesis of malformations and diseases. PMID:19452045

  6. Proposed traceable structural resolution protocols for 3D imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, David; Beraldin, J.-Angelo; Cournoyer, Luc; Carrier, Benjamin; Blais, François

    2009-08-01

    A protocol for determining structural resolution using a potentially-traceable reference material is proposed. Where possible, terminology was selected to conform to those published in ISO JCGM 200:2008 (VIM) and ASTM E 2544-08 documents. The concepts of resolvability and edge width are introduced to more completely describe the ability of an optical non-contact 3D imaging system to resolve small features. A distinction is made between 3D range cameras, that obtain spatial data from the total field of view at once, and 3D range scanners, that accumulate spatial data for the total field of view over time. The protocol is presented through the evaluation of a 3D laser line range scanner.

  7. PCaAnalyser: A 2D-Image Analysis Based Module for Effective Determination of Prostate Cancer Progression in 3D Culture

    PubMed Central

    Lovitt, Carrie J.; Avery, Vicky M.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro cell based assays for Prostate Cancer (PCa) research are rapidly becoming the preferred alternative to that of conventional 2D monolayer cultures. 3D assays more precisely mimic the microenvironment found in vivo, and thus are ideally suited to evaluate compounds and their suitability for progression in the drug discovery pipeline. To achieve the desired high throughput needed for most screening programs, automated quantification of 3D cultures is required. Towards this end, this paper reports on the development of a prototype analysis module for an automated high-content-analysis (HCA) system, which allows for accurate and fast investigation of in vitro 3D cell culture models for PCa. The Java based program, which we have named PCaAnalyser, uses novel algorithms that allow accurate and rapid quantitation of protein expression in 3D cell culture. As currently configured, the PCaAnalyser can quantify a range of biological parameters including: nuclei-count, nuclei-spheroid membership prediction, various function based classification of peripheral and non-peripheral areas to measure expression of biomarkers and protein constituents known to be associated with PCa progression, as well as defining segregate cellular-objects effectively for a range of signal-to-noise ratios. In addition, PCaAnalyser architecture is highly flexible, operating as a single independent analysis, as well as in batch mode; essential for High-Throughput-Screening (HTS). Utilising the PCaAnalyser, accurate and rapid analysis in an automated high throughput manner is provided, and reproducible analysis of the distribution and intensity of well-established markers associated with PCa progression in a range of metastatic PCa cell-lines (DU145 and PC3) in a 3D model demonstrated. PMID:24278197

  8. Image quality enhancement and computation acceleration of 3D holographic display using a symmetrical 3D GS algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pengcheng; Bi, Yong; Sun, Minyuan; Wang, Hao; Li, Fang; Qi, Yan

    2014-09-20

    The 3D Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) algorithm can be used to compute a computer-generated hologram (CGH) to produce a 3D holographic display. But, using the 3D GS method, there exists a serious distortion in reconstructions of binary input images. We have eliminated the distortion and improved the image quality of the reconstructions by a maximum of 486%, using a symmetrical 3D GS algorithm that is developed based on a traditional 3D GS algorithm. In addition, the hologram computation speed has been accelerated by 9.28 times, which is significant for real-time holographic displays.

  9. 3D Regression Heat Map Analysis of Population Study Data.

    PubMed

    Klemm, Paul; Lawonn, Kai; Glaßer, Sylvia; Niemann, Uli; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Völzke, Henry; Preim, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies comprise heterogeneous data about a subject group to define disease-specific risk factors. These data contain information (features) about a subject's lifestyle, medical status as well as medical image data. Statistical regression analysis is used to evaluate these features and to identify feature combinations indicating a disease (the target feature). We propose an analysis approach of epidemiological data sets by incorporating all features in an exhaustive regression-based analysis. This approach combines all independent features w.r.t. a target feature. It provides a visualization that reveals insights into the data by highlighting relationships. The 3D Regression Heat Map, a novel 3D visual encoding, acts as an overview of the whole data set. It shows all combinations of two to three independent features with a specific target disease. Slicing through the 3D Regression Heat Map allows for the detailed analysis of the underlying relationships. Expert knowledge about disease-specific hypotheses can be included into the analysis by adjusting the regression model formulas. Furthermore, the influences of features can be assessed using a difference view comparing different calculation results. We applied our 3D Regression Heat Map method to a hepatic steatosis data set to reproduce results from a data mining-driven analysis. A qualitative analysis was conducted on a breast density data set. We were able to derive new hypotheses about relations between breast density and breast lesions with breast cancer. With the 3D Regression Heat Map, we present a visual overview of epidemiological data that allows for the first time an interactive regression-based analysis of large feature sets with respect to a disease.

  10. 3D EFT imaging with planar electrode array: Numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuykin, T.; Korjenevsky, A.

    2010-04-01

    Electric field tomography (EFT) is the new modality of the quasistatic electromagnetic sounding of conductive media recently investigated theoretically and realized experimentally. The demonstrated results pertain to 2D imaging with circular or linear arrays of electrodes (and the linear array provides quite poor quality of imaging). In many applications 3D imaging is essential or can increase value of the investigation significantly. In this report we present the first results of numerical simulation of the EFT imaging system with planar array of electrodes which allows 3D visualization of the subsurface conductivity distribution. The geometry of the system is similar to the geometry of our EIT breast imaging system providing 3D conductivity imaging in form of cross-sections set with different depth from the surface. The EFT principle of operation and reconstruction approach differs from the EIT system significantly. So the results of numerical simulation are important to estimate if comparable quality of imaging is possible with the new contactless method. The EFT forward problem is solved using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method for the 8×8 square electrodes array. The calculated results of measurements are used then to reconstruct conductivity distributions by the filtered backprojections along electric field lines. The reconstructed images of the simple test objects are presented.

  11. 3-D Display Of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Of The Spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Alan C.; Kim, Yongmin; Haralick, Robert M.; Anderson, Paul A.; Johnson, Roger H.; DeSoto, Larry A.

    1988-06-01

    The original data is produced through standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures with a surface coil applied to the lower back of a normal human subject. The 3-D spine image data consists of twenty-six contiguous slices with 256 x 256 pixels per slice. Two methods for visualization of the 3-D spine are explored. One method utilizes a verifocal mirror system which creates a true 3-D virtual picture of the object. Another method uses a standard high resolution monitor to simultaneously show the three orthogonal sections which intersect at any user-selected point within the object volume. We discuss the application of these systems in assessment of low back pain.

  12. 3D imaging lidar for lunar robotic exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Marwan W.; Tripp, Jeffrey W.

    2009-05-01

    Part of the requirements of the future Constellation program is to optimize lunar surface operations and reduce hazards to astronauts. Toward this end, many robotic platforms, rovers in specific, are being sought to carry out a multitude of missions involving potential EVA sites survey, surface reconnaissance, path planning and obstacle detection and classification. 3D imaging lidar technology provides an enabling capability that allows fast, accurate and detailed collection of three-dimensional information about the rover's environment. The lidar images the region of interest by scanning a laser beam and measuring the pulse time-of-flight and the bearing. The accumulated set of laser ranges and bearings constitutes the threedimensional image. As part of the ongoing NASA Ames research center activities in lunar robotics, the utility of 3D imaging lidar was evaluated by testing Optech's ILRIS-3D lidar on board the K-10 Red rover during the recent Human - Robotics Systems (HRS) field trails in Lake Moses, WA. This paper examines the results of the ILRIS-3D trials, presents the data obtained and discusses its application in lunar surface robotic surveying and scouting.

  13. 3D FaceCam: a fast and accurate 3D facial imaging device for biometrics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jason; Zhuang, Ping; May, Patrick; Yi, Steven; Tunnell, David

    2004-08-01

    Human faces are fundamentally three-dimensional (3D) objects, and each face has its unique 3D geometric profile. The 3D geometric features of a human face can be used, together with its 2D texture, for rapid and accurate face recognition purposes. Due to the lack of low-cost and robust 3D sensors and effective 3D facial recognition (FR) algorithms, almost all existing FR systems use 2D face images. Genex has developed 3D solutions that overcome the inherent problems in 2D while also addressing limitations in other 3D alternatives. One important aspect of our solution is a unique 3D camera (the 3D FaceCam) that combines multiple imaging sensors within a single compact device to provide instantaneous, ear-to-ear coverage of a human face. This 3D camera uses three high-resolution CCD sensors and a color encoded pattern projection system. The RGB color information from each pixel is used to compute the range data and generate an accurate 3D surface map. The imaging system uses no moving parts and combines multiple 3D views to provide detailed and complete 3D coverage of the entire face. Images are captured within a fraction of a second and full-frame 3D data is produced within a few seconds. This described method provides much better data coverage and accuracy in feature areas with sharp features or details (such as the nose and eyes). Using this 3D data, we have been able to demonstrate that a 3D approach can significantly improve the performance of facial recognition. We have conducted tests in which we have varied the lighting conditions and angle of image acquisition in the "field." These tests have shown that the matching results are significantly improved when enrolling a 3D image rather than a single 2D image. With its 3D solutions, Genex is working toward unlocking the promise of powerful 3D FR and transferring FR from a lab technology into a real-world biometric solution.

  14. Integration of real-time 3D image acquisition and multiview 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Li, Wei; Wang, Jingyi; Liu, Yongchun

    2014-03-01

    Seamless integration of 3D acquisition and 3D display systems offers enhanced experience in 3D visualization of the real world objects or scenes. The vivid representation of captured 3D objects displayed on a glasses-free 3D display screen could bring the realistic viewing experience to viewers as if they are viewing real-world scene. Although the technologies in 3D acquisition and 3D display have advanced rapidly in recent years, effort is lacking in studying the seamless integration of these two different aspects of 3D technologies. In this paper, we describe our recent progress on integrating a light-field 3D acquisition system and an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display for real-time light field capture and display. This paper focuses on both the architecture design and the implementation of the hardware and the software of this integrated 3D system. A prototype of the integrated 3D system is built to demonstrate the real-time 3D acquisition and 3D display capability of our proposed system.

  15. Practical pseudo-3D registration for large tomographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuan; Laperre, Kjell; Sasov, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Image registration is a powerful tool in various tomographic applications. Our main focus is on microCT applications in which samples/animals can be scanned multiple times under different conditions or at different time points. For this purpose, a registration tool capable of handling fairly large volumes has been developed, using a novel pseudo-3D method to achieve fast and interactive registration with simultaneous 3D visualization. To reduce computation complexity in 3D registration, we decompose it into several 2D registrations, which are applied to the orthogonal views (transaxial, sagittal and coronal) sequentially and iteratively. After registration in each view, the next view is retrieved with the new transformation matrix for registration. This reduces the computation complexity significantly. For rigid transform, we only need to search for 3 parameters (2 shifts, 1 rotation) in each of the 3 orthogonal views instead of 6 (3 shifts, 3 rotations) for full 3D volume. In addition, the amount of voxels involved is also significantly reduced. For the proposed pseudo-3D method, image-based registration is employed, with Sum of Square Difference (SSD) as the similarity measure. The searching engine is Powell's conjugate direction method. In this paper, only rigid transform is used. However, it can be extended to affine transform by adding scaling and possibly shearing to the transform model. We have noticed that more information can be used in the 2D registration if Maximum Intensity Projections (MIP) or Parallel Projections (PP) is used instead of the orthogonal views. Also, other similarity measures, such as covariance or mutual information, can be easily incorporated. The initial evaluation on microCT data shows very promising results. Two application examples are shown: dental samples before and after treatment and structural changes in materials before and after compression. Evaluation on registration accuracy between pseudo-3D method and true 3D method has

  16. Optimizing 3D image quality and performance for stereoscopic gaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flack, Julien; Sanderson, Hugh; Pegg, Steven; Kwok, Simon; Paterson, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    The successful introduction of stereoscopic TV systems, such as Samsung's 3D Ready Plasma, requires high quality 3D content to be commercially available to the consumer. Console and PC games provide the most readily accessible source of high quality 3D content. This paper describes innovative developments in a generic, PC-based game driver architecture that addresses the two key issues affecting 3D gaming: quality and speed. At the heart of the quality issue are the same considerations that studios face producing stereoscopic renders from CG movies: how best to perform the mapping from a geometric CG environment into the stereoscopic display volume. The major difference being that for game drivers this mapping cannot be choreographed by hand but must be automatically calculated in real-time without significant impact on performance. Performance is a critical issue when dealing with gaming. Stereoscopic gaming has traditionally meant rendering the scene twice with the associated performance overhead. An alternative approach is to render the scene from one virtual camera position and use information from the z-buffer to generate a stereo pair using Depth-Image-Based Rendering (DIBR). We analyze this trade-off in more detail and provide some results relating to both 3D image quality and render performance.

  17. Noninvasive computational imaging of cardiac electrophysiology for 3-D infarct.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linwei; Wong, Ken C L; Zhang, Heye; Liu, Huafeng; Shi, Pengcheng

    2011-04-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) creates electrophysiologically altered substrates that are responsible for ventricular arrhythmias, such as tachycardia and fibrillation. The presence, size, location, and composition of infarct scar bear significant prognostic and therapeutic implications for individual subjects. We have developed a statistical physiological model-constrained framework that uses noninvasive body-surface-potential data and tomographic images to estimate subject-specific transmembrane-potential (TMP) dynamics inside the 3-D myocardium. In this paper, we adapt this framework for the purpose of noninvasive imaging, detection, and quantification of 3-D scar mass for postMI patients: the framework requires no prior knowledge of MI and converges to final subject-specific TMP estimates after several passes of estimation with intermediate feedback; based on the primary features of the estimated spatiotemporal TMP dynamics, we provide 3-D imaging of scar tissue and quantitative evaluation of scar location and extent. Phantom experiments were performed on a computational model of realistic heart-torso geometry, considering 87 transmural infarct scars of different sizes and locations inside the myocardium, and 12 compact infarct scars (extent between 10% and 30%) at different transmural depths. Real-data experiments were carried out on BSP and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from four postMI patients, validated by gold standards and existing results. This framework shows unique advantage of noninvasive, quantitative, computational imaging of subject-specific TMP dynamics and infarct mass of the 3-D myocardium, with the potential to reflect details in the spatial structure and tissue composition/heterogeneity of 3-D infarct scar.

  18. Refraction Correction in 3D Transcranial Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Brooks D.; Smith, Stephen W.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first correction of refraction in three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging using an iterative approach that traces propagation paths through a two-layer planar tissue model, applying Snell’s law in 3D. This approach is applied to real-time 3D transcranial ultrasound imaging by precomputing delays offline for several skull thicknesses, allowing the user to switch between three sets of delays for phased array imaging at the push of a button. Simulations indicate that refraction correction may be expected to increase sensitivity, reduce beam steering errors, and partially restore lost spatial resolution, with the greatest improvements occurring at the largest steering angles. Distorted images of cylindrical lesions were created by imaging through an acrylic plate in a tissue-mimicking phantom. As a result of correcting for refraction, lesions were restored to 93.6% of their original diameter in the lateral direction and 98.1% of their original shape along the long axis of the cylinders. In imaging two healthy volunteers, the mean brightness increased by 8.3% and showed no spatial dependency. PMID:24275538

  19. 3D Imaging of Density Gradients Using Plenoptic BOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemkowsky, Jenna; Clifford, Chris; Fahringer, Timothy; Thurow, Brian

    2016-11-01

    The combination of background oriented schlieren (BOS) and a plenoptic camera, termed Plenoptic BOS, is explored through two proof-of-concept experiments. The motivation of this work is to provide a 3D technique capable of observing density disturbances. BOS uses the relationship between density and refractive index gradients to observe an apparent shift in a patterned background through image comparison. Conventional BOS systems acquire a single line-of-sight measurement, and require complex configurations to obtain 3D measurements, which are not always conducive to experimental facilities. Plenoptic BOS exploits the plenoptic camera's ability to generate multiple perspective views and refocused images from a single raw plenoptic image during post processing. Using such capabilities, with regards to BOS, provides multiple line-of-sight measurements of density disturbances, which can be collectively used to generate refocused BOS images. Such refocused images allow the position of density disturbances to be qualitatively and quantitatively determined. The image that provides the sharpest density gradient signature corresponds to a specific depth. These results offer motivation to advance Plenoptic BOS with an ultimate goal of reconstructing a 3D density field.

  20. Enhanced 3D fluorescence live cell imaging on nanoplasmonic substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan Gartia, Manas; Hsiao, Austin; Sivaguru, Mayandi; Chen, Yi; Logan Liu, G.

    2011-09-01

    We have created a randomly distributed nanocone substrate on silicon coated with silver for surface-plasmon-enhanced fluorescence detection and 3D cell imaging. Optical characterization of the nanocone substrate showed it can support several plasmonic modes (in the 300-800 nm wavelength range) that can be coupled to a fluorophore on the surface of the substrate, which gives rise to the enhanced fluorescence. Spectral analysis suggests that a nanocone substrate can create more excitons and shorter lifetime in the model fluorophore Rhodamine 6G (R6G) due to plasmon resonance energy transfer from the nanocone substrate to the nearby fluorophore. We observed three-dimensional fluorescence enhancement on our substrate shown from the confocal fluorescence imaging of chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells grown on the substrate. The fluorescence intensity from the fluorophores bound on the cell membrane was amplified more than 100-fold as compared to that on a glass substrate. We believe that strong scattering within the nanostructured area coupled with random scattering inside the cell resulted in the observed three-dimensional enhancement in fluorescence with higher photostability on the substrate surface.

  1. Image-Based 3d Reconstruction Data as AN Analysis and Documentation Tool for Architects: the Case of Plaka Bridge in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouimtzoglou, T.; Stathopoulou, E. K.; Agrafiotis, P.; Georgopoulos, A.

    2017-02-01

    Μodern advances in the field of image-based 3D reconstruction of complex architectures are valuable tools that may offer the researchers great possibilities integrating the use of such procedures in their studies. In the same way that photogrammetry was a well-known useful tool among the cultural heritage community for years, the state of the art reconstruction techniques generate complete and easy to use 3D data, thus enabling engineers, architects and other cultural heritage experts to approach their case studies in an exhaustive and efficient way. The generated data can be a valuable and accurate basis upon which further plans and studies will be drafted. These and other aspects of the use of image-based 3D data for architectural studies are to be presented and analysed in this paper, based on the experience gained from a specific case study, the Plaka Bridge. This historic structure is of particular interest, as it was recently lost due to extreme weather conditions and serves as a strong proof that preventive actions are of utmost importance in order to preserve our common past.

  2. 3D Seismic Imaging over a Potential Collapse Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritto, Roland; O'Connell, Daniel; Elobaid Elnaiem, Ali; Mohamed, Fathelrahman; Sadooni, Fadhil

    2016-04-01

    The Middle-East has seen a recent boom in construction including the planning and development of complete new sub-sections of metropolitan areas. Before planning and construction can commence, however, the development areas need to be investigated to determine their suitability for the planned project. Subsurface parameters such as the type of material (soil/rock), thickness of top soil or rock layers, depth and elastic parameters of basement, for example, comprise important information needed before a decision concerning the suitability of the site for construction can be made. A similar problem arises in environmental impact studies, when subsurface parameters are needed to assess the geological heterogeneity of the subsurface. Environmental impact studies are typically required for each construction project, particularly for the scale of the aforementioned building boom in the Middle East. The current study was conducted in Qatar at the location of a future highway interchange to evaluate a suite of 3D seismic techniques in their effectiveness to interrogate the subsurface for the presence of karst-like collapse structures. The survey comprised an area of approximately 10,000 m2 and consisted of 550 source- and 192 receiver locations. The seismic source was an accelerated weight drop while the geophones consisted of 3-component 10 Hz velocity sensors. At present, we analyzed over 100,000 P-wave phase arrivals and performed high-resolution 3-D tomographic imaging of the shallow subsurface. Furthermore, dispersion analysis of recorded surface waves will be performed to obtain S-wave velocity profiles of the subsurface. Both results, in conjunction with density estimates, will be utilized to determine the elastic moduli of the subsurface rock layers.

  3. 1024 pixels single photon imaging array for 3D ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellisai, S.; Guerrieri, F.; Tisa, S.; Zappa, F.; Tosi, A.; Giudice, A.

    2011-01-01

    Three dimensions (3D) acquisition systems are driving applications in many research field. Nowadays 3D acquiring systems are used in a lot of applications, such as cinema industry or in automotive (for active security systems). Depending on the application, systems present different features, for example color sensitivity, bi-dimensional image resolution, distance measurement accuracy and acquisition frame rate. The system we developed acquires 3D movie using indirect Time of Flight (iTOF), starting from phase delay measurement of a sinusoidally modulated light. The system acquires live movie with a frame rate up to 50frame/s in a range distance between 10 cm up to 7.5 m.

  4. The agreement between 3D, standard 2D and triplane 2D speckle tracking: effects of image quality and 3D volume rate.

    PubMed

    Trache, Tudor; Stöbe, Stephan; Tarr, Adrienn; Pfeiffer, Dietrich; Hagendorff, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    Comparison of 3D and 2D speckle tracking performed on standard 2D and triplane 2D datasets of normal and pathological left ventricular (LV) wall-motion patterns with a focus on the effect that 3D volume rate (3DVR), image quality and tracking artifacts have on the agreement between 2D and 3D speckle tracking. 37 patients with normal LV function and 18 patients with ischaemic wall-motion abnormalities underwent 2D and 3D echocardiography, followed by offline speckle tracking measurements. The values of 3D global, regional and segmental strain were compared with the standard 2D and triplane 2D strain values. Correlation analysis with the LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was also performed. The 3D and 2D global strain values correlated good in both normally and abnormally contracting hearts, though systematic differences between the two methods were observed. Of the 3D strain parameters, the area strain showed the best correlation with the LVEF. The numerical agreement of 3D and 2D analyses varied significantly with the volume rate and image quality of the 3D datasets. The highest correlation between 2D and 3D peak systolic strain values was found between 3D area and standard 2D longitudinal strain. Regional wall-motion abnormalities were similarly detected by 2D and 3D speckle tracking. 2DST of triplane datasets showed similar results to those of conventional 2D datasets. 2D and 3D speckle tracking similarly detect normal and pathological wall-motion patterns. Limited image quality has a significant impact on the agreement between 3D and 2D numerical strain values.

  5. Visualization and Analysis of 3D Gene Expression Data

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E. Wes; Rubel, Oliver; Weber, Gunther H.; Hamann, Bernd; Hagen, Hans

    2007-10-25

    Recent methods for extracting precise measurements ofspatial gene expression patterns from three-dimensional (3D) image dataopens the way for new analysis of the complex gene regulatory networkscontrolling animal development. To support analysis of this novel andhighly complex data we developed PointCloudXplore (PCX), an integratedvisualization framework that supports dedicated multi-modal, physical andinformation visualization views along with algorithms to aid in analyzingthe relationships between gene expression levels. Using PCX, we helpedour science stakeholders to address many questions in 3D gene expressionresearch, e.g., to objectively define spatial pattern boundaries andtemporal profiles of genes and to analyze how mRNA patterns arecontrolled by their regulatory transcription factors.

  6. 3D Soil Images Structure Quantification using Relative Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarquis, A. M.; Gonzalez-Nieto, P. L.; Bird, N. R. A.

    2012-04-01

    Soil voids manifest the cumulative effect of local pedogenic processes and ultimately influence soil behavior - especially as it pertains to aeration and hydrophysical properties. Because of the relatively weak attenuation of X-rays by air, compared with liquids or solids, non-disruptive CT scanning has become a very attractive tool for generating three-dimensional imagery of soil voids. One of the main steps involved in this analysis is the thresholding required to transform the original (greyscale) images into the type of binary representation (e.g., pores in white, solids in black) needed for fractal analysis or simulation with Lattice-Boltzmann models (Baveye et al., 2010). The objective of the current work is to apply an innovative approach to quantifying soil voids and pore networks in original X-ray CT imagery using Relative Entropy (Bird et al., 2006; Tarquis et al., 2008). These will be illustrated using typical imagery representing contrasting soil structures. Particular attention will be given to the need to consider the full 3D context of the CT imagery, as well as scaling issues, in the application and interpretation of this index.

  7. 3D lidar imaging for detecting and understanding plant responses and canopy structure.

    PubMed

    Omasa, Kenji; Hosoi, Fumiki; Konishi, Atsumi

    2007-01-01

    Understanding and diagnosing plant responses to stress will benefit greatly from three-dimensional (3D) measurement and analysis of plant properties because plant responses are strongly related to their 3D structures. Light detection and ranging (lidar) has recently emerged as a powerful tool for direct 3D measurement of plant structure. Here the use of 3D lidar imaging to estimate plant properties such as canopy height, canopy structure, carbon stock, and species is demonstrated, and plant growth and shape responses are assessed by reviewing the development of lidar systems and their applications from the leaf level to canopy remote sensing. In addition, the recent creation of accurate 3D lidar images combined with natural colour, chlorophyll fluorescence, photochemical reflectance index, and leaf temperature images is demonstrated, thereby providing information on responses of pigments, photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal opening, and shape to environmental stresses; these data can be integrated with 3D images of the plants using computer graphics techniques. Future lidar applications that provide more accurate dynamic estimation of various plant properties should improve our understanding of plant responses to stress and of interactions between plants and their environment. Moreover, combining 3D lidar with other passive and active imaging techniques will potentially improve the accuracy of airborne and satellite remote sensing, and make it possible to analyse 3D information on ecophysiological responses and levels of various substances in agricultural and ecological applications and in observations of the global biosphere.

  8. Large distance 3D imaging of hidden objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozban, Daniel; Aharon Akram, Avihai; Kopeika, N. S.; Abramovich, A.; Levanon, Assaf

    2014-06-01

    Imaging systems in millimeter waves are required for applications in medicine, communications, homeland security, and space technology. This is because there is no known ionization hazard for biological tissue, and atmospheric attenuation in this range of the spectrum is low compared to that of infrared and optical rays. The lack of an inexpensive room temperature detector makes it difficult to give a suitable real time implement for the above applications. A 3D MMW imaging system based on chirp radar was studied previously using a scanning imaging system of a single detector. The system presented here proposes to employ a chirp radar method with Glow Discharge Detector (GDD) Focal Plane Array (FPA of plasma based detectors) using heterodyne detection. The intensity at each pixel in the GDD FPA yields the usual 2D image. The value of the I-F frequency yields the range information at each pixel. This will enable 3D MMW imaging. In this work we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of implementing an imaging system based on radar principles and FPA of inexpensive detectors. This imaging system is shown to be capable of imaging objects from distances of at least 10 meters.

  9. Interactive 2D to 3D stereoscopic image synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Mark H.; Lipton, Lenny

    2005-03-01

    Advances in stereoscopic display technologies, graphic card devices, and digital imaging algorithms have opened up new possibilities in synthesizing stereoscopic images. The power of today"s DirectX/OpenGL optimized graphics cards together with adapting new and creative imaging tools found in software products such as Adobe Photoshop, provide a powerful environment for converting planar drawings and photographs into stereoscopic images. The basis for such a creative process is the focus of this paper. This article presents a novel technique, which uses advanced imaging features and custom Windows-based software that utilizes the Direct X 9 API to provide the user with an interactive stereo image synthesizer. By creating an accurate and interactive world scene with moveable and flexible depth map altered textured surfaces, perspective stereoscopic cameras with both visible frustums and zero parallax planes, a user can precisely model a virtual three-dimensional representation of a real-world scene. Current versions of Adobe Photoshop provide a creative user with a rich assortment of tools needed to highlight elements of a 2D image, simulate hidden areas, and creatively shape them for a 3D scene representation. The technique described has been implemented as a Photoshop plug-in and thus allows for a seamless transition of these 2D image elements into 3D surfaces, which are subsequently rendered to create stereoscopic views.

  10. Automated reconstruction of 3D scenes from sequences of images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollefeys, M.; Koch, R.; Vergauwen, M.; Van Gool, L.

    Modelling of 3D objects from image sequences is a challenging problem and has been an important research topic in the areas of photogrammetry and computer vision for many years. In this paper, a system is presented which automatically extracts a textured 3D surface model from a sequence of images of a scene. The system can deal with unknown camera settings. In addition, the parameters of this camera are allowed to change during acquisition (e.g., by zooming or focusing). No prior knowledge about the scene is necessary to build the 3D models. Therefore, this system offers a high degree of flexibility. The system is based on state-of-the-art algorithms recently developed in computer vision. The 3D modelling task is decomposed into a number of successive steps. Gradually, more knowledge of the scene and the camera setup is retrieved. At this point, the obtained accuracy is not yet at the level required for most metrology applications, but the visual quality is very convincing. This system has been applied to a number of applications in archaeology. The Roman site of Sagalassos (southwest Turkey) was used as a test case to illustrate the potential of this new approach.

  11. 3D imaging of the mesospheric emissive layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadjib Kouahla, Mohamed; Faivre, Michael; Moreels, Guy; Clairemidi, Jacques; Mougin-Sisini, Davy; Meriwether, John W.; Lehmacher, Gerald A.; Vidal, Erick; Veliz, Oskar

    A new and original stereo-imaging method is introduced to measure the altitude of the OH airglow layer and provide a 3D map of the altitude of the layer centroid. Near-IR photographs of the layer are taken at two sites distant of 645 km. Each photograph is processed in order to invert the perspective effect and provide a satellite-type view of the layer. When superposed, the two views present a common diamond-shaped area. Pairs of matched points that correspond to a physical emissive point in the common area are identified in calculating a normalized crosscorrelation coefficient. This method is suitable for obtaining 3D representations in the case of low-contrast objects. An observational campaign was conducted in July 2006 in Peru. The images were taken simultaneously at Cerro Cosmos (12° 09' 08.2" S, 75° 33' 49.3" W, altitude 4630 m) close to Huancayo and Cerro Verde Tellolo (16° 33' 17.6" S, 71° 39' 59.4" W, altitude 2330 m) close to Arequipa. 3D maps of the layer surface are retrieved. They are compared with pseudo-relief intensity maps of the same region. The mean altitude of the emission barycenter is located at 87.1 km on July 26 and 89.5 km on July 28. Comparable relief wavy features appear in the 3D and intensity maps.

  12. Linear tracking for 3-D medical ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qing-Hua; Yang, Zhao; Hu, Wei; Jin, Lian-Wen; Wei, Gang; Li, Xuelong

    2013-12-01

    As the clinical application grows, there is a rapid technical development of 3-D ultrasound imaging. Compared with 2-D ultrasound imaging, 3-D ultrasound imaging can provide improved qualitative and quantitative information for various clinical applications. In this paper, we proposed a novel tracking method for a freehand 3-D ultrasound imaging system with improved portability, reduced degree of freedom, and cost. We designed a sliding track with a linear position sensor attached, and it transmitted positional data via a wireless communication module based on Bluetooth, resulting in a wireless spatial tracking modality. A traditional 2-D ultrasound probe fixed to the position sensor on the sliding track was used to obtain real-time B-scans, and the positions of the B-scans were simultaneously acquired when moving the probe along the track in a freehand manner. In the experiments, the proposed method was applied to ultrasound phantoms and real human tissues. The results demonstrated that the new system outperformed a previously developed freehand system based on a traditional six-degree-of-freedom spatial sensor in phantom and in vivo studies, indicating its merit in clinical applications for human tissues and organs.

  13. A software tool for 3D dose verification and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sa'd, M. Al; Graham, J.; Liney, G. P.

