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Sample records for 3d integration technology

  1. Integrated Avionics System (IAS), Integrating 3-D Technology On A Spacecraft Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Don J.; Halpert, Gerald

    1999-01-01

    As spacecraft designs converge toward miniaturization, and with the volumetric and mass challenges placed on avionics, programs will continue to advance the "state of the art" in spacecraft system development with new challenges to reduce power, mass and volume. Traditionally, the trend is to focus on high-density 3-D packaging technologies. Industry has made significant progress in 3-D technologies, and other related internal and external interconnection schemes. Although new technologies have improved packaging densities, a system packaging architecture is required that not only reduces spacecraft volume and mass budgets, but increase integration efficiencies, provide modularity and flexibility to accommodate multiple missions while maintaining a low recurring cost. With these challenges in mind, a novel system packaging approach incorporates solutions that provide broader environmental applications, more flexible system interconnectivity, scalability, and simplified assembly test and integration schemes. The Integrated Avionics System (IAS) provides for a low-mass, modular distributed or centralized packaging architecture which combines ridged-flex technologies, high-density COTS hardware and a new 3-D mechanical packaging approach, Horizontal Mounted Cube (HMC). This paper will describe the fundamental elements of the IAS, HMC hardware design, system integration and environmental test results.

  2. Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuit (3D IC) Key Technology: Through-Silicon Via (TSV).

    PubMed

    Shen, Wen-Wei; Chen, Kuan-Neng

    2017-12-01

    3D integration with through-silicon via (TSV) is a promising candidate to perform system-level integration with smaller package size, higher interconnection density, and better performance. TSV fabrication is the key technology to permit communications between various strata of the 3D integration system. TSV fabrication steps, such as etching, isolation, metallization processes, and related failure modes, as well as other characterizations are discussed in this invited review paper.

  3. Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuit (3D IC) Key Technology: Through-Silicon Via (TSV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Wen-Wei; Chen, Kuan-Neng

    2017-01-01

    3D integration with through-silicon via (TSV) is a promising candidate to perform system-level integration with smaller package size, higher interconnection density, and better performance. TSV fabrication is the key technology to permit communications between various strata of the 3D integration system. TSV fabrication steps, such as etching, isolation, metallization processes, and related failure modes, as well as other characterizations are discussed in this invited review paper.

  4. New Dimensions in Microarchitecture Harnessing 3D Integration Technologies (BRIEFING CHARTS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-06

    New Dimensions in Microarchitecture Harnessing 3D Integration Technologies Kerry Bernstein IBM T.J. Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights, NY...e m o r y H i e r a r c h y L1 Size limited by Cycle time Components of Processor Performance From ISCA ’06 Keynote address by Phil Emma , IBM Delay...From ISCA ’06 Keynote address by Phil Emma , IBM 6 March, 2007 New Dimensions in Microarchitecture 8 What Is Bandwidth Used For? Miss Penalty

  5. 3D Integration of MEMS and IC: Design, Technology and Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taklo, Maaike M. V.; Schjølberg-Henriksen, Kari; Lietaer, Nicolas; Prainsack, Josef; Elfving, Anders; Weber, Josef; Klein, Matthias; Schneider, Peter; Reitz, Sven

    A 3D integrated silicon stack consisting of two MEMS devices and two IC devices is presented. The MEMS devices are a pressure sensor and a bulk acoustic resonator (BAR). The stack was constructed for a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS) which was one out of three demonstrators for an EU funded project called e-CUBES. Thermal simulations were performed to check the level of thermo-mechanical stresses induced on the pressure sensor membrane during extreme environmental conditions. Additional simulations were made to calculate the exact temperature on the BAR device during operation as this was important for the operational frequency. This paper presents and discusses the technology choices made for the stacking of the pressure sensor and the BAR. Results are given from simulations, initial short-loop experiments and for the final stacking.

  6. 3D Scan Systems Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave Blank) 2. REPORT DATE 5 Feb 98 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D Scan Systems Integration REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED...2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-1 298-102 [ EDO QUALITY W3PECTEDI DLA-ARN Final Report for US Defense Logistics Agency on DDFG-T2/P3: 3D...SCAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION Contract Number SPO100-95-D-1014 Contractor Ohio University Delivery Order # 0001 Delivery Order Title 3D Scan Systems

  7. Integration of Petrophysical Methods and 3D Printing Technology to Replicate Reservoir Pore Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishutov, S.; Hasiuk, F.; Gray, J.; Harding, C.

    2014-12-01

    Pore-scale imaging and modeling are becoming routine geoscience techniques of reservoir analysis and simulation in oil and gas industry. Three-dimensional printing may facilitate the transformation of pore-space imagery into rock models, which can be compared to traditional laboratory methods and literature data. Although current methodologies for rapid rock modeling and printing obscure many details of grain geometry, computed tomography data is one route to refine pore networks and experimentally test hypotheses related to rock properties, such as porosity and permeability. This study uses three-dimensional printing as a novel way of interacting with x-ray computed tomography data from reservoir core plugs based on digital modeling of pore systems in coarse-grained sandstones and limestones. The advantages of using artificial rocks as a proxy are to better understand the contributions of pore system characteristics at various scales to petrophysical properties in oil and gas reservoirs. Pore radii of reservoir sandstones used in this study range from 1 to 100s of microns, whereas the pore radii for limestones vary from 0.01 to 10s of microns. The resolution of computed tomography imaging is ~10 microns; the resolution of 3D digital printing used in the study varies from 2.5 to 300 microns. For this technology to be useful, loss of pore network information must be minimized in the course of data acquisition, modeling, and production as well as verified against core-scale measurements. The ultimate goal of this study is to develop a reservoir rock "photocopier" that couples 3D scanning and modeling with 3D printing to reproduce a) petrophyscially accurate copies of reservoir pore systems and b) digitally modified pore systems for testing hypotheses about reservoir flow. By allowing us to build porous media with known properties (porosity, permeability, surface area), technology will also advance our understanding of the tools used to measure these quantities (e

  8. Surgical Navigation Technology Based on Augmented Reality and Integrated 3D Intraoperative Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Elmi-Terander, Adrian; Skulason, Halldor; Söderman, Michael; Racadio, John; Homan, Robert; Babic, Drazenko; van der Vaart, Nijs; Nachabe, Rami

    2016-01-01

    Study Design. A cadaveric laboratory study. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and accuracy of thoracic pedicle screw placement using augmented reality surgical navigation (ARSN). Summary of Background Data. Recent advances in spinal navigation have shown improved accuracy in lumbosacral pedicle screw placement but limited benefits in the thoracic spine. 3D intraoperative imaging and instrument navigation may allow improved accuracy in pedicle screw placement, without the use of x-ray fluoroscopy, and thus opens the route to image-guided minimally invasive therapy in the thoracic spine. Methods. ARSN encompasses a surgical table, a motorized flat detector C-arm with intraoperative 2D/3D capabilities, integrated optical cameras for augmented reality navigation, and noninvasive patient motion tracking. Two neurosurgeons placed 94 pedicle screws in the thoracic spine of four cadavers using ARSN on one side of the spine (47 screws) and free-hand technique on the contralateral side. X-ray fluoroscopy was not used for either technique. Four independent reviewers assessed the postoperative scans, using the Gertzbein grading. Morphometric measurements of the pedicles axial and sagittal widths and angles, as well as the vertebrae axial and sagittal rotations were performed to identify risk factors for breaches. Results. ARSN was feasible and superior to free-hand technique with respect to overall accuracy (85% vs. 64%, P < 0.05), specifically significant increases of perfectly placed screws (51% vs. 30%, P < 0.05) and reductions in breaches beyond 4 mm (2% vs. 25%, P < 0.05). All morphometric dimensions, except for vertebral body axial rotation, were risk factors for larger breaches when performed with the free-hand method. Conclusion. ARSN without fluoroscopy was feasible and demonstrated higher accuracy than free-hand technique for thoracic pedicle screw placement. Level of Evidence: N/A PMID:27513166

  9. Integration of real-time 3D image acquisition and multiview 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Li, Wei; Wang, Jingyi; Liu, Yongchun

    2014-03-01

    Seamless integration of 3D acquisition and 3D display systems offers enhanced experience in 3D visualization of the real world objects or scenes. The vivid representation of captured 3D objects displayed on a glasses-free 3D display screen could bring the realistic viewing experience to viewers as if they are viewing real-world scene. Although the technologies in 3D acquisition and 3D display have advanced rapidly in recent years, effort is lacking in studying the seamless integration of these two different aspects of 3D technologies. In this paper, we describe our recent progress on integrating a light-field 3D acquisition system and an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display for real-time light field capture and display. This paper focuses on both the architecture design and the implementation of the hardware and the software of this integrated 3D system. A prototype of the integrated 3D system is built to demonstrate the real-time 3D acquisition and 3D display capability of our proposed system.

  10. Integration of GIS, Geostatistics, and 3-D Technology to Assess the Spatial Distribution of Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, M.; Tsegaye, T.; Tadesse, W.; Coleman, T. L.; Fahsi, A.

    1998-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of near surface soil moisture is of fundamental importance to many physical, biological, biogeochemical, and hydrological processes. However, knowledge of these space-time dynamics and the processes which control them remains unclear. The integration of geographic information systems (GIS) and geostatistics together promise a simple mechanism to evaluate and display the spatial and temporal distribution of this vital hydrologic and physical variable. Therefore, this research demonstrates the use of geostatistics and GIS to predict and display soil moisture distribution under vegetated and non-vegetated plots. The research was conducted at the Winfred Thomas Agricultural Experiment Station (WTAES), Hazel Green, Alabama. Soil moisture measurement were done on a 10 by 10 m grid from tall fescue grass (GR), alfalfa (AA), bare rough (BR), and bare smooth (BS) plots. Results indicated that variance associated with soil moisture was higher for vegetated plots than non-vegetated plots. The presence of vegetation in general contributed to the spatial variability of soil moisture. Integration of geostatistics and GIS can improve the productivity of farm lands and the precision of farming.

  11. Experience with 3D integration technologies in the framework of the ATLAS pixel detector upgrade for the HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aruntinov, D.; Barbero, M.; Gonella, L.; Hemperek, T.; Hügging, F.; Krüger, H.; Wermes, N.; Breugnon, P.; Chantepie, B.; Clemens, J. C.; Fei, R.; Fougeron, D.; Godiot, S.; Pangaud, P.; Rozanov, A.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Mekkaoui, A.

    2013-12-01

    3D technologies are investigated for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel detector at the HL-LHC. R&D focuses on both, IC design in 3D, as well as on post-processing 3D technologies such as Through Silicon Via (TSV). The first one uses a so-called via first technology, featuring the insertion of small aspect ratio TSV at the pixel level. As discussed in the paper, this technology can still present technical challenges for the industrial partners. The second one consists of etching the TSV via last. This technology is investigated to enable 4-side abuttable module concepts, using today's pixel detector technology. Both approaches are presented in this paper and results from first available prototypes are discussed.

  12. 3D integral imaging with optical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Martínez-Cuenca, Raúl; Saavedra, Genaro; Javidi, Bahram

    2008-04-01

    Integral imaging (InI) systems are imaging devices that provide auto-stereoscopic images of 3D intensity objects. Since the birth of this new technology, InI systems have faced satisfactorily many of their initial drawbacks. Basically, two kind of procedures have been used: digital and optical procedures. The "3D Imaging and Display Group" at the University of Valencia, with the essential collaboration of Prof. Javidi, has centered its efforts in the 3D InI with optical processing. Among other achievements, our Group has proposed the annular amplitude modulation for enlargement of the depth of field, dynamic focusing for reduction of the facet-braiding effect, or the TRES and MATRES devices to enlarge the viewing angle.

  13. Development of 3D integrated circuits for HEP

    SciTech Connect

    Yarema, R.; /Fermilab

    2006-09-01

    Three dimensional integrated circuits are well suited to improving circuit bandwidth and increasing effective circuit density. Recent advances in industry have made 3D integrated circuits an option for HEP. The 3D technology is discussed in this paper and several examples are shown. Design of a 3D demonstrator chip for the ILC is presented.

  14. 3D Integration for Wireless Multimedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimmich, Georg

    The convergence of mobile phone, internet, mapping, gaming and office automation tools with high quality video and still imaging capture capability is becoming a strong market trend for portable devices. High-density video encode and decode, 3D graphics for gaming, increased application-software complexity and ultra-high-bandwidth 4G modem technologies are driving the CPU performance and memory bandwidth requirements close to the PC segment. These portable multimedia devices are battery operated, which requires the deployment of new low-power-optimized silicon process technologies and ultra-low-power design techniques at system, architecture and device level. Mobile devices also need to comply with stringent silicon-area and package-volume constraints. As for all consumer devices, low production cost and fast time-to-volume production is key for success. This chapter shows how 3D architectures can bring a possible breakthrough to meet the conflicting power, performance and area constraints. Multiple 3D die-stacking partitioning strategies are described and analyzed on their potential to improve the overall system power, performance and cost for specific application scenarios. Requirements and maturity of the basic process-technology bricks including through-silicon via (TSV) and die-to-die attachment techniques are reviewed. Finally, we highlight new challenges which will arise with 3D stacking and an outlook on how they may be addressed: Higher power density will require thermal design considerations, new EDA tools will need to be developed to cope with the integration of heterogeneous technologies and to guarantee signal and power integrity across the die stack. The silicon/wafer test strategies have to be adapted to handle high-density IO arrays, ultra-thin wafers and provide built-in self-test of attached memories. New standards and business models have to be developed to allow cost-efficient assembly and testing of devices from different silicon and technology

  15. Self assembled structures for 3D integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Madhav

    Three dimensional (3D) micro-scale structures attached to a silicon substrate have various applications in microelectronics. However, formation of 3D structures using conventional micro-fabrication techniques are not efficient and require precise control of processing parameters. Self assembly is a method for creating 3D structures that takes advantage of surface area minimization phenomena. Solder based self assembly (SBSA), the subject of this dissertation, uses solder as a facilitator in the formation of 3D structures from 2D patterns. Etching a sacrificial layer underneath a portion of the 2D pattern allows the solder reflow step to pull those areas out of the substrate plane resulting in a folded 3D structure. Initial studies using the SBSA method demonstrated low yields in the formation of five different polyhedra. The failures in folding were primarily attributed to nonuniform solder deposition on the underlying metal pads. The dip soldering method was analyzed and subsequently refined. A modified dip soldering process provided improved yield among the polyhedra. Solder bridging referred as joining of solder deposited on different metal patterns in an entity influenced the folding mechanism. In general, design parameters such as small gap-spacings and thick metal pads were found to favor solder bridging for all patterns studied. Two types of soldering: face and edge soldering were analyzed. Face soldering refers to the application of solder on the entire metal face. Edge soldering indicates application of solder only on the edges of the metal face. Mechanical grinding showed that face soldered SBSA structures were void free and robust in nature. In addition, the face soldered 3D structures provide a consistent heat resistant solder standoff height that serve as attachments in the integration of dissimilar electronic technologies. Face soldered 3D structures were developed on the underlying conducting channel to determine the thermo-electric reliability of

  16. Ship-in-a-bottle integration by hybrid femtosecond laser technology for fabrication of true 3D biochips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sima, Felix; Wu, Dong; Xu, Jian; Midorikawa, Katsumi; Sugioka, Koji

    2015-03-01

    We propose herein the "ship-in-a-bottle" integration of three-dimensional (3D) polymeric sinusoidal ridges inside photosensitive glass microfluidic channel by a hybrid subtractive - additive femtosecond laser processing method. It consists of Femtosecond Laser Assisted Wet Etching (FLAE) of a photosensitive Foturan glass followed by Two-Photon Polymerization (TPP) of a SU-8 negative epoxy-resin. Both subtractive and additive processes are carried out using the same set-up with the change of laser focusing objective only. A 522 nm wavelength of the second harmonic generation from an amplified femtosecond Yb-fiber laser (FCPA µJewel D-400, IMRA America, 1045 nm; pulse width 360 fs, repetition rate 200 kHz) was employed for irradiation. The new method allows lowering the size limit of 3D objects created inside channels to smaller details down to the dimensions of a cell, and improve the structure stability. Sinusoidal periodic patterns and ridges are of great use as base scaffolds for building up new structures on their top or for modulating cell migration, guidance and orientation while created interspaces can be exploited for microfluidic applications. The glass microchannel offers robustness and appropriate dynamic flow conditions for cellular studies while the integrated patterns are reducing the size of structure to the level of cells responsiveness. Taking advantage of the ability to directly fabricate 3D complex shapes, both glass channels and polymeric integrated patterns enable us to 3D spatially design biochips for specific applications.

  17. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  18. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  19. Surviving sepsis--a 3D integrative educational simulator.

    PubMed

    Ježek, Filip; Tribula, Martin; Kulhánek, Tomáš; Mateják, Marek; Privitzer, Pavol; Šilar, Jan; Kofránek, Jiří; Lhotská, Lenka

    2015-08-01

    Computer technology offers greater educational possibilities, notably simulation and virtual reality. This paper presents a technology which serves to integrate multiple modalities, namely 3D virtual reality, node-based simulator, Physiomodel explorer and explanatory physiological simulators employing Modelica language and Unity3D platform. This emerging tool chain should allow the authors to concentrate more on educational content instead of application development. The technology is demonstrated through Surviving sepsis educational scenario, targeted on Microsoft Windows Store platform.

  20. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  1. DNA biosensing with 3D printing technology.

    PubMed

    Loo, Adeline Huiling; Chua, Chun Kiang; Pumera, Martin

    2017-01-16

    3D printing, an upcoming technology, has vast potential to transform conventional fabrication processes due to the numerous improvements it can offer to the current methods. To date, the employment of 3D printing technology has been examined for applications in the fields of engineering, manufacturing and biological sciences. In this study, we examined the potential of adopting 3D printing technology for a novel application, electrochemical DNA biosensing. Metal 3D printing was utilized to construct helical-shaped stainless steel electrodes which functioned as a transducing platform for the detection of DNA hybridization. The ability of electroactive methylene blue to intercalate into the double helix structure of double-stranded DNA was then exploited to monitor the DNA hybridization process, with its inherent reduction peak serving as an analytical signal. The designed biosensing approach was found to demonstrate superior selectivity against a non-complementary DNA target, with a detection range of 1-1000 nM.

  2. Wafer-Level 3D Integration for ULSI Interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutmann, Ronald J.; Lu, Jian-Qiang

    Three-dimensional (3D) integration in a system-in-a-package (SiP) implementation (packaging-based 3D) is becoming increasingly used in consumer, computer, and communication applications where form factor is critical. In particular, the hand-held market for a growing myriad of voice, data, messaging, and imaging products is enabled by packaging-based 3D integration (i.e., stacking and connecting individual chips). The key drivers are for increased memory capacity and for heterogeneous integration of different IC technologies and functions.

  3. 3D optical measuring technologies and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yuri V.

    2005-02-01

    The results of the R & D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for noncontact 3D optical dimensional inspection applied to atomic and railway industry safety problems are presented. This activity includes investigations of diffraction phenomena on some 3D objects, using the original constructive calculation method. The efficient algorithms for precise determining the transverse and longitudinal sizes of 3D objects of constant thickness by diffraction method, peculiarities on formation of the shadow and images of the typical elements of the extended objects were suggested. Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and running trains as well as their high exploitation reliability requires a 100% noncontact precise inspection of geometrical parameters of their components. To solve this problem we have developed methods and produced the technical vision measuring systems LMM, CONTROL, PROFIL, and technologies for noncontact 3D dimensional inspection of grid spacers and fuel elements for the nuclear reactor VVER-1000 and VVER-440, as well as automatic laser diagnostic COMPLEX for noncontact inspection of geometric parameters of running freight car wheel pairs. The performances of these systems and the results of industrial testing are presented and discussed. The created devices are in pilot operation at Atomic and Railway Companies.

  4. Progress in 3D imaging and display by integral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Cuenca, R.; Saavedra, G.; Martinez-Corral, M.; Pons, A.; Javidi, B.

    2009-05-01

    Three-dimensionality is currently considered an important added value in imaging devices, and therefore the search for an optimum 3D imaging and display technique is a hot topic that is attracting important research efforts. As main value, 3D monitors should provide the observers with different perspectives of a 3D scene by simply varying the head position. Three-dimensional imaging techniques have the potential to establish a future mass-market in the fields of entertainment and communications. Integral imaging (InI), which can capture true 3D color images, has been seen as the right technology to 3D viewing to audiences of more than one person. Due to the advanced degree of development, InI technology could be ready for commercialization in the coming years. This development is the result of a strong research effort performed along the past few years by many groups. Since Integral Imaging is still an emerging technology, the first aim of the "3D Imaging and Display Laboratory" at the University of Valencia, has been the realization of a thorough study of the principles that govern its operation. Is remarkable that some of these principles have been recognized and characterized by our group. Other contributions of our research have been addressed to overcome some of the classical limitations of InI systems, like the limited depth of field (in pickup and in display), the poor axial and lateral resolution, the pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion, the production of 3D images with continuous relief, or the limited range of viewing angles of InI monitors.

  5. Three wafer stacking for 3D integration.

    SciTech Connect

    Greth, K. Douglas; Ford, Christine L.; Lantz, Jeffrey W.; Shinde, Subhash L.; Timon, Robert P.; Bauer, Todd M.; Hetherington, Dale Laird; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony

    2011-11-01

    Vertical wafer stacking will enable a wide variety of new system architectures by enabling the integration of dissimilar technologies in one small form factor package. With this LDRD, we explored the combination of processes and integration techniques required to achieve stacking of three or more layers. The specific topics that we investigated include design and layout of a reticle set for use as a process development vehicle, through silicon via formation, bonding media, wafer thinning, dielectric deposition for via isolation on the wafer backside, and pad formation.

  6. Hardware Trust Implications of 3-D Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    enhancing a commod- ity processor with a variety of security functions. This paper examines the 3-D design approach and provides an analysis concluding...of key components. The question addressed by this paper is, “Can a 3-D control plane provide useful secure services when it is conjoined with an...untrust- worthy computation plane?” Design-level investigation of this question yields a definite yes. This paper explores 3- D applications and their

  7. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion"…

  8. 3D Perception Technologies for Surgical Operating Theatres.

    PubMed

    Beyl, T; Schreiter, L; Nicolai, P; Raczkowsky, J; Wörn, H

    2016-01-01

    3D Perception technologies have been explored in various fields. This paper explores the application of such technologies for surgical operating theatres. Clinical applications can be found in workflow detection, tracking and analysis, collision avoidance with medical robots, perception of interaction between participants of the operation, training of the operation room crew, patient calibration and many more. In this paper a complete perception solution for the operating room is shown. The system is based on the ToF technology integrated to the Microsoft Kinect One implements a multi camera approach. Special emphasize is put on the tracking of the personnel and the evaluation of the system performance and accuracy.

  9. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D presentations could provide additional sensorial cues (e.g., depth cues) that lead to a higher sense of being surrounded by the stimulus; a connection through general interest such that 3D presentation increases a viewer’s interest that leads to greater attention paid to the stimulus (e.g., "involvement"); and a connection through discomfort, with the 3D goggles causing discomfort that interferes with involvement and thus with memory. The memories of 396 participants who viewed two-dimensional (2D) or 3D movies at movie theaters in Southern California were tested. Within three days of viewing a movie, participants filled out an online anonymous questionnaire that queried them about their movie content memories, subjective movie-going experiences (including emotional reactions and "presence") and demographic backgrounds. The responses to the questionnaire were subjected to path analyses in which several different links between 3D presentation to memory (and other variables) were explored. The results showed there were no effects of 3D presentation, either directly or indirectly, upon memory. However, the largest effects of 3D presentation were on emotions and immersion, with 3D presentation leading to reduced positive emotions, increased negative emotions and lowered immersion, compared to 2D presentations. PMID:28078331

  10. Integrating Quality Management Into a 3d Geospatial Server

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coors, V.; Krämer, M.

    2011-08-01

    In recent years the technology and workflow for producing and management of large 3D urban models has been established and widely been used. Standards such as CityGML enable the modelling and exchange of semantically enriched multi-purpose 3D urban models for applications like urban planning, public participation, environmental simulation and navigation. However, data quality management is essential to control and enhance the quality of these models in order to be able to meet the needs of the aforementioned applications. Quality management should be performed throughout the whole lifecycle of geospatial datasets - from data acquisition to processing, analysis and visualisation. In this paper, we therefore focus on the integration of a quality management software module into a 3D geospatial data server. First results of a prototype system developed at HFT Stuttgart together with Fraunhofer IGD will be presented in this paper as a starting point for further research into the field of quality management of 3D city models.

  11. The 3D visualization technology research of submarine pipeline based Horde3D GameEngine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Guanghui; Ma, Xiushui; Chen, Genlang; Ye, Lingjian

    2013-10-01

    With the development of 3D display and virtual reality technology, its application gets more and more widespread. This paper applies 3D display technology to the monitoring of submarine pipeline. We reconstruct the submarine pipeline and its surrounding submarine terrain in computer using Horde3D graphics rendering engine on the foundation database "submarine pipeline and relative landforms landscape synthesis database" so as to display the virtual scene of submarine pipeline based virtual reality and show the relevant data collected from the monitoring of submarine pipeline.

  12. Integration of virtual and real scenes within an integral 3D imaging environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jinsong; Aggoun, Amar; McCormick, Malcolm

    2002-11-01

    The Imaging Technologies group at De Montfort University has developed an integral 3D imaging system, which is seen as the most likely vehicle for 3D television avoiding psychological effects. To create real fascinating three-dimensional television programs, a virtual studio that performs the task of generating, editing and integrating the 3D contents involving virtual and real scenes is required. The paper presents, for the first time, the procedures, factors and methods of integrating computer-generated virtual scenes with real objects captured using the 3D integral imaging camera system. The method of computer generation of 3D integral images, where the lens array is modelled instead of the physical camera is described. In the model each micro-lens that captures different elemental images of the virtual scene is treated as an extended pinhole camera. An integration process named integrated rendering is illustrated. Detailed discussion and deep investigation are focused on depth extraction from captured integral 3D images. The depth calculation method from the disparity and the multiple baseline method that is used to improve the precision of depth estimation are also presented. The concept of colour SSD and its further improvement in the precision is proposed and verified.

  13. 3D printing technology speeds development.

    PubMed

    McGowan, James

    2013-10-01

    James McGowan, R&D product designer for Monodraught, a specialist in 'natural ventilation, natural daylight, and natural cooling systems', discusses the development of Cool-phase, the company's latest innovative application of phase change material (PCM) as a thermal energy store used to actively ventilate and cool buildings. As he explains, when the company decided to re-design an already successful product to further enhance its performance, the use of 3D modelling greatly speeded up prototyping, and helped the design process progress considerably more quickly.

  14. 3D-GNOME: an integrated web service for structural modeling of the 3D genome.

    PubMed

    Szalaj, Przemyslaw; Michalski, Paul J; Wróblewski, Przemysław; Tang, Zhonghui; Kadlof, Michal; Mazzocco, Giovanni; Ruan, Yijun; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2016-07-08

    Recent advances in high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology, such as Hi-C and ChIA-PET, have demonstrated the importance of 3D genome organization in development, cell differentiation and transcriptional regulation. There is now a widespread need for computational tools to generate and analyze 3D structural models from 3C data. Here we introduce our 3D GeNOme Modeling Engine (3D-GNOME), a web service which generates 3D structures from 3C data and provides tools to visually inspect and annotate the resulting structures, in addition to a variety of statistical plots and heatmaps which characterize the selected genomic region. Users submit a bedpe (paired-end BED format) file containing the locations and strengths of long range contact points, and 3D-GNOME simulates the structure and provides a convenient user interface for further analysis. Alternatively, a user may generate structures using published ChIA-PET data for the GM12878 cell line by simply specifying a genomic region of interest. 3D-GNOME is freely available at http://3dgnome.cent.uw.edu.pl/.

  15. 3D-GNOME: an integrated web service for structural modeling of the 3D genome

    PubMed Central

    Szalaj, Przemyslaw; Michalski, Paul J.; Wróblewski, Przemysław; Tang, Zhonghui; Kadlof, Michal; Mazzocco, Giovanni; Ruan, Yijun; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology, such as Hi-C and ChIA-PET, have demonstrated the importance of 3D genome organization in development, cell differentiation and transcriptional regulation. There is now a widespread need for computational tools to generate and analyze 3D structural models from 3C data. Here we introduce our 3D GeNOme Modeling Engine (3D-GNOME), a web service which generates 3D structures from 3C data and provides tools to visually inspect and annotate the resulting structures, in addition to a variety of statistical plots and heatmaps which characterize the selected genomic region. Users submit a bedpe (paired-end BED format) file containing the locations and strengths of long range contact points, and 3D-GNOME simulates the structure and provides a convenient user interface for further analysis. Alternatively, a user may generate structures using published ChIA-PET data for the GM12878 cell line by simply specifying a genomic region of interest. 3D-GNOME is freely available at http://3dgnome.cent.uw.edu.pl/. PMID:27185892

  16. Integration of real-time 3D capture, reconstruction, and light-field display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Pei, Renjing; Liu, Yongchun; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-03-01

    Effective integration of 3D acquisition, reconstruction (modeling) and display technologies into a seamless systems provides augmented experience of visualizing and analyzing real objects and scenes with realistic 3D sensation. Applications can be found in medical imaging, gaming, virtual or augmented reality and hybrid simulations. Although 3D acquisition, reconstruction, and display technologies have gained significant momentum in recent years, there seems a lack of attention on synergistically combining these components into a "end-to-end" 3D visualization system. We designed, built and tested an integrated 3D visualization system that is able to capture in real-time 3D light-field images, perform 3D reconstruction to build 3D model of the objects, and display the 3D model on a large autostereoscopic screen. In this article, we will present our system architecture and component designs, hardware/software implementations, and experimental results. We will elaborate on our recent progress on sparse camera array light-field 3D acquisition, real-time dense 3D reconstruction, and autostereoscopic multi-view 3D display. A prototype is finally presented with test results to illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed integrated 3D visualization system.

  17. 3-D Packaging: A Technology Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strickland, Mark; Johnson, R. Wayne; Gerke, David

    2005-01-01

    Traditional electronics are assembled as a planar arrangement of components on a printed circuit board (PCB) or other type of substrate. These planar assemblies may then be plugged into a motherboard or card cage creating a volume of electronics. This architecture is common in many military and space electronic systems as well as large computer and telecommunications systems and industrial electronics. The individual PCB assemblies can be replaced if defective or for system upgrade. Some applications are constrained by the volume or the shape of the system and are not compatible with the motherboard or card cage architecture. Examples include missiles, camcorders, and digital cameras. In these systems, planar rigid-flex substrates are folded to create complex 3-D shapes. The flex circuit serves the role of motherboard, providing interconnection between the rigid boards. An example of a planar rigid - flex assembly prior to folding is shown. In both architectures, the interconnection is effectively 2-D.

  18. Stereoscopic display technologies for FHD 3D LCD TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-Sik; Ko, Young-Ji; Park, Sang-Moo; Jung, Jong-Hoon; Shestak, Sergey

    2010-04-01

    Stereoscopic display technologies have been developed as one of advanced displays, and many TV industrials have been trying commercialization of 3D TV. We have been developing 3D TV based on LCD with LED BLU (backlight unit) since Samsung launched the world's first 3D TV based on PDP. However, the data scanning of panel and LC's response characteristics of LCD TV cause interference among frames (that is crosstalk), and this makes 3D video quality worse. We propose the method to reduce crosstalk by LCD driving and backlight control of FHD 3D LCD TV.

  19. 3D Holographic Technology and Its Educational Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyangsook

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses a number of significant developments in 3D holographic technology, its potential to revolutionize aspects of teaching and learning, and challenges of implementing the technology in educational settings.

  20. 3D Laser Scanning in Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Jim

    2000-01-01

    A three-dimensional laser scanner can be used as a tool for design and problem solving in technology education. A hands-on experience can enhance learning by captivating students' interest and empowering them with creative tools. (Author/JOW)

  1. Integrating visible light 3D scanning into the everyday world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    Visible light 3D scanning offers the potential to non-invasively and nearly non-perceptibly incorporate 3D imaging into the everyday world. This paper considers the various possible uses of visible light 3D scanning technology. It discusses multiple possible usage scenarios including in hospitals, security perimeter settings and retail environments. The paper presents a framework for assessing the efficacy of visible light 3D scanning for a given application (and compares this to other scanning approaches such as those using blue light or lasers). It also discusses ethical and legal considerations relevant to real-world use and concludes by presenting a decision making framework.

  2. 3D augmented reality with integral imaging display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xin; Hua, Hong; Javidi, Bahram

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) integral imaging display for augmented reality is presented. By implementing the pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion method, elemental image arrays with different capturing parameters can be transferred into the identical format for 3D display. With the proposed merging algorithm, a new set of elemental images for augmented reality display is generated. The newly generated elemental images contain both the virtual objects and real world scene with desired depth information and transparency parameters. The experimental results indicate the feasibility of the proposed 3D augmented reality with integral imaging.

  3. 3D Printing in Zero-G ISS Technology Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werkheiser, Niki; Cooper, Kenneth C.; Edmunson, Jennifer E.; Dunn, Jason; Snyder, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a long term strategy to fabricate components and equipment on-demand for manned missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. To support this strategy, NASA's Marshall Space Fligth Center (MSFC) and Made in Space, Inc. are developing the 3D Printing In Zero-G payload as a Technology Demonstration for the International Space Station (ISS). The 3D Printing In Zero-G experiment ('3D Print') will be the frst machine to perform 3D printing in space.

  4. Polarimetric 3D integral imaging in photon-starved conditions.

    PubMed

    Carnicer, Artur; Javidi, Bahram

    2015-03-09

    We develop a method for obtaining 3D polarimetric integral images from elemental images recorded in low light illumination conditions. Since photon-counting images are very sparse, calculation of the Stokes parameters and the degree of polarization should be handled carefully. In our approach, polarimetric 3D integral images are generated using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation and subsequently reconstructed by means of a Total Variation Denoising filter. In this way, polarimetric results are comparable to those obtained in conventional illumination conditions. We also show that polarimetric information retrieved from photon starved images can be used in 3D object recognition problems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on 3D polarimetric photon counting integral imaging.

  5. Progresses in 3D integral imaging with optical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Martínez-Cuenca, Raúl; Saavedra, Genaro; Navarro, Héctor; Pons, Amparo; Javidi, Bahram

    2008-11-01

    Integral imaging is a promising technique for the acquisition and auto-stereoscopic display of 3D scenes with full parallax and without the need of any additional devices like special glasses. First suggested by Lippmann in the beginning of the 20th century, integral imaging is based in the intersection of ray cones emitted by a collection of 2D elemental images which store the 3D information of the scene. This paper is devoted to the study, from the ray optics point of view, of the optical effects and interaction with the observer of integral imaging systems.

  6. 3D Printing technologies for drug delivery: a review.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Leena Kumari; Smyth, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    With the FDA approval of the first 3D printed tablet, Spritam®, there is now precedence set for the utilization of 3D printing for the preparation of drug delivery systems. The capabilities for dispensing low volumes with accuracy, precise spatial control and layer-by-layer assembly allow for the preparation of complex compositions and geometries. The high degree of flexibility and control with 3D printing enables the preparation of dosage forms with multiple active pharmaceutical ingredients with complex and tailored release profiles. A unique opportunity for this technology for the preparation of personalized doses to address individual patient needs. This review will highlight the 3D printing technologies being utilized for the fabrication of drug delivery systems, as well as the formulation and processing parameters for consideration. This article will also summarize the range of dosage forms that have been prepared using these technologies, specifically over the last 10 years.

  7. Research of range-gated 3D imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haitao; Zhao, Hongli; Youchen, Fan

    2016-10-01

    Laser image data-based target recognition technology is one of the key technologies of laser active imaging systems. This paper discussed the status quo of 3-D imaging development at home and abroad, analyzed the current technological bottlenecks, and built a prototype of range-gated systems to obtain a set of range-gated slice images, and then constructed the 3-D images of the target by binary method and centroid method, respectively, and by constructing different numbers of slice images explored the relationship between the number of images and the reconstruction accuracy in the 3-D image reconstruction process. The experiment analyzed the impact of two algorithms, binary method and centroid method, on the results of 3-D image reconstruction. In the binary method, a comparative analysis was made on the impact of different threshold values on the results of reconstruction, where 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and adaptive threshold values were selected for 3-D reconstruction of the slice images. In the centroid method, 15, 10, 6, 3, and 2 images were respectively used to realize 3-D reconstruction. Experimental results showed that with the same number of slice images, the accuracy of centroid method was higher than the binary algorithm, and the binary algorithm had a large dependence on the selection of threshold; with the number of slice images dwindling, the accuracy of images reconstructed by centroid method continued to reduce, and at least three slice images were required in order to obtain one 3-D image.

  8. Accommodation response measurements for integral 3D image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiura, H.; Mishina, T.; Arai, J.; Iwadate, Y.

    2014-03-01

    We measured accommodation responses under integral photography (IP), binocular stereoscopic, and real object display conditions, and viewing conditions of binocular and monocular viewing conditions. The equipment we used was an optometric device and a 3D display. We developed the 3D display for IP and binocular stereoscopic images that comprises a high-resolution liquid crystal display (LCD) and a high-density lens array. The LCD has a resolution of 468 dpi and a diagonal size of 4.8 inches. The high-density lens array comprises 106 x 69 micro lenses that have a focal length of 3 mm and diameter of 1 mm. The lenses are arranged in a honeycomb pattern. The 3D display was positioned 60 cm from an observer under IP and binocular stereoscopic display conditions. The target was presented at eight depth positions relative to the 3D display: 15, 10, and 5 cm in front of the 3D display, on the 3D display panel, and 5, 10, 15 and 30 cm behind the 3D display under the IP and binocular stereoscopic display conditions. Under the real object display condition, the target was displayed on the 3D display panel, and the 3D display was placed at the eight positions. The results suggest that the IP image induced more natural accommodation responses compared to the binocular stereoscopic image. The accommodation responses of the IP image were weaker than those of a real object; however, they showed a similar tendency with those of the real object under the two viewing conditions. Therefore, IP can induce accommodation to the depth positions of 3D images.

  9. 3D-printing technologies for electrochemical applications.

    PubMed

    Ambrosi, Adriano; Pumera, Martin

    2016-05-21

    Since its conception during the 80s, 3D-printing, also known as additive manufacturing, has been receiving unprecedented levels of attention and interest from industry and research laboratories. This is in addition to end users, who have benefited from the pervasiveness of desktop-size and relatively cheap printing machines available. 3D-printing enables almost infinite possibilities for rapid prototyping. Therefore, it has been considered for applications in numerous research fields, ranging from mechanical engineering, medicine, and materials science to chemistry. Electrochemistry is another branch of science that can certainly benefit from 3D-printing technologies, paving the way for the design and fabrication of cheaper, higher performing, and ubiquitously available electrochemical devices. Here, we aim to provide a general overview of the most commonly available 3D-printing methods along with a review of recent electrochemistry related studies adopting 3D-printing as a possible rapid prototyping fabrication tool.

  10. Restoring Fort Frontenac in 3D: Effective Usage of 3D Technology for Heritage Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabe, M.; Goins, E.; Jackson, C.; Halbstein, D.; Foster, S.; Bazely, S.

    2015-02-01

    This paper is composed of three elements: 3D modeling, web design, and heritage visualization. The aim is to use computer graphics design to inform and create an interest in historical visualization by rebuilding Fort Frontenac using 3D modeling and interactive design. The final model will be integr ated into an interactive website to learn more about the fort's historic imp ortance. It is apparent that using computer graphics can save time and money when it comes to historical visualization. Visitors do not have to travel to the actual archaeological buildings. They can simply use the Web in their own home to learn about this information virtually. Meticulously following historical records to create a sophisticated restoration of archaeological buildings will draw viewers into visualizations, such as the historical world of Fort Frontenac. As a result, it allows the viewers to effectively understand the fort's social sy stem, habits, and historical events.

  11. Personalized development of human organs using 3D printing technology.

    PubMed

    Radenkovic, Dina; Solouk, Atefeh; Seifalian, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    3D printing is a technique of fabricating physical models from a 3D volumetric digital image. The image is sliced and printed using a specific material into thin layers, and successive layering of the material produces a 3D model. It has already been used for printing surgical models for preoperative planning and in constructing personalized prostheses for patients. The ultimate goal is to achieve the development of functional human organs and tissues, to overcome limitations of organ transplantation created by the lack of organ donors and life-long immunosuppression. We hypothesized a precision medicine approach to human organ fabrication using 3D printed technology, in which the digital volumetric data would be collected by imaging of a patient, i.e. CT or MRI images followed by mathematical modeling to create a digital 3D image. Then a suitable biocompatible material, with an optimal resolution for cells seeding and maintenance of cell viability during the printing process, would be printed with a compatible printer type and finally implanted into the patient. Life-saving operations with 3D printed implants were already performed in patients. However, several issues need to be addressed before translational application of 3D printing into clinical medicine. These are vascularization, innervation, and financial cost of 3D printing and safety of biomaterials used for the construct.

  12. Analysis of Impact of 3D Printing Technology on Traditional Manufacturing Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Niyan; Chen, Qi; Liao, Linzhi; Wang, Xin

    With quiet rise of 3D printing technology in automobile, aerospace, industry, medical treatment and other fields, many insiders hold different opinions on its development. This paper objectively analyzes impact of 3D printing technology on mold making technology and puts forward the idea of fusion and complementation of 3D printing technology and mold making technology through comparing advantages and disadvantages of 3D printing mold and traditional mold making technology.

  13. 3D Vectorial Time Domain Computational Integrated Photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Kallman, J S; Bond, T C; Koning, J M; Stowell, M L

    2007-02-16

    The design of integrated photonic structures poses considerable challenges. 3D-Time-Domain design tools are fundamental in enabling technologies such as all-optical logic, photonic bandgap sensors, THz imaging, and fast radiation diagnostics. Such technologies are essential to LLNL and WFO sponsors for a broad range of applications: encryption for communications and surveillance sensors (NSA, NAI and IDIV/PAT); high density optical interconnects for high-performance computing (ASCI); high-bandwidth instrumentation for NIF diagnostics; micro-sensor development for weapon miniaturization within the Stockpile Stewardship and DNT programs; and applications within HSO for CBNP detection devices. While there exist a number of photonics simulation tools on the market, they primarily model devices of interest to the communications industry. We saw the need to extend our previous software to match the Laboratory's unique emerging needs. These include modeling novel material effects (such as those of radiation induced carrier concentrations on refractive index) and device configurations (RadTracker bulk optics with radiation induced details, Optical Logic edge emitting lasers with lateral optical inputs). In addition we foresaw significant advantages to expanding our own internal simulation codes: parallel supercomputing could be incorporated from the start, and the simulation source code would be accessible for modification and extension. This work addressed Engineering's Simulation Technology Focus Area, specifically photonics. Problems addressed from the Engineering roadmap of the time included modeling the Auston switch (an important THz source/receiver), modeling Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs, which had been envisioned as part of fast radiation sensors), and multi-scale modeling of optical systems (for a variety of applications). We proposed to develop novel techniques to numerically solve the 3D multi-scale propagation problem for both the microchip

  14. Photogrammetry for rapid prototyping: development of noncontact 3D reconstruction technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyaz, Vladimir A.

    2002-04-01

    An important stage of rapid prototyping technology is generating computer 3D model of an object to be reproduced. Wide variety of techniques for 3D model generation exists beginning with manual 3D models generation and finishing with full-automated reverse engineering system. The progress in CCD sensors and computers provides the background for integration of photogrammetry as an accurate 3D data source with CAD/CAM. The paper presents the results of developing photogrammetric methods for non-contact spatial coordinates measurements and generation of computer 3D model of real objects. The technology is based on object convergent images processing for calculating its 3D coordinates and surface reconstruction. The hardware used for spatial coordinates measurements is based on PC as central processing unit and video camera as image acquisition device. The original software for Windows 9X realizes the complete technology of 3D reconstruction for rapid input of geometry data in CAD/CAM systems. Technical characteristics of developed systems are given along with the results of applying for various tasks of 3D reconstruction. The paper describes the techniques used for non-contact measurements and the methods providing metric characteristics of reconstructed 3D model. Also the results of system application for 3D reconstruction of complex industrial objects are presented.

  15. A monolithic 3D integrated nanomagnetic co-processing unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becherer, M.; Breitkreutz-v. Gamm, S.; Eichwald, I.; Žiemys, G.; Kiermaier, J.; Csaba, G.; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.

    2016-01-01

    As CMOS scaling becomes more and more challenging there is strong impetus for beyond CMOS device research to add new functionality to ICs. In this article, a promising technology with non-volatile ferromagnetic computing states - the so-called Perpendicular Nanomagnetic Logic (pNML) - is reviewed. After introducing the 2D planar implementation of NML with magnetization perpendicular to the surface, the path to monolithically 3D integrated systems is discussed. Instead of CMOS substitution, additional functionality is added by a co-processor architecture as a prospective back-end-of-line (BEOL) process, where the computing elements are clocked by a soft-magnetic on-chip inductor. The unconventional computation in the ferromagnetic domain can lead to highly dense computing structures without leakage currents, attojoule dissipation per bit operation and data-throughputs comparable to state-of-the-art high-performance CMOS CPUs. In appropriate applications and with specialized computing architectures they might even circumvent the bottleneck of time-consuming memory access, as computation is inherently performed with non-volatile computing states.

  16. Study of capabilities and limitations of 3D printing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemu, H. G.

    2012-04-01

    3D printing is one of the developments in rapid prototyping technology. The inception and development of the technology has highly assisted the product development phase of product design and manufacturing. The technology is particularly important in educating product design and 3D modeling because it helps students to visualize their design idea, to enhance their creative design process and enables them to touch and feel the result of their innovative work. The availability of many 3D printers on the market has created a certain level of challenge for the user. Among others, complexity of part geometry, material type, compatibility with 3D CAD models and other technical aspects still need in-depth study. This paper presents results of the experimental work on the capabilities and limitations of the Z510 3D printer from Z-corporation. Several parameters such as dimensional and geometrical accuracy, surface quality and strength as a function of model size, orientation and file exchange format are closely studied.

  17. Output-sensitive 3D line integral convolution.

    PubMed

    Falk, Martin; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    We propose an output-sensitive visualization method for 3D line integral convolution (LIC) whose rendering speed is largely independent of the data set size and mostly governed by the complexity of the output on the image plane. Our approach of view-dependent visualization tightly links the LIC generation with the volume rendering of the LIC result in order to avoid the computation of unnecessary LIC points: early-ray termination and empty-space leaping techniques are used to skip the computation of the LIC integral in a lazy-evaluation approach; both ray casting and texture slicing can be used as volume-rendering techniques. The input noise is modeled in object space to allow for temporal coherence under object and camera motion. Different noise models are discussed, covering dense representations based on filtered white noise all the way to sparse representations similar to oriented LIC. Aliasing artifacts are avoided by frequency control over the 3D noise and by employing a 3D variant of MIPmapping. A range of illumination models is applied to the LIC streamlines: different codimension-2 lighting models and a novel gradient-based illumination model that relies on precomputed gradients and does not require any direct calculation of gradients after the LIC integral is evaluated. We discuss the issue of proper sampling of the LIC and volume-rendering integrals by employing a frequency-space analysis of the noise model and the precomputed gradients. Finally, we demonstrate that our visualization approach lends itself to a fast graphics processing unit (GPU) implementation that supports both steady and unsteady flow. Therefore, this 3D LIC method allows users to interactively explore 3D flow by means of high-quality, view-dependent, and adaptive LIC volume visualization. Applications to flow visualization in combination with feature extraction and focus-and-context visualization are described, a comparison to previous methods is provided, and a detailed performance

  18. 3D Printing in Technology and Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robert L.; Bowden, Nicholas S.; Merrill, Chris

    2014-01-01

    In the past five years, there has been tremendous growth in the production and use of desktop 3D printers. This growth has been driven by the increasing availability of inexpensive computing and electronics technologies. The ability to rapidly share ideas and intelligence over the Internet has also played a key role in the growth. Growth is also…

  19. Development of 3D in vitro technology for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Ou, Keng-Liang; Hosseinkhani, Hossein

    2014-10-08

    In the past few years, biomaterials technologies together with significant efforts on developing biology have revolutionized the process of engineered materials. Three dimensional (3D) in vitro technology aims to develop set of tools that are simple, inexpensive, portable and robust that could be commercialized and used in various fields of biomedical sciences such as drug discovery, diagnostic tools, and therapeutic approaches in regenerative medicine. The proliferation of cells in the 3D scaffold needs an oxygen and nutrition supply. 3D scaffold materials should provide such an environment for cells living in close proximity. 3D scaffolds that are able to regenerate or restore tissue and/or organs have begun to revolutionize medicine and biomedical science. Scaffolds have been used to support and promote the regeneration of tissues. Different processing techniques have been developed to design and fabricate three dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering implants. Throughout the chapters we discuss in this review, we inform the reader about the potential applications of different 3D in vitro systems that can be applied for fabricating a wider range of novel biomaterials for use in tissue engineering.

  20. 3D Medical Collaboration Technology to Enhance Emergency Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Söderholm, Hanna M.; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Ampalam, Manoj; Krishnan, Srinivas; Noel, Vincent; Noland, Michael; Manning, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) videoconferencing has been explored widely in the past 15–20 years to support collaboration in healthcare. Two issues that arise in most evaluations of 2D videoconferencing in telemedicine are the difficulty obtaining optimal camera views and poor depth perception. To address these problems, we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to reconstruct dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and of events taking place within. The 3D views could be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote healthcare professionals equipped with fixed displays or with mobile devices such as personal digital assistants (PDAs). The remote professionals’ viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically (continuously) via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewers head-slaved or hand-slaved virtual cameras for monoscopic or stereoscopic viewing of the dynamic reconstructions. We call this idea remote 3D medical collaboration. In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical collaboration technology; we describe the relevant computer vision, computer graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present evaluation results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical collaboration technology could offer benefits over conventional 2D videoconferencing in emergency healthcare. PMID:19521951

  1. Development of 3D in Vitro Technology for Medical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Keng-Liang; Hosseinkhani, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, biomaterials technologies together with significant efforts on developing biology have revolutionized the process of engineered materials. Three dimensional (3D) in vitro technology aims to develop set of tools that are simple, inexpensive, portable and robust that could be commercialized and used in various fields of biomedical sciences such as drug discovery, diagnostic tools, and therapeutic approaches in regenerative medicine. The proliferation of cells in the 3D scaffold needs an oxygen and nutrition supply. 3D scaffold materials should provide such an environment for cells living in close proximity. 3D scaffolds that are able to regenerate or restore tissue and/or organs have begun to revolutionize medicine and biomedical science. Scaffolds have been used to support and promote the regeneration of tissues. Different processing techniques have been developed to design and fabricate three dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering implants. Throughout the chapters we discuss in this review, we inform the reader about the potential applications of different 3D in vitro systems that can be applied for fabricating a wider range of novel biomaterials for use in tissue engineering. PMID:25299693

  2. Coherence cube technology adds geologic insight to 3-D data

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, D.

    1997-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic technology is now widely applied to assess the risk associated with hydrocarbon trap definition, including faulting, stratigraphic features, and reservoir description. Critical new technologies to exploit the wealth of information contained within 3-D seismic have recently begun to emerge; most notably, coherence cube technology, developed by Amoco Production Research and licensed to Coherence Technology Co. (CTC). Coherence cube processing produces interpretable images of faults and subtle stratigraphic features, such as buried deltas, river channels, and beaches, by quantifying seismic coherence attributes. The technique has important implications for geophysical, geological, and reservoir engineering applications. The paper discusses how coherency works, applications, and an example in delineating southern North Sea faulting.

  3. Application of 3D printing technology in aerodynamic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olasek, K.; Wiklak, P.

    2014-08-01

    3D printing, as an additive process, offers much more than traditional machining techniques in terms of achievable complexity of a model shape. That fact was a motivation to adapt discussed technology as a method for creating objects purposed for aerodynamic testing. The following paper provides an overview of various 3D printing techniques. Four models of a standard NACA0018 aerofoil were manufactured in different materials and methods: MultiJet Modelling (MJM), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM). Various parameters of the models have been included in the analysis: surface roughness, strength, details quality, surface imperfections and irregularities as well as thermal properties.

  4. Experiment for Integrating Dutch 3d Spatial Planning and Bim for Checking Building Permits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Berlo, L.; Dijkmans, T.; Stoter, J.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a research project in The Netherlands in which several SMEs collaborated to create a 3D model of the National spatial planning information. This 2D information system described in the IMRO data standard holds implicit 3D information that can be used to generate an explicit 3D model. The project realized a proof of concept to generate a 3D spatial planning model. The team used the model to integrate it with several 3D Building Information Models (BIMs) described in the open data standard Industry Foundation Classes (IFC). Goal of the project was (1) to generate a 3D BIM model from spatial planning information to be used by the architect during the early design phase, and (2) allow 3D checking of building permits. The team used several technologies like CityGML, BIM clash detection and GeoBIM to explore the potential of this innovation. Within the project a showcase was created with a part of the spatial plan from the city of The Hague. Several BIM models were integrated in the 3D spatial plan of this area. A workflow has been described that demonstrates the benefits of collaboration between the spatial domain and the AEC industry in 3D. The research results in a showcase with conclusions and considerations for both national and international practice.

  5. Radiation Effects in 3D Integrated SOl SRAM Circuits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-23

    Comparing Neutrons and Protons Data Monoenergetic neutrons and protons are used to characterize single event effects in electronics circuits, and are...for proton irradiation with energies between 4.8 and 500 MeV. Results are compared with 14-MeV neutron irradiation. Single event upset cross-section...fabricating circuits for space applications. singIe event effects, SOl, fully depleted, 3D integration, neutron , protons, upset cross-section U U U U SAR

  6. Possible Applications of 3D Printing Technology on Textile Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korger, M.; Bergschneider, J.; Lutz, M.; Mahltig, B.; Finsterbusch, K.; Rabe, M.

    2016-07-01

    3D printing is a rapidly emerging additive manufacturing technology which can offer cost efficiency and flexibility in product development and production. In textile production 3D printing can also serve as an add-on process to apply 3D structures on textiles. In this study the low-cost fused deposition modeling (FDM) technique was applied using different thermoplastic printing materials available on the market with focus on flexible filaments such as thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) or Soft PLA. Since a good adhesion and stability of the 3D printed structures on textiles are essential, separation force and abrasion resistance tests were conducted with different kinds of printed woven fabrics demonstrating that a sufficient adhesion can be achieved. The main influencing factor can be attributed to the topography of the textile surface affected by the weave, roughness and hairiness offering formlocking connections followed by the wettability of the textile surface by the molten polymer, which depends on the textile surface energy and can be specifically controlled by washing (desizing), finishing or plasma treatment of the textile before the print. These basic adhesion mechanisms can also be considered crucial for 3D printing on knitwear.

  7. 3D optical measuring technologies for dimensional inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yu V.

    2005-01-01

    The results of the R & D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for noncontact 3D optical dimensional inspection applied to atomic and railway industry safety problems are presented. This activity includes investigations of diffraction phenomena on some 3D objects, using the original constructive calculation method, development of hole inspection method on the base of diffractive optical elements. Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and running trains as well as their high exploitation reliability takes a noncontact inspection of geometrical parameters of their components. For this tasks we have developed methods and produced the technical vision measuring systems LMM, CONTROL, PROFILE, and technologies for non-contact 3D dimensional inspection of grid spacers and fuel elements for the nuclear reactor VVER-1000 and VVER-440, as well as automatic laser diagnostic system COMPLEX for noncontact inspection of geometrical parameters of running freight car wheel pairs. The performances of these systems and the results of the industrial testing at atomic and railway companies are presented.

  8. 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yu. V.

    2005-06-01

    The results of the R & D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for noncontact 3D optical dimensional inspection applied to atomic and railway industry safety problems are presented. This activity includes investigations of diffraction phenomena on some 3D objects, using the original constructive calculation method, development of hole inspection method on the base of diffractive optical elements. Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and running trains as well as their high exploitation reliability requires a 100 % noncontact precise inspection of geometrical parameters of their components. To solve this problem we have developed methods and produced the technical vision measuring systems LMM, CONTROL, RADAR, and technologies for noncontact 3D dimensional inspection of grid spacers and fuel elements for the nuclear reactor VVER-1000 and VVER-440, as well as automatic laser diagnostic COMPLEX for noncontact inspection of geometric parameters of running freight car wheel pairs. The performances of these systems and the results of industrial testing are presented and discussed. The created devices are in pilot operation at Atomic and Railway Companies.

  9. Exposing digital image forgeries by 3D reconstruction technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongqiang; Xu, Xiaojing; Li, Zhihui; Liu, Haizhen; Li, Zhigang; Huang, Wei

    2009-11-01

    Digital images are easy to tamper and edit due to availability of powerful image processing and editing software. Especially, forged images by taking from a picture of scene, because of no manipulation was made after taking, usual methods, such as digital watermarks, statistical correlation technology, can hardly detect the traces of image tampering. According to image forgery characteristics, a method, based on 3D reconstruction technology, which detect the forgeries by discriminating the dimensional relationship of each object appeared on image, is presented in this paper. This detection method includes three steps. In the first step, all the parameters of images were calibrated and each crucial object on image was chosen and matched. In the second step, the 3D coordinates of each object were calculated by bundle adjustment. In final step, the dimensional relationship of each object was analyzed. Experiments were designed to test this detection method; the 3D reconstruction and the forged image 3D reconstruction were computed independently. Test results show that the fabricating character in digital forgeries can be identified intuitively by this method.

  10. 3D Printing In Zero-G ISS Technology Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werkheiser, Niki; Cooper, Kenneth; Edmunson, Jennifer; Dunn, Jason; Snyder, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a long term strategy to fabricate components and equipment on-demand for manned missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. To support this strategy, NASA and Made in Space, Inc. are developing the 3D Printing In Zero-G payload as a Technology Demonstration for the International Space Station (ISS). The 3D Printing In Zero-G experiment ('3D Print') will be the first machine to perform 3D printing in space. The greater the distance from Earth and the longer the mission duration, the more difficult resupply becomes; this requires a change from the current spares, maintenance, repair, and hardware design model that has been used on the International Space Station (ISS) up until now. Given the extension of the ISS Program, which will inevitably result in replacement parts being required, the ISS is an ideal platform to begin changing the current model for resupply and repair to one that is more suitable for all exploration missions. 3D Printing, more formally known as Additive Manufacturing, is the method of building parts/objects/tools layer-by-layer. The 3D Print experiment will use extrusion-based additive manufacturing, which involves building an object out of plastic deposited by a wire-feed via an extruder head. Parts can be printed from data files loaded on the device at launch, as well as additional files uplinked to the device while on-orbit. The plastic extrusion additive manufacturing process is a low-energy, low-mass solution to many common needs on board the ISS. The 3D Print payload will serve as the ideal first step to proving that process in space. It is unreasonable to expect NASA to launch large blocks of material from which parts or tools can be traditionally machined, and even more unreasonable to fly up multiple drill bits that would be required to machine parts from aerospace-grade materials such as titanium 6-4 alloy and Inconel. The technology to produce parts on demand, in space, offers

  11. Developing novel 3D antennas using advanced additive manufacturing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaee, Milad

    In today's world of wireless communication systems, antenna engineering is rapidly advancing as the wireless services continue to expand in support of emerging commercial applications. Antennas play a key role in the performance of advanced transceiver systems where they serve to convert electric power to electromagnetic waves and vice versa. Researchers have held significant interest in developing this crucial component for wireless communication systems by employing a variety of design techniques. In the past few years, demands for electrically small antennas continues to increase, particularly among portable and mobile wireless devices, medical electronics and aerospace systems. This trend toward smaller electronic devices makes the three dimensional (3D) antennas very appealing, since they can be designed in a way to use every available space inside the devise. Additive Manufacturing (AM) method could help to find great solutions for the antennas design for next generation of wireless communication systems. In this thesis, the design and fabrication of 3D printed antennas using AM technology is studied. To demonstrate this application of AM, different types of antennas structures have been designed and fabricated using various manufacturing processes. This thesis studies, for the first time, embedded conductive 3D printed antennas using PolyLactic Acid (PLA) and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) for substrate parts and high temperature carbon paste for conductive parts which can be a good candidate to overcome the limitations of direct printing on 3D surfaces that is the most popular method to fabricate conductive parts of the antennas. This thesis also studies, for the first time, the fabrication of antennas with 3D printed conductive parts which can contribute to the new generation of 3D printed antennas.

  12. Demonstration of three gorges archaeological relics based on 3D-visualization technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenli

    2015-12-01

    This paper mainly focuses on the digital demonstration of three gorges archeological relics to exhibit the achievements of the protective measures. A novel and effective method based on 3D-visualization technology, which includes large-scaled landscape reconstruction, virtual studio, and virtual panoramic roaming, etc, is proposed to create a digitized interactive demonstration system. The method contains three stages: pre-processing, 3D modeling and integration. Firstly, abundant archaeological information is classified according to its history and geographical information. Secondly, build up a 3D-model library with the technology of digital images processing and 3D modeling. Thirdly, use virtual reality technology to display the archaeological scenes and cultural relics vividly and realistically. The present work promotes the application of virtual reality to digital projects and enriches the content of digital archaeology.

  13. 3-D MAPPING TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Marzolf, A.; Folsom, M.

    2010-08-31

    This research investigated four techniques that could be applicable for mapping of solids remaining in radioactive waste tanks at the Savannah River Site: stereo vision, LIDAR, flash LIDAR, and Structure from Motion (SfM). Stereo vision is the least appropriate technique for the solids mapping application. Although the equipment cost is low and repackaging would be fairly simple, the algorithms to create a 3D image from stereo vision would require significant further development and may not even be applicable since stereo vision works by finding disparity in feature point locations from the images taken by the cameras. When minimal variation in visual texture exists for an area of interest, it becomes difficult for the software to detect correspondences for that object. SfM appears to be appropriate for solids mapping in waste tanks. However, equipment development would be required for positioning and movement of the camera in the tank space to enable capturing a sequence of images of the scene. Since SfM requires the identification of distinctive features and associates those features to their corresponding instantiations in the other image frames, mockup testing would be required to determine the applicability of SfM technology for mapping of waste in tanks. There may be too few features to track between image frame sequences to employ the SfM technology since uniform appearance may exist when viewing the remaining solids in the interior of the waste tanks. Although scanning LIDAR appears to be an adequate solution, the expense of the equipment ($80,000-$120,000) and the need for further development to allow tank deployment may prohibit utilizing this technology. The development would include repackaging of equipment to permit deployment through the 4-inch access ports and to keep the equipment relatively uncontaminated to allow use in additional tanks. 3D flash LIDAR has a number of advantages over stereo vision, scanning LIDAR, and SfM, including full frame

  14. 3D J-Integral Capability in Grizzly

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Benjamin; Backman, Marie; Chakraborty, Pritam; Hoffman, William

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes work done to develop a capability to evaluate fracture contour J-Integrals in 3D in the Grizzly code. In the current fiscal year, a previously-developed 2D implementation of a J-Integral evaluation capability has been extended to work in 3D, and to include terms due both to mechanically-induced strains and due to gradients in thermal strains. This capability has been verified against a benchmark solution on a model of a curved crack front in 3D. The thermal term in this integral has been verified against a benchmark problem with a thermal gradient. These developments are part of a larger effort to develop Grizzly as a tool that can be used to predict the evolution of aging processes in nuclear power plant systems, structures, and components, and assess their capacity after being subjected to those aging processes. The capabilities described here have been developed to enable evaluations of Mode- stress intensity factors on axis-aligned flaws in reactor pressure vessels. These can be compared with the fracture toughness of the material to determine whether a pre-existing flaw would begin to propagate during a pos- tulated pressurized thermal shock accident. This report includes a demonstration calculation to show how Grizzly is used to perform a deterministic assessment of such a flaw propagation in a degraded reactor pressure vessel under pressurized thermal shock conditions. The stress intensity is calculated from J, and the toughness is computed using the fracture master curve and the degraded ductile to brittle transition temperature.

  15. Customisable 3D printed microfluidics for integrated analysis and optimisation.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, T; Harding, M J; Harris, R A; Friel, R J; Christie, S D R

    2016-08-16

    The formation of smart Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) devices featuring integrated sensing optics is currently hindered by convoluted and expensive manufacturing procedures. In this work, a series of 3D-printed LOC devices were designed and manufactured via stereolithography (SL) in a matter of hours. The spectroscopic performance of a variety of optical fibre combinations were tested, and the optimum path length for performing Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy determined. The information gained in these trials was then used in a reaction optimisation for the formation of carvone semicarbazone. The production of high resolution surface channels (100-500 μm) means that these devices were capable of handling a wide range of concentrations (9 μM-38 mM), and are ideally suited to both analyte detection and process optimisation. This ability to tailor the chip design and its integrated features as a direct result of the reaction being assessed, at such a low time and cost penalty greatly increases the user's ability to optimise both their device and reaction. As a result of the information gained in this investigation, we are able to report the first instance of a 3D-printed LOC device with fully integrated, in-line monitoring capabilities via the use of embedded optical fibres capable of performing UV-vis spectroscopy directly inside micro channels.

  16. 3D Printing in Zero-G ISS Technology Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mallory M.; Werkheiser, Mary J.; Cooper, Kenneth G.; Snyder, Michael P.; Edmunson, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a long term strategy to fabricate components and equipment on-demand for manned missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. To support this strategy, NASA and Made in Space, Inc. are developing the 3D Printing In Zero-G payload as a Technology Demonstration for the International Space Station. The 3D Printing In Zero-G experiment will be the first machine to perform 3D printing in space. The greater the distance from Earth and the longer the mission duration, the more difficult resupply becomes; this requires a change from the current spares, maintenance, repair, and hardware design model that has been used on the International Space Station up until now. Given the extension of the ISS Program, which will inevitably result in replacement parts being required, the ISS is an ideal platform to begin changing the current model for resupply and repair to one that is more suitable for all exploration missions. 3D Printing, more formally known as Additive Manufacturing, is the method of building parts/ objects/tools layer-by-layer. The 3D Print experiment will use extrusion-based additive manufacturing, which involves building an object out of plastic deposited by a wire-feed via an extruder head. Parts can be printed from data files loaded on the device at launch, as well as additional files uplinked to the device while on-orbit. The plastic extrusion additive manufacturing process is a low-energy, low-mass solution to many common needs on board the ISS. The 3D Print payload will serve as the ideal first step to proving that process in space. It is unreasonable to expect NASA to launch large blocks of material from which parts or tools can be traditionally machined, and even more unreasonable to fly up specialized manufacturing hardware to perform the entire range of function traditionally machining requires. The technology to produce parts on demand, in space, offers unique design options that are not possible

  17. Integral imaging based 3D display of holographic data.

    PubMed

    Yöntem, Ali Özgür; Onural, Levent

    2012-10-22

    We propose a method and present applications of this method that converts a diffraction pattern into an elemental image set in order to display them on an integral imaging based display setup. We generate elemental images based on diffraction calculations as an alternative to commonly used ray tracing methods. Ray tracing methods do not accommodate the interference and diffraction phenomena. Our proposed method enables us to obtain elemental images from a holographic recording of a 3D object/scene. The diffraction pattern can be either numerically generated data or digitally acquired optical data. The method shows the connection between a hologram (diffraction pattern) and an elemental image set of the same 3D object. We showed three examples, one of which is the digitally captured optical diffraction tomography data of an epithelium cell. We obtained optical reconstructions with our integral imaging display setup where we used a digital lenslet array. We also obtained numerical reconstructions, again by using the diffraction calculations, for comparison. The digital and optical reconstruction results are in good agreement.

  18. Tunable quantum interference in a 3D integrated circuit.

    PubMed

    Chaboyer, Zachary; Meany, Thomas; Helt, L G; Withford, Michael J; Steel, M J

    2015-04-27

    Integrated photonics promises solutions to questions of stability, complexity, and size in quantum optics. Advances in tunable and non-planar integrated platforms, such as laser-inscribed photonics, continue to bring the realisation of quantum advantages in computation and metrology ever closer, perhaps most easily seen in multi-path interferometry. Here we demonstrate control of two-photon interference in a chip-scale 3D multi-path interferometer, showing a reduced periodicity and enhanced visibility compared to single photon measurements. Observed non-classical visibilities are widely tunable, and explained well by theoretical predictions based on classical measurements. With these predictions we extract Fisher information approaching a theoretical maximum. Our results open a path to quantum enhanced phase measurements.

  19. The 3-D vision system integrated dexterous hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, Ren C.; Han, Youn-Sik

    1989-01-01

    Most multifingered hands use a tendon mechanism to minimize the size and weight of the hand. Such tendon mechanisms suffer from the problems of striction and friction of the tendons resulting in a reduction of control accuracy. A design for a 3-D vision system integrated dexterous hand with motor control is described which overcomes these problems. The proposed hand is composed of three three-jointed grasping fingers with tactile sensors on their tips, a two-jointed eye finger with a cross-shaped laser beam emitting diode in its distal part. The two non-grasping fingers allow 3-D vision capability and can rotate around the hand to see and measure the sides of grasped objects and the task environment. An algorithm that determines the range and local orientation of the contact surface using a cross-shaped laser beam is introduced along with some potential applications. An efficient method for finger force calculation is presented which uses the measured contact surface normals of an object.

  20. 3D plasmonic nanoantennas integrated with MEA biosensors.

    PubMed

    Dipalo, Michele; Messina, Gabriele C; Amin, Hayder; La Rocca, Rosanna; Shalabaeva, Victoria; Simi, Alessandro; Maccione, Alessandro; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Berdondini, Luca; De Angelis, Francesco

    2015-02-28

    Neuronal signaling in brain circuits occurs at multiple scales ranging from molecules and cells to large neuronal assemblies. However, current sensing neurotechnologies are not designed for parallel access of signals at multiple scales. With the aim of combining nanoscale molecular sensing with electrical neural activity recordings within large neuronal assemblies, in this work three-dimensional (3D) plasmonic nanoantennas are integrated with multielectrode arrays (MEA). Nanoantennas are fabricated by fast ion beam milling on optical resist; gold is deposited on the nanoantennas in order to connect them electrically to the MEA microelectrodes and to obtain plasmonic behavior. The optical properties of these 3D nanostructures are studied through finite elements method (FEM) simulations that show a high electromagnetic field enhancement. This plasmonic enhancement is confirmed by surface enhancement Raman spectroscopy of a dye performed in liquid, which presents an enhancement of almost 100 times the incident field amplitude at resonant excitation. Finally, the reported MEA devices are tested on cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Neurons develop by extending branches on the nanostructured electrodes and extracellular action potentials are recorded over multiple days in vitro. Raman spectra of living neurons cultured on the nanoantennas are also acquired. These results highlight that these nanostructures could be potential candidates for combining electrophysiological measures of large networks with simultaneous spectroscopic investigations at the molecular level.

  1. Development of vacuum underfill technology for a 3D chip stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, Katsuyuki; Kohara, Sayuri; Sueoka, Kuniaki; Orii, Yasumitsu; Kawakami, Mikio; Asai, Kazuo; Hirayama, Yoshikazu; Knickerbocker, John U.

    2011-03-01

    We developed a vacuum underfill technology for 3D chip stacks and for flip chips in high performance system integration. We fabricated a 3D prototype chip stack using the vacuum underfill technology to apply the adhesive. The underfill was injected into each 6 µm gaps in a 3-layer chip stack and no voids were detected in acoustic microscopy images. Electrical tests and thermal reliability tests were used to measure the resistance of the vertical interconnections and the impact of the underfill. The results showed there was minimal difference in the average interconnection resistance of the chip stack with and without underfill.

  2. A multiply-add engine with monolithically integrated 3D memristor crossbar/CMOS hybrid circuit.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, B; Lastras-Montaño, M A; Adam, G; Prezioso, M; Hoskins, B; Cheng, K-T; Strukov, D B

    2017-02-14

    Silicon (Si) based complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology has been the driving force of the information-technology revolution. However, scaling of CMOS technology as per Moore's law has reached a serious bottleneck. Among the emerging technologies memristive devices can be promising for both memory as well as computing applications. Hybrid CMOS/memristor circuits with CMOL (CMOS + "Molecular") architecture have been proposed to combine the extremely high density of the memristive devices with the robustness of CMOS technology, leading to terabit-scale memory and extremely efficient computing paradigm. In this work, we demonstrate a hybrid 3D CMOL circuit with 2 layers of memristive crossbars monolithically integrated on a pre-fabricated CMOS substrate. The integrated crossbars can be fully operated through the underlying CMOS circuitry. The memristive devices in both layers exhibit analog switching behavior with controlled tunability and stable multi-level operation. We perform dot-product operations with the 2D and 3D memristive crossbars to demonstrate the applicability of such 3D CMOL hybrid circuits as a multiply-add engine. To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of a functional 3D CMOL hybrid circuit.

  3. A multiply-add engine with monolithically integrated 3D memristor crossbar/CMOS hybrid circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, B.; Lastras-Montaño, M. A.; Adam, G.; Prezioso, M.; Hoskins, B.; Cheng, K.-T.; Strukov, D. B.

    2017-02-01

    Silicon (Si) based complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology has been the driving force of the information-technology revolution. However, scaling of CMOS technology as per Moore’s law has reached a serious bottleneck. Among the emerging technologies memristive devices can be promising for both memory as well as computing applications. Hybrid CMOS/memristor circuits with CMOL (CMOS + “Molecular”) architecture have been proposed to combine the extremely high density of the memristive devices with the robustness of CMOS technology, leading to terabit-scale memory and extremely efficient computing paradigm. In this work, we demonstrate a hybrid 3D CMOL circuit with 2 layers of memristive crossbars monolithically integrated on a pre-fabricated CMOS substrate. The integrated crossbars can be fully operated through the underlying CMOS circuitry. The memristive devices in both layers exhibit analog switching behavior with controlled tunability and stable multi-level operation. We perform dot-product operations with the 2D and 3D memristive crossbars to demonstrate the applicability of such 3D CMOL hybrid circuits as a multiply-add engine. To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of a functional 3D CMOL hybrid circuit.

  4. A multiply-add engine with monolithically integrated 3D memristor crossbar/CMOS hybrid circuit

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, B.; Lastras-Montaño, M. A.; Adam, G.; Prezioso, M.; Hoskins, B.; Cheng, K.-T.; Strukov, D. B.

    2017-01-01

    Silicon (Si) based complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology has been the driving force of the information-technology revolution. However, scaling of CMOS technology as per Moore’s law has reached a serious bottleneck. Among the emerging technologies memristive devices can be promising for both memory as well as computing applications. Hybrid CMOS/memristor circuits with CMOL (CMOS + “Molecular”) architecture have been proposed to combine the extremely high density of the memristive devices with the robustness of CMOS technology, leading to terabit-scale memory and extremely efficient computing paradigm. In this work, we demonstrate a hybrid 3D CMOL circuit with 2 layers of memristive crossbars monolithically integrated on a pre-fabricated CMOS substrate. The integrated crossbars can be fully operated through the underlying CMOS circuitry. The memristive devices in both layers exhibit analog switching behavior with controlled tunability and stable multi-level operation. We perform dot-product operations with the 2D and 3D memristive crossbars to demonstrate the applicability of such 3D CMOL hybrid circuits as a multiply-add engine. To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of a functional 3D CMOL hybrid circuit. PMID:28195239

  5. Inertial Motion-Tracking Technology for Virtual 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    In the 1990s, NASA pioneered virtual reality research. The concept was present long before, but, prior to this, the technology did not exist to make a viable virtual reality system. Scientists had theories and ideas they knew that the concept had potential, but the computers of the 1970s and 1980s were not fast enough, sensors were heavy and cumbersome, and people had difficulty blending fluidly with the machines. Scientists at Ames Research Center built upon the research of previous decades and put the necessary technology behind them, making the theories of virtual reality a reality. Virtual reality systems depend on complex motion-tracking sensors to convey information between the user and the computer to give the user the feeling that he is operating in the real world. These motion-tracking sensors measure and report an object s position and orientation as it changes. A simple example of motion tracking would be the cursor on a computer screen moving in correspondence to the shifting of the mouse. Tracking in 3-D, necessary to create virtual reality, however, is much more complex. To be successful, the perspective of the virtual image seen on the computer must be an accurate representation of what is seen in the real world. As the user s head or camera moves, turns, or tilts, the computer-generated environment must change accordingly with no noticeable lag, jitter, or distortion. Historically, the lack of smooth and rapid tracking of the user s motion has thwarted the widespread use of immersive 3-D computer graphics. NASA uses virtual reality technology for a variety of purposes, mostly training of astronauts. The actual missions are costly and dangerous, so any opportunity the crews have to practice their maneuvering in accurate situations before the mission is valuable and instructive. For that purpose, NASA has funded a great deal of virtual reality research, and benefited from the results.

  6. 3D plasmonic nanoantennas integrated with MEA biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipalo, Michele; Messina, Gabriele C.; Amin, Hayder; La Rocca, Rosanna; Shalabaeva, Victoria; Simi, Alessandro; Maccione, Alessandro; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Berdondini, Luca; de Angelis, Francesco

    2015-02-01

    Neuronal signaling in brain circuits occurs at multiple scales ranging from molecules and cells to large neuronal assemblies. However, current sensing neurotechnologies are not designed for parallel access of signals at multiple scales. With the aim of combining nanoscale molecular sensing with electrical neural activity recordings within large neuronal assemblies, in this work three-dimensional (3D) plasmonic nanoantennas are integrated with multielectrode arrays (MEA). Nanoantennas are fabricated by fast ion beam milling on optical resist; gold is deposited on the nanoantennas in order to connect them electrically to the MEA microelectrodes and to obtain plasmonic behavior. The optical properties of these 3D nanostructures are studied through finite elements method (FEM) simulations that show a high electromagnetic field enhancement. This plasmonic enhancement is confirmed by surface enhancement Raman spectroscopy of a dye performed in liquid, which presents an enhancement of almost 100 times the incident field amplitude at resonant excitation. Finally, the reported MEA devices are tested on cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Neurons develop by extending branches on the nanostructured electrodes and extracellular action potentials are recorded over multiple days in vitro. Raman spectra of living neurons cultured on the nanoantennas are also acquired. These results highlight that these nanostructures could be potential candidates for combining electrophysiological measures of large networks with simultaneous spectroscopic investigations at the molecular level.Neuronal signaling in brain circuits occurs at multiple scales ranging from molecules and cells to large neuronal assemblies. However, current sensing neurotechnologies are not designed for parallel access of signals at multiple scales. With the aim of combining nanoscale molecular sensing with electrical neural activity recordings within large neuronal assemblies, in this work three-dimensional (3D) plasmonic

  7. Digital 3D Borobudur - Integration of 3D surveying and modeling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwardhi, D.; Menna, F.; Remondino, F.; Hanke, K.; Akmalia, R.

    2015-08-01

    The Borobudur temple (Indonesia) is one of the greatest Buddhist monuments in the world, now listed as an UNESCO World Heritage Site. The present state of the temple is the result of restorations after being exposed to natural disasters several times. Today there is still a growing rate of deterioration of the building stones whose causes need further researches. Monitoring programs, supported at institutional level, have been effectively executed to observe the problem. The paper presents the latest efforts to digitally document the Borobudur Temple and its surrounding area in 3D with photogrammetric techniques. UAV and terrestrial images were acquired to completely digitize the temple, produce DEM, orthoimages and maps at 1:100 and 1:1000 scale. The results of the project are now employed by the local government organizations to manage the heritage area and plan new policies for the conservation and preservation of the UNESCO site. In order to help data management and policy makers, a web-based information system of the heritage area was also built to visualize and easily access all the data and achieved 3D results.

  8. 3D-Printing Technologies for Craniofacial Rehabilitation, Reconstruction, and Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Ethan L; Farris, Ashley L; Hung, Ben P; Dias, Miguel; Garcia, Juan R; Dorafshar, Amir H; Grayson, Warren L

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of craniofacial defects can present many challenges due to the variety of tissue-specific requirements and the complexity of anatomical structures in that region. 3D-printing technologies provide clinicians, engineers and scientists with the ability to create patient-specific solutions for craniofacial defects. Currently, there are three key strategies that utilize these technologies to restore both appearance and function to patients: rehabilitation, reconstruction and regeneration. In rehabilitation, 3D-printing can be used to create prostheses to replace or cover damaged tissues. Reconstruction, through plastic surgery, can also leverage 3D-printing technologies to create custom cutting guides, fixation devices, practice models and implanted medical devices to improve patient outcomes. Regeneration of tissue attempts to replace defects with biological materials. 3D-printing can be used to create either scaffolds or living, cellular constructs to signal tissue-forming cells to regenerate defect regions. By integrating these three approaches, 3D-printing technologies afford the opportunity to develop personalized treatment plans and design-driven manufacturing solutions to improve aesthetic and functional outcomes for patients with craniofacial defects.

  9. 3D Technology Selection for a Virtual Learning Environment by Blending ISO 9126 Standard and AHP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Aydin; Guler, Inan

    2011-01-01

    Web3D presents many opportunities for learners in a virtual world or virtual environment over the web. This is a great opportunity for open-distance education institutions to benefit from web3d technologies to create courses with interactive 3d materials. There are many open source and commercial products offering 3d technologies over the web…

  10. 3D scanning and 3D printing as innovative technologies for fabricating personalized topical drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Det-Amornrat, Usanee; Wang, Jie; Basit, Abdul W; Gaisford, Simon

    2016-07-28

    Acne is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease with high prevalence. In this work, the potential of 3D printing to produce flexible personalised-shape anti-acne drug (salicylic acid) loaded devices was demonstrated by two different 3D printing (3DP) technologies: Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) and stereolithography (SLA). 3D scanning technology was used to obtain a 3D model of a nose adapted to the morphology of an individual. In FDM 3DP, commercially produced Flex EcoPLA™ (FPLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) filaments were loaded with salicylic acid by hot melt extrusion (HME) (theoretical drug loading - 2% w/w) and used as feedstock material for 3D printing. Drug loading in the FPLA-salicylic acid and PCL-salicylic acid 3D printed patches was 0.4% w/w and 1.2% w/w respectively, indicating significant thermal degradation of drug during HME and 3D printing. Diffusion testing in Franz cells using a synthetic membrane revealed that the drug loaded printed samples released <187μg/cm(2) within 3h. FPLA-salicylic acid filament was successfully printed as a nose-shape mask by FDM 3DP, but the PCL-salicylic acid filament was not. In the SLA printing process, the drug was dissolved in different mixtures of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) that were solidified by the action of a laser beam. SLA printing led to 3D printed devices (nose-shape) with higher resolution and higher drug loading (1.9% w/w) than FDM, with no drug degradation. The results of drug diffusion tests revealed that drug diffusion was faster than with the FDM devices, 229 and 291μg/cm(2) within 3h for the two formulations evaluated. In this study, SLA printing was the more appropriate 3D printing technology to manufacture anti-acne devices with salicylic acid. The combination of 3D scanning and 3D printing has the potential to offer solutions to produce personalised drug loaded devices, adapted in shape and size to individual patients.

  11. Recent development of 3D display technology for new market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung-Sik

    2003-11-01

    A multi-view 3D video processor was designed and implemented with several FPGAs for real-time applications and a projection-type 3D display was introduced for low-cost commercialization. One high resolution projection panel and only one projection lens is capable of displaying multiview autostereoscopic images. It can cope with various arrangements of 3D camera systems (or pixel arrays) and resolutions of 3D displays. This system shows high 3-D image quality in terms of resolution, brightness, and contrast so it is well suited for the commercialization in the field of game and advertisement market.

  12. Novel fully integrated computer system for custom footwear: from 3D digitization to manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houle, Pascal-Simon; Beaulieu, Eric; Liu, Zhaoheng

    1998-03-01

    This paper presents a recently developed custom footwear system, which integrates 3D digitization technology, range image fusion techniques, a 3D graphical environment for corrective actions, parametric curved surface representation and computer numerical control (CNC) machining. In this system, a support designed with the help of biomechanics experts can stabilize the foot in a correct and neutral position. The foot surface is then captured by a 3D camera using active ranging techniques. A software using a library of documented foot pathologies suggests corrective actions on the orthosis. Three kinds of deformations can be achieved. The first method uses previously scanned pad surfaces by our 3D scanner, which can be easily mapped onto the foot surface to locally modify the surface shape. The second kind of deformation is construction of B-Spline surfaces by manipulating control points and modifying knot vectors in a 3D graphical environment to build desired deformation. The last one is a manual electronic 3D pen, which may be of different shapes and sizes, and has an adjustable 'pressure' information. All applied deformations should respect a G1 surface continuity, which ensure that the surface can accustom a foot. Once the surface modification process is completed, the resulting data is sent to manufacturing software for CNC machining.

  13. Integrating 3D Visualization and GIS in Planning Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Li

    2010-01-01

    Most GIS-related planning practices and education are currently limited to two-dimensional mapping and analysis although 3D GIS is a powerful tool to study the complex urban environment in its full spatial extent. This paper reviews current GIS and 3D visualization uses and development in planning practice and education. Current literature…

  14. 3D body scanning technology for fashion and apparel industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Apuzzo, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of 3D body scanning technologies with applications to the fashion and apparel industry. Complete systems for the digitization of the human body exist since more than fifteen years. One of the main users of this technology with application in the textile field was the military industry. In fact, body scanning technology is being successfully employed since many years in military bases for a fast selection of the correct size of uniforms for the entire staff. Complete solutions were especially developed for this field of application. Many different research projects were issued for the exploitation of the same technology in the commercial field. Experiments were performed and start-up projects are to time running in different parts of the world by installing full body scanning systems in various locations such as shopping malls, boutiques or dedicated scanning centers. Everything is actually ready to be exploited and all the required hardware, software and solutions are available: full body scanning systems, software for the automatic and reliable extraction of body measurements, e-kiosk and web solutions for the presentation of garments, high-end and low-end virtual-try-on systems. However, complete solutions in this area have still not yet found the expected commercial success. Today, with the on-going large cost reduction given by the appearance of new competitors, methods for digitization of the human body becomes more interesting for the fashion and apparel industry. Therefore, a large expansion of these technologies is expected in the near future. To date, different methods are used commercially for the measurement of the human body. These can be divided into three major distinguished groups: laser-scanning, projection of light patterns, combination modeling and image processing. The different solutions have strengths and weaknesses that profile their suitability for specific applications. This paper gives an overview of their

  15. A measurement method for micro 3D shape based on grids-processing and stereovision technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuanwei; Liu, Zhanwei; Xie, Huimin

    2013-04-01

    An integrated measurement method for micro 3D surface shape by a combination of stereovision technology in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and grids-processing methodology is proposed. The principle of the proposed method is introduced in detail. By capturing two images of the tested specimen with grids on the surface at different tilt angles in an SEM, the 3D surface shape of the specimen can be obtained. Numerical simulation is applied to analyze the feasibility of the proposed method. A validation experiment is performed here. The surface shape of the metal-wire/polymer-membrane structures with thermal deformation is reconstructed. By processing the surface grids of the specimen, the out-of-plane displacement field of the specimen surface is also obtained. Compared with the measurement results obtained by a 3D digital microscope, the experimental error of the proposed method is discussed

  16. 3D printing technology using high viscous materials - Synthesis of functional materials and fabrication of 3D metal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seongik

    In the 3D printing technology, the research for using various materials has been performing. In this research work, 3D printable high viscous materials are suggested as one of the solutions for problems in the traditional 3D printing technology. First, Cu-Ag coreshell was synthesized as a functional material. In terms of the reaction rate, reaction rate limiting step was defined as a fundamental research, and then prepared Cu-Ag coreshell was printed and analyzed. Second, the high viscous Cu paste was prepared and then metal 3D printed structure was fabricated by using new printing method. In the synthesis of Cu-Ag coreshell, different sizes of Cu particle, 2μm and 100nm were used, and when 2μm Cu was applied, the reaction rate was limited by film diffusion control. However, when 100nm Cu was applied, reaction rate was controlled by CuO film and the rate of the reaction, which includes removing CuO film in the solution, is limited by chemical reaction control. The shape of Cu-Ag particle is spherical in the 2μm Cu condition and dendrite shape in the 100nm Cu condition respectively. The conductivity of Cu-Ag coreshell paste increased as increasing content of coreshell particle in the paste and sintering temperature. In order to print high viscous metal paste, the high viscous Cu paste was printed by using screw extruder, and the viscosity of Cu paste was measured as a fundamental research. As increasing wt.% of Cu in the paste, the viscosity also increased. In addition, the shrinkage factor was reduced by increasing wt.% of Cu in the paste. An optimized printing condition for the high viscous material was obtained, and by using this condition, 3D metal structure was fabricated. The final product was heat treated and polished. Through these processes, a fine quality of metal 3D structure was printed.

  17. Femtosecond laser 3D nanofabrication in glass: enabling direct write of integrated micro/nanofluidic chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ya; Liao, Yang; Sugioka, Koji

    2014-03-01

    The creation of complex three-dimensional (3D) fluidic systems composed of hollow micro- and nanostructures embedded in transparent substrates has attracted significant attention from both scientific and applied research communities. However, it is by now still a formidable challenge to build 3D micro- and nanofluidic structures with arbitrary configurations using conventional planar lithographic fabrication methods. As a direct and maskless fabrication technique, femtosecond laser micromachining provides a straightforward approach for high-precision spatial-selective modification inside transparent materials through nonlinear optical absorption. Here, we demonstrate rapid fabrication of high-aspect-ratio micro- and/or nanofluidic structures with various 3D configurations in glass substrates by femtosecond laser direct writing. Based on this approach, we demonstrate several functional micro- and nanofluidic devices including a 3D passive microfluidic mixer, a capillary electrophoresis (CE) analysis chip, and an integrated micro-nanofluidic system for single DNA analysis. This technology offers new opportunities to develop novel 3D micro-nanofluidic systems for a variety of lab-on-a-chip applications.

  18. Generation of Multi-Scale Vascular Network System within 3D Hydrogel using 3D Bio-Printing Technology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Vivian K; Lanzi, Alison M; Haygan, Ngo; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Vincent, Peter A; Dai, Guohao

    2014-09-01

    Although 3D bio-printing technology has great potential in creating complex tissues with multiple cell types and matrices, maintaining the viability of thick tissue construct for tissue growth and maturation after the printing is challenging due to lack of vascular perfusion. Perfused capillary network can be a solution for this issue; however, construction of a complete capillary network at single cell level using the existing technology is nearly impossible due to limitations in time and spatial resolution of the dispensing technology. To address the vascularization issue, we developed a 3D printing method to construct larger (lumen size of ~1mm) fluidic vascular channels and to create adjacent capillary network through a natural maturation process, thus providing a feasible solution to connect the capillary network to the large perfused vascular channels. In our model, microvascular bed was formed in between two large fluidic vessels, and then connected to the vessels by angiogenic sprouting from the large channel edge. Our bio-printing technology has a great potential in engineering vascularized thick tissues and vascular niches, as the vascular channels are simultaneously created while cells and matrices are printed around the channels in desired 3D patterns.

  19. Visualization of gravitational potential wells using 3D printing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jun; Wang, Weiguo; Lu, Meishu; Xu, Xinran; Yan, Qi Fan; Lu, Jianlong

    2016-12-01

    There have been many studies of the dynamics of a ball rolling on different types of surfaces. Most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a few experimental. We have found that 3D printing offers a novel experimental approach to investigating this topic. In this paper, we use a 3D printer to create four different surfaces and experimentally investigate the dynamics of a ball rolling on these surfaces. Our results are then compared to theory.

  20. Integration of 3D photogrammetric outcrop models in the reservoir modelling workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deschamps, Remy; Joseph, Philippe; Lerat, Olivier; Schmitz, Julien; Doligez, Brigitte; Jardin, Anne

    2014-05-01

    3D technologies are now widely used in geosciences to reconstruct outcrops in 3D. The technology used for the 3D reconstruction is usually based on Lidar, which provides very precise models. Such datasets offer the possibility to build well-constrained outcrop analogue models for reservoir study purposes. The photogrammetry is an alternate methodology which principles are based in determining the geometric properties of an object from photographic pictures taken from different angles. Outcrop data acquisition is easy, and this methodology allows constructing 3D outcrop models with many advantages such as: - light and fast acquisition, - moderate processing time (depending on the size of the area of interest), - integration of field data and 3D outcrops into the reservoir modelling tools. Whatever the method, the advantages of digital outcrop model are numerous as already highlighted by Hodgetts (2013), McCaffrey et al. (2005) and Pringle et al. (2006): collection of data from otherwise inaccessible areas, access to different angles of view, increase of the possible measurements, attributes analysis, fast rate of data collection, and of course training and communication. This paper proposes a workflow where 3D geocellular models are built by integrating all sources of information from outcrops (surface picking, sedimentological sections, structural and sedimentary dips…). The 3D geomodels that are reconstructed can be used at the reservoir scale, in order to compare the outcrop information with subsurface models: the detailed facies models of the outcrops are transferred into petrophysical and acoustic models, which are used to test different scenarios of seismic and fluid flow modelling. The detailed 3D models are also used to test new techniques of static reservoir modelling, based either on geostatistical approaches or on deterministic (process-based) simulation techniques. A modelling workflow has been designed to model reservoir geometries and properties from

  1. 3D hydrodynamic focusing microfluidics for emerging sensing technologies.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Michael A; Boyd, Darryl A; Mott, David R; Ligler, Frances S

    2015-05-15

    While the physics behind laminar flows has been studied for 200 years, understanding of how to use parallel flows to augment the capabilities of microfluidic systems has been a subject of study primarily over the last decade. The use of one flow to focus another within a microfluidic channel has graduated from a two-dimensional to a three-dimensional process and the design principles are only now becoming established. This review explores the underlying principles for hydrodynamic focusing in three dimensions (3D) using miscible fluids and the application of these principles for creation of biosensors, separation of cells and particles for sample manipulation, and fabrication of materials that could be used for biosensors. Where sufficient information is available, the practicality of devices implementing fluid flows directed in 3D is evaluated and the advantages and limitations of 3D hydrodynamic focusing for the particular application are highlighted.

  2. A 3D integral imaging optical see-through head-mounted display.

    PubMed

    Hua, Hong; Javidi, Bahram

    2014-06-02

    An optical see-through head-mounted display (OST-HMD), which enables optical superposition of digital information onto the direct view of the physical world and maintains see-through vision to the real world, is a vital component in an augmented reality (AR) system. A key limitation of the state-of-the-art OST-HMD technology is the well-known accommodation-convergence mismatch problem caused by the fact that the image source in most of the existing AR displays is a 2D flat surface located at a fixed distance from the eye. In this paper, we present an innovative approach to OST-HMD designs by combining the recent advancement of freeform optical technology and microscopic integral imaging (micro-InI) method. A micro-InI unit creates a 3D image source for HMD viewing optics, instead of a typical 2D display surface, by reconstructing a miniature 3D scene from a large number of perspective images of the scene. By taking advantage of the emerging freeform optical technology, our approach will result in compact, lightweight, goggle-style AR display that is potentially less vulnerable to the accommodation-convergence discrepancy problem and visual fatigue. A proof-of-concept prototype system is demonstrated, which offers a goggle-like compact form factor, non-obstructive see-through field of view, and true 3D virtual display.

  3. Mobile 3D laser scanning technology application in the surveying of urban underground rail transit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Youmei; Yang, Bogang; Zhen, Yinan

    2016-11-01

    Mobile 3D laser scanning technology is one hot kind of digital earth technology. 3D completion surveying is relative new concept in surveying and mapping. A kind of mobile 3D laser scanning system was developed for the urban underground rail 3D completion surveying. According to the characteristics of underground rail environment and the characters of the mobile laser scanning system, it designed a suitable test scheme to improving the accuracy of this kind of mobile laser scanning system when it worked under no GPS signal environment. Then it completed the application of this technology in the No.15 rail 3D completion surveying. Meanwhile a set of production process was made for the 3D completion surveying based on this kind of mobile 3D laser scanning technology. These products were also proved the efficiency of the new technology in the rail 3D completion surveying. Using mobile 3D laser scanning technology to complete underground rail completion surveying has been the first time in China until now. It can provide a reference for 3D measurement of rail completion surveying or the 3D completion surveying of other areas.

  4. 3D in vitro technology for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Hosseinkhani, Hossein

    2012-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro systems that can mimic organ and tissue structure and function in vivo, will be of great benefit for a variety of biological applications from basic biology to toxicity testing and drug discovery. There have been several attempts to generate 3D tissue models but most of these models require costly equipment, and the most serious disadvantage in them is that they are too far from the mature human organs in vivo. Because of these problems, research and development in drug discovery, toxicity testing and biotech industries are highly expensive, and involve sacrifice of countless animals and it takes several years to bring a single drug/product to the market or to find the toxicity or otherwise of chemical entities. Our group has been actively working on several alternative models by merging biomaterials science, nanotechnology and biological principles to generate 3D in vitro living organs, to be called "Human Organs-on-Chip", to mimic natural organ/tissues, in order to reduce animal testing and clinical trials. We have fabricated a novel type of mechanically and biologically bio-mimicking collagen-based hydrogel that would provide for interconnected mini-wells in which 3D cell/organ culture of human samples in a manner similar to human organs with extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules would be possible. These products mimic the physical, chemical, and biological properties of natural organs and tissues at different scales. This paper will review the outcome of our several experiments so far in this direction and the future perspectives.

  5. Novel through-silicon vias for enhanced signal integrity in 3D integrated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runiu, Fang; Xin, Sun; Min, Miao; Yufeng, Jin

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a new type of through-silicon via (TSV) for via-first process namely bare TSV, is proposed and analyzed with the aim of mitigating noise coupling problems in 3D integrated systems for advanced technology nodes. The bare TSVs have no insulation layers, and are divided into two types: bare signal TSVs and bare ground TSVs. First, by solving Poisson's equation for cylindrical P-N junctions, the bare signal TSVs are shown to be equivalent to conventional signal TSVs according to the simulation results. Then the bare ground TSV is proved to have improved noise-absorption capability when compared with a conventional ground TSV. Also, the proposed bare TSVs offer more advantages to circuits than other noise isolation methods, because the original circuit design, routing and placement can be retained after the application of the bare TSVs. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2015CB0572), and the Importation and Development of High-Caliber Talents Project of Beijing Municipal Institutions (No. CIT&TCD20150320), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61176102).

  6. 3-D display and transmission technologies for telemedicine applications: a review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Sclabassi, Robert J; Favalora, Gregg E; Sun, Mingui

    2008-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) visualization technologies have been widely commercialized. These technologies have great potential in a number of telemedicine applications, such as teleconsultation, telesurgery, and remote patient monitoring. This work presents an overview of the state-of-the-art 3-D display devices and related 3-D image/video transmission technologies with the goal of enhancing their utilization in medical applications.

  7. Flow integration transform: detecting shapes in matrix-array 3D ultrasound data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetten, George D.; Caines, Michael; von Ramm, Olaf T.

    1995-03-01

    Matrix-array ultrasound produces real-time 3D images of the heart, by employing a square array of transducers to steer the ultrasound beam in three dimensions electronically with no moving parts. Other 3D modalities such as MR, MUGA, and CT require the use of gated studies, which combine many cardiac cycles to produce a single average cycle. Three- dimensional ultrasound eliminates this restriction, in theory permitting the continuous measurement of cardiac ventricular volume, which we call the volumetricardiogram. Towards implementing the volumetricardiogram, we have developed the flow integration transform (FIT), which operates on a 2D slice within the volumetric ultrasound data. The 3D ultrasound machine's scan converter produces a set of such slices in real time, at any desired location and orientation, to which the FIT may then be applied. Although lacking rotational or scale invariance, the FIT is designed to operate in dedicated hardware where an entire transform could be completed within a few microseconds with present integrated circuit technology. This speed would permit the application of a large battery of test shapes, or the evolution of the test shape to converge on that of the actual target.

  8. A 3D Model of the Thermoelectric Microwave Power Sensor by MEMS Technology

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Zhenxiang; Liao, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel 3D model is proposed to describe the temperature distribution of the thermoelectric microwave power sensor. In this 3D model, the heat flux density decreases from the upper surface to the lower surface of the GaAs substrate while it was supposed to be a constant in the 2D model. The power sensor is fabricated by a GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) process and micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology. The microwave performance experiment shows that the S11 is less than −26 dB over the frequency band of 1–10 GHz. The power response experiment demonstrates that the output voltage increases from 0 mV to 27 mV, while the incident power varies from 1 mW to 100 mW. The measured sensitivity is about 0.27 mV/mW, and the calculated result from the 3D model is 0.28 mV/mW. The relative error has been reduced from 7.5% of the 2D model to 3.7% of the 3D model. PMID:27338395

  9. Integration of a 3D perspective view in the navigation display: featuring pilot's mental model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrecht, L.; Schmerwitz, S.

    2015-05-01

    Synthetic vision systems (SVS) appear as spreading technology in the avionic domain. Several studies prove enhanced situational awareness when using synthetic vision. Since the introduction of synthetic vision a steady change and evolution started concerning the primary flight display (PFD) and the navigation display (ND). The main improvements of the ND comprise the representation of colored ground proximity warning systems (EGPWS), weather radar, and TCAS information. Synthetic vision seems to offer high potential to further enhance cockpit display systems. Especially, concerning the current trend having a 3D perspective view in a SVS-PFD while leaving the navigational content as well as methods of interaction unchanged the question arouses if and how the gap between both displays might evolve to a serious problem. This issue becomes important in relation to the transition and combination of strategic and tactical flight guidance. Hence, pros and cons of 2D and 3D views generally as well as the gap between the egocentric perspective 3D view of the PFD and the exocentric 2D top and side view of the ND will be discussed. Further a concept for the integration of a 3D perspective view, i.e., bird's eye view, in synthetic vision ND will be presented. The combination of 2D and 3D views in the ND enables a better correlation of the ND and the PFD. Additionally, this supports the building of pilot's mental model. The authors believe it will improve the situational and spatial awareness. It might prove to further raise the safety margin when operating in mountainous areas.

  10. 3D probe array integrated with a front-end 100-channel neural recording ASIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ming-Yuan; Yao, Lei; Tan, Kwan Ling; Lim, Ruiqi; Li, Peng; Chen, Weiguo

    2014-12-01

    Brain-machine interface technology can improve the lives of spinal cord injury victims and amputees. A neural interface system, consisting of a 3D probe array and a custom low-power (1 mW) 100-channel (100-ch) neural recording application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), was designed and implemented to monitor neural activity. In this study, a microassembly 3D probe array method using a novel lead transfer technique was proposed to overcome the bonding plane mismatch encountered during orthogonal assembly. The proposed lead transfer technique can be completed using standard micromachining and packaging processes. The ASIC can be stacking-integrated with the probe array, minimizing the form factor of the assembled module. To minimize trauma to brain cells, the profile of the integrated probe array was controlled within 730 μm. The average impedance of the assembled probe was approximately 0.55 MΩ at 1 kHz. To verify the functionality of the integrated neural probe array, bench-top signal acquisitions were performed and discussed.

  11. Galerkin Boundary Integral Analysis for the 3D Helmholtz Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Swager, Melissa; Gray, Leonard J; Nintcheu Fata, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    A linear element Galerkin boundary integral analysis for the three-dimensional Helmholtz equation is presented. The emphasis is on solving acoustic scattering by an open (crack) surface, and to this end both a dual equation formulation and a symmetric hypersingular formulation have been developed. All singular integrals are defined and evaluated via a boundary limit process, facilitating the evaluation of the (finite) hypersingular Galerkin integral. This limit process is also the basis for the algorithm for post-processing of the surface gradient. The analytic integrations required by the limit process are carried out by employing a Taylor series expansion for the exponential factor in the Helmholtz fundamental solutions. For the open surface, the implementations are validated by comparing the numerical results obtained by using the two different methods.

  12. 3D modeling of a dolerite intrusion from the photogrammetric and geophysical data integration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, João; Machadinho, Ana; Figueiredo, Fernando; Mira, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study is create a methodology based on the integration of data obtained from various available technologies, which allow a credible and complete evaluation of rock masses. In this particular case of a dolerite intrusion, which deployed an exploration of aggregates and belongs to the Jobasaltos - Extracção e Britagem. S.A.. Dolerite intrusion is situated in the volcanic complex of Serra de Todo-o-Mundo, Casais Gaiola, intruded in Jurassic sandstones. The integration of the surface and subsurface mapping, obtained by technology UAVs (Drone) and geophysical surveys (Electromagnetic Method - TEM 48 FAST), allows the construction of 2D and 3D models of the study local. The combination of the 3D point clouds produced from two distinct processes, modeling of photogrammetric and geophysical data, will be the basis for the construction of a single model of set. The rock masses in an integral perspective being visible their development above the surface and subsurface. The presentation of 2D and 3D models will give a perspective of structures, fracturation, lithology and their spatial correlations contributing to a better local knowledge, as well as its potential for the intended purpose. From these local models it will be possible to characterize and quantify the geological structures. These models will have its importance as a tool to assist in the analysis and drafting of regional models. The qualitative improvement in geological/structural modeling, seeks to reduce the value of characterization/cost ratio, in phase of prospecting, improving the investment/benefit ratio. This methodology helps to assess more accurately the economic viability of the projects.

  13. 3D integral imaging using diffractive Fresnel lens arrays.

    PubMed

    Hain, Mathias; von Spiegel, Wolff; Schmiedchen, Marc; Tschudi, Theo; Javidi, Bahram

    2005-01-10

    We present experimental results with binary amplitude Fresnel lens arrays and binary phase Fresnel lens arrays used to implement integral imaging systems. Their optical performance is compared with high quality refractive microlens arrays and pinhole arrays in terms of image quality, color distortion and contrast. Additionally, we show the first experimental results of lens arrays with different focal lengths in integral imaging, and discuss their ability to simultaneously increase both the depth of focus and the field of view.

  14. P-Cable: New High-Resolution 3D Seismic Acquisition Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planke, Sverre; Berndt, Christian; Mienert, Jürgen; Bünz, Stefan; Eriksen, Frode N.; Eriksen, Ola K.

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a new cost-efficient technology for acquisition of high-resolution 3D seismic data: the P-Cable system. This technology is very well suited for deep water exploration, site surveys, and studies of shallow gas and fluid migration associated with gas hydrates or leaking reservoirs. It delivers unparalleled 3D seismic images of subsurface sediment architectures. The P-Cable system consists of a seismic cable towed perpendicular to a vessel's steaming direction. This configuration allows us to image an up to 150 m wide swath of the sub-surface for each sail line. Conventional 3D seismic technology relies on several very long streamers (up to 10 km long streamers are common), large sources, and costly operations. In contrast, the P-Cable system is light-weight and fast to deploy from small vessels. Only a small source is required as the system is made for relatively shallow imaging, typically above the first water-bottom multiple. The P-Cable system is particularly useful for acquisition of small 3D cubes, 10-50 km2, in focus areas, rather than extensive mapping of large regions. The rapid deployment and recovery of the system makes it possible to acquire several small cubes (10 to 30 km2) with high-resolution (50-250 Hz) seismic data in during one cruise. The first development of the P-Cable system was a cooperative project achieved by Volcanic Basin Petroleum Research (VBPR), University of Tromsø, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, and industry partners. Field trials using a 12-streamer system were conducted on sites with active fluid-leakage systems on the Norwegian-Barents-Svalbard margin, the Gulf of Cadiz, and the Mediterranean. The second phase of the development introduced digital streamers. The new P-Cable2 system also includes integrated tow and cross cables for power and data transmission and improved doors to spread the larger cross cable. This digital system has been successfully used during six cruises by the University of Troms

  15. 3-D visualization and animation technologies in anatomical imaging.

    PubMed

    McGhee, John

    2010-02-01

    This paper explores a 3-D computer artist's approach to the creation of three-dimensional computer-generated imagery (CGI) derived from clinical scan data. Interpretation of scientific imagery, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is restricted to the eye of the trained medical practitioner in a clinical or scientific context. In the research work described here, MRI data are visualized and interpreted by a 3-D computer artist using the tools of the digital animator to navigate image complexity and widen interaction. In this process, the artefact moves across disciplines; it is no longer tethered to its diagnostic origins. It becomes an object that has visual attributes such as light, texture and composition, and a visual aesthetic of its own. The introduction of these visual attributes provides a platform for improved accessibility by a lay audience. The paper argues that this more artisan approach to clinical data visualization has a potential real-world application as a communicative tool for clinicians and patients during consultation.

  16. 3-D visualization and animation technologies in anatomical imaging

    PubMed Central

    McGhee, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores a 3-D computer artist’s approach to the creation of three-dimensional computer-generated imagery (CGI) derived from clinical scan data. Interpretation of scientific imagery, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is restricted to the eye of the trained medical practitioner in a clinical or scientific context. In the research work described here, MRI data are visualized and interpreted by a 3-D computer artist using the tools of the digital animator to navigate image complexity and widen interaction. In this process, the artefact moves across disciplines; it is no longer tethered to its diagnostic origins. It becomes an object that has visual attributes such as light, texture and composition, and a visual aesthetic of its own. The introduction of these visual attributes provides a platform for improved accessibility by a lay audience. The paper argues that this more artisan approach to clinical data visualization has a potential real-world application as a communicative tool for clinicians and patients during consultation. PMID:20002229

  17. Dual-view integral imaging 3D display using polarizer parallax barriers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fei; Wang, Qiong-Hua; Luo, Cheng-Gao; Li, Da-Hai; Deng, Huan

    2014-04-01

    We propose a dual-view integral imaging (DVII) 3D display using polarizer parallax barriers (PPBs). The DVII 3D display consists of a display panel, a microlens array, and two PPBs. The elemental images (EIs) displayed on the left and right half of the display panel are captured from two different 3D scenes, respectively. The lights emitted from two kinds of EIs are modulated by the left and right half of the microlens array to present two different 3D images, respectively. A prototype of the DVII 3D display is developed, and the experimental results agree well with the theory.

  18. Calcaneal osteotomy preoperative planning system with 3D full-sized computer-assisted technology.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yi-Jiun; Sun, Shuh-Ping; Liu, Hsin-Hua

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we developed a CT-based computer-assisted pre-operative planning and simulating system for the calcaneal osteotomy by integrating different software's function. This system uses the full-scaled 3D reverse engineering technique in designing and developing preoperative planning modules for the calcaneal osteotomy surgery. The planning system presents a real-sized three-dimensional image of the calcaneus, and provides detailed interior measurements of the calcaneus from various cutting planes. This study applied computer-assisted technology to integrate different software's function to a surgical planning system. These functions include 3-D image model capturing, cutting, moving, rotating and measurement for relevant foot anatomy, and can be integrated as the user's function. Furthermore, the system is computer-based and computer-assisted technology. Surgeons can utilize it as part of preoperative planning to develop efficient operative procedures. This system also has a database that can be updated and extended and will provide the clinical cases to different users for experienced based learning.