    2013-06-01

    The main recent developments in radiotherapy have focused on improved treatment techniques in order to generate further significant improvements in patient prognosis. There is now an internationally recognised need to improve 3D verification of highly conformal radiotherapy treatments. This is because of the very high dose gradients used in modern treatment techniques, which can result in a small error in the spatial dose distribution leading to a serious complication. In order to gain the full benefits of using 3D dosimetric technologies (such as gel dosimetry), it is vital to use 3D evaluation methods and algorithms. We present in this paper a software solution that provides a comprehensive 3D dose evaluation and analysis. The software is applied to gel dosimetry, which is based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a read-out method. The software can also be used to compare any two dose distributions, such as two distributions planned using different methods of treatment planning systems, or different dose calculation algorithms.

  14. An accurate multimodal 3-D vessel segmentation method based on brightness variations on OCT layers and curvelet domain fundus image analysis.

    PubMed

    Kafieh, Raheleh; Rabbani, Hossein; Hajizadeh, Fedra; Ommani, Mohammadreza

    2013-10-01

    This paper proposes a multimodal approach for vessel segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography (OCT) slices along with the fundus image. The method is comprised of two separate stages; the first step is 2-D segmentation of blood vessels in curvelet domain, enhanced by taking advantage of vessel information in crossing OCT slices (named feedback procedure), and improved by suppressing the false positives around the optic nerve head. The proposed method for vessel localization of OCT slices is also enhanced utilizing the fact that retinal nerve fiber layer becomes thicker in the presence of the blood vessels. The second stage of this method is axial localization of the vessels in OCT slices and 3-D reconstruction of the blood vessels. Twenty-four macular spectral 3-D OCT scans of 16 normal subjects were acquired using a Heidelberg HRA OCT scanner. Each dataset consisted of a scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) image and limited number of OCT scans with size of 496 × 512 (namely, for a data with 19 selected OCT slices, the whole data size was 496 × 512 × 19). The method is developed with least complicated algorithms and the results show considerable improvement in accuracy of vessel segmentation over similar methods to produce a local accuracy of 0.9632 in area of SLO, covered with OCT slices, and the overall accuracy of 0.9467 in the whole SLO image. The results are also demonstrative of a direct relation between the overall accuracy and percentage of SLO coverage by OCT slices.

  15. Validation of 3D ultrasound: CT registration of prostate images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firle, Evelyn A.; Wesarg, Stefan; Karangelis, Grigoris; Dold, Christian

    2003-05-01

    All over the world 20% of men are expected to develop prostate cancer sometime in his life. In addition to surgery - being the traditional treatment for cancer - the radiation treatment is getting more popular. The most interesting radiation treatment regarding prostate cancer is Brachytherapy radiation procedure. For the safe delivery of that therapy imaging is critically important. In several cases where a CT device is available a combination of the information provided by CT and 3D Ultrasound (U/S) images offers advantages in recognizing the borders of the lesion and delineating the region of treatment. For these applications the CT and U/S scans should be registered and fused in a multi-modal dataset. Purpose of the present development is a registration tool (registration, fusion and validation) for available CT volumes with 3D U/S images of the same anatomical region, i.e. the prostate. The combination of these two imaging modalities interlinks the advantages of the high-resolution CT imaging and low cost real-time U/S imaging and offers a multi-modality imaging environment for further target and anatomy delineation. This tool has been integrated into the visualization software "InViVo" which has been developed over several years in Fraunhofer IGD in Darmstadt.

  16. Automated 3D renal segmentation based on image partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeghiazaryan, Varduhi; Voiculescu, Irina D.

    2016-03-01

    Despite several decades of research into segmentation techniques, automated medical image segmentation is barely usable in a clinical context, and still at vast user time expense. This paper illustrates unsupervised organ segmentation through the use of a novel automated labelling approximation algorithm followed by a hypersurface front propagation method. The approximation stage relies on a pre-computed image partition forest obtained directly from CT scan data. We have implemented all procedures to operate directly on 3D volumes, rather than slice-by-slice, because our algorithms are dimensionality-independent. The results picture segmentations which identify kidneys, but can easily be extrapolated to other body parts. Quantitative analysis of our automated segmentation compared against hand-segmented gold standards indicates an average Dice similarity coefficient of 90%. Results were obtained over volumes of CT data with 9 kidneys, computing both volume-based similarity measures (such as the Dice and Jaccard coefficients, true positive volume fraction) and size-based measures (such as the relative volume difference). The analysis considered both healthy and diseased kidneys, although extreme pathological cases were excluded from the overall count. Such cases are difficult to segment both manually and automatically due to the large amplitude of Hounsfield unit distribution in the scan, and the wide spread of the tumorous tissue inside the abdomen. In the case of kidneys that have maintained their shape, the similarity range lies around the values obtained for inter-operator variability. Whilst the procedure is fully automated, our tools also provide a light level of manual editing.

  17. Getting in touch--3D printing in forensic imaging.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Lars Chr; Thali, Michael J; Ross, Steffen

    2011-09-10

    With the increasing use of medical imaging in forensics, as well as the technological advances in rapid prototyping, we suggest combining these techniques to generate displays of forensic findings. We used computed tomography (CT), CT angiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surface scanning with photogrammetry in conjunction with segmentation techniques to generate 3D polygon meshes. Based on these data sets, a 3D printer created colored models of the anatomical structures. Using this technique, we could create models of bone fractures, vessels, cardiac infarctions, ruptured organs as well as bitemark wounds. The final models are anatomically accurate, fully colored representations of bones, vessels and soft tissue, and they demonstrate radiologically visible pathologies. The models are more easily understood by laypersons than volume rendering or 2D reconstructions. Therefore, they are suitable for presentations in courtrooms and for educational purposes.

  18. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  19. Joint calibration of 3D resist image and CDSEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C. S.; He, Y. Y.; Tang, Y. P.; Chang, Y. T.; Huang, W. C.; Liu, R. G.; Gau, T. S.

    2013-04-01

    Traditionally, an optical proximity correction model is to evaluate the resist image at a specific depth within the photoresist and then extract the resist contours from the image. Calibration is generally implemented by comparing resist contours with the critical dimensions (CD). The wafer CD is usually collected by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), which evaluates the CD based on some criterion that is a function of gray level, differential signal, threshold or other parameters set by the SEM. However, the criterion does not reveal which depth the CD is obtained at. This depth inconsistency between modeling and SEM makes the model calibration difficult for low k1 images. In this paper, the vertical resist profile is obtained by modifying the model from planar (2D) to quasi-3D approach and comparing the CD from this new model with SEM CD. For this quasi-3D model, the photoresist diffusion along the depth of the resist is considered and the 3D photoresist contours are evaluated. The performance of this new model is studied and is better than the 2D model.

  20. Digital acquisition system for high-speed 3-D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yafuso, Eiji

    1997-11-01

    High-speed digital three-dimensional (3-D) imagery is possible using multiple independent charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras with sequentially triggered acquisition and individual field storage capability. The system described here utilizes sixteen independent cameras, providing versatility in configuration and image acquisition. By aligning the cameras in nearly coincident lines-of-sight, a sixteen frame two-dimensional (2-D) sequence can be captured. The delays can be individually adjusted lo yield a greater number of acquired frames during the more rapid segments of the event. Additionally, individual integration periods may be adjusted to ensure adequate radiometric response while minimizing image blur. An alternative alignment and triggering scheme arranges the cameras into two angularly separated banks of eight cameras each. By simultaneously triggering correlated stereo pairs, an eight-frame sequence of stereo images may be captured. In the first alignment scheme the camera lines-of-sight cannot be made precisely coincident. Thus representation of the data as a monocular sequence introduces the issue of independent camera coordinate registration with the real scene. This issue arises more significantly using the stereo pair method to reconstruct quantitative 3-D spatial information of the event as a function of time. The principal development here will be the derivation and evaluation of a solution transform and its inverse for the digital data which will yield a 3-D spatial mapping as a function of time.

  1. Discrete Method of Images for 3D Radio Propagation Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Roman

    2016-09-01

    Discretization by rasterization is introduced into the method of images (MI) in the context of 3D deterministic radio propagation modeling as a way to exploit spatial coherence of electromagnetic propagation for fine-grained parallelism. Traditional algebraic treatment of bounding regions and surfaces is replaced by computer graphics rendering of 3D reflections and double refractions while building the image tree. The visibility of reception points and surfaces is also resolved by shader programs. The proposed rasterization is shown to be of comparable run time to that of the fundamentally parallel shooting and bouncing rays. The rasterization does not affect the signal evaluation backtracking step, thus preserving its advantage over the brute force ray-tracing methods in terms of accuracy. Moreover, the rendering resolution may be scaled back for a given level of scenario detail with only marginal impact on the image tree size. This allows selection of scene optimized execution parameters for faster execution, giving the method a competitive edge. The proposed variant of MI can be run on any GPU that supports real-time 3D graphics.

  2. Fast 3D fluid registration of brain magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leporé, Natasha; Chou, Yi-Yu; Lopez, Oscar L.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Becker, James T.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2008-03-01

    Fluid registration is widely used in medical imaging to track anatomical changes, to correct image distortions, and to integrate multi-modality data. Fluid mappings guarantee that the template image deforms smoothly into the target, without tearing or folding, even when large deformations are required for accurate matching. Here we implemented an intensity-based fluid registration algorithm, accelerated by using a filter designed by Bro-Nielsen and Gramkow. We validated the algorithm on 2D and 3D geometric phantoms using the mean square difference between the final registered image and target as a measure of the accuracy of the registration. In tests on phantom images with different levels of overlap, varying amounts of Gaussian noise, and different intensity gradients, the fluid method outperformed a more commonly used elastic registration method, both in terms of accuracy and in avoiding topological errors during deformation. We also studied the effect of varying the viscosity coefficients in the viscous fluid equation, to optimize registration accuracy. Finally, we applied the fluid registration algorithm to a dataset of 2D binary corpus callosum images and 3D volumetric brain MRIs from 14 healthy individuals to assess its accuracy and robustness.

  3. Integral imaging based 3D display of holographic data.

    PubMed

    Yöntem, Ali Özgür; Onural, Levent

    2012-10-22

    We propose a method and present applications of this method that converts a diffraction pattern into an elemental image set in order to display them on an integral imaging based display setup. We generate elemental images based on diffraction calculations as an alternative to commonly used ray tracing methods. Ray tracing methods do not accommodate the interference and diffraction phenomena. Our proposed method enables us to obtain elemental images from a holographic recording of a 3D object/scene. The diffraction pattern can be either numerically generated data or digitally acquired optical data. The method shows the connection between a hologram (diffraction pattern) and an elemental image set of the same 3D object. We showed three examples, one of which is the digitally captured optical diffraction tomography data of an epithelium cell. We obtained optical reconstructions with our integral imaging display setup where we used a digital lenslet array. We also obtained numerical reconstructions, again by using the diffraction calculations, for comparison. The digital and optical reconstruction results are in good agreement.

  4. A hybrid framework for 3D medical image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Metaxas, Dimitris

    2005-12-01

    In this paper we propose a novel hybrid 3D segmentation framework which combines Gibbs models, marching cubes and deformable models. In the framework, first we construct a new Gibbs model whose energy function is defined on a high order clique system. The new model includes both region and boundary information during segmentation. Next we improve the original marching cubes method to construct 3D meshes from Gibbs models' output. The 3D mesh serves as the initial geometry of the deformable model. Then we deform the deformable model using external image forces so that the model converges to the object surface. We run the Gibbs model and the deformable model recursively by updating the Gibbs model's parameters using the region and boundary information in the deformable model segmentation result. In our approach, the hybrid combination of region-based methods and boundary-based methods results in improved segmentations of complex structures. The benefit of the methodology is that it produces high quality segmentations of 3D structures using little prior information and minimal user intervention. The modules in this segmentation methodology are developed within the context of the Insight ToolKit (ITK). We present experimental segmentation results of brain tumors and evaluate our method by comparing experimental results with expert manual segmentations. The evaluation results show that the methodology achieves high quality segmentation results with computational efficiency. We also present segmentation results of other clinical objects to illustrate the strength of the methodology as a generic segmentation framework.

  5. Pavement cracking measurements using 3D laser-scan images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, W.; Xu, B.

    2013-10-01

    Pavement condition surveying is vital for pavement maintenance programs that ensure ride quality and traffic safety. This paper first introduces an automated pavement inspection system which uses a three-dimensional (3D) camera and a structured laser light to acquire dense transverse profiles of a pavement lane surface when it carries a moving vehicle. After the calibration, the 3D system can yield a depth resolution of 0.5 mm and a transverse resolution of 1.56 mm pixel-1 at 1.4 m camera height from the ground. The scanning rate of the camera can be set to its maximum at 5000 lines s-1, allowing the density of scanned profiles to vary with the vehicle's speed. The paper then illustrates the algorithms that utilize 3D information to detect pavement distress, such as transverse, longitudinal and alligator cracking, and presents the field tests on the system's repeatability when scanning a sample pavement in multiple runs at the same vehicle speed, at different vehicle speeds and under different weather conditions. The results show that this dedicated 3D system can capture accurate pavement images that detail surface distress, and obtain consistent crack measurements in repeated tests and under different driving and lighting conditions.

  6. Comparison of bootstrap resampling methods for 3-D PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Lartizien, C; Aubin, J-B; Buvat, I

    2010-07-01

    Two groups of bootstrap methods have been proposed to estimate the statistical properties of positron emission tomography (PET) images by generating multiple statistically equivalent data sets from few data samples. The first group generates resampled data based on a parametric approach assuming that data from which resampling is performed follows a Poisson distribution while the second group consists of nonparametric approaches. These methods either require a unique original sample or a series of statistically equivalent data that can be list-mode files or sinograms. Previous reports regarding these bootstrap approaches suggest different results. This work compares the accuracy of three of these bootstrap methods for 3-D PET imaging based on simulated data. Two methods are based on a unique file, namely a list-mode based nonparametric (LMNP) method and a sinogram based parametric (SP) method. The third method is a sinogram-based nonparametric (SNP) method. Another original method (extended LMNP) was also investigated, which is an extension of the LMNP methods based on deriving a resampled list-mode file by drawings events from multiple original list-mode files. Our comparison is based on the analysis of the statistical moments estimated on the repeated and resampled data. This includes the probability density function and the moments of order 1 and 2. Results show that the two methods based on multiple original data (SNP and extended LMNP) are the only methods that correctly estimate the statistical parameters. Performances of the LMNP and SP methods are variable. Simulated data used in this study were characterized by a high noise level. Differences among the tested strategies might be reduced with clinical data sets with lower noise.

  7. Virtual image display as a backlight for 3D.

    PubMed

    Travis, Adrian; MacCrann, Niall; Emerton, Neil; Kollin, Joel; Georgiou, Andreas; Lanier, Jaron; Bathiche, Stephen

    2013-07-29

    We describe a device which has the potential to be used both as a virtual image display and as a backlight. The pupil of the emitted light fills the device approximately to its periphery and the collimated emission can be scanned both horizontally and vertically in the manner needed to illuminate an eye in any position. The aim is to reduce the power needed to illuminate a liquid crystal panel but also to enable a smooth transition from 3D to a virtual image as the user nears the screen.

  8. Advances in automated 3-D image analyses of cell populations imaged by confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ancin, H; Roysam, B; Dufresne, T E; Chestnut, M M; Ridder, G M; Szarowski, D H; Turner, J N

    1996-11-01

    Automated three-dimensional (3-D) image analysis methods are presented for rapid and effective analysis of populations of fluorescently labeled cells or nuclei in thick tissue sections that have been imaged three dimensionally using a confocal microscope. The methods presented here greatly improve upon our earlier work (Roysam et al.:J Microsc 173: 115-126, 1994). The principal advances reported are: algorithms for efficient data pre-processing and adaptive segmentation, effective handling of image anisotrophy, and fast 3-D morphological algorithms for separating overlapping or connected clusters utilizing image gradient information whenever available. A particular feature of this method is its ability to separate densely packed and connected clusters of cell nuclei. Some of the challenges overcome in this work include the efficient and effective handling of imaging noise, anisotrophy, and large variations in image parameters such as intensity, object size, and shape. The method is able to handle significant inter-cell, intra-cell, inter-image, and intra-image variations. Studies indicate that this method is rapid, robust, and adaptable. Examples were presented to illustrate the applicability of this approach to analyzing images of nuclei from densely packed regions in thick sections of rat liver, and brain that were labeled with a fluorescent Schiff reagent.

  9. Latest applications of 3D ToF-SIMS bio-imaging.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, John S

    2015-03-10

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is a rapidly developing technique for the characterization of a wide range of materials. Recently, advances in instrumentation and sample preparation approaches have provided the ability to perform 3D molecular imaging experiments. Polyatomic ion beams, such as C60, and gas cluster ion beams, often Arn (n = 500-4000), substantially reduce the subsurface damage accumulation associated with continued bombardment of organic samples with atomic beams. In this review, the capabilities of the technique are discussed and examples of the 3D imaging approach for the analysis of model membrane systems, plant single cell, and tissue samples are presented. Ongoing challenges for 3D ToF-SIMS imaging are also discussed along with recent developments that might offer improved 3D imaging prospects in the near future.

  10. Nonrigid registration and classification of the kidneys in 3D dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Ghafourian, Pegah; Sharma, Puneet; Salman, Khalil; Martin, Diego; Fei, Baowei

    2012-02-01

    We have applied image analysis methods in the assessment of human kidney perfusion based on 3D dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI data. This approach consists of 3D non-rigid image registration of the kidneys and fuzzy C-mean classification of kidney tissues. The proposed registration method reduced motion artifacts in the dynamic images and improved the analysis of kidney compartments (cortex, medulla, and cavities). The dynamic intensity curves show the successive transition of the contrast agent through kidney compartments. The proposed method for motion correction and kidney compartment classification may be used to improve the validity and usefulness of further model-based pharmacokinetic analysis of kidney function.

  11. Automatic structural matching of 3D image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, Svjatoslav; Lutsiv, Vadim; Malyshev, Igor

    2015-10-01

    A new image matching technique is described. It is implemented as an object-independent hierarchical structural juxtaposition algorithm based on an alphabet of simple object-independent contour structural elements. The structural matching applied implements an optimized method of walking through a truncated tree of all possible juxtapositions of two sets of structural elements. The algorithm was initially developed for dealing with 2D images such as the aerospace photographs, and it turned out to be sufficiently robust and reliable for matching successfully the pictures of natural landscapes taken in differing seasons from differing aspect angles by differing sensors (the visible optical, IR, and SAR pictures, as well as the depth maps and geographical vector-type maps). At present (in the reported version), the algorithm is enhanced based on additional use of information on third spatial coordinates of observed points of object surfaces. Thus, it is now capable of matching the images of 3D scenes in the tasks of automatic navigation of extremely low flying unmanned vehicles or autonomous terrestrial robots. The basic principles of 3D structural description and matching of images are described, and the examples of image matching are presented.

  12. Underwater 3d Modeling: Image Enhancement and Point Cloud Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarakinou, I.; Papadimitriou, K.; Georgoula, O.; Patias, P.

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the results of image enhancement and point cloud filtering on the visual and geometric quality of 3D models for the representation of underwater features. Specifically it evaluates the combination of effects from the manual editing of images' radiometry (captured at shallow depths) and the selection of parameters for point cloud definition and mesh building (processed in 3D modeling software). Such datasets, are usually collected by divers, handled by scientists and used for geovisualization purposes. In the presented study, have been created 3D models from three sets of images (seafloor, part of a wreck and a small boat's wreck) captured at three different depths (3.5m, 10m and 14m respectively). Four models have been created from the first dataset (seafloor) in order to evaluate the results from the application of image enhancement techniques and point cloud filtering. The main process for this preliminary study included a) the definition of parameters for the point cloud filtering and the creation of a reference model, b) the radiometric editing of images, followed by the creation of three improved models and c) the assessment of results by comparing the visual and the geometric quality of improved models versus the reference one. Finally, the selected technique is tested on two other data sets in order to examine its appropriateness for different depths (at 10m and 14m) and different objects (part of a wreck and a small boat's wreck) in the context of an ongoing research in the Laboratory of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  13. 2D and 3D MALDI-imaging: conceptual strategies for visualization and data mining.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Herbert; Heldmann, Stefan; Trede, Dennis; Strehlow, Jan; Wirtz, Stefan; Dreher, Wolfgang; Berger, Judith; Oetjen, Janina; Kobarg, Jan Hendrik; Fischer, Bernd; Maass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    3D imaging has a significant impact on many challenges in life sciences, because biology is a 3-dimensional phenomenon. Current 3D imaging-technologies (various types MRI, PET, SPECT) are labeled, i.e. they trace the localization of a specific compound in the body. In contrast, 3D MALDI mass spectrometry-imaging (MALDI-MSI) is a label-free method imaging the spatial distribution of molecular compounds. It complements 3D imaging labeled methods, immunohistochemistry, and genetics-based methods. However, 3D MALDI-MSI cannot tap its full potential due to the lack of statistical methods for analysis and interpretation of large and complex 3D datasets. To overcome this, we established a complete and robust 3D MALDI-MSI pipeline combined with efficient computational data analysis methods for 3D edge preserving image denoising, 3D spatial segmentation as well as finding colocalized m/z values, which will be reviewed here in detail. Furthermore, we explain, why the integration and correlation of the MALDI imaging data with other imaging modalities allows to enhance the interpretation of the molecular data and provides visualization of molecular patterns that may otherwise not be apparent. Therefore, a 3D data acquisition workflow is described generating a set of 3 different dimensional images representing the same anatomies. First, an in-vitro MRI measurement is performed which results in a three-dimensional image modality representing the 3D structure of the measured object. After sectioning the 3D object into N consecutive slices, all N slices are scanned using an optical digital scanner, enabling for performing the MS measurements. Scanning the individual sections results into low-resolution images, which define the base coordinate system for the whole pipeline. The scanned images conclude the information from the spatial (MRI) and the mass spectrometric (MALDI-MSI) dimension and are used for the spatial three-dimensional reconstruction of the object performed by image

  14. 3D Quantitative tumour burden analysis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma before TACE: comparing single-lesion vs. multi-lesion imaging biomarkers as predictors of patient survival

    PubMed Central

    Fleckenstein, Florian N.; Schernthaner, Rüdiger E.; Duran, Rafael; Sohn, Jae Ho; Sahu, Sonia; Zhao, Yan; Hamm, Bernd; Gebauer, Bernhard; Lin, MingDe; Chapiro, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the ability of single- vs. multi-lesion assessment on baseline MRI using 1D- and 3D-based measurements to predict overall survival (OS) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) before transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). Methods This retrospective analysis included 122 patients. A quantitative 3D analysis was performed on baseline MRI to calculate enhancing tumour volume (ETV [cm3]) and enhancing tumour burden (ETB [%]) (ratio between ETV [cm3] and liver volume). Furthermore, enhancing and overall tumour diameters were measured. Patients were stratified into two groups using thresholds derived from the BCLC staging system. Statistical analysis included Kaplan–Meier plots, uni- and multivariate cox proportional hazard ratios (HR) and concordances. Results All methods achieved good separation of the survival curves (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed an HR of 5.2 (95%CI 3.1–8.8, p < 0.001) for ETV [cm3] and HR 6.6 (95% CI 3.7–11.5, p < 0.001) for ETB [%] vs. HR 2.6 (95 %CI 1.2–5.6, p = 0.012) for overall diameter and HR 3.0 (95 % CI 1.5–6.3, p = 0.003) for enhancing diameter. Concordances were highest for ETB [%], with no added predictive power for multi-lesion assessment (difference between concordances not significant). Conclusion 3D quantitative assessment is a stronger predictor of survival as compared to diameter-based measurements. Assessing multiple lesions provides no substantial improvement in predicting OS than evaluating the dominant lesion alone. PMID:26762942

  15. 3D Lunar Terrain Reconstruction from Apollo Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broxton, Michael J.; Nefian, Ara V.; Moratto, Zachary; Kim, Taemin; Lundy, Michael; Segal, Alkeksandr V.

    2009-01-01

    Generating accurate three dimensional planetary models is becoming increasingly important as NASA plans manned missions to return to the Moon in the next decade. This paper describes a 3D surface reconstruction system called the Ames Stereo Pipeline that is designed to produce such models automatically by processing orbital stereo imagery. We discuss two important core aspects of this system: (1) refinement of satellite station positions and pose estimates through least squares bundle adjustment; and (2) a stochastic plane fitting algorithm that generalizes the Lucas-Kanade method for optimal matching between stereo pair images.. These techniques allow us to automatically produce seamless, highly accurate digital elevation models from multiple stereo image pairs while significantly reducing the influence of image noise. Our technique is demonstrated on a set of 71 high resolution scanned images from the Apollo 15 mission

  16. Phase Sensitive Cueing for 3D Objects in Overhead Images

    SciTech Connect

    Paglieroni, D W; Eppler, W G; Poland, D N

    2005-02-18

    A 3D solid model-aided object cueing method that matches phase angles of directional derivative vectors at image pixels to phase angles of vectors normal to projected model edges is described. It is intended for finding specific types of objects at arbitrary position and orientation in overhead images, independent of spatial resolution, obliqueness, acquisition conditions, and type of imaging sensor. It is shown that the phase similarity measure can be efficiently evaluated over all combinations of model position and orientation using the FFT. The highest degree of similarity over all model orientations is captured in a match surface of similarity values vs. model position. Unambiguous peaks in this surface are sorted in descending order of similarity value, and the small image thumbnails that contain them are presented to human analysts for inspection in sorted order.

  17. Evaluation of Kinect 3D Sensor for Healthcare Imaging.

    PubMed

    Pöhlmann, Stefanie T L; Harkness, Elaine F; Taylor, Christopher J; Astley, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Microsoft Kinect is a three-dimensional (3D) sensor originally designed for gaming that has received growing interest as a cost-effective and safe device for healthcare imaging. Recent applications of Kinect in health monitoring, screening, rehabilitation, assistance systems, and intervention support are reviewed here. The suitability of available technologies for healthcare imaging applications is assessed. The performance of Kinect I, based on structured light technology, is compared with that of the more recent Kinect II, which uses time-of-flight measurement, under conditions relevant to healthcare applications. The accuracy, precision, and resolution of 3D images generated with Kinect I and Kinect II are evaluated using flat cardboard models representing different skin colors (pale, medium, and dark) at distances ranging from 0.5 to 1.2 m and measurement angles of up to 75°. Both sensors demonstrated high accuracy (majority of measurements <2 mm) and precision (mean point to plane error <2 mm) at an average resolution of at least 390 points per cm(2). Kinect I is capable of imaging at shorter measurement distances, but Kinect II enables structures angled at over 60° to be evaluated. Kinect II showed significantly higher precision and Kinect I showed significantly higher resolution (both p < 0.001). The choice of object color can influence measurement range and precision. Although Kinect is not a medical imaging device, both sensor generations show performance adequate for a range of healthcare imaging applications. Kinect I is more appropriate for short-range imaging and Kinect II is more appropriate for imaging highly curved surfaces such as the face or breast.

  18. The 3D model control of image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, An H.; Stark, Lawrence

    1989-01-01

    Telerobotics studies remote control of distant robots by a human operator using supervisory or direct control. Even if the robot manipulators has vision or other senses, problems arise involving control, communications, and delay. The communication delays that may be expected with telerobots working in space stations while being controlled from an Earth lab have led to a number of experiments attempting to circumvent the problem. This delay in communication is a main motivating factor in moving from well understood instantaneous hands-on manual control to less well understood supervisory control; the ultimate step would be the realization of a fully autonomous robot. The 3-D model control plays a crucial role in resolving many conflicting image processing problems that are inherent in resolving in the bottom-up approach of most current machine vision processes. The 3-D model control approach is also capable of providing the necessary visual feedback information for both the control algorithms and for the human operator.

  19. 3D Imaging of the OH mesospheric emissive layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouahla, M. N.; Moreels, G.; Faivre, M.; Clairemidi, J.; Meriwether, J. W.; Lehmacher, G. A.; Vidal, E.; Veliz, O.

    2010-01-01

    A new and original stereo imaging method is introduced to measure the altitude of the OH nightglow layer and provide a 3D perspective map of the altitude of the layer centroid. Near-IR photographs of the OH layer are taken at two sites separated by a 645 km distance. Each photograph is processed in order to provide a satellite view of the layer. When superposed, the two views present a common diamond-shaped area. Pairs of matched points that correspond to a physical emissive point in the common area are identified in calculating a normalized cross-correlation coefficient (NCC). This method is suitable for obtaining 3D representations in the case of low-contrast objects. An observational campaign was conducted in July 2006 in Peru. The images were taken simultaneously at Cerro Cosmos (12°09‧08.2″ S, 75°33‧49.3″ W, altitude 4630 m) close to Huancayo and Cerro Verde Tellolo (16°33‧17.6″ S, 71°39‧59.4″ W, altitude 2272 m) close to Arequipa. 3D maps of the layer surface were retrieved and compared with pseudo-relief intensity maps of the same region. The mean altitude of the emission barycenter is located at 86.3 km on July 26. Comparable relief wavy features appear in the 3D and intensity maps. It is shown that the vertical amplitude of the wave system varies as exp (Δz/2H) within the altitude range Δz = 83.5-88.0 km, H being the scale height. The oscillatory kinetic energy at the altitude of the OH layer is comprised between 3 × 10-4 and 5.4 × 10-4 J/m3, which is 2-3 times smaller than the values derived from partial radio wave at 52°N latitude.

  20. 3D seismic imaging on massively parallel computers

    SciTech Connect

    Womble, D.E.; Ober, C.C.; Oldfield, R.

    1997-02-01

    The ability to image complex geologies such as salt domes in the Gulf of Mexico and thrusts in mountainous regions is a key to reducing the risk and cost associated with oil and gas exploration. Imaging these structures, however, is computationally expensive. Datasets can be terabytes in size, and the processing time required for the multiple iterations needed to produce a velocity model can take months, even with the massively parallel computers available today. Some algorithms, such as 3D, finite-difference, prestack, depth migration remain beyond the capacity of production seismic processing. Massively parallel processors (MPPs) and algorithms research are the tools that will enable this project to provide new seismic processing capabilities to the oil and gas industry. The goals of this work are to (1) develop finite-difference algorithms for 3D, prestack, depth migration; (2) develop efficient computational approaches for seismic imaging and for processing terabyte datasets on massively parallel computers; and (3) develop a modular, portable, seismic imaging code.

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Porosity and Transport Properties by FIB-SEM 3D Imaging of a Solder Based Sintered Silver for a New Microelectronic Component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rmili, W.; Vivet, N.; Chupin, S.; Le Bihan, T.; Le Quilliec, G.; Richard, C.

    2016-04-01

    As part of development of a new assembly technology to achieve bonding for an innovative silicon carbide (SiC) power device used in harsh environments, the aim of this study is to compare two silver sintering profiles and then to define the best candidate for die attach material for this new component. To achieve this goal, the solder joints have been characterized in terms of porosity by determination of the morphological characteristics of the material heterogeneities and estimating their thermal and electrical transport properties. The three dimensional (3D) microstructure of sintered silver samples has been reconstructed using a focused ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) tomography technique. The sample preparation and the experimental milling and imaging parameters have been optimized in order to obtain a high quality of 3D reconstruction. Volume fractions and volumetric connectivity of the individual phases (silver and voids) have been determined. Effective thermal and electrical conductivities of the samples and the tortuosity of the silver phase have been also evaluated by solving the diffusive transport equation.