  19. The integration of 3-D cell printing and mesoscopic fluorescence molecular tomography of vascular constructs within thick hydrogel scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lingling; Lee, Vivian K; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Dai, Guohao; Intes, Xavier

    2012-07-01

    Developing methods that provide adequate vascular perfusion is an important step toward engineering large functional tissues. Meanwhile, an imaging modality to assess the three-dimensional (3-D) structures and functions of the vascular channels is lacking for thick matrices (>2 ≈ 3 mm). Herein, we report on an original approach to construct and image 3-D dynamically perfused vascular structures in thick hydrogel scaffolds. In this work, we integrated a robotic 3-D cell printing technology with a mesoscopic fluorescence molecular tomography imaging system, and demonstrated the capability of the platform to construct perfused collagen scaffolds with endothelial lining and to image both the fluid flow and fluorescent-labeled living endothelial cells at high-frame rates, with high sensitivity and accuracy. These results establish the potential of integrating both 3-D cell printing and fluorescence mesoscopic imaging for functional and molecular studies in complex tissue-engineered tissues.

  20. On the Implementation of 3D Galerkin Boundary Integral Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Nintcheu Fata, Sylvain; Gray, Leonard J

    2010-01-01

    In this article, a reverse contribution technique is proposed to accelerate the construction of the dense influence matrices associated with a Galerkin approximation of singular and hypersingular boundary integral equations of mixed-type in potential theory. In addition, a general-purpose sparse preconditioner for boundary element methods has also been developed to successfully deal with ill-conditioned linear systems arising from the discretization of mixed boundary-value problems on non-smooth surfaces. The proposed preconditioner, which originates from the precorrected-FFT method, is sparse, easy to generate and apply in a Krylov subspace iterative solution of discretized boundary integral equations. Moreover, an approximate inverse of the preconditioner is implicitly built by employing an incomplete LU factorization. Numerical experiments involving mixed boundary-value problems for the Laplace equation are included to illustrate the performance and validity of the proposed techniques.

  1. Introduction of 3D Printing Technology in the Classroom for Visually Impaired Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Wonjin; I, Jang Hee; Harianto, Rachel Ananda; So, Ji Hyun; Lee, Hyebin; Lee, Heon Ju; Moon, Myoung-Woon

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigate how 3D printing technology could be utilized for instructional materials that allow visually impaired students to have full access to high-quality instruction in history class. Researchers from the 3D Printing Group of the Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) provided the Seoul National School for the Blind with…

  2. Improving Assistive Technology Service by Using 3D Printing: Three Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takashi; Hatakeyama, Takuro; Tomiita, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    Assistive technology services are essential for adapting assistive devices to the individual needs of users with disabilities. In this study, we attempted to apply three-dimensional (3D) printing technology to three actual cases, and to study its use, effectiveness, and future applications. We assessed the usefulness of 3D printing technology by categorizing its utilization after reviewing the outcomes of these case studies. In future work, we aim to gather additional case studies and derive information on using 3D printing technology that will enable its effective application in the process of assistive technology services.

  3. Collaboration for the Advancement of Indirect 3D Printing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cordero, Zachary; Elliott, Amy M.

    2016-06-14

    Amorphous powders often possess high hardness values and other useful mechanical properties. However, densifying these powders into complex shapes while retaining their unique properties is a challenge with standard processing routes. Pressureless sintering, for example, can densify intricate green parts composed of rapidly-solidified powders. But this process typically involves long exposures to elevated temperatures, during which the non-equilibrium microstructure of the powder can evolve towards lower energy configurations with inferior properties. Pressure-assisted compaction techniques, by contrast, can consolidate green parts with simple shapes while preserving the microstructure and properties of the powder feedstock. But parts made with these processes generally require additional post-processing, including machining, which introduces new challenges due to the high hardness of these materials. One processing route that can potentially avoid these issues is Indirect 3D Printing (I-3DP; aka Binder Jetting) followed by melt infiltration. In I-3DP, an organic binder is used to join powder feedstock, layer-by-layer, into a green part. In melt infiltration, this green preform is densified by placing it in contact with a molten alloy that wets the preform and wicks into the pores as a result of capillary forces. When these processes are paired together, they offer two key advantages for the densification of rapidly-solidified powders. The first advantage is that the timescale associated with melt infiltration is on the order of seconds for parts with cm-scale dimensions. So in many instances, infiltration requires only a brief thermal excursion that does not degrade the feedstock’s microstructure. The second advantage is that the combination of binder-jet 3D printing and melt infiltration gives fully-dense net shape objects, minimizing the need for subsequent post-processing. In this work, fully-dense, net shape objects have been fabricated from an amorphous

  4. 3-D technology used to accurately understand equine ileocolonic aganglionosis.

    PubMed

    Muniz, Eliane; Lobo Ladd, Aliny A B; Lobo Ladd, Fernando V; da Silva, Andrea A P; Kmit, Fernanda V; Borges, Alexandre S; Teixeira, Raffaella; da Mota, Lígia S L S; Belli, Carla B; de Zoppa, André L V; da Silva, Luis C L C; de Melo, Mariana P; Coppi, Antonio A

    2013-01-01

    Ileocolonic aganglionosis (ICA) is the congenital and hereditary absence of neurons that constitute the enteric nervous system and has been described in various species including humans - Hirschsprung's disease - and horses - overo lethal white syndrome (OLWS). Hirschsprung's disease affects circa 1 in 5,000 live births. At best, this disease means an inability to absorb nutrients from food (humans). At worse, in horses, it always means death. Despite our general understanding of the functional mechanisms underlying ICA, there is a paucity of reliable quantitative information about the structure of myenteric and submucosal neurons in healthy horses and there are no studies on horses with ICA. In light of these uncertainties, we have used design-based stereology to describe the 3-D structure - total number and true size - of myenteric and submucosal neurons in the ileum of ICA horses. Our study has shown that ICA affects all submucosal neurons and 99% of myenteric neurons. The remaining myenteric neurons (0.56%) atrophy immensely, i.e. 63.8%. We believe this study forms the basis for further research, assessing which subpopulation of myenteric neurons are affected by ileocolonic aganglionosis, and we would like to propose a new nomenclature to distinguish between a complete absence of neurons - aganglionosis - and a weaker form of the disease which we suggest naming 'hypoganglionosis'. Our results are a step forward in understanding this disease structurally.

  5. Display of travelling 3D scenes from single integral-imaging capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Corral, Manuel; Dorado, Adrian; Hong, Seok-Min; Sola-Pikabea, Jorge; Saavedra, Genaro

    2016-06-01

    Integral imaging (InI) is a 3D auto-stereoscopic technique that captures and displays 3D images. We present a method for easily projecting the information recorded with this technique by transforming the integral image into a plenoptic image, as well as choosing, at will, the field of view (FOV) and the focused plane of the displayed plenoptic image. Furthermore, with this method we can generate a sequence of images that simulates a camera travelling through the scene from a single integral image. The application of this method permits to improve the quality of 3D display images and videos.

  6. An approach for 3D geoscientific data integration in underground planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Zheng; Tor, Yam Khoon; Tan, Guoxian

    2008-12-01

    Due to finite space, there is an increasing need to plan and develop strategic underground facilities and infrastructures for various military and non-military applications in Singapore in recent years. The awareness of the underground option among planners, developers, and financiers should be increased so that subsurface planning issues can be better addressed. The lack of adequate and accurate 3D spatial data often makes the design and construction of such underground works difficult. It is necessary to integrate all of the spatial objects for underground planning. Over the past two decades, a number of commercial software systems have been developed for 3D geographic and geological modeling. For example, VGEGIS software allows users to create 3D surface geological maps. 3D GeoModeller, a 3D geological modeling and geophysical inversion package, allows project geologists to build realistic 3D geology models. This paper presents an approach to integrate the geographic and geological models for underground planning. A prototype of 3D Geographic Information System (3DGIS) called "3DRock" has been developed by authors to implement the data integration with 3D GeoModeler. The results so far showed that 3DRock is able to integrate the above-surface, surface, and subsurface information available from maps, sections, terrain models, topographic data, drillholes, etc. for the Banyan Basin in Jurong Island, Singapore, in a case study.

  7. Research and Technology Development for Construction of 3d Video Scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlebnikova, Tatyana A.

    2016-06-01

    For the last two decades surface information in the form of conventional digital and analogue topographic maps has been being supplemented by new digital geospatial products, also known as 3D models of real objects. It is shown that currently there are no defined standards for 3D scenes construction technologies that could be used by Russian surveying and cartographic enterprises. The issues regarding source data requirements, their capture and transferring to create 3D scenes have not been defined yet. The accuracy issues for 3D video scenes used for measuring purposes can hardly ever be found in publications. Practicability of development, research and implementation of technology for construction of 3D video scenes is substantiated by 3D video scene capability to expand the field of data analysis application for environmental monitoring, urban planning, and managerial decision problems. The technology for construction of 3D video scenes with regard to the specified metric requirements is offered. Technique and methodological background are recommended for this technology used to construct 3D video scenes based on DTM, which were created by satellite and aerial survey data. The results of accuracy estimation of 3D video scenes are presented.

  8. Laser Scanning Holographic Lithography for Flexible 3D Fabrication of Multi-Scale Integrated Nano-structures and Optical Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Liang Leon; Herman, Peter R

    2016-02-29

    Three-dimensional (3D) periodic nanostructures underpin a promising research direction on the frontiers of nanoscience and technology to generate advanced materials for exploiting novel photonic crystal (PC) and nanofluidic functionalities. However, formation of uniform and defect-free 3D periodic structures over large areas that can further integrate into multifunctional devices has remained a major challenge. Here, we introduce a laser scanning holographic method for 3D exposure in thick photoresist that combines the unique advantages of large area 3D holographic interference lithography (HIL) with the flexible patterning of laser direct writing to form both micro- and nano-structures in a single exposure step. Phase mask interference patterns accumulated over multiple overlapping scans are shown to stitch seamlessly and form uniform 3D nanostructure with beam size scaled to small 200 μm diameter. In this way, laser scanning is presented as a facile means to embed 3D PC structure within microfluidic channels for integration into an optofluidic lab-on-chip, demonstrating a new laser HIL writing approach for creating multi-scale integrated microsystems.

  9. Laser Scanning Holographic Lithography for Flexible 3D Fabrication of Multi-Scale Integrated Nano-structures and Optical Biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Liang (Leon); Herman, Peter R.

    2016-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) periodic nanostructures underpin a promising research direction on the frontiers of nanoscience and technology to generate advanced materials for exploiting novel photonic crystal (PC) and nanofluidic functionalities. However, formation of uniform and defect-free 3D periodic structures over large areas that can further integrate into multifunctional devices has remained a major challenge. Here, we introduce a laser scanning holographic method for 3D exposure in thick photoresist that combines the unique advantages of large area 3D holographic interference lithography (HIL) with the flexible patterning of laser direct writing to form both micro- and nano-structures in a single exposure step. Phase mask interference patterns accumulated over multiple overlapping scans are shown to stitch seamlessly and form uniform 3D nanostructure with beam size scaled to small 200 μm diameter. In this way, laser scanning is presented as a facile means to embed 3D PC structure within microfluidic channels for integration into an optofluidic lab-on-chip, demonstrating a new laser HIL writing approach for creating multi-scale integrated microsystems.

  10. Laser Scanning Holographic Lithography for Flexible 3D Fabrication of Multi-Scale Integrated Nano-structures and Optical Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Liang (Leon); Herman, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) periodic nanostructures underpin a promising research direction on the frontiers of nanoscience and technology to generate advanced materials for exploiting novel photonic crystal (PC) and nanofluidic functionalities. However, formation of uniform and defect-free 3D periodic structures over large areas that can further integrate into multifunctional devices has remained a major challenge. Here, we introduce a laser scanning holographic method for 3D exposure in thick photoresist that combines the unique advantages of large area 3D holographic interference lithography (HIL) with the flexible patterning of laser direct writing to form both micro- and nano-structures in a single exposure step. Phase mask interference patterns accumulated over multiple overlapping scans are shown to stitch seamlessly and form uniform 3D nanostructure with beam size scaled to small 200 μm diameter. In this way, laser scanning is presented as a facile means to embed 3D PC structure within microfluidic channels for integration into an optofluidic lab-on-chip, demonstrating a new laser HIL writing approach for creating multi-scale integrated microsystems. PMID:26922872

  11. Pixel detectors in 3D technologies for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, G.; Demarteau, M.; Hoff, J.; Lipton, R.; Shenai, A.; Yarema, R.; Zimmerman, T.; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    This paper reports on the current status of the development of International Linear Collider vertex detector pixel readout chips based on multi-tier vertically integrated electronics. Initial testing results of the VIP2a prototype are presented. The chip is the second embodiment of the prototype data-pushed readout concept developed at Fermilab. The device was fabricated in the MIT-LL 0.15 {micro}m fully depleted SOI process. The prototype is a three-tier design, featuring 30 x 30 {micro}m{sup 2} pixels, laid out in an array of 48 x 48 pixels.

  12. Dielectric Spectroscopic Detection of Early Failures in 3-D Integrated Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Okoro, C. A.; Ahn, Jung-Joon; You, Lin; Kopanski, Joseph J.

    2015-01-01

    The commercial introduction of three dimensional integrated circuits (3D-ICs) has been hindered by reliability challenges, such as stress related failures, resistivity changes, and unexplained early failures. In this paper, we discuss a new RF-based metrology, based on dielectric spectroscopy, for detecting and characterizing electrically active defects in fully integrated 3D devices. These defects are traceable to the chemistry of the insolation dielectrics used in the through silicon via (TSV) construction. We show that these defects may be responsible for some of the unexplained early reliability failures observed in TSV enabled 3D devices. PMID:26664695

  13. Air-touch interaction system for integral imaging 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Han Yuan; Xiang, Lee Ming; Lee, Byung Gook

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we propose an air-touch interaction system for the tabletop type integral imaging 3D display. This system consists of the real 3D image generation system based on integral imaging technique and the interaction device using a real-time finger detection interface. In this system, we used multi-layer B-spline surface approximation to detect the fingertip and gesture easily in less than 10cm height from the screen via input the hand image. The proposed system can be used in effective human computer interaction method for the tabletop type 3D display.

  14. A multi-scale controlled tissue engineering scaffold prepared by 3D printing and NFES technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Feifei; Liu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Haiping; Zhang, Fuhua; Zheng, Lulu; Hu, Qingxi

    2014-03-01

    The current focus in the field of life science is the use of tissue engineering scaffolds to repair human organs, which has shown great potential in clinical applications. Extracellular matrix morphology and the performance and internal structure of natural organs are required to meet certain requirements. Therefore, integrating multiple processes can effectively overcome the limitations of the individual processes and can take into account the needs of scaffolds for the material, structure, mechanical properties and many other aspects. This study combined the biological 3D printing technology and the near-field electro-spinning (NFES) process to prepare a multi-scale controlled tissue engineering scaffold. While using 3D printing technology to directly prepare the macro-scaffold, the compositing NFES process to build tissue micro-morphology ultimately formed a tissue engineering scaffold which has the specific extracellular matrix structure. This scaffold not only takes into account the material, structure, performance and many other requirements, but also focuses on resolving the controllability problems in macro- and micro-forming which further aim to induce cell directed differentiation, reproduction and, ultimately, the formation of target tissue organs. It has in-depth immeasurable significance to build ideal scaffolds and further promote the application of tissue engineering.

  15. The OpenEarth Framework (OEF) for the 3D Visualization of Integrated Earth Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, David; Moreland, John; Baru, Chaitan; Crosby, Chris

    2010-05-01

    Data integration is increasingly important as we strive to combine data from disparate sources and assemble better models of the complex processes operating at the Earth's surface and within its interior. These data are often large, multi-dimensional, and subject to differing conventions for data structures, file formats, coordinate spaces, and units of measure. When visualized, these data require differing, and sometimes conflicting, conventions for visual representations, dimensionality, symbology, and interaction. All of this makes the visualization of integrated Earth science data particularly difficult. The OpenEarth Framework (OEF) is an open-source data integration and visualization suite of applications and libraries being developed by the GEON project at the University of California, San Diego, USA. Funded by the NSF, the project is leveraging virtual globe technology from NASA's WorldWind to create interactive 3D visualization tools that combine and layer data from a wide variety of sources to create a holistic view of features at, above, and beneath the Earth's surface. The OEF architecture is open, cross-platform, modular, and based upon Java. The OEF's modular approach to software architecture yields an array of mix-and-match software components for assembling custom applications. Available modules support file format handling, web service communications, data management, user interaction, and 3D visualization. File parsers handle a variety of formal and de facto standard file formats used in the field. Each one imports data into a general-purpose common data model supporting multidimensional regular and irregular grids, topography, feature geometry, and more. Data within these data models may be manipulated, combined, reprojected, and visualized. The OEF's visualization features support a variety of conventional and new visualization techniques for looking at topography, tomography, point clouds, imagery, maps, and feature geometry. 3D data such as

  16. Estimation of the degree of polarization in low-light 3D integral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnicer, Artur; Javidi, Bahram

    2016-06-01

    The calculation of the Stokes Parameters and the Degree of Polarization in 3D integral images requires a careful manipulation of the polarimetric elemental images. This fact is particularly important if the scenes are taken in low-light conditions. In this paper, we show that the Degree of Polarization can be effectively estimated even when elemental images are recorded with few photons. The original idea was communicated in [A. Carnicer and B. Javidi, "Polarimetric 3D integral imaging in photon-starved conditions," Opt. Express 23, 6408-6417 (2015)]. First, we use the Maximum Likelihood Estimation approach for generating the 3D integral image. Nevertheless, this method produces very noisy images and thus, the degree of polarization cannot be calculated. We suggest using a Total Variation Denoising filter as a way to improve the quality of the generated 3D images. As a result, noise is suppressed but high frequency information is preserved. Finally, the degree of polarization is obtained successfully.

  17. 3D Printing technology over a drug delivery for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Woo; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers have attempted to use computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) to realize a scaffold that provides a three-dimensional (3D) environment for regeneration of tissues and organs. As a result, several 3D printing technologies, including stereolithography, deposition modeling, inkjet-based printing and selective laser sintering have been developed. Because these 3D printing technologies use computers for design and fabrication, and they can fabricate 3D scaffolds as designed; as a consequence, they can be standardized. Growth of target tissues and organs requires the presence of appropriate growth factors, so fabrication of 3Dscaffold systems that release these biomolecules has been explored. A drug delivery system (DDS) that administrates a pharmaceutical compound to achieve a therapeutic effect in cells, animals and humans is a key technology that delivers biomolecules without side effects caused by excessive doses. 3D printing technologies and DDSs have been assembled successfully, so new possibilities for improved tissue regeneration have been suggested. If the interaction between cells and scaffold system with biomolecules can be understood and controlled, and if an optimal 3D tissue regenerating environment is realized, 3D printing technologies will become an important aspect of tissue engineering research in the near future.

  18. The application of digital medical 3D printing technology on tumor operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jimin; Jiang, Yijian; Li, Yangsheng

    2016-04-01

    Digital medical 3D printing technology is a new hi-tech which combines traditional medical and digital design, computer science, bio technology and 3D print technology. At the present time there are four levels application: The printed 3D model is the first and simple application. The surgery makes use of the model to plan the processing before operation. The second is customized operation tools such as implant guide. It helps doctor to operate with special tools rather than the normal medical tools. The third level application of 3D printing in medical area is to print artificial bones or teeth to implant into human body. The big challenge is the fourth level which is to print organs with 3D printing technology. In this paper we introduced an application of 3D printing technology in tumor operation. We use 3D printing to print guide for invasion operation. Puncture needles were guided by printed guide in face tumors operation. It is concluded that this new type guide is dominantly advantageous.

  19. From 3D Bioprinters to a fully integrated Organ Biofabrication Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passamai, V. E.; Dernowsek, J. A.; Nogueira, J.; Lara, V.; Vilalba, F.; Mironov, V. A.; Rezende, R. A.; da Silva, J. V.

    2016-04-01

    About 30 years ago, the 3D printing technique appeared. From that time on, engineers in medical science field started to look at 3D printing as a partner. Firstly, biocompatible and biodegradable 3D structures for cell seeding called “scaffolds” were fabricated for in vitro and in vivo animal trials. The advances proved to be of great importance, but, the use of scaffolds faces some limitations, such as low homogeneity and low density of cell aggregates. In the last decade, 3D bioprinting technology emerged as a promising approach to overcome these limitations and as one potential solution to the challenge of organ fabrication, to obtain very similar 3D human tissues, not only for transplantation, but also for drug discovery, disease research and to decrease the usage of animals in laboratory experimentation. 3D bioprinting allowed the fabrication of 3D alive structures with higher and controllable cell density and homogeneity. Other advantage of biofabrication is that the tissue constructs are solid scaffold-free. This paper presents the 3D bioprinting technology; equipment development, stages and components of a complex Organ Bioprinting Line (OBL) and the importance of developing a Virtual OBL.

  20. Integrated Interventional Devices For Real Time 3D Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Stephen W.; Lee, Warren; Gentry, Kenneth L.; Pua, Eric C.; Light, Edward D.

    2006-05-01

    Two recent advances have expanded the potential of medical ultrasound: the introduction of real-time 3-D ultrasound imaging with catheter, transesophageal and laparoscopic probes and the development of interventional ultrasound therapeutic systems for focused ultrasound surgery, ablation and ultrasound enhanced drug delivery. This work describes devices combining both technologies. A series of transducer probes have been designed, fabricated and tested including: 1) a 12 French side scanning catheter incorporating a 64 element matrix array for imaging at 5MHz and a piston ablation transducer operating at 10 MHz. 2) a 14 Fr forward-scanning catheter integrating a 112 element 2-D array for imaging at 5 MHz encircled by an ablation annulus operating at 10 MHz. Finite element modeling was then used to simulate catheter annular and linear phased array transducers for ablation. 3) Linear phased array transducers were built to confirm the finite element analysis at 4 and 8 MHz including a mechanically focused 86 element 9 MHz array which transmits an ISPTA of 29.3 W/cm2 and creates a lesion in 2 minutes. 4) 2-D arrays of 504 channels operating at 5 MHz have been developed for transesophageal and laparascopic 3D imaging as well as therapeutic heating. All the devices image the heart anatomy including atria, valves, septa and en face views of the pulmonary veins.

  1. Scientific Subsurface data for EPOS - integration of 3D and 4D data services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerschke, Dorit; Hammitzsch, Martin; Wächter, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    The provision of efficient and easy access to scientific subsurface data sets obtained from field studies and scientific observatories or by geological 3D/4D-modeling is an important contribution to modern research infrastructures as they can facilitate the integrated analysis and evaluation as well as the exchange of scientific data. Within the project EPOS - European Plate Observing System, access to 3D and 4D data sets will be provided by 'WP15 - Geological information and modeling' and include structural geology models as well as numerical models, e.g., temperature, aquifers, and velocity. This also includes validated raw data, e.g., seismic profiles, from which the models where derived. All these datasets are of high quality and of unique scientific value as the process of modeling is time and cost intensive. However, these models are currently not easily accessible for the wider scientific community, much less to the public. For the provision of these data sets a data management platform based on common and standardized data models, protocols, and encodings as well as on a predominant use of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) has been devised. The interoperability for disciplinary and domain applications thus highly depends on the adoption of generally agreed technologies and standards (OGC, ISO…) originating from Spatial Data Infrastructure related efforts (e.g., INSPIRE). However, since not many standards for 3D and 4D geological data exists, this work also includes new approaches for project data management, interfaces for tools used by the researchers, and interfaces for the sharing and reusing of data.

  2. BioMEA: a versatile high-density 3D microelectrode array system using integrated electronics.

    PubMed

    Charvet, Guillaume; Rousseau, Lionel; Billoint, Olivier; Gharbi, Sadok; Rostaing, Jean-Pierre; Joucla, Sébastien; Trevisiol, Michel; Bourgerette, Alain; Chauvet, Philippe; Moulin, Céline; Goy, François; Mercier, Bruno; Colin, Mikael; Spirkovitch, Serge; Fanet, Hervé; Meyrand, Pierre; Guillemaud, Régis; Yvert, Blaise

    2010-04-15

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) offer a powerful tool to both record activity and deliver electrical microstimulations to neural networks either in vitro or in vivo. Microelectronics microfabrication technologies now allow building high-density MEAs containing several hundreds of microelectrodes. However, dense arrays of 3D micro-needle electrodes, providing closer contact with the neural tissue than planar electrodes, are not achievable using conventional isotropic etching processes. Moreover, increasing the number of electrodes using conventional electronics is difficult to achieve into compact devices addressing all channels independently for simultaneous recording and stimulation. Here, we present a full modular and versatile 256-channel MEA system based on integrated electronics. First, transparent high-density arrays of 3D-shaped microelectrodes were realized by deep reactive ion etching techniques of a silicon substrate reported on glass. This approach allowed achieving high electrode aspect ratios, and different shapes of tip electrodes. Next, we developed a dedicated analog 64-channel Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) including one amplification stage and one current generator per channel, and analog output multiplexing. A full modular system, called BIOMEA, has been designed, allowing connecting different types of MEAs (64, 128, or 256 electrodes) to different numbers of ASICs for simultaneous recording and/or stimulation on all channels. Finally, this system has been validated experimentally by recording and electrically eliciting low-amplitude spontaneous rhythmic activity (both LFPs and spikes) in the developing mouse CNS. The availability of high-density MEA systems with integrated electronics will offer new possibilities for both in vitro and in vivo studies of large neural networks.

  3. Integration of 3D anatomical data obtained by CT imaging and 3D optical scanning for computer aided implant surgery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A precise placement of dental implants is a crucial step to optimize both prosthetic aspects and functional constraints. In this context, the use of virtual guiding systems has been recognized as a fundamental tool to control the ideal implant position. In particular, complex periodontal surgeries can be performed using preoperative planning based on CT data. The critical point of the procedure relies on the lack of accuracy in transferring CT planning information to surgical field through custom-made stereo-lithographic surgical guides. Methods In this work, a novel methodology is proposed for monitoring loss of accuracy in transferring CT dental information into periodontal surgical field. The methodology is based on integrating 3D data of anatomical (impression and cast) and preoperative (radiographic template) models, obtained by both CT and optical scanning processes. Results A clinical case, relative to a fully edentulous jaw patient, has been used as test case to assess the accuracy of the various steps concurring in manufacturing surgical guides. In particular, a surgical guide has been designed to place implants in the bone structure of the patient. The analysis of the results has allowed the clinician to monitor all the errors, which have been occurring step by step manufacturing the physical templates. Conclusions The use of an optical scanner, which has a higher resolution and accuracy than CT scanning, has demonstrated to be a valid support to control the precision of the various physical models adopted and to point out possible error sources. A case study regarding a fully edentulous patient has confirmed the feasibility of the proposed methodology. PMID:21338504

  4. Fully 3D-Integrated Pixel Detectors for X-Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz W.; Gabriella, Carini; Enquist, Paul; Grybos, Pawel; Holm, Scott; Lipton, Ronald; Maj, Piotr; Patti, Robert; Siddons, David Peter; Szczygiel, Robert; Yarema, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    The vertically integrated photon imaging chip (VIPIC1) pixel detector is a stack consisting of a 500-μm-thick silicon sensor, a two-tier 34-μm-thick integrated circuit, and a host printed circuit board (PCB). The integrated circuit tiers were bonded using the direct bonding technology with copper, and each tier features 1-μm-diameter through-silicon vias that were used for connections to the sensor on one side, and to the host PCB on the other side. The 80-μm-pixel-pitch sensor was the direct bonding technology with nickel bonded to the integrated circuit. The stack was mounted on the board using Sn–Pb balls placed on a 320-μm pitch, yielding an entirely wire-bond-less structure. The analog front-end features a pulse response peaking at below 250 ns, and the power consumption per pixel is 25 μW. We successful completed the 3-D integration and have reported here. Additionally, all pixels in the matrix of 64 × 64 pixels were responding on well-bonded devices. Correct operation of the sparsified readout, allowing a single 153-ns bunch timing resolution, was confirmed in the tests on a synchrotron beam of 10-keV X-rays. An equivalent noise charge of 36.2 e- rms and a conversion gain of 69.5 μV/e- with 2.6 e- rms and 2.7 μV/e- rms pixel-to-pixel variations, respectively, were measured.

  5. Fully 3D-Integrated Pixel Detectors for X-Rays

    DOE PAGES

    Deptuch, Grzegorz W.; Gabriella, Carini; Enquist, Paul; ...

    2016-01-01

    The vertically integrated photon imaging chip (VIPIC1) pixel detector is a stack consisting of a 500-μm-thick silicon sensor, a two-tier 34-μm-thick integrated circuit, and a host printed circuit board (PCB). The integrated circuit tiers were bonded using the direct bonding technology with copper, and each tier features 1-μm-diameter through-silicon vias that were used for connections to the sensor on one side, and to the host PCB on the other side. The 80-μm-pixel-pitch sensor was the direct bonding technology with nickel bonded to the integrated circuit. The stack was mounted on the board using Sn–Pb balls placed on a 320-μm pitch,more » yielding an entirely wire-bond-less structure. The analog front-end features a pulse response peaking at below 250 ns, and the power consumption per pixel is 25 μW. We successful completed the 3-D integration and have reported here. Additionally, all pixels in the matrix of 64 × 64 pixels were responding on well-bonded devices. Correct operation of the sparsified readout, allowing a single 153-ns bunch timing resolution, was confirmed in the tests on a synchrotron beam of 10-keV X-rays. An equivalent noise charge of 36.2 e- rms and a conversion gain of 69.5 μV/e- with 2.6 e- rms and 2.7 μV/e- rms pixel-to-pixel variations, respectively, were measured.« less

  6. Integration of Jeddah Historical BIM and 3D GIS for Documentation and Restoration of Historical Monument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, A.; Yaagoubi, R.; Boehm, J.

    2015-08-01

    This work outlines a new approach for the integration of 3D Building Information Modelling and the 3D Geographic Information System (GIS) to provide semantically rich models, and to get the benefits from both systems to help document and analyse cultural heritage sites. Our proposed framework is based on the Jeddah Historical Building Information Modelling process (JHBIM). This JHBIM consists of a Hijazi Architectural Objects Library (HAOL) that supports higher level of details (LoD) while decreasing the time of modelling. The Hijazi Architectural Objects Library has been modelled based on the Islamic historical manuscripts and Hijazi architectural pattern books. Moreover, the HAOL is implemented using BIM software called Autodesk Revit. However, it is known that this BIM environment still has some limitations with the non-standard architectural objects. Hence, we propose to integrate the developed 3D JHBIM with 3D GIS for more advanced analysis. To do so, the JHBIM database is exported and semantically enriched with non-architectural information that is necessary for restoration and preservation of historical monuments. After that, this database is integrated with the 3D Model in the 3D GIS solution. At the end of this paper, we'll illustrate our proposed framework by applying it to a Historical Building called Nasif Historical House in Jeddah. First of all, this building is scanned by the use of a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and Close Range Photogrammetry. Then, the 3D JHBIM based on the HOAL is designed on Revit Platform. Finally, this model is integrated to a 3D GIS solution through Autodesk InfraWorks. The shown analysis presented in this research highlights the importance of such integration especially for operational decisions and sharing the historical knowledge about Jeddah Historical City. Furthermore, one of the historical buildings in Old Jeddah, Nasif Historical House, was chosen as a test case for the project.

  7. Stress management for 3D through-silicon-via stacking technologies - The next frontier -

    SciTech Connect

    Radojcic, Riko; Nowak, Matt; Nakamoto, Mark

    2014-06-19

    The status of the development of a Design-for-Stress simulation flow that captures the stress effects in packaged 3D-stacked Si products like integrated circuits (ICs) using advanced via-middle Through Si Via technology is outlined. The next set of challenges required to proliferate the methodology and to deploy it for making and dispositioning real Si product decisions are described here. These include the adoption and support of a Process Design Kit (PDK) that includes the relevant material properties, the development of stress simulation methodologies that operate at higher levels of abstraction in a design flow, and the development and adoption of suitable models required to make real product reliability decisions.

  8. Bi-sided integral imaging with 2D/3D convertibility using scattering polarizer.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Jiwoon; Hong, Keehoon; Park, Soon-gi; Hong, Jisoo; Min, Sung-Wook; Lee, Byoungho

    2013-12-16

    We propose a two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) convertible bi-sided integral imaging. The proposed system uses the polarization state of projected light for switching its operation mode between 2D and 3D modes. By using an optical module composed of two scattering polarizers and one linear polarizer, the proposed integral imaging system simultaneously provides 3D images with 2D background images for observers who are located in the front and the rear sides of the system. The occlusion effect between 2D images and 3D images is realized by using a compensation mask for 2D images and the elemental images. The principle of proposed system is experimentally verified.

  9. An architecture for integrating planar and 3D cQED devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axline, C.; Reagor, M.; Heeres, R.; Reinhold, P.; Wang, C.; Shain, K.; Pfaff, W.; Chu, Y.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2016-07-01

    Numerous loss mechanisms can limit coherence and scalability of planar and 3D-based circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED) devices, particularly due to their packaging. The low loss and natural isolation of 3D enclosures make them good candidates for coherent scaling. We introduce a coaxial transmission line device architecture with coherence similar to traditional 3D cQED systems. Measurements demonstrate well-controlled external and on-chip couplings, a spectrum absent of cross-talk or spurious modes, and excellent resonator and qubit lifetimes. We integrate a resonator-qubit system in this architecture with a seamless 3D cavity, and separately pattern a qubit, readout resonator, Purcell filter, and high-Q stripline resonator on a single chip. Device coherence and its ease of integration make this a promising tool for complex experiments.

  10. Free segmentation in rendered 3D images through synthetic impulse response in integral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Corral, M.; Llavador, A.; Sánchez-Ortiga, E.; Saavedra, G.; Javidi, B.

    2016-06-01

    Integral Imaging is a technique that has the capability of providing not only the spatial, but also the angular information of three-dimensional (3D) scenes. Some important applications are the 3D display and digital post-processing as for example, depth-reconstruction from integral images. In this contribution we propose a new reconstruction method that takes into account the integral image and a simplified version of the impulse response function (IRF) of the integral imaging (InI) system to perform a two-dimensional (2D) deconvolution. The IRF of an InI system has a periodic structure that depends directly on the axial position of the object. Considering different periods of the IRFs we recover by deconvolution the depth information of the 3D scene. An advantage of our method is that it is possible to obtain nonconventional reconstructions by considering alternative synthetic impulse responses. Our experiments show the feasibility of the proposed method.

  11. On the integrability of the motion of 3D-Swinging Atwood machine and related problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmandouh, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    In the present article, we study the problem of the motion of 3D- Swinging Atwood machine. A new integrable case for this problem is announced. We point out a new integrable case describing the motion of a heavy particle on a titled cone.

  12. Integrative multicellular biological modeling: a case study of 3D epidermal development using GPU algorithms

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Simulation of sophisticated biological models requires considerable computational power. These models typically integrate together numerous biological phenomena such as spatially-explicit heterogeneous cells, cell-cell interactions, cell-environment interactions and intracellular gene networks. The recent advent of programming for graphical processing units (GPU) opens up the possibility of developing more integrative, detailed and predictive biological models while at the same time decreasing the computational cost to simulate those models. Results We construct a 3D model of epidermal development and provide a set of GPU algorithms that executes significantly faster than sequential central processing unit (CPU) code. We provide a parallel implementation of the subcellular element method for individual cells residing in a lattice-free spatial environment. Each cell in our epidermal model includes an internal gene network, which integrates cellular interaction of Notch signaling together with environmental interaction of basement membrane adhesion, to specify cellular state and behaviors such as growth and division. We take a pedagogical approach to describing how modeling methods are efficiently implemented on the GPU including memory layout of data structures and functional decomposition. We discuss various programmatic issues and provide a set of design guidelines for GPU programming that are instructive to avoid common pitfalls as well as to extract performance from the GPU architecture. Conclusions We demonstrate that GPU algorithms represent a significant technological advance for the simulation of complex biological models. We further demonstrate with our epidermal model that the integration of multiple complex modeling methods for heterogeneous multicellular biological processes is both feasible and computationally tractable using this new technology. We hope that the provided algorithms and source code will be a starting point for modelers to

  13. Time And Temperature Dependent Micromechanical Properties Of Solder Joints For 3D-Package Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roellig, Mike; Meier, Karsten; Metasch, Rene

    2010-11-01

    The recent development of 3D-integrated electronic packages is characterized by the need to increase the diversity of functions and to miniaturize. Currently many 3D-integration concepts are being developed and all of them demand new materials, new designs and new processing technologies. The combination of simulation and experimental investigation becomes increasingly accepted since simulations help to shorten the R&D cycle time and reduce costs. Numerical calculations like the Finite-Element-Method are strong tools to calculate stress conditions in electronic packages resulting from thermal strains due to the manufacturing process and environmental loads. It is essential for the application of numerical calculations that the material data is accurate and describes sufficiently the physical behaviour. The developed machine allows the measurement of time and temperature dependent micromechanical properties of solder joints. Solder joints, which are used to mechanically and electrically connect different packages, are physically measured as they leave the process. This allows accounting for process influences, which may change material properties. Additionally, joint sizes and metallurgical interactions between solder and under bump metallization can be respected by this particular measurement. The measurement allows the determination of material properties within a temperature range of 20° C-200° C. Further, the time dependent creep deformation can be measured within a strain-rate range of 10-31/s-10-81/s. Solder alloys based on Sn-Ag/Sn-Ag-Cu with additionally impurities and joint sizes down to O/ 200 μm were investigated. To finish the material characterization process the material model coefficient were extracted by FEM-Simulation to increase the accuracy of data.

  14. The Impact of 3D Stacking and Technology Scaling on the Power and Area of Stereo Matching Processors

    PubMed Central

    Ok, Seung-Ho; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Shim, Jae Hoon; Lim, Sung Kyu; Moon, Byungin

    2017-01-01

    Recently, stereo matching processors have been adopted in real-time embedded systems such as intelligent robots and autonomous vehicles, which require minimal hardware resources and low power consumption. Meanwhile, thanks to the through-silicon via (TSV), three-dimensional (3D) stacking technology has emerged as a practical solution to achieving the desired requirements of a high-performance circuit. In this paper, we present the benefits of 3D stacking and process technology scaling on stereo matching processors. We implemented 2-tier 3D-stacked stereo matching processors with GlobalFoundries 130-nm and Nangate 45-nm process design kits and compare them with their two-dimensional (2D) counterparts to identify comprehensive design benefits. In addition, we examine the findings from various analyses to identify the power benefits of 3D-stacked integrated circuit (IC) and device technology advancements. From experiments, we observe that the proposed 3D-stacked ICs, compared to their 2D IC counterparts, obtain 43% area, 13% power, and 14% wire length reductions. In addition, we present a logic partitioning method suitable for a pipeline-based hardware architecture that minimizes the use of TSVs. PMID:28241437

  15. The Impact of 3D Stacking and Technology Scaling on the Power and Area of Stereo Matching Processors.

    PubMed

    Ok, Seung-Ho; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Shim, Jae Hoon; Lim, Sung Kyu; Moon, Byungin

    2017-02-22

    Recently, stereo matching processors have been adopted in real-time embedded systems such as intelligent robots and autonomous vehicles, which require minimal hardware resources and low power consumption. Meanwhile, thanks to the through-silicon via (TSV), three-dimensional (3D) stacking technology has emerged as a practical solution to achieving the desired requirements of a high-performance circuit. In this paper, we present the benefits of 3D stacking and process technology scaling on stereo matching processors. We implemented 2-tier 3D-stacked stereo matching processors with GlobalFoundries 130-nm and Nangate 45-nm process design kits and compare them with their two-dimensional (2D) counterparts to identify comprehensive design benefits. In addition, we examine the findings from various analyses to identify the power benefits of 3D-stacked integrated circuit (IC) and device technology advancements. From experiments, we observe that the proposed 3D-stacked ICs, compared to their 2D IC counterparts, obtain 43% area, 13% power, and 14% wire length reductions. In addition, we present a logic partitioning method suitable for a pipeline-based hardware architecture that minimizes the use of TSVs.

  16. THREE DIMENSIONAL INTEGRATED CHARACTERIZATION AND ARCHIVING SYSTEM (3D-ICAS)

    SciTech Connect

    George Jarvis

    2001-06-18

    The overall objective of this project is to develop an integrated system that remotely characterizes, maps, and archives measurement data of hazardous decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) areas. The system will generate a detailed 3-dimensional topography of the area as well as real-time quantitative measurements of volatile organics and radionuclides. The system will analyze substrate materials consisting of concrete, asbestos, and transite. The system will permanently archive the data measurements for regulatory and data integrity documentation. Exposure limits, rest breaks, and donning and removal of protective garments generate waste in the form of contaminated protective garments and equipment. Survey times are increased and handling and transporting potentially hazardous materials incur additional costs. Off-site laboratory analysis is expensive and time-consuming, often necessitating delay of further activities until results are received. The Three Dimensional Integrated Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS) has been developed to alleviate some of these problems. 3D-ICAS provides a flexible system for physical, chemical and nuclear measurements reduces costs and improves data quality. Operationally, 3D-ICAS performs real-time determinations of hazardous and toxic contamination. A prototype demonstration unit is available for use in early 2000. The tasks in this Phase included: (1) Mobility Platforms: Integrate hardware onto mobility platforms, upgrade surface sensors, develop unit operations and protocol. (2) System Developments: Evaluate metals detection capability using x-ray fluorescence technology. (3) IWOS Upgrades: Upgrade the IWOS software and hardware for compatibility with mobility platform. The system was modified, tested and debugged during 1999 and 2000. The 3D-ICAS was shipped on 11 May 2001 to FIU-HCET for demonstration and validation of the design modifications. These modifications included simplifying the design from a two

  17. Learning from graphically integrated 2D and 3D representations improves retention of neuroanatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naaz, Farah

    Visualizations in the form of computer-based learning environments are highly encouraged in science education, especially for teaching spatial material. Some spatial material, such as sectional neuroanatomy, is very challenging to learn. It involves learning the two dimensional (2D) representations that are sampled from the three dimensional (3D) object. In this study, a computer-based learning environment was used to explore the hypothesis that learning sectional neuroanatomy from a graphically integrated 2D and 3D representation will lead to better learning outcomes than learning from a sequential presentation. The integrated representation explicitly demonstrates the 2D-3D transformation and should lead to effective learning. This study was conducted using a computer graphical model of the human brain. There were two learning groups: Whole then Sections, and Integrated 2D3D. Both groups learned whole anatomy (3D neuroanatomy) before learning sectional anatomy (2D neuroanatomy). The Whole then Sections group then learned sectional anatomy using 2D representations only. The Integrated 2D3D group learned sectional anatomy from a graphically integrated 3D and 2D model. A set of tests for generalization of knowledge to interpreting biomedical images was conducted immediately after learning was completed. The order of presentation of the tests of generalization of knowledge was counterbalanced across participants to explore a secondary hypothesis of the study: preparation for future learning. If the computer-based instruction programs used in this study are effective tools for teaching anatomy, the participants should continue learning neuroanatomy with exposure to new representations. A test of long-term retention of sectional anatomy was conducted 4-8 weeks after learning was completed. The Integrated 2D3D group was better than the Whole then Sections

  18. Fabrication of nano-scale Cu bond pads with seal design in 3D integration applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, K N; Tsang, C K; Wu, W W; Lee, S H; Lu, J Q

    2011-04-01

    A method to fabricate nano-scale Cu bond pads for improving bonding quality in 3D integration applications is reported. The effect of Cu bonding quality on inter-level via structural reliability for 3D integration applications is investigated. We developed a Cu nano-scale-height bond pad structure and fabrication process for improved bonding quality by recessing oxides using a combination of SiO2 CMP process and dilute HF wet etching. In addition, in order to achieve improved wafer-level bonding, we introduced a seal design concept that prevents corrosion and provides extra mechanical support. Demonstrations of these concepts and processes provide the feasibility of reliable nano-scale 3D integration applications.

  19. Dual-view integral imaging 3D display by using orthogonal polarizer array and polarization switcher.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong-Hua; Ji, Chao-Chao; Li, Lei; Deng, Huan

    2016-01-11

    In this paper, a dual-view integral imaging three-dimensional (3D) display consisting of a display panel, two orthogonal polarizer arrays, a polarization switcher, and a micro-lens array is proposed. Two elemental image arrays for two different 3D images are presented by the display panel alternately, and the polarization switcher controls the polarization direction of the light rays synchronously. The two elemental image arrays are modulated by their corresponding and neighboring micro-lenses of the micro-lens array, and reconstruct two different 3D images in viewing zones 1 and 2, respectively. A prototype of the dual-view II 3D display is developed, and it has good performances.

  20. Strategies for Effectively Visualizing a 3D Flow Using Volume Line Integral Convolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interrante, Victoria; Grosch, Chester

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses strategies for effectively portraying 3D flow using volume line integral convolution. Issues include defining an appropriate input texture, clarifying the distinct identities and relative depths of the advected texture elements, and selectively highlighting regions of interest in both the input and output volumes. Apart from offering insights into the greater potential of 3D LIC as a method for effectively representing flow in a volume, a principal contribution of this work is the suggestion of a technique for generating and rendering 3D visibility-impeding 'halos' that can help to intuitively indicate the presence of depth discontinuities between contiguous elements in a projection and thereby clarify the 3D spatial organization of elements in the flow. The proposed techniques are applied to the visualization of a hot, supersonic, laminar jet exiting into a colder, subsonic coflow.

  1. Color Flat Panel Displays: 3D Autostereoscopic Brassboard and Field Sequential Illumination Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    DTI has advanced autostereoscopic and field sequential color (FSC) illumination technologies for flat panel displays. Using a patented backlight...technology, DTI has developed prototype 3D flat panel color display that provides stereoscopic viewing without the need for special glasses or other... autostereoscopic viewing. Discussions of system architecture, critical component specifications and resultant display characteristics are provided. Also

  2. Development and Calibration of New 3-D Vector VSP Imaging Technology: Vinton Salt Dome, LA

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt J. Marfurt; Hua-Wei Zhou; E. Charlotte Sullivan

    2004-09-01

    Vinton salt dome is located in Southwestern Louisiana, in Calcasieu Parish. Tectonically, the piercement dome is within the salt dome minibasin province. The field has been in production since 1901, with most of the production coming from Miocene and Oligocene sands. The goal of our project was to develop and calibrate new processing and interpretation technology to fully exploit the information available from a simultaneous 3-D surface seismic survey and 3-C, 3-D vertical seismic profile (VSP) survey over the dome. More specifically the goal was to better image salt dome flanks and small, reservoir-compartmentalizing faults. This new technology has application to mature salt-related fields across the Gulf Coast. The primary focus of our effort was to develop, apply, and assess the limitations of new 3-C, 3-D wavefield separation and imaging technology that could be used to image aliased, limited-aperture, vector VSP data. Through 2-D and 3-D full elastic modeling, we verified that salt flank reflections exist in the horizontally-traveling portion of the wavefield rather than up- and down-going portions of the wavefield, thereby explaining why many commercial VSP processing flow failed. Since the P-wave reflections from the salt flank are measured primarily on the horizontal components while P-wave reflections from deeper sedimentary horizons are measured primarily on the vertical component, a true vector VSP analysis was needed. We developed an antialiased discrete Radon transform filter to accurately model P- and S-wave data components measured by the vector VSP. On-the-fly polarization filtering embedded in our Kirchhoff imaging algorithm was effective in separating PP from PS wave images. By the novel application of semblance-weighted filters, we were able to suppress many of the migration artifacts associated with low fold, sparse VSP acquisition geometries. To provide a better velocity/depth model, we applied 3-D prestack depth migration to the surface data

  3. Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    T.H.E. Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The use of instructional technology has evolved over the last two decades, initially, instructional technology had two uses: learning about computers and using computers to increase basic skills. Learning about computers morphed into computer literacy, which is typically defined as the history, terminology and background of computing, using…

  4. Art-Science-Technology collaboration through immersive, interactive 3D visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, L. H.

    2014-12-01

    At the W. M. Keck Center for Active Visualization in Earth Sciences (KeckCAVES), a group of geoscientists and computer scientists collaborate to develop and use of interactive, immersive, 3D visualization technology to view, manipulate, and interpret data for scientific research. The visual impact of immersion in a CAVE environment can be extremely compelling, and from the outset KeckCAVES scientists have collaborated with artists to bring this technology to creative works, including theater and dance performance, installations, and gamification. The first full-fledged collaboration designed and produced a performance called "Collapse: Suddenly falling down", choreographed by Della Davidson, which investigated the human and cultural response to natural and man-made disasters. Scientific data (lidar scans of disaster sites, such as landslides and mine collapses) were fully integrated into the performance by the Sideshow Physical Theatre. This presentation will discuss both the technological and creative characteristics of, and lessons learned from the collaboration. Many parallels between the artistic and scientific process emerged. We observed that both artists and scientists set out to investigate a topic, solve a problem, or answer a question. Refining that question or problem is an essential part of both the creative and scientific workflow. Both artists and scientists seek understanding (in this case understanding of natural disasters). Differences also emerged; the group noted that the scientists sought clarity (including but not limited to quantitative measurements) as a means to understanding, while the artists embraced ambiguity, also as a means to understanding. Subsequent art-science-technology collaborations have responded to evolving technology for visualization and include gamification as a means to explore data, and use of augmented reality for informal learning in museum settings.

  5. 3D Printed Microfluidic Device with Integrated Biosensors for Online Analysis of Subcutaneous Human Microdialysate

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of a robust 3D printed microfluidic analysis system that integrates with FDA-approved clinical microdialysis probes for continuous monitoring of human tissue metabolite levels. The microfluidic device incorporates removable needle type integrated biosensors for glucose and lactate, which are optimized for high tissue concentrations, housed in novel 3D printed electrode holders. A soft compressible 3D printed elastomer at the base of the holder ensures a good seal with the microfluidic chip. Optimization of the channel size significantly improves the response time of the sensor. As a proof-of-concept study, our microfluidic device was coupled to lab-built wireless potentiostats and used to monitor real-time subcutaneous glucose and lactate levels in cyclists undergoing a training regime. PMID:26070023

  6. Status of on-focal-plane signal processing utilizing 3D silicon technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, John C.

    1994-03-01

    3D silicon technology has been under development since 1980, primarily aimed at on-focal- plane signal processing to solve a variety of military sensor systems problems. The thrust has been to bring more and more parallel analog and digital processing into the closest possible proximity to the detector array. At this time on-focal-plane functionality includes preamplification, spatial and temporal matched filtering, nonuniformity correction, neural networks, analog-digital conversion, digital logic, and digital memory. Historically, a custom- built specialty technology constrained by cost in its applicability, 3D silicon has undergone a dual-use conversion to include high-volume, low-cost commercial computer electronics. 3D silicon is on the way to becoming the lowest-cost-per-gate technology available and, because of this, sensor system design and performance will be revolutionized.

  7. 3D Imaging for hand gesture recognition: Exploring the software-hardware interaction of current technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Periverzov, Frol; Ilieş, Horea T.

    2012-09-01

    Interaction with 3D information is one of the fundamental and most familiar tasks in virtually all areas of engineering and science. Several recent technological advances pave the way for developing hand gesture recognition capabilities available to all, which will lead to more intuitive and efficient 3D user interfaces (3DUI). These developments can unlock new levels of expression and productivity in all activities concerned with the creation and manipulation of virtual 3D shapes and, specifically, in engineering design. Building fully automated systems for tracking and interpreting hand gestures requires robust and efficient 3D imaging techniques as well as potent shape classifiers. We survey and explore current and emerging 3D imaging technologies, and focus, in particular, on those that can be used to build interfaces between the users' hands and the machine. The purpose of this paper is to categorize and highlight the relevant differences between these existing 3D imaging approaches in terms of the nature of the information provided, output data format, as well as the specific conditions under which these approaches yield reliable data. Furthermore we explore the impact of each of these approaches on the computational cost and reliability of the required image processing algorithms. Finally we highlight the main challenges and opportunities in developing natural user interfaces based on hand gestures, and conclude with some promising directions for future research. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Could the 3D Printing Technology be a Useful Strategy to Obtain Customized Nutrition?

    PubMed

    Severini, Carla; Derossi, Antonio

    Within the concept of personalized nutrition we want to introduce the terms of "customized food formula" which refers to the preparation (at home) or the production (at industrial level) of new food formulations having nutrients and functional compounds necessary to prevent diseases or to reduce the risk for each subject (or subjects category) who exhibit a susceptibility to diseases. Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a group of technologies of growing interest able to produce, slice by slice, materials with any desired shape, dimension, and structure properties. The application of 3D printing in food science, as called "3D food printing," is a pioneering technology that could allow to build personalized foods by depositing nutrients and functional compounds or soft-materials obtained by their mixture. Also by 3D food printing it is expected to obtain personalized food formula having desired shape, dimension, and microstructure. This would be useful for people having swallowing problems. In this paper we analyzed the first examples of 3D food printing available in literature as well as we reported our results focused on the production of 3D printed wheat-based snacks enriched with insect powder (Tenebrio molitor) with the aim to improve the quality and the content of proteins.

  9. Emerging Technologies in the Built Environment: Geographic Information Science (GIS), 3D Printing, and Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract 1: Geographic information systems emerged as a computer application in the late 1960s, led in part by projects at ORNL. The concept of a GIS has shifted through time in response to new applications and new technologies, and is now part of a much larger world of geospatial technology. This presentation discusses the relationship of GIS and estimating hourly and seasonal energy consumption profiles in the building sector at spatial scales down to the individual parcel. The method combines annual building energy simulations for city-specific prototypical buildings and commonly available geospatial data in a GIS framework. Abstract 2: This presentation focuses on 3D printing technologies and how they have rapidly evolved over the past couple of years. At a basic level, 3D printing produces physical models quickly and easily from 3D CAD, BIM (Building Information Models), and other digital data. Many AEC firms have adopted 3D printing as part of commercial building design development and project delivery. This presentation includes an overview of 3D printing, discusses its current use in building design, and talks about its future in relation to the HVAC industry. Abstract 3: This presentation discusses additive manufacturing and how it is revolutionizing the design of commercial and residential facilities. Additive manufacturing utilizes a broad range of direct manufacturing technologies, including electron beam melting, ultrasonic, extrusion, and laser metal deposition for rapid prototyping. While there is some overlap with the 3D printing talk, this presentation focuses on the materials aspect of additive manufacturing and also some of the more advanced technologies involved with rapid prototyping. These technologies include design of carbon fiber composites, lightweight metals processing, transient field processing, and more.

  10. BEST3D user's manual: Boundary Element Solution Technology, 3-Dimensional Version 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The theoretical basis and programming strategy utilized in the construction of the computer program BEST3D (boundary element solution technology - three dimensional) and detailed input instructions are provided for the use of the program. An extensive set of test cases and sample problems is included in the manual and is also available for distribution with the program. The BEST3D program was developed under the 3-D Inelastic Analysis Methods for Hot Section Components contract (NAS3-23697). The overall objective of this program was the development of new computer programs allowing more accurate and efficient three-dimensional thermal and stress analysis of hot section components, i.e., combustor liners, turbine blades, and turbine vanes. The BEST3D program allows both linear and nonlinear analysis of static and quasi-static elastic problems and transient dynamic analysis for elastic problems. Calculation of elastic natural frequencies and mode shapes is also provided.

  11. 3D IC TSV-Based Technology: Stress Assessment For Chip Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukharev, Valeriy; Kteyan, Armen; Khachatryan, Nikolay; Hovsepyan, Henrik; Torres, Juan Andres; Choy, Jun-Ho; Markosian, Ara

    2010-11-01

    Potential challenges with managing mechanical stress distributions and the consequent effects on device performance for advanced 3D through-silicon-via (TSV) based technologies are outlined. A set of physics-based compact models of a multi-scale simulation flow for assessment of the mechanical stress across the device layers in the silicon chips stacked and packaged with the 3D TSV technology is proposed. A calibration technique based on fitting to measured transistor electrical characteristics of a custom designed test-chip is proposed.

  12. Large scale 3-D modeling by integration of resistivity models and borehole data through inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foged, N.; Marker, P. A.; Christansen, A. V.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.; Jørgensen, F.; Høyer, A.-S.; Auken, E.

    2014-02-01

    We present an automatic method for parameterization of a 3-D model of the subsurface, integrating lithological information from boreholes with resistivity models through an inverse optimization, with the objective of further detailing for geological models or as direct input to groundwater models. The parameter of interest is the clay fraction, expressed as the relative length of clay-units in a depth interval. The clay fraction is obtained from lithological logs and the clay fraction from the resistivity is obtained by establishing a simple petrophysical relationship, a translator function, between resistivity and the clay fraction. Through inversion we use the lithological data and the resistivity data to determine the optimum spatially distributed translator function. Applying the translator function we get a 3-D clay fraction model, which holds information from the resistivity dataset and the borehole dataset in one variable. Finally, we use k means clustering to generate a 3-D model of the subsurface structures. We apply the concept to the Norsminde survey in Denmark integrating approximately 700 boreholes and more than 100 000 resistivity models from an airborne survey in the parameterization of the 3-D model covering 156 km2. The final five-cluster 3-D model differentiates between clay materials and different high resistive materials from information held in resistivity model and borehole observations respectively.

  13. Large-scale 3-D modeling by integration of resistivity models and borehole data through inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foged, N.; Marker, P. A.; Christansen, A. V.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.; Jørgensen, F.; Høyer, A.-S.; Auken, E.

    2014-11-01

    We present an automatic method for parameterization of a 3-D model of the subsurface, integrating lithological information from boreholes with resistivity models through an inverse optimization, with the objective of further detailing of geological models, or as direct input into groundwater models. The parameter of interest is the clay fraction, expressed as the relative length of clay units in a depth interval. The clay fraction is obtained from lithological logs and the clay fraction from the resistivity is obtained by establishing a simple petrophysical relationship, a translator function, between resistivity and the clay fraction. Through inversion we use the lithological data and the resistivity data to determine the optimum spatially distributed translator function. Applying the translator function we get a 3-D clay fraction model, which holds information from the resistivity data set and the borehole data set in one variable. Finally, we use k-means clustering to generate a 3-D model of the subsurface structures. We apply the procedure to the Norsminde survey in Denmark, integrating approximately 700 boreholes and more than 100 000 resistivity models from an airborne survey in the parameterization of the 3-D model covering 156 km2. The final five-cluster 3-D model differentiates between clay materials and different high-resistivity materials from information held in the resistivity model and borehole observations, respectively.

  14. The application of camera calibration in range-gated 3D imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-quan; Wang, Xian-wei; Zhou, Yan

    2013-09-01

    Range-gated laser imaging technology was proposed in 1966 by LF Gillespiethe in U.S. Army Night Vision Laboratory(NVL). Using pulse laser and intensified charge-coupled device(ICCD) as light source and detector respectively, range-gated laser imaging technology can realize space-slice imaging while restraining the atmospheric backs-catter, and in turn detect the target effectively, by controlling the delay between the laser pulse and strobe. Owing to the constraints of the development of key components such as narrow pulse laser and gated imaging devices, the research has been progressed slowly in the next few decades. Until the beginning of this century, as the hardware technology continues to mature, this technology has developed rapidly in fields such as night vision, underwater imaging, biomedical imaging, three-dimensional imaging, especially range-gated three-dimensional(3-D) laser imaging field purposing of access to target spatial information. 3-D reconstruction is the processing of restoration of 3-D objects visible surface geometric structure from three-dimensional(2-D) image. Range-gated laser imaging technology can achieve gated imaging of slice space to form a slice image, and in turn provide the distance information corresponding to the slice image. But to inverse the information of 3-D space, we need to obtain the imaging visual field of system, that is, the focal length of the system. Then based on the distance information of the space slice, the spatial information of each unit space corresponding to each pixel can be inversed. Camera calibration is an indispensable step in 3-D reconstruction, including analysis of the internal structure of camera parameters and the external parameters . In order to meet the technical requirements of the range-gated 3-D imaging, this paper intends to study the calibration of the zoom lens system. After summarizing the camera calibration technique comprehensively, a classic calibration method based on line is

  15. Flexible fabrication of multi-scale integrated 3D periodic nanostructures with phase mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Liang Leon

    Top-down fabrication of artificial nanostructures, especially three-dimensional (3D) periodic nanostructures, that forms uniform and defect-free structures over large area with the advantages of high throughput and rapid processing and in a manner that can further monolithically integrate into multi-scale and multi-functional devices is long-desired but remains a considerable challenge. This thesis study advances diffractive optical element (DOE) based 3D laser holographic nanofabrication of 3D periodic nanostructures and develops new kinds of DOEs for advanced diffracted-beam control during the fabrication. Phase masks, as one particular kind of DOE, are a promising direction for simple and rapid fabrication of 3D periodic nanostructures by means of Fresnel diffraction interference lithography. When incident with a coherent beam of light, a suitable phase mask (e.g. with 2D nano-grating) can create multiple diffraction orders that are inherently phase-locked and overlap to form a 3D light interference pattern in the proximity of the DOE. This light pattern is typically recorded in photosensitive materials including photoresist to develop into 3D photonic crystal nanostructure templates. Two kinds of advanced phase masks were developed that enable delicate phase control of multiple diffraction beams. The first exploits femtosecond laser direct writing inside fused silica to assemble multiple (up to nine) orthogonally crossed (2D) grating layers, spaced on Talbot planes to overcome the inherent weak diffraction efficiency otherwise found in low-contrast volume gratings. A systematic offsetting of orthogonal grating layers to establish phase offsets over 0 to pi/2 range provided precise means for controlling the 3D photonic crystal structure symmetry between body centered tetragonal (BCT) and woodpile-like tetragonal (wTTR). The second phase mask consisted of two-layered nanogratings with small sub-wavelength grating periods and phase offset control. That was

  16. Developement of 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Deputch, G.; Hoff, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Olsen, J.; Ramberg, E.; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Yarema, R.; Shochet, M.; Tang, F.; Demarteau, M.; /Argonne /INFN, Padova

    2011-04-13

    Many next-generation physics experiments will be characterized by the collection of large quantities of data, taken in rapid succession, from which scientists will have to unravel the underlying physical processes. In most cases, large backgrounds will overwhelm the physics signal. Since the quantity of data that can be stored for later analysis is limited, real-time event selection is imperative to retain the interesting events while rejecting the background. Scaling of current technologies is unlikely to satisfy the scientific needs of future projects, so investments in transformational new technologies need to be made. For example, future particle physics experiments looking for rare processes will have to address the demanding challenges of fast pattern recognition in triggering as detector hit density becomes significantly higher due to the high luminosity required to produce the rare processes. In this proposal, we intend to develop hardware-based technology that significantly advances the state-of-the-art for fast pattern recognition within and outside HEP using the 3D vertical integration technology that has emerged recently in industry. The ultimate physics reach of the LHC experiments will crucially depend on the tracking trigger's ability to help discriminate between interesting rare events and the background. Hardware-based pattern recognition for fast triggering on particle tracks has been successfully used in high-energy physics experiments for some time. The CDF Silicon Vertex Trigger (SVT) at the Fermilab Tevatron is an excellent example. The method used there, developed in the 1990's, is based on algorithms that use a massively parallel associative memory architecture to identify patterns efficiently at high speed. However, due to much higher occupancy and event rates at the LHC, and the fact that the LHC detectors have a much larger number of channels in their tracking detectors, there is an enormous challenge in implementing pattern recognition

  17. Attitudes of Patients Toward Adoption of 3D Technology in Pain Assessment: Qualitative Perspective

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Past research has revealed that insufficient pain assessment could, and often, has negative implications on the provision of quality health care. While current available clinical approaches have proven to be valid interventions, they are expensive and can often fail in providing efficient pain measurements. The increase in the prevalence of pain calls for more intuitive pain assessment solutions. Computerized alternatives have already been proposed both in the literature and in commerce, but may lack essential qualities such as accuracy of the collected clinical information and effective patient-clinician interaction. In response to this concern, 3-dimensional (3D) technology could become the innovative intervention needed to support and improve the pain assessment process. Objective The purpose of this analysis was to describe qualitative findings from a study which was designed to explore patients’ perceptions of adopting 3D technology in the assessment of their pain experience related to important themes that might positively or negatively influence the quality of the pain assessment process. Methods The perceptions of 60 individuals with some form of pain in the area of Greater London were collected through semi-structured interviews. Of the 60 respondents, 24 (43%) produced usable responses and were analyzed for content using principles of the grounded theory approach and thematic analysis, in order to gain insight into the participants’ beliefs and attitudes towards adopting 3D technology in pain assessment. Results The analysis identified 4 high-level core themes that were representative of the participants’ responses. These themes indicated that most respondents valued “the potential of 3D technology to facilitate better assessment of pain” as the most useful outcome of adopting a 3D approach. Respondents also expressed their opinions on the usability of the 3D approach, with no important concerns reported about its perceived ease of

  18. Laboratory and in-flight experiments to evaluate 3-D audio display technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ericson, Mark; Mckinley, Richard; Kibbe, Marion; Francis, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory and in-flight experiments were conducted to evaluate 3-D audio display technology for cockpit applications. A 3-D audio display generator was developed which digitally encodes naturally occurring direction information onto any audio signal and presents the binaural sound over headphones. The acoustic image is stabilized for head movement by use of an electromagnetic head-tracking device. In the laboratory, a 3-D audio display generator was used to spatially separate competing speech messages to improve the intelligibility of each message. Up to a 25 percent improvement in intelligibility was measured for spatially separated speech at high ambient noise levels (115 dB SPL). During the in-flight experiments, pilots reported that spatial separation of speech communications provided a noticeable improvement in intelligibility. The use of 3-D audio for target acquisition was also investigated. In the laboratory, 3-D audio enabled the acquisition of visual targets in about two seconds average response time at 17 degrees accuracy. During the in-flight experiments, pilots correctly identified ground targets 50, 75, and 100 percent of the time at separation angles of 12, 20, and 35 degrees, respectively. In general, pilot performance in the field with the 3-D audio display generator was as expected, based on data from laboratory experiments.

  19. Three-Dimensional Integrated Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS). Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-01

    3D-ICAS is being developed to support Decontamination and Decommissioning operations for DOE addressing Research Area 6 (characterization) of the Program Research and Development Announcement. 3D-ICAS provides in-situ 3-dimensional characterization of contaminated DOE facilities. Its multisensor probe contains a GC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using noncontact infrared heating) sensor for organics, a molecular vibrational sensor for base material identification, and a radionuclide sensor for radioactive contaminants. It will provide real-time quantitative measurements of volatile organics and radionuclides on bare materials (concrete, asbestos, transite); it will provide 3-D display of the fusion of all measurements; and it will archive the measurements for regulatory documentation. It consists of two robotic mobile platforms that operate in hazardous environments linked to an integrated workstation in a safe environment.

  20. 3D Navigation and Integrated Hazard Display in Advanced Avionics: Workload, Performance, and Situation Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Alexander, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the ability for pilots to estimate traffic location in an Integrated Hazard Display, and how such estimations should be measured. Twelve pilots viewed static images of traffic scenarios and then estimated the outside world locations of queried traffic represented in one of three display types (2D coplanar, 3D exocentric, and split-screen) and in one of four conditions (display present/blank crossed with outside world present/blank). Overall, the 2D coplanar display best supported both vertical (compared to 3D) and lateral (compared to split-screen) traffic position estimation performance. Costs of the 3D display were associated with perceptual ambiguity. Costs of the split screen display were inferred to result from inappropriate attention allocation. Furthermore, although pilots were faster in estimating traffic locations when relying on memory, accuracy was greatest when the display was available.

  1. Desktop Cloud Visualization: the new technology to remote access 3D interactive applications in the Cloud.

    PubMed

    Torterolo, Livia; Ruffino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    In the proposed demonstration we will present DCV (Desktop Cloud Visualization): a unique technology that allows users to remote access 2D and 3D interactive applications over a standard network. This allows geographically dispersed doctors work collaboratively and to acquire anatomical or pathological images and visualize them for further investigations.

  2. New technologies of 2-D and 3-D modeling for analysis and management of natural resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheremisina, E. N.; Lyubimova, A. V.; Kirpicheva, E. Yu.

    2016-09-01

    For ensuring technological support of research and administrative activity in the sphere of environmental management a specialized modular program complex was developed. The special attention in developing a program complex is focused to creation of convenient and effective tools for creation and visualization 2d and 3D models providing the solution of tasks of the analysis and management of natural resources.

  3. The benefits of enhanced integration capabilities in 3-D reservoir modelling and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    O`Rourke, S.T.; Ikwumonu, A.

    1996-12-31

    The use of proprietary, closely linked 3-D geological and reservoir simulation software has greatly enhanced the reservoir modelling process by enabling complete integration of geological and engineering data in a 3-D manner. The software were used to model and simulate a deltaic sandstone reservoir in the Nigerian Forcados Yokri field in order to describe the reservoir sweep pattern. A simple simulation of the reservoir was first carried out to identify the main controls on the reservoir performance, which in this case were the intra-reservoir shales. As they are the only baffles or barriers to flow, proper modelling of them was critical to achieving a history match. Well logs, 3-D seismic, limited core data and sequence stratigraphic concepts were used to define a three dimensional depositional model which was then used to guide the 3-D reservoir architecture modelling. The reservoir model was evaluated in the 3-D simulator and, when the initial model did not yield a proper match with the historical production data, alternative models were easily generated and simulated until an acceptable match was achieved. The result was a 10% increase in predicted ultimate recovery, a better understanding of the reservoir and an optimized reservoir depletion plan.

  4. 3D shape shearography with integrated structured light projection for strain inspection of curved objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, Andrei G.; Groves, Roger M.

    2015-05-01

    Shearography (speckle pattern shearing interferometry) is a non-destructive testing technique that provides full-field surface strain characterization. Although real-life objects especially in aerospace, transport or cultural heritage are not flat (e.g. aircraft leading edges or sculptures), their inspection with shearography is of interest for both hidden defect detection and material characterization. Accurate strain measuring of a highly curved or free form surface needs to be performed by combining inline object shape measuring and processing of shearography data in 3D. Previous research has not provided a general solution. This research is devoted to the practical questions of 3D shape shearography system development for surface strain characterization of curved objects. The complete procedure of calibration and data processing of a 3D shape shearography system with integrated structured light projector is presented. This includes an estimation of the actual shear distance and a sensitivity matrix correction within the system field of view. For the experimental part a 3D shape shearography system prototype was developed. It employs three spatially-distributed shearing cameras, with Michelson interferometers acting as the shearing devices, one illumination laser source and a structured light projector. The developed system performance was evaluated with a previously reported cylinder specimen (length 400 mm, external diameter 190 mmm) loaded by internal pressure. Further steps for the 3D shape shearography prototype and the technique development are also proposed.

  5. Integrating Online and Offline 3D Deep Learning for Automated Polyp Detection in Colonoscopy Videos.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lequan; Chen, Hao; Dou, Qi; Qin, Jing; Heng, Pheng Ann

    2016-12-07

    Automated polyp detection in colonoscopy videos has been demonstrated to be a promising way for colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention and diagnosis. Traditional manual screening is time-consuming, operator-dependent and error-prone; hence, automated detection approach is highly demanded in clinical practice. However, automated polyp detection is very challenging due to high intra-class variations in polyp size, color, shape and texture and low inter-class variations between polyps and hard mimics. In this paper, we propose a novel offline and online 3D deep learning integration framework by leveraging the 3D fully convolutional network (3D-FCN) to tackle this challenging problem. Compared with previous methods employing hand-crafted features or 2D-CNNs, the 3D-FCN is capable of learning more representative spatio-temporal features from colonoscopy videos, and hence has more powerful discrimination capability. More importantly, we propose a novel online learning scheme to deal with the problem of limited training data by harnessing the specific information of an input video in the learning process. We integrate offline and online learning to effectively reduce the number of false positives generated by the offline network and further improve the detection performance. Extensive experiments on the dataset of MICCAI 2015 Challenge on Polyp Detection demonstrated the better performance of our method when compared with other competitors.

  6. Use of 2.5-D and 3-D technology to evaluate control room upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Hanes, L. F.; Naser, J.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes an Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI) study in which 2.5-D and 3-D visualization technology was applied to evaluate the design of a nuclear power plant control room upgrade. The study involved converting 3-D CAD flies of a planned upgrade into a photo-realistic appearing virtual model, and evaluating the value and usefulness of the model. Nuclear utility and EPRI evaluators viewed and interacted with the control room virtual model with both 2.5-D and 3-D representations. They identified how control room and similar virtual models may be used by utilities for design and evaluation purposes; assessed potential economic and other benefits; and identified limitations, potential problems, and other issues regarding use of visualization technology for this and similar applications. In addition, the Halden CREATE (Control Room Engineering Advanced Tool-kit Environment) Verification Tool was applied to evaluate features of the virtual model against US NRC NUREG 0700 Revision 2 human factors engineering guidelines (NUREG 0700) [1]. The study results are very favorable for applying 2.5-D visualization technology to support upgrading nuclear power plant control rooms and other plant facilities. Results, however, show that today's 3-D immersive viewing systems are difficult to justify based on cost, availability and value of information provided for this application. (authors)

  7. Close-range environmental remote sensing with 3D hyperspectral technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevalainen, O.; Honkavaara, E.; Hakala, T.; Kaasalainen, Sanna; Viljanen, N.; Rosnell, T.; Khoramshahi, E.; Näsi, R.

    2016-10-01

    Estimation of the essential climate variables (ECVs), such as photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR) and the leaf area index (LAI), is largely based on satellite-based remote sensing and the subsequent inversion of radiative transfer (RT) models. In order to build models that accurately describe the radiative transfer within and below the canopy, detailed 3D structural (geometrical) and spectral (radiometrical) information of the canopy is needed. Close-range remote sensing, such as terrestrial remote sensing and UAV-based 3D spectral measurements, offers significant opportunity to improve the RT modelling and ECV estimation of forests. Finnish Geospatial Research Institute (FGI) has been developing active and passive high resolution 3D hyperspectral measurement technologies that provide reflectance, anisotropy and 3D structure information of forests (i.e. hyperspectral point clouds). Technologies include hyperspectral imaging from unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV), terrestrial hyperspectral lidar (HSL) and terrestrial hyperspectral stereoscopic imaging. A measurement campaign to demonstrate these technologies in ECV estimation with uncertainty propagation was carried out in the Wytham Woods, Oxford, UK, in June 2015. Our objective is to develop traceable processing procedures for generating hyperspectral point clouds with geometric and radiometric uncertainty propagation using hyperspectral aerial and terrestrial imaging and hyperspectral terrestrial laser scanning. The article and presentation will present the methodology, instrumentation and first results of our study.

  8. Integrated Idl Tool For 3d Modeling And Imaging Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nita, Gelu M.; Fleishman, G. D.; Gary, D. E.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Kontar, E. P.

    2012-05-01

    Addressing many key problems in solar physics requires detailed analysis of non-simultaneous imaging data obtained in various wavelength domains with different spatial resolution and their comparison with each other supplied by advanced 3D physical models. To facilitate achieving this goal, we have undertaken a major enhancement and improvements of IDL-based simulation tools developed earlier for modeling microwave and X-ray emission. The greatly enhanced object-based architecture provides interactive graphic user interface that allows the user i) to import photospheric magnetic field maps and perform magnetic field extrapolations to almost instantly generate 3D magnetic field models, ii) to investigate the magnetic topology of these models by interactively creating magnetic field lines and associated magnetic field tubes, iii) to populate them with user-defined nonuniform thermal plasma and anisotropic nonuniform nonthermal electron distributions; and iv) to calculate the spatial and spectral properties of radio and X-ray emission. The application integrates DLL and Shared Libraries containing fast gyrosynchrotron emission codes developed in FORTRAN and C++, soft and hard X-ray codes developed in IDL, and a potential field extrapolation DLL produced based on original FORTRAN code developed by V. Abramenko and V. Yurchishin. The interactive interface allows users to add any user-defined IDL or external callable radiation code, as well as user-defined magnetic field extrapolation routines. To illustrate the tool capabilities, we present a step-by-step live computation of microwave and X-ray images from realistic magnetic structures obtained from a magnetic field extrapolation preceding a real event, and compare them with the actual imaging data produced by NORH and RHESSI instruments. This work was supported in part by NSF grants AGS-0961867, AST-0908344, AGS-0969761, and NASA grants NNX10AF27G and NNX11AB49G to New Jersey Institute of Technology, by a UK STFC

  9. From Wheatstone to Cameron and beyond: overview in 3-D and 4-D imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbreath, G. Charmaine

    2012-02-01

    This paper reviews three-dimensional (3-D) and four-dimensional (4-D) imaging technology, from Wheatstone through today, with some prognostications for near future applications. This field is rich in variety, subject specialty, and applications. A major trend, multi-view stereoscopy, is moving the field forward to real-time wide-angle 3-D reconstruction as breakthroughs in parallel processing and multi-processor computers enable very fast processing. Real-time holography meets 4-D imaging reconstruction at the goal of achieving real-time, interactive, 3-D imaging. Applications to telesurgery and telemedicine as well as to the needs of the defense and intelligence communities are also discussed.

  10. Development of ceramic-reinforced photopolymers for SLA 3D printing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Ji Sun; Park, Tae-Wan; Jeong, Young Hun; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2016-06-01

    Al2O3 ceramic-reinforced photopolymer samples for SLA 3D printing technology were prepared using a silane coupling agent (VTES, vinyltriethoxysilane). Depending on the method used to coat the VTES onto the ceramic surface, the dispersion of ceramic particles in the photopolymer solution was remarkably improved. SEM, TEM and element mapping images showed Al2O3 particles well wrapped with VTES along with well-distributed Al2O3 particles overall on the cross-sectional surfaces of 3D-printed objects. The tensile properties (stress-strain curves) of 3D-printed objects of the ceramic-reinforced photopolymer were investigated as a function of the Al2O3 ceramic content when it ranged from 0 to 20 wt%. The results demonstrate that an Al2O3 ceramic content of 15 wt% resulted in enhanced tensile characteristics.

  11. Transport analysis in toroidal helical plasmas using the integrated code: TASK3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakasa, A.; Fukuyama, A.; Murakami, S.; Beidler, C. D.; Maassberg, H.; Yokoyama, M.; Sato, M.

    2009-11-01

    The integrated simulation code in helical plasmas, TASK3D, is being developed on the basis of an integrated modeling code for tokamak plasma, TASK. In helical systems, the neoclassical transport is one of the important issues in addition to the anomalous transport, because of strong temperature dependence of heat conductivity and an important role in determining the radial electric field. We have already constructed the neoclassical transport database in LHD, DGN/LHD. The mono-energetic diffusion coefficients are evaluated based on the Monte Carlo method by DCOM code and the mono-energetic diffusion coefficients database is constructed using a neural network technique. Also we apply GSRAKE code, which solves the ripple-averaged drift kinetic equation, to obtain transport coefficients in highly collisionless regime. We have newly incorporated the DGN/LHD module into TASK3D. We will present several results of transport simulation in typical LHD plasmas.

  12. Increased sensitivity of 3D-Well enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for infectious disease detection using 3D-printing fabrication technology.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harpal; Shimojima, Masayuki; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Le Van, An; Sugamata, Masami; Yang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay or ELISA -based diagnostics are considered the gold standard in the demonstration of various immunological reaction including in the measurement of antibody response to infectious diseases and to support pathogen identification with application potential in infectious disease outbreaks and individual patients' treatment and clinical care. The rapid prototyping of ELISA-based diagnostics using available 3D printing technologies provides an opportunity for a further exploration of this platform into immunodetection systems. In this study, a '3D-Well' was designed and fabricated using available 3D printing platforms to have an increased surface area of more than 4 times for protein-surface adsorption compared to those of 96-well plates. The ease and rapidity in designing-product development-feedback cycle offered through 3D printing platforms provided an opportunity for its rapid assessment, in which a chemical etching process was used to make the surface hydrophilic followed by validation through the diagnostic performance of ELISA for infectious disease without modifying current laboratory practices for ELISA. The higher sensitivity of the 3D-Well (3-folds higher) compared to the 96-well ELISA provides a potential for the expansion of this technology towards miniaturization platforms to reduce time, volume of reagents and samples needed for laboratory or field diagnosis of infectious diseases including applications in other disciplines.

  13. Integrated Navigation, Guidance, and Control of Missile Systems: 3-D Dynamic Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    UNCLASSIFIED DSTO-TR-2805 Figure B.1: Aerodynamic variables for a missile and is the lift coefficient . LC  , represent respectively the...UNCLASSIFIED Integrated Navigation, Guidance, and Control of Missile Systems: 3-D Dynamic Model Farhan A. Faruqi Weapons...engagement kinematics is derived suitable for developing, implementing and testing modern missile guidance systems. The model developed here is

  14. Proposal for the development of 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Gregory; Hoff, Jim; Kwan, Simon; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Ted; Ramberg, Erik; Todri, Aida; Yarema, Ray; Demarteua, Marcel,; Drake, Gary; Weerts, Harry; /Argonne /Chicago U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua

    2010-10-01

    Future particle physics experiments looking for rare processes will have no choice but to address the demanding challenges of fast pattern recognition in triggering as detector hit density becomes significantly higher due to the high luminosity required to produce the rare process. The authors propose to develop a 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM) chip for HEP applications, to advance the state-of-the-art for pattern recognition and track reconstruction for fast triggering.

  15. 3D-printed concentrators for tracking-integrated CPV modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostoleris, Harry; Leland, Julian; Chiesa, Matteo; Stefancich, Marco

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate 3D-printed nonimaging concentrators and propose a tracking integration scheme to reduce the external tracking requirements of CPV modules. In the proposed system, internal sun tracking is achieved by rotation of the mini-concentrators inside the module by small motors. We discuss the design principles employed in the development of the system, experimentally evaluate the performance of the concentrator prototypes, and propose practical modifications that may be made to improve on-site performance of the devices.

  16. Perceptual integration for qualitatively different 3-D cues in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Dövencioğlu, Dicle; Ban, Hiroshi; Schofield, Andrew J; Welchman, Andrew E

    2013-09-01

    The visual system's flexibility in estimating depth is remarkable: We readily perceive 3-D structure under diverse conditions from the seemingly random dots of a "magic eye" stereogram to the aesthetically beautiful, but obviously flat, canvasses of the Old Masters. Yet, 3-D perception is often enhanced when different cues specify the same depth. This perceptual process is understood as Bayesian inference that improves sensory estimates. Despite considerable behavioral support for this theory, insights into the cortical circuits involved are limited. Moreover, extant work tested quantitatively similar cues, reducing some of the challenges associated with integrating computationally and qualitatively different signals. Here we address this challenge by measuring fMRI responses to depth structures defined by shading, binocular disparity, and their combination. We quantified information about depth configurations (convex "bumps" vs. concave "dimples") in different visual cortical areas using pattern classification analysis. We found that fMRI responses in dorsal visual area V3B/KO were more discriminable when disparity and shading concurrently signaled depth, in line with the predictions of cue integration. Importantly, by relating fMRI and psychophysical tests of integration, we observed a close association between depth judgments and activity in this area. Finally, using a cross-cue transfer test, we found that fMRI responses evoked by one cue afford classification of responses evoked by the other. This reveals a generalized depth representation in dorsal visual cortex that combines qualitatively different information in line with 3-D perception.

  17. Creating perfused functional vascular channels using 3D bio-printing technology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Vivian K; Kim, Diana Y; Ngo, Haygan; Lee, Young; Seo, Lan; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Vincent, Peter A; Dai, Guohao

    2014-09-01

    We developed a methodology using 3D bio-printing technology to create a functional in vitro vascular channel with perfused open lumen using only cells and biological matrices. The fabricated vasculature has a tight, confluent endothelium lining, presenting barrier function for both plasma protein and high-molecular weight dextran molecule. The fluidic vascular channel is capable of supporting the viability of tissue up to 5 mm in distance at 5 million cells/mL density under the physiological flow condition. In static-cultured vascular channels, active angiogenic sprouting from the vessel surface was observed whereas physiological flow strongly suppressed this process. Gene expression analysis was reported in this study to show the potential of this vessel model in vascular biology research. The methods have great potential in vascularized tissue fabrication using 3D bio-printing technology as the vascular channel is simultaneously created while cells and matrix are printed around the channel in desired 3D patterns. It can also serve as a unique experimental tool for investigating fundamental mechanisms of vascular remodeling with extracellular matrix and maturation process under 3D flow condition.

  18. 3D camera technology trade-off and breadboard demonstration for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christy, Julien; Bohn, Preben; Schumann-Olsen, Henrik; Biggio, Andrea; Kowaltschek, Steeve

    2015-06-01

    In previous decades, the vision-based navigation problem based on 2D imaging has been largely studied and applied in space, for rendezvous and docking, as well as rover navigation, or entry, descent and landing. By providing measurement of the third dimension (range), 3D camera technology looks a promising alternative for many applications. Stereoscopic camera is one option to measure the third coordinate, but relies on significant CPU capabilities, which are generally not available for space applications. Scanning LIDAR (LIght detection and ranging) is also an existing solution, but it is relatively large and heavy and the refresh rate, lifetime and reliability are mainly determined by moving parts. 3D time-of-flight (TOF) technology (including flash LIDARs) offers a reliable alternative. By illuminating a whole scene at a time and thus providing a whole array image, there is no need for complex processing nor moving mechanisms, which clearly appears as an advantage for space applications. This paper presents the ongoing study conducted under ESA contract in the field of 3D TOF technology. Its goal is to evaluate the suitability of a 3D TOF camera for space applications, to derive requirements and a preliminary design, and finally to create and test a breadboard model. Performance budget, cost, and a development plan of a versatile spatialized 3D TOF camera are also outputs of the study, in addition to a high-fidelity simulator, allowing further studies by generating representative images and depth maps. To fulfill this project, a European team has been created, gathering Thales Alenia Space, Terma and SINTEF.

  19. Multispectral photon counting integral imaging system for color visualization of photon limited 3D scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Inkyu

    2014-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of a colorful photon-counting integral imaging system using Bayer elemental images for 3D visualization of photon limited scenes. The color image sensor with a format of Bayer color filter array, i.e., a red, a green, or a blue filter in a repeating pattern, captures elemental image set of a photon limited three-dimensional (3D) scene. It is assumed that the observed photon count in each channel (red, green or blue) follows Poisson statistics. The reconstruction of 3D scene with a format of Bayer is obtained by applying computational geometrical ray back propagation algorithm and parametric maximum likelihood estimator to the photon-limited Bayer elemental images. Finally, several standard demosaicing algorithms are applied in order to convert the 3D reconstruction with a Bayer format into a RGB per pixel format. Experimental results demonstrate that the gradient corrected linear interpolation technique achieves better performance in regard with acceptable PSNR and less computational complexity.

  20. Integrated 3D-printed reactionware for chemical synthesis and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symes, Mark D.; Kitson, Philip J.; Yan, Jun; Richmond, Craig J.; Cooper, Geoffrey J. T.; Bowman, Richard W.; Vilbrandt, Turlif; Cronin, Leroy

    2012-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing has the potential to transform science and technology by creating bespoke, low-cost appliances that previously required dedicated facilities to make. An attractive, but unexplored, application is to use a 3D printer to initiate chemical reactions by printing the reagents directly into a 3D reactionware matrix, and so put reactionware design, construction and operation under digital control. Here, using a low-cost 3D printer and open-source design software we produced reactionware for organic and inorganic synthesis, which included printed-in catalysts and other architectures with printed-in components for electrochemical and spectroscopic analysis. This enabled reactions to be monitored in situ so that different reactionware architectures could be screened for their efficacy for a given process, with a digital feedback mechanism for device optimization. Furthermore, solely by modifying reactionware architecture, reaction outcomes can be altered. Taken together, this approach constitutes a relatively cheap, automated and reconfigurable chemical discovery platform that makes techniques from chemical engineering accessible to typical synthetic laboratories.

  1. 3D integral imaging display by smart pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion (SPOC).

    PubMed

    Navarro, H; Martínez-Cuenca, R; Saavedra, G; Martínez-Corral, M; Javidi, B

    2010-12-06

    Previously, we reported a digital technique for formation of real, non-distorted, orthoscopic integral images by direct pickup. However the technique was constrained to the case of symmetric image capture and display systems. Here, we report a more general algorithm which allows the pseudoscopic to orthoscopic transformation with full control over the display parameters so that one can generate a set of synthetic elemental images that suits the characteristics of the Integral-Imaging monitor and permits control over the depth and size of the reconstructed 3D scene.

  2. Proof of Concept of Integrated Load Measurement in 3D Printed Structures

    PubMed Central

    Hinderdael, Michaël; Jardon, Zoé; Lison, Margot; De Baere, Dieter; Devesse, Wim; Strantza, Maria; Guillaume, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Currently, research on structural health monitoring systems is focused on direct integration of the system into a component or structure. The latter results in a so-called smart structure. One example of a smart structure is a component with integrated strain sensing for continuous load monitoring. Additive manufacturing, or 3D printing, now also enables such integration of functions inside components. As a proof-of-concept, the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) technique was used to integrate a strain sensing element inside polymer (ABS) tensile test samples. The strain sensing element consisted of a closed capillary filled with a fluid and connected to an externally mounted pressure sensor. The volumetric deformation of the integrated capillary resulted in pressure changes in the fluid. The obtained pressure measurements during tensile testing are reported in this paper and compared to state-of-the-art extensometer measurements. The sensitivity of the 3D printed pressure-based strain sensor is primarily a function of the compressibility of the capillary fluid. Air- and watertightness are of critical importance for the proper functioning of the 3D printed pressure-based strain sensor. Therefore, the best after-treatment procedure was selected on basis of a comparative analysis. The obtained pressure measurements are linear with respect to the extensometer readings, and the uncertainty on the strain measurement of a capillary filled with water (incompressible fluid) is ±3.1 µstrain, which is approximately three times less sensitive than conventional strain gauges (±1 µstrain), but 32 times more sensitive than the same sensor based on air (compressible fluid) (±101 µstrain). PMID:28208779

  3. Proof of Concept of Integrated Load Measurement in 3D Printed Structures.

    PubMed

    Hinderdael, Michaël; Jardon, Zoé; Lison, Margot; De Baere, Dieter; Devesse, Wim; Strantza, Maria; Guillaume, Patrick

    2017-02-09

    Currently, research on structural health monitoring systems is focused on direct integration of the system into a component or structure. The latter results in a so-called smart structure. One example of a smart structure is a component with integrated strain sensing for continuous load monitoring. Additive manufacturing, or 3D printing, now also enables such integration of functions inside components. As a proof-of-concept, the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) technique was used to integrate a strain sensing element inside polymer (ABS) tensile test samples. The strain sensing element consisted of a closed capillary filled with a fluid and connected to an externally mounted pressure sensor. The volumetric deformation of the integrated capillary resulted in pressure changes in the fluid. The obtained pressure measurements during tensile testing are reported in this paper and compared to state-of-the-art extensometer measurements. The sensitivity of the 3D printed pressure-based strain sensor is primarily a function of the compressibility of the capillary fluid. Air- and watertightness are of critical importance for the proper functioning of the 3D printed pressure-based strain sensor. Therefore, the best after-treatment procedure was selected on basis of a comparative analysis. The obtained pressure measurements are linear with respect to the extensometer readings, and the uncertainty on the strain measurement of a capillary filled with water (incompressible fluid) is ±3.1 µstrain, which is approximately three times less sensitive than conventional strain gauges (±1 µstrain), but 32 times more sensitive than the same sensor based on air (compressible fluid) (±101 µstrain).

  4. Polymer optical fibers integrated directly into 3D orthogonal woven composites for sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamouda, Tamer; Seyam, Abdel-Fattah M.; Peters, Kara

    2015-02-01

    This study demonstrates that standard polymer optical fibers (POF) can be directly integrated into composites from 3D orthogonal woven preforms during the weaving process and then serve as in-situ sensors to detect damage due to bending or impact loads. Different composite samples with embedded POF were fabricated of 3D orthogonal woven composites with different parameters namely number of y-/x-layers and x-yarn density. The signal of POF was not affected significantly by the preform structure. During application of resin using VARTM technique, significant drop in backscattering level was observed due to pressure caused by vacuum on the embedded POF. Measurements of POF signal while in the final composites after resin cure indicated that the backscattering level almost returned to the original level of un-embedded POF. The POF responded to application of bending and impact loads to the composite with a reduction in the backscattering level. The backscattering level almost returned back to its original level after removing the bending load until damage was present in the composite. Similar behavior occurred due to impact events. As the POF itself is used as the sensor and can be integrated throughout the composite, large sections of future 3D woven composite structures could be monitored without the need for specialized sensors or complex instrumentation.

  5. Integrating Data Clustering and Visualization for the Analysis of 3D Gene Expression Data

    SciTech Connect

    Data Analysis and Visualization and the Department of Computer Science, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis CA 95616, USA,; nternational Research Training Group ``Visualization of Large and Unstructured Data Sets,'' University of Kaiserslautern, Germany; Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Genomics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley CA 94720, USA; Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley CA 94720, USA,; Computer Science Division,University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA,; Computer Science Department, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA,; All authors are with the Berkeley Drosophila Transcription Network Project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,; Rubel, Oliver; Weber, Gunther H.; Huang, Min-Yu; Bethel, E. Wes; Biggin, Mark D.; Fowlkes, Charless C.; Hendriks, Cris L. Luengo; Keranen, Soile V. E.; Eisen, Michael B.; Knowles, David W.; Malik, Jitendra; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd

    2008-05-12

    The recent development of methods for extracting precise measurements of spatial gene expression patterns from three-dimensional (3D) image data opens the way for new analyses of the complex gene regulatory networks controlling animal development. We present an integrated visualization and analysis framework that supports user-guided data clustering to aid exploration of these new complex datasets. The interplay of data visualization and clustering-based data classification leads to improved visualization and enables a more detailed analysis than previously possible. We discuss (i) integration of data clustering and visualization into one framework; (ii) application of data clustering to 3D gene expression data; (iii) evaluation of the number of clusters k in the context of 3D gene expression clustering; and (iv) improvement of overall analysis quality via dedicated post-processing of clustering results based on visualization. We discuss the use of this framework to objectively define spatial pattern boundaries and temporal profiles of genes and to analyze how mRNA patterns are controlled by their regulatory transcription factors.

  6. Autostereoscopic 3D Display with Long Visualization Depth Using Referential Viewing Area-Based Integral Photography.

    PubMed

    Hongen Liao; Dohi, Takeyoshi; Nomura, Keisuke

    2011-11-01

    We developed an autostereoscopic display for distant viewing of 3D computer graphics (CG) images without using special viewing glasses or tracking devices. The images are created by employing referential viewing area-based CG image generation and pixel distribution algorithm for integral photography (IP) and integral videography (IV) imaging. CG image rendering is used to generate IP/IV elemental images. The images can be viewed from each viewpoint within a referential viewing area and the elemental images are reconstructed from rendered CG images by pixel redistribution and compensation method. The elemental images are projected onto a screen that is placed at the same referential viewing distance from the lens array as in the image rendering. Photographic film is used to record the elemental images through each lens. The method enables 3D images with a long visualization depth to be viewed from relatively long distances without any apparent influence from deviated or distorted lenses in the array. We succeeded in creating an actual autostereoscopic images with an image depth of several meters in front of and behind the display that appear to have 3D even when viewed from a distance.

  7. Design and Fabrication of a Radio Frequency GRIN Lens Using 3D Printing Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    073114 (2012) [10] H . Chen, B-I Wu, L. Ran, T. M . Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong “Controllable left-handed metamaterial and its application to a...20] M . Vaezi, H . Seitz , S. Yang “A review on 3D micro-additive manufacturing technologies,” International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing, 1-34...Cai, V. Shalaev, “Optical Metamaterials: Fundamentals and Applications,” Springer, (2009) [3] F. Capolino, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny , C. M

  8. Distributed network, wireless and cloud computing enabled 3-D ultrasound; a new medical technology paradigm.

    PubMed

    Meir, Arie; Rubinsky, Boris

    2009-11-19

    Medical technologies are indispensable to modern medicine. However, they have become exceedingly expensive and complex and are not available to the economically disadvantaged majority of the world population in underdeveloped as well as developed parts of the world. For example, according to the World Health Organization about two thirds of the world population does not have access to medical imaging. In this paper we introduce a new medical technology paradigm centered on wireless technology and cloud computing that was designed to overcome the problems of increasing health technology costs. We demonstrate the value of the concept with an example; the design of a wireless, distributed network and central (cloud) computing enabled three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound system. Specifically, we demonstrate the feasibility of producing a 3-D high end ultrasound scan at a central computing facility using the raw data acquired at the remote patient site with an inexpensive low end ultrasound transducer designed for 2-D, through a mobile device and wireless connection link between them. Producing high-end 3D ultrasound images with simple low-end transducers reduces the cost of imaging by orders of magnitude. It also removes the requirement of having a highly trained imaging expert at the patient site, since the need for hand-eye coordination and the ability to reconstruct a 3-D mental image from 2-D scans, which is a necessity for high quality ultrasound imaging, is eliminated. This could enable relatively untrained medical workers in developing nations to administer imaging and a more accurate diagnosis, effectively saving the lives of people.

  9. Uniform integration of gold nanoparticles in PDMS microfluidics with 3D micromixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SadAbadi, H.; Packirisamy, M.; Wuthrich, R.

    2015-09-01

    The integration of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the surface of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidics for biosensing applications is a challenging task. In this paper we address this issue by integration of pre-synthesized AuNPs (in a microreactor) into a microfluidic system. This method explored the affinity of AuNPs toward the PDMS surface so that the pre-synthesized particles will be adsorbed onto the channel walls. AuNPs were synthesized inside a microreactor before integration. In order to improve the size uniformity of the synthesized AuNPs and also to provide full mixing of reactants, a 3D-micromixer was designed, fabricated and then integrated with the microreactor in a single platform. SEM and UV/Vis spectroscopy were used to characterize the AuNPs on the PDMS surface.

  10. Characterization of ABS specimens produced via the 3D printing technology for drone structural components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferro, Carlo Giovanni; Brischetto, Salvatore; Torre, Roberto; Maggiore, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    The Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) technology is widely used in rapid prototyping. 3D printers for home desktop applications are usually employed to make non-structural objects. When the mechanical stresses are not excessive, this technology can also be successfully employed to produce structural objects, not only in prototyping stage but also in the realization of series pieces. The innovative idea of the present work is the application of this technology, implemented in a desktop 3D printer, to the realization of components for aeronautical use, especially for unmanned aerial systems. For this purpose, the paper is devoted to the statistical study of the performance of a desktop 3D printer to understand how the process performs and which are the boundary limits of acceptance. Mechanical and geometrical properties of ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) specimens, such as tensile strength and stiffness, have been evaluated. ASTM638 type specimens have been used. A capability analysis has been applied for both mechanical and dimensional performances. Statistically stable limits have been determined using experimentally collected data.

  11. 3D Porosity Estimation of the Nankai Trough Sediments from Core-log-seismic Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. O.

    2015-12-01

    The Nankai Trough off southwest Japan is one of the best subduction-zone to study megathrust earthquake fault. Historic, great megathrust earthquakes with a recurrence interval of 100-200 yr have generated strong motion and large tsunamis along the Nankai Trough subduction zone. At the Nankai Trough margin, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) is being subducted beneath the Eurasian Plate to the northwest at a convergence rate ~4 cm/yr. The Shikoku Basin, the northern part of the PSP, is estimated to have opened between 25 and 15 Ma by backarc spreading of the Izu-Bonin arc. The >100-km-wide Nankai accretionary wedge, which has developed landward of the trench since the Miocene, mainly consists of offscraped and underplated materials from the trough-fill turbidites and the Shikoku Basin hemipelagic sediments. Particularly, physical properties of the incoming hemipelagic sediments may be critical for seismogenic behavior of the megathrust fault. We have carried out core-log-seismic integration (CLSI) to estimate 3D acoustic impedance and porosity for the incoming sediments in the Nankai Trough. For the CLSI, we used 3D seismic reflection data, P-wave velocity and density data obtained during IODP (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program) Expeditions 322 and 333. We computed acoustic impedance depth profiles for the IODP drilling sites from P-wave velocity and density data. We constructed seismic convolution models with the acoustic impedance profiles and a source wavelet which is extracted from the seismic data, adjusting the seismic models to observed seismic traces with inversion method. As a result, we obtained 3D acoustic impedance volume and then converted it to 3D porosity volume. In general, the 3D porosities show decrease with depth. We found a porosity anomaly zone with alteration of high and low porosities seaward of the trough axis. In this talk, we will show detailed 3D porosity of the incoming sediments, and present implications of the porosity anomaly zone for the

  12. Microscale technologies for imaging endogenous gene expression in individual cells within 3D tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Ting; Luo, Zhen; Ma, Yunzhe; Gill, Harvinder Singh; Nitin, N.

    2013-05-01

    The goal of this study was to develop an innovative approach to image gene expression in intact 3D tissues. Imaging gene expression of individual cells in 3D tissues is expected to have a significant impact on both clinical diagnostic applications and fundamental biological science and engineering applications in a laboratory setting. To achieve this goal, we have developed an integrated approach that combines: 1) microneedle-based minimally invasive intra-tissue delivery of oligonucleotide probes and Streptolysin O (SLO) or CPP; 2) SLO as a pore forming permeation enhancer to enable intracellular delivery of oligonucleotide probes and CPP peptides can also transport conjugated cargo in cells; and 3) fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) pair of ON probes to improve specificity and sensitivity of RNA detection in tissue models. The results of this study demonstrate uniform coating and rapid release of ON probes from microneedles in a tissue environment. Microneedle assisted delivery of ON probes in 3D tissue does not result in cell damage and the ON probes are uniformly delivered in the tissue. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of FRET imaging of ON probes in 3D tissue and highlight the potential for imaging 28-s rRNA in individual living cells.

  13. Three-dimensional (3D) monolithically integrated photodetector and WDM receiver based on bulk silicon wafer.

    PubMed

    Song, Junfeng; Luo, Xianshu; Tu, Xiaoguang; Jia, Lianxi; Fang, Qing; Liow, Tsung-Yang; Yu, Mingbin; Lo, Guo-Qiang

    2014-08-11

    We propose a novel three-dimensional (3D) monolithic optoelectronic integration platform. Such platform integrates both electrical and photonic devices in a bulk silicon wafer, which eliminates the high-cost silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer and is more suitable for process requirements of electronic and photonic integrated circuits (ICs). For proof-of-concept, we demonstrate a three-dimensional photodetector and WDM receiver system. The Ge is grown on a 8-inch bulk silicon wafer while the optical waveguide is defined in a SiN layer which is deposited on top of it, with ~4 µm oxide sandwiched in between. The light is directed to the Ge photodetector from the SiN waveguide vertically by using grating coupler with a Aluminum mirror on top of it. The measured photodetector responsivity is ~0.2 A/W and the 3-dB bandwidth is ~2 GHz. Using such vertical-coupled photodetector, we demonstrated an 8-channel receiver by integrating a 1 × 8 arrayed waveguide grating (AWG). High-quality optical signal detection with up to 10 Gbit/s data rate is demonstrated, suggesting a 80 Gbit/s throughput. Such receiver can be applied to on-chip optical interconnect, DRAM interface, and telecommunication systems.

  14. Fiber optic vibration sensor for high-power electric machines realized using 3D printing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igrec, Bojan; Bosiljevac, Marko; Sipus, Zvonimir; Babic, Dubravko; Rudan, Smiljko

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate a lightweight and inexpensive fiber-optic vibration sensor, built using 3D printing technology, for high-power electric machines and similar applications. The working principle is based on modulating the light intensity using a blade attached to a bendable membrane. The sensor prototype was manufactured using PolyJet Matrix technology with DM 8515 Grey 35 Polymer. The sensor shows linear response, expected bandwidth (< 150 Hz), and from our measurements we estimated the damping ratio for used polymer to be ζ ≍ 0.019. The developed prototype is simple to assemble, adjust, calibrate and repair.

  15. An Overview of the Past, Present, and Future of 3D Printing Technology with an Emphasis on the Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    Just as the cost of high quality laser printing started in the tens of thousands of dollar and can now be purchased for under $100, so too has 3D printing technology started in the tens of thousands of dollars and is now in the thousand dollar range. Current 3D printing technology takes 2D printing into a third dimension. Many 3D printers are…

  16. Potential of 3D printing technologies for fabrication of electron bolus and proton compensators.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wei; Fisher, Ted; Zhang, Miao; Kim, Leonard; Chen, Ting; Narra, Venkat; Swann, Beth; Singh, Rachana; Siderit, Richard; Yin, Lingshu; Teo, Boon-Keng Kevin; McKenna, Michael; McDonough, James; Ning, Yue J

    2015-05-08

    In electron and proton radiotherapy, applications of patient-specific electron bolus or proton compensators during radiation treatments are often necessary to accommodate patient body surface irregularities, tissue inhomogeneity, and variations in PTV depths to achieve desired dose distributions. Emerging 3D printing technologies provide alternative fabrication methods for these bolus and compensators. This study investigated the potential of utilizing 3D printing technologies for the fabrication of the electron bolus and proton compensators. Two printing technologies, fused deposition modeling (FDM) and selective laser sintering (SLS), and two printing materials, PLA and polyamide, were investigated. Samples were printed and characterized with CT scan and under electron and proton beams. In addition, a software package was developed to convert electron bolus and proton compensator designs to printable Standard Tessellation Language file format. A phantom scalp electron bolus was printed with FDM technology with PLA material. The HU of the printed electron bolus was 106.5 ± 15.2. A prostate patient proton compensator was printed with SLS technology and polyamide material with -70.1 ± 8.1 HU. The profiles of the electron bolus and proton compensator were compared with the original designs. The average over all the CT slices of the largest Euclidean distance between the design and the fabricated bolus on each CT slice was found to be 0.84 ± 0.45 mm and for the compensator to be 0.40 ± 0.42 mm. It is recommended that the properties of specific 3D printed objects are understood before being applied to radiotherapy treatments.

  17. Intracranial Catheter for Integrated 3D Ultrasound Imaging & Hyperthermia: Feasibility Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herickhoff, Carl D.; Light, Edward D.; Bing, Kristin Frinkley; Mukundan, Srinivasan; Grant, Gerald A.; Wolf, Patrick D.; Dixon-Tulloch, Ellen; Shih, Timothy; Hsu, Stephen J.; Smith, Stephen W.

    2009-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the feasibility of an intracranial catheter transducer capable of real-time 3D (RT3D) imaging and ultrasound hyperthermia, for application in the visualization and treatment of tumors in the brain. We designed and constructed a 12 Fr, integrated matrix and linear array catheter transducer prototype for combined RT3D imaging and heating capability. This dual-mode catheter incorporated 153 matrix array elements and 11 linear array elements, on a 0.2 mm pitch, with a total aperture size of 8.4 mm×2.3 mm. This array achieved a 3.5° C in vitro temperature rise at a 2 cm focal distance in tissue-mimicking material. The dual-mode catheter prototype was compared with a Siemens 10 Fr AcuNav™ catheter as a gold standard in experiments assessing image quality and therapeutic potential, and both probes were used in a canine brain model to image anatomical structures and color Doppler blood flow and to attempt in vivo heating.

  18. Application of CART3D to Complex Propulsion-Airframe Integration with Vehicle Sketch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) is an easy-to-use modeler used to generate aircraft geometries for use in conceptual design and analysis. It has been used in the past to generate metageometries for aerodynamic analyses ranging from handbook methods to Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD). As desirable as it is to bring high order analyses, such as CFD, into the conceptual design process, this has been difficult and time consuming in practice due to the manual nature of both surface and volume grid generation. Over the last couple of years, VSP has had a major upgrade of its surface triangulation and export capability. This has enhanced its ability to work with Cart3D, an inviscid, three dimensional fluid flow toolset. The combination of VSP and Cart3D allows performing inviscid CFD on complex geometries with relatively high productivity. This paper will illustrate the use of VSP with Cart3D through an example case of a complex propulsion-airframe integration (PAI) of an over-wing nacelle (OWN) airliner configuration.

  19. Integration of 3D structure from disparity into biological motion perception independent of depth awareness.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Jiang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Images projected onto the retinas of our two eyes come from slightly different directions in the real world, constituting binocular disparity that serves as an important source for depth perception - the ability to see the world in three dimensions. It remains unclear whether the integration of disparity cues into visual perception depends on the conscious representation of stereoscopic depth. Here we report evidence that, even without inducing discernible perceptual representations, the disparity-defined depth information could still modulate the visual processing of 3D objects in depth-irrelevant aspects. Specifically, observers who could not discriminate disparity-defined in-depth facing orientations of biological motions (i.e., approaching vs. receding) due to an excessive perceptual bias nevertheless exhibited a robust perceptual asymmetry in response to the indistinguishable facing orientations, similar to those who could consciously discriminate such 3D information. These results clearly demonstrate that the visual processing of biological motion engages the disparity cues independent of observers' depth awareness. The extraction and utilization of binocular depth signals thus can be dissociable from the conscious representation of 3D structure in high-level visual perception.

  20. Integration of regional to outcrop digital data: 3D visualisation of multi-scale geological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. R.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.; Clegg, P.; Wilson, R. W.; Holliman, N. S.; Holdsworth, R. E.; Imber, J.; Waggott, S.

    2009-01-01

    Multi-scale geological models contain three-dimensional, spatially referenced data, typically spanning at least six orders of magnitude from outcrop to regional scale. A large number of different geological and geophysical data sources can be combined into a single model. Established 3D visualisation methods that are widely used in hydrocarbon exploration and production for sub-surface data have been adapted for onshore surface geology through a combination of methods for digital data acquisition, 3D visualisation, and geospatial analysis. The integration of georeferenced data across a wider than normal range in scale helps to address several of the existing limitations that are inherent in traditional methods of map production and publishing. The primary advantage of a multi-scale approach is that spatial precision and dimensionality (which are generally degraded when data are displayed in 2D at a single scale) can be preserved at all scales. Real-time, immersive, interactive software, based on a "3D geospatial" graphical user interface (GUI), allows complex geological architectures to be depicted, and is more inherently intuitive than software based on a standard "desktop" GUI metaphor. The continuing convergence of different kinds of geo-modelling, GIS, and visualisation software, as well as industry acceptance of standardised middleware, has helped to make multi-scale geological models a practical reality. This is illustrated with two case studies from NE England and NW Scotland.

  1. Fully analytical integration over the 3D volume bounded by the β sphere in topological atoms.

    PubMed

    Popelier, Paul L A

    2011-11-17

    Atomic properties of a topological atom are obtained by 3D integration over the volume of its atomic basin. Algorithms that compute atomic properties typically integrate over two subspaces: the volume bounded by the so-called β sphere, which is centered at the nucleus and completely contained within the atomic basin, and the volume of the remaining part of the basin. Here we show how the usual quadrature over the β sphere volume can be replaced by a fully analytical 3D integration leading to the atomic charge (monopole moment) for s, p, and d functions. Spherical tensor multipole moments have also been implemented and tested up to hexadecupole for s functions only, and up to quadrupole for s and p functions. The new algorithm is illustrated by operating on capped glycine (HF/6-31G, 35 molecular orbitals (MOs), 322 Gaussian primitives, 19 nuclei), the protein crambin (HF/3-21G, 1260 MOs, 5922 primitives and 642 nuclei), and tin (Z = 50) in Sn(2)(CH(3))(2) (B3LYP/cc-pVTZ and LANL2DZ, 59 MOs, 1352 primitives).