  2. Depth-varying density and organization of chondrocytes in immature and mature bovine articular cartilage assessed by 3d imaging and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jadin, Kyle D.; Wong, Benjamin L.; Bae, Won C.; Li, Kelvin W.; Williamson, Amanda K.; Schumacher, Barbara L.; Price, Jeffrey H.; Sah, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Articular cartilage is a heterogeneous tissue, with cell density and organization varying with depth from the surface. The objectives of the present study were to establish a method for localizing individual cells in three-dimensional (3D) images of cartilage and quantifying depth-associated variation in cellularity and cell organization at different stages of growth. Accuracy of nucleus localization was high, with 99% sensitivity relative to manual localization. Cellularity (million cells per cm3) decreased from 290, 310, and 150 near the articular surface in fetal, calf, and adult samples, respectively, to 120, 110, and 50 at a depth of 1.0 mm. The distance/angle to the nearest neighboring cell was 7.9 microm/31 degrees , 7.1 microm/31 degrees , and 9.1 microm/31 degrees for cells at the articular surface of fetal, calf, and adult samples, respectively, and increased/decreased to 11.6 microm/31 degrees , 12.0 microm/30 degrees , and 19.2 microm/25 degrees at a depth of 0.7 mm. The methodologies described here may be useful for analyzing the 3D cellular organization of cartilage during growth, maturation, aging, degeneration, and regeneration.

  3. Improving 3D Wavelet-Based Compression of Hyperspectral Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimesh, Matthew; Kiely, Aaron; Xie, Hua; Aranki, Nazeeh

    2009-01-01

    Two methods of increasing the effectiveness of three-dimensional (3D) wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images have been developed. (As used here, images signifies both images and digital data representing images.) The methods are oriented toward reducing or eliminating detrimental effects of a phenomenon, referred to as spectral ringing, that is described below. In 3D wavelet-based compression, an image is represented by a multiresolution wavelet decomposition consisting of several subbands obtained by applying wavelet transforms in the two spatial dimensions corresponding to the two spatial coordinate axes of the image plane, and by applying wavelet transforms in the spectral dimension. Spectral ringing is named after the more familiar spatial ringing (spurious spatial oscillations) that can be seen parallel to and near edges in ordinary images reconstructed from compressed data. These ringing phenomena are attributable to effects of quantization. In hyperspectral data, the individual spectral bands play the role of edges, causing spurious oscillations to occur in the spectral dimension. In the absence of such corrective measures as the present two methods, spectral ringing can manifest itself as systematic biases in some reconstructed spectral bands and can reduce the effectiveness of compression of spatially-low-pass subbands. One of the two methods is denoted mean subtraction. The basic idea of this method is to subtract mean values from spatial planes of spatially low-pass subbands prior to encoding, because (a) such spatial planes often have mean values that are far from zero and (b) zero-mean data are better suited for compression by methods that are effective for subbands of two-dimensional (2D) images. In this method, after the 3D wavelet decomposition is performed, mean values are computed for and subtracted from each spatial plane of each spatially-low-pass subband. The resulting data are converted to sign-magnitude form and compressed in a

  4. Image segmentation to inspect 3-D object sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Jui-Pin; Fuh, Chiou-Shann

    1996-01-01

    Object size inspection is an important task and has various applications in computer vision. For example, the automatic control of stone-breaking machines, which perform better if the sizes of the stones to be broken can be predicted. An algorithm is proposed for image segmentation in size inspection for almost round stones with high or low texture. Although our experiments are focused on stones, the algorithm can be applied to other 3-D objects. We use one fixed camera and four light sources at four different positions one at a time, to take four images. Then we compute the image differences and binarize them to extract edges. We explain, step by step, the photographing, the edge extraction, the noise removal, and the edge gap filling. Experimental results are presented.

  5. The Diagnostic Radiological Utilization Of 3-D Display Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Larry T.; Dwyer, Samuel J.; Preston, David F.; Batnitzky, Solomon; Lee, Kyo R.

    1984-10-01

    In the practice of radiology, computer graphics systems have become an integral part of the use of computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine (NM), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and ultrasound. Gray scale computerized display systems are used to display, manipulate, and record scans in all of these modalities. As the use of these imaging systems has spread, various applications involving digital image manipulation have also been widely accepted in the radiological community. We discuss one of the more esoteric of such applications, namely, the reconstruction of 3-D structures from plane section data, such as CT scans. Our technique is based on the acquisition of contour data from successive sections, the definition of the implicit surface defined by such contours, and the application of the appropriate computer graphics hardware and software to present reasonably pleasing pictures.

  6. Density-tapered spiral arrays for ultrasound 3-D imaging.

    PubMed

    Ramalli, Alessandro; Boni, Enrico; Savoia, Alessandro Stuart; Tortoli, Piero

    2015-08-01

    The current high interest in 3-D ultrasound imaging is pushing the development of 2-D probes with a challenging number of active elements. The most popular approach to limit this number is the sparse array technique, which designs the array layout by means of complex optimization algorithms. These algorithms are typically constrained by a few steering conditions, and, as such, cannot guarantee uniform side-lobe performance at all angles. The performance may be improved by the ungridded extensions of the sparse array technique, but this result is achieved at the expense of a further complication of the optimization process. In this paper, a method to design the layout of large circular arrays with a limited number of elements according to Fermat's spiral seeds and spatial density modulation is proposed and shown to be suitable for application to 3-D ultrasound imaging. This deterministic, aperiodic, and balanced positioning procedure attempts to guarantee uniform performance over a wide range of steering angles. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated by simulating and comparing the performance of spiral and dense arrays. A good trade-off for small vessel imaging is found, e.g., in the 60λ spiral array with 1.0λ elements and Blackman density tapering window. Here, the grating lobe level is -16 dB, the lateral resolution is lower than 6λ the depth of field is 120λ and, the average contrast is 10.3 dB, while the sensitivity remains in a 5 dB range for a wide selection of steering angles. The simulation results may represent a reference guide to the design of spiral sparse array probes for different application fields.

  7. Kinematic analysis of healthy hips during weight-bearing activities by 3D-to-2D model-to-image registration technique.

    PubMed

    Hara, Daisuke; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Hamai, Satoshi; Higaki, Hidehiko; Ikebe, Satoru; Shimoto, Takeshi; Hirata, Masanobu; Kanazawa, Masayuki; Kohno, Yusuke; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic hip kinematics during weight-bearing activities were analyzed for six healthy subjects. Continuous X-ray images of gait, chair-rising, squatting, and twisting were taken using a flat panel X-ray detector. Digitally reconstructed radiographic images were used for 3D-to-2D model-to-image registration technique. The root-mean-square errors associated with tracking the pelvis and femur were less than 0.3 mm and 0.3° for translations and rotations. For gait, chair-rising, and squatting, the maximum hip flexion angles averaged 29.6°, 81.3°, and 102.4°, respectively. The pelvis was tilted anteriorly around 4.4° on average during full gait cycle. For chair-rising and squatting, the maximum absolute value of anterior/posterior pelvic tilt averaged 12.4°/11.7° and 10.7°/10.8°, respectively. Hip flexion peaked on the way of movement due to further anterior pelvic tilt during both chair-rising and squatting. For twisting, the maximum absolute value of hip internal/external rotation averaged 29.2°/30.7°. This study revealed activity dependent kinematics of healthy hip joints with coordinated pelvic and femoral dynamic movements. Kinematics' data during activities of daily living may provide important insight as to the evaluating kinematics of pathological and reconstructed hips.

  8. Effective classification of 3D image data using partitioning methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megalooikonomou, Vasileios; Pokrajac, Dragoljub; Lazarevic, Aleksandar; Obradovic, Zoran

    2002-03-01

    We propose partitioning-based methods to facilitate the classification of 3-D binary image data sets of regions of interest (ROIs) with highly non-uniform distributions. The first method is based on recursive dynamic partitioning of a 3-D volume into a number of 3-D hyper-rectangles. For each hyper-rectangle, we consider, as a potential attribute, the number of voxels (volume elements) that belong to ROIs. A hyper-rectangle is partitioned only if the corresponding attribute does not have high discriminative power, determined by statistical tests, but it is still sufficiently large for further splitting. The final discriminative hyper-rectangles form new attributes that are further employed in neural network classification models. The second method is based on maximum likelihood employing non-spatial (k-means) and spatial DBSCAN clustering algorithms to estimate the parameters of the underlying distributions. The proposed methods were experimentally evaluated on mixtures of Gaussian distributions, on realistic lesion-deficit data generated by a simulator conforming to a clinical study, and on synthetic fractal data. Both proposed methods have provided good classification on Gaussian mixtures and on realistic data. However, the experimental results on fractal data indicated that the clustering-based methods were only slightly better than random guess, while the recursive partitioning provided significantly better classification accuracy.

  9. 3D-LZ helicopter ladar imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, James; Harrington, Walter; McKinley, R. Andrew; Burns, H. N.; Braddom, Steven; Szoboszlay, Zoltan

    2010-04-01

    A joint-service team led by the Air Force Research Laboratory's Munitions and Sensors Directorates completed a successful flight test demonstration of the 3D-LZ Helicopter LADAR Imaging System. This was a milestone demonstration in the development of technology solutions for a problem known as "helicopter brownout", the loss of situational awareness caused by swirling sand during approach and landing. The 3D-LZ LADAR was developed by H.N. Burns Engineering and integrated with the US Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate's Brown-Out Symbology System aircraft state symbology aboard a US Army EH-60 Black Hawk helicopter. The combination of these systems provided an integrated degraded visual environment landing solution with landing zone situational awareness as well as aircraft guidance and obstacle avoidance information. Pilots from the U.S. Army, Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps achieved a 77% landing rate in full brownout conditions at a test range at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. This paper will focus on the LADAR technology used in 3D-LZ and the results of this milestone demonstration.

  10. 3D imaging reconstruction and impacted third molars: case reports

    PubMed Central

    Tuzi, Andrea; Di Bari, Roberto; Cicconetti, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Summary There is a debate in the literature about the need for Computed Tomagraphy (CT) before removing third molars, even if positive radiographic signs are present. In few cases, the third molar is so close to the inferior alveolar nerve that its extraction might expose patients to the risk of post-operative neuro-sensitive alterations of the skin and the mucosa of the homolateral lower lip and chin. Thus, the injury of the inferior alveolar nerve may represent a serious, though infrequent, neurologic complication in the surgery of the third molars rendering necessary a careful pre-operative evaluation of their anatomical relationship with the inferior alveolar nerve by means of radiographic imaging techniques. This contribution presents two case reports showing positive radiographic signs, which are the hallmarks of a possible close relationship between the inferior alveolar nerve and the third molars. We aim at better defining the relationship between third molars and the mandibular canal using Dental CT Scan, DICOM image acquisition and 3D reconstruction with a dedicated software. By our study we deduce that 3D images are not indispensable, but they can provide a very agreeable assistance in the most complicated cases. PMID:23386934

  11. Precise 3D image alignment in micro-axial tomography.

    PubMed

    Matula, P; Kozubek, M; Staier, F; Hausmann, M

    2003-02-01

    Micro (micro-) axial tomography is a challenging technique in microscopy which improves quantitative imaging especially in cytogenetic applications by means of defined sample rotation under the microscope objective. The advantage of micro-axial tomography is an effective improvement of the precision of distance measurements between point-like objects. Under certain circumstances, the effective (3D) resolution can be improved by optimized acquisition depending on subsequent, multi-perspective image recording of the same objects followed by reconstruction methods. This requires, however, a very precise alignment of the tilted views. We present a novel feature-based image alignment method with a precision better than the full width at half maximum of the point spread function. The features are the positions (centres of gravity) of all fluorescent objects observed in the images (e.g. cell nuclei, fluorescent signals inside cell nuclei, fluorescent beads, etc.). Thus, real alignment precision depends on the localization precision of these objects. The method automatically determines the corresponding objects in subsequently tilted perspectives using a weighted bipartite graph. The optimum transformation function is computed in a least squares manner based on the coordinates of the centres of gravity of the matched objects. The theoretically feasible precision of the method was calculated using computer-generated data and confirmed by tests on real image series obtained from data sets of 200 nm fluorescent nano-particles. The advantages of the proposed algorithm are its speed and accuracy, which means that if enough objects are included, the real alignment precision is better than the axial localization precision of a single object. The alignment precision can be assessed directly from the algorithm's output. Thus, the method can be applied not only for image alignment and object matching in tilted view series in order to reconstruct (3D) images, but also to validate the

  12. 3D laser optoacoustic ultrasonic imaging system for preclinical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermilov, Sergey A.; Conjusteau, André; Hernandez, Travis; Su, Richard; Nadvoretskiy, Vyacheslav; Tsyboulski, Dmitri; Anis, Fatima; Anastasio, Mark A.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2013-03-01

    In this work, we introduce a novel three-dimensional imaging system for in vivo high-resolution anatomical and functional whole-body visualization of small animal models developed for preclinical or other type of biomedical research. The system (LOUIS-3DM) combines a multi-wavelength optoacoustic and ultrawide-band laser ultrasound tomographies to obtain coregistered maps of tissue optical absorption and acoustic properties, displayed within the skin outline of the studied animal. The most promising applications of the LOUIS-3DM include 3D angiography, cancer research, and longitudinal studies of biological distribution of optoacoustic contrast agents (carbon nanotubes, metal plasmonic nanoparticles, etc.).

  13. 3D Multispectral Light Propagation Model For Subcutaneous Veins Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Paquit, Vincent C; Price, Jeffery R; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new 3D light propagation model aimed at understanding the effects of various physiological properties on subcutaneous vein imaging. In particular, we build upon the well known MCML (Monte Carlo Multi Layer) code and present a tissue model that improves upon the current state-of-the-art by: incorporating physiological variation, such as melanin concentration, fat content, and layer thickness; including veins of varying depth and diameter; using curved surfaces from real arm shapes; and modeling the vessel wall interface. We describe our model, present results from the Monte Carlo modeling, and compare these results with those obtained with other Monte Carlo methods.

  14. 3D imaging of neutron tracks using confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, Gavin; Wertheim, David; Flowers, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Neutron detection and neutron flux assessment are important aspects in monitoring nuclear energy production. Neutron flux measurements can also provide information on potential biological damage from exposure. In addition to the applications for neutron measurement in nuclear energy, neutron detection has been proposed as a method of enhancing neutrino detectors and cosmic ray flux has also been assessed using ground-level neutron detectors. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (or SSNTDs) have been used extensively to examine cosmic rays, long-lived radioactive elements, radon concentrations in buildings and the age of geological samples. Passive SSNTDs consisting of a CR-39 plastic are commonly used to measure radon because they respond to incident charged particles such as alpha particles from radon gas in air. They have a large dynamic range and a linear flux response. We have previously applied confocal microscopy to obtain 3D images of alpha particle tracks in SSNTDs from radon track monitoring (1). As a charged particle traverses through the polymer it creates an ionisation trail along its path. The trail or track is normally enhanced by chemical etching to better expose radiation damage, as the damaged area is more sensitive to the etchant than the bulk material. Particle tracks in CR-39 are usually assessed using 2D optical microscopy. In this study 6 detectors were examined using an Olympus OLS4100 LEXT 3D laser scanning confocal microscope (Olympus Corporation, Japan). The detectors had been etched for 2 hours 50 minutes at 85 °C in 6.25M NaOH. Post etch the plastics had been treated with a 10 minute immersion in a 2% acetic acid stop bath, followed by rinsing in deionised water. The detectors examined had been irradiated with a 2mSv neutron dose from an Am(Be) neutron source (producing roughly 20 tracks per mm2). We were able to successfully acquire 3D images of neutron tracks in the detectors studied. The range of track diameter observed was between 4

  15. 3-D Imaging of Partly Concealed Targets by Laser Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    laser in the green wavelength region was used for illumination. 3-D Imaging of Partly Concealed Targets by Laser Radar 11 - 8 RTO-MP-SET-094...acknowledge Marie Carlsson and Ann Charlotte Gustavsson for their assistance in some of the experiments. 7.0 REFERENCES [1] U. Söderman, S. Ahlberg...SPIE Vol. 3707, pp. 432-448, USA, 1999. [14] D. Letalick, H. Larsson, M. Carlsson, and A.-C. Gustavsson , “Laser sensors for urban warfare,” FOI

  16. Image quality of a cone beam O-arm 3D imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Weir, Victor; Lin, Jingying; Hsiung, Hsiang; Ritenour, E. Russell

    2009-02-01

    The O-arm is a cone beam imaging system designed primarily to support orthopedic surgery and is also used for image-guided and vascular surgery. Using a gantry that can be opened or closed, the O-arm can function as a 2-dimensional (2D) fluoroscopy device or collect 3-dimensional (3D) volumetric imaging data like a CT system. Clinical applications of the O-arm in spine surgical procedures, assessment of pedicle screw position, and kyphoplasty procedures show that the O-arm 3D mode provides enhanced imaging information compared to radiographs or fluoroscopy alone. In this study, the image quality of an O-arm system was quantitatively evaluated. A 20 cm diameter CATPHAN 424 phantom was scanned using the pre-programmed head protocols: small/medium (120 kVp, 100 mAs), large (120 kVp, 128 mAs), and extra-large (120 kVp, 160 mAs) in 3D mode. High resolution reconstruction mode (512×512×0.83 mm) was used to reconstruct images for the analysis of low and high contrast resolution, and noise power spectrum. MTF was measured using the point spread function. The results show that the O-arm image is uniform but with a noise pattern which cannot be removed by simply increasing the mAs. The high contrast resolution of the O-arm system was approximately 9 lp/cm. The system has a 10% MTF at 0.45 mm. The low-contrast resolution cannot be decided due to the noise pattern. For surgery where locations of a structure are emphasized over a survey of all image details, the image quality of the O-arm is well accepted clinically.

  17. The application of camera calibration in range-gated 3D imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-quan; Wang, Xian-wei; Zhou, Yan

    2013-09-01

    Range-gated laser imaging technology was proposed in 1966 by LF Gillespiethe in U.S. Army Night Vision Laboratory(NVL). Using pulse laser and intensified charge-coupled device(ICCD) as light source and detector respectively, range-gated laser imaging technology can realize space-slice imaging while restraining the atmospheric backs-catter, and in turn detect the target effectively, by controlling the delay between the laser pulse and strobe. Owing to the constraints of the development of key components such as narrow pulse laser and gated imaging devices, the research has been progressed slowly in the next few decades. Until the beginning of this century, as the hardware technology continues to mature, this technology has developed rapidly in fields such as night vision, underwater imaging, biomedical imaging, three-dimensional imaging, especially range-gated three-dimensional(3-D) laser imaging field purposing of access to target spatial information. 3-D reconstruction is the processing of restoration of 3-D objects visible surface geometric structure from three-dimensional(2-D) image. Range-gated laser imaging technology can achieve gated imaging of slice space to form a slice image, and in turn provide the distance information corresponding to the slice image. But to inverse the information of 3-D space, we need to obtain the imaging visual field of system, that is, the focal length of the system. Then based on the distance information of the space slice, the spatial information of each unit space corresponding to each pixel can be inversed. Camera calibration is an indispensable step in 3-D reconstruction, including analysis of the internal structure of camera parameters and the external parameters . In order to meet the technical requirements of the range-gated 3-D imaging, this paper intends to study the calibration of the zoom lens system. After summarizing the camera calibration technique comprehensively, a classic calibration method based on line is

  18. Quantitative 3D Optical Imaging: Applications in Dosimetry and Biophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Andrew Stephen

    Optical-CT has been shown to be a potentially useful imaging tool for the two very different spheres of biologists and radiation therapy physicists, but it has yet to live up to that potential. In radiation therapy, researchers have used optical-CT for the readout of 3D dosimeters, but it is yet to be a clinically relevant tool as the technology is too slow to be considered practical. Biologists have used the technique for structural imaging, but have struggled with emission tomography as the reality of photon attenuation for both excitation and emission have made the images quantitatively irrelevant. Dosimetry. The DLOS (Duke Large field of view Optical-CT Scanner) was designed and constructed to make 3D dosimetry utilizing optical-CT a fast and practical tool while maintaining the accuracy of readout of the previous, slower readout technologies. Upon construction/optimization/implementation of several components including a diffuser, band pass filter, registration mount & fluid filtration system the dosimetry system provides high quality data comparable to or exceeding that of commercial products. In addition, a stray light correction algorithm was tested and implemented. The DLOS in combination with the 3D dosimeter it was designed for, PREAGETM, then underwent rigorous commissioning and benchmarking tests validating its performance against gold standard data including a set of 6 irradiations. DLOS commissioning tests resulted in sub-mm isotropic spatial resolution (MTF >0.5 for frequencies of 1.5lp/mm) and a dynamic range of ˜60dB. Flood field uniformity was 10% and stable after 45minutes. Stray light proved to be small, due to telecentricity, but even the residual can be removed through deconvolution. Benchmarking tests showed the mean 3D passing gamma rate (3%, 3mm, 5% dose threshold) over the 6 benchmark data sets was 97.3% +/- 0.6% (range 96%-98%) scans totaling ˜10 minutes, indicating excellent ability to perform 3D dosimetry while improving the speed of

  19. 3D reconstruction of SEM images by use of optical photogrammetry software.

    PubMed

    Eulitz, Mona; Reiss, Gebhard

    2015-08-01

    Reconstruction of the three-dimensional (3D) surface of an object to be examined is widely used for structure analysis in science and many biological questions require information about their true 3D structure. For Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) there has been no efficient non-destructive solution for reconstruction of the surface morphology to date. The well-known method of recording stereo pair images generates a 3D stereoscope reconstruction of a section, but not of the complete sample surface. We present a simple and non-destructive method of 3D surface reconstruction from SEM samples based on the principles of optical close range photogrammetry. In optical close range photogrammetry a series of overlapping photos is used to generate a 3D model of the surface of an object. We adapted this method to the special SEM requirements. Instead of moving a detector around the object, the object itself was rotated. A series of overlapping photos was stitched and converted into a 3D model using the software commonly used for optical photogrammetry. A rabbit kidney glomerulus was used to demonstrate the workflow of this adaption. The reconstruction produced a realistic and high-resolution 3D mesh model of the glomerular surface. The study showed that SEM micrographs are suitable for 3D reconstruction by optical photogrammetry. This new approach is a simple and useful method of 3D surface reconstruction and suitable for various applications in research and teaching.

  20. 3D painting documentation: evaluation of conservation conditions with 3D imaging and ranging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abate, D.; Menna, F.; Remondino, F.; Gattari, M. G.

    2014-06-01

    The monitoring of paintings, both on canvas and wooden support, is a crucial issue for the preservation and conservation of this kind of artworks. Many environmental factors (e.g. humidity, temperature, illumination, etc.), as well as bad conservation practices (e.g. wrong restorations, inappropriate locations, etc.), can compromise the material conditions over time and deteriorate an artwork. The article presents an on-going project realized by a multidisciplinary team composed by the ENEA UTICT 3D GraphLab, the 3D Optical Metrology Unit of the Bruno Kessler Foundation and the Soprintendenza per i Beni Storico Artistici ed Etnoantropologici of Bologna (Italy). The goal of the project is the multi-temporal 3D documentation and monitoring of paintings - at the moment in bad conservation's situation - and the provision of some metrics to quantify the deformations and damages.

  1. Recent progress in 3-D imaging of sea freight containers

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, Theobald Schön, Tobias Sukowski, Frank; Dittmann, Jonas; Hanke, Randolf

    2015-03-31

    The inspection of very large objects like sea freight containers with X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is an emerging technology. A complete 3-D CT scan of a see-freight container takes several hours. Of course, this is too slow to apply it to a large number of containers. However, the benefits of a 3-D CT for sealed freight are obvious: detection of potential threats or illicit cargo without being confronted with legal complications or high time consumption and risks for the security personnel during a manual inspection. Recently distinct progress was made in the field of reconstruction of projections with only a relatively low number of angular positions. Instead of today’s 500 to 1000 rotational steps, as needed for conventional CT reconstruction techniques, this new class of algorithms provides the potential to reduce the number of projection angles approximately by a factor of 10. The main drawback of these advanced iterative methods is the high consumption for numerical processing. But as computational power is getting steadily cheaper, there will be practical applications of these complex algorithms in a foreseeable future. In this paper, we discuss the properties of iterative image reconstruction algorithms and show results of their application to CT of extremely large objects scanning a sea-freight container. A specific test specimen is used to quantitatively evaluate the image quality in terms of spatial and contrast resolution and depending on different number of projections.

  2. Imaging Shallow Salt With 3D Refraction Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanschuyver, C. J.; Hilterman, F. J.

    2005-05-01

    In offshore West Africa, numerous salt walls are within 200 m of sea level. Because of the shallowness of these salt walls, reflections from the salt top can be difficult to map, making it impossible to build an accurate velocity model for subsequent pre-stack depth migration. An accurate definition of salt boundaries is critical to any depth model where salt is present. Unfortunately, when a salt body is very shallow, the reflection from the upper interface can be obscured due to large offsets between the source and near receivers and also due to the interference from multiples and other near-surface noise events. A new method is described using 3D migration of the refraction waveforms which is simplified because of several constraints in the model definition. The azimuth and dip of the refractor is found by imaging with Kirchhoff theory. A Kirchhoff migration is performed where the traveltime values are adjusted to use the CMP refraction traveltime equation. I assume the sediment and salt velocities to be known such that once the image time is specified, then the dip and azimuth of the refraction path can be found. The resulting 3D refraction migrations are in excellent depth agreement with available well control. In addition, the refraction migration time picks of deeper salt events are in agreement with time picks of the same events on the reflection migration.

  3. 3-D visualization and animation technologies in anatomical imaging.

    PubMed

    McGhee, John

    2010-02-01

    This paper explores a 3-D computer artist's approach to the creation of three-dimensional computer-generated imagery (CGI) derived from clinical scan data. Interpretation of scientific imagery, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is restricted to the eye of the trained medical practitioner in a clinical or scientific context. In the research work described here, MRI data are visualized and interpreted by a 3-D computer artist using the tools of the digital animator to navigate image complexity and widen interaction. In this process, the artefact moves across disciplines; it is no longer tethered to its diagnostic origins. It becomes an object that has visual attributes such as light, texture and composition, and a visual aesthetic of its own. The introduction of these visual attributes provides a platform for improved accessibility by a lay audience. The paper argues that this more artisan approach to clinical data visualization has a potential real-world application as a communicative tool for clinicians and patients during consultation.

  4. 3-D visualization and animation technologies in anatomical imaging

    PubMed Central

    McGhee, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores a 3-D computer artist’s approach to the creation of three-dimensional computer-generated imagery (CGI) derived from clinical scan data. Interpretation of scientific imagery, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is restricted to the eye of the trained medical practitioner in a clinical or scientific context. In the research work described here, MRI data are visualized and interpreted by a 3-D computer artist using the tools of the digital animator to navigate image complexity and widen interaction. In this process, the artefact moves across disciplines; it is no longer tethered to its diagnostic origins. It becomes an object that has visual attributes such as light, texture and composition, and a visual aesthetic of its own. The introduction of these visual attributes provides a platform for improved accessibility by a lay audience. The paper argues that this more artisan approach to clinical data visualization has a potential real-world application as a communicative tool for clinicians and patients during consultation. PMID:20002229

  5. 3-D Imaging and Simulation for Nephron Sparing Surgical Training.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Hamed; Liu, Jen-Jane

    2016-08-01

    Minimally invasive partial nephrectomy (MIPN) is now considered the procedure of choice for small renal masses largely based on functional advantages over traditional open surgery. Lack of haptic feedback, the need for spatial understanding of tumor borders, and advanced operative techniques to minimize ischemia time or achieve zero-ischemia PN are among factors that make MIPN a technically demanding operation with a steep learning curve for inexperienced surgeons. Surgical simulation has emerged as a useful training adjunct in residency programs to facilitate the acquisition of these complex operative skills in the setting of restricted work hours and limited operating room time and autonomy. However, the majority of available surgical simulators focus on basic surgical skills, and procedure-specific simulation is needed for optimal surgical training. Advances in 3-dimensional (3-D) imaging have also enhanced the surgeon's ability to localize tumors intraoperatively. This article focuses on recent procedure-specific simulation models for laparoscopic and robotic-assisted PN and advanced 3-D imaging techniques as part of pre- and some cases, intraoperative surgical planning.

  6. Experiments on terahertz 3D scanning microscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yi; Li, Qi

    2016-10-01

    Compared with the visible light and infrared, terahertz (THz) radiation can penetrate nonpolar and nonmetallic materials. There are many studies on the THz coaxial transmission confocal microscopy currently. But few researches on the THz dual-axis reflective confocal microscopy were reported. In this paper, we utilized a dual-axis reflective confocal scanning microscope working at 2.52 THz. In contrast with the THz coaxial transmission confocal microscope, the microscope adopted in this paper can attain higher axial resolution at the expense of reduced lateral resolution, revealing more satisfying 3D imaging capability. Objects such as Chinese characters "Zhong-Hua" written in paper with a pencil and a combined sheet metal which has three layers were scanned. The experimental results indicate that the system can extract two Chinese characters "Zhong," "Hua" or three layers of the combined sheet metal. It can be predicted that the microscope can be applied to biology, medicine and other fields in the future due to its favorable 3D imaging capability.

  7. 3D fluoroscopic image estimation using patient-specific 4DCBCT-based motion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhou, S.; Hurwitz, M.; Mishra, P.; Cai, W.; Rottmann, J.; Li, R.; Williams, C.; Wagar, M.; Berbeco, R.; Ionascu, D.; Lewis, J. H.

    2015-05-01

    3D fluoroscopic images represent volumetric patient anatomy during treatment with high spatial and temporal resolution. 3D fluoroscopic images estimated using motion models built using 4DCT images, taken days or weeks prior to treatment, do not reliably represent patient anatomy during treatment. In this study we developed and performed initial evaluation of techniques to develop patient-specific motion models from 4D cone-beam CT (4DCBCT) images, taken immediately before treatment, and used these models to estimate 3D fluoroscopic images based on 2D kV projections captured during treatment. We evaluate the accuracy of 3D fluoroscopic images by comparison to ground truth digital and physical phantom images. The performance of 4DCBCT-based and 4DCT-based motion models are compared in simulated clinical situations representing tumor baseline shift or initial patient positioning errors. The results of this study demonstrate the ability for 4DCBCT imaging to generate motion models that can account for changes that cannot be accounted for with 4DCT-based motion models. When simulating tumor baseline shift and patient positioning errors of up to 5 mm, the average tumor localization error and the 95th percentile error in six datasets were 1.20 and 2.2 mm, respectively, for 4DCBCT-based motion models. 4DCT-based motion models applied to the same six datasets resulted in average tumor localization error and the 95th percentile error of 4.18 and 5.4 mm, respectively. Analysis of voxel-wise intensity differences was also conducted for all experiments. In summary, this study demonstrates the feasibility of 4DCBCT-based 3D fluoroscopic image generation in digital and physical phantoms and shows the potential advantage of 4DCBCT-based 3D fluoroscopic image estimation when there are changes in anatomy between the time of 4DCT imaging and the time of treatment delivery.

  8. 3D fluoroscopic image estimation using patient-specific 4DCBCT-based motion models

    PubMed Central

    Dhou, Salam; Hurwitz, Martina; Mishra, Pankaj; Cai, Weixing; Rottmann, Joerg; Li, Ruijiang; Williams, Christopher; Wagar, Matthew; Berbeco, Ross; Ionascu, Dan; Lewis, John H.