  2. Design, modeling and testing of integrated ring extractor for high resolution electrohydrodynamic (EHD) 3D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yiwei; Dong, Jingyan

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an integrated ring extractor design in electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing, which can overcome the standoff height limitation in the EHD printing process, and improve printing capability for 3D structures. Standoff height in the EHD printing will affect printing processes and limit the height of the printed structure when the ground electrode is placed under the substrate. In this work, we designed and integrated a ring electrode with the printing nozzle to achieve a self-working printer head, which can start and maintain the printing process without the involvement of the substrate. We applied a FEA method to model the electric field potential distribution and strength to direct the ring extractor design, which provides a similar printing capability with the system using substrate as the ground electrode. We verified the ring electrode design by experiments, and those results from the experiments demonstrated a good match with results from the FEA simulation. We have characterized the printing processes using the integrated ring extractor, and successfully applied this newly designed ring extractor to print polycaprolactone (PCL) 3D structures.

  3. Efficient data exchange: Integrating a vector GIS with an object-oriented, 3-D visualization system

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiper, J.; Ayers, A.; Johnson, R.; Tolbert-Smith, M.

    1996-03-01

    A common problem encountered in Geographic Information System (GIS) modeling is the exchange of data between different software packages to best utilize the unique features of each package. This paper describes a project to integrate two systems through efficient data exchange. The first is a widely used GIS based on a relational data model. This system has a broad set of data input, processing, and output capabilities, but lacks three-dimensional (3-D) visualization and certain modeling functions. The second system is a specialized object-oriented package designed for 3-D visualization and modeling. Although this second system is useful for subsurface modeling and hazardous waste site characterization, it does not provide many of the, capabilities of a complete GIS. The system-integration project resulted in an easy-to-use program to transfer information between the systems, making many of the more complex conversion issues transparent to the user. The strengths of both systems are accessible, allowing the scientist more time to focus on analysis. This paper details the capabilities of the two systems, explains the technical issues associated with data exchange and how they were solved, and outlines an example analysis project that used the integrated systems.

  4. 220GHz wideband 3D imaging radar for concealed object detection technology development and phenomenology studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Duncan A.; Macfarlane, David G.; Bryllert, Tomas

    2016-05-01

    We present a 220 GHz 3D imaging `Pathfinder' radar developed within the EU FP7 project CONSORTIS (Concealed Object Stand-Off Real-Time Imaging for Security) which has been built to address two objectives: (i) to de-risk the radar hardware development and (ii) to enable the collection of phenomenology data with ~1 cm3 volumetric resolution. The radar combines a DDS-based chirp generator and self-mixing multiplier technology to achieve a 30 GHz bandwidth chirp with such high linearity that the raw point response is close to ideal and only requires minor nonlinearity compensation. The single transceiver is focused with a 30 cm lens mounted on a gimbal to acquire 3D volumetric images of static test targets and materials.

  5. 3D printed LED based on-capillary detector housing with integrated slit.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Farhan; Zhang, Min; Guijt, Rosanne M; Henderson, Alan; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Paull, Brett; Breadmore, Michael C; Macka, Mirek

    2017-05-01

    A 3D printed photometric detector body with integrated slit was fabricated to position a LED and photodiode either side of capillary tubing using a fused deposition modelling (FDM) printer. To make this approach suitable for capillaries down to 50 μm i.d. the dimension of the in-built slit is the critical element of the printed housing. The spatial orientation of the model for printing was found to significantly impact on the resolution of the structures and voids that can be printed. By designing a housing with a slit positioned in the XY plane in parallel with the print direction, the narrowest void (slit) that could be printed was 70 μm. The potential use of the 3D printed slit for photometric detection was characterised using tubing and capillary from 500 down to 50 μm i.d, demonstrating a linear response from 632 to 40 mAU. The effective pathlength and stray light varied from 383 to 22 μm and 3.8% - 50% for 500- 50 μm i.d tubing and capillary. The use of a V-shaped alignment feature allowed for easy and reliable positioning of the tubing inside the detector, as demonstrated by a RSD of 1.9% (n = 10) in peak height when repositioning the tubing between measurements using flow injection analysis (FIA). The performance of the 3D printed housing and 70 μm slit was benchmarked against a commercially available interface using the CE separation of Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) complexes with PAR. The limit of detection with the 3D printed slit was 6.8 and 4.5 μM and is 2.8 and 1.6 μM with the commercial interface.

  6. DYNA3D, INGRID, and TAURUS: an integrated, interactive software system for crashworthiness engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D.J.; Hallquist, J.O.; Stillman, D.W.

    1985-04-01

    Crashworthiness engineering has always been a high priority at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory because of its role in the safe transport of radioactive material for the nuclear power industry and military. As a result, the authors have developed an integrated, interactive set of finite element programs for crashworthiness analysis. The heart of the system is DYNA3D, an explicit, fully vectorized, large deformation structural dynamics code. DYNA3D has the following four capabilities that are critical for the efficient and accurate analysis of crashes: (1) fully nonlinear solid, shell, and beam elements for representing a structure, (2) a broad range of constitutive models for representing the materials, (3) sophisticated contact algorithms for the impact interactions, and (4) a rigid body capability to represent the bodies away from the impact zones at a greatly reduced cost without sacrificing any accuracy in the momentum calculations. To generate the large and complex data files for DYNA3D, INGRID, a general purpose mesh generator, is used. It runs on everything from IBM PCs to CRAYS, and can generate 1000 nodes/minute on a PC. With its efficient hidden line algorithms and many options for specifying geometry, INGRID also doubles as a geometric modeller. TAURUS, an interactive post processor, is used to display DYNA3D output. In addition to the standard monochrome hidden line display, time history plotting, and contouring, TAURUS generates interactive color displays on 8 color video screens by plotting color bands superimposed on the mesh which indicate the value of the state variables. For higher quality color output, graphic output files may be sent to the DICOMED film recorders. We have found that color is every bit as important as hidden line removal in aiding the analyst in understanding his results. In this paper the basic methodologies of the programs are presented along with several crashworthiness calculations.

  7. Integrating biologically inspired nanomaterials and table-top stereolithography for 3D printed biomimetic osteochondral scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Nathan J.; O'Brien, Joseph; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2015-08-01

    The osteochondral interface of an arthritic joint is notoriously difficult to regenerate due to its extremely poor regenerative capacity and complex stratified architecture. Native osteochondral tissue extracellular matrix is composed of numerous nanoscale organic and inorganic constituents. Although various tissue engineering strategies exist in addressing osteochondral defects, limitations persist with regards to tissue scaffolding which exhibit biomimetic cues at the nano to micro scale. In an effort to address this, the current work focused on 3D printing biomimetic nanocomposite scaffolds for improved osteochondral tissue regeneration. For this purpose, two biologically-inspired nanomaterials have been synthesized consisting of (1) osteoconductive nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA) (primary inorganic component of bone) and (2) core-shell poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanospheres encapsulated with chondrogenic transforming growth-factor β1 (TGF-β1) for sustained delivery. Then, a novel table-top stereolithography 3D printer and the nano-ink (i.e., nHA + nanosphere + hydrogel) were employed to fabricate a porous and highly interconnected osteochondral scaffold with hierarchical nano-to-micro structure and spatiotemporal bioactive factor gradients. Our results showed that human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteochondral differentiation were greatly improved in the biomimetic graded 3D printed osteochondral construct in vitro. The current work served to illustrate the efficacy of the nano-ink and current 3D printing technology for efficient fabrication of a novel nanocomposite hydrogel scaffold. In addition, tissue-specific growth factors illustrated a synergistic effect leading to increased cell adhesion and directed stem cell differentiation.

  8. On Integral Invariants for Effective 3-D Motion Trajectory Matching and Recognition.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhanpeng; Li, Youfu

    2016-02-01

    Motion trajectories tracked from the motions of human, robots, and moving objects can provide an important clue for motion analysis, classification, and recognition. This paper defines some new integral invariants for a 3-D motion trajectory. Based on two typical kernel functions, we design two integral invariants, the distance and area integral invariants. The area integral invariants are estimated based on the blurred segment of noisy discrete curve to avoid the computation of high-order derivatives. Such integral invariants for a motion trajectory enjoy some desirable properties, such as computational locality, uniqueness of representation, and noise insensitivity. Moreover, our formulation allows the analysis of motion trajectories at a range of scales by varying the scale of kernel function. The features of motion trajectories can thus be perceived at multiscale levels in a coarse-to-fine manner. Finally, we define a distance function to measure the trajectory similarity to find similar trajectories. Through the experiments, we examine the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed integral invariants and find that they can capture the motion cues in trajectory matching and sign recognition satisfactorily.

  9. Integrated Modeling of Time Evolving 3D Kinetic MHD Equilibria and NTV Torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, N. C.; Park, J.-K.; Grierson, B. A.; Haskey, S. R.; Nazikian, R.; Cui, L.; Smith, S. P.; Meneghini, O.

    2016-10-01

    New analysis tools and integrated modeling of plasma dynamics developed in the OMFIT framework are used to study kinetic MHD equilibria evolution on the transport time scale. The experimentally observed profile dynamics following the application of 3D error fields are described using a new OMFITprofiles workflow that directly addresses the need for rapid and comprehensive analysis of dynamic equilibria for next-step theory validation. The workflow treats all diagnostic data as fundamentally time dependent, provides physics-based manipulations such as ELM phase data selection, and is consistent across multiple machines - including DIII-D and NSTX-U. The seamless integration of tokamak data and simulation is demonstrated by using the self-consistent kinetic EFIT equilibria and profiles as input into 2D particle, momentum and energy transport calculations using TRANSP as well as 3D kinetic MHD equilibrium stability and neoclassical transport modeling using General Perturbed Equilibrium Code (GPEC). The result is a smooth kinetic stability and NTV torque evolution over transport time scales. Work supported by DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  10. Shear Behavior of 3D Woven Hollow Integrated Sandwich Composites: Experimental, Theoretical and Numerical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guangming; Liu, Chang; Cai, Deng'an; Li, Wenlong; Wang, Xiaopei

    2016-11-01

    An experimental, theoretical and numerical investigation on the shear behavior of 3D woven hollow integrated sandwich composites was presented in this paper. The microstructure of the composites was studied, then the shear modulus and load-deflection curves were obtained by double lap shear tests on the specimens in two principal directions of the sandwich panels, called warp and weft. The experimental results showed that the shear modulus of the warp was higher than that of the weft and the failure occurred in the roots of piles. A finite element model was established to predict the shear behavior of the composites. The simulated results agreed well with the experimental data. Simultaneously, a theoretical method was developed to predict the shear modulus. By comparing with the experimental data, the accuracy of the theoretical method was verified. The influence of structural parameters on shear modulus was also discussed. The higher yarn number, yarn density and dip angle of the piles could all improve the shear modulus of 3D woven hollow integrated sandwich composites at different levels, while the increasing height would decrease the shear modulus.

  11. Integrating 3D seismic curvature and curvature gradient attributes for fracture characterization: Methodologies and interpretational implications

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Dengliang

    2013-03-01

    In 3D seismic interpretation, curvature is a popular attribute that depicts the geometry of seismic reflectors and has been widely used to detect faults in the subsurface; however, it provides only part of the solutions to subsurface structure analysis. This study extends the curvature algorithm to a new curvature gradient algorithm, and integrates both algorithms for fracture detection using a 3D seismic test data set over Teapot Dome (Wyoming). In fractured reservoirs at Teapot Dome known to be formed by tectonic folding and faulting, curvature helps define the crestal portion of the reservoirs that is associated with strong seismic amplitude and high oil productivity. In contrast, curvature gradient helps better define the regional northwest-trending and the cross-regional northeast-trending lineaments that are associated with weak seismic amplitude and low oil productivity. In concert with previous reports from image logs, cores, and outcrops, the current study based on an integrated seismic curvature and curvature gradient analysis suggests that curvature might help define areas of enhanced potential to form tensile fractures, whereas curvature gradient might help define zones of enhanced potential to develop shear fractures. In certain fractured reservoirs such as at Teapot Dome where faulting and fault-related folding contribute dominantly to the formation and evolution of fractures, curvature and curvature gradient attributes can be potentially applied to differentiate fracture mode, to predict fracture intensity and orientation, to detect fracture volume and connectivity, and to model fracture networks.

  12. Optimizing Computer Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon-Marable, Elizabeth; Valentine, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand what optimal computer technology integration looks like in adult basic skills education (ABSE). One question guided the research: How is computer technology integration best conceptualized and measured? The study used the Delphi method to map the construct of computer technology integration and…

  13. Touch Interaction with 3D Geographical Visualization on Web: Selected Technological and User Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, L.; Stachoň, Z.; Stuchlík, R.; Hladík, J.; Kubíček, P.

    2016-10-01

    The use of both 3D visualization and devices with touch displays is increasing. In this paper, we focused on the Web technologies for 3D visualization of spatial data and its interaction via touch screen gestures. At the first stage, we compared the support of touch interaction in selected JavaScript libraries on different hardware (desktop PCs with touch screens, tablets, and smartphones) and software platforms. Afterward, we realized simple empiric test (within-subject design, 6 participants, 2 simple tasks, LCD touch monitor Acer and digital terrain models as stimuli) focusing on the ability of users to solve simple spatial tasks via touch screens. An in-house testing web tool was developed and used based on JavaScript, PHP, and X3DOM languages and Hammer.js libraries. The correctness of answers, speed of users' performances, used gestures, and a simple gesture metric was recorded and analysed. Preliminary results revealed that the pan gesture is most frequently used by test participants and it is also supported by the majority of 3D libraries. Possible gesture metrics and future developments including the interpersonal differences are discussed in the conclusion.

  14. CISUS: an integrated 3D ultrasound system for IGT using a modular tracking API

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boctor, Emad M.; Viswanathan, Anand; Pieper, Steve; Choti, Michael A.; Taylor, Russell H.; Kikinis, Ron; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2004-05-01

    Ultrasound has become popular in clinical/surgical applications, both as the primary image guidance modality and also in conjunction with other modalities like CT or MRI. Three dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) systems have also demonstrated usefulness in image-guided therapy (IGT). At the same time, however, current lack of open-source and open-architecture multi-modal medical visualization systems prevents 3DUS from fulfilling its potential. Several stand-alone 3DUS systems, like Stradx or In-Vivo exist today. Although these systems have been found to be useful in real clinical setting, it is difficult to augment their functionality and integrate them in versatile IGT systems. To address these limitations, a robotic/freehand 3DUS open environment (CISUS) is being integrated into the 3D Slicer, an open-source research tool developed for medical image analysis and surgical planning. In addition, the system capitalizes on generic application programming interfaces (APIs) for tracking devices and robotic control. The resulting platform-independent open-source system may serve as a valuable tool to the image guided surgery community. Other researchers could straightforwardly integrate the generic CISUS system along with other functionalities (i.e. dual view visualization, registration, real-time tracking, segmentation, etc) to rapidly create their medical/surgical applications. Our current driving clinical application is robotically assisted and freehand 3DUS-guided liver ablation, which is fully being integrated under the CISUS-3D Slicer. Initial functionality and pre-clinical feasibility are demonstrated on phantom and ex-vivo animal models.

  15. Comparative analysis of video processing and 3D rendering for cloud video games using different virtualization technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bada, Adedayo; Alcaraz-Calero, Jose M.; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive empirical performance evaluation of 3D video processing employing the physical/virtual architecture implemented in a cloud environment. Different virtualization technologies, virtual video cards and various 3D benchmarks tools have been utilized in order to analyse the optimal performance in the context of 3D online gaming applications. This study highlights 3D video rendering performance under each type of hypervisors, and other factors including network I/O, disk I/O and memory usage. Comparisons of these factors under well-known virtual display technologies such as VNC, Spice and Virtual 3D adaptors reveal the strengths and weaknesses of the various hypervisors with respect to 3D video rendering and streaming.

  16. High-temperature compatible 3D-integration processes for a vacuum-sealed CNT-based NEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueye, R.; Lee, S. W.; Akiyama, T.; Briand, D.; Roman, C.; Hierold, C.; de Rooij, N. F.

    2013-03-01

    A System-in-Package (SiP) concept for the 3D-integration of a Single Wall Carbon Nanotube (SWCNT) resonator with its CMOS driving electronics is presented. The key element of this advanced SiP is the monolithic 3D-integration of the MEMS with the CMOS electronics using Through Silicon Vias (TSVs) on an SOI wafer. This SiP includes: A glass cap vacuum-sealed to the main wafer using an eutectic bonding process: a low leak rate of 2.7 10-9 mbar•l/s was obtained; Platinum-TSVs, compatible with the SWCNT growth and release process; The TSVs were developed in a "via first" process and characterized at high-temperature — up to 850 °C. An ohmic contact between the Pt-metallization and the SOI silicon device layer was obtained; The driving CMOS electronic device is assembled to the MEMS using an Au stud bump technology. Keywords: System-in-Package (SiP), vacuum packaging, eutectic bonding, "via-first" TSVs, high-temperature platinum interconnects, ohmic contacts, Au-stud bumps assembly, CMOS electronics.

  17. Low cost 3D-printing used in an undergraduate project: an integrating sphere for measurement of photoluminescence quantum yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomes, John J.; Finlayson, Chris E.

    2016-09-01

    We report upon the exploitation of the latest 3D printing technologies to provide low-cost instrumentation solutions, for use in an undergraduate level final-year project. The project addresses prescient research issues in optoelectronics, which would otherwise be inaccessible to such undergraduate student projects. The experimental use of an integrating sphere in conjunction with a desktop spectrometer presents opportunities to use easily handled, low cost materials as a means to illustrate many areas of physics such as spectroscopy, lasers, optics, simple circuits, black body radiation and data gathering. Presented here is a 3rd year undergraduate physics project which developed a low cost (£25) method to manufacture an experimentally accurate integrating sphere by 3D printing. Details are given of both a homemade internal reflectance coating formulated from readily available materials, and a robust instrument calibration method using a tungsten bulb. The instrument is demonstrated to give accurate and reproducible experimental measurements of luminescence quantum yield of various semiconducting fluorophores, in excellent agreement with literature values.

  18. Avionics systems integration technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stech, George; Williams, James R.

    1988-01-01

    A very dramatic and continuing explosion in digital electronics technology has been taking place in the last decade. The prudent and timely application of this technology will provide Army aviation the capability to prevail against a numerically superior enemy threat. The Army and NASA have exploited this technology explosion in the development and application of avionics systems integration technology for new and future aviation systems. A few selected Army avionics integration technology base efforts are discussed. Also discussed is the Avionics Integration Research Laboratory (AIRLAB) that NASA has established at Langley for research into the integration and validation of avionics systems, and evaluation of advanced technology in a total systems context.

  19. Helicopter flight test of 3D imaging flash LIDAR technology for safe, autonomous, and precise planetary landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roback, Vincent; Bulyshev, Alexander; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Reisse, Robert

    2013-05-01

    Two flash lidars, integrated from a number of cutting-edge components from industry and NASA, are lab characterized and flight tested for determination of maximum operational range under the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project (in its fourth development and field test cycle) which is seeking to develop a guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) and sensing system based on lidar technology capable of enabling safe, precise crewed or robotic landings in challenging terrain on planetary bodies under any ambient lighting conditions. The flash lidars incorporate pioneering 3-D imaging cameras based on Indium-Gallium-Arsenide Avalanche Photo Diode (InGaAs APD) and novel micro-electronic technology for a 128 x 128 pixel array operating at 30 Hz, high pulse-energy 1.06 μm Nd:YAG lasers, and high performance transmitter and receiver fixed and zoom optics. The two flash lidars are characterized on the NASA-Langley Research Center (LaRC) Sensor Test Range, integrated with other portions of the ALHAT GNC system from partner organizations into an instrument pod at NASA-JPL, integrated onto an Erickson Aircrane Helicopter at NASA-Dryden, and flight tested at the Edwards AFB Rogers dry lakebed over a field of humanmade geometric hazards during the summer of 2010. Results show that the maximum operational range goal of 1 km is met and exceeded up to a value of 1.2 km. In addition, calibrated 3-D images of several hazards are acquired in realtime for later reconstruction into Digital Elevation Maps (DEM's).

  20. Helicopter Flight Test of 3-D Imaging Flash LIDAR Technology for Safe, Autonomous, and Precise Planetary Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roback, Vincent; Bulyshev, Alexander; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Reisse, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Two flash lidars, integrated from a number of cutting-edge components from industry and NASA, are lab characterized and flight tested for determination of maximum operational range under the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project (in its fourth development and field test cycle) which is seeking to develop a guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) and sensing system based on lidar technology capable of enabling safe, precise crewed or robotic landings in challenging terrain on planetary bodies under any ambient lighting conditions. The flash lidars incorporate pioneering 3-D imaging cameras based on Indium-Gallium-Arsenide Avalanche Photo Diode (InGaAs APD) and novel micro-electronic technology for a 128 x 128 pixel array operating at 30 Hz, high pulse-energy 1.06 micrometer Nd:YAG lasers, and high performance transmitter and receiver fixed and zoom optics. The two flash lidars are characterized on the NASA-Langley Research Center (LaRC) Sensor Test Range, integrated with other portions of the ALHAT GN&C system from partner organizations into an instrument pod at NASA-JPL, integrated onto an Erickson Aircrane Helicopter at NASA-Dryden, and flight tested at the Edwards AFB Rogers dry lakebed over a field of human-made geometric hazards during the summer of 2010. Results show that the maximum operational range goal of 1 km is met and exceeded up to a value of 1.2 km. In addition, calibrated 3-D images of several hazards are acquired in real-time for later reconstruction into Digital Elevation Maps (DEM's).

  1. Illustrating Surface Shape in Volume Data via Principal Direction-Driven 3D Line Integral Convolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interrante, Victoria

    1997-01-01

    The three-dimensional shape and relative depth of a smoothly curving layered transparent surface may be communicated particularly effectively when the surface is artistically enhanced with sparsely distributed opaque detail. This paper describes how the set of principal directions and principal curvatures specified by local geometric operators can be understood to define a natural 'flow' over the surface of an object, and can be used to guide the placement of the lines of a stroke texture that seeks to represent 3D shape information in a perceptually intuitive way. The driving application for this work is the visualization of layered isovalue surfaces in volume data, where the particular identity of an individual surface is not generally known a priori and observers will typically wish to view a variety of different level surfaces from the same distribution, superimposed over underlying opaque structures. By advecting an evenly distributed set of tiny opaque particles, and the empty space between them, via 3D line integral convolution through the vector field defined by the principal directions and principal curvatures of the level surfaces passing through each gridpoint of a 3D volume, it is possible to generate a single scan-converted solid stroke texture that may intuitively represent the essential shape information of any level surface in the volume. To generate longer strokes over more highly curved areas, where the directional information is both most stable and most relevant, and to simultaneously downplay the visual impact of directional information in the flatter regions, one may dynamically redefine the length of the filter kernel according to the magnitude of the maximum principal curvature of the level surface at the point around which it is applied.

  2. 3D tract-specific local and global analysis of white matter integrity in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yan; Huang, Chao; Daianu, Madelaine; Zhan, Liang; Dennis, Emily L; Reid, Robert I; Jack, Clifford R; Zhu, Hongtu; Thompson, Paul M

    2017-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive decline in memory and other aspects of cognitive function. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) offers a non-invasive approach to delineate the effects of AD on white matter (WM) integrity. Previous studies calculated either some summary statistics over regions of interest (ROI analysis) or some statistics along mean skeleton lines (Tract Based Spatial Statistic [TBSS]), so they cannot quantify subtle local WM alterations along major tracts. Here, a comprehensive WM analysis framework to map disease effects on 3D tracts both locally and globally, based on a study of 200 subjects: 49 healthy elderly normal controls, 110 with mild cognitive impairment, and 41 AD patients has been presented. 18 major WM tracts were extracted with our automated clustering algorithm-autoMATE (automated Multi-Atlas Tract Extraction); we then extracted multiple DWI-derived parameters of WM integrity along the WM tracts across all subjects. A novel statistical functional analysis method-FADTTS (Functional Analysis for Diffusion Tensor Tract Statistics) was applied to quantify degenerative patterns along WM tracts across different stages of AD. Gradually increasing WM alterations were found in all tracts in successive stages of AD. Among all 18 WM tracts, the fornix was most adversely affected. Among all the parameters, mean diffusivity (MD) was the most sensitive to WM alterations in AD. This study provides a systematic workflow to examine WM integrity across automatically computed 3D tracts in AD and may be useful in studying other neurological and psychiatric disorders. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1191-1207, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. 3D tract‐specific local and global analysis of white matter integrity in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yan; Huang, Chao; Daianu, Madelaine; Zhan, Liang; Dennis, Emily L.; Reid, Robert I.; Jack, Clifford R.; Zhu, Hongtu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive decline in memory and other aspects of cognitive function. Diffusion‐weighted imaging (DWI) offers a non‐invasive approach to delineate the effects of AD on white matter (WM) integrity. Previous studies calculated either some summary statistics over regions of interest (ROI analysis) or some statistics along mean skeleton lines (Tract Based Spatial Statistic [TBSS]), so they cannot quantify subtle local WM alterations along major tracts. Here, a comprehensive WM analysis framework to map disease effects on 3D tracts both locally and globally, based on a study of 200 subjects: 49 healthy elderly normal controls, 110 with mild cognitive impairment, and 41 AD patients has been presented. 18 major WM tracts were extracted with our automated clustering algorithm—autoMATE (automated Multi‐Atlas Tract Extraction); we then extracted multiple DWI‐derived parameters of WM integrity along the WM tracts across all subjects. A novel statistical functional analysis method—FADTTS (Functional Analysis for Diffusion Tensor Tract Statistics) was applied to quantify degenerative patterns along WM tracts across different stages of AD. Gradually increasing WM alterations were found in all tracts in successive stages of AD. Among all 18 WM tracts, the fornix was most adversely affected. Among all the parameters, mean diffusivity (MD) was the most sensitive to WM alterations in AD. This study provides a systematic workflow to examine WM integrity across automatically computed 3D tracts in AD and may be useful in studying other neurological and psychiatric disorders. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1191–1207, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27883250

  4. The Avignon Bridge: a 3d Reconstruction Project Integrating Archaeological, Historical and Gemorphological Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthelot, M.; Nony, N.; Gugi, L.; Bishop, A.; De Luca, L.

    2015-02-01

    The history and identity of the Avignon's bridge is inseparable from that of the Rhône river. Therefore, in order to share the history and memory of the Rhône, it is essential to get to know this bridge and especially to identify and make visible the traces of its past, its construction, its interaction with the river dynamics, which greatly influenced his life. These are the objectives of the PAVAGE project that focuses on digitally surveying, modelling and re-visiting a heritage site of primary importance with the aim of virtually restoring the link between the two sides which, after the disappearance of the Roman bridge of Arles, constituted for a long time the only connection between Lyon or Vienna and the sea. Therefore, this project has an important geo-historical dimension for which geo-morphological and paleoenvironmental studies were implemented in connection with the latest digital simulation methods exploiting geographic information systems. By integrating knowledge and reflections of archaeologists, historians, geomorphologists, environmentalists, architects, engineers and computer scientists, the result of this project (which involved 5 laboratories during 4 years) is a 3D digital model covering an extension of 50 km2 achieved by integrating satellite imagery, UAV-based acquisitions, terrestrial laser scanning and photogrammetry, etc. Beyond the actions of scientific valorisation concerning the historical and geomorphological dimensions of the project, the results of this work of this interdisciplinary investigation and interpretation of this site are today integrated within a location-based augmented reality application allowing tourists to exploring the virtual reconstruction of the bridge and its environment through tablets inside the portion of territory covered by this project (between Avignon and Villeneuve-lez-Avignon). This paper presents the main aspects of the 3D virtual reconstruction approach.

  5. First Steps Towards AN Integrated Citygml-Based 3d Model of Vienna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agugiaro, G.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents and discusses the results regarding the initial steps (selection, analysis, preparation and eventual integration of a number of datasets) for the creation of an integrated, semantic, three-dimensional, and CityGML-based virtual model of the city of Vienna. CityGML is an international standard conceived specifically as information and data model for semantic city models at urban and territorial scale. It is being adopted by more and more cities all over the world. The work described in this paper is embedded within the European Marie-Curie ITN project "Ci-nergy, Smart cities with sustainable energy systems", which aims, among the rest, at developing urban decision making and operational optimisation software tools to minimise non-renewable energy use in cities. Given the scope and scale of the project, it is therefore vital to set up a common, unique and spatio-semantically coherent urban model to be used as information hub for all applications being developed. This paper reports about the experiences done so far, it describes the test area and the available data sources, it shows and exemplifies the data integration issues, the strategies developed to solve them in order to obtain the integrated 3D city model. The first results as well as some comments about their quality and limitations are presented, together with the discussion regarding the next steps and some planned improvements.

  6. Human Microtumors Generated in 3D: Novel Tools for Integrated In Situ Studies of Cancer Immunotherapies.

    PubMed

    Hambach, Lothar; Buser, Andreas; Vermeij, Marcel; Pouw, Nadine; van der Kwast, Theo; Goulmy, Els

    2016-01-01

    Cellular immunotherapy targeting human tumor antigens is a promising strategy to treat solid tumors. Yet clinical results of cellular immunotherapy are disappointing. Moreover, the currently available in vitro human tumor models are not designed to study the optimization of T-cell therapies of solid tumors. Here, we describe a novel assay for multiparametric in situ analysis of therapeutic effects on individual human three-dimensional (3D) tumors. In this assay, tumors of several millimeter diameter are generated from human cancer cell lines of different tumor entities in a collagen type I microenvironment. A newly developed approach for efficient morphological analysis reveals that these in vitro tumors resemble many characteristics of the corresponding clinical cancers such as histological features, immunohistochemical staining patterns, distinct tumor growth compartments and heterogeneous protein expression. To assess the response to therapy with tumor antigen specific T-cells, standardized protocols are described to determine T-cell infiltration and tumor destruction by monitoring soluble factors and tumor growth. Human tumors engineered in 3D collagen scaffolds are excellent in vitro surrogates for avascular tumor stages allowing integrated analyses of the antitumor efficacy of cancer specific immunotherapy in situ.

  7. The cross-correlation between 3D cosmic shear and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieser, Britta; Merkel, Philipp M.

    2016-06-01

    We present the first calculation of the cross-correlation between 3D cosmic shear and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (iSW) effect. Both signals are combined in a single formalism, which permits the computation of the full covariance matrix. In order to avoid the uncertainties presented by the non-linear evolution of the matter power spectrum and intrinsic alignments of galaxies, our analysis is restricted to large scales, i.e. multipoles below ℓ = 1000. We demonstrate in a Fisher analysis that this reduction compared to other studies of 3D weak lensing extending to smaller scales is compensated by the information that is gained if the additional iSW signal and in particular its cross-correlation with lensing data are considered. Given the observational standards of upcoming weak-lensing surveys like Euclid, marginal errors on cosmological parameters decrease by 10 per cent compared to a cosmic shear experiment if both types of information are combined without a cosmic wave background (CMB) prior. Once the constraining power of CMB data is added, the improvement becomes marginal.

  8. CATIA-V 3D Modeling for Design Integration of the Ignitor Machine Load Assembly^*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, A.; Parodi, B.; Gardella, F.; Coppi, B.

    2007-11-01

    In the framework of the ANSALDO industrial contribution to the Ignitor engineering design, the detailed design of all components of the machine core (Load Assembly) has been completed. The machine Central Post, Central Solenoid, and Poloidal Field Coil systems, the Plasma Chamber and First Wall system, the surrounding mechanical structures, the Vacuum Cryostat and the polyethylene boron sheets attached to it for neutron shielding, have all been analyzed to confirm that they can withstand both normal and off-normal operating loads, as well as the Plasma Chamber and First Wall baking operations, with proper safety margins, for the maximum plasma parameters scenario at 13 T/11 MA, for the reduced scenarios at 9 T/7 MA (limiter) and at 9 T/6 MA (double nul). Both 3D and 2D drawings of each individual component have been produced using the Dassault Systems CATIA-V software. After they have been all integrated into a single 3D CATIA model of the Load Assembly, the electro-fluidic and fluidic lines which supply electrical currents and helium cooling gas to the coils have been added and mechanically incorporated with the components listed above. A global seismic analysis of the Load Assembly with SSE/OBE response spectra has also been performed to verify that it is able to withstand such external events. ^*Work supported in part by ENEA of italy and by the US D.O.E.

  9. Thin-dielectric-layer engineering for 3D nanostructure integration using an innovative planarization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerfi, Y.; Doucet, J. B.; Larrieu, G.

    2015-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures are emerging as promising building blocks for a large spectrum of applications. One critical issue in integration regards mastering the thin, flat, and chemically stable insulating layer that must be implemented on the nanostructure network in order to build striking nano-architectures. In this letter, we report an innovative method for nanoscale planarization on 3D nanostructures by using hydrogen silesquioxane as a spin-on-glass (SOG) dielectric material. To decouple the thickness of the final layer from the height of the nanostructure, we propose to embed the nanowire network in the insulator layer by exploiting the planarizing properties of the SOG approach. To achieve the desired dielectric thickness, the structure is chemically etched back with a highly diluted solution to control the etch rate precisely. The roughness of the top surface was less than 2 nm. There were no surface defects and the planarity was excellent, even in the vicinity of the nanowires. This newly developed process was used to realize a multilevel stack architecture with sub-deca-nanometer-range layer thickness.

  10. 3Disease Browser: A Web server for integrating 3D genome and disease-associated chromosome rearrangement data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruifeng; Liu, Yifang; Li, Tingting; Li, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangement (CR) events have been implicated in many tumor and non-tumor human diseases. CR events lead to their associated diseases by disrupting gene and protein structures. Also, they can lead to diseases through changes in chromosomal 3D structure and gene expression. In this study, we search for CR-associated diseases potentially caused by chromosomal 3D structure alteration by integrating Hi-C and ChIP-seq data. Our algorithm rediscovers experimentally verified disease-associated CRs (polydactyly diseases) that alter gene expression by disrupting chromosome 3D structure. Interestingly, we find that intellectual disability may be a candidate disease caused by 3D chromosome structure alteration. We also develop a Web server (3Disease Browser, http://3dgb.cbi.pku.edu.cn/disease/) for integrating and visualizing disease-associated CR events and chromosomal 3D structure. PMID:27734896

  11. 3D integration of microcomponents in a single glass chip by femtosecond laser direct writing for biochemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugioka, Koji; Hanada, Yasutaka; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2007-05-01

    3D integration of microcomponents in a single glass chip by femtosecond laser direct writing followed by post annealing and successive wet etching is described for application to biochemical analysis. Integration of microfluidics and microoptics realized some functional microdevices like a μ-fluidic dye laser and a biosensor. As one of practical applications, we demonstrate inspection of living microorganisms using the microchip with 3D microfluidic structures fabricated by the present technique.

  12. Real-time computer-generated integral imaging and 3D image calibration for augmented reality surgical navigation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junchen; Suenaga, Hideyuki; Liao, Hongen; Hoshi, Kazuto; Yang, Liangjing; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Sakuma, Ichiro

    2015-03-01

    Autostereoscopic 3D image overlay for augmented reality (AR) based surgical navigation has been studied and reported many times. For the purpose of surgical overlay, the 3D image is expected to have the same geometric shape as the original organ, and can be transformed to a specified location for image overlay. However, how to generate a 3D image with high geometric fidelity and quantitative evaluation of 3D image's geometric accuracy have not been addressed. This paper proposes a graphics processing unit (GPU) based computer-generated integral imaging pipeline for real-time autostereoscopic 3D display, and an automatic closed-loop 3D image calibration paradigm for displaying undistorted 3D images. Based on the proposed methods, a novel AR device for 3D image surgical overlay is presented, which mainly consists of a 3D display, an AR window, a stereo camera for 3D measurement, and a workstation for information processing. The evaluation on the 3D image rendering performance with 2560×1600 elemental image resolution shows the rendering speeds of 50-60 frames per second (fps) for surface models, and 5-8 fps for large medical volumes. The evaluation of the undistorted 3D image after the calibration yields sub-millimeter geometric accuracy. A phantom experiment simulating oral and maxillofacial surgery was also performed to evaluate the proposed AR overlay device in terms of the image registration accuracy, 3D image overlay accuracy, and the visual effects of the overlay. The experimental results show satisfactory image registration and image overlay accuracy, and confirm the system usability.

  13. The RCSB protein data bank: integrative view of protein, gene and 3D structural information.

    PubMed

    Rose, Peter W; Prlić, Andreas; Altunkaya, Ali; Bi, Chunxiao; Bradley, Anthony R; Christie, Cole H; Costanzo, Luigi Di; Duarte, Jose M; Dutta, Shuchismita; Feng, Zukang; Green, Rachel Kramer; Goodsell, David S; Hudson, Brian; Kalro, Tara; Lowe, Robert; Peisach, Ezra; Randle, Christopher; Rose, Alexander S; Shao, Chenghua; Tao, Yi-Ping; Valasatava, Yana; Voigt, Maria; Westbrook, John D; Woo, Jesse; Yang, Huangwang; Young, Jasmine Y; Zardecki, Christine; Berman, Helen M; Burley, Stephen K

    2017-01-04

    The Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics Protein Data Bank (RCSB PDB, http://rcsb.org), the US data center for the global PDB archive, makes PDB data freely available to all users, from structural biologists to computational biologists and beyond. New tools and resources have been added to the RCSB PDB web portal in support of a 'Structural View of Biology.' Recent developments have improved the User experience, including the high-speed NGL Viewer that provides 3D molecular visualization in any web browser, improved support for data file download and enhanced organization of website pages for query, reporting and individual structure exploration. Structure validation information is now visible for all archival entries. PDB data have been integrated with external biological resources, including chromosomal position within the human genome; protein modifications; and metabolic pathways. PDB-101 educational materials have been reorganized into a searchable website and expanded to include new features such as the Geis Digital Archive.

  14. 3D-NTT: a versatile integral field spectro-imager for the NTT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcelin, M.; Amram, P.; Balard, P.; Balkowski, C.; Boissin, O.; Boulesteix, J.; Carignan, C.; Daigle, O.; de Denus Baillargeon, M.-M.; Epinat, B.; Gach, J.-L.; Hernandez, O.; Rigaud, F.; Vallée, P.

    2008-07-01

    The 3D-NTT is a visible integral field spectro-imager offering two modes. A low resolution mode (R ~ 300 to 6 000) with a large field of view Tunable Filter (17'x17') and a high resolution mode (R ~ 10 000 to 40 000) with a scanning Fabry-Perot (7'x7'). It will be operated as a visitor instrument on the NTT from 2009. Two large programmes will be led: "Characterizing the interstellar medium of nearby galaxies with 2D maps of extinction and abundances" (PI M. Marcelin) and "Gas accretion and radiative feedback in the early universe" (PI J. Bland Hawthorn). Both will be mainly based on the Tunable Filter mode. This instrument is being built as a collaborative effort between LAM (Marseille), GEPI (Paris) and LAE (Montreal). The website adress of the instrument is : http://www.astro.umontreal.ca/3DNTT

  15. Tensile Properties and Failure Mechanism of 3D Woven Hollow Integrated Sandwich Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang; Cai, Deng'an; Zhou, Guangming; Lu, Fangzhou

    2017-01-01

    Tensile properties and failure mechanism of 3D woven hollow integrated sandwich composites are investigated experimentally, theoretically and numerically in this paper. Firstly, the tensile properties are obtained by quasi-static tensile tests on the specimens in two principal directions of the sandwich panels, called warp and weft. The experimental results shows that the tensile performances of the warp are better than that of the weft. By observing the broken specimens, it is found that the touch parts between yarns are the main failure regions under tension. Then, a theoretical method is developed to predict the tensile properties. By comparing with the experimental data, the accuracy of the theoretical method is verified. Simultaneously, a finite element model is established to predict the tensile behavior of the composites. The numerical results agree well with the experimental data. Moreover, the simulated progressive damages show that the contact regions in the warp and weft tension are both the initial failure areas.

  16. Anisotropic heat transport in integrable and chaotic 3-D magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego B; Blazevski, D.; Chacon, Luis

    2012-01-01

    A study of anisotropic heat transport in 3-D chaotic magnetic fields is presented. The approach is based on the recently proposed Lagrangian-Green s function (LG) method in Ref. [1] that allows an efficient and accurate integration of the parallel transport equation applicable to general magnetic fields with local or non-local parallel flux closures. We focus on reversed shear magnetic field configurations known to exhibit separatrix reconnection and shearless transport barriers. The role of reconnection and magnetic field line chaos on temperature transport is studied. Numerical results are presented on the anomalous relaxation of radial temperature gradients in the presence of shearless Cantori partial barri- ers. Also, numerical evidence of non-local effective radial temperature transport in chaotic fields is presented. Going beyond purely parallel transport, the LG method is generalized to include finite perpendicular diffusivity, and the problem of temperature flattening inside a magnetic island is studied.

  17. Integration of the virtual 3D model of a control system with the virtual controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbuś, K.; Ociepka, P.

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays the design process includes simulation analysis of different components of a constructed object. It involves the need for integration of different virtual object to simulate the whole investigated technical system. The paper presents the issues related to the integration of a virtual 3D model of a chosen control system of with a virtual controller. The goal of integration is to verify the operation of an adopted object of in accordance with the established control program. The object of the simulation work is the drive system of a tunneling machine for trenchless work. In the first stage of work was created an interactive visualization of functioning of the 3D virtual model of a tunneling machine. For this purpose, the software of the VR (Virtual Reality) class was applied. In the elaborated interactive application were created adequate procedures allowing controlling the drive system of a translatory motion, a rotary motion and the drive system of a manipulator. Additionally was created the procedure of turning on and off the output crushing head, mounted on the last element of the manipulator. In the elaborated interactive application have been established procedures for receiving input data from external software, on the basis of the dynamic data exchange (DDE), which allow controlling actuators of particular control systems of the considered machine. In the next stage of work, the program on a virtual driver, in the ladder diagram (LD) language, was created. The control program was developed on the basis of the adopted work cycle of the tunneling machine. The element integrating the virtual model of the tunneling machine for trenchless work with the virtual controller is the application written in a high level language (Visual Basic). In the developed application was created procedures responsible for collecting data from the running, in a simulation mode, virtual controller and transferring them to the interactive application, in which is verified the

  18. Using virtual reality technology and hand tracking technology to create software for training surgical skills in 3D game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakirova, A. A.; Ganiev, B. A.; Mullin, R. I.

    2015-11-01

    The lack of visible and approachable ways of training surgical skills is one of the main problems in medical education. Existing simulation training devices are not designed to teach students, and are not available due to the high cost of the equipment. Using modern technologies such as virtual reality and hands movements fixation technology we want to create innovative method of learning the technics of conducting operations in 3D game format, which can make education process interesting and effective. Creating of 3D format virtual simulator will allow to solve several conceptual problems at once: opportunity of practical skills improvement unlimited by the time without the risk for patient, high realism of environment in operational and anatomic body structures, using of game mechanics for information perception relief and memorization of methods acceleration, accessibility of this program.

  19. Integrated gravity and gravity gradient 3D inversion using the non-linear conjugate gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Pengbo; Huang, Danian; Yuan, Yuan; Geng, Meixia; Liu, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Gravity data, which are critical in mineral, oil, and gas exploration, are obtained from the vertical component of the gravity field, while gravity gradient data are measured from changes in the gravity field in three directions. However, few studies have sought to improve exploration techniques by integrating gravity and gravity gradient data using inversion methods. In this study, we developed a new method to integrate gravity and gravity gradient data in a 3D density inversion using the non-linear conjugate gradient (NLCG) method and the minimum gradient support (MGS) functional to regularize the 3D inverse problem and to obtain a clear and accurate image of the anomalous body. The NLCG algorithm, which is suitable for solving large-scale nonlinear optimization problems and requires no memory storage, was compared to the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) quasi-Newton algorithm and the results indicated that the convergence rate of NLCG is slower, but that the storage requirement and computation time is lower. To counteract the decay in kernel function, we introduced a depth weighting function for anomalous bodies at the same depth, with information about anomalous body depth obtained from well log and seismic exploration data. For anomalous bodies at different depths, we introduced a spatial gradient weighting function to incorporate additional information obtained in the inversion. We concluded that the spatial gradient weighting function enhanced the spatial resolution of the recovered model. Furthermore, our results showed that including multiple components for inversion increased the resolution of the recovered model. We validated our model by applying our inversion method to survey data from Vinton salt dome, Louisiana, USA. The results showed good agreement with known geologic information; thus confirming the accuracy of this approach.

  20. Integrating genomic information with protein sequence and 3D atomic level structure at the RCSB protein data bank.

    PubMed

    Prlić, Andreas; Kalro, Tara; Bhattacharya, Roshni; Christie, Cole; Burley, Stephen K; Rose, Peter W

    2016-12-15

    The Protein Data Bank (PDB) now contains more than 120,000 three-dimensional (3D) structures of biological macromolecules. To allow an interpretation of how PDB data relates to other publicly available annotations, we developed a novel data integration platform that maps 3D structural information across various datasets. This integration bridges from the human genome across protein sequence to 3D structure space. We developed novel software solutions for data management and visualization, while incorporating new libraries for web-based visualization using SVG graphics.

  1. A 3D bioprinting system to produce human-scale tissue constructs with structural integrity.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Sang Jin; Ko, In Kap; Kengla, Carlos; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    A challenge for tissue engineering is producing three-dimensional (3D), vascularized cellular constructs of clinically relevant size, shape and structural integrity. We present an integrated tissue-organ printer (ITOP) that can fabricate stable, human-scale tissue constructs of any shape. Mechanical stability is achieved by printing cell-laden hydrogels together with biodegradable polymers in integrated patterns and anchored on sacrificial hydrogels. The correct shape of the tissue construct is achieved by representing clinical imaging data as a computer model of the anatomical defect and translating the model into a program that controls the motions of the printer nozzles, which dispense cells to discrete locations. The incorporation of microchannels into the tissue constructs facilitates diffusion of nutrients to printed cells, thereby overcoming the diffusion limit of 100-200 μm for cell survival in engineered tissues. We demonstrate capabilities of the ITOP by fabricating mandible and calvarial bone, cartilage and skeletal muscle. Future development of the ITOP is being directed to the production of tissues for human applications and to the building of more complex tissues and solid organs.

  2. Quick, Accurate, Smart: 3D Computer Vision Technology Helps Assessing Confined Animals' Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Shanis; Calderara, Simone; Pistocchi, Simone; Cucchiara, Rita; Podaliri-Vulpiani, Michele; Messori, Stefano; Ferri, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Mankind directly controls the environment and lifestyles of several domestic species for purposes ranging from production and research to conservation and companionship. These environments and lifestyles may not offer these animals the best quality of life. Behaviour is a direct reflection of how the animal is coping with its environment. Behavioural indicators are thus among the preferred parameters to assess welfare. However, behavioural recording (usually from video) can be very time consuming and the accuracy and reliability of the output rely on the experience and background of the observers. The outburst of new video technology and computer image processing gives the basis for promising solutions. In this pilot study, we present a new prototype software able to automatically infer the behaviour of dogs housed in kennels from 3D visual data and through structured machine learning frameworks. Depth information acquired through 3D features, body part detection and training are the key elements that allow the machine to recognise postures, trajectories inside the kennel and patterns of movement that can be later labelled at convenience. The main innovation of the software is its ability to automatically cluster frequently observed temporal patterns of movement without any pre-set ethogram. Conversely, when common patterns are defined through training, a deviation from normal behaviour in time or between individuals could be assessed. The software accuracy in correctly detecting the dogs' behaviour was checked through a validation process. An automatic behaviour recognition system, independent from human subjectivity, could add scientific knowledge on animals' quality of life in confinement as well as saving time and resources. This 3D framework was designed to be invariant to the dog's shape and size and could be extended to farm, laboratory and zoo quadrupeds in artificial housing. The computer vision technique applied to this software is innovative in non

  3. Quick, Accurate, Smart: 3D Computer Vision Technology Helps Assessing Confined Animals’ Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Calderara, Simone; Pistocchi, Simone; Cucchiara, Rita; Podaliri-Vulpiani, Michele; Messori, Stefano; Ferri, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Mankind directly controls the environment and lifestyles of several domestic species for purposes ranging from production and research to conservation and companionship. These environments and lifestyles may not offer these animals the best quality of life. Behaviour is a direct reflection of how the animal is coping with its environment. Behavioural indicators are thus among the preferred parameters to assess welfare. However, behavioural recording (usually from video) can be very time consuming and the accuracy and reliability of the output rely on the experience and background of the observers. The outburst of new video technology and computer image processing gives the basis for promising solutions. In this pilot study, we present a new prototype software able to automatically infer the behaviour of dogs housed in kennels from 3D visual data and through structured machine learning frameworks. Depth information acquired through 3D features, body part detection and training are the key elements that allow the machine to recognise postures, trajectories inside the kennel and patterns of movement that can be later labelled at convenience. The main innovation of the software is its ability to automatically cluster frequently observed temporal patterns of movement without any pre-set ethogram. Conversely, when common patterns are defined through training, a deviation from normal behaviour in time or between individuals could be assessed. The software accuracy in correctly detecting the dogs’ behaviour was checked through a validation process. An automatic behaviour recognition system, independent from human subjectivity, could add scientific knowledge on animals’ quality of life in confinement as well as saving time and resources. This 3D framework was designed to be invariant to the dog’s shape and size and could be extended to farm, laboratory and zoo quadrupeds in artificial housing. The computer vision technique applied to this software is innovative in non

  4. Utilization of 3D imaging flash lidar technology for autonomous safe landing on planetary bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Vanek, Michael; Petway, Larry; Pierrottet, Diego; Busch, George; Bulyshev, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    NASA considers Flash Lidar a critical technology for enabling autonomous safe landing of future large robotic and crewed vehicles on the surface of the Moon and Mars. Flash Lidar can generate 3-Dimensional images of the terrain to identify hazardous features such as craters, rocks, and steep slopes during the final stages of descent and landing. The onboard flight comptuer can use the 3-D map of terain to guide the vehicle to a safe site. The capabilities of Flash Lidar technology were evaluated through a series of static tests using a calibrated target and through dynamic tests aboard a helicopter and a fixed wing airctarft. The aircraft flight tests were perfomed over Moonlike terrain in the California and Nevada deserts. This paper briefly describes the Flash Lidar static and aircraft flight test results. These test results are analyzed against the landing application requirements to identify the areas of technology improvement. The ongoing technology advancement activities are then explained and their goals are described.

  5. Utilization of 3-D Imaging Flash Lidar Technology for Autonomous Safe Landing on Planetary Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Vanek, Michael; Petway, Larry; Pierrotter, Diego; Busch, George; Bulyshev, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    NASA considers Flash Lidar a critical technology for enabling autonomous safe landing of future large robotic and crewed vehicles on the surface of the Moon and Mars. Flash Lidar can generate 3-Dimensional images of the terrain to identify hazardous features such as craters, rocks, and steep slopes during the final stages of descent and landing. The onboard flight computer can use the 3-D map of terrain to guide the vehicle to a safe site. The capabilities of Flash Lidar technology were evaluated through a series of static tests using a calibrated target and through dynamic tests aboard a helicopter and a fixed wing aircraft. The aircraft flight tests were performed over Moon-like terrain in the California and Nevada deserts. This paper briefly describes the Flash Lidar static and aircraft flight test results. These test results are analyzed against the landing application requirements to identify the areas of technology improvement. The ongoing technology advancement activities are then explained and their goals are described.

  6. [3D-TECHNOLOGIES AS A CORE ELEMENT OF PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF VIRTUAL AND ACTUAL RENAL SURGERY].

    PubMed

    Glybochko, P V; Aljaev, Ju G; Bezrukov, E A; Sirota, E S; Proskura, A V

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the role of modern computer technologies in performing virtual and actual renal tumor surgery. Currently 3D modeling makes it possible to clearly define strategy and tactics of an individual patient treatment.

  7. Integrating Dynamic Data and Sensors with Semantic 3D City Models in the Context of Smart Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, K.; Kolbe, T. H.

    2016-10-01

    Smart cities provide effective integration of human, physical and digital systems operating in the built environment. The advancements in city and landscape models, sensor web technologies, and simulation methods play a significant role in city analyses and improving quality of life of citizens and governance of cities. Semantic 3D city models can provide substantial benefits and can become a central information backbone for smart city infrastructures. However, current generation semantic 3D city models are static in nature and do not support dynamic properties and sensor observations. In this paper, we propose a new concept called Dynamizer allowing to represent highly dynamic data and providing a method for injecting dynamic variations of city object properties into the static representation. The approach also provides direct capability to model complex patterns based on statistics and general rules and also, real-time sensor observations. The concept is implemented as an Application Domain Extension for the CityGML standard. However, it could also be applied to other GML-based application schemas including the European INSPIRE data themes and national standards for topography and cadasters like the British Ordnance Survey Mastermap or the German cadaster standard ALKIS.

  8. Towards a high performance vertex detector based on 3D integration of deep N-well MAPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, V.

    2010-06-01

    The development of deep N-Well (DNW) CMOS active pixel sensors was driven by the ambitious goal of designing a monolithic device with similar functionalities as in hybrid pixel readout chips, such as pixel-level sparsification and time stamping. The implementation of the DNW MAPS concept in a 3D vertical integration process naturally leads the designer towards putting more intelligence in the chip and in the pixels themselves, achieving novel device structures based on the interconnection of two or more layers fabricated in the same technology. These devices are read out with a data-push scheme that makes it possible to use pixel data for the generation of a flexible level 1 track trigger, based on associative memories, with short latency and high efficiency. This paper gives an update of the present status of DNW MAPS design in both 2D and 3D versions, and presents a discussion of the architectures that are being devised for the Layer 0 of the SuperB Silicon Vertex Tracker.

  9. Amplitude-modulated laser range-finder for 3D imaging with multi-sensor data integration capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolini, L.; Ferri de Collibus, M.; Fornetti, G.; Guarneri, M.; Paglia, E.; Poggi, C.; Ricci, R.

    2005-06-01

    A high performance Amplitude Modulated Laser Rangefinder (AM-LR) is presented, aimed at accurately reconstructing 3D digital models of real targets, either single objects or complex scenes. The scanning system enables to sweep the sounding beam either linearly across the object or circularly around it, by placing the object on a controlled rotating platform. Both phase shift and amplitude of the modulating wave of back-scattered light are collected and processed, resulting respectively in an accurate range image and a shade-free, high resolution, photographic-like intensity image. The best performances obtained in terms of range resolution are ~100 μm. Resolution itself can be made to depend mainly on the laser modulation frequency, provided that the power of the backscattered light reaching the detector is at least a few nW. 3D models are reconstructed from sampled points by using specifically developed software tools, optimized so as to take advantage of the system peculiarities. Special procedures have also been implemented to perform precise matching of data acquired independently with different sensors (LIF laser sensors, thermographic cameras, etc.) onto the 3D models generated using the AM-LR. The system has been used to scan different types of real surfaces (stone, wood, alloys, bones) and ca be applied in various fields, ranging from industrial machining to medical diagnostics, vision in hostile environments cultural heritage conservation and restoration. The relevance of this technology in cultural heritage applications is discussed in special detail, by providing results obtained in different campaigns with an emphasis on the system's multi-sensor data integration capabilities.

  10. Superresolution of 3-D computational integral imaging based on moving least square method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyein; Lee, Sukho; Ryu, Taekyung; Yoon, Jungho

    2014-11-17

    In this paper, we propose an edge directive moving least square (ED-MLS) based superresolution method for computational integral imaging reconstruction(CIIR). Due to the low resolution of the elemental images and the alignment error of the microlenses, it is not easy to obtain an accurate registration result in integral imaging, which makes it difficult to apply superresolution to the CIIR application. To overcome this problem, we propose the edge directive moving least square (ED-MLS) based superresolution method which utilizes the properties of the moving least square. The proposed ED-MLS based superresolution takes the direction of the edge into account in the moving least square reconstruction to deal with the abrupt brightness changes in the edge regions, and is less sensitive to the registration error. Furthermore, we propose a framework which shows how the data have to be collected for the superresolution problem in the CIIR application. Experimental results verify that the resolution of the elemental images is enhanced, and that a high resolution reconstructed 3-D image can be obtained with the proposed method.