    2015-01-01

    3D fluoroscopic images represent volumetric patient anatomy during treatment with high spatial and temporal resolution. 3D fluoroscopic images estimated using motion models built using 4DCT images, taken days or weeks prior to treatment, do not reliably represent patient anatomy during treatment. In this study we develop and perform initial evaluation of techniques to develop patient-specific motion models from 4D cone-beam CT (4DCBCT) images, taken immediately before treatment, and use these models to estimate 3D fluoroscopic images based on 2D kV projections captured during treatment. We evaluate the accuracy of 3D fluoroscopic images by comparing to ground truth digital and physical phantom images. The performance of 4DCBCT- and 4DCT- based motion models are compared in simulated clinical situations representing tumor baseline shift or initial patient positioning errors. The results of this study demonstrate the ability for 4DCBCT imaging to generate motion models that can account for changes that cannot be accounted for with 4DCT-based motion models. When simulating tumor baseline shift and patient positioning errors of up to 5 mm, the average tumor localization error and the 95th percentile error in six datasets were 1.20 and 2.2 mm, respectively, for 4DCBCT-based motion models. 4DCT-based motion models applied to the same six datasets resulted in average tumor localization error and the 95th percentile error of 4.18 and 5.4 mm, respectively. Analysis of voxel-wise intensity differences was also conducted for all experiments. In summary, this study demonstrates the feasibility of 4DCBCT-based 3D fluoroscopic image generation in digital and physical phantoms, and shows the potential advantage of 4DCBCT-based 3D fluoroscopic image estimation when there are changes in anatomy between the time of 4DCT imaging and the time of treatment delivery. PMID:25905722

  9. 3D imaging in CUBIC-cleared mouse heart tissue: going deeper

    PubMed Central

    Nehrhoff, Imke; Bocancea, Diana; Vaquero, Javier; Vaquero, Juan José; Ripoll, Jorge; Desco, Manuel; Gómez-Gaviro, María Victoria

    2016-01-01

    The ability to acquire high resolution 3D images of the heart enables to study heart diseases more in detail. In this work, the CUBIC (clear, unobstructed brain imaging cocktails and computational analysis) clearing protocol was optimized for thick mouse heart sections to enhance the penetration depth of the confocal microscope lasers into the tissue. In addition, the optimized CUBIC clearing of the heart enhances antibody penetration into the tissue by a factor of five. The present protocol enables deep 3D high-quality image acquisition in the heart allowing a much more accurate assessment of the cellular and structural changes that underlie heart diseases. PMID:27699132

  10. 3D imaging in CUBIC-cleared mouse heart tissue: going deeper.

    PubMed

    Nehrhoff, Imke; Bocancea, Diana; Vaquero, Javier; Vaquero, Juan José; Ripoll, Jorge; Desco, Manuel; Gómez-Gaviro, María Victoria

    2016-09-01

    The ability to acquire high resolution 3D images of the heart enables to study heart diseases more in detail. In this work, the CUBIC (clear, unobstructed brain imaging cocktails and computational analysis) clearing protocol was optimized for thick mouse heart sections to enhance the penetration depth of the confocal microscope lasers into the tissue. In addition, the optimized CUBIC clearing of the heart enhances antibody penetration into the tissue by a factor of five. The present protocol enables deep 3D high-quality image acquisition in the heart allowing a much more accurate assessment of the cellular and structural changes that underlie heart diseases.

  11. Abdominal aortic aneurysm imaging with 3-D ultrasound: 3-D-based maximum diameter measurement and volume quantification.

    PubMed

    Long, A; Rouet, L; Debreuve, A; Ardon, R; Barbe, C; Becquemin, J P; Allaire, E

    2013-08-01

    The clinical reliability of 3-D ultrasound imaging (3-DUS) in quantification of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) was evaluated. B-mode and 3-DUS images of AAAs were acquired for 42 patients. AAAs were segmented. A 3-D-based maximum diameter (Max3-D) and partial volume (Vol30) were defined and quantified. Comparisons between 2-D (Max2-D) and 3-D diameters and between orthogonal acquisitions were performed. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was evaluated. Intra- and inter-observer coefficients of repeatability (CRs) were less than 5.18 mm for Max3-D. Intra-observer and inter-observer CRs were respectively less than 6.16 and 8.71 mL for Vol30. The mean of normalized errors of Vol30 was around 7%. Correlation between Max2-D and Max3-D was 0.988 (p < 0.0001). Max3-D and Vol30 were not influenced by a probe rotation of 90°. Use of 3-DUS to quantify AAA is a new approach in clinical practice. The present study proposed and evaluated dedicated parameters. Their reproducibility makes the technique clinically reliable.

  12. High Resolution 3D Radar Imaging of Comet Interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphaug, E. I.; Gim, Y.; Belton, M.; Brophy, J.; Weissman, P. R.; Heggy, E.

    2012-12-01

    Knowing the interiors of comets and other primitive bodies is fundamental to our understanding of how planets formed. We have developed a Discovery-class mission formulation, Comet Radar Explorer (CORE), based on the use of previously flown planetary radar sounding techniques, with the goal of obtaining high resolution 3D images of the interior of a small primitive body. We focus on the Jupiter-Family Comets (JFCs) as these are among the most primitive bodies reachable by spacecraft. Scattered in from far beyond Neptune, they are ultimate targets of a cryogenic sample return mission according to the Decadal Survey. Other suitable targets include primitive NEOs, Main Belt Comets, and Jupiter Trojans. The approach is optimal for small icy bodies ~3-20 km diameter with spin periods faster than about 12 hours, since (a) navigation is relatively easy, (b) radar penetration is global for decameter wavelengths, and (c) repeated overlapping ground tracks are obtained. The science mission can be as short as ~1 month for a fast-rotating JFC. Bodies smaller than ~1 km can be globally imaged, but the navigation solutions are less accurate and the relative resolution is coarse. Larger comets are more interesting, but radar signal is unlikely to be reflected from depths greater than ~10 km. So, JFCs are excellent targets for a variety of reasons. We furthermore focus on the use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) to rendezvous shortly after the comet's perihelion. This approach leaves us with ample power for science operations under dormant conditions beyond ~2-3 AU. This leads to a natural mission approach of distant observation, followed by closer inspection, terminated by a dedicated radar mapping orbit. Radar reflections are obtained from a polar orbit about the icy nucleus, which spins underneath. Echoes are obtained from a sounder operating at dual frequencies 5 and 15 MHz, with 1 and 10 MHz bandwidths respectively. The dense network of echoes is used to obtain global 3D

  13. Structural and functional imaging of 3D microfluidic mixers using optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Xi, Chuanwu; Marks, Daniel L; Parikh, Devang S; Raskin, Lutgarde; Boppart, Stephen A

    2004-05-18

    To achieve high mixing efficiency in microfluidic devices, complex designs are often required. Microfluidic devices have been evaluated with light and confocal microscopy, but fluid-flow characteristics at different depths are difficult to separate from the en face images produced. By using optical coherence tomography (OCT), an imaging modality capable of imaging 3D microstructures at micrometer-scale resolutions over millimeter-size scales, we obtained 3D dynamic functional and structural data for three representative microfluidic mixers: a Y channel mixer, a 3D serpentine mixer, and a vortex mixer. In the serpentine mixer, OCT image analysis revealed that the mixing efficiency was linearly dependent on the Reynolds number, whereas it appeared to have exponential dependence when imaged with light microscopy. The visual overlap of fluid flows in light-microscopy images leads to an overestimation of the mixing efficiency, an effect that was eliminated with OCT imaging. Doppler OCT measurements determined velocity profiles at various points in the serpentine mixer. Mixing patterns in the vortex mixer were compared with light-microscopy and OCT image analysis. These results demonstrate that OCT can significantly improve the characterization of 3D microfluidic device structure and function.

  14. Complex Resistivity 3D Imaging for Ground Reinforcement Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, J.; Kim, J.; Park, S.

    2012-12-01

    Induced polarization (IP) method is used for mineral exploration and generally classified into two categories, time and frequency domain method. IP method in frequency domain measures amplitude and absolute phase to the transmitted currents, and is often called spectral induced polarization (SIP) when measurement is made for the wide-band frequencies. Our research group has been studying the modeling and inversion algorithms of complex resistivity method since several years ago and recently started to apply this method for various field applications. We already completed the development of 2/3D modeling and inversion program and developing another algorithm to use wide-band data altogether. Until now complex resistivity (CR) method was mainly used for the surface or tomographic survey of mineral exploration. Through the experience, we can find that the resistivity section from CR method is very similar with that of conventional resistivity method. Interpretation of the phase section is generally well matched with the geological information of survey area. But because most of survey area has very touch and complex terrain, 2D survey and interpretation are used generally. In this study, the case study of 3D CR survey conducted for the site where ground reinforcement was done to prevent the subsidence will be introduced. Data was acquired with the Zeta system, the complex resistivity measurement system produced by Zonge Co. using 8 frequencies from 0.125 to 16 Hz. 2D survey was conducted for total 6 lines with 5 m dipole spacing and 20 electrodes. Line length is 95 meter for every line. Among these 8 frequency data, data below 1 Hz was used considering its quality. With the 6 line data, 3D inversion was conducted. Firstly 2D interpretation was made with acquired data and its results were compared with those of resistivity survey. Resulting resistivity image sections of CR and resistivity method were very similar. Anomalies in phase image section showed good agreement

  15. 3D CARS image reconstruction and pattern recognition on SHG images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medyukhina, Anna; Vogler, Nadine; Latka, Ines; Dietzek, Benjamin; Cicchi, Riccardo; Pavone, Francesco S.; Popp, Jürgen

    2012-06-01

    Nonlinear optical imaging techniques based e.g. on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) or second-harmonic generation (SHG) show great potential for in-vivo investigations of tissue. While the microspectroscopic imaging tools are established, automized data evaluation, i.e. image pattern recognition and automized image classification, of nonlinear optical images still bares great possibilities for future developments towards an objective clinical diagnosis. This contribution details the capability of nonlinear microscopy for both 3D visualization of human tissues and automated discrimination between healthy and diseased patterns using ex-vivo human skin samples. By means of CARS image alignment we show how to obtain a quasi-3D model of a skin biopsy, which allows us to trace the tissue structure in different projections. Furthermore, the potential of automated pattern and organization recognition to distinguish between healthy and keloidal skin tissue is discussed. A first classification algorithm employs the intrinsic geometrical features of collagen, which can be efficiently visualized by SHG microscopy. The shape of the collagen pattern allows conclusions about the physiological state of the skin, as the typical wavy collagen structure of healthy skin is disturbed e.g. in keloid formation. Based on the different collagen patterns a quantitative score characterizing the collagen waviness - and hence reflecting the physiological state of the tissue - is obtained. Further, two additional scoring methods for collagen organization, respectively based on a statistical analysis of the mutual organization of fibers and on FFT, are presented.

  16. Constraining 3D Process Sedimentological Models to Geophysical Data Using Image Quilting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmasebi, P.; Da Pra, A.; Pontiggia, M.; Caers, J.

    2014-12-01

    3D process geological models, whether for carbonate or sedimentological systems, have been proposed for modeling realistic subsurface heterogeneity. The problem with such forward process models is that they are not constrained to any subsurface data whether to wells or geophysical surveys. We propose a new method for realistic geological modeling of complex heterogeneity by hybridizing 3D process modeling of geological deposition with conditioning by means of a novel multiple-point geostatistics (MPS) technique termed image quilting (IQ). Image quilting is a pattern-based techniques that stiches together patterns extracted from training images to generate stochastic realizations that look like the training image. In this paper, we illustrate how 3D process model realizations can be used as training images in image quilting. To constrain the realization to seismic data we first interpret each facies in the geophysical data. These interpretation, while overly smooth and not reflecting finer scale variation are used as auxiliary variables in the generation of the image quilting realizations. To condition to well data, we first perform a kriging of the well data to generate a kriging map and kriging variance. The kriging map is used as additional auxiliary variable while the kriging variance is used as a weight given to the kriging derived auxiliary variable. We present an application to a giant offshore reservoir. Starting from seismic advanced attribute analysis and sedimentological interpretation, we build the 3D sedimentological process based model and use it as non-stationary training image for conditional image quilting.

  17. High Time Resolution Photon Counting 3D Imaging Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegmund, O.; Ertley, C.; Vallerga, J.

    2016-09-01

    Novel sealed tube microchannel plate (MCP) detectors using next generation cross strip (XS) anode readouts and high performance electronics have been developed to provide photon counting imaging sensors for Astronomy and high time resolution 3D remote sensing. 18 mm aperture sealed tubes with MCPs and high efficiency Super-GenII or GaAs photocathodes have been implemented to access the visible/NIR regimes for ground based research, astronomical and space sensing applications. The cross strip anode readouts in combination with PXS-II high speed event processing electronics can process high single photon counting event rates at >5 MHz ( 80 ns dead-time per event), and time stamp events to better than 25 ps. Furthermore, we are developing a high speed ASIC version of the electronics for low power/low mass spaceflight applications. For a GaAs tube the peak quantum efficiency has degraded from 30% (at 560 - 850 nm) to 25% over 4 years, but for Super-GenII tubes the peak quantum efficiency of 17% (peak at 550 nm) has remained unchanged for over 7 years. The Super-GenII tubes have a uniform spatial resolution of <30 μm FWHM ( 1 x106 gain) and single event timing resolution of 100 ps (FWHM). The relatively low MCP gain photon counting operation also permits longer overall sensor lifetimes and high local counting rates. Using the high timing resolution, we have demonstrated 3D object imaging with laser pulse (630 nm 45 ps jitter Pilas laser) reflections in single photon counting mode with spatial and depth sensitivity of the order of a few millimeters. A 50 mm Planacon sealed tube was also constructed, using atomic layer deposited microchannel plates which potentially offer better overall sealed tube lifetime, quantum efficiency and gain stability. This tube achieves standard bialkali quantum efficiency levels, is stable, and has been coupled to the PXS-II electronics and used to detect and image fast laser pulse signals.

  18. 3D segmentation and image annotation for quantitative diagnosis in lung CT images with pulmonary lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Suo; Zhu, Yanjie; Sun, Jianyong; Zhang, Jianguo

    2013-03-01

    Pulmonary nodules and ground glass opacities are highly significant findings in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of patients with pulmonary lesion. The appearances of pulmonary nodules and ground glass opacities show a relationship with different lung diseases. According to corresponding characteristic of lesion, pertinent segment methods and quantitative analysis are helpful for control and treat diseases at an earlier and potentially more curable stage. Currently, most of the studies have focused on two-dimensional quantitative analysis of these kinds of deceases. Compared to two-dimensional images, three-dimensional quantitative analysis can take full advantage of isotropic image data acquired by using thin slicing HRCT in space and has better quantitative precision for clinical diagnosis. This presentation designs a computer-aided diagnosis component to segment 3D disease areas of nodules and ground glass opacities in lung CT images, and use AIML (Annotation and image makeup language) to annotate the segmented 3D pulmonary lesions with information of quantitative measurement which may provide more features and information to the radiologists in clinical diagnosis.

  19. Effects of point configuration on the accuracy in 3D reconstruction from biplane images

    SciTech Connect

    Dmochowski, Jacek; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.; Singh, Vikas; Xu Jinhui; Nazareth, Daryl P.

    2005-09-15

    Two or more angiograms are being used frequently in medical imaging to reconstruct locations in three-dimensional (3D) space, e.g., for reconstruction of 3D vascular trees, implanted electrodes, or patient positioning. A number of techniques have been proposed for this task. In this simulation study, we investigate the effect of the shape of the configuration of the points in 3D (the 'cloud' of points) on reconstruction errors for one of these techniques developed in our laboratory. Five types of configurations (a ball, an elongated ellipsoid (cigar), flattened ball (pancake), flattened cigar, and a flattened ball with a single distant point) are used in the evaluations. For each shape, 100 random configurations were generated, with point coordinates chosen from Gaussian distributions having a covariance matrix corresponding to the desired shape. The 3D data were projected into the image planes using a known imaging geometry. Gaussian distributed errors were introduced in the x and y coordinates of these projected points. Gaussian distributed errors were also introduced into the gantry information used to calculate the initial imaging geometry. The imaging geometries and 3D positions were iteratively refined using the enhanced-Metz-Fencil technique. The image data were also used to evaluate the feasible R-t solution volume. The 3D errors between the calculated and true positions were determined. The effects of the shape of the configuration, the number of points, the initial geometry error, and the input image error were evaluated. The results for the number of points, initial geometry error, and image error are in agreement with previously reported results, i.e., increasing the number of points and reducing initial geometry and/or image error, improves the accuracy of the reconstructed data. The shape of the 3D configuration of points also affects the error of reconstructed 3D configuration; specifically, errors decrease as the 'volume' of the 3D configuration

  20. 3D morphometric analysis of human fetal cerebellar development.

    PubMed

    Scott, Julia A; Hamzelou, Kia S; Rajagopalan, Vidya; Habas, Piotr A; Kim, Kio; Barkovich, A James; Glenn, Orit A; Studholme, Colin

    2012-09-01

    To date, growth of the human fetal cerebellum has been estimated primarily from linear measurements from ultrasound and 2D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, we use 3D analytical methods to develop normative growth trajectories for the cerebellum in utero. We measured cerebellar volume, linear dimensions, and local surface curvature from 3D reconstructed MRI of the human fetal brain (N = 46). We found that cerebellar volume increased approximately 7-fold from 20 to 31 gestational weeks. The better fit of the exponential curve (R (2) = 0.96) compared to the linear curve (R (2) = 0.92) indicated acceleration in growth. Within-subject cerebellar and cerebral volumes were highly correlated (R (2) = 0.94), though the cerebellar percentage of total brain volume increased from approximately 2.4% to 3.7% (R (2) = 0.63). Right and left hemispheric volumes did not significantly differ. Transcerebellar diameter, vermal height, and vermal anterior to posterior diameter increased significantly at constant rates. From the local curvature analysis, we found that expansion along the inferior and superior aspects of the hemispheres resulted in decreased convexity, which is likely due to the physical constraints of the dura surrounding the cerebellum and the adjacent brainstem. The paired decrease in convexity along the inferior vermis and increased convexity of the medial hemisphere represents development of the paravermian fissure, which becomes more visible during this period. In this 3D morphometric analysis of the human fetal cerebellum, we have shown that cerebellar growth is accelerating at a greater pace than the cerebrum and described how cerebellar growth impacts the shape of the structure.

  1. 3D Morphometric Analysis of Human Fetal Cerebellar Development

    PubMed Central

    Hamzelou, Kia S.; Rajagopalan, Vidya; Habas, Piotr A.; Kim, Kio; Barkovich, A. James; Glenn, Orit A.; Studholme, Colin

    2012-01-01

    To date, growth of the human fetal cerebellum has been estimated primarily from linear measurements from ultrasound and 2D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, we use 3D analytical methods to develop normative growth trajectories for the cerebellum in utero. We measured cerebellar volume, linear dimensions, and local surface curvature from 3D reconstructed MRI of the human fetal brain (N = 46). We found that cerebellar volume increased approximately 7-fold from 20 to 31 gestational weeks. The better fit of the exponential curve (R2 = 0.96) compared to the linear curve (R2 = 0.92) indicated acceleration in growth. Within-subject cerebellar and cerebral volumes were highly correlated (R2 = 0.94), though the cerebellar percentage of total brain volume increased from approximately 2.4% to 3.7% (R2 = 0.63). Right and left hemispheric volumes did not significantly differ. Transcerebellar diameter, vermal height, and vermal anterior to posterior diameter increased significantly at constant rates. From the local curvature analysis, we found that expansion along the inferior and superior aspects of the hemispheres resulted in decreased convexity, which is likely due to the physical constraints of the dura surrounding the cerebellum and the adjacent brainstem. The paired decrease in convexity along the inferior vermis and increased convexity of the medial hemisphere represents development of the paravermian fissure, which becomes more visible during this period. In this 3D morphometric analysis of the human fetal cerebellum, we have shown that cerebellar growth is accelerating at a greater pace than the cerebrum and described how cerebellar growth impacts the shape of the structure. PMID:22198870

  2. MIMO based 3D imaging system at 360 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herschel, R.; Nowok, S.; Zimmermann, R.; Lang, S. A.; Pohl, N.

    2016-05-01

    A MIMO radar imaging system at 360 GHz is presented as a part of the comprehensive approach of the European FP7 project TeraSCREEN, using multiple frequency bands for active and passive imaging. The MIMO system consists of 16 transmitter and 16 receiver antennas within one single array. Using a bandwidth of 30 GHz, a range resolution up to 5 mm is obtained. With the 16×16 MIMO system 256 different azimuth bins can be distinguished. Mechanical beam steering is used to measure 130 different elevation angles where the angular resolution is obtained by a focusing elliptical mirror. With this system a high resolution 3D image can be generated with 4 frames per second, each containing 16 million points. The principle of the system is presented starting from the functional structure, covering the hardware design and including the digital image generation. This is supported by simulated data and discussed using experimental results from a preliminary 90 GHz system underlining the feasibility of the approach.

  3. Research of Fast 3D Imaging Based on Multiple Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shibing; Yan, Huimin; Ni, Xuxiang; Zhang, Xiuda; Wang, Yu

    2016-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) imaging has received increasingly extensive attention and has been widely used currently. Lots of efforts have been put on three-dimensional imaging method and system study, in order to meet fast and high accurate requirement. In this article, we realize a fast and high quality stereo matching algorithm on field programmable gate array (FPGA) using the combination of time-of-flight (TOF) camera and binocular camera. Images captured from the two cameras own a same spatial resolution, letting us use the depth maps taken by the TOF camera to figure initial disparity. Under the constraint of the depth map as the stereo pairs when comes to stereo matching, expected disparity of each pixel is limited within a narrow search range. In the meanwhile, using field programmable gate array (FPGA, altera cyclone IV series) concurrent computing we can configure multi core image matching system, thus doing stereo matching on embedded system. The simulation results demonstrate that it can speed up the process of stereo matching and increase matching reliability and stability, realize embedded calculation, expand application range.

  4. Fast 3-d tomographic microwave imaging for breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Grzegorczyk, Tomasz M; Meaney, Paul M; Kaufman, Peter A; diFlorio-Alexander, Roberta M; Paulsen, Keith D

    2012-08-01

    Microwave breast imaging (using electromagnetic waves of frequencies around 1 GHz) has mostly remained at the research level for the past decade, gaining little clinical acceptance. The major hurdles limiting patient use are both at the hardware level (challenges in collecting accurate and noncorrupted data) and software level (often plagued by unrealistic reconstruction times in the tens of hours). In this paper we report improvements that address both issues. First, the hardware is able to measure signals down to levels compatible with sub-centimeter image resolution while keeping an exam time under 2 min. Second, the software overcomes the enormous time burden and produces similarly accurate images in less than 20 min. The combination of the new hardware and software allows us to produce and report here the first clinical 3-D microwave tomographic images of the breast. Two clinical examples are selected out of 400+ exams conducted at the Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center (Lebanon, NH). The first example demonstrates the potential usefulness of our system for breast cancer screening while the second example focuses on therapy monitoring.

  5. Fast 3D subsurface imaging with stepped-frequency GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masarik, Matthew P.; Burns, Joseph; Thelen, Brian T.; Sutter, Lena

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates an algorithm for forming 3D images of the subsurface using stepped-frequency GPR data. The algorithm is specifically designed for a handheld GPR and therefore accounts for the irregular sampling pattern in the data and the spatially-variant air-ground interface by estimating an effective "ground-plane" and then registering the data to the plane. The algorithm efficiently solves the 4th-order polynomial for the Snell reflection points using a fully vectorized iterative scheme. The forward operator is implemented efficiently using an accelerated nonuniform FFT (Greengard and Lee, 2004); the adjoint operator is implemented efficiently using an interpolation step coupled with an upsampled FFT. The imaging is done as a linearized version of the full inverse problem, which is regularized using a sparsity constraint to reduce sidelobes and therefore improve image localization. Applying an appropriate sparsity constraint, the algorithm is able to eliminate most the surrounding clutter and sidelobes, while still rendering valuable image properties such as shape and size. The algorithm is applied to simulated data, controlled experimental data (made available by Dr. Waymond Scott, Georgia Institute of Technology), and government-provided data with irregular sampling and air-ground interface.

  6. 3D Chemical and Elemental Imaging by STXM Spectrotomography

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Karunakaran, C.; Lu, Y.; Hormes, J.; Hitchcock, A. P.; Prange, A.; Franz, B.; Harkness, T.; Obst, M.

    2011-09-09

    Spectrotomography based on the scanning transmission x-ray microscope (STXM) at the 10ID-1 spectromicroscopy beamline of the Canadian Light Source was used to study two selected unicellular microorganisms. Spatial distributions of sulphur globules, calcium, protein, and polysaccharide in sulphur-metabolizing bacteria (Allochromatium vinosum) were determined at the S 2p, C 1s, and Ca 2p edges. 3D chemical mapping showed that the sulphur globules are located inside the bacteria with a strong spatial correlation with calcium ions (it is most probably calcium carbonate from the medium; however, with STXM the distribution and localization in the cell can be made visible, which is very interesting for a biologist) and polysaccharide-rich polymers, suggesting an influence of the organic components on the formation of the sulphur and calcium deposits. A second study investigated copper accumulating in yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) treated with copper sulphate. 3D elemental imaging at the Cu 2p edge showed that Cu(II) is reduced to Cu(I) on the yeast cell wall. A novel needle-like wet cell sample holder for STXM spectrotomography studies of fully hydrated samples is discussed.

  7. 3D Chemical and Elemental Imaging by STXM Spectrotomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Hitchcock, A. P.; Karunakaran, C.; Prange, A.; Franz, B.; Harkness, T.; Lu, Y.; Obst, M.; Hormes, J.

    2011-09-01

    Spectrotomography based on the scanning transmission x-ray microscope (STXM) at the 10ID-1 spectromicroscopy beamline of the Canadian Light Source was used to study two selected unicellular microorganisms. Spatial distributions of sulphur globules, calcium, protein, and polysaccharide in sulphur-metabolizing bacteria (Allochromatium vinosum) were determined at the S 2p, C 1s, and Ca 2p edges. 3D chemical mapping showed that the sulphur globules are located inside the bacteria with a strong spatial correlation with calcium ions (it is most probably calcium carbonate from the medium; however, with STXM the distribution and localization in the cell can be made visible, which is very interesting for a biologist) and polysaccharide-rich polymers, suggesting an influence of the organic components on the formation of the sulphur and calcium deposits. A second study investigated copper accumulating in yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) treated with copper sulphate. 3D elemental imaging at the Cu 2p edge showed that Cu(II) is reduced to Cu(I) on the yeast cell wall. A novel needle-like wet cell sample holder for STXM spectrotomography studies of fully hydrated samples is discussed.

  8. Image sequence coding using 3D scene models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girod, Bernd

    1994-09-01

    The implicit and explicit use of 3D models for image sequence coding is discussed. For implicit use, a 3D model can be incorporated into motion compensating prediction. A scheme that estimates the displacement vector field with a rigid body motion constraint by recovering epipolar lines from an unconstrained displacement estimate and then repeating block matching along the epipolar line is proposed. Experimental results show that an improved displacement vector field can be obtained with a rigid body motion constraint. As an example for explicit use, various results with a facial animation model for videotelephony are discussed. A 13 X 16 B-spline mask can be adapted automatically to individual faces and is used to generate facial expressions based on FACS. A depth-from-defocus range camera suitable for real-time facial motion tracking is described. Finally, the real-time facial animation system `Traugott' is presented that has been used to generate several hours of broadcast video. Experiments suggest that a videophone system based on facial animation might require a transmission bitrate of 1 kbit/s or below.

  9. Midsagittal plane extraction from brain images based on 3D SIFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huisi; Wang, Defeng; Shi, Lin; Wen, Zhenkun; Ming, Zhong

    2014-03-01

    Midsagittal plane (MSP) extraction from 3D brain images is considered as a promising technique for human brain symmetry analysis. In this paper, we present a fast and robust MSP extraction method based on 3D scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT). Unlike the existing brain MSP extraction methods, which mainly rely on the gray similarity, 3D edge registration or parameterized surface matching to determine the fissure plane, our proposed method is based on distinctive 3D SIFT features, in which the fissure plane is determined by parallel 3D SIFT matching and iterative least-median of squares plane regression. By considering the relative scales, orientations and flipped descriptors between two 3D SIFT features, we propose a novel metric to measure the symmetry magnitude for 3D SIFT features. By clustering and indexing the extracted SIFT features using a k-dimensional tree (KD-tree) implemented on graphics processing units, we can match multiple pairs of 3D SIFT features in parallel and solve the optimal MSP on-the-fly. The proposed method is evaluated by synthetic and in vivo datasets, of normal and pathological cases, and validated by comparisons with the state-of-the-art methods. Experimental results demonstrated that our method has achieved a real-time performance with better accuracy yielding an average yaw angle error below 0.91° and an average roll angle error no more than 0.89°.

  10. Hybrid atlas-based and image-based approach for segmenting 3D brain MRIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, Gloria; Musse, Olivier; Heitz, Fabrice; Armspach, Jean-Paul

    2001-07-01

    This work is a contribution to the problem of localizing key cerebral structures in 3D MRIs and its quantitative evaluation. In pursuing it, the cooperation between an image-based segmentation method and a hierarchical deformable registration approach has been considered. The segmentation relies on two main processes: homotopy modification and contour decision. The first one is achieved by a marker extraction stage where homogeneous 3D regions of an image, I(s), from the data set are identified. These regions, M(I), are obtained combining information from deformable atlas, achieved by the warping of eight previous labeled maps on I(s). Then, the goal of the decision stage is to precisely locate the contours of the 3D regions set by the markers. This contour decision is performed by a 3D extension of the watershed transform. The anatomical structures taken into consideration and embedded into the atlas are brain, ventricles, corpus callosum, cerebellum, right and left hippocampus, medulla and midbrain. The hybrid method operates fully automatically and in 3D, successfully providing segmented brain structures. The quality of the segmentation has been studied in terms of the detected volume ratio by using kappa statistic and ROC analysis. Results of the method are shown and validated on a 3D MRI phantom. This study forms part of an on-going long term research aiming at the creation of a 3D probabilistic multi-purpose anatomical brain atlas.

  11. 3D optical sectioning with a new hyperspectral confocal fluorescence imaging system.

    SciTech Connect

    Nieman, Linda T.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Davidson, George S.; Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Haaland, David Michael; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio; Bachand, George David; Jones, Howland D. T.

    2007-02-01

    A novel hyperspectral fluorescence microscope for high-resolution 3D optical sectioning of cells and other structures has been designed, constructed, and used to investigate a number of different problems. We have significantly extended new multivariate curve resolution (MCR) data analysis methods to deconvolve the hyperspectral image data and to rapidly extract quantitative 3D concentration distribution maps of all emitting species. The imaging system has many advantages over current confocal imaging systems including simultaneous monitoring of numerous highly overlapped fluorophores, immunity to autofluorescence or impurity fluorescence, enhanced sensitivity, and dramatically improved accuracy, reliability, and dynamic range. Efficient data compression in the spectral dimension has allowed personal computers to perform quantitative analysis of hyperspectral images of large size without loss of image quality. We have also developed and tested software to perform analysis of time resolved hyperspectral images using trilinear multivariate analysis methods. The new imaging system is an enabling technology for numerous applications including (1) 3D composition mapping analysis of multicomponent processes occurring during host-pathogen interactions, (2) monitoring microfluidic processes, (3) imaging of molecular motors and (4) understanding photosynthetic processes in wild type and mutant Synechocystis cyanobacteria.

  12. Subnuclear foci quantification using high-throughput 3D image cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadduwage, Dushan N.; Parrish, Marcus; Choi, Heejin; Engelward, Bevin P.; Matsudaira, Paul; So, Peter T. C.