  11. 3D Printing in Zero G Technology Demonstration Mission: Summary of On-Orbit Operations, Material Testing, and Future Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prater, Tracie; Bean, Quincy; Werkheiser, Niki; Ordonez, Erick; Ledbetter, Frank; Ryan, Richard; Newton, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Human space exploration to date has been limited to low Earth orbit and the moon. The International Space Station (ISS), an orbiting laboratory 200 miles above the earth, provides a unique and incredible opportunity for researchers to prove out the technologies that will enable humans to safely live and work in space for longer periods of time and venture farther into the solar system. The ability to manufacture parts in-space rather than launch them from earth represents a fundamental shift in the current risk and logistics paradigm for human spaceflight. In particularly, additive manufacturing (or 3D printing) techniques can potentially be deployed in the space environment to enhance crew safety (by providing an on-demand part replacement capability) and decrease launch mass by reducing the number of spare components that must be launched for missions where cargo resupply is not a near-term option. In September 2014, NASA launched the 3D Printing in Zero G technology demonstration mission to the ISS to explore the potential of additive manufacturing for in-space applications and demonstrate the capability to manufacture parts and tools on-orbit. The printer for this mission was designed and operated by the company Made In Space under a NASA SBIR (Small Business Innovation Research) phase III contract. The overarching objectives of the 3D print mission were to use ISS as a testbed to further maturation of enhancing technologies needed for long duration human exploration missions, introduce new materials and methods to fabricate structure in space, enable cost-effective manufacturing for structures and mechanisms made in low-unit production, and enable physical components to be manufactured in space on long duration missions if necessary. The 3D print unit for fused deposition modeling (FDM) of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) was integrated into the ISS Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) in November 2014 and phase I printing operations took place from

  12. Multimodal, 3D pathology-mimicking bladder phantom for evaluation of cystoscopic technologies (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gennifer T.; Lurie, Kristen L.; Zlatev, Dimitar V.; Liao, Joseph C.; Ellerbee, Audrey K.

    2016-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and blue light cystoscopy (BLC) have shown significant potential as complementary technologies to traditional white light cystoscopy (WLC) for early bladder cancer detection. Three-dimensional (3D) organ-mimicking phantoms provide realistic imaging environments for testing new technology designs, the diagnostic potential of systems, and novel image processing algorithms prior to validation in real tissue. Importantly, the phantom should mimic features of healthy and diseased tissue as they appear under WLC, BLC, and OCT, which are sensitive to tissue color and structure, fluorescent contrast, and optical scattering of subsurface layers, respectively. We present a phantom posing the hollow shape of the bladder and fabricated using a combination of 3D-printing and spray-coating with Dragon Skin (DS) (Smooth-On Inc.), a highly elastic polymer to mimic the layered structure of the bladder. Optical scattering of DS was tuned by addition of titanium dioxide, resulting in scattering coefficients sufficient to cover the human bladder range (0.49 to 2.0 mm^-1). Mucosal vasculature and tissue coloration were mimicked with elastic cord and red dye, respectively. Urethral access was provided through a small hole excised from the base of the phantom. Inserted features of bladder pathology included altered tissue color (WLC), fluorescence emission (BLC), and variations in layered structure (OCT). The phantom surface and underlying material were assessed on the basis of elasticity, optical scattering, layer thicknesses, and qualitative image appearance. WLC, BLC, and OCT images of normal and cancerous features in the phantom qualitatively matched corresponding images from human bladders.

  13. Assessing the Applicability of 3D Holographic Technology as an Enhanced Technology for Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalansooriya, Pradeep; Marasinghe, Ashu; Bandara, K. M. D. N.

    2015-01-01

    Distance learning has provided an excellent platform for students in geographically remote locations while enabling them to learn at their own pace and convenience. A number of technologies are currently being utilized to conceptualize, design, enhance and foster distance learning. Teleconferences, electronic field trips, podcasts, webinars, video…

  14. Make or Buy: Cost Impacts of Additive Manufacturing, 3D Laser Scanning Technology, and Collaborative Product Lifecycle Management on Ship Maintenance and Modernization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    1 Make or Buy: Cost Impacts of Additive Manufacturing , 3D Laser Scanning Technology, and Collaborative Product Lifecycle Management on Ship...DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Make or Buy: Cost Impacts of Additive Manufacturing , 3D Laser Scanning Technology...management during operations 4 Potential Technology 3: Additive Manufacturing (“3D Printing”) 5 • 3D design/image (e.g. from 3D LS) of final part

  15. NFkB disrupts tissue polarity in 3D by preventing integration of microenvironmental signals

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Gaofeng; Furuta, Saori; Han, Ju; Kuhn, Irene; Akavia, Uri-David; Pe'er, Dana; Bissell, Mina J

    2013-01-01

    The microenvironment of cells controls their phenotype, and thereby the architecture of the emerging multicellular structure or tissue. We have reported more than a dozen microenvironmental factors whose signaling must be integrated in order to effect an organized, functional tissue morphology. However, the factors that prevent integration of signaling pathways that merge form and function are still largely unknown. We have identified nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) as a transcriptional regulator that disrupts important microenvironmental cues necessary for tissue organization. We compared the gene expression of organized and disorganized epithelial cells of the HMT-3522 breast cancer progression series: the non-malignant S1 cells that form polarized spheres (‘acini’), the malignant T4-2 cells that form large tumor-like clusters, and the ‘phenotypically reverted’ T4-2 cells that polarize as a result of correction of the microenvironmental signaling. We identified 180 genes that display an increased expression in disorganized compared to polarized structures. Network, GSEA and transcription factor binding site analyses suggested that NFkB is a common activator for the 180 genes. NFkB was found to be activated in disorganized breast cancer cells, and inhibition of microenvironmental signaling via EGFR, beta1 integrin, MMPs, or their downstream signals suppressed its activation. The postulated role of NFkB was experimentally verified: Blocking the NFkB pathway with a specific chemical inhibitor or shRNA induced polarization and inhibited invasion of breast cancer cells in 3D cultures. These results may explain why NFkB holds promise as a target for therapeutic intervention: Its inhibition can reverse the oncogenic signaling involved in breast cancer progression and integrate the essential microenvironmental control of tissue architecture. PMID:24243820

  16. Integrating 3D geological information with a national physically-based hydrological modelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Elizabeth; Parkin, Geoff; Kessler, Holger; Whiteman, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Robust numerical models are an essential tool for informing flood and water management and policy around the world. Physically-based hydrological models have traditionally not been used for such applications due to prohibitively large data, time and computational resource requirements. Given recent advances in computing power and data availability, a robust, physically-based hydrological modelling system for Great Britain using the SHETRAN model and national datasets has been created. Such a model has several advantages over less complex systems. Firstly, compared with conceptual models, a national physically-based model is more readily applicable to ungauged catchments, in which hydrological predictions are also required. Secondly, the results of a physically-based system may be more robust under changing conditions such as climate and land cover, as physical processes and relationships are explicitly accounted for. Finally, a fully integrated surface and subsurface model such as SHETRAN offers a wider range of applications compared with simpler schemes, such as assessments of groundwater resources, sediment and nutrient transport and flooding from multiple sources. As such, SHETRAN provides a robust means of simulating numerous terrestrial system processes which will add physical realism when coupled to the JULES land surface model. 306 catchments spanning Great Britain have been modelled using this system. The standard configuration of this system performs satisfactorily (NSE > 0.5) for 72% of catchments and well (NSE > 0.7) for 48%. Many of the remaining 28% of catchments that performed relatively poorly (NSE < 0.5) are located in the chalk in the south east of England. As such, the British Geological Survey 3D geology model for Great Britain (GB3D) has been incorporated, for the first time in any hydrological model, to pave the way for improvements to be made to simulations of catchments with important groundwater regimes. This coupling has involved

  17. Role of 3D photo-resist simulation for advanced technology nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayana Samy, Aravind; Seltmann, Rolf; Kahlenberg, Frank; Schramm, Jessy; Küchler, Bernd; Klostermann, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    3D Resist Models are gaining significant interest for advanced technology node development. Correct prediction of resist profiles, resist top-loss and top-rounding are acquiring higher importance in ORC hotspot verification due to impact on etch resistance and post etch results. We would like to highlight the specific calibration procedure to calibrate a rigorous 3D model. Special focus is on the importance of high quality metrology data for both a successful calibration and for allowing a reduction of the number of data points used for calibration [1]. In a productive application the calibration could be performed using a subset of 20 features measured through dose and focus and model validation was done with 500 features through dose and focus. This data reduction minimized the actual calibration effort of the 3D resist model and enabled calibration run times of less than one hour. The successful validation with the complete data set showed that the data reduction did not cause over- fitting of the model. The model is applied and verified at hotspots showing defects such as bottom bridging or top loss that would not be visible in a 2D resist model. The model performance is also evaluated with a conventional CD error metric where CD at Bottom of simulation and measurement are compared. We could achieve excellent results for both metrics using SEM CD, SEM images, AFM measurements and wafer cross sections. Additional modeling criterion is resist model portability. A prerequisite is the separability of resist model and optical model, i.e. the resist model shall characterize the resist only and should not lump characteristics from the optical model. This is a requirement to port the resist model to different optical setups such as another illumination source without the need of re-calibration. Resist model portability is shown by validation and application of the model to a second process with significantly different optical settings. The resist model can predict hot

  18. Bright 3D display, native and integrated on-chip or system-level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellwood, Sutherland C., Jr.

    2011-06-01

    Photonica, Inc. has pioneered the use of magneto-optics and hybrid technologies in visual display systems to create arrays addressing hi-speed, solid-state modulators up to 1K times faster that DMD/DLP, yielding high frame-rate and extremely high net native resolution allowing for full-duplication of right eye and left eye modulators at 1080p, DCI 2K, 4K and other specified resolution requirements. The technology enables high-transmission (brightness) per frame. In one version, each integrated image-engine assembly processes binocular frames simultaneously, employing simultaneous right eye/left eye channels, either polarization-based or "Infitec" color-band based channels, as well as pixel-vector based systems. In another version, a multi-chip, massively parallel signal-processing architecture integrates pixel-signal channels to yield simultaneous binocular frames. This may be combined with on-chip integration. Channels are integrated either through optics elements on-chip or through fiber network or both.

  19. 3D printing technology as innovative tool for math and geometry teaching applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huleihil, M.

    2017-01-01

    The industrial revolution and automation of production processes have changed the face of the world. Three dimensional (3D) printing has the potential to revolutionize manufacturing and further change methods of production toward allowing in increasing number of people to produce products at home. According to a recent OECD (see Backer [1]) publication, “…tapping into the next industrial revolution requires actions on many levels and in many different areas. In particular, unlocking the potential of emerging and enabling technologies requires policy development along a number of fronts, from commercialization to regulation and the supply of skills through education.” In this paper we discuss the role of schools and their responsibility to act as quickly as possible to design a plan of action that will prepare the future citizens to deal with this new reality. This requires planning of action in different directions and on different planes, such as labs, teachers, and curricula. 3D printing requires higher levels of thinking, innovation and creativity. It has the power to develop human imagination and give students the opportunity to visualize numbers, two- dimensional shapes, and three-dimensional objects. The combination of thinking, design, and production has immense power to increase motivation and satisfaction, with a highly probable increase in a student’s math and geometry achievements. The CAD system includes a measure tool which enables and alternative way for calculating properties of the objects under consideration and allows development of reflection and critical thinking. The research method was based on comparison between a reference group and a test group; it was found that intervention significantly improved the reflection abilities of 6th grade students in mathematics.

  20. Simulation study of a novel 3D SPAD pixel in an advanced FD-SOI technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignetti, M. M.; Calmon, F.; Lesieur, P.; Savoy-Navarro, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a novel SPAD architecture implemented in a Fully-Depleted Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) CMOS technology is presented. Thanks to its intrinsic vertical 3D structure, the proposed solution is expected to allow further scaling of the pixel size while ensuring high fill factors. Moreover the pixel and the detector electronics can benefit of the well-known advantages brought by SOI technology with respect to bulk CMOS, such as higher speed and lower power consumption. TCAD simulations based on realistic process parameters and dedicated post-processing analysis are carried out in order to optimize and validate the avalanche diode architecture for an optimal electric field distribution in the device but also to extract the main parameters of the SPAD, such as the breakdown voltage, the avalanche triggering probability, the dark count rate and the photon detection probability. A comparison between the efficiency in back-side and front-side approaches is carried out with a particular focus on time-of-flight applications.

  1. Performance of almost edgeless silicon detectors in CTS and 3D-planar technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagoz, E.; Anelli, G.; Antchev, G.; Avati, V.; Bassetti, V.; Berardi, V.; Boccone, V.; Bozzo, M.; Brücken, E.; Buzzo, A.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cuneo, S.; Da Vià, C.; Deile, M.; Dinapoli, R.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Ferro, F.; Hasi, J.; Haug, F.; Heino, J.; Jarron, P.; Kalliopuska, J.; Kašpar, J.; Kenney, C.; Kok, A.; Kundrát, V.; Kurvinen, K.; Lauhakangas, R.; Lippmaa, E.; Lokajíček, M.; Luntama, T.; Macina, D.; Macrí, M.; Minutoli, S.; Mirabito, L.; Niewiadomski, H.; Noschis, E.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oriunno, M.; Österberg, K.; Parker, S.; Perrot, A.-L.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ruggiero, G.; Saarikko, H.; Santroni, A.; Sette, G.; Siegrist, P.; Smotlacha, J.; Snoeys, W.; Taylor, C.; Watts, S.; Whitmore, J.

    2013-06-01

    The physics programme of the TOTEM experiment requires the detection of very forward protons scattered by only a few microradians out of the LHC beams. For this purpose, stacks of planar Silicon detectors have been mounted in moveable near-beam telescopes (Roman Pots) located along the beamline on both sides of the interaction point. In order to maximise the proton acceptance close to the beams, the dead space at the detector edge had to be minimised. During the detector prototyping phase, different sensor technologies and designs have been explored. A reduction of the dead space to less than 50 μm has been accomplished with two novel silicon detector technologies: one with the Current Terminating Structure (CTS) design and one based on the 3D edge manufacturing. This paper describes performance studies on prototypes of these detectors, carried out in 2004 in a fixed-target muon beam at CERN's SPS accelerator. In particular, the efficiency and accuracy in the vicinity of the beam-facing edges are discussed.

  2. Swarm Intelligence Integrated Graph-Cut for Liver Segmentation from 3D-CT Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Eapen, Maya; Korah, Reeba; Geetha, G.

    2015-01-01

    The segmentation of organs in CT volumes is a prerequisite for diagnosis and treatment planning. In this paper, we focus on liver segmentation from contrast-enhanced abdominal CT volumes, a challenging task due to intensity overlapping, blurred edges, large variability in liver shape, and complex background with cluttered features. The algorithm integrates multidiscriminative cues (i.e., prior domain information, intensity model, and regional characteristics of liver in a graph-cut image segmentation framework). The paper proposes a swarm intelligence inspired edge-adaptive weight function for regulating the energy minimization of the traditional graph-cut model. The model is validated both qualitatively (by clinicians and radiologists) and quantitatively on publically available computed tomography (CT) datasets (MICCAI 2007 liver segmentation challenge, 3D-IRCAD). Quantitative evaluation of segmentation results is performed using liver volume calculations and a mean score of 80.8% and 82.5% on MICCAI and IRCAD dataset, respectively, is obtained. The experimental result illustrates the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26689833

  3. Mercury Lightcraft Project Update: 3-D Modeling, Systems Analysis and Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckton, Thomas W.; Myrabo, Leik N.

    2005-04-01

    This paper is a progress report on the laser-propelled Mercury Lightcraft Project at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The laser-propelled, 1-person craft has a diameter of 252-cm, height of 217-cm, internal volume of 3 m3, `dry' mass of 700 kg, and gross liftoff mass of 1 metric ton. Expendable liquids including 70 kg of liquid hydrogen, and an equivalent mass (at least) of de-ionized water serves as open-cycle coolants for the 520 MWe laser/electric power conversion system. Its hyper-energetic airbreathing engine can easily accelerate the vehicle at 10 Gs or more. The tractor-beam lightcraft is intended as a prototype for use in a future global aerospace transportation system based on a constellation of satellite solar power stations in geostationary orbit, with laser relay stations in low Earth orbit. Using SolidWorks® 3-D modeling software, several important features were successfully integrated into the Mercury lightcraft model - principally: a rotating shroud (for spin stabilization) simple actuation system for a new variable-geometry air inlet; refined optical train for the laser-heated H2 plasma generators; pneumatically deployed, robotic quadra-pod landing gear; ejection seat/pod/hatch system; and a more detailed airframe structural concept. The CAD effort has brought the Mercury Lightcraft concept one significant step closer to reality.

  4. The RCSB protein data bank: integrative view of protein, gene and 3D structural information

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Peter W.; Prlić, Andreas; Altunkaya, Ali; Bi, Chunxiao; Bradley, Anthony R.; Christie, Cole H.; Costanzo, Luigi Di; Duarte, Jose M.; Dutta, Shuchismita; Feng, Zukang; Green, Rachel Kramer; Goodsell, David S.; Hudson, Brian; Kalro, Tara; Lowe, Robert; Peisach, Ezra; Randle, Christopher; Rose, Alexander S.; Shao, Chenghua; Tao, Yi-Ping; Valasatava, Yana; Voigt, Maria; Westbrook, John D.; Woo, Jesse; Yang, Huangwang; Young, Jasmine Y.; Zardecki, Christine; Berman, Helen M.; Burley, Stephen K.

    2017-01-01

    The Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics Protein Data Bank (RCSB PDB, http://rcsb.org), the US data center for the global PDB archive, makes PDB data freely available to all users, from structural biologists to computational biologists and beyond. New tools and resources have been added to the RCSB PDB web portal in support of a ‘Structural View of Biology.’ Recent developments have improved the User experience, including the high-speed NGL Viewer that provides 3D molecular visualization in any web browser, improved support for data file download and enhanced organization of website pages for query, reporting and individual structure exploration. Structure validation information is now visible for all archival entries. PDB data have been integrated with external biological resources, including chromosomal position within the human genome; protein modifications; and metabolic pathways. PDB-101 educational materials have been reorganized into a searchable website and expanded to include new features such as the Geis Digital Archive. PMID:27794042

  5. Liquid immersion thermal crosslinking of 3D polymer nanopatterns for direct carbonisation with high structural integrity

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Da-Young; Kim, Cheolho; Park, Gyurim; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    The direct pyrolytic carbonisation of polymer patterns has attracted interest for its use in obtaining carbon materials. In the case of carbonisation of nanopatterned polymers, the polymer flow and subsequent pattern change may occur in order to relieve their high surface energies. Here, we demonstrated that liquid immersion thermal crosslinking of polymer nanopatterns effectively enhanced the thermal resistance and maintained the structure integrity during the heat treatment. We employed the liquid immersion thermal crosslinking for 3D porous SU8 photoresist nanopatterns and successfully converted them to carbon nanopatterns while maintaining their porous features. The thermal crosslinking reaction and carbonisation of SU8 nanopatterns were characterised. The micro-crystallinity of the SU8-derived carbon nanopatterns was also characterised. The liquid immersion heat treatment can be extended to the carbonisation of various polymer or photoresist nanopatterns and also provide a facile way to control the surface energy of polymer nanopatterns for various purposes, for example, to block copolymer or surfactant self-assemblies. PMID:26677949

  6. Acoustic backing in 3-D integration of CMUT with front-end electronics.

    PubMed

    Berg, Sigrid; Rønnekleiv, Arne

    2012-07-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) have shown promising qualities for medical imaging. However, there are still some problems to be investigated, and some challenges to overcome. Acoustic backing is necessary to prevent SAWs excited in the surface of the silicon substrate from affecting the transmit pattern from the array. In addition, echoes resulting from bulk waves in the substrate must be removed. There is growing interest in integrating electronic circuits to do some of the beamforming directly below the transducer array. This may be easier to achieve for CMUTs than for traditional piezoelectric transducers. We will present simulations showing that the thickness of the silicon substrate and thicknesses and acoustic properties of the bonding material must be considered, especially when designing highfrequency transducers. Through simulations, we compare the acoustic properties of 3-D stacks bonded with three different bonding techniques; solid-liquid interdiffusion (SLID) bonding, direct fusion bonding, and anisotropic conductive adhesives (ACA). We look at a CMUT array with a center frequency of 30 MHz and three silicon wafers underneath, having a total silicon thickness of 100 μm. We find that fusion bonding is most beneficial if we want to prevent surface waves from damaging the array response, but SLID and ACA are also promising if bonding layer thicknesses can be reduced.

  7. A polymer-based Fabry-Perot filter integrated with 3-D MEMS structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ping (Cerina); Le, Kevin; Malalur-Nagaraja-Rao, Smitha; Hsu, Lun-Chen; Chiao, J.-C.

    2006-01-01

    Polymers have been considered as one of the most versatile materials in making optical devices for communication and sensor applications. They provide good optical transparency to form filters, lenses and many optical components with ease of fabrication. They are scalable and compatible in dimensions with requirements in optics and can be fabricated on inorganic substrates, such as silicon and quartz. Recent polymer synthesis also made great progresses on conductive and nonlinear polymers, opening opportunities for new applications. In this paper, we discussed hybrid-material integration of polymers on silicon-based microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices. The motivation is to combine the advantages of demonstrated silicon-based MEMS actuators and excellent optical performance of polymers. We demonstrated the idea with a polymer-based out-of-plane Fabry-Perot filter that can be self-assembled by scratch drive actuators. We utilized a fabrication foundry service, MUMPS (Multi-User MEMS Process), to demonstrate the feasibility and flexibility of integration. The polysilicon, used as the structural material for construction of 3-D framework and actuators, has high absorption in the visible and near infrared ranges. Therefore, previous efforts using a polysilicon layer as optical interfaces suffer from high losses. We applied the organic compound materials on the silicon-based framework within the optical signal propagation path to form the optical interfaces. In this paper, we have shown low losses in the optical signal processing and feasibility of building a thin-film Fabry-Perot filter. We discussed the optical filter designs, mechanical design, actuation mechanism, fabrication issues, optical measurements, and results.

  8. Two-photon polymerization microfabrication of hydrogels: an advanced 3D printing technology for tissue engineering and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jin-Feng; Zheng, Mei-Ling; Duan, Xuan-Ming

    2015-08-07

    3D printing technology has attracted much attention due to its high potential in scientific and industrial applications. As an outstanding 3D printing technology, two-photon polymerization (TPP) microfabrication has been applied in the fields of micro/nanophotonics, micro-electromechanical systems, microfluidics, biomedical implants and microdevices. In particular, TPP microfabrication is very useful in tissue engineering and drug delivery due to its powerful fabrication capability for precise microstructures with high spatial resolution on both the microscopic and the nanometric scale. The design and fabrication of 3D hydrogels widely used in tissue engineering and drug delivery has been an important research area of TPP microfabrication. The resolution is a key parameter for 3D hydrogels to simulate the native 3D environment in which the cells reside and the drug is controlled to release with optimal temporal and spatial distribution in vitro and in vivo. The resolution of 3D hydrogels largely depends on the efficiency of TPP initiators. In this paper, we will review the widely used photoresists, the development of TPP photoinitiators, the strategies for improving the resolution and the microfabrication of 3D hydrogels.

  9. [Prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with parodontitis based upon the use of 3D-technologies--clinical case example].

    PubMed

    Riakhovskiĭ, A N

    2011-01-01

    Clinical case of prosthetic rehabilitation of patient (female) with generalized parodontitis complicated by defects and deformations of dentitions was offered. Using 3D-technologies position of teeth was corrected with the help of a series of temporary transparent splints-modifiers with subsequent guy splintage and esthetic 3D-planning of front teeth forms. Teeth forms correction was made by composite using preliminary prepared templet.

  10. Integrated optics technology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, B.

    1982-01-01

    The materials and processes available for the fabrication of single mode integrated electrooptical components are described. Issues included in the study are: (1) host material and orientation, (2) waveguide formation, (3) optical loss mechanisms, (4) wavelength selection, (5) polarization effects and control, (6) laser to integrated optics coupling,(7) fiber optic waveguides to integrated optics coupling, (8) souces, (9) detectors. The best materials, technology and processes for fabrication of integrated optical components for communications and fiber gyro applications are recommended.

  11. Integrated optics technology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, B.; Findakly, T.; Innarella, R.

    1982-01-01

    The status and near term potential of materials and processes available for the fabrication of single mode integrated electro-optical components are discussed. Issues discussed are host material and orientation, waveguide formation, optical loss mechanisms, wavelength selection, polarization effects and control, laser to integrated optics coupling fiber optic waveguides to integrated optics coupling, sources, and detectors. Recommendations of the best materials, technology, and processes for fabrication of integrated optical components for communications and fiber gyro applications are given.

  12. Dynamic analysis of angiogenesis in transgenic zebrafish embryos using a 3D multilayer chip-based technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akagi, Jin; Zhu, Feng; Hall, Chris J.; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Mitchell, Arnan; Crosier, Kathryn E.; Crosier, Philip S.; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2013-03-01

    Transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) models of human diseases have recently emerged as innovative experimental systems in drug discovery and molecular pathology. None of the currently available technologies, however, allow for automated immobilization and treatment of large numbers of spatially encoded transgenic embryos during real-time developmental analysis. This work describes the proof-of-concept design and validation of an integrated 3D microfluidic chip-based system fabricated directly in the poly(methyl methacrylate) transparent thermoplastic using infrared laser micromachining. At its core, the device utilizes an array of 3D micro-mechanical traps to actively capture and immobilize single embryos using a low-pressure suction. It also features built-in piezoelectric microdiaphragm pumps, embryo trapping suction manifold, drug delivery manifold and optically transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) heating element to provide optimal temperature during embryo development. Furthermore, we present design of the proof-of-concept off-chip electronic interface equipped with robotic servo actuator driven stage, innovative servomotor-actuated pinch valves and miniaturized fluorescent USB microscope. Our results show that the innovative device has 100% embryo trapping efficiency while supporting normal embryo development for up to 72 hours in a confined microfluidic environment. We also present data that this microfluidic system can be readily applied to kinetic analysis of a panel of investigational anti-angiogenic agents in transgenic zebrafish Tg(fli1a:EGFP) line. The optical transparency and embryo immobilization allow for convenient visualization of developing vasculature patterns in response to drug treatment without the need for specimen re-positioning. The integrated electronic interfaces bring the Lab-on-a-Chip systems a step closer to realization of complete analytical automation.

  13. Application of Cutting-Edge 3D Seismic Attribute Technology to the Assessment of Geological Reservoirs for CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Liner; Jianjun Zeng; Po Geng Heather King Jintan Li; Jennifer Califf; John Seales

    2010-03-31

    The goals of this project were to develop innovative 3D seismic attribute technologies and workflows to assess the structural integrity and heterogeneity of subsurface reservoirs with potential for CO{sub 2} sequestration. Our specific objectives were to apply advanced seismic attributes to aide in quantifying reservoir properies and lateral continuity of CO{sub 2} sequestration targets. Our study area is the Dickman field in Ness County, Kansas, a type locality for the geology that will be encountered for CO{sub 2} sequestration projects from northern Oklahoma across the U.S. midcontent to Indiana and beyond. Since its discovery in 1962, the Dickman Field has produced about 1.7 million barrels of oil from porous Mississippian carbonates with a small structural closure at about 4400 ft drilling depth. Project data includes 3.3 square miles of 3D seismic data, 142 wells, with log, some core, and oil/water production data available. Only two wells penetrate the deep saline aquifer. Geological and seismic data were integrated to create a geological property model and a flow simulation grid. We systematically tested over a dozen seismic attributes, finding that curvature, SPICE, and ANT were particularly useful for mapping discontinuities in the data that likely indicated fracture trends. Our simulation results in the deep saline aquifer indicate two effective ways of reducing free CO{sub 2}: (a) injecting CO{sub 2} with brine water, and (b) horizontal well injection. A tuned combination of these methods can reduce the amount of free CO{sub 2} in the aquifer from over 50% to less than 10%.

  14. 3D Simulation Technology as an Effective Instructional Tool for Enhancing Spatial Visualization Skills in Apparel Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Juyeon; Kim, Dong-Eun; Sohn, MyungHee

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the effectiveness of 3D simulation technology for enhancing spatial visualization skills in apparel design education and further to suggest an innovative teaching approach using the technology. Apparel design majors in an introductory patternmaking course, at a large Midwestern University in the United…

  15. Interferometry based multispectral photon-limited 2D and 3D integral image encryption employing the Hartley transform.

    PubMed

    Muniraj, Inbarasan; Guo, Changliang; Lee, Byung-Geun; Sheridan, John T

    2015-06-15

    We present a method of securing multispectral 3D photon-counted integral imaging (PCII) using classical Hartley Transform (HT) based encryption by employing optical interferometry. This method has the simultaneous advantages of minimizing complexity by eliminating the need for holography recording and addresses the phase sensitivity problem encountered when using digital cameras. These together with single-channel multispectral 3D data compactness, the inherent properties of the classical photon counting detection model, i.e. sparse sensing and the capability for nonlinear transformation, permits better authentication of the retrieved 3D scene at various depth cues. Furthermore, the proposed technique works for both spatially and temporally incoherent illumination. To validate the proposed technique simulations were carried out for both the 2D and 3D cases. Experimental data is processed and the results support the feasibility of the encryption method.

  16. Full parallax viewing-angle enhanced computer-generated holographic 3D display system using integral lens array.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyongsik; Kim, Joohwan; Lim, Yongjun; Lee, Byoungho

    2005-12-26

    A novel full parallax and viewing-angle enhanced computer-generated holographic (CGH) three-dimensional (3D) display system is proposed and implemented by combining an integral lens array and colorized synthetic phase holograms displayed on a phase-type spatial light modulator. For analyzing the viewing-angle limitations of our CGH 3D display system, we provide some theoretical background and introduce a simple ray-tracing method for 3D image reconstruction. From our method we can get continuously varying full parallax 3D images with the viewing angle about +/-6 degrees . To design the colorized phase holograms, we used a modified iterative Fourier transform algorithm and we could obtain a high diffraction efficiency (~92.5%) and a large signal-to-noise ratio (~11dB) from our simulation results. Finally we show some experimental results that verify our concept and demonstrate the full parallax viewing-angle enhanced color CGH display system.

  17. Parallel robot for micro assembly with integrated innovative optical 3D-sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesselbach, Juergen; Ispas, Diana; Pokar, Gero; Soetebier, Sven; Tutsch, Rainer

    2002-10-01

    Recent advances in the fields of MEMS and MOEMS often require precise assembly of very small parts with an accuracy of a few microns. In order to meet this demand, a new approach using a robot based on parallel mechanisms in combination with a novel 3D-vision system has been chosen. The planar parallel robot structure with 2 DOF provides a high resolution in the XY-plane. It carries two additional serial axes for linear and rotational movement in/about z direction. In order to achieve high precision as well as good dynamic capabilities, the drive concept for the parallel (main) axes incorporates air bearings in combination with a linear electric servo motors. High accuracy position feedback is provided by optical encoders with a resolution of 0.1 μm. To allow for visualization and visual control of assembly processes, a camera module fits into the hollow tool head. It consists of a miniature CCD camera and a light source. In addition a modular gripper support is integrated into the tool head. To increase the accuracy a control loop based on an optoelectronic sensor will be implemented. As a result of an in-depth analysis of different approaches a photogrammetric system using one single camera and special beam-splitting optics was chosen. A pattern of elliptical marks is applied to the surfaces of workpiece and gripper. Using a model-based recognition algorithm the image processing software identifies the gripper and the workpiece and determines their relative position. A deviation vector is calculated and fed into the robot control to guide the gripper.

  18. The Integration of GPR, GIS, and GPS for 3D Soil Morphologic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tischler, M.; Collins, M. E.

    2005-05-01

    Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) has become a useful and efficient instrument for gathering information about subsurface diagnostic horizons in Florida soils. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are a popular and valuable tool for spatial data analysis of real world features in a digital environment. Ground-Penetrating Radar can be linked to GIS by using Global Positioning Systems (GPS). By combining GPR, GPS, and GIS technologies, a more detailed geophysical survey can be completed for an area of interest by integratinghydrologic, pedologic, and geologic data. Thus, the objectives of this research were to identify subsurface soil layers using GPR and their geographic position with a highly accurate GPS; to develop a procedure to import GPR data into a popular software package, such as ArcGIS, and; to create 3D subsurface models based on the imported GPR data. The site for this study was the Plant Science Research and Education Center in Marion County, Florida. The soils are characterized by Recent-Pleistocene-age sand over the clayey, marine deposited Plio-Miocene-age Hawthorn Formation which drapes the Eocene-age Ocala Limestone. Consequently, soils in the research area vary from deep quartz sands (Typic Quartzipsamments) to shallow outcrops of the Hawthorn Formation (Arenic Hapludalfs). A GPR survey was performed on a 160 m x 320 m grid to gather data for processing. Four subsurface models estimating the depth to argillic horizon were created using a variety of specialized GPR data filters and geostatistical data analyses. The models were compared with ground-truth points that measured the depth to argillic horizon to validate each model and calculate error metrics. These models may assist research station personnel to determine best management practices (including experimental plot placement, irrigation management, fertilizer treatment, and pesticide applications). In addition, the developed methodology exploits the potential of combining GPR and GIS.

  19. Evaluation of AN Integrated Gis-Based Crime Analysis & 3d Modelling for Izmir-Konak Municipality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarhan, C.; Deniz, D.

    2011-08-01

    GIS integrated 3D modelling is crucial for the city planning and design processes because urban modelling is a tool used in virtual environments, and provides convenience to work. Although, the creation and display of 3D city models for large regions is difficult it is vital for planning and designing safer cities, as well as public places. Today, crime is a significant problem in Turkey. When it was compared by years of crime rates, population growth and urbanization rate, an increasing more than in parallel has been observed. This paper aims to discuss GIS integrated 3D modelling affects in urban planning and design, explaining Turkish planning processes with GIS and 3D modelling. To do that, it presents a case study for Izmir Konak Municipality about GIS integrated crime analysis and 3D models of the crime scenes. Izmir crime records has been obtained from Izmir Police Department belonging to 2003-2004 and 2005 (D. Deniz, 2007) are used for districts' crime map. In the light of these data, the highest rate crime district, Konak, is analyzed between 2001 and 2005 data.

  20. An integrated system for 3D hip joint reconstruction from 2D X-rays: a preliminary validation study.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Steffen; Liu, Li; Tannast, Moritz; Bergmann, Mathias; Nolte, Lutz-P; Zheng, Guoyan

    2013-10-01

    The acquisition of conventional X-ray radiographs remains the standard imaging procedure for the diagnosis of hip-related problems. However, recent studies demonstrated the benefit of using three-dimensional (3D) surface models in the clinical routine. 3D surface models of the hip joint are useful for assessing the dynamic range of motion in order to identify possible pathologies such as femoroacetabular impingement. In this paper, we present an integrated system which consists of X-ray radiograph calibration and subsequent 2D/3D hip joint reconstruction for diagnosis and planning of hip-related problems. A mobile phantom with two different sizes of fiducials was developed for X-ray radiograph calibration, which can be robustly detected within the images. On the basis of the calibrated X-ray images, a 3D reconstruction method of the acetabulum was developed and applied together with existing techniques to reconstruct a 3D surface model of the hip joint. X-ray radiographs of dry cadaveric hip bones and one cadaveric specimen with soft tissue were used to prove the robustness of the developed fiducial detection algorithm. Computed tomography scans of the cadaveric bones were used to validate the accuracy of the integrated system. The fiducial detection sensitivity was in the same range for both sizes of fiducials. While the detection sensitivity was 97.96% for the large fiducials, it was 97.62% for the small fiducials. The acetabulum and the proximal femur were reconstructed with a mean surface distance error of 1.06 and 1.01 mm, respectively. The results for fiducial detection sensitivity and 3D surface reconstruction demonstrated the capability of the integrated system for 3D hip joint reconstruction from 2D calibrated X-ray radiographs.

  1. An integral equation approach to smooth 3D Navier-Stokes solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costin, O.; Luo, G.; Tanveer, S.

    2008-12-01

    We summarize a recently developed integral equation (IE) approach to tackling the long-time existence problem for smooth solution v(x, t) to the 3D Navier-Stokes (NS) equation in the context of a periodic box problem with smooth time independent forcing and initial condition v0. Using an inverse-Laplace transform of {\\skew5\\hat v} (k, t) - {\\skew5\\hat v}_0 in 1/t, we arrive at an IE for {\\skew5\\hat U} (k, p) , where p is inverse-Laplace dual to 1/t and k is the Fourier variable dual to x. The advantage of this formulation is that the solution {\\skew5\\hat U} to the IE is known to exist a priori for p \\in \\mathbb{R}^+ and the solution is integrable and exponentially bounded at ∞. Global existence of NS solution in this formulation is reduced to an asymptotics question. If \\parallel\\!{\\skew5\\hat U} (\\cdot, p)\\!\\parallel_{{l^{1} (\\mathbb{Z}^3)}} has subexponential bounds as p→∞, then global existence to NS follows. Moreover, if f=0, then the converse is also true in the following sense: if NS has global solution, then there exists n>=1 for which the inverse-Laplace transform of {\\skew5\\hat v} (k, t) - {\\skew5\\hat v}_0 in 1/tn necessarily decays as q→∞, where q is the inverse-Laplace dual to 1/tn. We also present refined estimates of the exponential growth when the solution {\\skew5\\hat U} is known on a finite interval [0, p0]. We also show that for analytic v[0] and f, with finitely many nonzero Fourier-coefficients, the series for {\\skew5\\hat U} (k, p) in powers of p has a radius of convergence independent of initial condition and forcing; indeed the radius gets bigger for smaller viscosity. We also show that the IE can be solved numerically with controlled errors. Preliminary numerical calculations for Kida (1985 J. Phys. Soc. Japan 54 2132) initial conditions, though far from being optimized, and performed on a modest interval in the accelerated variable q show decay in q.

  2. Integrated Flywheel Technology, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keckler, C. R. (Editor); Rodriguez, G. E. (Editor); Groom, N. J. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Topics of discussion included: technology assessment of the integrated flywheel systems, potential of system concepts, identification of critical areas needing development and, to scope and define an appropriate program for coordinated activity.

  3. Integrating genomic information with protein sequence and 3D atomic level structure at the RCSB protein data bank

    PubMed Central

    Prlić, Andreas; Kalro, Tara; Bhattacharya, Roshni; Christie, Cole; Burley, Stephen K.; Rose, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: The Protein Data Bank (PDB) now contains more than 120,000 three-dimensional (3D) structures of biological macromolecules. To allow an interpretation of how PDB data relates to other publicly available annotations, we developed a novel data integration platform that maps 3D structural information across various datasets. This integration bridges from the human genome across protein sequence to 3D structure space. We developed novel software solutions for data management and visualization, while incorporating new libraries for web-based visualization using SVG graphics. Availability and Implementation: The new views are available from http://www.rcsb.org and software is available from https://github.com/rcsb/. Contact: andreas.prlic@rcsb.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27551105

  4. Genome3D: A viewer-model framework for integrating and visualizing multi-scale epigenomic information within a three-dimensional genome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background New technologies are enabling the measurement of many types of genomic and epigenomic information at scales ranging from the atomic to nuclear. Much of this new data is increasingly structural in nature, and is often difficult to coordinate with other data sets. There is a legitimate need for integrating and visualizing these disparate data sets to reveal structural relationships not apparent when looking at these data in isolation. Results We have applied object-oriented technology to develop a downloadable visualization tool, Genome3D, for integrating and displaying epigenomic data within a prescribed three-dimensional physical model of the human genome. In order to integrate and visualize large volume of data, novel statistical and mathematical approaches have been developed to reduce the size of the data. To our knowledge, this is the first such tool developed that can visualize human genome in three-dimension. We describe here the major features of Genome3D and discuss our multi-scale data framework using a representative basic physical model. We then demonstrate many of the issues and benefits of multi-resolution data integration. Conclusions Genome3D is a software visualization tool that explores a wide range of structural genomic and epigenetic data. Data from various sources of differing scales can be integrated within a hierarchical framework that is easily adapted to new developments concerning the structure of the physical genome. In addition, our tool has a simple annotation mechanism to incorporate non-structural information. Genome3D is unique is its ability to manipulate large amounts of multi-resolution data from diverse sources to uncover complex and new structural relationships within the genome. PMID:20813045

  5. MO-H-19A-03: Patient Specific Bolus with 3D Printing Technology for Electron Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, W; Swann, B; Siderits, R; McKenna, M; Khan, A; Yue, N; Zhang, M; Fisher, T

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Bolus is widely used in electron radiotherapy to achieve desired dose distribution. 3D printing technologies provide clinicians with easy access to fabricate patient specific bolus accommodating patient body surface irregularities and tissue inhomogeneity. This study presents the design and the clinical workflow of 3D printed bolus for patient electron therapy in our clinic. Methods: Patient simulation CT images free of bolus were exported from treatment planning system (TPS) to an in-house developed software package. Bolus with known material properties was designed in the software package and then exported back to the TPS as a structure. Dose calculation was carried out to examine the coverage of the target. After satisfying dose distribution was achieved, the bolus structure was transferred in Standard Tessellation Language (STL) file format for the 3D printer to generate the machine codes for printing. Upon receiving printed bolus, a quick quality assurance was performed with patient resimulated with bolus in place to verify the bolus dosimetric property before treatment started. Results: A patient specific bolus for electron radiotherapy was designed and fabricated in Form 1 3D printer with methacrylate photopolymer resin. Satisfying dose distribution was achieved in patient with bolus setup. Treatment was successfully finished for one patient with the 3D printed bolus. Conclusion: The electron bolus fabrication with 3D printing technology was successfully implemented in clinic practice.

  6. Estimation of uncertainties in geological 3D raster layer models as integral part of modelling procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maljers, Denise; den Dulk, Maryke; ten Veen, Johan; Hummelman, Jan; Gunnink, Jan; van Gessel, Serge

    2016-04-01

    applied for DGM Deep proves to be an effective way to (graphically) represent the reliability of the DGM Deep model, although the relative contribution of the various error sources needs further attention. For the DGM Shallow model a cross-validation procedure in a moving window environment has been used to calculate mean deviations and standard errors on a sub-regional scale. Subsequently, these cross validation standard errors have been rescaled to account for local data configuration and clustering. This resulted in standard deviations expressing both regional and local uncertainties. Both workflows are state-of-the-art, form an integral part of the geological modelling and result in reproducible uncertainty values. They can be considered a good starting point for incorporating other errors that contribute to uncertainties of geological 3D raster layer models. For example, the mis-positioning of data used or the error underlying mis-ties at well locations. An additional, perhaps more easy-to-read, parameter that can be calculated to visualize these uncertainties would be the information entropy, as proposed by Wellmann & Regenauer-Lieb (2012). Where a value of 0 means there is no uncertainty, and a value of 1 means there is a high uncertainty. At the moment depth uncertainty information is disseminated through our webportals (www.dinoloket.nl and www.nlog.nl) in an on-line map viewer and as downloadable GIS products.

  7. Applying 3D-printing technology in planning operations of cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashapov, L. N.; N, A. N. Rudyk A.; Kashapov, R. N.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this work was creation 3D model of the front part of the skull of the patient and evaluates the effectiveness of its use in the planning of the operation. To achieve this goal was chosen an operation to remove a tumor of the right eyelid, germinate in the zygomatic bone. 3D printing was performed at different peripheral devices using the method of layering creating physical objects by a digital 3D model as well as the recovery model of the skull with the entire right malar bone for fixation on her titanium frame to maintain the eyeball in a fixed state.

  8. Educational Technology: Integration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Dean L.; Tennyson, Robert D.

    This paper presents a perspective of the current state of technology-assisted instruction integrating computer language, artificial intelligence (AI), and a review of cognitive science applied to instruction. The following topics are briefly discussed: (1) the language of instructional technology, i.e., programming languages, including authoring…

  9. Multi-Scale Modeling of an Integrated 3D Braided Composite with Applications to Helicopter Arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Diantang; Chen, Li; Sun, Ying; Zhang, Yifan; Qian, Kun

    2017-01-01

    A study is conducted with the aim of developing multi-scale analytical method for designing the composite helicopter arm with three-dimensional (3D) five-directional braided structure. Based on the analysis of 3D braided microstructure, the multi-scale finite element modeling is developed. Finite element analysis on the load capacity of 3D five-directional braided composites helicopter arm is carried out using the software ABAQUS/Standard. The influences of the braiding angle and loading condition on the stress and strain distribution of the helicopter arm are simulated. The results show that the proposed multi-scale method is capable of accurately predicting the mechanical properties of 3D braided composites, validated by the comparison the stress-strain curves of meso-scale RVCs. Furthermore, it is found that the braiding angle is an important factor affecting the mechanical properties of 3D five-directional braided composite helicopter arm. Based on the optimized structure parameters, the nearly net-shaped composite helicopter arm is fabricated using a novel resin transfer mould (RTM) process.

  10. Comparing and visualizing titanium implant integration in rat bone using 2D and 3D techniques.

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, Anna; Sarve, Hamid; Johansson, Carina B

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to compare the osseointegration of grit-blasted implants with and without a hydrogen fluoride treatment in rat tibia and femur, and to visualize bone formation using state-of-the-art 3D visualization techniques. Grit-blasted implants were inserted in femur and tibia of 10 Sprague-Dawley rats (4 implants/rat). Four weeks after insertion, bone implant samples were retrieved. Selected samples were imaged in 3D using Synchrotron Radiation-based μCT (SRμCT). The 3D data was quantified and visualized using two novel visualization techniques, thread fly-through and 2D unfolding. All samples were processed to cut and ground sections and 2D histomorphometrical comparisons of bone implant contact (BIC), bone area (BA), and mirror image area (MI) were performed. BA values were statistically significantly higher for test implants than controls (p < 0.05), but BIC and MI data did not differ significantly. Thus, the results partly indicate improved bone formation at blasted and hydrogen fluoride treated implants, compared to blasted implants. The 3D analysis was a valuable complement to 2D analysis, facilitating improved visualization. However, further studies are required to evaluate aspects of 3D quantitative techniques, with relation to light microscopy that traditionally is used for osseointegration studies.

  11. An Alignment Method for the Integration of Underwater 3D Data Captured by a Stereovision System and an Acoustic Camera

    PubMed Central

    Lagudi, Antonio; Bianco, Gianfranco; Muzzupappa, Maurizio; Bruno, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The integration of underwater 3D data captured by acoustic and optical systems is a promising technique in various applications such as mapping or vehicle navigation. It allows for compensating the drawbacks of the low resolution of acoustic sensors and the limitations of optical sensors in bad visibility conditions. Aligning these data is a challenging problem, as it is hard to make a point-to-point correspondence. This paper presents a multi-sensor registration for the automatic integration of 3D data acquired from a stereovision system and a 3D acoustic camera in close-range acquisition. An appropriate rig has been used in the laboratory tests to determine the relative position between the two sensor frames. The experimental results show that our alignment approach, based on the acquisition of a rig in several poses, can be adopted to estimate the rigid transformation between the two heterogeneous sensors. A first estimation of the unknown geometric transformation is obtained by a registration of the two 3D point clouds, but it ends up to be strongly affected by noise and data dispersion. A robust and optimal estimation is obtained by a statistical processing of the transformations computed for each pose. The effectiveness of the method has been demonstrated in this first experimentation of the proposed 3D opto-acoustic camera. PMID:27089344

  12. Fruit bruise detection based on 3D meshes and machine learning technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zilong; Tang, Jinshan; Zhang, Ping

    2016-05-01

    This paper studies bruise detection in apples using 3-D imaging. Bruise detection based on 3-D imaging overcomes many limitations of bruise detection based on 2-D imaging, such as low accuracy, sensitive to light condition, and so on. In this paper, apple bruise detection is divided into two parts: feature extraction and classification. For feature extraction, we use a framework that can directly extract local binary patterns from mesh data. For classification, we studies support vector machine. Bruise detection using 3-D imaging is compared with bruise detection using 2-D imaging. 10-fold cross validation is used to evaluate the performance of the two systems. Experimental results show that bruise detection using 3-D imaging can achieve better classification accuracy than bruise detection based on 2-D imaging.

  13. Enabling Technologies for Entrepreneurial Opportunities in 3D printing of SmallSats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwas, Andrew; MacDonald, Eric; Muse, Dan; Wicker, Ryan; Kief, Craig; Aarestad, Jim; Zemba, Mike; Marshall, Bill; Tolbert, Carol; Connor, Brett

    2014-01-01

    A consortium of innovative experts in additive manufacturing (AM) comprising Northrup Grumman Technical Services, University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP), Configurable Space Microsystems Innovations & Applications Center (COSMIAC), NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), and Youngstown State University, have made significant breakthroughs in the goal of creating the first complete 3D printed small satellite. Since AM machines are relatively inexpensive, this should lead to many entrepreneurial opportunities for the small satellite community. Our technology advancements are focused on the challenges of embedding key components within the structure of the article. We have demonstrated, using advanced fused deposition modeling techniques, complex geometric shapes which optimize the spacecraft design. The UTEP Keck Center has developed a method that interrupts the printing process to insert components into specific cavities, resulting in a spacecraft that has minimal internal space allocated for what traditionally were functional purposes. This allows us to increase experiment and instrument capability by provided added volume in a confined small satellite space. Leveraging initial progress made on a NASA contract, the team investigated the potential of new materials that exploit the AM process, producing candidate compositions that exceed the capabilities of traditional materials. These "new materials" being produced and tested include some that have improved radiation shielding, increased permeability, enhanced thermal properties, better conductive properties, and increased structural performance. The team also investigated materials that were previously not possible to be made. Our testing included standard mechanical tests such as vibration, tensile, thermal cycling, and impact resistance as well as radiation and electromagnetic tests. The initial results of these products and their performance will be presented and compared with standard properties. The new materials with

  14. A novel 3D integrated platform for the high-resolution study of cell migration plasticity.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Julian; Bachmann, Tobias; Franco, Davide; Richner, Patrizia; Galliker, Patrick; Tiwari, Manish K; Ferrari, Aldo; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-08-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of interstitial cancer migration is of great scientific and medical interest. Creating 3D platforms, conducive to optical microscopy and mimicking the physical parameters (in plane and out of plane) involved in interstitial migration, is a major step forward in this direction. Here, a novel approach is used to directly print free-form, 3D micropores on basal scaffolds containing microgratings optimized for contact guidance. The platforms so formed are validated by monitoring cancer cell migration and micropore penetration with high-resolution optical microscopy. The shapes, sizes and deformability of the micropores are controllable, paving the way to decipher their role in interstitial migration.

  15. High-κ Al2O3 material in low temperature wafer-level bonding for 3D integration application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J.; Tu, L. C.; Tan, C. S.

    2014-03-01

    This work systematically investigated a high-κ Al2O3 material for low temperature wafer-level bonding for potential applications in 3D microsystems. A clean Si wafer with an Al2O3 layer thickness of 50 nm was applied as our experimental approach. Bonding was initiated in a clean room ambient after surface activation, followed by annealing under inert ambient conditions at 300 °C for 3 h. The investigation consisted of three parts: a mechanical support study using the four-point bending method, hermeticity measurements using the helium bomb test, and thermal conductivity analysis for potential heterogeneous bonding. Compared with samples bonded using a conventional oxide bonding material (SiO2), a higher interfacial adhesion energy (˜11.93 J/m2) and a lower helium leak rate (˜6.84 × 10-10 atm.cm3/sec) were detected for samples bonded using Al2O3. More importantly, due to the excellent thermal conductivity performance of Al2O3, this technology can be used in heterogeneous direct bonding, which has potential applications for enhancing the performance of Si photonic integrated devices.

  16. A 3D profile function suitable for integration of neutron time-of-flight single crystal diffraction peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutmann, Matthias J.

    2017-03-01

    A 3D profile function is presented suitable to integrate reflections arising in time-of-flight (TOF) single crystal neutron diffraction experiments. In order to account for the large asymmetry of the peak shape in the TOF direction, a 3D Gaussian ellipsoid in the pixel (x, z) and time-of-flight coordinates is convoluted with a rising and falling exponential along the time-of-flight direction. An analytic expression is derived, making it suitable for least-squares fitting. The application of this function in detector space or reciprocal space is straightforward.

  17. An Integrated RELAP5-3D and Multiphase CFD Code System Utilizing a Semi Implicit Coupling Technique

    SciTech Connect

    D.L. Aumiller; E.T. Tomlinson; W.L. Weaver

    2001-06-21

    An integrated code system consisting of RELAP5-3D and a multiphase CFD program has been created through the use of a generic semi-implicit coupling algorithm. Unlike previous CFD coupling work, this coupling scheme is numerically stable provided the material Courant limit is not violated in RELAP5-3D or at the coupling locations. The basis for the coupling scheme and details regarding the unique features associated with the application of this technique to a four-field CFD program are presented. Finally, the results of a verification problem are presented. The coupled code system is shown to yield accurate and numerically stable results.

  18. An Examination of the Effects of Collaborative Scientific Visualization via Model-based Reasoning on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Learning Within an Immersive 3D World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleimani, Ali

    Immersive 3D worlds can be designed to effectively engage students in peer-to-peer collaborative learning activities, supported by scientific visualization, to help with understanding complex concepts associated with learning science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Previous research studies have shown STEM learning benefits associated with the use of scientific visualization tools involving model-based reasoning (MBR). Little is known, however, about collaborative use of scientific visualization, via MBR, within an immersive 3D-world learning environment for helping to improve perceived value of STEM learning and knowledge acquisition in a targeted domain such as geothermal energy. Geothermal energy was selected as the study's STEM focus, because understanding in the domain is highly dependent on successfully integrating science and mathematics concepts. This study used a 2x2 Mixed ANOVA, with repeated measures, design to analyze collaborative usage of a geothermal energy MBR model and its effects on learning within an immersive 3D world. The immersive 3D world used for the study is supported by the Open Simulator platform. Findings from this study can suggest ways to improve STEM learning and inform the design of MBR activities when conducted within an immersive 3D world.

  19. RADStation3G: a platform for cardiovascular image analysis integrating PACS, 3D+t visualization and grid computing.

    PubMed

    Perez, F; Huguet, J; Aguilar, R; Lara, L; Larrabide, I; Villa-Uriol, M C; López, J; Macho, J M; Rigo, A; Rosselló, J; Vera, S; Vivas, E; Fernàndez, J; Arbona, A; Frangi, A F; Herrero Jover, J; González Ballester, M A

    2013-06-01

    RADStation3G is a software platform for cardiovascular image analysis and surgery planning. It provides image visualization and management in 2D, 3D and 3D+t; data storage (images or operational results) in a PACS (using DICOM); and exploitation of patients' data such as images and pathologies. Further, it provides support for computationally expensive processes with grid technology. In this article we first introduce the platform and present a comparison with existing systems, according to the platform's modules (for cardiology, angiology, PACS archived enriched searching and grid computing), and then RADStation3G is described in detail.

  20. Integrated Data Capturing Requirements for 3d Semantic Modelling of Cultural Heritage: the Inception Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giulio, R.; Maietti, F.; Piaia, E.; Medici, M.; Ferrari, F.; Turillazzi, B.