    2015-07-01

    Ionising radiation causes various types of DNA damages including double strand breaks (DSBs). DSBs are often recognized by DNA repair protein ATM which forms gamma-H2AX foci at the site of the DSBs that can be visualized using immunohistochemistry. However most of such experiments are of low throughput in terms of imaging and image analysis techniques. Most of the studies still use manual counting or classification. Hence they are limited to counting a low number of foci per cell (5 foci per nucleus) as the quantification process is extremely labour intensive. Therefore we have developed a high throughput instrumentation and computational pipeline specialized for gamma-H2AX foci quantification. A population of cells with highly clustered foci inside nuclei were imaged, in 3D with submicron resolution, using an in-house developed high throughput image cytometer. Imaging speeds as high as 800 cells/second in 3D were achieved by using HiLo wide-field depth resolved imaging and a remote z-scanning technique. Then the number of foci per cell nucleus were quantified using a 3D extended maxima transform based algorithm. Our results suggests that while most of the other 2D imaging and manual quantification studies can count only up to about 5 foci per nucleus our method is capable of counting more than 100. Moreover we show that 3D analysis is significantly superior compared to the 2D techniques.

  13. 3D Image-Guided Automatic Pipette Positioning for Single Cell Experiments in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Long, Brian; Li, Lu; Knoblich, Ulf; Zeng, Hongkui; Peng, Hanchuan

    2015-01-01

    We report a method to facilitate single cell, image-guided experiments including in vivo electrophysiology and electroporation. Our method combines 3D image data acquisition, visualization and on-line image analysis with precise control of physical probes such as electrophysiology microelectrodes in brain tissue in vivo. Adaptive pipette positioning provides a platform for future advances in automated, single cell in vivo experiments. PMID:26689553

  14. Quantitative Multiscale Cell Imaging in Controlled 3D Microenvironments

    PubMed Central

    Welf, Erik S.; Driscoll, Meghan K.; Dean, Kevin M.; Schäfer, Claudia; Chu, Jun; Davidson, Michael W.; Lin, Michael Z.; Danuser, Gaudenz; Fiolka, Reto

    2016-01-01

    The microenvironment determines cell behavior, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood because quantitative studies of cell signaling and behavior have been challenging due to insufficient spatial and/or temporal resolution and limitations on microenvironmental control. Here we introduce microenvironmental selective plane illumination microscopy (meSPIM) for imaging and quantification of intracellular signaling and submicrometer cellular structures as well as large-scale cell morphological and environmental features. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by showing that the mechanical properties of the microenvironment regulate the transition of melanoma cells from actin-driven protrusion to blebbing, and we present tools to quantify how cells manipulate individual collagen fibers. We leverage the nearly isotropic resolution of meSPIM to quantify the local concentration of actin and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling on the surfaces of cells deep within 3D collagen matrices and track the many small membrane protrusions that appear in these more physiologically relevant environments. PMID:26906741

  15. Unsupervised fuzzy segmentation of 3D magnetic resonance brain images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velthuizen, Robert P.; Hall, Lawrence O.; Clarke, Laurence P.; Bensaid, Amine M.; Arrington, J. A.; Silbiger, Martin L.

    1993-07-01

    Unsupervised fuzzy methods are proposed for segmentation of 3D Magnetic Resonance images of the brain. Fuzzy c-means (FCM) has shown promising results for segmentation of single slices. FCM has been investigated for volume segmentations, both by combining results of single slices and by segmenting the full volume. Different strategies and initializations have been tried. In particular, two approaches have been used: (1) a method by which, iteratively, the furthest sample is split off to form a new cluster center, and (2) the traditional FCM in which the membership grade matrix is initialized in some way. Results have been compared with volume segmentations by k-means and with two supervised methods, k-nearest neighbors and region growing. Results of individual segmentations are presented as well as comparisons on the application of the different methods to a number of tumor patient data sets.

  16. 3D x-ray reconstruction using lightfield imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Sajib; Tahtali, Murat; Lambert, Andrew; Pickering, Mark R.

    2014-09-01

    Existing Computed Tomography (CT) systems require full 360° rotation projections. Using the principles of lightfield imaging, only 4 projections under ideal conditions can be sufficient when the object is illuminated with multiple-point Xray sources. The concept was presented in a previous work with synthetically sampled data from a synthetic phantom. Application to real data requires precise calibration of the physical set up. This current work presents the calibration procedures along with experimental findings for the reconstruction of a physical 3D phantom consisting of simple geometric shapes. The crucial part of this process is to determine the effective distances of the X-ray paths, which are not possible or very difficult by direct measurements. Instead, they are calculated by tracking the positions of fiducial markers under prescribed source and object movements. Iterative algorithms are used for the reconstruction. Customized backprojection is used to ensure better initial guess for the iterative algorithms to start with.

  17. 3D imaging of semiconductor components by discrete laminography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batenburg, K. J.; Palenstijn, W. J.; Sijbers, J.

    2014-06-01

    X-ray laminography is a powerful technique for quality control of semiconductor components. Despite the advantages of nondestructive 3D imaging over 2D techniques based on sectioning, the acquisition time is still a major obstacle for practical use of the technique. In this paper, we consider the application of Discrete Tomography to laminography data, which can potentially reduce the scanning time while still maintaining a high reconstruction quality. By incorporating prior knowledge in the reconstruction algorithm about the materials present in the scanned object, far more accurate reconstructions can be obtained from the same measured data compared to classical reconstruction methods. We present a series of simulation experiments that illustrate the potential of the approach.

  18. 3D imaging of semiconductor components by discrete laminography

    SciTech Connect

    Batenburg, K. J.; Palenstijn, W. J.; Sijbers, J.

    2014-06-19

    X-ray laminography is a powerful technique for quality control of semiconductor components. Despite the advantages of nondestructive 3D imaging over 2D techniques based on sectioning, the acquisition time is still a major obstacle for practical use of the technique. In this paper, we consider the application of Discrete Tomography to laminography data, which can potentially reduce the scanning time while still maintaining a high reconstruction quality. By incorporating prior knowledge in the reconstruction algorithm about the materials present in the scanned object, far more accurate reconstructions can be obtained from the same measured data compared to classical reconstruction methods. We present a series of simulation experiments that illustrate the potential of the approach.

  19. Recovery and Visualization of 3D Structure of Chromosomes from Tomographic Reconstruction Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, Sabarish; Liao, Pao-Chuan; Shin, Min C.; Tsap, Leonid V.

    2006-12-01

    The objectives of this work include automatic recovery and visualization of a 3D chromosome structure from a sequence of 2D tomographic reconstruction images taken through the nucleus of a cell. Structure is very important for biologists as it affects chromosome functions, behavior of the cell, and its state. Analysis of chromosome structure is significant in the detection of diseases, identification of chromosomal abnormalities, study of DNA structural conformation, in-depth study of chromosomal surface morphology, observation of in vivo behavior of the chromosomes over time, and in monitoring environmental gene mutations. The methodology incorporates thresholding based on a histogram analysis with a polyline splitting algorithm, contour extraction via active contours, and detection of the 3D chromosome structure by establishing corresponding regions throughout the slices. Visualization using point cloud meshing generates a 3D surface. The 3D triangular mesh of the chromosomes provides surface detail and allows a user to interactively analyze chromosomes using visualization software.

  20. Recovery and Visualization of 3D Structure of Chromosomes from Tomographic Reconstruction Images

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, S; Liao, P; Shin, M C; Tsap, L V

    2004-04-28

    The objectives of this work include automatic recovery and visualization of a 3D chromosome structure from a sequence of 2D tomographic reconstruction images taken through the nucleus of a cell. Structure is very important for biologists as it affects chromosome functions, behavior of the cell and its state. Chromosome analysis is significant in the detection of deceases and in monitoring environmental gene mutations. The algorithm incorporates thresholding based on a histogram analysis with a polyline splitting algorithm, contour extraction via active contours, and detection of the 3D chromosome structure by establishing corresponding regions throughout the slices. Visualization using point cloud meshing generates a 3D surface. The 3D triangular mesh of the chromosomes provides surface detail and allows a user to interactively analyze chromosomes using visualization software.

  1. Needle placement for piriformis injection using 3-D imaging.

    PubMed

    Clendenen, Steven R; Candler, Shawn A; Osborne, Michael D; Palmer, Scott C; Duench, Stephanie; Glynn, Laura; Ghazi, Salim M

    2013-01-01

    Piriformis syndrome is a pain syndrome originating in the buttock and is attributed to 6% - 8% of patients referred for the treatment of back and leg pain. The treatment for piriformis syndrome using fluoroscopy, computed tomography (CT), electromyography (EMG), and ultrasound (US) has become standard practice. The treatment of Piriformis Syndrome has evolved to include fluoroscopy and EMG with CT guidance. We present a case study of 5 successful piriformis injections using 3-D computer-assisted electromagnet needle tracking coupled with ultrasound. A 6-degree of freedom electromagnetic position tracker was attached to the ultrasound probe that allowed the system to detect the position and orientation of the probe in the magnetic field. The tracked ultrasound probe was used to find the posterior superior iliac spine. Subsequently, 3 points were captured to register the ultrasound image with the CT or magnetic resonance image scan. Moreover, after the registration was obtained, the navigation system visualized the tracked needle relative to the CT scan in real-time using 2 orthogonal multi-planar reconstructions centered at the tracked needle tip. Conversely, a recent study revealed that fluoroscopically guided injections had 30% accuracy compared to ultrasound guided injections, which tripled the accuracy percentage. This novel technique exhibited an accurate needle guidance injection precision of 98% while advancing to the piriformis muscle and avoiding the sciatic nerve. The mean (± SD) procedure time was 19.08 (± 4.9) minutes. This technique allows for electromagnetic instrument tip tracking with real-time 3-D guidance to the selected target. As with any new technique, a learning curve is expected; however, this technique could offer an alternative, minimizing radiation exposure.

  2. 3D imaging options and ultrasound contrast agents for the ultrasound assessment of pediatric rheumatic patients.

    PubMed

    Madej, Tomasz

    2013-12-01

    The application of 3D imaging in pediatric rheumatology helps to make the assessment of inflammatory changes more objective and to estimate accurately their volume and the actual response to treatment in the course of follow-up examinations. Additional interesting opportunities are opened up by the vascularity analysis with the help of power Doppler and color Doppler in 3D imaging. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound examinations enable a more sensitive assessment of the vascularity of inflamed structures of the locomotor system, and a more accurate analysis of treatment's effect on changes in vascularity, and thereby the inflammation process activity, as compared to the classical options of power and color Doppler. The equipment required, time limitations, as well as the high price in the case of contrast-enhanced ultrasound, contribute to the fact that the 3D analysis of inflammatory changes and contrast-enhanced ultrasound examinations are not routinely applied for pediatric patients.

  3. Voxel-coding method for quantification of vascular structure from 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Shahrokni, Ali; Zoroofi, Reza A.

    2001-05-01

    This paper presents an image processing method for information extraction from 3D images of vasculature. It automates the study of vascular structures by extracting quantitative information such as skeleton, length, diameter, and vessel-to- tissue ratio for different vessels as well as their branches. Furthermore, it generates 3D visualization of vessels based on desired anatomical characteristics such as vessel diameter or 3D connectivity. Steps of the proposed approach are as follows. (1) Preprocessing, in which intensity adjustment, optimal thresholding, and median filtering are done. (2) 3D thinning, in which medial axis and skeleton of the vessels are found. (3) Branch labeling, in which different branches are identified and each voxel is assigned to the corresponding branch. (4) Quantitation, in which length of each branch is estimated, based on the number of voxels assigned to it, and its diameter is calculated using the medial axis direction. (5) Visualization, in which vascular structure is shown in 3D, using color coding and surface rendering methods. We have tested and evaluated the proposed algorithms using simulated images of multi-branch vessels and real confocal microscopic images of the vessels in rat brains. Experimental results illustrate performance of the methods and usefulness of the results for medical image analysis applications.

  4. GPU-accelerated denoising of 3D magnetic resonance images

    SciTech Connect

    Howison, Mark; Wes Bethel, E.

    2014-05-29

    The raw computational power of GPU accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. In practice, applying these filtering operations requires setting multiple parameters. This study was designed to provide better guidance to practitioners for choosing the most appropriate parameters by answering two questions: what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? And what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? To answer the first question, we use two different metrics, mean squared error (MSE) and mean structural similarity (MSSIM), to compare denoising quality against a reference image. Surprisingly, the best improvement in structural similarity with the bilateral filter is achieved with a small stencil size that lies within the range of real-time execution on an NVIDIA Tesla M2050 GPU. Moreover, inappropriate choices for parameters, especially scaling parameters, can yield very poor denoising performance. To answer the second question, we perform an autotuning study to empirically determine optimal memory tiling on the GPU. The variation in these results suggests that such tuning is an essential step in achieving real-time performance. These results have important implications for the real-time application of denoising to MR images in clinical settings that require fast turn-around times.

  5. Reconstruction of 3d Digital Image of Weepingforsythia Pollen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dongwu; Chen, Zhiwei; Xu, Hongzhi; Liu, Wenqi; Wang, Lina

    Confocal microscopy, which is a major advance upon normal light microscopy, has been used in a number of scientific fields. By confocal microscopy techniques, cells and tissues can be visualized deeply, and three-dimensional images created. Compared with conventional microscopes, confocal microscope improves the resolution of images by eliminating out-of-focus light. Moreover, confocal microscope has a higher level of sensitivity due to highly sensitive light detectors and the ability to accumulate images captured over time. In present studies, a series of Weeping Forsythia pollen digital images (35 images in total) were acquired with confocal microscope, and the three-dimensional digital image of the pollen reconstructed with confocal microscope. Our results indicate that it's a very easy job to analysis threedimensional digital image of the pollen with confocal microscope and the probe Acridine orange (AO).

  6. High resolution 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliardi, Frank M.; Cornelius, Iwan; Blencowe, Anton; Franich, Rick D.; Geso, Moshi

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) techniques are under investigation at synchrotrons worldwide. Favourable outcomes from animal and cell culture studies have proven the efficacy of MRT. The aim of MRT researchers currently is to progress to human clinical trials in the near future. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the high resolution and 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams in PRESAGE® dosimeters using laser fluorescence confocal microscopy. Methods: Water equivalent PRESAGE® dosimeters were fabricated and irradiated with microbeams on the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Microbeam arrays comprised of microbeams 25–50 μm wide with 200 or 400 μm peak-to-peak spacing were delivered as single, cross-fire, multidirectional, and interspersed arrays. Imaging of the dosimeters was performed using a NIKON A1 laser fluorescence confocal microscope. Results: The spatial fractionation of the MRT beams was clearly visible in 2D and up to 9 mm in depth. Individual microbeams were easily resolved with the full width at half maximum of microbeams measured on images with resolutions of as low as 0.09 μm/pixel. Profiles obtained demonstrated the change of the peak-to-valley dose ratio for interspersed MRT microbeam arrays and subtle variations in the sample positioning by the sample stage goniometer were measured. Conclusions: Laser fluorescence confocal microscopy of MRT irradiated PRESAGE® dosimeters has been validated in this study as a high resolution imaging tool for the independent spatial and geometrical verification of MRT beam delivery.

  7. Performance assessment of 3D surface imaging technique for medical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tuotuo; Geng, Jason; Li, Shidong

    2013-03-01

    Recent development in optical 3D surface imaging technologies provide better ways to digitalize the 3D surface and its motion in real-time. The non-invasive 3D surface imaging approach has great potential for many medical imaging applications, such as motion monitoring of radiotherapy, pre/post evaluation of plastic surgery and dermatology, to name a few. Various commercial 3D surface imaging systems have appeared on the market with different dimension, speed and accuracy. For clinical applications, the accuracy, reproducibility and robustness across the widely heterogeneous skin color, tone, texture, shape properties, and ambient lighting is very crucial. Till now, a systematic approach for evaluating the performance of different 3D surface imaging systems still yet exist. In this paper, we present a systematic performance assessment approach to 3D surface imaging system assessment for medical applications. We use this assessment approach to exam a new real-time surface imaging system we developed, dubbed "Neo3D Camera", for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). The assessments include accuracy, field of view, coverage, repeatability, speed and sensitivity to environment, texture and color.

  8. 3D-DXA: Assessing the Femoral Shape, the Trabecular Macrostructure and the Cortex in 3D from DXA images.

    PubMed

    Humbert, Ludovic; Martelli, Yves; Fonolla, Roger; Steghofer, Martin; Di Gregorio, Silvana; Malouf, Jorge; Romera, Jordi; Barquero, Luis Miguel Del Rio

    2017-01-01

    The 3D distribution of the cortical and trabecular bone mass in the proximal femur is a critical component in determining fracture resistance that is not taken into account in clinical routine Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) examination. In this paper, a statistical shape and appearance model together with a 3D-2D registration approach are used to model the femoral shape and bone density distribution in 3D from an anteroposterior DXA projection. A model-based algorithm is subsequently used to segment the cortex and build a 3D map of the cortical thickness and density. Measurements characterising the geometry and density distribution were computed for various regions of interest in both cortical and trabecular compartments. Models and measurements provided by the "3D-DXA" software algorithm were evaluated using a database of 157 study subjects, by comparing 3D-DXA analyses (using DXA scanners from three manufacturers) with measurements performed by Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT). The mean point-to-surface distance between 3D-DXA and QCT femoral shapes was 0.93 mm. The mean absolute error between cortical thickness and density estimates measured by 3D-DXA and QCT was 0.33 mm and 72 mg/cm(3). Correlation coefficients (R) between the 3D-DXA and QCT measurements were 0.86, 0.93, and 0.95 for the volumetric bone mineral density at the trabecular, cortical, and integral compartments respectively, and 0.91 for the mean cortical thickness. 3D-DXA provides a detailed analysis of the proximal femur, including a separate assessment of the cortical layer and trabecular macrostructure, which could potentially improve osteoporosis management while maintaining DXA as the standard routine modality.

  9. Acquiring 3-D information about thick objects from differential interference contrast images using texture extraction.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Heidy; Brooks, Dana; DiMarzio, Charles

    2010-01-01

    The extraction of 3-D morphological information about thick objects is explored in this work. We extract this information from 3-D differential interference contrast (DIC) images by applying a texture detection method. Texture extraction methods have been successfully used in different applications to study biological samples. A 3-D texture image is obtained by applying a local entropy-based texture extraction method. The use of this method to detect regions of blastocyst mouse embryos that are used in assisted reproduction techniques such as in vitro fertilization is presented as an example. Results demonstrate the potential of using texture detection methods to improve morphological analysis of thick samples, which is relevant to many biomedical and biological studies. Fluorescence and optical quadrature microscope phase images are used for validation.

  10. Acquiring 3-D information about thick objects from differential interference contrast images using texture extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, Heidy; Brooks, Dana; Dimarzio, Charles

    2010-07-01

    The extraction of 3-D morphological information about thick objects is explored in this work. We extract this information from 3-D differential interference contrast (DIC) images by applying a texture detection method. Texture extraction methods have been successfully used in different applications to study biological samples. A 3-D texture image is obtained by applying a local entropy-based texture extraction method. The use of this method to detect regions of blastocyst mouse embryos that are used in assisted reproduction techniques such as in vitro fertilization is presented as an example. Results demonstrate the potential of using texture detection methods to improve morphological analysis of thick samples, which is relevant to many biomedical and biological studies. Fluorescence and optical quadrature microscope phase images are used for validation.

  11. Finite element 3D reconstruction of the pulmonary acinus imaged by synchrotron X-ray tomography

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, A.; Filipovic, N.; Haberthür, D.; Dickie, R.; Matsui, Y.; Stampanoni, M.; Schittny, J. C.

    2008-01-01

    The alveolated structure of the pulmonary acinus plays a vital role in gas exchange function. Three-dimensional (3D) analysis of the parenchymal region is fundamental to understanding this structure-function relationship, but only a limited number of attempts have been conducted in the past because of technical limitations. In this study, we developed a new image processing methodology based on finite element (FE) analysis for accurate 3D structural reconstruction of the gas exchange regions of the lung. Stereologically well characterized rat lung samples (Pediatr Res 53: 72–80, 2003) were imaged using high-resolution synchrotron radiation-based X-ray tomographic microscopy. A stack of 1,024 images (each slice: 1024 × 1024 pixels) with resolution of 1.4 μm3 per voxel were generated. For the development of FE algorithm, regions of interest (ROI), containing ∼7.5 million voxels, were further extracted as a working subunit. 3D FEs were created overlaying the voxel map using a grid-based hexahedral algorithm. A proper threshold value for appropriate segmentation was iteratively determined to match the calculated volume density of tissue to the stereologically determined value (Pediatr Res 53: 72–80, 2003). The resulting 3D FEs are ready to be used for 3D structural analysis as well as for subsequent FE computational analyses like fluid dynamics and skeletonization. PMID:18583378

  12. Note: An improved 3D imaging system for electron-electron coincidence measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yun Fei; Lee, Suk Kyoung; Adhikari, Pradip; Herath, Thushani; Lingenfelter, Steven; Winney, Alexander H.; Li, Wen

    2015-09-15

    We demonstrate an improved imaging system that can achieve highly efficient 3D detection of two electrons in coincidence. The imaging system is based on a fast frame complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera and a high-speed waveform digitizer. We have shown previously that this detection system is capable of 3D detection of ions and electrons with good temporal and spatial resolution. Here, we show that with a new timing analysis algorithm, this system can achieve an unprecedented dead-time (<0.7 ns) and dead-space (<1 mm) when detecting two electrons. A true zero dead-time detection is also demonstrated.

  13. 3D Time-lapse Imaging and Quantification of Mitochondrial Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sison, Miguel; Chakrabortty, Sabyasachi; Extermann, Jérôme; Nahas, Amir; James Marchand, Paul; Lopez, Antonio; Weil, Tanja; Lasser, Theo

    2017-01-01

    We present a 3D time-lapse imaging method for monitoring mitochondrial dynamics in living HeLa cells based on photothermal optical coherence microscopy and using novel surface functionalization of gold nanoparticles. The biocompatible protein-based biopolymer coating contains multiple functional groups which impart better cellular uptake and mitochondria targeting efficiency. The high stability of the gold nanoparticles allows continuous imaging over an extended time up to 3000 seconds without significant cell damage. By combining temporal autocorrelation analysis with a classical diffusion model, we quantify mitochondrial dynamics and cast these results into 3D maps showing the heterogeneity of diffusion parameters across the whole cell volume. PMID:28230188

  14. 3D Time-lapse Imaging and Quantification of Mitochondrial Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sison, Miguel; Chakrabortty, Sabyasachi; Extermann, Jérôme; Nahas, Amir; James Marchand, Paul; Lopez, Antonio; Weil, Tanja; Lasser, Theo

    2017-02-01

    We present a 3D time-lapse imaging method for monitoring mitochondrial dynamics in living HeLa cells based on photothermal optical coherence microscopy and using novel surface functionalization of gold nanoparticles. The biocompatible protein-based biopolymer coating contains multiple functional groups which impart better cellular uptake and mitochondria targeting efficiency. The high stability of the gold nanoparticles allows continuous imaging over an extended time up to 3000 seconds without significant cell damage. By combining temporal autocorrelation analysis with a classical diffusion model, we quantify mitochondrial dynamics and cast these results into 3D maps showing the heterogeneity of diffusion parameters across the whole cell volume.

  15. A Simple Quality Assessment Index for Stereoscopic Images Based on 3D Gradient Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shanshan; Shao, Feng; Li, Fucui; Yu, Mei; Jiang, Gangyi

    2014-01-01

    We present a simple quality assessment index for stereoscopic images based on 3D gradient magnitude. To be more specific, we construct 3D volume from the stereoscopic images across different disparity spaces and calculate pointwise 3D gradient magnitude similarity (3D-GMS) along three horizontal, vertical, and viewpoint directions. Then, the quality score is obtained by averaging the 3D-GMS scores of all points in the 3D volume. Experimental results on four publicly available 3D image quality assessment databases demonstrate that, in comparison with the most related existing methods, the devised algorithm achieves high consistency alignment with subjective assessment. PMID:25133265

  16. Defining multiple, distinct, and shared spatiotemporal patterns of DNA replication and endoreduplication from 3D image analysis of developing maize (Zea mays L.) root tip nuclei.

    PubMed

    Bass, Hank W; Hoffman, Gregg G; Lee, Tae-Jin; Wear, Emily E; Joseph, Stacey R; Allen, George C; Hanley-Bowdoin, Linda; Thompson, William F

    2015-11-01

    Spatiotemporal patterns of DNA replication have been described for yeast and many types of cultured animal cells, frequently after cell cycle arrest to aid in synchronization. However, patterns of DNA replication in nuclei from plants or naturally developing organs remain largely uncharacterized. Here we report findings from 3D quantitative analysis of DNA replication and endoreduplication in nuclei from pulse-labeled developing maize root tips. In both early and middle S phase nuclei, flow-sorted on the basis of DNA content, replicative labeling was widely distributed across euchromatic regions of the nucleoplasm. We did not observe the perinuclear or perinucleolar replicative labeling patterns characteristic of middle S phase in mammals. Instead, the early versus middle S phase patterns in maize could be distinguished cytologically by correlating two quantitative, continuous variables, replicative labeling and DAPI staining. Early S nuclei exhibited widely distributed euchromatic labeling preferentially localized to regions with weak DAPI signals. Middle S nuclei also exhibited widely distributed euchromatic labeling, but the label was preferentially localized to regions with strong DAPI signals. Highly condensed heterochromatin, including knobs, replicated during late S phase as previously reported. Similar spatiotemporal replication patterns were observed for both mitotic and endocycling maize nuclei. These results revealed that maize euchromatin exists as an intermingled mixture of two components distinguished by their condensation state and replication timing. These different patterns might reflect a previously described genome organization pattern, with "gene islands" mostly replicating during early S phase followed by most of the intergenic repetitive regions replicating during middle S phase.

  17. Relationship between DNA damage response, initiated by camptothecin or oxidative stress, and DNA replication, analyzed by quantitative 3D image analysis.

    PubMed

    Berniak, K; Rybak, P; Bernas, T; Zarębski, M; Biela, E; Zhao, H; Darzynkiewicz, Z; Dobrucki, J W

    2013-10-01

    A method of quantitative analysis of spatial (3D) relationship between discrete nuclear events detected by confocal microscopy is described and applied in analysis of a dependence between sites of DNA damage signaling (γH2AX foci) and DNA replication (EdU incorporation) in cells subjected to treatments with camptothecin (Cpt) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Cpt induces γH2AX foci, likely reporting formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), almost exclusively at sites of DNA replication. This finding is consistent with the known mechanism of induction of DSBs by DNA topoisomerase I (topo1) inhibitors at the sites of collisions of the moving replication forks with topo1-DNA "cleavable complexes" stabilized by Cpt. Whereas an increased level of H2AX histone phosphorylation is seen in S-phase of cells subjected to H2O2, only a minor proportion of γH2AX foci coincide with DNA replication sites. Thus, the increased level of H2AX phosphorylation induced by H2O2 is not a direct consequence of formation of DNA lesions at the sites of moving DNA replication forks. These data suggest that oxidative stress induced by H2O2 and formation of the primary H2O2-induced lesions (8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine) inhibits replication globally and triggers formation of γH2AX at various distances from replication forks. Quantitative analysis of a frequency of DNA replication sites and γH2AX foci suggests also that stalling of replicating forks by Cpt leads to activation of new DNA replication origins. © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  18. Fast non local means denoising for 3D MR images.

    PubMed

    Coupé, Pierrick; Yger, Pierre; Barillot, Christian

    2006-01-01

    One critical issue in the context of image restoration is the problem of noise removal while keeping the integrity of relevant image information. Denoising is a crucial step to increase image conspicuity and to improve the performances of all the processings needed for quantitative imaging analysis. The method proposed in this paper is based on an optimized version of the Non Local (NL) Means algorithm. This approach uses the natural redundancy of information in image to remove the noise. Tests were carried out on synthetic datasets and on real 3T MR images. The results show that the NL-means approach outperforms other classical denoising methods, such as Anisotropic Diffusion Filter and Total Variation.

  19. Venus Topography in 3D: Imaging of Coronae and Chasmata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurdy, D. M.; Stefanick, M.; Stoddard, P. R.

    2006-12-01

    Venus' surface hosts hundreds of circular to elongate features, ranging from 60-2600 km, and averaging somewhat over 200 km, in diameter. These enigmatic structures have been classified as "coronae" and attributed to either tectono-volcanic or impact-related mechanisms. A linear to arcuate system of chasmata - rugged zones with some of Venus' deepest troughs, extend 1000's of kilometers. They have extreme relief, with elevations changing as much as 7 km in just 30 km distance. The 54,464 km-long Venus chasmata system defined in great detail by Magellan can be fit by great circle arcs at the 89.6% level, and when corrected for the smaller size of the planet, the total length of the chasmata system measures within 2.7% of the length of Earth's spreading ridges. The relatively young Beta-Atla-Themis region (BAT), within 30° of the equator from 180-300° longitude has the planet's strongest geoid highs and profuse volcanism. This BAT region, the intersection of three rift zones, also has a high coronal concentration, with individual coronae closely associated with the chasmata system. The chasmata with the greatest relief on Venus show linear rifting that prevailed in the latest stage of tectonic deformation. For a three-dimensional view of Venus' surface, we spread out the Magellan topography on a flat surface using a Mercator projection to preserve shape. Next we illuminate the surface with beams at angle 45° from left (or right) so as to simulate mid afternoon (or mid-morning). Finally, we observe the surface with two eyes looking through orange and azure colored filters respectively. This gives a 3D view of tectonic features in the BAT area. The 3D images clearly show coronae sharing boundaries with the chasmata. This suggests that the processes of rifting and corona-formation occur together. It seems unlikely that impact craters would create this pattern.

  20. Autostereoscopic 3D visualization and image processing system for neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Tobias; Kuß, Julia; Uhlemann, Falk; Wagner, Stefan; Kirsch, Matthias; Sobottka, Stephan B; Steinmeier, Ralf; Schackert, Gabriele; Morgenstern, Ute

    2013-06-01

    A demonstrator system for planning neurosurgical procedures was developed based on commercial hardware and software. The system combines an easy-to-use environment for surgical planning with high-end visualization and the opportunity to analyze data sets for research purposes. The demonstrator system is based on the software AMIRA. Specific algorithms for segmentation, elastic registration, and visualization have been implemented and adapted to the clinical workflow. Modules from AMIRA and the image processing library Insight Segmentation and Registration Toolkit (ITK) can be combined to solve various image processing tasks. Customized modules tailored to specific clinical problems can easily be implemented using the AMIRA application programming interface and a self-developed framework for ITK filters. Visualization is done via autostereoscopic displays, which provide a 3D impression without viewing aids. A Spaceball device allows a comfortable, intuitive way of navigation in the data sets. Via an interface to a neurosurgical navigation system, the demonstrator system can be used intraoperatively. The precision, applicability, and benefit of the demonstrator system for planning of neurosurgical interventions and for neurosurgical research were successfully evaluated by neurosurgeons using phantom and patient data sets.

  1. [3D virtual imaging of the upper airways].

    PubMed

    Ferretti, G; Coulomb, M

    2000-04-01

    The different three dimensional reconstructions of the upper airways that can be obtained with spiral computed tomograpy (CT) are presented here. The parameters indispensable to achieve as real as possible spiral CT images are recalled together with the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniues. Multislice reconstruction (MSR) produces slices in different planes of space with the high contrast of CT slices. They provide information similar to that obtained for the rare indications for thoracic MRI. Thick slice reconstructions with maximum intensity projection (MIP) or minimum intensity projection (minIP) give projection views where the contrast can be modified by selecting the more dense (MIP) or less dense (minIP) voxels. They find their application in the exploration of the upper airways. Surface and volume external 3D reconstructions can be obtained. They give an overall view of the upper airways, similar to a bronchogram. Virtual endoscopy reproduces real endoscopic images but cannot provide information on the aspect of the mucosa or biopsy specimens. It offers possible applications for preparing, guiding and controlling interventional fibroscopy procedures.