    2017-02-01

    The generation of high quality 3D models can be still very time-consuming and expensive, and the outcome of digital reconstructions is frequently provided in formats that are not interoperable, and therefore cannot be easily accessed. This challenge is even more crucial for complex architectures and large heritage sites, which involve a large amount of data to be acquired, managed and enriched by metadata. In this framework, the ongoing EU funded project INCEPTION - Inclusive Cultural Heritage in Europe through 3D semantic modelling proposes a workflow aimed at the achievements of efficient 3D digitization methods, post-processing tools for an enriched semantic modelling, web-based solutions and applications to ensure a wide access to experts and non-experts. In order to face these challenges and to start solving the issue of the large amount of captured data and time-consuming processes in the production of 3D digital models, an Optimized Data Acquisition Protocol (DAP) has been set up. The purpose is to guide the processes of digitization of cultural heritage, respecting needs, requirements and specificities of cultural assets.

  1. Fusion of current technologies with real-time 3D MEMS ladar for novel security and defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siepmann, James P.

    2006-05-01

    Through the utilization of scanning MEMS mirrors in ladar devices, a whole new range of potential military, Homeland Security, law enforcement, and civilian applications is now possible. Currently, ladar devices are typically large (>15,000 cc), heavy (>15 kg), and expensive (>$100,000) while current MEMS ladar designs are more than a magnitude less, opening up a myriad of potential new applications. One such application with current technology is a GPS integrated MEMS ladar unit, which could be used for real-time border monitoring or the creation of virtual 3D battlefields after being dropped or propelled into hostile territory. Another current technology that can be integrated into a MEMS ladar unit is digital video that can give high resolution and true color to a picture that is then enhanced with range information in a real-time display format that is easier for the user to understand and assimilate than typical gray-scale or false color images. The problem with using 2-axis MEMS mirrors in ladar devices is that in order to have a resonance frequency capable of practical real-time scanning, they must either be quite small and/or have a low maximum tilt angle. Typically, this value has been less than (< or = to 10 mg-mm2-kHz2)-degrees. We have been able to solve this problem by using angle amplification techniques that utilize a series of MEMS mirrors and/or a specialized set of optics to achieve a broad field of view. These techniques and some of their novel applications mentioned will be explained and discussed herein.

  2. DLP-based 3D metrology by structured light or projected fringe technology for life sciences and industrial metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankowski, G.; Hainich, R.

    2009-02-01

    Since the mid-eighties, a fundamental idea for achieving measuring accuracy in projected fringe technology was to consider the projected fringe pattern as an interferogram and evaluate it on the basis of advanced algorithms widely used for phase measuring in real-time interferometry. A fundamental requirement for obtaining a sufficiently high degree of measuring accuracy with this so-called "phase measuring projected fringe technology" is that the projected fringes, analogous to interference fringes, must have a cos2-shaped intensity distribution. Until the mid-nineties, this requirement for the projected fringe pattern measurement technology presented a basic handicap for its wide application in 3D metrology. This situation changed abruptly, when in the nineties Texas Instruments introduced to the market advanced digital light projection on the basis of micro mirror based projection systems, socalled DLP technology, which also facilitated the generation and projection of cos2-shaped intensity and/or fringe patterns. With this DLP technology, which from its original approach was actually oriented towards completely different applications such as multimedia projection, Texas Instruments boosted phase-measuring fringe projection in optical 3D metrology to a worldwide breakthrough both for medical as well as industrial applications. A subject matter of the lecture will be to present the fundamental principles and the resulting advantages of optical 3D metrology based on phase-measuring fringe projection using DLP technology. Further will be presented and discussed applications of the measurement technology in medical engineering and industrial metrology.

  3. The influence of printing parameters on cell survival rate and printability in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Li, Yang; Mao, Shuangshuang; Sun, Wei; Yao, Rui

    2015-11-02

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell printing technology has provided a versatile methodology to fabricate cell-laden tissue-like constructs and in vitro tissue/pathological models for tissue engineering, drug testing and screening applications. However, it still remains a challenge to print bioinks with high viscoelasticity to achieve long-term stable structure and maintain high cell survival rate after printing at the same time. In this study, we systematically investigated the influence of 3D cell printing parameters, i.e. composition and concentration of bioink, holding temperature and holding time, on the printability and cell survival rate in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology. Rheological measurements were utilized to characterize the viscoelasticity of gelatin-based bioinks. Results demonstrated that the bioink viscoelasticity was increased when increasing the bioink concentration, increasing holding time and decreasing holding temperature below gelation temperature. The decline of cell survival rate after 3D cell printing process was observed when increasing the viscoelasticity of the gelatin-based bioinks. However, different process parameter combinations would result in the similar rheological characteristics and thus showed similar cell survival rate after 3D bioprinting process. On the other hand, bioink viscoelasticity should also reach a certain point to ensure good printability and shape fidelity. At last, we proposed a protocol for 3D bioprinting of temperature-sensitive gelatin-based hydrogel bioinks with both high cell survival rate and good printability. This research would be useful for biofabrication researchers to adjust the 3D bioprinting process parameters quickly and as a referable template for designing new bioinks.

  4. Variation in the measurement of cranial volume and surface area using 3D laser scanning technology.

    PubMed

    Sholts, Sabrina B; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S; Flores, Louise M; Miller, Kevin W P; Walker, Phillip L

    2010-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) laser scanner models of human crania can be used for forensic facial reconstruction, and for obtaining craniometric data useful for estimating age, sex, and population affinity of unidentified human remains. However, the use of computer-generated measurements in a casework setting requires the measurement precision to be known. Here, we assess the repeatability and precision of cranial volume and surface area measurements using 3D laser scanner models created by different operators using different protocols for collecting and processing data. We report intraobserver measurement errors of 0.2% and interobserver errors of 2% of the total area and volume values, suggesting that observer-related errors do not pose major obstacles for sharing, combining, or comparing such measurements. Nevertheless, as no standardized procedure exists for area or volume measurements from 3D models, it is imperative to report the scanning and postscanning protocols employed when such measurements are conducted in a forensic setting.

  5. Design and Fabrication of Kidney Phantoms for Internal Radiation Dosimetry Using 3D Printing Technology.

    PubMed

    Tran-Gia, Johannes; Schlögl, Susanne; Lassmann, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Currently, the validation of multimodal quantitative imaging and absorbed dose measurements is impeded by the lack of suitable, commercially available anthropomorphic phantoms of variable sizes and shapes. To demonstrate the potential of 3-dimensional (3D) printing techniques for quantitative SPECT/CT imaging, a set of kidney dosimetry phantoms and their spherical counterparts was designed and manufactured with a fused-deposition-modeling 3D printer. Nuclide-dependent SPECT/CT calibration factors were determined to assess the accuracy of quantitative imaging for internal renal dosimetry.

  6. Automated and integrated mask generation from a CAD constructed 3D model.

    SciTech Connect

    Schiek, Richard Louis; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon

    2005-03-01

    We have developed and implemented a method which given a three-dimensional object can infer from topology the two-dimensional masks needed to produce that object with surface micromachining. This design tool calculates the two-dimensional mask set required to produce a given three-dimensional model by investigating the vertical topology to the model. The 3D model is first separated into bodies that are non-intersecting, made from different materials or only linked through a ground plane. Next, for each body unique horizontal cross sections are located and arranged into a tree based on their topological relationship. A branch-wise search of the tree uncovers locations where deposition boundaries must lie and identifies candidate masks creating a generic mask set for the 3D model. Finally, in the last step specific process requirements are considered that may constrain the generic mask set.

  7. Integrated WiFi/PDR/Smartphone Using an Unscented Kalman Filter Algorithm for 3D Indoor Localization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guoliang; Meng, Xiaolin; Wang, Yunjia; Zhang, Yanzhe; Tian, Peng; Yang, Huachao

    2015-09-23

    Because of the high calculation cost and poor performance of a traditional planar map when dealing with complicated indoor geographic information, a WiFi fingerprint indoor positioning system cannot be widely employed on a smartphone platform. By making full use of the hardware sensors embedded in the smartphone, this study proposes an integrated approach to a three-dimensional (3D) indoor positioning system. First, an improved K-means clustering method is adopted to reduce the fingerprint database retrieval time and enhance positioning efficiency. Next, with the mobile phone's acceleration sensor, a new step counting method based on auto-correlation analysis is proposed to achieve cell phone inertial navigation positioning. Furthermore, the integration of WiFi positioning with Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) obtains higher positional accuracy with the help of the Unscented Kalman Filter algorithm. Finally, a hybrid 3D positioning system based on Unity 3D, which can carry out real-time positioning for targets in 3D scenes, is designed for the fluent operation of mobile terminals.

  8. Integrated WiFi/PDR/Smartphone Using an Unscented Kalman Filter Algorithm for 3D Indoor Localization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guoliang; Meng, Xiaolin; Wang, Yunjia; Zhang, Yanzhe; Tian, Peng; Yang, Huachao

    2015-01-01

    Because of the high calculation cost and poor performance of a traditional planar map when dealing with complicated indoor geographic information, a WiFi fingerprint indoor positioning system cannot be widely employed on a smartphone platform. By making full use of the hardware sensors embedded in the smartphone, this study proposes an integrated approach to a three-dimensional (3D) indoor positioning system. First, an improved K-means clustering method is adopted to reduce the fingerprint database retrieval time and enhance positioning efficiency. Next, with the mobile phone’s acceleration sensor, a new step counting method based on auto-correlation analysis is proposed to achieve cell phone inertial navigation positioning. Furthermore, the integration of WiFi positioning with Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) obtains higher positional accuracy with the help of the Unscented Kalman Filter algorithm. Finally, a hybrid 3D positioning system based on Unity 3D, which can carry out real-time positioning for targets in 3D scenes, is designed for the fluent operation of mobile terminals. PMID:26404314

  9. IRIS Earthquake Browser with Integration to the GEON IDV for 3-D Visualization of Hypocenters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weertman, B. R.

    2007-12-01

    We present a new generation of web based earthquake query tool - the IRIS Earthquake Browser (IEB). The IEB combines the DMC's large set of earthquake catalogs (provided by USGS/NEIC, ISC and the ANF) with the popular Google Maps web interface. With the IEB you can quickly and easily find earthquakes in any region of the globe. Using Google's detailed satellite images, earthquakes can be easily co-located with natural geographic features such as volcanoes as well as man made features such as commercial mines. A set of controls allow earthquakes to be filtered by time, magnitude, and depth range as well as catalog name, contributor name and magnitude type. Displayed events can be easily exported in NetCDF format into the GEON Integrated Data Viewer (IDV) where hypocenters may be visualized in three dimensions. Looking "under the hood", the IEB is based on AJAX technology and utilizes REST style web services hosted at the IRIS DMC. The IEB is part of a broader effort at the DMC aimed at making our data holdings available via web services. The IEB is useful both educationally and as a research tool.

  10. 3D integration of microfluidics and microoptics inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser direct writing for photonic biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugioka, Koji; Wang, Zhongke; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2008-02-01

    Optical waveguides with a propagation loss of around 0.5 dB/cm are written inside photosensitive Foturan glass by internal modification of refractive index using femtosecond (fs) laser. Integration of the optical wafveguides with a micromirror enables us to bend the guided laser beam at an angle of 90° with a bending loss of less than 0.3 dB. In the meanwhile, a plano-convex microlens is completely embedded inside the Foturan glass chip via formation of a three-dimensional (3D) hollow microstructure using fs laser direct writing followed by heat treatment and successive wet etching. This technique can also be used to fabricate microfluidic devices and therefore realizes 3D integration of microoptical and microfluidic components by one continuous procedure. Subsequently, microoptical waveguides are further integrated into the single glass chip. Demonstration of optical measurements using the integrated microchip reveals that photonic biosensing can be performed with an efficiency increased by a factor of 8 for fluorescence detection and by a factor of 3 for absorption detection.

  11. New 3D parallel GILD electromagnetic modeling and nonlinear inversion using global magnetic integral and local differential equation

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, G.; Li, J.; Majer, E.; Zuo, D.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes a new 3D parallel GILD electromagnetic (EM) modeling and nonlinear inversion algorithm. The algorithm consists of: (a) a new magnetic integral equation instead of the electric integral equation to solve the electromagnetic forward modeling and inverse problem; (b) a collocation finite element method for solving the magnetic integral and a Galerkin finite element method for the magnetic differential equations; (c) a nonlinear regularizing optimization method to make the inversion stable and of high resolution; and (d) a new parallel 3D modeling and inversion using a global integral and local differential domain decomposition technique (GILD). The new 3D nonlinear electromagnetic inversion has been tested with synthetic data and field data. The authors obtained very good imaging for the synthetic data and reasonable subsurface EM imaging for the field data. The parallel algorithm has high parallel efficiency over 90% and can be a parallel solver for elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic modeling and inversion. The parallel GILD algorithm can be extended to develop a high resolution and large scale seismic and hydrology modeling and inversion in the massively parallel computer.

  12. Web-Based 3D Technology for Scenario Authoring and Visualization: The Savage Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    Prescod, 2001). XML provides numerous benefits for extensibility and componentization . It is also important to note that XML forms the infrastructure...generating battlespace terrain, to include representation of built-up areas and vegetation cover, for use in the Web3D environment. § Automating

  13. Exploring 3-D Virtual Reality Technology for Spatial Ability and Chemistry Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Z.; Goetz, E. T.; Keeney-Kennicutt, W.; Cifuentes, L.; Kwok, O.; Davis, T. J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the potential of Second Life® (SL), a three-dimensional (3-D) virtual world, to enhance undergraduate students' learning of a vital chemistry concept. A quasi-experimental pre-posttest control group design was used to conduct the study. A total of 387 participants completed three assignment activities either in SL or using…

  14. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  15. Fabrication of 3D polymer microstructures using electron beam lithography and nanoimprinting technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kuo-Shen; Lin, I.-Kuan; Ko, Fu-Hsang

    2005-10-01

    Recently, with the advancement in bio-MEMS and micro optoelectromechanical systems (MOEMS), 3D microstructures have become increasingly important and efficient fabrication processes are currently being sought. In this paper, a novel 3D fabrication process has been proposed by utilizing the proximity effect of electron beam lithography (EBL) to create 3D microstructures on negative photoresists as the primary molds, which are subsequently transferred to their corresponding negative molds using nanoimprinting lithography (NIL), and to form the final replicas by either electroforming or polymer spin casting to reduce cost. The effect of electron backscattering on the 3D topography is firstly investigated and the relationship among the spatial distribution of electron beam irradiation, the spot size and the dosage level of irradiation is experimentally characterized in SU-8 to establish a dosage kernel distribution function. A mathematical procedure based on linear operation of this kernel function is then proposed to mimic the EBL fabrication process. The subsequent experiments indicate that the predicted surface profiles agree with the experimental results to large extent and the proposed mathematical operations are valid for the purpose of designing the fabrication process. Finally, the SU-8 primary molds are transferred to NEB to form secondary molds via the nanoimprinting process. It shows that the nanoimprinting process can essentially reproduce the shape and geometry of the primary molds. However, due to the nature of polymer-to-polymer contact printing, the elastic restitution of materials induces a slight deviation of the final device size and a further study should be made in the future to minimize such types of error. Although the above problems are reported, nevertheless, the primary experimental results indicate that this proposed fabrication process is capable of creating 3D shape microstructure in the order of 1 µm and should be useful for related

  16. Comparing the performance of IBIS and BulletTRAX-3D technology using bullets fired through 10 consecutively rifled barrels.

    PubMed

    Brinck, Toni B

    2008-05-01

    This study evaluates the abilities of the Integrated Ballistics Identification System (IBIS) and BulletTRAX-3D electronic imaging systems to identify bullets fired by the same weapon in a large database of images. Ten consecutively rifled handgun barrels were test fired to obtain reference sample and known match sample pairs for upload onto both bullet acquisition systems. Both copper-jacketed and lead bullets were uploaded, to account for variations in the manner in which markings are reproduced on the different metal compositions. Ranked correlation lists were examined and evaluated. For copper-jacketed bullet correlations, both IBIS and BulletTRAX-3D identified all reference samples to their known matches within the top 10 positions. For lead bullets, BulletTRAX-3D identified all reference samples to their known match in the top 10 positions while IBIS identified only 30%. For inter composition comparisons, BulletTRAX-3D was more successful than IBIS, identifying 100% of reference samples to their known match in the top 20 for copper-jacketed to lead comparisons and 90% for lead to copper-jacketed comparisons. These results suggest that BulletTRAX-3D is more effective than IBIS in the analysis of a wider range of bullet types and it was also found to produce images of superior quality.

  17. Diagnostic algorithm: how to make use of new 2D, 3D and 4D ultrasound technologies in breast imaging.

    PubMed

    Weismann, C F; Datz, L

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this publication is to present a time saving diagnostic algorithm consisting of two-dimensional (2D), three-dimensional (3D) and four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound (US) technologies. This algorithm of eight steps combines different imaging modalities and render modes which allow a step by step analysis of 2D, 3D and 4D diagnostic criteria. Advanced breast US systems with broadband high frequency linear transducers, full digital data management and high resolution are the actual basis for two-dimensional breast US studies in order to detect early breast cancer (step 1). The continuous developments of 2D US technologies including contrast resolution imaging (CRI) and speckle reduction imaging (SRI) have a direct influence on the high quality of three-dimensional and four-dimensional presentation of anatomical breast structures and pathological details. The diagnostic options provided by static 3D volume datasets according to US BI-RADS analogue assessment, concerning lesion shape, orientation, margin, echogenic rim sign, lesion echogenicity, acoustic transmission, associated calcifications, 3D criteria of the coronal plane, surrounding tissue composition (step 2) and lesion vascularity (step 6) are discussed. Static 3D datasets offer the combination of long axes distance measurements and volume calculations, which are the basis for an accurate follow-up in BI-RADS II and BI-RADS III lesions (step 3). Real time 4D volume contrast imaging (VCI) is able to demonstrate tissue elasticity (step 5). Glass body rendering is a static 3D tool which presents greyscale and colour information to study the vascularity and the vascular architecture of a lesion (step 6). Tomographic ultrasound imaging (TUI) is used for a slice by slice documentation in different investigation planes (A-,B- or C-plane) (steps 4 and 7). The final step 8 uses the panoramic view technique (XTD-View) to document the localisation within the breast and to make the position of a lesion simply

  18. Integration Of 3D Geographic Information System (GIS) For Effective Waste Management Practice

    SciTech Connect

    Rood, G.J.; Hecox, G.R.

    2006-07-01

    Soil remediation in response to the presence of residual radioactivity resulting from past MED/AEC activities is currently in progress under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program near the St. Louis, MO airport. During GY05, approximately 92,000 cubic meters (120,000 cubic yards) of radioactive soil was excavated, packaged and transported via rail for disposal at U.S. Ecology or Envirocare of Utah, LLC. To facilitate the management of excavation/transportation/disposal activities, a 3D GIS was developed for the site that was used to estimate the in-situ radionuclide activities, activities in excavation block areas, and shipping activities using a sum-of ratio (SOR) method for combining various radionuclide compounds into applicable transportation and disposal SOR values. The 3D GIS was developed starting with the SOR values for the approximately 900 samples from 90 borings. These values were processed into a three-dimensional (3D) point grid using kriging with nominal grid spacing of 1.5 by 1.5 meter horizontal by 0.3 meter vertical. The final grid, clipped to the area and soil interval above the planned base of excavation, consisted of 210,000 individual points. Standard GIS volumetric and spatial join procedures were used to calculate the volume of soil represented by each grid point, the base of excavation, depth below ground surface, elevation, surface elevation and SOR values for each point in the final grid. To create the maps needed for management, the point grid results were spatially joined to each excavation area in 0.9 meter (3 foot) depth intervals and the average SOR and total volumes were calculations. The final maps were color-coded for easy identification of areas above the specific transportation or disposal criteria. (authors)

  19. Fabrication and characterization of gels with integrated channels using 3D printing with microfluidic nozzle for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Attalla, R; Ling, C; Selvaganapathy, P

    2016-02-01

    The lack of a simple and effective method to integrate vascular network with engineered scaffolds and tissue constructs remains one of the biggest challenges in true 3D tissue engineering. Here, we detail the use of a commercially available, low-cost, open-source 3D printer modified with a microfluidic print-head in order to develop a method for the generation of instantly perfusable vascular network integrated with gel scaffolds seeded with cells. The print-head features an integrated coaxial nozzle that allows the fabrication of hollow, calcium-polymerized alginate tubes that can be easily patterned using 3D printing techniques. The diameter of the hollow channel can be precisely controlled and varied between 500 μm - 2 mm by changing applied flow rates or print-head speed. These channels are integrated into gel layers with a thickness of 800 μm - 2.5 mm. The structural rigidity of these constructs allows the fabrication of multi-layered structures without causing the collapse of hollow channels in lower layers. The 3D printing method was fully characterized at a range of operating speeds (0-40 m/min) and corresponding flow rates (1-30 mL/min) were identified to produce precise definition. This microfluidic design also allows the incorporation of a wide range of scaffold materials as well as biological constituents such as cells, growth factors, and ECM material. Media perfusion of the channels causes a significant viability increase in the bulk of cell-laden structures over the long-term. With this setup, gel constructs with embedded arrays of hollow channels can be created and used as a potential substitute for blood vessel networks.

  20. The SVX3D integrated circuit for dead-timeless silicon strip readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Milgrome, O.; Zimmerman, T.; Volobouev, I.; Ely, R. P.; Connolly, A.; Fish, D.; Affolder, T.; Sill, A.

    1999-10-01

    The revision D of the SVX3 readout IC has been fabricated in the Honeywell radiation-hard 0.8 μm bulk CMOS process, for instrumenting 712,704 silicon strips in the upgrade to the Collider Detector at Fermilab. This final revision incorporates new features and changes to the original architecture that were added to meet the goal of dead-timeless operation. This paper describes the features central to dead-timeless operation, and presents test data for un-irradiated and irradiated SVX3D chips.

  1. Buried waste integrated demonstration technology integration process

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, J.S.; Ferguson, J.E.

    1992-04-01

    A Technology integration Process was developed for the Idaho National Energy Laboratories (INEL) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program to facilitate the transfer of technology and knowledge from industry, universities, and other Federal agencies into the BWID; to successfully transfer demonstrated technology and knowledge from the BWID to industry, universities, and other Federal agencies; and to share demonstrated technologies and knowledge between Integrated Demonstrations and other Department of Energy (DOE) spread throughout the DOE Complex. This document also details specific methods and tools for integrating and transferring technologies into or out of the BWID program. The document provides background on the BWID program and technology development needs, demonstrates the direction of technology transfer, illustrates current processes for this transfer, and lists points of contact for prospective participants in the BWID technology transfer efforts. The Technology Integration Process was prepared to ensure compliance with the requirements of DOE`s Office of Technology Development (OTD).

  2. Buried waste integrated demonstration technology integration process

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, J.S.; Ferguson, J.E.

    1992-04-01

    A Technology integration Process was developed for the Idaho National Energy Laboratories (INEL) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program to facilitate the transfer of technology and knowledge from industry, universities, and other Federal agencies into the BWID; to successfully transfer demonstrated technology and knowledge from the BWID to industry, universities, and other Federal agencies; and to share demonstrated technologies and knowledge between Integrated Demonstrations and other Department of Energy (DOE) spread throughout the DOE Complex. This document also details specific methods and tools for integrating and transferring technologies into or out of the BWID program. The document provides background on the BWID program and technology development needs, demonstrates the direction of technology transfer, illustrates current processes for this transfer, and lists points of contact for prospective participants in the BWID technology transfer efforts. The Technology Integration Process was prepared to ensure compliance with the requirements of DOE's Office of Technology Development (OTD).

  3. Integration of 3D and 2D imaging data for assured navigation in unknown environments: initial steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, Evan; Uijt de Haag, Maarten

    2009-05-01

    This paper discusses the initial steps of the development of a novel navigation method that integrates three-dimensional (3D) point cloud data, two-dimensional (2D) gray-level (intensity), and data from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). A time-of-flight camera such as MESA's Swissranger will output both the 3D and 2D data. The target application is position and attitude determination of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and autonomous ground vehicles (AGV) in urban or indoor environments. In urban and indoor environments a GPS position capability may not only be unavailable due to shadowing, significant signal attenuation or multipath, but also due to intentional denial or deception. The proposed algorithm extracts key features such as planar surfaces, lines and corner-points from both the 3D (point-cloud) and 2D (intensity) imagery. Consecutive observations of corresponding features in the 3D and 2D image frames are then used to compute estimates of position and orientation changes. Since the use of 3D image features for positioning suffers from limited feature observability resulting in deteriorated position accuracies, and the 2D imagery suffers from an unknown depth when estimating the pose from consecutive image frames, it is expected that the integration of both data sets will alleviate the problems with the individual methods resulting in an position and attitude determination method with a high level of assurance. An Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) is used to set up the tracking gates necessary to perform data association of the features in consecutive frames. Finally, the position and orientation change estimates can be used to correct for the IMU drift errors.

  4. A line integration method for the treatment of 3D domain integrals and accelerated by the fast multipole method in the BEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiao; Zhou, Wei; Cheng, Yonggang; Ma, Gang; Chang, Xiaolin

    2017-04-01

    A line integration method (LIM) is proposed to calculate the domain integrals for 3D problems. In the proposed method, the domain integrals are transformed into boundary integrals and only line integrals on straight lines are needed to be computed. A background cell structure is applied to further simplify the line integrals and improve the accuracy. The method creates elements only on the boundary, and the integral lines are created from the boundary elements. The procedure is quite suitable for the boundary element method, and we have applied it to 3D situations. Directly applying the method is time-consuming since the complexity of the computational time is O( NM), where N and M are the numbers of nodes and lines, respectively. To overcome this problem, the fast multipole method is used with the LIM for large-scale computation. The numerical results show that the proposed method is efficient and accurate.

  5. Digital Reconstruction of AN Archaeological Site Based on the Integration of 3d Data and Historical Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, G.; Russo, M.; Angheleddu, D.

    2013-02-01

    The methodology proposed in this paper in based on an integrated approach for creating a 3D digital reconstruction of an archaeological site, using extensively the 3D documentation of the site in its current state, followed by an iterative interaction between archaeologists and digital modelers, leading to a progressive refinement of the reconstructive hypotheses. The starting point of the method is the reality-based model, which, together with ancient drawings and documents, is used for generating the first reconstructive step. Such rough approximation of a possible architectural structure can be annotated through archaeological considerations that has to be confronted with geometrical constraints, producing a reduction of the reconstructive hypotheses to a limited set, each one to be archaeologically evaluated. This refinement loop on the reconstructive choices is iterated until the result become convincing by both points of view, integrating in the best way all the available sources. The proposed method has been verified on the ruins of five temples in the My Son site, a wide archaeological area located in central Vietnam. The integration of 3D surveyed data and historical documentation has allowed to support a digital reconstruction of not existing architectures, developing their three-dimensional digital models step by step, from rough shapes to highly sophisticate virtual prototypes.

  6. Ex vivo evaluation of new 2D and 3D dental radiographic technology for detecting caries

    PubMed Central

    Tyndall, Donald; Mol, André; Everett, Eric T; Bangdiwala, Ananta

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Proximal dental caries remains a prevalent disease with only modest detection rates by current diagnostic systems. Many new systems are available without controlled validation of diagnostic efficacy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of three potentially promising new imaging systems. Methods: This study evaluated the caries detection efficacy of Schick 33 (Sirona Dental, Salzburg, Austria) intraoral digital detector images employing an advanced sharpening filter, Planmeca ProMax® (Planmeca Inc., Helsinki, Finland) extraoral “panoramic bitewing” images and Sirona Orthophos XG3D (Sirona Dental) CBCT images with advanced artefact reduction. Conventional photostimulable phosphor images served as the control modality. An ex vivo study design using extracted human teeth, ten expert observers and micro-CT ground truth was employed. Results: Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated similar diagnostic efficacy of all systems (ANOVA p > 0.05). The sensitivity of the Schick 33 images (0.48) was significantly lower than the other modalities (0.53–0.62). The specificity of the Planmeca images (0.86) was significantly lower than Schick 33 (0.96) and XG3D (0.97). The XG3D showed significantly better cavitation detection sensitivity (0.62) than the other modalities (0.48–0.57). Conclusions: The Schick 33 images demonstrated reduced caries sensitivity, whereas the Planmeca panoramic bitewing images demonstrated reduced specificity. XG3D with artefact reduction demonstrated elevated sensitivity and specificity for caries detection, improved depth accuracy and substantially improved cavitation detection. Care must be taken to recognize potential false-positive caries lesions with Planmeca panoramic bitewing images. Use of CBCT for caries detection must be carefully balanced with the presence of metal artefacts, time commitment, financial cost and radiation dose. PMID:26670605

  7. Formulation and implementation of a high-order 3-D domain integral method for the extraction of energy release rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozer, H.; Duarte, C. A.; Al-Qadi, I. L.

    2012-04-01

    This article presents a three dimensional (3-D) formulation and implementation of a high-order domain integral method for the computation of energy release rate. The method is derived using surface and domain formulations of the J-integral and the weighted residual method. The J-integral along 3-D crack fronts is approximated by high-order Legendre polynomials. The proposed implementation is tailored for the Generalized/eXtended Finite Element Method and can handle discontinuities arbitrarily located within a finite element mesh. The domain integral calculations are based on the same integration elements used for the computation of the stiffness matrix. Discontinuities of the integrands across crack surfaces and across computational element boundaries are fully accounted for. The proposed method is able to deliver smooth approximations and to capture the boundary layer behavior of the J-integral using tetrahedral meshes. Numerical simulations of mode-I and mixed mode benchmark fracture mechanics examples verify expected convergence rates for the computed energy release rates. The results are also in good agreement with other numerical solutions available in the literature.

  8. Full-field strain measurements on turbomachinery components using 3D SLDV technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguire, Martyn; Sever, Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    This paper focuses on measurements of 3D Operating Deflection Shapes (ODSs), and subsequently, construction of full-field surface strain maps of a number of turbomachinery components. For this purpose a 3D Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer (SLDV) is used. The ODS measurements are performed for a large number of modes and results obtained are compared with the 1-D shapes that are most commonly measured. It is demonstrated that the 3D measurements are a significant improvement over the 1-D case in terms of independent amount of extra information they provide. This is confirmed through comparisons with FE results. Special tests are carried out to recover the full-field strain on scanned faces of the components used. Visual comparison of these measurements with FE counterparts reveal that strain maps can be successfully measured, not only for low frequency modes but also for highly complex high frequency ones. These maps are measured with different levels of input force to assess the linearity of strain results to varying response amplitudes. Lessons learnt and observations made are summarised in concluding remarks and the scope of future work to take this study into the production environment is discussed. This study constitutes a unique comprehensive investigation into full-field strain measurements using real application hardware and a large frequency range.

  9. The production of anatomical teaching resources using three-dimensional (3D) printing technology.

    PubMed

    McMenamin, Paul G; Quayle, Michelle R; McHenry, Colin R; Adams, Justin W

    2014-01-01

    The teaching of anatomy has consistently been the subject of societal controversy, especially in the context of employing cadaveric materials in professional medical and allied health professional training. The reduction in dissection-based teaching in medical and allied health professional training programs has been in part due to the financial considerations involved in maintaining bequest programs, accessing human cadavers and concerns with health and safety considerations for students and staff exposed to formalin-containing embalming fluids. This report details how additive manufacturing or three-dimensional (3D) printing allows the creation of reproductions of prosected human cadaver and other anatomical specimens that obviates many of the above issues. These 3D prints are high resolution, accurate color reproductions of prosections based on data acquired by surface scanning or CT imaging. The application of 3D printing to produce models of negative spaces, contrast CT radiographic data using segmentation software is illustrated. The accuracy of printed specimens is compared with original specimens. This alternative approach to producing anatomically accurate reproductions offers many advantages over plastination as it allows rapid production of multiple copies of any dissected specimen, at any size scale and should be suitable for any teaching facility in any country, thereby avoiding some of the cultural and ethical issues associated with cadaver specimens either in an embalmed or plastinated form.

  10. Novel grinding stone used for polishing 3D plastic replica with rapid prototyping technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wang; Niikura, Yoshihiro; Sato, Toshio; Kawashima, Norimichi

    2006-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) apparatus accepts a specific format translated from CAD data (patient's CT) and "slices" it into two-dimensional cross sections for laser photo curing. Surgeon can conduct safer surgery by reappearing on an actual model using 3D plastic replica in the preoperative. Polishing has to be used to eliminate the marks after removal of supports and the build layer pitches. Complicated and narrow areas of the 3D replica are difficult to be polished with the conventional grinding stone. This study proposes a novel grinding stone and introduces its producing process and characteristics. The novel grinding stone has many advantages as follows; (1) Preparation is possible of grinding stone that follows the complicated shape. (2) Grinding stone with uniformly dispersed abrasive grains can be prepared using magnetic particles and magnetic field. (3) Reshaping of grinding stone by heating is possible since the binder is made of a thermoplastic resin. (4) Every process can easily be carried out. We could polish to eliminate the marks after removal of supports and the build layer pitches on 3D plastic replica surface with the grinding stone.

  11. Research on Joint Parameter Inversion for an Integrated Underground Displacement 3D Measuring Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Shentu, Nanying; Qiu, Guohua; Li, Qing; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Wang, Yanjie

    2015-01-01

    Underground displacement monitoring is a key means to monitor and evaluate geological disasters and geotechnical projects. There exist few practical instruments able to monitor subsurface horizontal and vertical displacements simultaneously due to monitoring invisibility and complexity. A novel underground displacement 3D measuring sensor had been proposed in our previous studies, and great efforts have been taken in the basic theoretical research of underground displacement sensing and measuring characteristics by virtue of modeling, simulation and experiments. This paper presents an innovative underground displacement joint inversion method by mixing a specific forward modeling approach with an approximate optimization inversion procedure. It can realize a joint inversion of underground horizontal displacement and vertical displacement for the proposed 3D sensor. Comparative studies have been conducted between the measured and inversed parameters of underground horizontal and vertical displacements under a variety of experimental and inverse conditions. The results showed that when experimentally measured horizontal displacements and vertical displacements are both varied within 0 ~ 30 mm, horizontal displacement and vertical displacement inversion discrepancies are generally less than 3 mm and 1 mm, respectively, under three kinds of simulated underground displacement monitoring circumstances. This implies that our proposed underground displacement joint inversion method is robust and efficient to predict the measuring values of underground horizontal and vertical displacements for the proposed sensor. PMID:25871714

  12. New optical four-quadrant phase detector integrated into a photogate array for small and precise 3D cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarte, Rudolf; Xu, Zhanping; Heinol, Horst-Guenther; Olk, Joachim; Buxbaum, Bernd

    1997-03-01

    The photonic mixer device (PMD) is a new electro-optical mixing semiconductor device. Integrated into a line or an array it may contribute a significant improvement in developing an extremely fast, flexible, robust and low cost 3D-solid-state camera. Three dimensional (3D)-cameras are of dramatically increasing interest in industrial automation, especially for production integrated quality control, in- house navigation, etc. The type of 3D-camera here under consideration is based on the principle of time-of-flight respectively phase delay of surface reflected echoes of rf- modulated light. In contrast to 3D-laser radars there is no scanner required since the whole 3D-scene is illuminated simultaneously using intensity-modulated incoherent light, e.g. in the 10 to 1000 MHz range. The rf-modulated light reflected from the 3D-scene represents the total depth information within the local delay of the back scattered phase front. If this incoming wave front is again rf- modulated by a 2D-mixer within the whole receiving aperture we get a quasi-stationary rf-inference pattern respectively rf-interferogram which may be captured by means of a conventional CCD-camera. This procedure is called rf- modulation interferometry (RFMI). Corresponding to first simulative results the new PMD-array will be appropriate to the RFMI-procedure. Though looking like a modified CCD-array or CMOS-photodetector array it will be able to perform both, the pixelwise mixing process for phase delay respectively depth evaluation and the pixelwise light intensity acquisition for gray level or color evaluation. Further advantageous properties are achieved by means of a four- quadrant (4Q)-PMD array which operates as a balanced inphase/quadrature phase (I/Q)-mixer and will be able to capture the total 3D-scene information of several 100,000 voxels within the microsecond(s) - to ms-range.

  13. Tightly coupled low cost 3D RISS/GPS integration using a mixture particle filter for vehicular navigation.

    PubMed

    Georgy, Jacques; Noureldin, Aboelmagd

    2011-01-01

    Satellite navigation systems such as the global positioning system (GPS) are currently the most common technique used for land vehicle positioning. However, in GPS-denied environments, there is an interruption in the positioning information. Low-cost micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS)-based inertial sensors can be integrated with GPS and enhance the performance in denied GPS environments. The traditional technique for this integration problem is Kalman filtering (KF). Due to the inherent errors of low-cost MEMS inertial sensors and their large stochastic drifts, KF, with its linearized models, has limited capabilities in providing accurate positioning. Particle filtering (PF) was recently suggested as a nonlinear filtering technique to accommodate for arbitrary inertial sensor characteristics, motion dynamics and noise distributions. An enhanced version of PF called the Mixture PF is utilized in this study to perform tightly coupled integration of a three dimensional (3D) reduced inertial sensors system (RISS) with GPS. In this work, the RISS consists of one single-axis gyroscope and a two-axis accelerometer used together with the vehicle's odometer to obtain 3D navigation states. These sensors are then integrated with GPS in a tightly coupled scheme. In loosely-coupled integration, at least four satellites are needed to provide acceptable GPS position and velocity updates for the integration filter. The advantage of the tightly-coupled integration is that it can provide GPS measurement update(s) even when the number of visible satellites is three or lower, thereby improving the operation of the navigation system in environments with partial blockages by providing continuous aiding to the inertial sensors even during limited GPS satellite availability. To effectively exploit the capabilities of PF, advanced modeling for the stochastic drift of the vertically aligned gyroscope is used. In order to benefit from measurement updates for such drift, which are

  14. Tightly Coupled Low Cost 3D RISS/GPS Integration Using a Mixture Particle Filter for Vehicular Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Georgy, Jacques; Noureldin, Aboelmagd

    2011-01-01

    Satellite navigation systems such as the global positioning system (GPS) are currently the most common technique used for land vehicle positioning. However, in GPS-denied environments, there is an interruption in the positioning information. Low-cost micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS)-based inertial sensors can be integrated with GPS and enhance the performance in denied GPS environments. The traditional technique for this integration problem is Kalman filtering (KF). Due to the inherent errors of low-cost MEMS inertial sensors and their large stochastic drifts, KF, with its linearized models, has limited capabilities in providing accurate positioning. Particle filtering (PF) was recently suggested as a nonlinear filtering technique to accommodate for arbitrary inertial sensor characteristics, motion dynamics and noise distributions. An enhanced version of PF called the Mixture PF is utilized in this study to perform tightly coupled integration of a three dimensional (3D) reduced inertial sensors system (RISS) with GPS. In this work, the RISS consists of one single-axis gyroscope and a two-axis accelerometer used together with the vehicle’s odometer to obtain 3D navigation states. These sensors are then integrated with GPS in a tightly coupled scheme. In loosely-coupled integration, at least four satellites are needed to provide acceptable GPS position and velocity updates for the integration filter. The advantage of the tightly-coupled integration is that it can provide GPS measurement update(s) even when the number of visible satellites is three or lower, thereby improving the operation of the navigation system in environments with partial blockages by providing continuous aiding to the inertial sensors even during limited GPS satellite availability. To effectively exploit the capabilities of PF, advanced modeling for the stochastic drift of the vertically aligned gyroscope is used. In order to benefit from measurement updates for such drift, which are

  15. Integrating novel technologies to fabricate smart scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Moroni, L; de Wijn, J R; van Blitterswijk, C A

    2008-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims at restoring or regenerating a damaged tissue by combining cells, derived from a patient biopsy, with a 3D porous matrix functioning as a scaffold. After isolation and eventual in vitro expansion, cells are seeded on the 3D scaffolds and implanted directly or at a later stage in the patient's body. 3D scaffolds need to satisfy a number of requirements: (i) biocompatibility, (ii) biodegradability and/or bioresorbability, (iii) suitable mechanical properties, (iv) adequate physicochemical properties to direct cell-material interactions matching the tissue to be replaced and (v) ease in regaining the original shape of the damaged tissue and the integration with the surrounding environment. Still, it appears to be a challenge to satisfy all the aforementioned requisites with the biomaterials and the scaffold fabrication technologies nowadays available. 3D scaffolds can be fabricated with various techniques, among which rapid prototyping and electrospinning seem to be the most promising. Rapid prototyping technologies allow manufacturing scaffolds with a controlled, completely accessible pore network--determinant for nutrient supply and diffusion--in a CAD/CAM fashion. Electrospinning (ESP) allows mimicking the extracellular matrix (ECM) environment of the cells and can provide fibrous scaffolds with instructive surface properties to direct cell faith into the proper lineage. Yet, these fabrication methods have some disadvantages if considered alone. This review aims at summarizing conventional and novel scaffold fabrication techniques and the biomaterials used for tissue engineering and drug-delivery applications. A new trend seems to emerge in the field of scaffold design where different scaffolds fabrication technologies and different biomaterials are combined to provide cells with mechanical, physicochemical and biological cues at the macro-, micro- and nano-scale. If merged together, these integrated technologies may lead to the generation

  16. 3D Integrated geophysical-petrological modelling of the Iranian lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Naeim; Ardestani, Vahid E.; Ebbing, Jörg; Fullea, Javier

    2016-04-01

    The present-day Iranian Plateau is the result of complex tectonic processes associated with the Arabia-Eurasia Plate convergence at a lithospheric scale. In spite of previous mostly 2D geophysical studies, fundamental questions regarding the deep lithospheric and sub-lithospheric structure beneath Iran remain open. A robust 3D model of the thermochemical lithospheric structure in Iran is an important step toward a better understanding of the geological history and tectonic events in the area. Here, we apply a combined geophysical-petrological methodology (LitMod3D) to investigate the present-day thermal and compositional structure in the crust and upper mantle beneath the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone using a comprehensive variety of constraining data: elevation, surface heat flow, gravity potential fields, satellite gravity gradients, xenoliths and seismic tomography. Different mantle compositions were tested in our model based on local xenolith samples and global data base averages for different tectonothermal ages. A uniform mantle composition fails to explain the observed gravity field, gravity gradients and surface topography. A tectonically regionalized lithospheric mantle compositional model is able to explain all data sets including seismic tomography models. Our preliminary thermochemical lithospheric study constrains the depth to Moho discontinuity and intra crustal geometries including depth to sediments. We also determine the depth to Curie isotherm which is known as the base of magnetized crustal/uppermost mantle bodies. Discrepancies with respect to previous studies include mantle composition and the geometry of Moho and Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary (LAB). Synthetic seismic Vs and Vp velocities match existing seismic tomography models in the area. In this study, depleted mantle compositions are modelled beneath cold and thick lithosphere in Arabian and Turan platforms. A more fertile mantle composition is found in collision zones. Based on our 3

  17. The impact of computer display height and desk design on 3D posture during information technology work by young adults.

    PubMed

    Straker, L; Burgess-Limerick, R; Pollock, C; Murray, K; Netto, K; Coleman, J; Skoss, R

    2008-04-01

    Computer display height and desk design to allow forearm support are two critical design features of workstations for information technology tasks. However there is currently no 3D description of head and neck posture with different computer display heights and no direct comparison to paper based information technology tasks. There is also inconsistent evidence on the effect of forearm support on posture and no evidence on whether these features interact. This study compared the 3D head, neck and upper limb postures of 18 male and 18 female young adults whilst working with different display and desk design conditions. There was no substantial interaction between display height and desk design. Lower display heights increased head and neck flexion with more spinal asymmetry when working with paper. The curved desk, designed to provide forearm support, increased scapula elevation/protraction and shoulder flexion/abduction.

  18. One-Step Fabrication of a Microfluidic Device with an Integrated Membrane and Embedded Reagents by Multimaterial 3D Printing.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Smejkal, Petr; Macdonald, Niall P; Guijt, Rosanne M; Breadmore, Michael C

    2017-04-05

    One of the largest impediments in the development of microfluidic-based smart sensing systems is the manufacturability of integrated, complex devices. Here we propose multimaterial 3D printing for the fabrication of such devices in a single step. A microfluidic device containing an integrated porous membrane and embedded liquid reagents was made by 3D printing and applied for the analysis of nitrate in soil. The manufacture of the integrated, sealed device was realized as a single print within 30 min. The body of the device was printed in transparent acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and contained a 400 μm wide structure printed from a commercially available composite filament. The composite filament can be turned into a porous material through dissolution of a water-soluble material. Liquid reagents were integrated by briefly pausing the printing before resuming for sealing the device. The devices were evaluated by the determination of nitrate in a soil slurry containing zinc particles for the reduction of nitrate to nitrite using the Griess reagent. Using a consumer digital camera, the linear range of the detector response ranged from 0 to 60 ppm, covering the normal range of nitrate in soil. To ensure that the sealing of the reagent chamber is maintained, aqueous reagents should be avoided. When using the nonaqueous reagent, the multimaterial device containing the Griess reagent could be stored for over 4 days but increased the detection range to 100-500 ppm. Multimaterial 3D printing is a potentially new approach for the manufacture of microfluidic devices with multiple integrated functional components.

  19. Localization and visualization of excess chemical potential in statistical mechanical integral equation theory 3D-HNC-RISM.

    PubMed

    Du, Qi-Shi; Liu, Peng-Jun; Huang, Ri-Bo

    2008-02-01

    In this study the excess chemical potential of the integral equation theory, 3D-RISM-HNC [Q. Du, Q. Wei, J. Phys. Chem. B 107 (2003) 13463-13470], is visualized in three-dimensional form and localized at interaction sites of solute molecule. Taking the advantage of reference interaction site model (RISM), the calculation equations of chemical excess potential are reformulized according to the solute interaction sites s in molecular space. Consequently the solvation free energy is localized at every interaction site of solute molecule. For visualization of the 3D-RISM-HNC calculation results, the excess chemical potentials are described using radial and three-dimensional diagrams. It is found that the radial diagrams of the excess chemical potentials are more sensitive to the bridge functions than the radial diagrams of solvent site density distributions. The diagrams of average excess chemical potential provide useful information of solute-solvent electrostatic and van der Waals interactions. The local description of solvation free energy at active sites of solute in 3D-RISM-HNC may broaden the application scope of statistical mechanical integral equation theory in solution chemistry and life science.

  20. PROBABILISTIC INFORMATION INTEGRATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    J. BOOKER; M. MEYER; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    The Statistical Sciences Group at Los Alamos has successfully developed a structured, probabilistic, quantitative approach for the evaluation of system performance based on multiple information sources, called Information Integration Technology (IIT). The technology integrates diverse types and sources of data and information (both quantitative and qualitative), and their associated uncertainties, to develop distributions for performance metrics, such as reliability. Applications include predicting complex system performance, where test data are lacking or expensive to obtain, through the integration of expert judgment, historical data, computer/simulation model predictions, and any relevant test/experimental data. The technology is particularly well suited for tracking estimated system performance for systems under change (e.g. development, aging), and can be used at any time during product development, including concept and early design phases, prior to prototyping, testing, or production, and before costly design decisions are made. Techniques from various disciplines (e.g., state-of-the-art expert elicitation, statistical and reliability analysis, design engineering, physics modeling, and knowledge management) are merged and modified to develop formal methods for the data/information integration. The power of this technology, known as PREDICT (Performance and Reliability Evaluation with Diverse Information Combination and Tracking), won a 1999 R and D 100 Award (Meyer, Booker, Bement, Kerscher, 1999). Specifically the PREDICT application is a formal, multidisciplinary process for estimating the performance of a product when test data are sparse or nonexistent. The acronym indicates the purpose of the methodology: to evaluate the performance or reliability of a product/system by combining all available (often diverse) sources of information and then tracking that performance as the product undergoes changes.

  1. Terahertz metamaterials and systems based on rolled-up 3D elements: designs, technological approaches, and properties.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Victor Ya; Naumova, Elena V; Golod, Sergey V; Seleznev, Vladimir A; Bocharov, Andrey A; Kubarev, Vitaliy V

    2017-03-03

    Electromagnetic metamaterials opened the way to extraordinary manipulation of radiation. Terahertz (THz) and optical metamaterials are usually fabricated by traditional planar-patterning approaches, while the majority of practical applications require metamaterials with 3D resonators. Making arrays of precise 3D micro- and nanoresonators is still a challenging problem. Here we present a versatile set of approaches to fabrication of metamaterials with 3D resonators rolled-up from strained films, demonstrate novel THz metamaterials/systems, and show giant polarization rotation by several chiral metamaterials/systems. The polarization spectra of chiral metamaterials on semiconductor substrates exhibit ultrasharp quasiperiodic peaks. Application of 3D printing allowed assembling more complex systems, including the bianisotropic system with optimal microhelices, which showed an extreme polarization azimuth rotation of 85° with drop by 150° at a frequency shift of 0.4%. We refer the quasiperiodic peaks in the polarization spectra of metamaterial systems to the interplay of different resonances, including peculiar chiral waveguide resonance. Formed metamaterials cannot be made by any other presently available technology. All steps of presented fabrication approaches are parallel, IC-compatible and allow mass fabrication with scaling of rolled-up resonators up to visible frequencies. We anticipate that the rolled-up meta-atoms will be ideal building blocks for future generations of commercial metamaterials, devices and systems on their basis.

  2. Terahertz metamaterials and systems based on rolled-up 3D elements: designs, technological approaches, and properties

    PubMed Central

    Prinz, Victor Ya.; Naumova, Elena V.; Golod, Sergey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir A.; Bocharov, Andrey A.; Kubarev, Vitaliy V.

    2017-01-01

    Electromagnetic metamaterials opened the way to extraordinary manipulation of radiation. Terahertz (THz) and optical metamaterials are usually fabricated by traditional planar-patterning approaches, while the majority of practical applications require metamaterials with 3D resonators. Making arrays of precise 3D micro- and nanoresonators is still a challenging problem. Here we present a versatile set of approaches to fabrication of metamaterials with 3D resonators rolled-up from strained films, demonstrate novel THz metamaterials/systems, and show giant polarization rotation by several chiral metamaterials/systems. The polarization spectra of chiral metamaterials on semiconductor substrates exhibit ultrasharp quasiperiodic peaks. Application of 3D printing allowed assembling more complex systems, including the bianisotropic system with optimal microhelices, which showed an extreme polarization azimuth rotation of 85° with drop by 150° at a frequency shift of 0.4%. We refer the quasiperiodic peaks in the polarization spectra of metamaterial systems to the interplay of different resonances, including peculiar chiral waveguide resonance. Formed metamaterials cannot be made by any other presently available technology. All steps of presented fabrication approaches are parallel, IC-compatible and allow mass fabrication with scaling of rolled-up resonators up to visible frequencies. We anticipate that the rolled-up meta-atoms will be ideal building blocks for future generations of commercial metamaterials, devices and systems on their basis. PMID:28256587

  3. Terahertz metamaterials and systems based on rolled-up 3D elements: designs, technological approaches, and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinz, Victor Ya.; Naumova, Elena V.; Golod, Sergey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir A.; Bocharov, Andrey A.; Kubarev, Vitaliy V.

    2017-03-01

    Electromagnetic metamaterials opened the way to extraordinary manipulation of radiation. Terahertz (THz) and optical metamaterials are usually fabricated by traditional planar-patterning approaches, while the majority of practical applications require metamaterials with 3D resonators. Making arrays of precise 3D micro- and nanoresonators is still a challenging problem. Here we present a versatile set of approaches to fabrication of metamaterials with 3D resonators rolled-up from strained films, demonstrate novel THz metamaterials/systems, and show giant polarization rotation by several chiral metamaterials/systems. The polarization spectra of chiral metamaterials on semiconductor substrates exhibit ultrasharp quasiperiodic peaks. Application of 3D printing allowed assembling more complex systems, including the bianisotropic system with optimal microhelices, which showed an extreme polarization azimuth rotation of 85° with drop by 150° at a frequency shift of 0.4%. We refer the quasiperiodic peaks in the polarization spectra of metamaterial systems to the interplay of different resonances, including peculiar chiral waveguide resonance. Formed metamaterials cannot be made by any other presently available technology. All steps of presented fabrication approaches are parallel, IC-compatible and allow mass fabrication with scaling of rolled-up resonators up to visible frequencies. We anticipate that the rolled-up meta-atoms will be ideal building blocks for future generations of commercial metamaterials, devices and systems on their basis.

  4. A 3-D skeleton model & SEMG approach for integrated neck and low back pain analysis test batteries.

    PubMed

    D'amico, M; D'amico, G; Frascarello, M; Paniccia, M; Roncoletta, P; Vallasciani, M

    2008-01-01

    Since several years our group is working on a project to merge into a full 3D reliable and detailed human skeleton representation various segmental biomechanical models presented in literature. The obtained 3D skeleton model is fully parametric and can be fitted to each subject anthropometric characteristics. A non-ionising approach based on 3D opto-electronic measurements of body landmarks labelled by passive markers has been chosen to build the 3D parametric biomechanical skeleton model. A special focus has been devoted to identify and model the spine with a correct degree of accuracy and reliability. In spine pain related pathologies is of major importance the evaluation of functional limitations associated. This requires to integrate morphological characteristics with information deriving from other measurements devices as force platform data, surface EMG, foot pressure maps. The aim of this study is to present a multi-factorial approach which integrates rachis morphological characteristics with full skeleton kinematic, dynamic and SEMG measurements to quantify spine function and mobility in particular for neck and low back pain. A set of clinical-biomechanical tests have been implemented. Static posture characteristics are first evaluated. After that, patient is asked to perform specific motion test batteries in order to fully measure the whole ROMs (spine angles ranges and spine shape modifications) for Axial rotations, forward-backward flexion-extension, lateral bendings per each spine functional units (Skull and neck, thoracic and lumbar districts). During forward bending also a digital Schober test is performed. Such data are correlated to simultaneous SEMG muscle activities recording to investigate motor co-ordination/dysfunction as well as the presence absence of flexion-relaxation phenomena associated to pain.

  5. 3D technology of Sony Bloggie has no advantage in decision-making of tennis serve direction: A randomized placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sicong; Ritchie, Jason; Sáenz-Moncaleano, Camilo; Ward, Savanna K; Paulsen, Cody; Klein, Tyler; Gutierrez, Oscar; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed at exploring whether 3D technology enhances tennis decision-making under the conceptual framework of human performance model. A 3 (skill-level: varsity, club, recreational) × 3 (experimental condition: placebo, weak 3D [W3D], strong 3D [S3D]) between-participant design was used. Allocated to experimental conditions by a skill-level stratified randomization, 105 tennis players judged tennis serve direction from video scenarios and rated their perceptions of enjoyment, flow, and presence during task performance. Results showed that varsity players made more accurate decisions than less skilled ones. Additionally, applying 3D technology to typical video displays reduced tennis players' decision-making accuracy, although wearing the 3D glasses led to a placebo effect that shortened the decision-making reaction time. The unexpected negative effect of 3D technology on decision-making was possibly due to participants being more familiar to W3D than to S3D, and relatedly, a suboptimal task-technology match. Future directions for advancing this area of research are offered. Highlights 3D technology augments binocular depth cues to tradition video displays, and thus results in the attainment of more authentic visual representation. This process enhances task fidelity in researching perceptual-cognitive skills in sports. The paper clarified both conceptual and methodological difficulties in testing 3D technology in sports settings. Namely, the nomenclature of video footage (with/without 3D technology) and the possible placebo effect (arising from wearing glasses of 3D technology) merit researchers' attention. Participants varying in level of domain-specific expertise were randomized into viewing conditions using a placebo-controlled design. Measurement consisted of both participants' subjective experience (i.e., presence, flow, and enjoyment) and objective performance (i.e., accuracy and reaction time) in a decision-making task. Findings revealed that

  6. Integration of camera and range sensors for 3D pose estimation in robot visual servoing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulls, Carol C. W.; Wilson, William J.