  2. Multiframe image point matching and 3-d surface reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tsai, R Y

    1983-02-01

    This paper presents two new methods, the Joint Moment Method (JMM) and the Window Variance Method (WVM), for image matching and 3-D object surface reconstruction using multiple perspective views. The viewing positions and orientations for these perspective views are known a priori, as is usually the case for such applications as robotics and industrial vision as well as close range photogrammetry. Like the conventional two-frame correlation method, the JMM and WVM require finding the extrema of 1-D curves, which are proved to theoretically approach a delta function exponentially as the number of frames increases for the JMM and are much sharper than the two-frame correlation function for both the JMM and the WVM, even when the image point to be matched cannot be easily distinguished from some of the other points. The theoretical findings have been supported by simulations. It is also proved that JMM and WVM are not sensitive to certain radiometric effects. If the same window size is used, the computational complexity for the proposed methods is about n - 1 times that for the two-frame method where n is the number of frames. Simulation results show that the JMM and WVM require smaller windows than the two-frame correlation method with better accuracy, and therefore may even be more computationally feasible than the latter since the computational complexity increases quadratically as a function of the window size.

  3. Advanced 3D polarimetric flash ladar imaging through foliage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, James T.; Moran, Steven E.; Roddier, Nicolas; Vercillo, Richard; Bridges, Robert; Austin, William

    2003-08-01

    High-resolution three-dimensional flash ladar system technologies are under development that enables remote identification of vehicles and armament hidden by heavy tree canopies. We have developed a sensor architecture and design that employs a 3D flash ladar receiver to address this mission. The receiver captures 128×128×>30 three-dimensional images for each laser pulse fired. The voxel size of the image is 3"×3"×4" at the target location. A novel signal-processing algorithm has been developed that achieves sub-voxel (sub-inch) range precision estimates of target locations within each pixel. Polarization discrimination is implemented to augment the target-to-foliage contrast. When employed, this method improves the range resolution of the system beyond the classical limit (based on pulsewidth and detection bandwidth). Experiments were performed with a 6 ns long transmitter pulsewidth that demonstrate 1-inch range resolution of a tank-like target that is occluded by foliage and a range precision of 0.3" for unoccluded targets.

  4. 3D tensor-based blind multispectral image decomposition for tumor demarcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopriva, Ivica; Peršin, Antun

    2010-03-01

    Blind decomposition of multi-spectral fluorescent image for tumor demarcation is formulated exploiting tensorial structure of the image. First contribution of the paper is identification of the matrix of spectral responses and 3D tensor of spatial distributions of the materials present in the image from Tucker3 or PARAFAC models of 3D image tensor. Second contribution of the paper is clustering based estimation of the number of the materials present in the image as well as matrix of their spectral profiles. 3D tensor of the spatial distributions of the materials is recovered through 3-mode multiplication of the multi-spectral image tensor and inverse of the matrix of spectral profiles. Tensor representation of the multi-spectral image preserves its local spatial structure that is lost, due to vectorization process, when matrix factorization-based decomposition methods (such as non-negative matrix factorization and independent component analysis) are used. Superior performance of the tensor-based image decomposition over matrix factorization-based decompositions is demonstrated on experimental red-green-blue (RGB) image with known ground truth as well as on RGB fluorescent images of the skin tumor (basal cell carcinoma).

  5. Complex adaptation-based LDR image rendering for 3D image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung-Hak; Kwon, Hyuk-Ju; Sohng, Kyu-Ik

    2014-07-01

    A low-dynamic tone-compression technique is developed for realistic image rendering that can make three-dimensional (3D) images similar to realistic scenes by overcoming brightness dimming in the 3D display mode. The 3D surround provides varying conditions for image quality, illuminant adaptation, contrast, gamma, color, sharpness, and so on. In general, gain/offset adjustment, gamma compensation, and histogram equalization have performed well in contrast compression; however, as a result of signal saturation and clipping effects, image details are removed and information is lost on bright and dark areas. Thus, an enhanced image mapping technique is proposed based on space-varying image compression. The performance of contrast compression is enhanced with complex adaptation in a 3D viewing surround combining global and local adaptation. Evaluating local image rendering in view of tone and color expression, noise reduction, and edge compensation confirms that the proposed 3D image-mapping model can compensate for the loss of image quality in the 3D mode.

  6. 3D-3D registration of partial capitate bones using spin-images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breighner, Ryan; Holmes, David R.; Leng, Shuai; An, Kai-Nan; McCollough, Cynthia; Zhao, Kristin

    2013-03-01

    It is often necessary to register partial objects in medical imaging. Due to limited field of view (FOV), the entirety of an object cannot always be imaged. This study presents a novel application of an existing registration algorithm to this problem. The spin-image algorithm [1] creates pose-invariant representations of global shape with respect to individual mesh vertices. These `spin-images,' are then compared for two different poses of the same object to establish correspondences and subsequently determine relative orientation of the poses. In this study, the spin-image algorithm is applied to 4DCT-derived capitate bone surfaces to assess the relative accuracy of registration with various amounts of geometry excluded. The limited longitudinal coverage under the 4DCT technique (38.4mm, [2]), results in partial views of the capitate when imaging wrist motions. This study assesses the ability of the spin-image algorithm to register partial bone surfaces by artificially restricting the capitate geometry available for registration. Under IRB approval, standard static CT and 4DCT scans were obtained on a patient. The capitate was segmented from the static CT and one phase of 4DCT in which the whole bone was available. Spin-image registration was performed between the static and 4DCT. Distal portions of the 4DCT capitate (10-70%) were then progressively removed and registration was repeated. Registration accuracy was evaluated by angular errors and the percentage of sub-resolution fitting. It was determined that 60% of the distal capitate could be omitted without appreciable effect on registration accuracy using the spin-image algorithm (angular error < 1.5 degree, sub-resolution fitting < 98.4%).

  7. Computer-aided diagnosis for osteoporosis using chest 3D CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, K.; Matsuhiro, M.; Suzuki, H.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Nakano, Y.; Ohmatsu, H.; Kusumoto, M.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, M.

    2016-03-01

    The patients of osteoporosis comprised of about 13 million people in Japan and it is one of the problems the aging society has. In order to prevent the osteoporosis, it is necessary to do early detection and treatment. Multi-slice CT technology has been improving the three dimensional (3-D) image analysis with higher body axis resolution and shorter scan time. The 3-D image analysis using multi-slice CT images of thoracic vertebra can be used as a support to diagnose osteoporosis and at the same time can be used for lung cancer diagnosis which may lead to early detection. We develop automatic extraction and partitioning algorithm for spinal column by analyzing vertebral body structure, and the analysis algorithm of the vertebral body using shape analysis and a bone density measurement for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis diagnosis support system obtained high extraction rate of the thoracic vertebral in both normal and low doses.

  8. Frames-Based Denoising in 3D Confocal Microscopy Imaging.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, Ioannis; Santamaria-Pang, Alberto; Kakadiaris, Ioannis

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel denoising method for 3D confocal microscopy data based on robust edge detection. Our approach relies on the construction of a non-separable frame system in 3D that incorporates the Sobel operator in dual spatial directions. This multidirectional set of digital filters is capable of robustly detecting edge information by ensemble thresholding of the filtered data. We demonstrate the application of our method to both synthetic and real confocal microscopy data by comparing it to denoising methods based on separable 3D wavelets and 3D median filtering, and report very encouraging results.

  9. An optical real-time 3D measurement for analysis of facial shape and movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qican; Su, Xianyu; Chen, Wenjing; Cao, Yiping; Xiang, Liqun

    2003-12-01

    Optical non-contact 3-D shape measurement provides a novel and useful tool for analysis of facial shape and movement in presurgical and postsurgical regular check. In this article we present a system, which allows a precise 3-D visualization of the patient's facial before and after craniofacial surgery. We discussed, in this paper, the real time 3-D image capture, processing and the 3-D phase unwrapping method to recover complex shape deformation when the movement of the mouth. The result of real-time measurement for facial shape and movement will be helpful for the more ideal effect in plastic surgery.

  10. 3D texture-based classification applied on brain white matter lesions on MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, Mariana; Gobbi, David; Salluzi, Marina; Frayne, Richard; Lotufo, Roberto; Rittner, Letícia

    2016-03-01

    Lesions in the brain white matter are among the most frequently observed incidental findings on MR images. This paper presents a 3D texture-based classification to distinguish normal appearing white matter from white matter containing lesions, and compares it with the 2D approach. Texture analysis were based on 55 texture attributes extracted from gray-level histogram, gray-level co-occurrence matrix, run-length matrix and gradient. The results show that the 3D approach achieves an accuracy rate of 99.28%, against 97.41% of the 2D approach by using a support vector machine classifier. Furthermore, the most discriminating texture attributes on both 2D and 3D cases were obtained from the image histogram and co-occurrence matrix.

  11. Image processing and 3D visualization in the interpretation of patterned injury of the skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, William R.; Altschuler, Bruce R.

    1995-09-01

    The use of image processing is becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of violent crime. While much work has been done in the use of these techniques for forensic purposes outside of forensic pathology, its use in the pathologic examination of wounding has been limited. We are investigating the use of image processing in the analysis of patterned injuries and tissue damage. Our interests are currently concentrated on 1) the use of image processing techniques to aid the investigator in observing and evaluating patterned injuries in photographs, 2) measurement of the 3D shape characteristics of surface lesions, and 3) correlation of patterned injuries with deep tissue injury as a problem in 3D visualization. We are beginning investigations in data-acquisition problems for performing 3D scene reconstructions from the pathology perspective of correlating tissue injury to scene features and trace evidence localization. Our primary tool for correlation of surface injuries with deep tissue injuries has been the comparison of processed surface injury photographs with 3D reconstructions from antemortem CT and MRI data. We have developed a prototype robot for the acquisition of 3D wound and scene data.

  12. Spatio-temporal data fusion for 3D+T image reconstruction in cerebral angiography.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Andrew D; Mangoubi, Rami S; Desai, Mukund N; Mitter, Sanjoy K; Malek, Adel M

    2010-06-01

    This paper provides a framework for generating high resolution time sequences of 3D images that show the dynamics of cerebral blood flow. These sequences have the potential to allow image feedback during medical procedures that facilitate the detection and observation of pathological abnormalities such as stenoses, aneurysms, and blood clots. The 3D time series is constructed by fusing a single static 3D model with two time sequences of 2D projections of the same imaged region. The fusion process utilizes a variational approach that constrains the volumes to have both smoothly varying regions separated by edges and sparse regions of nonzero support. The variational problem is solved using a modified version of the Gauss-Seidel algorithm that exploits the spatio-temporal structure of the angiography problem. The 3D time series results are visualized using time series of isosurfaces, synthetic X-rays from arbitrary perspectives or poses, and 3D surfaces that show arrival times of the contrasted blood front using color coding. The derived visualizations provide physicians with a previously unavailable wealth of information that can lead to safer procedures, including quicker localization of flow altering abnormalities such as blood clots, and lower procedural X-ray exposure. Quantitative SNR and other performance analysis of the algorithm on computational phantom data are also presented.

  13. Quantitative analysis of autophagy using advanced 3D fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Changou, Chun A; Wolfson, Deanna L; Ahluwalia, Balpreet Singh; Bold, Richard J; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Chuang, Frank Y S

    2013-05-03

    Prostate cancer is the leading form of malignancies among men in the U.S. While surgery carries a significant risk of impotence and incontinence, traditional chemotherapeutic approaches have been largely unsuccessful. Hormone therapy is effective at early stage, but often fails with the eventual development of hormone-refractory tumors. We have been interested in developing therapeutics targeting specific metabolic deficiency of tumor cells. We recently showed that prostate tumor cells specifically lack an enzyme (argininosuccinate synthase, or ASS) involved in the synthesis of the amino acid arginine(1). This condition causes the tumor cells to become dependent on exogenous arginine, and they undergo metabolic stress when free arginine is depleted by arginine deiminase (ADI)(1,10). Indeed, we have shown that human prostate cancer cells CWR22Rv1 are effectively killed by ADI with caspase-independent apoptosis and aggressive autophagy (or macroautophagy)(1,2,3). Autophagy is an evolutionarily-conserved process that allows cells to metabolize unwanted proteins by lysosomal breakdown during nutritional starvation(4,5). Although the essential components of this pathway are well-characterized(6,7,8,9), many aspects of the molecular mechanism are still unclear - in particular, what is the role of autophagy in the death-response of prostate cancer cells after ADI treatment? In order to address this question, we required an experimental method to measure the level and extent of autophagic response in cells - and since there are no known molecular markers that can accurately track this process, we chose to develop an imaging-based approach, using quantitative 3D fluorescence microscopy(11,12). Using CWR22Rv1 cells specifically-labeled with fluorescent probes for autophagosomes and lysosomes, we show that 3D image stacks acquired with either widefield deconvolution microscopy (and later, with super-resolution, structured-illumination microscopy) can clearly capture the early

  14. Image processing and 3D visualization in forensic pathologic examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, William R.; Altschuler, Bruce R.

    1996-02-01

    The use of image processing is becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of violent crime. While much work has been done in the use of these techniques for forensic purposes outside of forensic pathology, its use in the pathologic examination of wounding has been limited. We are investigating the use of image processing and three-dimensional visualization in the analysis of patterned injuries and tissue damage. While image processing will never replace classical understanding and interpretation of how injuries develop and evolve, it can be a useful tool in helping an observer notice features in an image, may help provide correlation of surface to deep tissue injury, and provide a mechanism for the development of a metric for analyzing how likely it may be that a given object may have caused a given wound. We are also exploring methods of acquiring three-dimensional data for such measurements, which is the subject of a second paper.

  15. USJ metrology: from 0D to 3D analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Vandervorst, Wilfried

    2007-09-26

    The analysis of ultra shallow junctions is becoming a challenging task for which numerous tools and concepts are available. The requirements range from a simple 0D-analysis such as the integral dose or the sheet resistance over a simple 1D-profile (as obtained on blanket films) towards the 2D-dopant profile within a transistor. The ultimate complexity will be the analysis of a complete 3D-structure such as a FINFET, requiring a metrology tool with 3D-resolution. In each of these areas significant progress has been made in recent years and new concepts are emerging which will be discussed in this review.

  16. Improved 3D cellular imaging by multispectral focus assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tong; Xiong, Yizhi; Chung, Alice P.; Wachman, Elliot S.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2005-03-01

    Biological specimens are three-dimensional structures. However, when capturing their images through a microscope, there is only one plane in the field of view that is in focus, and out-of-focus portions of the specimen affect image quality in the in-focus plane. It is well-established that the microscope"s point spread function (PSF) can be used for blur quantitation, for the restoration of real images. However, this is an ill-posed problem, with no unique solution and with high computational complexity. In this work, instead of estimating and using the PSF, we studied focus quantitation in multi-spectral image sets. A gradient map we designed was used to evaluate the sharpness degree of each pixel, in order to identify blurred areas not to be considered. Experiments with realistic multi-spectral Pap smear images showed that measurement of their sharp gradients can provide depth information roughly comparable to human perception (through a microscope), while avoiding PSF estimation. Spectrum and morphometrics-based statistical analysis for abnormal cell detection can then be implemented in an image database where the axial structure has been refined.

  17. Development of a 3-D Measuring System for Upper Limb Movements Using Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, Kohichi; Toume, Tadashi; Nakanishi, Ryoji

    This paper describes a 3-D motion capture system for the quantitative evaluation of a finger-nose test using image processing. In the field of clinical medicine, qualitative and quantitative evaluation of voluntary movements is necessary for correct diagnosis of disorders. For this purpose, we have developed a 3-D measuring system with a multi-camera system. The configuration of the system is described and examples of movement data are shown for normal subjects and patients. In the finger-nose test at a fast trial speed, a discriminant analysis using Maharanobis generalized distances shows a discriminant rate of 93% between normal subjects and spinocerebellar degeneration(SCD) patients.

  18. Measuring Femoral Torsion In Vivo Using Freehand 3-D Ultrasound Imaging.

    PubMed

    Passmore, Elyse; Pandy, Marcus G; Graham, H Kerr; Sangeux, Morgan

    2016-02-01

    Despite variation in bone geometry, muscle and joint function is often investigated using generic musculoskeletal models. Patient-specific bone geometry can be obtained from computerised tomography, which involves ionising radiation, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is costly and time consuming. Freehand 3-D ultrasound provides an alternative to obtain bony geometry. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy and repeatability of 3-D ultrasound in measuring femoral torsion. Measurements of femoral torsion were performed on 10 healthy adults using MRI and 3-D ultrasound. Measurements of femoral torsion from 3-D ultrasound were, on average, smaller than those from MRI (mean difference = 1.8°; 95% confidence interval: -3.9°, 7.5°). MRI and 3-D ultrasound had Bland and Altman repeatability coefficients of 3.1° and 3.7°, respectively. Accurate measurements of femoral torsion were obtained with 3-D ultrasound offering the potential to acquire patient-specific bone geometry for musculoskeletal modelling. Three-dimensional ultrasound is non-invasive and relatively inexpensive and can be integrated into gait analysis.

  19. Individual 3D region-of-interest atlas of the human brain: knowledge-based class image analysis for extraction of anatomical objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Kaiser, Hans-Juergen; Sabri, Osama; Buell, Udalrich

    2000-06-01

    After neural network-based classification of tissue types, the second step of atlas extraction is knowledge-based class image analysis to get anatomically meaningful objects. Basic algorithms are region growing, mathematical morphology operations, and template matching. A special algorithm was designed for each object. The class label of each voxel and the knowledge about the relative position of anatomical objects to each other and to the sagittal midplane of the brain can be utilized for object extraction. User interaction is only necessary to define starting, mid- and end planes for most object extractions and to determine the number of iterations for erosion and dilation operations. Extraction can be done for the following anatomical brain regions: cerebrum; cerebral hemispheres; cerebellum; brain stem; white matter (e.g., centrum semiovale); gray matter [cortex, frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal lobes, cingulum, insula, basal ganglia (nuclei caudati, putamen, thalami)]. For atlas- based quantification of functional data, anatomical objects can be convoluted with the point spread function of functional data to take into account the different resolutions of morphological and functional modalities. This method allows individual atlas extraction from MRI image data of a patient without the need of warping individual data to an anatomical or statistical MRI brain atlas.

  20. 3-D transient analysis of pebble-bed HTGR by TORT-TD/ATTICA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Seubert, A.; Sureda, A.; Lapins, J.; Buck, M.; Bader, J.; Laurien, E.

    2012-07-01

    As most of the acceptance criteria are local core parameters, application of transient 3-D fine mesh neutron transport and thermal hydraulics coupled codes is mandatory for best estimate evaluations of safety margins. This also applies to high-temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR). Application of 3-D fine-mesh transient transport codes using few energy groups coupled with 3-D thermal hydraulics codes becomes feasible in view of increasing computing power. This paper describes the discrete ordinates based coupled code system TORT-TD/ATTICA3D that has recently been extended by a fine-mesh diffusion solver. Based on transient analyses for the PBMR-400 design, the transport/diffusion capabilities are demonstrated and 3-D local flux and power redistribution effects during a partial control rod withdrawal are shown. (authors)

  1. Assessing 3D tunnel position in ACL reconstruction using a novel single image 3D-2D registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, X.; Yau, W. P.; Otake, Y.; Cheung, P. Y. S.; Hu, Y.; Taylor, R. H.

    2012-02-01

    The routinely used procedure for evaluating tunnel positions following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions based on standard X-ray images is known to pose difficulties in terms of obtaining accurate measures, especially in providing three-dimensional tunnel positions. This is largely due to the variability in individual knee joint pose relative to X-ray plates. Accurate results were reported using postoperative CT. However, its extensive usage in clinical routine is hampered by its major requirement of having CT scans of individual patients, which is not available for most ACL reconstructions. These difficulties are addressed through the proposed method, which aligns a knee model to X-ray images using our novel single-image 3D-2D registration method and then estimates the 3D tunnel position. In the proposed method, the alignment is achieved by using a novel contour-based 3D-2D registration method wherein image contours are treated as a set of oriented points. However, instead of using some form of orientation weighting function and multiplying it with a distance function, we formulate the 3D-2D registration as a probability density estimation using a mixture of von Mises-Fisher-Gaussian (vMFG) distributions and solve it through an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. Compared with the ground-truth established from postoperative CT, our registration method in an experiment using a plastic phantom showed accurate results with errors of (-0.43°+/-1.19°, 0.45°+/-2.17°, 0.23°+/-1.05°) and (0.03+/-0.55, -0.03+/-0.54, -2.73+/-1.64) mm. As for the entry point of the ACL tunnel, one of the key measurements, it was obtained with high accuracy of 0.53+/-0.30 mm distance errors.

  2. Accurate 3D kinematic measurement of temporomandibular joint using X-ray fluoroscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Takaharu; Matsumoto, Akiko; Sugamoto, Kazuomi; Matsumoto, Ken; Kakimoto, Naoya; Yura, Yoshiaki

    2014-04-01

    Accurate measurement and analysis of 3D kinematics of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is very important for assisting clinical diagnosis and treatment of prosthodontics and orthodontics, and oral surgery. This study presents a new 3D kinematic measurement technique of the TMJ using X-ray fluoroscopic images, which can easily obtain the TMJ kinematic data in natural motion. In vivo kinematics of the TMJ (maxilla and mandibular bone) is determined using a feature-based 2D/3D registration, which uses beads silhouette on fluoroscopic images and 3D surface bone models with beads. The 3D surface models of maxilla and mandibular bone with beads were created from CT scans data of the subject using the mouthpiece with the seven strategically placed beads. In order to validate the accuracy of pose estimation for the maxilla and mandibular bone, computer simulation test was performed using five patterns of synthetic tantalum beads silhouette images. In the clinical applications, dynamic movement during jaw opening and closing was conducted, and the relative pose of the mandibular bone with respect to the maxilla bone was determined. The results of computer simulation test showed that the root mean square errors were sufficiently smaller than 1.0 mm and 1.0 degree. In the results of clinical application, during jaw opening from 0.0 to 36.8 degree of rotation, mandibular condyle exhibited 19.8 mm of anterior sliding relative to maxillary articular fossa, and these measurement values were clinically similar to the previous reports. Consequently, present technique was thought to be suitable for the 3D TMJ kinematic analysis.

  3. Computational-optical microscopy for 3D biological imaging beyond the diffraction limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Ginni

    In recent years, super-resolution imaging has become an important fluorescent microscopy tool. It has enabled imaging of structures smaller than the optical diffraction limit with resolution less than 50 nm. Extension to high-resolution volume imaging has been achieved by integration with various optical techniques. In this thesis, development of a fluorescent microscope to enable high resolution, extended depth, three dimensional (3D) imaging is discussed; which is achieved by integration of computational methods with optical systems. In the first part of the thesis, point spread function (PSF) engineering for volume imaging is discussed. A class of PSFs, referred to as double-helix (DH) PSFs, is generated. The PSFs exhibit two focused spots in the image plane which rotate about the optical axis, encoding depth in rotation of the image. These PSFs extend the depth-of-field up to a factor of ˜5. Precision performance of the DH-PSFs, based on an information theoretical analysis, is compared with other 3D methods with conclusion that the DH-PSFs provide the best precision and the longest depth-of-field. Out of various possible DH-PSFs, a suitable PSF is obtained for super-resolution microscopy. The DH-PSFs are implemented in imaging systems, such as a microscope, with a special phase modulation at the pupil plane. Surface-relief elements which are polarization-insensitive and ˜90% light efficient are developed for phase modulation. The photon-efficient DH-PSF microscopes thus developed are used, along with optimal position estimation algorithms, for tracking and super-resolution imaging in 3D. Imaging at depths-of-field of up to 2.5 microm is achieved without focus scanning. Microtubules were imaged with 3D resolution of (6, 9, 39) nm, which is in close agreement with the theoretical limit. A quantitative study of co-localization of two proteins in volume was conducted in live bacteria. In the last part of the thesis practical aspects of the DH-PSF microscope are

  4. 3-D Adaptive Sparsity Based Image Compression with Applications to Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Leyuan; Li, Shutao; Kang, Xudong; Izatt, Joseph A.; Farsiu, Sina

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel general-purpose compression method for tomographic images, termed 3D adaptive sparse representation based compression (3D-ASRC). In this paper, we focus on applications of 3D-ASRC for the compression of ophthalmic 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. The 3D-ASRC algorithm exploits correlations among adjacent OCT images to improve compression performance, yet is sensitive to preserving their differences. Due to the inherent denoising mechanism of the sparsity based 3D-ASRC, the quality of the compressed images are often better than the raw images they are based on. Experiments on clinical-grade retinal OCT images demonstrate the superiority of the proposed 3D-ASRC over other well-known compression methods. PMID:25561591

  5. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W.; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S.

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture. PMID:27136560

  6. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications-A Review.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S

    2016-04-29

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture.

  7. Lossy compression of hyperspectral images using shearlet transform and 3D SPECK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, A.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a new lossy compression method for hyperspectral images (HSI) is introduced. HSI are considered as a 3D dataset with two dimensions in the spatial and one dimension in the spectral domain. In the proposed method, first 3D multidirectional anisotropic shearlet transform is applied to the HSI. Because, unlike traditional wavelets, shearlets are theoretically optimal in representing images with edges and other geometrical features. Second, soft thresholding method is applied to the shearlet transform coefficients and finally the modified coefficients are encoded using Three Dimensional- Set Partitioned Embedded bloCK (3D SPECK). Our simulation results show that the proposed method, in comparison with well-known approaches such as 3D SPECK (using 3D wavelet) and combined PCA and JPEG2000 algorithms, provides a higher SNR (signal to noise ratio) for any given compression ratio (CR). It is noteworthy to mention that the superiority of proposed method is distinguishable as the value of CR grows. In addition, the effect of proposed method on the spectral unmixing analysis is also evaluated.

  8. Segmented images and 3D images for studying the anatomical structures in MRIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong Sook; Chung, Min Suk; Cho, Jae Hyun

    2004-05-01

    For identifying the pathological findings in MRIs, the anatomical structures in MRIs should be identified in advance. For studying the anatomical structures in MRIs, an education al tool that includes the horizontal, coronal, sagittal MRIs of entire body, corresponding segmented images, 3D images, and browsing software is necessary. Such an educational tool, however, is hard to obtain. Therefore, in this research, such an educational tool which helps medical students and doctors study the anatomical structures in MRIs was made as follows. A healthy, young Korean male adult with standard body shape was selected. Six hundred thirteen horizontal MRIs of the entire body were scanned and inputted to the personal computer. Sixty anatomical structures in the horizontal MRIs were segmented to make horizontal segmented images. Coronal, sagittal MRIs and coronal, sagittal segmented images were made. 3D images of anatomical structures in the segmented images were reconstructed by surface rendering method. Browsing software of the MRIs, segmented images, and 3D images was composed. This educational tool that includes horizontal, coronal, sagittal MRIs of entire body, corresponding segmented images, 3D images, and browsing software is expected to help medical students and doctors study anatomical structures in MRIs.

  9. Radar Imaging of Spheres in 3D using MUSIC

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D H; Berryman, J G

    2003-01-21

    We have shown that multiple spheres can be imaged by linear and planar EM arrays using only one component of polarization. The imaging approach involves calculating the SVD of the scattering response matrix, selecting a subset of singular values that represents noise, and evaluating the MUSIC functional. The noise threshold applied to the spectrum of singular values for optimal performance is typically around 1%. The resulting signal subspace includes more than one singular value per sphere. The presence of reflections from the ground improves height localization, even for a linear array parallel to the ground. However, the interference between direct and reflected energy modulates the field, creating periodic nulls that can obscure targets in typical images. These nulls are largely eliminated by normalizing the MUSIC functional with the broadside beam pattern of the array. The resulting images show excellent localization for 1 and 2 spheres. The performance for the 3 sphere configurations are complicated by shadowing effects and the greater range of the 3rd sphere in case 2. Two of the three spheres are easily located by MUSIC but the third is difficult to distinguish from other local maxima of the complex imaging functional. Improvement is seen when the linear array is replace with a planar array, which increases the effective aperture height. Further analysis of the singular values and their relationship to modes of scattering from the spheres, as well as better ways to exploit polarization, should improve performance. Work along these lines is currently being pursued by the authors.

  10. 3D surface imaging for guidance in breast cancer radiotherapy: organs at risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alderliesten, Tanja; Betgen, Anja; van Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine; Remeijer, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the variability in heart position in deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) radiotherapy for breast cancer when 3D surface imaging would be used for monitoring the depth of the breath hold during treatment. Materials and Methods: Ten patients who received DIBH radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) were included. Retrospectively, heart-based registrations were performed for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to planning CT and breast surface registrations were performed for a 3D surface (two different regions of interest [ROIs]), captured concurrently with CBCT, to planning CT. The resulting setup errors were compared with linear regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to investigate the prediction quality of 3D surface imaging for 3D heart displacement. Further, the residual setup errors (systematic [Σ] and random [σ]) of the heart were estimated relative to the surface registrations. Results: When surface imaging [ROIleft-side;ROIboth-sides] would be used for monitoring, the residual errors of the heart position are in left-right: Σ=[0.360.12], σ=[0.160.14] cranio-caudal: Σ=[0.540.54], σ=[0.280.31] and in anteriorposterior: Σ=[0.180.14], σ=[0.200.19] cm. Correlations between setup errors were: R2 = [0.23;0.73], [0.67;0.65], [0.65;0.73] in left-right, cranio-caudal, and anterior-posterior direction, respectively. ROC analysis resulted in an area under the ROC curve of [0.82;0.78]. Conclusion: The use of ROIboth-sides provided promising results. However, considerable variability in the heart position, particularly in CC direction, is observed when 3D surface imaging would be used for guidance in DIBH radiotherapy after BCS. Planning organ at risk volume margins should be used to take into account the heart-position variability.

  11. 3-D Reconstruction From 2-D Radiographic Images and Its Application to Clinical Veterinary Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamamoto, Kazuhiko; Sato, Motoyoshi

    3D imaging technique is very important and indispensable in diagnosis. The main stream of the technique is one in which 3D image is reconstructed from a set of slice images, such as X-ray CT and MRI. However, these systems require large space and high costs. On the other hand, a low cost and small size 3D imaging system is needed in clinical veterinary medicine, for example, in the case of diagnosis in X-ray car or pasture area. We propose a novel 3D imaging technique using 2-D X-ray radiographic images. This system can be realized by cheaper system than X-ray CT and enables to get 3D image in X-ray car or portable X-ray equipment. In this paper, a 3D visualization technique from 2-D radiographic images is proposed and several reconstructions are shown. These reconstructions are evaluated by veterinarians.

  12. 4DCBCT-based motion modeling and 3D fluoroscopic image generation for lung cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhou, Salam; Hurwitz, Martina; Mishra, Pankaj; Berbeco, Ross; Lewis, John

    2015-03-01

    A method is developed to build patient-specific motion models based on 4DCBCT images taken at treatment time and use them to generate 3D time-varying images (referred to as 3D fluoroscopic images). Motion models are built by applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on the displacement vector fields (DVFs) estimated by performing deformable image registration on each phase of 4DCBCT relative to a reference phase. The resulting PCA coefficients are optimized iteratively by comparing 2D projections captured at treatment time with projections estimated using the motion model. The optimized coefficients are used to generate 3D fluoroscopic images. The method is evaluated using anthropomorphic physical and digital phantoms reproducing real patient trajectories. For physical phantom datasets, the average tumor localization error (TLE) and (95th percentile) in two datasets were 0.95 (2.2) mm. For digital phantoms assuming superior image quality of 4DCT and no anatomic or positioning disparities between 4DCT and treatment time, the average TLE and the image intensity error (IIE) in six datasets were smaller using 4DCT-based motion models. When simulating positioning disparities and tumor baseline shifts at treatment time compared to planning 4DCT, the average TLE (95th percentile) and IIE were 4.2 (5.4) mm and 0.15 using 4DCT-based models, while they were 1.2 (2.2) mm and 0.10 using 4DCBCT-based ones, respectively. 4DCBCT-based models were shown to perform better when there are positioning and tumor baseline shift uncertainties at treatment time. Thus, generating 3D fluoroscopic images based on 4DCBCT-based motion models can capture both inter- and intra- fraction anatomical changes during treatment.

  13. Segmentation of the central-chest lymph nodes in 3D MDCT images.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kongkuo; Higgins, William E

    2011-09-01

    Central-chest lymph nodes play a vital role in lung-cancer staging. The definition of lymph nodes from three-dimensional (3D) multidetector computed-tomography (MDCT) images, however, remains an open problem. We propose two methods for computer-based segmentation of the central-chest lymph nodes from a 3D MDCT scan: the single-section live wire and the single-click live wire. For the single-section live wire, the user first applies the standard live wire to a single two-dimensional (2D) section after which automated analysis completes the segmentation process. The single-click live wire is similar but is almost completely automatic. Ground-truth studies involving human 3D MDCT scans demonstrate the robustness, efficiency, and intra-observer and inter-observer reproducibility of the methods.

  14. Graph-regularized 3D shape reconstruction from highly anisotropic and noisy images

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Stephanie; Drewe, Philipp; Lou, Xinghua; Umrania, Shefali; Rätsch, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of microscopy images can provide insight into many biological processes. One particularly challenging problem is cellular nuclear segmentation in highly anisotropic and noisy 3D image data. Manually localizing and segmenting each and every cellular nucleus is very time-consuming, which remains a bottleneck in large-scale biological experiments. In this work, we present a tool for automated segmentation of cellular nuclei from 3D fluorescent microscopic data. Our tool is based on state-of-the-art image processing and machine learning techniques and provides a user-friendly graphical user interface. We show that our tool is as accurate as manual annotation and greatly reduces the time for the registration. PMID:25866587

  15. 3D Imaging of Nanoparticle Distribution in Biological Tissue by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimenez, Y.; Busser, B.; Trichard, F.; Kulesza, A.; Laurent, J. M.; Zaun, V.; Lux, F.; Benoit, J. M.; Panczer, G.; Dugourd, P.; Tillement, O.; Pelascini, F.; Sancey, L.; Motto-Ros, V.

    2016-07-01

    Nanomaterials represent a rapidly expanding area of research with huge potential for future medical applications. Nanotechnology indeed promises to revolutionize diagnostics, drug delivery, gene therapy, and many other areas of research. For any biological investigation involving nanomaterials, it is crucial to study the behavior of such nano-objects within tissues to evaluate both their efficacy and their toxicity. Here, we provide the first account of 3D label-free nanoparticle imaging at the entire-organ scale. The technology used is known as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and possesses several advantages such as speed of operation, ease of use and full compatibility with optical microscopy. We then used two different but complementary approaches to achieve 3D elemental imaging with LIBS: a volume reconstruction of a sliced organ and in-depth analysis. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the quantitative imaging of both endogenous and exogenous elements within entire organs and paves the way for innumerable applications.

  16. Experimental 3-D SAR Human Target Signature Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-21

    through the wall structure that the radar signal must travel to get to the target, such as through and around studs . The different features from the...drywall made of wood stud , gypsum, insulating material, and vinyl coating. The second wall structure is made of cinder blocks and is a more challenging... wall synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging from an experimental L-band through- wall SAR prototype. Tools and algorithms for 3-D visualization are

  17. Free segmentation in rendered 3D images through synthetic impulse response in integral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Corral, M.; Llavador, A.; Sánchez-Ortiga, E.; Saavedra, G.; Javidi, B.

    2016-06-01

    Integral Imaging is a technique that has the capability of providing not only the spatial, but also the angular information of three-dimensional (3D) scenes. Some important applications are the 3D display and digital post-processing as for example, depth-reconstruction from integral images. In this contribution we propose a new reconstruction method that takes into account the integral image and a simplified version of the impulse response function (IRF) of the integral imaging (InI) system to perform a two-dimensional (2D) deconvolution. The IRF of an InI system has a periodic structure that depends directly on the axial position of the object. Considering different periods of the IRFs we recover by deconvolution the depth information of the 3D scene. An advantage of our method is that it is possible to obtain nonconventional reconstructions by considering alternative synthetic impulse responses. Our experiments show the feasibility of the proposed method.

  18. High-Performance 3D Image Processing Architectures for Image-Guided Interventions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Circuits and Systems, vol. 1 (2), 2007, pp. 116-127. iv • O. Dandekar, C. Castro- Pareja , and R. Shekhar, “FPGA-based real-time 3D image...How low can we go?,” presented at IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging, 2006, pp. 502-505. • C. R. Castro- Pareja , O. Dandekar, and R...Venugopal, C. R. Castro- Pareja , and O. Dandekar, “An FPGA-based 3D image processor with median and convolution filters for real-time applications,” in

  19. Robust Reconstruction and Generalized Dual Hahn Moments Invariants Extraction for 3D Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesbah, Abderrahim; Zouhri, Amal; El Mallahi, Mostafa; Zenkouar, Khalid; Qjidaa, Hassan

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new set of 3D weighed dual Hahn moments which are orthogonal on a non-uniform lattice and their polynomials are numerically stable to scale, consequent, producing a set of weighted orthonormal polynomials. The dual Hahn is the general case of Tchebichef and Krawtchouk, and the orthogonality of dual Hahn moments eliminates the numerical approximations. The computational aspects and symmetry property of 3D weighed dual Hahn moments are discussed in details. To solve their inability to invariability of large 3D images, which cause to overflow issues, a generalized version of these moments noted 3D generalized weighed dual Hahn moment invariants are presented where whose as linear combination of regular geometric moments. For 3D pattern recognition, a generalized expression of 3D weighted dual Hahn moment invariants, under translation, scaling and rotation transformations, have been proposed where a new set of 3D-GWDHMIs have been provided. In experimental studies, the local and global capability of free and noisy 3D image reconstruction of the 3D-WDHMs has been compared with other orthogonal moments such as 3D Tchebichef and 3D Krawtchouk moments using Princeton Shape Benchmark database. On pattern recognition using the 3D-GWDHMIs like 3D object descriptors, the experimental results confirm that the proposed algorithm is more robust than other orthogonal moments for pattern classification of 3D images with and without noise.

  20. A comparison of 3D poly(ε-caprolactone) tissue engineering scaffolds produced with conventional and additive manufacturing techniques by means of quantitative analysis of SR μ-CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, F.; Intranuovo, F.; Mohammadi, S.; Domingos, M.; Favia, P.; Tromba, G.

    2013-07-01

    The technique used to produce a 3D tissue engineering (TE) scaffold is of fundamental importance in order to guarantee its proper morphological characteristics. An accurate assessment of the resulting structural properties is therefore crucial in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the produced scaffold. Synchrotron radiation (SR) computed microtomography (μ-CT) combined with further image analysis seems to be one of the most effective techniques to this aim. However, a quantitative assessment of the morphological parameters directly from the reconstructed images is a non trivial task. This study considers two different poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds fabricated with a conventional technique (Solvent Casting Particulate Leaching, SCPL) and an additive manufacturing (AM) technique (BioCell Printing), respectively. With the first technique it is possible to produce scaffolds with random, non-regular, rounded pore geometry. The AM technique instead is able to produce scaffolds with square-shaped interconnected pores of regular dimension. Therefore, the final morphology of the AM scaffolds can be predicted and the resulting model can be used for the validation of the applied imaging and image analysis protocols. It is here reported a SR μ-CT image analysis approach that is able to effectively and accurately reveal the differences in the pore- and throat-size distributions as well as connectivity of both AM and SCPL scaffolds.

  1. Potential Cost Savings for Use of 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-04

    pmlkploba=obmloq=pbofbp= = = Potential Cost Savings for Use of 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Potential Cost Savings for Use of 3D Printing Combined With 3D ...oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=mêçÖê~ã= ëéçåëçêÉÇ=oÉéçêí=pÉêáÉë= Potential Cost Savings for Use of 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and

  2. Dual-view integral imaging 3D display using polarizer parallax barriers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fei; Wang, Qiong-Hua; Luo, Cheng-Gao; Li, Da-Hai; Deng, Huan

    2014-04-01

    We propose a dual-view integral imaging (DVII) 3D display using polarizer parallax barriers (PPBs). The DVII 3D display consists of a display panel, a microlens array, and two PPBs. The elemental images (EIs) displayed on the left and right half of the display panel are captured from two different 3D scenes, respectively. The lights emitted from two kinds of EIs are modulated by the left and right half of the microlens array to present two different 3D images, respectively. A prototype of the DVII 3D display is developed, and the experimental results agree well with the theory.

  3. 3D Display Calibration by Visual Pattern Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyoseok; Chang, Hyun Sung; Nam, Dongkyung; Kweon, In So

    2017-02-06

    Nearly all 3D displays need calibration for correct rendering. More often than not, the optical elements in a 3D display are misaligned from the designed parameter setting. As a result, 3D magic does not perform well as intended. The observed images tend to get distorted. In this paper, we propose a novel display calibration method to fix the situation. In our method, a pattern image is displayed on the panel and a camera takes its pictures twice at different positions. Then, based on a quantitative model, we extract all display parameters (i.e., pitch, slanted angle, gap or thickness, offset) from the observed patterns in the captured images. For high accuracy and robustness, our method analyzes the patterns mostly in frequency domain. We conduct two types of experiments for validation; one with optical simulation for quantitative results and the other with real-life displays for qualitative assessment. Experimental results demonstrate that our method is quite accurate, about a half order of magnitude higher than prior work; is efficient, spending less than 2 s for computation; and is robust to noise, working well in the SNR regime as low as 6 dB.

  4. Modeling and analysis of 3-D elongated shapes with applications to long bone morphometry

    SciTech Connect

    Burdin, V.; Roux, C.; Lefevre, C.; Stindel, E.

    1996-02-01

    This paper presents a geometric model to be used as a framework for the description and analysis of three-dimensional (3-D) elongated shapes. Elongated shapes can be decomposed into two different parts: a 3-D curve (the central axis) and a 3-D surface (the straight surface). The central axis is described in terms of curvature and torsion. A novel concept of torsion image is introduced which allows the user to study the torsion of some relevant 3-D structures such as the medulla of long bones, without computing the third derivative. The description of the straight surface is based on an ordered set of Fourier Descriptors (FD`s), each set representing a 2-D slice of the structure. These descriptors possess completeness, continuity, and stability properties, and some geometrical invariancies. A polar diagram is built which contains the anatomical information of the straight surface and can be used as a tool for the analysis and discrimination of 3-D structures. A technique for the reconstruction of the 3-D surface from the model`s two components is presented. Various applications to the analysis of long bone structures, such as the ulna and radius, are derived from the model, namely, data compression, comparison of 3-D shapes, segmentation into 3-D primitives, and torsion and curvature analysis. The relevance of the method to morphometry and to clinical applications is discussed.

  5. Quantitative 3-D imaging topogrammetry for telemedicine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altschuler, Bruce R.

    1994-01-01

    The technology to reliably transmit high-resolution visual imagery over short to medium distances in real time has led to the serious considerations of the use of telemedicine, telepresence, and telerobotics in the delivery of health care. These concepts may involve, and evolve toward: consultation from remote expert teaching centers; diagnosis; triage; real-time remote advice to the surgeon; and real-time remote surgical instrument manipulation (telerobotics with virtual reality). Further extrapolation leads to teledesign and telereplication of spare surgical parts through quantitative teleimaging of 3-D surfaces tied to CAD/CAM devices and an artificially intelligent archival data base of 'normal' shapes. The ability to generate 'topogrames' or 3-D surface numerical tables of coordinate values capable of creating computer-generated virtual holographic-like displays, machine part replication, and statistical diagnostic shape assessment is critical to the progression of telemedicine. Any virtual reality simulation will remain in 'video-game' realm until realistic dimensional and spatial relational inputs from real measurements in vivo during surgeries are added to an ever-growing statistical data archive. The challenges of managing and interpreting this 3-D data base, which would include radiographic and surface quantitative data, are considerable. As technology drives toward dynamic and continuous 3-D surface measurements, presenting millions of X, Y, Z data points per second of flexing, stretching, moving human organs, the knowledge base and interpretive capabilities of 'brilliant robots' to work as a surgeon's tireless assistants becomes imaginable. The brilliant robot would 'see' what the surgeon sees--and more, for the robot could quantify its 3-D sensing and would 'see' in a wider spectral range than humans, and could zoom its 'eyes' from the macro world to long-distance microscopy. Unerring robot hands could rapidly perform machine-aided suturing with

  6. Imaging 3D strain field monitoring during hydraulic fracturing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rongzhang; Zaghloul, Mohamed A. S.; Yan, Aidong; Li, Shuo; Lu, Guanyi; Ames, Brandon C.; Zolfaghari, Navid; Bunger, Andrew P.; Li, Ming-Jun; Chen, Kevin P.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present a distributed fiber optic sensing scheme to study 3D strain fields inside concrete cubes during hydraulic fracturing process. Optical fibers embedded in concrete were used to monitor 3D strain field build-up with external hydraulic pressures. High spatial resolution strain fields were interrogated by the in-fiber Rayleigh backscattering with 1-cm spatial resolution using optical frequency domain reflectometry. The fiber optics sensor scheme presented in this paper provides scientists and engineers a unique laboratory tool to understand the hydraulic fracturing processes in various rock formations and its impacts to environments.

  7. 3D Network Analysis for Indoor Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiliakou, E.; Dimopoulou, E.

    2016-10-01

    Indoor space differs from outdoor environments, since it is characterized by a higher level of structural complexity, geometry, as well as topological relations. Indoor space can be considered as the most important component in a building's conceptual modelling, on which applications such as indoor navigation, routing or analysis are performed. Therefore, the conceptual meaning of sub spaces or the activities taking place in physical building boundaries (e.g. walls), require the comprehension of the building's indoor hierarchical structure. The scope of this paper is to perform 3D network analysis in a building's interior and is structured as follows: In Section 1 the definition of indoor space is provided and indoor navigation requirements are analysed. Section 2 describes the processes of indoor space modeling, as well as routing applications. In Section 3, a case study is examined involving a 3D building model generated in CityEngine (exterior shell) and ArcScene (interior parts), in which the use of commercially available software tools (ArcGIS, ESRI), in terms of indoor routing and 3D network analysis, are explored. The fundamentals of performing 3D analysis with the ArcGIS Network Analyst extension were tested. Finally a geoprocessing model was presented, which was specifically designed to be used to interactively find the best route in ArcScene. The paper ends with discussion and concluding remarks on Section 4.

  8. A 3-D fluorescence imaging system incorporating structured illumination technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antos, L.; Emord, P.; Luquette, B.; McGee, B.; Nguyen, D.; Phipps, A.; Phillips, D.; Helguera, M.

    2010-02-01

    A currently available 2-D high-resolution, optical molecular imaging system was modified by the addition of a structured illumination source, OptigridTM, to investigate the feasibility of providing depth resolution along the optical axis. The modification involved the insertion of the OptigridTM and a lens in the path between the light source and the image plane, as well as control and signal processing software. Projection of the OptigridTM onto the imaging surface at an angle, was resolved applying the Scheimpflug principle. The illumination system implements modulation of the light source and provides a framework for capturing depth resolved mages. The system is capable of in-focus projection of the OptigridTM at different spatial frequencies, and supports the use of different lenses. A calibration process was developed for the system to achieve consistent phase shifts of the OptigridTM. Post-processing extracted depth information using depth modulation analysis using a phantom block with fluorescent sheets at different depths. An important aspect of this effort was that it was carried out by a multidisciplinary team of engineering and science students as part of a capstone senior design program. The disciplines represented are mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and imaging science. The project was sponsored by a financial grant from New York State with equipment support from two industrial concerns. The students were provided with a basic imaging concept and charged with developing, implementing, testing and validating a feasible proof-of-concept prototype system that was returned to the originator of the concept for further evaluation and characterization.

  9. Evolution of 3D surface imaging systems in facial plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Tzou, Chieh-Han John; Frey, Manfred

    2011-11-01

    Recent advancements in computer technologies have propelled the development of 3D imaging systems. 3D surface-imaging is taking surgeons to a new level of communication with patients; moreover, it provides quick and standardized image documentation. This article recounts the chronologic evolution of 3D surface imaging, and summarizes the current status of today's facial surface capturing technology. This article also discusses current 3D surface imaging hardware and software, and their different techniques, technologies, and scientific validation, which provides surgeons with the background information necessary for evaluating the systems and knowledge about the systems they might incorporate into their own practice.

  10. Display of travelling 3D scenes from single integral-imaging capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Corral, Manuel; Dorado, Adrian; Hong, Seok-Min; Sola-Pikabea, Jorge; Saavedra, Genaro

    2016-06-01

    Integral imaging (InI) is a 3D auto-stereoscopic technique that captures and displays 3D images. We present a method for easily projecting the information recorded with this technique by transforming the integral image into a plenoptic image, as well as choosing, at will, the field of view (FOV) and the focused plane of the displayed plenoptic image. Furthermore, with this method we can generate a sequence of images that simulates a camera travelling through the scene from a single integral image. The application of this method permits to improve the quality of 3D display images and videos.

  11. 3D fingerprint imaging system based on full-field fringe projection profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shujun; Zhang, Zonghua; Zhao, Yan; Dai, Jie; Chen, Chao; Xu, Yongjia; Zhang, E.; Xie, Lili

    2014-01-01

    As an unique, unchangeable and easily acquired biometrics, fingerprint has been widely studied in academics and applied in many fields over the years. The traditional fingerprint recognition methods are based on the obtained 2D feature of fingerprint. However, fingerprint is a 3D biological characteristic. The mapping from 3D to 2D loses 1D information and causes nonlinear distortion of the captured fingerprint. Therefore, it is becoming more and more important to obtain 3D fingerprint information for recognition. In this paper, a novel 3D fingerprint imaging system is presented based on fringe projection technique to obtain 3D features and the corresponding color texture information. A series of color sinusoidal fringe patterns with optimum three-fringe numbers are projected onto a finger surface. From another viewpoint, the fringe patterns are deformed by the finger surface and captured by a CCD camera. 3D shape data of the finger can be obtained from the captured fringe pattern images. This paper studies the prototype of the 3D fingerprint imaging system, including principle of 3D fingerprint acquisition, hardware design of the 3D imaging system, 3D calibration of the system, and software development. Some experiments are carried out by acquiring several 3D fingerprint data. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed 3D fingerprint imaging system.

  12. 2D Feature Recognition And 3d Reconstruction In Solar Euv Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.

    2005-05-01

    EUV images show the solar corona in a typical temperature range of T >rsim 1 MK, which encompasses the most common coronal structures: loops, filaments, and other magnetic structures in active regions, the quiet Sun, and coronal holes. Quantitative analysis increasingly demands automated 2D feature recognition and 3D reconstruction, in order to localize, track, and monitor the evolution of such coronal structures. We discuss numerical tools that “fingerprint” curvi-linear 1D features (e.g., loops and filaments). We discuss existing finger-printing algorithms, such as the brightness-gradient method, the oriented-connectivity method, stereoscopic methods, time-differencing, and space time feature recognition. We discuss improved 2D feature recognition and 3D reconstruction techniques that make use of additional a priori constraints, using guidance from magnetic field extrapolations, curvature radii constraints, and acceleration and velocity constraints in time-dependent image sequences. Applications of these algorithms aid the analysis of SOHO/EIT, TRACE, and STEREO/SECCHI data, such as disentangling, 3D reconstruction, and hydrodynamic modeling of coronal loops, postflare loops, filaments, prominences, and 3D reconstruction of the coronal magnetic field in general.

  13. 2D image classification for 3D anatomy localization: employing deep convolutional neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vos, Bob D.; Wolterink, Jelmer M.; de Jong, Pim A.; Viergever, Max A.; Išgum, Ivana

    2016-03-01

    Localization of anatomical regions of interest (ROIs) is a preprocessing step in many medical image analysis tasks. While trivial for humans, it is complex for automatic methods. Classic machine learning approaches require the challenge of hand crafting features to describe differences between ROIs and background. Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) alleviate this by automatically finding hierarchical feature representations from raw images. We employ this trait to detect anatomical ROIs in 2D image slices in order to localize them in 3D. In 100 low-dose non-contrast enhanced non-ECG synchronized screening chest CT scans, a reference standard was defined by manually delineating rectangular bounding boxes around three anatomical ROIs -- heart, aortic arch, and descending aorta. Every anatomical ROI was automatically identified using a combination of three CNNs, each analyzing one orthogonal image plane. While single CNNs predicted presence or absence of a specific ROI in the given plane, the combination of their results provided a 3D bounding box around it. Classification performance of each CNN, expressed in area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, was >=0.988. Additionally, the performance of ROI localization was evaluated. Median Dice scores for automatically determined bounding boxes around the heart, aortic arch, and descending aorta were 0.89, 0.70, and 0.85 respectively. The results demonstrate that accurate automatic 3D localization of anatomical structures by CNN-based 2D image classification is feasible.

  14. Lensfree diffractive tomography for the imaging of 3D cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Momey, F.; Berdeu, A.; Bordy, T.; Dinten, J.-M.; Marcel, F. Kermarrec; Picollet-D’hahan, N.; Gidrol, X.; Allier, C.

    2016-01-01

    New microscopes are needed to help realize the full potential of 3D organoid culture studies. In order to image large volumes of 3D organoid cultures while preserving the ability to catch every single cell, we propose a new imaging platform based on lensfree microscopy. We have built a lensfree diffractive tomography setup performing multi-angle acquisitions of 3D organoid culture embedded in Matrigel and developed a dedicated 3D holographic reconstruction algorithm based on the Fourier diffraction theorem. With this new imaging platform, we have been able to reconstruct a 3D volume as large as 21.5 mm3 of a 3D organoid culture of prostatic RWPE1 cells showing the ability of these cells to assemble in 3D intricate cellular network at the mesoscopic scale. Importantly, comparisons with 2D images show that it is possible to resolve single cells isolated from the main cellular structure with our lensfree diffractive tomography setup. PMID:27231600

  15. Volumetric medical image compression using 3D listless embedded block partitioning.

    PubMed

    Senapati, Ranjan K; Prasad, P M K; Swain, Gandharba; Shankar, T N

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a listless variant of a modified three-dimensional (3D)-block coding algorithm suitable for medical image compression. A higher degree of correlation is achieved by using a 3D hybrid transform. The 3D hybrid transform is performed by a wavelet transform in the spatial dimension and a Karhunen-Loueve transform in the spectral dimension. The 3D transformed coefficients are arranged in a one-dimensional (1D) fashion, as in the hierarchical nature of the wavelet-coefficient distribution strategy. A novel listless block coding algorithm is applied to the mapped 1D coefficients which encode in an ordered-bit-plane fashion. The algorithm originates from the most significant bit plane and terminates at the least significant bit plane to generate an embedded bit stream, as in 3D-SPIHT. The proposed algorithm is called 3D hierarchical listless block (3D-HLCK), which exhibits better compression performance than that exhibited by 3D-SPIHT. Further, it is highly competitive with some of the state-of-the-art 3D wavelet coders for a wide range of bit rates for magnetic resonance, digital imaging and communication in medicine and angiogram images. 3D-HLCK provides rate and resolution scalability similar to those provided by 3D-SPIHT and 3D-SPECK. In addition, a significant memory reduction is achieved owing to the listless nature of 3D-HLCK.

  16. Image guidance of breast cancer surgery using 3-D ultrasound images and augmented reality visualization.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Nakamoto, M; Tamaki, Y; Sasama, T; Sakita, I; Nakajima, Y; Monden, M; Tamura, S

    1998-10-01

    This paper describes augmented reality visualization for the guidance of breast-conservative cancer surgery using ultrasonic images acquired in the operating room just before surgical resection. By combining an optical three-dimensional (3-D) position sensor, the position and orientation of each ultrasonic cross section are precisely measured to reconstruct geometrically accurate 3-D tumor models from the acquired ultrasonic images. Similarly, the 3-D position and orientation of a video camera are obtained to integrate video and ultrasonic images in a geometrically accurate manner. Superimposing the 3-D tumor models onto live video images of the patient's breast enables the surgeon to perceive the exact 3-D position of the tumor, including irregular cancer invasions which cannot be perceived by touch, as if it were visible through the breast skin. Using the resultant visualization, the surgeon can determine the region for surgical resection in a more objective and accurate manner, thereby minimizing the risk of a relapse and maximizing breast conservation. The system was shown to be effective in experiments using phantom and clinical data.

  17. 360 degree realistic 3D image display and image processing from real objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xin; Chen, Yue; Huang, Yong; Tan, Xiaodi; Horimai, Hideyoshi

    2016-12-01

    A 360-degree realistic 3D image display system based on direct light scanning method, so-called Holo-Table has been introduced in this paper. High-density directional continuous 3D motion images can be displayed easily with only one spatial light modulator. Using the holographic screen as the beam deflector, 360-degree full horizontal viewing angle was achieved. As an accompany part of the system, CMOS camera based image acquisition platform was built to feed the display engine, which can take a full 360-degree continuous imaging of the sample at the center. Customized image processing techniques such as scaling, rotation, format transformation were also developed and embedded into the system control software platform. In the end several samples were imaged to demonstrate the capability of our system.

  18. 3-D Experimental Fracture Analysis at High Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Jackson; Albert S. Kobayashi

    2001-09-14

    T*e, which is an elastic-plastic fracture parameter based on incremental theory of plasticity, was determined numerically and experimentally. The T*e integral of a tunneling crack in 2024-T3 aluminum, three point bend specimen was obtained through a hybrid analysis of moire interferometry and 3-D elastic-plastic finite element analysis. The results were verified by the good agreement between the experimentally and numerically determined T*e on the specimen surface.

  19. Simultaneous 3D location and size measurement of bubbles and sand particles in a flow using interferometric particle imaging.

    PubMed

    Ouldarbi, L; Pérret, G; Lemaitre, P; Porcheron, E; Coëtmellec, S; Gréhan, G; Lebrun, D; Brunel, M

    2015-09-01

    We present a system to characterize a triphasic flow in a 3D volume (air bubbles and solid irregular particles in water) using only one CCD sensor. A cylindrical interferometric out-of-focus imaging setup is used to determine simultaneously the 3D position and the size of bubbles and irregular sand particles in a flow. The 3D position of the particles is deduced from the ellipticity of their out-of-focus image. The size of bubbles is deduced from analysis of interference fringes. The characteristics of irregular sand particles are obtained from analysis of their speckle-like pattern. Experiments are confirmed by simulations.

  20. Radiologic-pathologic analysis of quantitative 3D tumour enhancement on contrast-enhanced MR imaging: a study of ROI placement

    PubMed Central

    Chockalingam, Arun; Duran, Rafael; Sohn, Jae Ho; Schernthaner, Rüdiger; Chapiro, Julius; Lee, Howard; Sahu, Sonia; Nguyen, Sonny; Lin, MingDe

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the influence of region-of-interest (ROI) placement on 3D tumour enhancement [Quantitative European Association for the Study of the Liver (qEASL)] in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Methods Phase 1: 40 HCC patients had nine ROIs placed by one reader using systematic techniques (3 ipsilateral to the lesion, 3 contralateral to the lesion, and 3 dispersed throughout the liver) and qEASL variance was measured. Intra-class correlations were computed. Phase 2: 15 HCC patients with histosegmentation were selected. Six ROIs were systematically placed by AC (3 ROIs ipsilateral and 3 ROIs contralateral to the lesion). Three ROIs were placed by 2 radiologists. qEASL values were compared to histopathology by Pearson’s correlation, linear regression, and median difference. Results Phase 1: The dispersed method (abandoned in phase 2) had low consistency and high variance. Phase 2: qEASL correlated strongly with pathology in systematic methods [Pearson’s correlation coefficient=0.886 (ipsilateral) and 0.727 (contralateral)] and in clinical methods (0.625 and 0.879). However, ipsilateral placement matched best with pathology (median difference: 5.4 %; correlation: 0.89; regression CI: [0.904, 0.1409]). Conclusions qEASL is a robust method with comparable values among tested placements. Ipsilateral placement showed high consistency and better pathological correlation. PMID:25994198

  1. Accuracy of volume measurement using 3D ultrasound and development of CT-3D US image fusion algorithm for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, Jihye; Huh, Jangyoung; Hyun An, So; Oh, Yoonjin; Kim, Myungsoo; Kim, DongYoung; Chung, Kwangzoo; Cho, Sungho; Lee, Rena

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of measuring volumes using three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US), and to verify the feasibility of the replacement of CT-MR fusion images with CT-3D US in radiotherapy treatment planning. Methods: Phantoms, consisting of water, contrast agent, and agarose, were manufactured. The volume was measured using 3D US, CT, and MR devices. A CT-3D US and MR-3D US image fusion software was developed using the Insight Toolkit library in order to acquire three-dimensional fusion images. The quality of the image fusion was evaluated using metric value and fusion images. Results: Volume measurement, using 3D US, shows a 2.8 {+-} 1.5% error, 4.4 {+-} 3.0% error for CT, and 3.1 {+-} 2.0% error for MR. The results imply that volume measurement using the 3D US devices has a similar accuracy level to that of CT and MR. Three-dimensional image fusion of CT-3D US and MR-3D US was successfully performed using phantom images. Moreover, MR-3D US image fusion was performed using human bladder images. Conclusions: 3D US could be used in the volume measurement of human bladders and prostates. CT-3D US image fusion could be used in monitoring the target position in each fraction of external beam radiation therapy. Moreover, the feasibility of replacing the CT-MR image fusion to the CT-3D US in radiotherapy treatment planning was verified.

  2. 3D imaging of telomeres and nuclear architecture: An emerging tool of 3D nano-morphology-based diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Knecht, Hans; Mai, Sabine

    2011-04-01

    Patient samples are evaluated by experienced pathologists whose diagnosis guides treating physicians. Pathological diagnoses are complex and often assisted by the application of specific tissue markers. However, cases still exist where pathologists cannot distinguish between closely related entities or determine the aggressiveness of the disease they identify under the microscope. This is due to the absence of reliable markers that define diagnostic subgroups in several cancers. Three-dimensional (3D) imaging of nuclear telomere signatures is emerging as a new tool that may change this situation offering new opportunities to the patients. This article will review current and future avenues in the assessment of diagnostic patient samples.

  3. Post-processing methods of rendering and visualizing 3-D reconstructed tomographic images

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, S.T.C.

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the computer processing techniques of tomographic images, after they have been generated by imaging scanners, for volume visualization. Volume visualization is concerned with the representation, manipulation, and rendering of volumetric data. Since the first digital images were produced from computed tomography (CT) scanners in the mid 1970s, applications of visualization in medicine have expanded dramatically. Today, three-dimensional (3D) medical visualization has expanded from using CT data, the first inherently digital source of 3D medical data, to using data from various medical imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance scanners, positron emission scanners, digital ultrasound, electronic and confocal microscopy, and other medical imaging modalities. We have advanced from rendering anatomy to aid diagnosis and visualize complex anatomic structures to planning and assisting surgery and radiation treatment. New, more accurate and cost-effective procedures for clinical services and biomedical research have become possible by integrating computer graphics technology with medical images. This trend is particularly noticeable in current market-driven health care environment. For example, interventional imaging, image-guided surgery, and stereotactic and visualization techniques are now stemming into surgical practice. In this presentation, we discuss only computer-display-based approaches of volumetric medical visualization. That is, we assume that the display device available is two-dimensional (2D) in nature and all analysis of multidimensional image data is to be carried out via the 2D screen of the device. There are technologies such as holography and virtual reality that do provide a {open_quotes}true 3D screen{close_quotes}. To confine the scope, this presentation will not discuss such approaches.

  4. Multi Length Scale Imaging of Flocculated Estuarine Sediments; Insights into their Complex 3D Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheatland, Jonathan; Bushby, Andy; Droppo, Ian; Carr, Simon; Spencer, Kate

    2015-04-01

    Suspended estuarine sediments form flocs that are compositionally complex, fragile and irregularly shaped. The fate and transport of suspended particulate matter (SPM) is determined by the size, shape, density, porosity and stability of these flocs and prediction of SPM transport requires accurate measurements of these three-dimensional (3D) physical properties. However, the multi-scaled nature of flocs in addition to their fragility makes their characterisation in 3D problematic. Correlative microscopy is a strategy involving the spatial registration of information collected at different scales using several imaging modalities. Previously, conventional optical microscopy (COM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have enabled 2-dimensional (2D) floc characterisation at the gross (> 1 µm) and sub-micron scales respectively. Whilst this has proven insightful there remains a critical spatial and dimensional gap preventing the accurate measurement of geometric properties and an understanding of how structures at different scales are related. Within life sciences volumetric imaging techniques such as 3D micro-computed tomography (3D µCT) and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy [FIB-SEM (or FIB-tomography)] have been combined to characterise materials at the centimetre to micron scale. Combining these techniques with TEM enables an advanced correlative study, allowing material properties across multiple spatial and dimensional scales to be visualised. The aims of this study are; 1) to formulate an advanced correlative imaging strategy combining 3D µCT, FIB-tomography and TEM; 2) to acquire 3D datasets; 3) to produce a model allowing their co-visualisation; 4) to interpret 3D floc structure. To reduce the chance of structural alterations during analysis samples were first 'fixed' in 2.5% glutaraldehyde/2% formaldehyde before being embedding in Durcupan resin. Intermediate steps were implemented to improve contrast and remove pore water, achieved by the

  5. ConvNet-Based Localization of Anatomical Structures in 3D Medical Images.

    PubMed

    de Vos, Bob; Wolterink, Jelmer; de Jong, Pim; Leiner, Tim; Viergever, Max; Isgum, Ivana

    2017-02-23

    Localization of anatomical structures is a prerequisite for many tasks in medical image analysis. We propose a method for automatic localization of one or more anatomical structures in 3D medical images through detection of their presence in 2D image slices using a convolutional neural network (ConvNet). A single ConvNet is trained to detect presence of the anatomical structure of interest in axial, coronal, and sagittal slices extracted from a 3D image. To allow the ConvNet to analyze slices of different sizes, spatial pyramid pooling is applied. After detection, 3D bounding boxes are created by combining the output of the ConvNet in all slices. In the experiments 200 chest CT, 100 cardiac CT angiography (CTA), and 100 abdomen CT scans were used. The heart, ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta were localized in chest CT scans, the left cardiac ventricle in cardiac CTA scans, and the liver in abdomen CT scans. Localization was evaluated using the distances between automatically and manually defined reference bounding box centroids and walls. The best results were achieved in localization of structures with clearly defined boundaries (e.g. aortic arch) and the worst when the structure boundary was not clearly visible (e.g. liver). The method was more robust and accurate in localization multiple structures.

  6. Robust method for extracting the pulmonary vascular trees from 3D MDCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taeprasartsit, Pinyo; Higgins, William E.

    2011-03-01

    Segmentation of pulmonary blood vessels from three-dimensional (3D) multi-detector CT (MDCT) images is important for pulmonary applications. This work presents a method for extracting the vascular trees of the pulmonary arteries and veins, applicable to both contrast-enhanced and unenhanced 3D MDCT image data. The method finds 2D elliptical cross-sections and evaluates agreement of these cross-sections in consecutive slices to find likely cross-sections. It next employs morphological multiscale analysis to separate vessels from adjoining airway walls. The method then tracks the center of the likely cross-sections to connect them to the pulmonary vessels in the mediastinum and forms connected vascular trees spanning both lungs. A ground-truth study indicates that the method was able to detect on the order of 98% of the vessel branches having diameter >= 3.0 mm. The extracted vascular trees can be utilized for the guidance of safe bronchoscopic biopsy.

  7. Increasing the depth of field in Multiview 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Beom-Ryeol; Son, Jung-Young; Yano, Sumio; Jung, Ilkwon

    2016-06-01

    A super-multiview condition simulator which can project up to four different view images to each eye is introduced. This simulator with the image having both disparity and perspective informs that the depth of field (DOF) will be extended to more than the default DOF values as the number of simultaneously but separately projected different view images to each eye increase. The DOF range can be extended to near 2 diopters with the four simultaneous view images. However, the DOF value increments are not prominent as the image with both disparity and perspective with the image with disparity only.

  8. 3D Guided Wave Motion Analysis on Laminated Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara; Yu, Lingyu

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves have proved useful for structural health monitoring (SHM) and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) due to their ability to propagate long distances with less energy loss compared to bulk waves and due to their sensitivity to small defects in the structure. Analysis of actively transmitted ultrasonic signals has long been used to detect and assess damage. However, there remain many challenging tasks for guided wave based SHM due to the complexity involved with propagating guided waves, especially in the case of composite materials. The multimodal nature of the ultrasonic guided waves complicates the related damage analysis. This paper presents results from parallel 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) simulations used to acquire 3D wave motion in the subject laminated carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites. The acquired 3D wave motion is then analyzed by frequency-wavenumber analysis to study the wave propagation and interaction in the composite laminate. The frequency-wavenumber analysis enables the study of individual modes and visualization of mode conversion. Delamination damage has been incorporated into the EFIT model to generate "damaged" data. The potential for damage detection in laminated composites is discussed in the end.

  9. Advanced computational tools for 3-D seismic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barhen, J.; Glover, C.W.; Protopopescu, V.A.

    1996-06-01

    The global objective of this effort is to develop advanced computational tools for 3-D seismic analysis, and test the products using a model dataset developed under the joint aegis of the United States` Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) and the European Association of Exploration Geophysicists (EAEG). The goal is to enhance the value to the oil industry of the SEG/EAEG modeling project, carried out with US Department of Energy (DOE) funding in FY` 93-95. The primary objective of the ORNL Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) is to spearhead the computational innovations techniques that would enable a revolutionary advance in 3-D seismic analysis. The CESAR effort is carried out in collaboration with world-class domain experts from leading universities, and in close coordination with other national laboratories and oil industry partners.

  10. 3D motion analysis of keratin filaments in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herberich, Gerlind; Windoffer, Reinhard; Leube, Rudolf; Aach, Til

    2010-03-01

    We present a novel and efficient approach for 3D motion estimation of keratin intermediate filaments in vitro. Keratin filaments are elastic cables forming a complex scaffolding within epithelial cells. To understand the mechanisms of filament formation and network organisation under physiological and pathological conditions, quantitative measurements of dynamic network alterations are essential. Therefore we acquired time-lapse series of 3D images using a confocal laser scanning microscope. Based on these image series, we show that a dense vector field can be computed such that the displacements from one frame to the next can be determined. Our method is based on a two-step registration process: First, a rigid pre-registration is applied in order to compensate for possible global cell movement. This step enables the subsequent nonrigid registration to capture only the sought local deformations of the filaments. As the transformation model of the deformable registration algorithm is based on Free Form Deformations, it is well suited for modeling filament network dynamics. The optimization is performed using efficient linear programming techniques such that the huge amount of image data of a time series can be efficiently processed. The evaluation of our results illustrates the potential of our approach.

  11. Holographic imaging of 3D objects on dichromated polymer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemelin, Guylain; Jourdain, Anne; Manivannan, Gurusamy; Lessard, Roger A.

    1996-01-01

    Conventional volume transmission holograms of a 3D scene were recorded on dichromated poly(acrylic acid) (DCPAA) films under 488 nm light. The holographic characterization and quality of reconstruction have been studied by varying the influencing parameters such as concentration of dichromate and electron donor, and the molecular weight of the polymer matrix. Ammonium and potassium dichromate have been employed to sensitize the poly(acrylic) matrix. the recorded hologram can be efficiently reconstructed either with red light or with low energy in the blue region without any post thermal or chemical processing.

  12. 3-D Velocity Measurement of Natural Convection Using Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoki, Masatoshi; Ozawa, Mamoru; Okada, Toshifumi; Kimura, Ichiro

    This paper describes quantitative three-dimensional measurement method for flow field of a rotating Rayleigh-Benard convection in a cylindrical cell heated below and cooled above. A correlation method for two-dimensional measurement was well advanced to a spatio-temporal correlation method. Erroneous vectors, often appeared in the correlation method, was successfully removed using Hopfield neural network. As a result, calculated 3-D velocity vector distribution well corresponded to the observed temperature distribution. Consequently, the simultaneous three-dimensional measurement system for temperature and flow field was developed.

  13. Passive markers for tracking surgical instruments in real-time 3-D ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Jeffrey; Ren, Hongliang; Dupont, Pierre E

    2012-03-01

    A family of passive echogenic markers is presented by which the position and orientation of a surgical instrument can be determined in a 3-D ultrasound volume, using simple image processing. Markers are attached near the distal end of the instrument so that they appear in the ultrasound volume along with the instrument tip. They are detected and measured within the ultrasound image, thus requiring no external tracking device. This approach facilitates imaging instruments and tissue simultaneously in ultrasound-guided interventions. Marker-based estimates of instrument pose can be used in augmented reality displays or for image-based servoing. Design principles for marker shapes are presented that ensure imaging system and measurement uniqueness constraints are met. An error analysis is included that can be used to guide marker design and which also establishes a lower bound on measurement uncertainty. Finally, examples of marker measurement and tracking algorithms are presented along with experimental validation of the concepts.

  14. Advancements in 3D Structural Analysis of Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Siler, Drew L; Faulds, James E; Mayhew, Brett; McNamara, David

    2013-06-23

    Robust geothermal activity in the Great Basin, USA is a product of both anomalously high regional heat flow and active fault-controlled extension. Elevated permeability associated with some fault systems provides pathways for circulation of geothermal fluids. Constraining the local-scale 3D geometry of these structures and their roles as fluid flow conduits is crucial in order to mitigate both the costs and risks of geothermal exploration and to identify blind (no surface expression) geothermal resources. Ongoing studies have indicated that much of the robust geothermal activity in the Great Basin is associated with high density faulting at structurally complex fault intersection/interaction areas, such as accommodation/transfer zones between discrete fault systems, step-overs or relay ramps in fault systems, intersection zones between faults with different strikes or different senses of slip, and horse-tailing fault terminations. These conceptualized models are crucial for locating and characterizing geothermal systems in a regional context. At the local scale, however, pinpointing drilling targets and characterizing resource potential within known or probable geothermal areas requires precise 3D characterization of the system. Employing a variety of surface and subsurface data sets, we have conducted detailed 3D geologic analyses of two Great Basin geothermal systems. Using EarthVision (Dynamic Graphics Inc., Alameda, CA) we constructed 3D geologic models of both the actively producing Brady’s geothermal system and a ‘greenfield’ geothermal prospect at Astor Pass, NV. These 3D models allow spatial comparison of disparate data sets in 3D and are the basis for quantitative structural analyses that can aid geothermal resource assessment and be used to pinpoint discrete drilling targets. The relatively abundant data set at Brady’s, ~80 km NE of Reno, NV, includes 24 wells with lithologies interpreted from careful analysis of cuttings and core, a 1

  15. Dual-Color 3D Superresolution Microscopy by Combined Spectral-Demixing and Biplane Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Winterflood, Christian M.; Platonova, Evgenia; Albrecht, David; Ewers, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Multicolor three-dimensional (3D) superresolution techniques allow important insight into the relative organization of cellular structures. While a number of innovative solutions have emerged, multicolor 3D techniques still face significant technical challenges. In this Letter we provide a straightforward approach to single-molecule localization microscopy imaging in three dimensions and two colors. We combine biplane imaging and spectral-demixing, which eliminates a number of problems, including color cross-talk, chromatic aberration effects, and problems with color registration. We present 3D dual-color images of nanoscopic structures in hippocampal neurons with a 3D compound resolution routinely achieved only in a single color. PMID:26153696

  16. 3D fluorescence anisotropy imaging using selective plane illumination microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hedde, Per Niklas; Ranjit, Suman; Gratton, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence anisotropy imaging is a popular method to visualize changes in organization and conformation of biomolecules within cells and tissues. In such an experiment, depolarization effects resulting from differences in orientation, proximity and rotational mobility of fluorescently labeled molecules are probed with high spatial resolution. Fluorescence anisotropy is typically imaged using laser scanning and epifluorescence-based approaches. Unfortunately, those techniques are limited in either axial resolution, image acquisition speed, or by photobleaching. In the last decade, however, selective plane illumination microscopy has emerged as the preferred choice for three-dimensional time lapse imaging combining axial sectioning capability with fast, camera-based image acquisition, and minimal light exposure. We demonstrate how selective plane illumination microscopy can be utilized for three-dimensional fluorescence anisotropy imaging of live cells. We further examined the formation of focal adhesions by three-dimensional time lapse anisotropy imaging of CHO-K1 cells expressing an EGFP-paxillin fusion protein. PMID:26368202

  17. 3D image display of fetal ultrasonic images by thin shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shyh-Roei; Sun, Yung-Nien; Chang, Fong-Ming; Jiang, Ching-Fen

    1999-05-01

    Due to the properties of convenience and non-invasion, ultrasound has become an essential tool for diagnosis of fetal abnormality during women pregnancy in obstetrics. However, the 'noisy and blurry' nature of ultrasound data makes the rendering of the data a challenge in comparison with MRI and CT images. In spite of the speckle noise, the unwanted objects usually occlude the target to be observed. In this paper, we proposed a new system that can effectively depress the speckle noise, extract the target object, and clearly render the 3D fetal image in almost real-time from 3D ultrasound image data. The system is based on a deformable model that detects contours of the object according to the local image feature of ultrasound. Besides, in order to accelerate rendering speed, a thin shell is defined to separate the observed organ from unrelated structures depending on those detected contours. In this way, we can support quick 3D display of ultrasound, and the efficient visualization of 3D fetal ultrasound thus becomes possible.

  18. 3D image reconstruction algorithms for cryo-electron-microscopy images of virus particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerschuk, Peter C.; Johnson, John E.

    2000-11-01

    A statistical model for the object and the complete image formation process in cryo electron microscopy of viruses is presented. Using this model, maximum likelihood reconstructions of the 3D structure of viruses are computed using the expectation maximization algorithm and an example based on Cowpea mosaic virus is provided.

  19. Infrared imaging of the polymer 3D-printing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinwiddie, Ralph B.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lindal, John M.; Post, Brian; Smith, Rachel J.; Love, Lonnie; Duty, Chad E.

    2014-05-01

    Both mid-wave and long-wave IR cameras are used to measure various temperature profiles in thermoplastic parts as they are printed. Two significantly different 3D-printers are used in this study. The first is a small scale commercially available Solidoodle 3 printer, which prints parts with layer thicknesses on the order of 125μm. The second printer used is a "Big Area Additive Manufacturing" (BAAM) 3D-printer developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The BAAM prints parts with a layer thicknesses of 4.06 mm. Of particular interest is the temperature of the previously deposited layer as the new hot layer is about to be extruded onto it. The two layers are expected have a stronger bond if the temperature of the substrate layer is above the glass transition temperature. This paper describes the measurement technique and results for a study of temperature decay and substrate layer temperature for ABS thermoplastic with and without the addition of chopped carbon fibers.

  20. Multi-layer 3D imaging using a few viewpoint images and depth map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suginohara, Hidetsugu; Sakamoto, Hirotaka; Yamanaka, Satoshi; Suyama, Shiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method that makes multi-layer images from a few viewpoint images to display a 3D image by the autostereoscopic display that has multiple display screens in the depth direction. We iterate simple "Shift and Subtraction" processes to make each layer image alternately. The image made in accordance with depth map like a volume slicing by gradations is used as the initial solution of iteration process. Through the experiments using the prototype stacked two LCDs, we confirmed that it was enough to make multi-layer images from three viewpoint images to display a 3D image. Limiting the number of viewpoint images, the viewing area that allows stereoscopic view becomes narrow. To broaden the viewing area, we track the head motion of the viewer and update screen images in real time so that the viewer can maintain correct stereoscopic view within +/- 20 degrees area. In addition, we render pseudo multiple viewpoint images using depth map, then we can generate motion parallax at the same time.

  1. Registration of 2D cardiac images to real-time 3D ultrasound volumes for 3D stress echocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, K. Y. Esther; van Stralen, Marijn; Voormolen, Marco M.; van Burken, Gerard; Nemes, Attila; ten Cate, Folkert J.; Geleijnse, Marcel L.; de Jong, Nico; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.; Reiber, Johan H. C.; Bosch, Johan G.

    2006-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) stress echocardiography is a novel technique for diagnosing cardiac dysfunction, by comparing wall motion of the left ventricle under different stages of stress. For quantitative comparison of this motion, it is essential to register the ultrasound data. We propose an intensity based rigid registration method to retrieve two-dimensional (2D) four-chamber (4C), two-chamber, and short-axis planes from the 3D data set acquired in the stress stage, using manually selected 2D planes in the rest stage as reference. The algorithm uses the Nelder-Mead simplex optimization to find the optimal transformation of one uniform scaling, three rotation, and three translation parameters. We compared registration using the SAD, SSD, and NCC metrics, performed on four resolution levels of a Gaussian pyramid. The registration's effectiveness was assessed by comparing the 3D positions of the registered apex and mitral valve midpoints and 4C direction with the manually selected results. The registration was tested on data from 20 patients. Best results were found using the NCC metric on data downsampled with factor two: mean registration errors were 8.1mm, 5.4mm, and 8.0° in the apex position, mitral valve position, and 4C direction respectively. The errors were close to the interobserver (7.1mm, 3.8mm, 7.4°) and intraobserver variability (5.2mm, 3.3mm, 7.0°), and better than the error before registration (9.4mm, 9.0mm, 9.9°). We demonstrated that the registration algorithm visually and quantitatively improves the alignment of rest and stress data sets, performing similar to manual alignment. This will improve automated analysis in 3D stress echocardiography.

  2. Bias Field Inconsistency Correction of Motion-Scattered Multislice MRI for Improved 3D Image Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kio; Habas, Piotr A.; Rajagopalan, Vidya; Scott, Julia A.; Corbett-Detig, James M.; Rousseau, Francois; Barkovich, A. James; Glenn, Orit A.; Studholme, Colin

    2012-01-01

    A common solution to clinical MR imaging in the presence of large anatomical motion is to use fast multi-slice 2D studies to reduce slice acquisition time and provide clinically usable slice data. Recently, techniques have been developed which retrospectively correct large scale 3D motion between individual slices allowing the formation of a geometrically correct 3D volume from the multiple slice stacks. One challenge, however, in the final reconstruction process is the possibility of varying intensity bias in the slice data, typically due to the motion of the anatomy relative to imaging coils. As a result, slices which cover the same region of anatomy at different times may exhibit different sensitivity. This bias field inconsistency can induce artifacts in the final 3D reconstruction that can impact both clinical interpretation of key tissue boundaries and the automated analysis of the data. Here we describe a framework to estimate and correct the bias field inconsistency in each slice collectively across all motion corrupted image slices. Experiments using synthetic and clinical data show that the proposed method reduces intensity variability in tissues and improves the distinction between key tissue types. PMID:21511561

  3. Bias field inconsistency correction of motion-scattered multislice MRI for improved 3D image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kio; Habas, Piotr A; Rajagopalan, Vidya; Scott, Julia A; Corbett-Detig, James M; Rousseau, Francois; Barkovich, A James; Glenn, Orit A; Studholme, Colin

    2011-09-01

    A common solution to clinical MR imaging in the presence of large anatomical motion is to use fast multislice 2D studies to reduce slice acquisition time and provide clinically usable slice data. Recently, techniques have been developed which retrospectively correct large scale 3D motion between individual slices allowing the formation of a geometrically correct 3D volume from the multiple slice stacks. One challenge, however, in the final reconstruction process is the possibility of varying intensity bias in the slice data, typically due to the motion of the anatomy relative to imaging coils. As a result, slices which cover the same region of anatomy at different times may exhibit different sensitivity. This bias field inconsistency can induce artifacts in the final 3D reconstruction that can impact both clinical interpretation of key tissue boundaries and the automated analysis of the data. Here we describe a framework to estimate and correct the bias field inconsistency in each slice collectively across all motion corrupted image slices. Experiments using synthetic and clinical data show that the proposed method reduces intensity variability in tissues and improves the distinction between key tissue types.

  4. Sensitivity Analysis of the Scattering-Based SARBM3D Despeckling Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Di Simone, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery greatly suffers from multiplicative speckle noise, typical of coherent image acquisition sensors, such as SAR systems. Therefore, a proper and accurate despeckling preprocessing step is almost mandatory to aid the interpretation and processing of SAR data by human users and computer algorithms, respectively. Very recently, a scattering-oriented version of the popular SAR Block-Matching 3D (SARBM3D) despeckling filter, named Scattering-Based (SB)-SARBM3D, was proposed. The new filter is based on the a priori knowledge of the local topography of the scene. In this paper, an experimental sensitivity analysis of the above-mentioned despeckling algorithm is carried out, and the main results are shown and discussed. In particular, the role of both electromagnetic and geometrical parameters of the surface and the impact of its scattering behavior are investigated. Furthermore, a comprehensive sensitivity analysis of the SB-SARBM3D filter against the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) resolution and the SAR image-DEM coregistration step is also provided. The sensitivity analysis shows a significant robustness of the algorithm against most of the surface parameters, while the DEM resolution plays a key role in the despeckling process. Furthermore, the SB-SARBM3D algorithm outperforms the original SARBM3D in the presence of the most realistic scattering behaviors of the surface. An actual scenario is also presented to assess the DEM role in real-life conditions. PMID:27347971

  5. Sensitivity Analysis of the Scattering-Based SARBM3D Despeckling Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Di Simone, Alessio

    2016-06-25

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery greatly suffers from multiplicative speckle noise, typical of coherent image acquisition sensors, such as SAR systems. Therefore, a proper and accurate despeckling preprocessing step is almost mandatory to aid the interpretation and processing of SAR data by human users and computer algorithms, respectively. Very recently, a scattering-oriented version of the popular SAR Block-Matching 3D (SARBM3D) despeckling filter, named Scattering-Based (SB)-SARBM3D, was proposed. The new filter is based on the a priori knowledge of the local topography of the scene. In this paper, an experimental sensitivity analysis of the above-mentioned despeckling algorithm is carried out, and the main results are shown and discussed. In particular, the role of both electromagnetic and geometrical parameters of the surface and the impact of its scattering behavior are investigated. Furthermore, a comprehensive sensitivity analysis of the SB-SARBM3D filter against the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) resolution and the SAR image-DEM coregistration step is also provided. The sensitivity analysis shows a significant robustness of the algorithm against most of the surface parameters, while the DEM resolution plays a key role in the despeckling process. Furthermore, the SB-SARBM3D algorithm outperforms the original SARBM3D in the presence of the most realistic scattering behaviors of the surface. An actual scenario is also presented to assess the DEM role in real-life conditions.

  6. Research in Image Understanding as Applied to 3-D Microwave Tomographic Imaging with Near Optical Resolution.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-10

    Severe Clutter .... ........ 1I-i III . Optical Implementation of the HopfieldModel .I -? .- . ." Model........................ . . BY...can be employed in future broad-band imaging radar networks capable of providing 3-D projective or . - tomographic images of remote aerospace targets...We expect the results of this effort to tell us how to achieve centimeter resolution on remote aerospace objects cost-effectively using microwave

  7. 3-D Target Location from Stereoscopic SAR Images

    SciTech Connect

    DOERRY,ARMIN W.

    1999-10-01

    SAR range-Doppler images are inherently 2-dimensional. Targets with a height offset lay over onto offset range and azimuth locations. Just which image locations are laid upon depends on the imaging geometry, including depression angle, squint angle, and target bearing. This is the well known layover phenomenon. Images formed with different aperture geometries will exhibit different layover characteristics. These differences can be exploited to ascertain target height information, in a stereoscopic manner. Depending on the imaging geometries, height accuracy can be on the order of horizontal position accuracies, thereby rivaling the best IFSAR capabilities in fine resolution SAR images. All that is required for this to work are two distinct passes with suitably different geometries from any plain old SAR.

  8. Denoising of 3D magnetic resonance images by using higher-order singular value decomposition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyuan; Xu, Zhongbiao; Jia, Nan; Yang, Wei; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan; Feng, Yanqiu

    2015-01-01

    The denoising of magnetic resonance (MR) images is important to improve the inspection quality and reliability of quantitative image analysis. Nonlocal filters by exploiting similarity and/or sparseness among patches or cubes achieve excellent performance in denoising MR images. Recently, higher-order singular value decomposition (HOSVD) has been demonstrated to be a simple and effective method for exploiting redundancy in the 3D stack of similar patches during denoising 2D natural image. This work aims to investigate the application and improvement of HOSVD to denoising MR volume data. The wiener-augmented HOSVD method achieves comparable performance to that of BM4D. For further improvement, we propose to augment the standard HOSVD stage by a second recursive stage, which is a repeated HOSVD filtering of the weighted summation of the residual and denoised image in the first stage. The appropriate weights have been investigated by experiments with different image types and noise levels. Experimental results over synthetic and real 3D MR data demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms current state-of-the-art denoising methods.

  9. 3D integral imaging using diffractive Fresnel lens arrays.

    PubMed

    Hain, Mathias; von Spiegel, Wolff; Schmiedchen, Marc; Tschudi, Theo; Javidi, Bahram

    2005-01-10

    We present experimental results with binary amplitude Fresnel lens arrays and binary phase Fresnel lens arrays used to implement integral imaging systems. Their optical performance is compared with high quality refractive microlens arrays and pinhole arrays in terms of image quality, color distortion and contrast. Additionally, we show the first experimental results of lens arrays with different focal lengths in integral imaging, and discuss their ability to simultaneously increase both the depth of focus and the field of view.

  10. Real-time computer-generated integral imaging and 3D image calibration for augmented reality surgical navigation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junchen; Suenaga, Hideyuki; Liao, Hongen; Hoshi, Kazuto; Yang, Liangjing; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Sakuma, Ichiro

    2015-03-01

    Autostereoscopic 3D image overlay for augmented reality (AR) based surgical navigation has been studied and reported many times. For the purpose of surgical overlay, the 3D image is expected to have the same geometric shape as the original organ, and can be transformed to a specified location for image overlay. However, how to generate a 3D image with high geometric fidelity and quantitative evaluation of 3D image's geometric accuracy have not been addressed. This paper proposes a graphics processing unit (GPU) based computer-generated integral imaging pipeline for real-time autostereoscopic 3D display, and an automatic closed-loop 3D image calibration paradigm for displaying undistorted 3D images. Based on the proposed methods, a novel AR device for 3D image surgical overlay is presented, which mainly consists of a 3D display, an AR window, a stereo camera for 3D measurement, and a workstation for information processing. The evaluation on the 3D image rendering performance with 2560×1600 elemental image resolution shows the rendering speeds of 50-60 frames per second (fps) for surface models, and 5-8 fps for large medical volumes. The evaluation of the undistorted 3D image after the calibration yields sub-millimeter geometric accuracy. A phantom experiment simulating oral and maxillofacial surgery was also performed to evaluate the proposed AR overlay device in terms of the image registration accuracy, 3D image overlay accuracy, and the visual effects of the overlay. The experimental results show satisfactory image registration and image overlay accuracy, and confirm the system usability.

  11. Beam Optics Analysis - An Advanced 3D Trajectory Code

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Bui, Thuc; Vogler, William; Neilson, Jeff; Read, Mike; Shephard, Mark; Bauer, Andrew; Datta, Dibyendu; Beal, Mark

    2006-01-03

    Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. has completed initial development of an advanced, 3D program for modeling electron trajectories in electromagnetic fields. The code is being used to design complex guns and collectors. Beam Optics Analysis (BOA) is a fully relativistic, charged particle code using adaptive, finite element meshing. Geometrical input is imported from CAD programs generating ACIS-formatted files. Parametric data is inputted using an intuitive, graphical user interface (GUI), which also provides control of convergence, accuracy, and post processing. The program includes a magnetic field solver, and magnetic information can be imported from Maxwell 2D/3D and other programs. The program supports thermionic emission and injected beams. Secondary electron emission is also supported, including multiple generations. Work on field emission is in progress as well as implementation of computer optimization of both the geometry and operating parameters. The principle features of the program and its capabilities are presented.

  12. Realization of real-time interactive 3D image holographic display [Invited].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jhen-Si; Chu, Daping

    2016-01-20

    Realization of a 3D image holographic display supporting real-time interaction requires fast actions in data uploading, hologram calculation, and image projection. These three key elements will be reviewed and discussed, while algorithms of rapid hologram calculation will be presented with the corresponding results. Our vision of interactive holographic 3D displays will be discussed.

  13. A review of 3D/2D registration methods for image-guided interventions.

    PubMed

    Markelj, P; Tomaževič, D; Likar, B; Pernuš, F

    2012-04-01

    Registration of pre- and intra-interventional data is one of the key technologies for image-guided radiation therapy, radiosurgery, minimally invasive surgery, endoscopy, and interventional radiology. In this paper, we survey those 3D/2D data registration methods that utilize 3D computer tomography or magnetic resonance images as the pre-interventional data and 2D X-ray projection images as the intra-interventional data. The 3D/2D registration methods are reviewed with respect to image modality, image dimensionality, registration basis, geometric transformation, user interaction, optimization procedure, subject, and object of registration.

  14. Bi-sided integral imaging with 2D/3D convertibility using scattering polarizer.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Jiwoon; Hong, Keehoon; Park, Soon-gi; Hong, Jisoo; Min, Sung-Wook; Lee, Byoungho

    2013-12-16

    We propose a two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) convertible bi-sided integral imaging. The proposed system uses the polarization state of projected light for switching its operation mode between 2D and 3D modes. By using an optical module composed of two scattering polarizers and one linear polarizer, the proposed integral imaging system simultaneously provides 3D images with 2D background images for observers who are located in the front and the rear sides of the system. The occlusion effect between 2D images and 3D images is realized by using a compensation mask for 2D images and the elemental images. The principle of proposed system is experimentally verified.

  15. Edge structure preserving 3D image denoising by local surface approximation.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Peihua; Mukherjee, Partha Sarathi

    2012-08-01

    In various applications, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional MRI (fMRI), 3D images are becoming increasingly popular. To improve the reliability of subsequent image analyses, 3D