    1998-10-01

    Range-vision sensor systems can incorporate range images or single point measurements. Research incorporating point range measurements has focused on the area of map generation for mobile robots. These systems can utilize the fact that the objects sensed tend to be large and planar. The approach presented in this paper fuses information obtained from a point range measurement with visual information to produce estimates of the relative 3D position and orientation of a small, non-planar object with respect to a robot end- effector. The paper describes a real-time sensor fusion system for performing dynamic visual servoing using a camera and a point laser range sensor. The system is based upon the object model reference approach. This approach, which can be used to develop multi-sensor fusion systems that fuse dynamic sensor data from diverse sensors in real-time, uses a description of the object to be sensed in order to develop a combined observation-dependency sensor model. The range- vision sensor system is evaluated in terms of accuracy and robustness. The results show that the use of a range sensor significantly improves the system performance when there is poor or insufficient camera information. The system developed is suitable for visual servoing applications, particularly robot assembly operations.

  7. Integration of Libration Point Orbit Dynamics into a Universal 3-D Autonomous Formation Flying Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The autonomous formation flying control algorithm developed by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for the New Millennium Program (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) mission is investigated for applicability to libration point orbit formations. In the EO-1 formation-flying algorithm, control is accomplished via linearization about a reference transfer orbit with a state transition matrix (STM) computed from state inputs. The effect of libration point orbit dynamics on this algorithm architecture is explored via computation of STMs using the flight proven code, a monodromy matrix developed from a N-body model of a libration orbit, and a standard STM developed from the gravitational and coriolis effects as measured at the libration point. A comparison of formation flying Delta-Vs calculated from these methods is made to a standard linear quadratic regulator (LQR) method. The universal 3-D approach is optimal in the sense that it can be accommodated as an open-loop or closed-loop control using only state information.

  8. Photonic liquid crystal fibers tuning by four electrode system produced with 3D printing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertman, Slawomir; Bednarska, Karolina; Czapla, Aleksandra; Woliński, Tomasz R.

    2015-09-01

    Photonic liquid crystal fiber has been intensively investigated in last few years. It has been proved that guiding properties of such fibers could be tuned with an electric field. In particular efficient tuning could be obtained if multi-electrode system allowing for dynamic change of not only intensity of the electric field, but also its direction. In this work we report a simple to build four electrode system, which is based on a precisely aligned four cylindrical microelectrodes. As an electrodes we use enameled copper wire with diameter adequate to the diameter of the fiber to be tuned. To ensure uniform and parallel alignment of the wires a special micro-profiles has been designed and then produced with filament 3D printer. The possibility of the dynamic change of the electric field direction in such scalable and cost effective electrode assembly has been experimentally confirmed.

  9. Technical solutions for a full-resolution autostereoscopic 2D/3D display technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolle, Hagen; Olaya, Jean-Christophe; Buschbeck, Steffen; Sahm, Hagen; Schwerdtner, Armin

    2008-02-01

    Auto-stereoscopic 3D displays capable of high quality, full-resolution images for multiple users can only be created with time-sequential systems incorporating eye tracking and a dedicated optical design. The availability of high speed displays with 120Hz and faster eliminated one of the major hurdles for commercial solutions. Results of alternative display solutions from SeeReal show the impact of optical design on system performance and product features. Depending on the manufacturer's capabilities, system complexity can be shifted from optics to SLM with an impact on viewing angle, number of users and energy efficiency, but also on manufacturing processes. A proprietary solution for eye tracking from SeeReal demonstrates that the required key features can be achieved and implemented in commercial systems in a reasonably short time.

  10. Evaluation of a Gait Assessment Module Using 3D Motion Capture Technology

    PubMed Central

    Baskwill, Amanda J.; Belli, Patricia; Kelleher, Leila

    2017-01-01

    Background Gait analysis is the study of human locomotion. In massage therapy, this observation is part of an assessment process that informs treatment planning. Massage therapy students must apply the theory of gait assessment to simulated patients. At Humber College, the gait assessment module traditionally consists of a textbook reading and a three-hour, in-class session in which students perform gait assessment on each other. In 2015, Humber College acquired a three-dimensional motion capture system. Purpose The purpose was to evaluate the use of 3D motion capture in a gait assessment module compared to the traditional gait assessment module. Participants Semester 2 massage therapy students who were enrolled in Massage Theory 2 (n = 38). Research Design Quasi-experimental, wait-list comparison study. Intervention The intervention group participated in an in-class session with a Qualisys motion capture system. Main Outcome Measure(s) The outcomes included knowledge and application of gait assessment theory as measured by quizzes, and students’ satisfaction as measured through a questionnaire. Results There were no statistically significant differences in baseline and post-module knowledge between both groups (pre-module: p = .46; post-module: p = .63). There was also no difference between groups on the final application question (p = .13). The intervention group enjoyed the in-class session because they could visualize the content, whereas the comparison group enjoyed the interactivity of the session. The intervention group recommended adding the assessment of gait on their classmates to their experience. Both groups noted more time was needed for the gait assessment module. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that the gait assessment module combine both the traditional in-class session and the 3D motion capture system. PMID:28293329

  11. Integrating eye tracking and motion sensor on mobile phone for interactive 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yu-Wei; Chiang, Chen-Kuo; Lai, Shang-Hong

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we propose an eye tracking and gaze estimation system for mobile phone. We integrate an eye detector, cornereye center and iso-center to improve pupil detection. The optical flow information is used for eye tracking. We develop a robust eye tracking system that integrates eye detection and optical-flow based image tracking. In addition, we further incorporate the orientation sensor information from the mobile phone to improve the eye tracking for accurate gaze estimation. We demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed eye tracking and gaze estimation system through experiments on some public video sequences as well as videos acquired directly from mobile phone.

  12. The rendering context for stereoscopic 3D web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qinshui; Wang, Wenmin; Wang, Ronggang

    2014-03-01

    3D technologies on the Web has been studied for many years, but they are basically monoscopic 3D. With the stereoscopic technology gradually maturing, we are researching to integrate the binocular 3D technology into the Web, creating a stereoscopic 3D browser that will provide users with a brand new experience of human-computer interaction. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to apply stereoscopy technologies to the CSS3 3D Transforms. Under our model, each element can create or participate in a stereoscopic 3D rendering context, in which 3D Transforms such as scaling, translation and rotation, can be applied and be perceived in a truly 3D space. We first discuss the underlying principles of stereoscopy. After that we discuss how these principles can be applied to the Web. A stereoscopic 3D browser with backward compatibility is also created for demonstration purposes. We take advantage of the open-source WebKit project, integrating the 3D display ability into the rendering engine of the web browser. For each 3D web page, our 3D browser will create two slightly different images, each representing the left-eye view and right-eye view, both to be combined on the 3D display to generate the illusion of depth. And as the result turns out, elements can be manipulated in a truly 3D space.

  13. Building components for an outpost on the Lunar soil by means of a novel 3D printing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesaretti, Giovanni; Dini, Enrico; De Kestelier, Xavier; Colla, Valentina; Pambaguian, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    3D-printing technologies are receiving an always increasing attention in architecture, due to their potential use for direct construction of buildings and other complex structures, also of considerable dimensions, with virtually any shape. Some of these technologies rely on an agglomeration process of inert materials, e.g. sand, through a special binding liquid and this capability is of interest for the space community for its potential application to space exploration. In fact, it opens the possibility for exploiting in-situ resources for the construction of buildings in harsh spatial environments. The paper presents the results of a study aimed at assessing the concept of 3D printing technology for building habitats on the Moon using lunar soil, also called regolith. A particular patented 3D-printing technology - D-shape - has been applied, which is, among the existing rapid prototyping systems, the closest to achieving full scale construction of buildings and the physical and chemical characteristics of lunar regolith and terrestrial regolith simulants have been assessed with respect to the working principles of such technology. A novel lunar regolith simulant has also been developed, which almost exactly reproduces the characteristics of the JSC-1A simulant produced in the US. Moreover, tests in air and in vacuum have been performed to demonstrate the occurrence of the reticulation reaction with the regolith simulant. The vacuum tests also showed that evaporation or freezing of the binding liquid can be prevented through a proper injection method. The general requirements of a Moon outpost have been specified, and a preliminary design of the habitat has been developed. Based on such design, a section of the outpost wall has been selected and manufactured at full scale using the D-shape printer and regolith simulant. Test pieces have also been manufactured and their mechanical properties have been assessed.

  14. A Integrated Service Platform for Remote Sensing Image 3D Interpretation and Draughting based on HTML5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIU, Yiping; XU, Qing; ZhANG, Heng; LV, Liang; LU, Wanjie; WANG, Dandi

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to solve the problems of the traditional single system for interpretation and draughting such as inconsistent standards, single function, dependence on plug-ins, closed system and low integration level. On the basis of the comprehensive analysis of the target elements composition, map representation and similar system features, a 3D interpretation and draughting integrated service platform for multi-source, multi-scale and multi-resolution geospatial objects is established based on HTML5 and WebGL, which not only integrates object recognition, access, retrieval, three-dimensional display and test evaluation but also achieves collection, transfer, storage, refreshing and maintenance of data about Geospatial Objects and shows value in certain prospects and potential for growth.

  15. Encrypting 2D/3D image using improved lensless integral imaging in Fresnel domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Qiong-Hua; Kim, Seok-Tae; Lee, In-Kwon

    2016-12-01

    We propose a new image encryption technique, for the first time to our knowledge, combined Fresnel transform with the improved lensless integral imaging technique. In this work, before image encryption, the input image is first recorded into an elemental image array (EIA) by using the improved lensless integral imaging technique. The recorded EIA is encrypted into random noise by use of two phase masks located in the Fresnel domain. The positions of phase masks and operation wavelength, as well as the integral imaging system parameters are used as encryption keys that can ensure security. Compared with previous works, the main novelty of this proposed method resides in the fact that the elemental images possess distributed memory characteristic, which greatly improved the robustness of the image encryption algorithm. Meanwhile, the proposed pixel averaging algorithm can effectively address the overlapping problem existing in the computational integral imaging reconstruction process. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. Results also indicate the high robustness against data loss attacks.

  16. A medical application integrating remote 3D visualization tools to access picture archiving and communication system on mobile devices.

    PubMed

    He, Longjun; Ming, Xing; Liu, Qian

    2014-04-01

    With computing capability and display size growing, the mobile device has been used as a tool to help clinicians view patient information and medical images anywhere and anytime. However, for direct interactive 3D visualization, which plays an important role in radiological diagnosis, the mobile device cannot provide a satisfactory quality of experience for radiologists. This paper developed a medical system that can get medical images from the picture archiving and communication system on the mobile device over the wireless network. In the proposed application, the mobile device got patient information and medical images through a proxy server connecting to the PACS server. Meanwhile, the proxy server integrated a range of 3D visualization techniques, including maximum intensity projection, multi-planar reconstruction and direct volume rendering, to providing shape, brightness, depth and location information generated from the original sectional images for radiologists. Furthermore, an algorithm that changes remote render parameters automatically to adapt to the network status was employed to improve the quality of experience. Finally, performance issues regarding the remote 3D visualization of the medical images over the wireless network of the proposed application were also discussed. The results demonstrated that this proposed medical application could provide a smooth interactive experience in the WLAN and 3G networks.

  17. Dual-mode intracranial catheter integrating 3D ultrasound imaging and hyperthermia for neuro-oncology: feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Herickhoff, Carl D; Light, Edward D; Bing, Kristin F; Mukundan, Srinivasan; Grant, Gerald A; Wolf, Patrick D; Smith, Stephen W

    2009-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the feasibility of an intracranial catheter transducer with dual-mode capability of real-time 3D (RT3D) imaging and ultrasound hyperthermia, for application in the visualization and treatment of tumors in the brain. Feasibility is demonstrated in two ways: first by using a 50-element linear array transducer (17 mm x 3.1 mm aperture) operating at 4.4 MHz with our Volumetrics diagnostic scanner and custom, electrical impedance-matching circuits to achieve a temperature rise over 4 degrees C in excised pork muscle, and second, by designing and constructing a 12 Fr, integrated matrix and linear-array catheter transducer prototype for combined RT3D imaging and heating capability. This dual-mode catheter incorporated 153 matrix array elements and 11 linear array elements diced on a 0.2 mm pitch, with a total aperture size of 8.4 mm x 2.3 mm. This 3.64 MHz array achieved a 3.5 degrees C in vitro temperature rise at a 2 cm focal distance in tissue-mimicking material. The dual-mode catheter prototype was compared with a Siemens 10 Fr AcuNav catheter as a gold standard in experiments assessing image quality and therapeutic potential and both probes were used in an in vivo canine brain model to image anatomical structures and color Doppler blood flow and to attempt in vivo heating.

  18. The integration of 3D carbon-electrode dielectrophoresis on a CD-like centrifugal microfluidic platform.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Duarte, Rodrigo; Gorkin, Robert A; Abi-Samra, Kameel; Madou, Marc J

    2010-04-21

    We introduce the integration of a novel dielectrophoresis (DEP)-assisted filter with a compact disk (CD)-based centrifugal platform. Carbon-electrode dielectrophoresis (carbon-DEP) refers to the use of carbon electrodes to induce DEP. In this work, 3D carbon electrodes are fabricated using the C-MEMS technique and are used to implement a DEP-enabled active filter to trap particles of interest. Compared to traditional planar metal electrodes, 3D carbon electrodes allow for superior filtering efficiency. The system includes mounting modular 3D carbon-DEP chips on an electrically interfaced rotating disk. This allows simple centrifugal pumping to replace the large footprint syringe pump approaches commonly used in DEP systems. The advantages of the CD setup include not only a reduced footprint, but also complexity and cost reduction by eliminating expensive precision pumps and fluidic interconnects. To demonstrate the viability of this system we quantified the filter efficiency in the DEP trapping of yeast cells from a mix of latex and yeast cells. Results demonstrate selective filtering at flow rates up to 35 microl min(-1). The impact of electrode height, DEP chip misalignment and particle sedimentation on filter efficiency and the advantages this system represents are analyzed. The ultimate goal is to obtain an automated platform for bioparticle sorting with application in different fields such as point-of-care diagnostics and cell-based therapies.

  19. Architectural integration of the components necessary for electrical energy storage on the nanoscale and in 3D.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Christopher P; Long, Jeffrey W; Pettigrew, Katherine A; Stroud, Rhonda M; Rolison, Debra R

    2011-04-01

    We describe fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) multifunctional nanoarchitectures in which the three critical components of a battery--cathode, separator/electrolyte, and anode--are internally assembled as tricontinuous nanoscopic phases. The architecture is initiated using sol-gel chemistry and processing to erect a 3D self-wired nanoparticulate scaffold of manganese oxide (>200 m(2) g(-1)) with a continuous, open, and mesoporous void volume. The integrated 3D system is generated by exhaustive coverage of the oxide network by an ultrathin, conformal layer of insulating polymer that forms via self-limiting electrodeposition of poly(phenylene oxide). The remaining interconnected void volume is then wired with RuO(2) nanowebs using subambient thermal decomposition of RuO(4). Transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that the three nanoscopic charge-transfer functional components--manganese oxide, polymer separator/cation conductor, and RuO(2)--exhibit the stratified, tricontinuous design of the phase-by-phase construction. This architecture contains all three components required for a solid-state energy storage device within a void volume sized at tens of nanometres such that nanometre-thick distances are established between the opposing electrodes. We have now demonstrated the ability to assemble multifunctional energy-storage nanoarchitectures on the nanoscale and in three dimensions.

  20. Integrated 3D geophysical and geological modelling of the Hercynian Suture Zone in the Champtoceaux area (south Brittany, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martelet, G.; Calcagno, P.; Gumiaux, C.; Truffert, C.; Bitri, A.; Gapais, D.; Brun, J. P.

    2004-04-01

    This paper combines geological knowledge and geophysical imagery at the crustal scale to model the 3D geometry of a segment of the Hercynian suture zone of western Europe in the Champtoceaux area (Brittany, France). The Champtoceaux complex consists of a stack of metamorphic nappes of gneisses and micaschists, with eclogite-bearing units. The exhumation of the complex, during early Carboniferous times, was accompanied by deformation during regional dextral strike-slip associated with a major Hercynian shear zone (the South Armorican Shear Zone, SASZ). Dextral shearing produced a km-scale antiformal structure with a steeply dipping axial plane and a steeply eastward plunging axis. Armor 2 deep seismic profile shows that the regional structure was cut by a set of faults with northward thrusting components. Based on the seismic constraint, direct 2D crustal-scale modelling was performed throughout the Champtoceaux fold on seven radial gravity profiles, also using geological data, and density measurements from field and drill-hole samples. The 3D integration of the cross-sections, the digitised geological map, and the structural information (foliation dips) insure the geometrical and topological consistency of all sources of data. The 2D information is interpolated to the whole 3D space using a geostatistical analysis. Finally, the 3D gravity contribution of the resulting model is computed taking into account densities for each modelled geological body and compared to the Bouguer anomaly. The final 3D model is thus compatible with the seismic and gravity data, as well as with geological data. Main geological results derived from the modelling are (i) the overall 3D geometry of the south dipping thrust system interpreted on the seismic profile emphasises northward thrusting and folding of the Champtoceaux complex which was coeval with strike-slip along the South Armorican Shear Zone; (ii) the gravity modelling suggests the presence of a relatively dense body below the

  1. A strategy for integrating essential 3D microphysiological systems of human organs for realistic anti-cancer drug screening

    PubMed Central

    Heylman, Christopher; Sobrino, Agua; Shirure, Venktesh S.; Hughes, Christopher C.W.; George, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world. Despite some success, traditional anti-cancer drugs developed to reduce tumor growth face important limitations primarily due to undesirable bone marrow and cardiovascular toxicity. Many drugs showing promise in preclinical trials fail during clinical development, suggesting that the available in vitro and animal models are poor predictors of drug efficacy and toxicity in humans. Hence, there exists a great need for developing novel platforms that more accurately mimic the biology of human organs, and thus provide a reliable model for high-throughput drug screening. 3D microphysiological systems can utilize induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology, tissue engineering, and microfabrication techniques to develop tissue models of human tumors, cardiac muscle, and bone marrow on the order of 1 mm3 in size. A functional network of human capillaries and microvessels to overcome diffusion limitations in nutrient delivery and waste removal can also nourish the 3D microphysiological tissues. Importantly, the 3D microphysiological tissues are grown on optically clear platforms that offer non-invasive and non-destructive image acquisition with sub-cellular resolution in real time. Such systems offer a new paradigm for high-throughput drug screening, and will significantly improve the efficiency of identifying new drugs for cancer treatment, that minimize cardiac and bone marrow toxicity. PMID:24740872

  2. 3D-integrated optics component for astronomical spectro-interferometry.

    PubMed

    Saviauk, Allar; Minardi, Stefano; Dreisow, Felix; Nolte, Stefan; Pertsch, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    We present the experimental characterization of a spectro-interferometry setup based on a laser-written three-dimensional integrated optics component. By exploiting the interferometric capability of a two-dimensional array of evanescently coupled waveguides, we measure the mutual coherence properties of three different polychromatic optical fields. Direct application of our discrete beam combiner (DBC) component is astronomical interferometry. The DBC can be scaled up to combine arbitrary large number of telescopes for the determination of coherence properties of astronomical targets. Besides applications to astronomy, the DBC can be also applied to optical integrated metrology system requiring nanometric position monitoring. The working principle, the experimental setup used, and the broadband performance of the DBC are presented.

  3. 5D Data Modelling: Full Integration of 2D/3D Space, Time and Scale Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oosterom, Peter; Stoter, Jantien

    This paper proposes an approach for data modelling in five dimensions. Apart from three dimensions for geometrical representation and a fourth dimension for time, we identify scale as fifth dimensional characteristic. Considering scale as an extra dimension of geographic information, fully integrated with the other dimensions, is new. Through a formal definition of geographic data in a conceptual 5D continuum, the data can be handled by one integrated approach assuring consistency across scale and time dimensions. Because the approach is new and challenging, we choose to step-wise studying several combinations of the five dimensions, ultimately resulting in the optimal 5D model. We also propose to apply mathematical theories on multidimensional modelling to well established principles of multidimensional modelling in the geo-information domain. The result is a conceptual full partition of the 3Dspace+time+scale space (i.e. no overlaps, no gaps) realised in a 5D data model implemented in a Database Management System.

  4. 3D-NTT: A New Instrument for the NTT Based on Versatile Tunable Filter Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcelin, M.

    The 3D-NTT will be a visitor instrument for the NTT, built by GEPI (Paris) and LAM (Marseille) with the collaboration of LAE (Montréal, Canada) and AAO (Australia). It is a spectro-imager offering two modes: a low resolution mode (100-5000) with a Tunable Filter, and a high resolution mode (5000 - 40 000) with a standard scanning Fabry-Perot. A large variety of programmes may be led with such an instrument as has been shown recently (1997-2003) with the Taurus Tunable Filter on the AAT and WHT. In the frame of a large scientific coollaboration, gathering European teams as well as collaborators from other countries, we propose a Large Programme (IOGA) dedicated to the study of ionized gas in galaxies, at low and high z, to be undertaken with the 3D-NTT. Nearby IR galaxies (IRGs) are the key to understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies, as they are believed to be the local counter-part of the numerous luminous starburst galaxies at high z. To understand the nature, origin and evolution of IRGs, we propose to map the star formation and kinematics in 500 galaxies and obtain dust extinction, metal abundances and electron density maps in 50 of them for obtaining a reference sample with high spectral and spatial resolution (sub-kpc) to be compared with distant objects being observed on the VLT (GIRAFFE, SINFONI). We will take advantage of both modes proposed by the instrument: high resolution mode with scanning Fabry Perot (FOV 5.5' or 11'), and low resolution mode with Tunable Filter and larger field (FOV 20'). This mode will be used at high z to look for star forming galaxies around quasars with a range of intrinsic UV luminosity. Star forming galaxies exist in significant numbers around low power quasars and we want to check if this remains true around more distant and luminous quasars. This may be the first evidence that powerful UV fields can suppress or delay widespread star formation in galaxies and, as such, may provide important constraints on

  5. Rapid Low-Temperature 3D Integration of Silicon Nanowires on Flexible Substrates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoonkap; Kim, Han-Jung; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Choi, Dae-Geun; Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Jung, Joo-Yun; Jeon, Sohee; Lee, Eung-Sug; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Lee, Jihye

    2015-08-26

    The vertical integration of 1D nanostructures onto the 2D substrates has the potential to offer significant performance gains to flexible electronic devices due to high integration density, large surface area, and improved light absorption and trapping. A simple, rapid, and low temperature transfer bonding method has been developed for this purpose. Ultrasonic vibration is used to achieve a low temperature bonding within a few seconds, resulting in a polymer-matrix-free, electrically conducting vertical assembly of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with a graphene/PET substrate. The microscopic structure, and mechanical and electrical characteristics of the interface between the transferred SiNW array and graphene layer are subsequently investigated, revealing that this creates a mechanically robust and electrically Ohmic contact. This newly developed ultrasonic transfer bonding technique is also found to be readily adaptable for diverse substrates of both metal and polymer. It is therefore considered as a valuable technique for integrating 1D vertical nanostructures onto the 2D flexible substrates for flexible photovoltaics, energy storage, and water splitting systems.

  6. Investigation of thermal degradation with extrusion-based dispensing modules for 3D bioprinting technology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyungseok; Yoo, James J; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-02-04

    Recently, numerous three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting systems have been introduced for the artificial regeneration of tissues. Among them, the extrusion-based dispensing module is the most widely used because of the processability it gives various biomaterials. The module uses high forces and temperature to dispense materials through a micro-nozzle. Generally, the harsh conditions induce thermal degradation of the material in the dispensing procedure. The thermal degradation affects the properties of the materials, and the change of the properties should be carefully controlled, because it severely affects the regeneration of tissues. Therefore, in this research, the relationship between the dispensing module and the thermal degradation of material was investigated. Extrusion-based dispensing modules can be divided into the syringe type (ST) and filament type (FT) based on working principles. We prepared a poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffold with the two methods at various time points. Then, the characteristics of the printed scaffolds were assessed by measuring molecular weight (M w), glass transition temperature (T g), in vitro degradation, compressive modulus, and cytocompatibility. The results showed that the PLGA scaffold with the FT dispensing module maintained its properties regardless of printing time points. In contrast, severe thermal degradation was observed in the scaffold group prepared by the ST dispensing module. Consequentially, it was obvious that the FT dispensing module was more suitable for producing scaffolds without severe thermal degradation.

  7. High-Performance Active Liquid Crystalline Shutters for Stereo Computer Graphics and Other 3-D Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergan, Tatiana; Sergan, Vassili; MacNaughton, Boyd

    2007-03-01

    Stereoscopic computer displays create a 3-D image by alternating two separate images for each of the viewer's eyes. Field-sequential viewing systems supply each eye with the appropriate image by blocking the wrong image for the wrong eye. In our work, we have developed a new mode of operation of a liquid crystal shutter that provides for highly effective blockage of undesired images when the screen is viewed in all viewing directions and eliminates color shifts associated with long turn-off times. The goal was achieved by using a π-cell filled with low-rotational-viscosity and high-birefringence fluid and additional negative birefringence films with splay optic axis distribution. The shutter demonstrates a contrast ratio higher than 800:1 for head-on viewing and 10:1 in the viewing cone of about 45°. The relaxation time of the shutter does not exceed 2 ms and is the same for all three primary colors.

  8. Utilizing 3D Printing Technology to Merge MRI with Histology: A Protocol for Brain Sectioning

    PubMed Central

    Luciano, Nicholas J; Sati, Pascal; Nair, Govind; Guy, Joseph R; Ha, Seung-Kwon; Absinta, Martina; Chiang, Wen-Yang; Leibovitch, Emily C; Jacobson, Steven; Silva, Afonso C; Reich, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows for the delineation between normal and abnormal tissue on a macroscopic scale, sampling an entire tissue volume three-dimensionally. While MRI is an extremely sensitive tool for detecting tissue abnormalities, association of signal changes with an underlying pathological process is usually not straightforward. In the central nervous system, for example, inflammation, demyelination, axonal damage, gliosis, and neuronal death may all induce similar findings on MRI. As such, interpretation of MRI scans depends on the context, and radiological-histopathological correlation is therefore of the utmost importance. Unfortunately, traditional pathological sectioning of brain tissue is often imprecise and inconsistent, thus complicating the comparison between histology sections and MRI. This article presents novel methodology for accurately sectioning primate brain tissues and thus allowing precise matching between histology and MRI. The detailed protocol described in this article will assist investigators in applying this method, which relies on the creation of 3D printed brain slicers. Slightly modified, it can be easily implemented for brains of other species, including humans. PMID:28060281

  9. Utilizing 3D Printing Technology to Merge MRI with Histology: A Protocol for Brain Sectioning.

    PubMed

    Luciano, Nicholas J; Sati, Pascal; Nair, Govind; Guy, Joseph R; Ha, Seung-Kwon; Absinta, Martina; Chiang, Wen-Yang; Leibovitch, Emily C; Jacobson, Steven; Silva, Afonso C; Reich, Daniel S

    2016-12-06

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows for the delineation between normal and abnormal tissue on a macroscopic scale, sampling an entire tissue volume three-dimensionally. While MRI is an extremely sensitive tool for detecting tissue abnormalities, association of signal changes with an underlying pathological process is usually not straightforward. In the central nervous system, for example, inflammation, demyelination, axonal damage, gliosis, and neuronal death may all induce similar findings on MRI. As such, interpretation of MRI scans depends on the context, and radiological-histopathological correlation is therefore of the utmost importance. Unfortunately, traditional pathological sectioning of brain tissue is often imprecise and inconsistent, thus complicating the comparison between histology sections and MRI. This article presents novel methodology for accurately sectioning primate brain tissues and thus allowing precise matching between histology and MRI. The detailed protocol described in this article will assist investigators in applying this method, which relies on the creation of 3D printed brain slicers. Slightly modified, it can be easily implemented for brains of other species, including humans.

  10. Revitalizing the Space Shuttle's Thermal Protection System with Reverse Engineering and 3D Vision Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Brad; Galatzer, Yishai

    2008-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is protected by a Thermal Protection System (TPS) made of tens of thousands of individually shaped heat protection tile. With every flight, tiles are damaged on take-off and return to earth. After each mission, the heat tiles must be fixed or replaced depending on the level of damage. As part of the return to flight mission, the TPS requirements are more stringent, leading to a significant increase in heat tile replacements. The replacement operation requires scanning tile cavities, and in some cases the actual tiles. The 3D scan data is used to reverse engineer each tile into a precise CAD model, which in turn, is exported to a CAM system for the manufacture of the heat protection tile. Scanning is performed while other activities are going on in the shuttle processing facility. Many technicians work simultaneously on the space shuttle structure, which results in structural movements and vibrations. This paper will cover a portable, ultra-fast data acquisition approach used to scan surfaces in this unstable environment.

  11. Conception d'un circuit d'etouffement pour photodiodes a avalanche en mode geiger pour integration heterogene 3d

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Alexandre

    Le Groupe de Recherche en Appareillage Medical de Sherbrooke (GRAMS) travaille actuellement sur un programme de recherche portant sur des photodiodes a avalanche mono-photoniques (PAMP) operees en mode Geiger en vue d'une application a la tomographie d'emission par positrons (TEP). Pour operer dans ce mode; la PAMP, ou SPAD selon l'acronyme anglais (Single Photon Avalanche Diode), requiert un circuit d'etouffement (CE) pour, d'une part, arreter l'avalanche pouvant causer sa destruction et, d'autre part. la reinitialiser en mode d'attente d'un nouveau photon. Le role de ce CE comprend egalement une electronique de communication vers les etages de traitement avance de signaux. La performance temporelle optimale du CE est realisee lorsqu'il est juxtapose a la PAMP. Cependant, cela entraine une reduction de la surface photosensible ; un element crucial en imagerie. L'integration 3D, a base d'interconnexions verticales, offre une solution elegante et performante a cette problematique par l'empilement de circuits integres possedant differentes fonctions (PAMP, CE et traitement avance de signaux). Dans l'approche proposee, des circuits d'etouffement de 50 pm x 50 pm realises sur une technologie CMOS 130 mn 3D Tezzaron, contenant chacun 112 transistors, sont matrices afin de correspondre a une matrice de PAMP localisee sur une couche electronique superieure. Chaque circuit d'etouffement possede une gigue temporelle de 7,47 ps RMS selon des simulations faites avec le logiciel Cadence. Le CE a la flexibilite d'ajuster les temps d'etouffement et de recharge pour la PAMP tout en presentant une faible consommation de puissance (~ 0,33 mW a 33 Mcps). La conception du PAMP necessite de supporter des tensions superieures aux 3,3 V de la technologie. Pour repondre a ce probleme, des transistors a drain etendu (DEMOS) ont ete realises. En raison de retards de production par Ies fabricants, les circuits n'ont pu etre testes physiquement par des mesures. Les resultats de ce memoire

  12. Integrating Sensors into a Marine Drone for Bathymetric 3D Surveys in Shallow Waters.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Francesco; Mattei, Gaia; Parente, Claudio; Peluso, Francesco; Santamaria, Raffaele

    2015-12-29

    This paper demonstrates that accurate data concerning bathymetry as well as environmental conditions in shallow waters can be acquired using sensors that are integrated into the same marine vehicle. An open prototype of an unmanned surface vessel (USV) named MicroVeGA is described. The focus is on the main instruments installed on-board: a differential Global Position System (GPS) system and single beam echo sounder; inertial platform for attitude control; ultrasound obstacle-detection system with temperature control system; emerged and submerged video acquisition system. The results of two cases study are presented, both concerning areas (Sorrento Marina Grande and Marechiaro Harbour, both in the Gulf of Naples) characterized by a coastal physiography that impedes the execution of a bathymetric survey with traditional boats. In addition, those areas are critical because of the presence of submerged archaeological remains that produce rapid changes in depth values. The experiments confirm that the integration of the sensors improves the instruments' performance and survey accuracy.

  13. Integrating Sensors into a Marine Drone for Bathymetric 3D Surveys in Shallow Waters

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Francesco; Mattei, Gaia; Parente, Claudio; Peluso, Francesco; Santamaria, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that accurate data concerning bathymetry as well as environmental conditions in shallow waters can be acquired using sensors that are integrated into the same marine vehicle. An open prototype of an unmanned surface vessel (USV) named MicroVeGA is described. The focus is on the main instruments installed on-board: a differential Global Position System (GPS) system and single beam echo sounder; inertial platform for attitude control; ultrasound obstacle-detection system with temperature control system; emerged and submerged video acquisition system. The results of two cases study are presented, both concerning areas (Sorrento Marina Grande and Marechiaro Harbour, both in the Gulf of Naples) characterized by a coastal physiography that impedes the execution of a bathymetric survey with traditional boats. In addition, those areas are critical because of the presence of submerged archaeological remains that produce rapid changes in depth values. The experiments confirm that the integration of the sensors improves the instruments’ performance and survey accuracy. PMID:26729117

  14. Uncertainty preserving patch-based online modeling for 3D model acquisition and integration from passive motion imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hao; Chang, Peng; Molina, Edgardo; Zhu, Zhigang

    2012-06-01

    In both military and civilian applications, abundant data from diverse sources captured on airborne platforms are often available for a region attracting interest. Since the data often includes motion imagery streams collected from multiple platforms flying at different altitudes, with sensors of different field of views (FOVs), resolutions, frame rates and spectral bands, it is imperative that a cohesive site model encompassing all the information can be quickly built and presented to the analysts. In this paper, we propose to develop an Uncertainty Preserving Patch-based Online Modeling System (UPPOMS) leading towards the automatic creation and updating of a cohesive, geo-registered, uncertaintypreserving, efficient 3D site terrain model from passive imagery with varying field-of-views and phenomenologies. The proposed UPPOMS has the following technical thrusts that differentiate our approach from others: (1) An uncertaintypreserved, patch-based 3D model is generated, which enables the integration of images captured with a mixture of NFOV and WFOV and/or visible and infrared motion imagery sensors. (2) Patch-based stereo matching and multi-view 3D integration are utilized, which are suitable for scenes with many low texture regions, particularly in mid-wave infrared images. (3) In contrast to the conventional volumetric algorithms, whose computational and storage costs grow exponentially with the amount of input data and the scale of the scene, the proposed UPPOMS system employs an online algorithmic pipeline, and scales well to large amount of input data. Experimental results and discussions of future work will be provided.

  15. DLP technology application: 3D head tracking and motion correction in medical brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olesen, Oline V.; Wilm, Jakob; Paulsen, Rasmus R.; Højgaard, Liselotte; Larsen, Rasmus

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we present a novel sensing system, robust Near-infrared Structured Light Scanning (NIRSL) for three-dimensional human model scanning application. Human model scanning due to its nature of various hair and dress appearance and body motion has long been a challenging task. Previous structured light scanning methods typically emitted visible coded light patterns onto static and opaque objects to establish correspondence between a projector and a camera for triangulation. In the success of these methods rely on scanning objects with proper reflective surface for visible light, such as plaster, light colored cloth. Whereas for human model scanning application, conventional methods suffer from low signal to noise ratio caused by low contrast of visible light over the human body. The proposed robust NIRSL, as implemented with the near infrared light, is capable of recovering those dark surfaces, such as hair, dark jeans and black shoes under visible illumination. Moreover, successful structured light scan relies on the assumption that the subject is static during scanning. Due to the nature of body motion, it is very time sensitive to keep this assumption in the case of human model scan. The proposed sensing system, by utilizing the new near-infrared capable high speed LightCrafter DLP projector, is robust to motion, provides accurate and high resolution three-dimensional point cloud, making our system more efficient and robust for human model reconstruction. Experimental results demonstrate that our system is effective and efficient to scan real human models with various dark hair, jeans and shoes, robust to human body motion and produces accurate and high resolution 3D point cloud.

  16. Classification of Informal Settlements Through the Integration of 2d and 3d Features Extracted from Uav Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevaert, C. M.; Persello, C.; Sliuzas, R.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-06-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are capable of providing very high resolution and up-to-date information to support informal settlement upgrading projects. In order to provide accurate basemaps, urban scene understanding through the identification and classification of buildings and terrain is imperative. However, common characteristics of informal settlements such as small, irregular buildings with heterogeneous roof material and large presence of clutter challenge state-of-the-art algorithms. Especially the dense buildings and steeply sloped terrain cause difficulties in identifying elevated objects. This work investigates how 2D radiometric and textural features, 2.5D topographic features, and 3D geometric features obtained from UAV imagery can be integrated to obtain a high classification accuracy in challenging classification problems for the analysis of informal settlements. It compares the utility of pixel-based and segment-based features obtained from an orthomosaic and DSM with point-based and segment-based features extracted from the point cloud to classify an unplanned settlement in Kigali, Rwanda. Findings show that the integration of 2D and 3D features leads to higher classification accuracies.

  17. Fabrication of Large-Scale Microlens Arrays Based on Screen Printing for Integral Imaging 3D Display.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiongtu; Peng, Yuyan; Peng, Rong; Zeng, Xiangyao; Zhang, Yong-Ai; Guo, Tailiang

    2016-09-14

    The low-cost large-scale fabrication of microlens arrays (MLAs) with precise alignment, great uniformity of focusing, and good converging performance are of great importance for integral imaging 3D display. In this work, a simple and effective method for large-scale polymer microlens arrays using screen printing has been successfully presented. The results show that the MLAs possess high-quality surface morphology and excellent optical performances. Furthermore, the microlens' shape and size, i.e., the diameter, the height, and the distance between two adjacent microlenses of the MLAs can be easily controlled by modifying the reflowing time and the size of open apertures of the screen. MLAs with the neighboring microlenses almost tangent can be achieved under suitable size of open apertures of the screen and reflowing time, which can remarkably reduce the color moiré patterns caused by the stray light between the blank areas of the MLAs in the integral imaging 3D display system, exhibiting much better reconstruction performance.

  18. Guided wave-based J-integral estimation for dynamic stress intensity factors using 3D scanning laser Doppler vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayers, J.; Owens, C. T.; Liu, K. C.; Swenson, E.; Ghoshal, A.; Weiss, V.

    2013-01-01

    The application of guided waves to interrogate remote areas of structural components has been researched extensively in characterizing damage. However, there exists a sparsity of work in using piezoelectric transducer-generated guided waves as a method of assessing stress intensity factors (SIF). This quantitative information enables accurate estimation of the remaining life of metallic structures exhibiting cracks, such as military and commercial transport vehicles. The proposed full wavefield approach, based on 3D laser vibrometry and piezoelectric transducer-generated guided waves, provides a practical means for estimation of dynamic stress intensity factors (DSIF) through local strain energy mapping via the J-integral. Strain energies and traction vectors can be conveniently estimated from wavefield data recorded using 3D laser vibrometry, through interpolation and subsequent spatial differentiation of the response field. Upon estimation of the Jintegral, it is possible to obtain the corresponding DSIF terms. For this study, the experimental test matrix consists of aluminum plates with manufactured defects representing canonical elliptical crack geometries under uniaxial tension that are excited by surface mounted piezoelectric actuators. The defects' major to minor axes ratios vary from unity to approximately 133. Finite element simulations are compared to experimental results and the relative magnitudes of the J-integrals are examined.

  19. An integrated 3D constant offset GPR and resistivity survey on a sealed landfill — Ilhavo, NW Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermozilha, H.; Grangeia, C.; Matias, M. Senos

    2010-01-01

    Owing to their nature landfills are challenging targets for high resolution Near Surface Geophysics. Herein it is described an integrated high resolution geophysical survey over the Ilhavo landfill sealed about a decade ago. The first aim of the survey is to investigate the time evolution of the contamination plume of the landfill since operations stopped and sealing took place. The second, and main objective, is the study of the landfill itself, that is, to carry out a high resolution 3D geophysical survey over it in order to investigate the thickness and effectiveness of the top cover, the thickness and sealing conditions of the landfill bottom and, finally, to investigate its internal structure. To fulfill these objectives an integrated 3D constant offset GPR and resistivity survey was designed. The interpretation of the geophysical data was carried out together with local borehole and hydrogeological information, so that, the ambiguity and uncertainty of the interpretation was reduced considerably and the usefulness of the methods were assessed.

  20. Integrated 3D macro-trapping and light-sheet imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhengyi; Piksarv, Peeter; Ferrier, David E. K.; Gunn-Moore, Frank J.; Dholakia, Kishan

    2015-08-01

    Biological research requires high-speed and low-damage imaging techniques for live specimens in areas such as development study in embryos. Light sheet microscopy provides fast imaging speed whilst keeps the photo-damage and photo-blenching to minimum. Conventional sample embedding methods in light sheet imaging involves using agent such as agarose which potentially affects the behavior and the develop pattern of the specimens. Here we demonstrate integrating dual-beam trapping method into light sheet imaging system to confine and translate the specimen whilst light sheet images are taken. Tobacco plant cells as well as Spirobranchus lamarcki larva were trapped solely with optical force and sectional images were acquired. This now approach has the potential to extend the applications of light sheet imaging significantly.

  1. Novel flexible Parylene neural probe with 3D sheath structure for enhancing tissue integration.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Jonathan T W; Kim, Brian J; Hara, Seth A; Lee, Curtis D; Gutierrez, Christian A; Hoang, Tuan Q; Meng, Ellis

    2013-02-21

    A Parylene C neural probe with a three dimensional sheath structure was designed, fabricated, and characterized. Multiple platinum (Pt) electrodes for recording neural signals were fabricated on both inner and outer surfaces of the sheath structure. Thermoforming of Parylene was used to create the three dimensional sheath structures from flat surface micromachined microchannels using solid microwires as molds. Benchtop electrochemical characterization was performed on the thin film Pt electrodes using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and showed that electrodes possessed low impedances suitable for neuronal recordings. A procedure for implantation of the neural probe was developed and successfully demonstrated in vitro into an agarose brain tissue model. The electrode-lined sheath will be decorated with eluting neurotrophic factors to promote in vivo neural tissue ingrowth post-implantation. These features will enhance tissue integration and improve recording quality towards realizing reliable chronic neural interfaces.

  2. From 3D to 4D: Integration of temporal information into CT angiography studies.

    PubMed

    Haubenreisser, Holger; Bigdeli, Amir; Meyer, Mathias; Kremer, Thomas; Riester, Thomas; Kneser, Ulrich; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Henzler, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    CT angiography is the current clinical standard for the imaging many vascular illnesses. This is traditionally done with a single arterial contrast phase. However, advances in CT technology allow for a dynamic acquisition of the contrast bolus, thus adding temporal information to the examination. The aim of this article is to highlight the clinical possibilities of dynamic CTA using 2 examples. The accuracy of the detection and quantification of stenosis in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease, especially in stadium III and IV, is significantly improved when performing dynamic CTA examinations. The post-interventional follow-up of examinations of EVAR benefit from dynamic information, allowing for a higher sensitivity and specificity, as well as allowing more accurate classification of potential endoleaks. The described radiation dose for these dynamic examinations is low, but this can be further optimized by using lower tube voltages. There are a multitude of applications for dynamic CTA that need to be further explored in future studies.

  3. Writing of 3D optical integrated circuits with ultrashort laser pulses in the presence of strong spherical aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukharin, M. A.; Skryabin, N. N.; Khudyakov, D. V.; Vartapetov, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    A novel technique was proposed for 3D femtosecond writing of waveguides and optical integrated circuits in the presence of strong spherical aberration, caused by inscription at significantly different depth under the surface of optical glasses and crystals. Strong negative effect of spherical aberration and related asymmetry of created structures was reduced due to transition to the cumulative thermal regime of femtosecond interaction with the material. The differences in the influence of spherical aberration effect in a broad depth range (larger than 200 µm) was compensated by dynamic adjustment of laser pulse energy during the process of waveguides recording. The presented approach has been experimentally implemented in fused silica. Obtained results can be used in production of a broad class of femtosecond written three-dimensional integrated optical systems, inscripted at non-optimal (for focusing lens) optical depth or in significantly extended range of depths.

  4. Integration of 3D 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy data into neuronavigation systems for tumor biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanberoglu, Berkay; Moore, Nina Z.; Frakes, David; Karam, Lina J.; Debbins, Josef P.; Preul, Mark C.

    2013-03-01

    Many important applications in clinical medicine can benefit from the fusion of spectroscopy data with anatomical images. For example, the correlation of metabolite profiles with specific regions of interest in anatomical tumor images can be useful in characterizing and treating heterogeneous tumors that appear structurally homogeneous. Such applications can build on the correlation of data from in-vivo Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Imaging (1HMRSI) with data from genetic and ex-vivo Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. To establish that correlation, tissue samples must be neurosurgically extracted from specifically identified locations with high accuracy. Toward that end, this paper presents new neuronavigation technology that enhances current clinical capabilities in the context of neurosurgical planning and execution. The proposed methods improve upon the current state-of-the-art in neuronavigation through the use of detailed three dimensional (3D) 1H-MRSI data. MRSI spectra are processed and analyzed, and specific voxels are selected based on their chemical contents. 3D neuronavigation overlays are then generated and applied to anatomical image data in the operating room. Without such technology, neurosurgeons must rely on memory and other qualitative resources alone for guidance in accessing specific MRSI-identified voxels. In contrast, MRSI-based overlays provide quantitative visual cues and location information during neurosurgery. The proposed methods enable a progressive new form of online MRSI-guided neuronavigation that we demonstrate in this study through phantom validation and clinical application.

  5. MetaTracker: integration and abstraction of 3D motion tracking data from multiple hardware systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopecky, Ken; Winer, Eliot

    2014-06-01

    Motion tracking has long been one of the primary challenges in mixed reality (MR), augmented reality (AR), and virtual reality (VR). Military and defense training can provide particularly difficult challenges for motion tracking, such as in the case of Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) and other dismounted, close quarters simulations. These simulations can take place across multiple rooms, with many fast-moving objects that need to be tracked with a high degree of accuracy and low latency. Many tracking technologies exist, such as optical, inertial, ultrasonic, and magnetic. Some tracking systems even combine these technologies to complement each other. However, there are no systems that provide a high-resolution, flexible, wide-area solution that is resistant to occlusion. While frameworks exist that simplify the use of tracking systems and other input devices, none allow data from multiple tracking systems to be combined, as if from a single system. In this paper, we introduce a method for compensating for the weaknesses of individual tracking systems by combining data from multiple sources and presenting it as a single tracking system. Individual tracked objects are identified by name, and their data is provided to simulation applications through a server program. This allows tracked objects to transition seamlessly from the area of one tracking system to another. Furthermore, it abstracts away the individual drivers, APIs, and data formats for each system, providing a simplified API that can be used to receive data from any of the available tracking systems. Finally, when single-piece tracking systems are used, those systems can themselves be tracked, allowing for real-time adjustment of the trackable area. This allows simulation operators to leverage limited resources in more effective ways, improving the quality of training.

  6. 3D Rheological Modeling of NW Intraplate Europe, Deciphering Spatial Integrated strength patterns, Mechanical Strong Layering and EET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beekman, F.; Hardebol, N.; Cloetingh, S.; Tesauro, M.

    2006-12-01

    Better understanding of 3D rheological heterogeneity of the European Lithosphere provide the key to tie the recorded intraplate deformation pattern to stress fields transmitted into plate interior from plate boundary forces. The first order strain patterns result from stresses transmitted through the European lithosphere that is marked by a patchwork of high strength variability from inherited structural and compositional heterogeneities and upper mantle thermal perturbations. As the lithospheric rheology depends primarily on its spatial structure, composition and thermal estate, the 3D strength model for the European lithosphere relies on a 3D compositional model that yields the compositional heterogeneities and an iteratively calculated thermal cube using Fouriers law for heat conduction. The accurate appraisal of spatial strength variability results from proper mapping and integration of the geophysical compositional and thermal input parameters. Therefore, much attention has been paid to a proper description of first order structural and tectonic features that facilitate compilation of the compositional and thermal input models. As such, the 3D strength model reflects the thermo-mechanical structure inherited from the Europeans polyphase deformation history. Major 3D spatial mechanical strength variability has been revealed. The East-European and Fennoscandian Craton to the NE exhibit high strength (30-50 1012 N/m) from low mantle temperatures and surface heatflow of 35-60 mW/m2 while central and western Europe reflect a polyphase Phanerozoic thermo- tectonic history. Here, regions with high rigidity are formed primarily by patches of thermally stabilized Variscan Massifs (e.g. Rhenish, Armorican, Bohemian, and Iberian Massif) with low heatflow and lithospheric thickness values (50-65 mW/m2; 110-150 km) yielding strengths of ~15-25 1012 N/m. In contrast, major axis of weakened lithosphere coincides with Cenozoic Rift System (e.g. Upper and Lower Rhine Grabens

  7. Functional morphology and integration of corvid skulls – a 3D geometric morphometric approach

    PubMed Central

    Kulemeyer, Christoph; Asbahr, Kolja; Gunz, Philipp; Frahnert, Sylke; Bairlein, Franz

    2009-01-01

    Background Sympatric corvid species have evolved differences in nesting, habitat choice, diet and foraging. Differences in the frequency with which corvid species use their repertoire of feeding techniques is expected to covary with bill-shape and with the frontal binocular field. Species that frequently probe are expected to have a relatively longer bill and more sidewise oriented orbits in contrast to species that frequently peck. We tested this prediction by analyzing computed tomography scans of skulls of six corvid species by means of three-dimensional geometric morphometrics. We (1) explored patterns of major variation using principal component analysis, (2) compared within and between species relationships of size and shape and (3) quantitatively compared patterns of morphological integration between bill and cranium by means of partial least squares (singular warp) analysis. Results Major shape variation occurs at the bill, in the orientation of orbits, in the position of the foramen magnum and in the angle between bill and cranium. The first principal component correlated positively with centroid-size, but within-species allometric relationships differed markedly. Major covariation between the bill and cranium lies in the difference in orbit orientation relative to bill-length and in the angle between bill and cranium. Conclusion Corvid species show pronounced differences in skull shape, which covary with foraging mode. Increasing bill-length, bill-curvature and sidewise orientation of the eyes is associated with an increase in the observed frequency in probing (vice versa in pecking). Hence, the frequency of probing, bill-length, bill-curvature and sidewise orientation of the eyes is progressively increased from jackdaw, to Eurasian jay, to black-billed magpie, to hooded crow, to rook and to common raven (when feeding on carcasses is considered as probing). Our results on the morphological integration suggest that most of the covariation between bill and

  8. RELAP5-3D Transient Modelling for NGNP Integrated Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sabharwall, P.; Anderson, N. A.

    2014-06-01

    The High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is designed with outlet temperatures ranging between 750°C and 800°C. These high outlet temperatures enhance the power production efficiency and facilitate a variety of industrial applications. The objective of this study is to understand the response of the primary system to potential transients in the secondary system. For this analysis, the transient condition originates in the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) or Steam Generator (SG) of the HTGR-integrated plant. The transients analysed are: a loss of pressure; loss of feedwater flow; inadvertent closure of main steam valve; decrease in returning gas temperature and heat load step change. The results show a large dependence on the negative reactivity added to the fuel as a function of increased temperature. The returning gas temperature decrease transient resulted in the highest fuel temperature (1361°C). Fuel temperature was shown to be less than the 1600°C fuel limit for each case analysed.

  9. Numerical Modeling of 3-D Dynamics of Ultrasound Contrast Agent Microbubbles Using the Boundary Integral Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvisi, Michael; Manmi, Kawa; Wang, Qianxi

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are microbubbles stabilized with a shell typically of lipid, polymer, or protein and are emerging as a unique tool for noninvasive therapies ranging from gene delivery to tumor ablation. The nonspherical dynamics of contrast agents are thought to play an important role in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications, for example, causing the emission of subharmonic frequency components and enhancing the uptake of therapeutic agents across cell membranes and tissue interfaces. A three-dimensional model for nonspherical contrast agent dynamics based on the boundary integral method is presented. The effects of the encapsulating shell are approximated by adapting Hoff's model for thin-shell, spherical contrast agents to the nonspherical case. A high-quality mesh of the bubble surface is maintained by implementing a hybrid approach of the Lagrangian method and elastic mesh technique. Numerical analyses for the dynamics of UCAs in an infinite liquid and near a rigid wall are performed in parameter regimes of clinical relevance. The results show that the presence of a coating significantly reduces the oscillation amplitude and period, increases the ultrasound pressure amplitude required to incite jetting, and reduces the jet width and velocity.

  10. Effect of Weaving Direction of Conductive Yarns on Electromagnetic Performance of 3D Integrated Microstrip Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fujun; Yao, Lan; Zhao, Da; Jiang, Muwen; Qiu, Yipping

    2013-10-01

    A three-dimensionally integrated microstrip antenna (3DIMA) is a microstrip antenna woven into the three-dimensional woven composite for load bearing while functioning as an antenna. In this study, the effect of weaving direction of conductive yarns on electromagnetic performance of 3DIMAs are investigated by designing, simulating and experimental testing of two microstrip antennas with different weaving directions of conductive yarns: one has the conductive yarns along the antenna feeding direction (3DIMA-Exp1) and the other has the conductive yarns perpendicular the antenna feeding direction (3DIMA-Exp2). The measured voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) of 3DIMA-Exp1 was 1.4 at the resonant frequencies of 1.39 GHz; while that of 3DIMA-Exp2 was 1.2 at the resonant frequencies of 1.35 GHz. In addition, the measured radiation pattern of the 3DIMA-Exp1 has smaller back lobe and higher gain value than those of the 3DIMA-Exp2. This result indicates that the waving direction of conductive yarns may have a significant impact on electromagnetic performance of textile structural antennas.

  11. Simulating The Technological Movements Of The Equipment Used For Manufacturing Prosthetic Devices Using 3D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicea, Anca-Lucia

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents the process of building geometric and kinematic models of a technological equipment used in the process of manufacturing devices. First, the process of building the model for a six axes industrial robot is presented. In the second part of the paper, the process of building the model for a five-axis CNC milling machining center is also shown. Both models can be used for accurate cutting processes simulation of complex parts, such as prosthetic devices.

  12. How integrating 3D LiDAR data in the dike surveillance protocol: The French case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretar, F.; Mériaux, P.; Fauchard, C.

    2012-04-01

    carried out. A LiDAR system is able to acquire data on a dike structure of up to 80 km per day, which makes the use of this technique also valuable in case of emergency situations. It provides additional valuable products like precious information on dike slopes and crest or their near environment (river banks, etc.). Moreover, in case of vegetation, LiDAR data makes possible to study hidden structures or defaults from images like the erosion of riverbanks under forestry vegetation. The possibility of studying the vegetation is also of high importance: the development of woody vegetation near or onto the dike is a major risk factor. Surface singularities are often signs of disorder or suspected disorder in the dike itself: for example a subsidence or a sinkhole on a ridge may result from internal erosion collapse. Finally, high resolution topographic data contribute to build specific geomechanical model of the dike that, after incorporating data provided by geophysical and geotechnical surveys, are integrated in the calculations of the structure stability. Integrating the regular use of LiDAR data in the dike surveillance protocol is not yet operational in France. However, the high number of French stakeholders at the national level (on average, there is one stakeholder for only 8-9km of dike !) and the real added value of LiDAR data makes a spatial data infrastructure valuable (webservices for processing the data, consulting and filling the database on the field when performing the local diagnosis)

  13. Progress on a New Integrated 3-D UCG Simulator and its Initial Application

    SciTech Connect

    Nitao, J J; Camp, D W; Buscheck, T A; White, J A; Burton, G C; Wagoner, J L; Chen, M

    2011-09-22

    A comprehensive simulator is being developed for underground coal gasification (UCG), with the capability to support site selection, design, hazard analyses, operations, and monitoring (Nitao et al., 2010). UCG is computationally challenging because it involves tightly-coupled multi-physical/chemical processes, with vastly different timescales. This new capability will predict cavity growth, product gas composition and rate, and the interaction with the host environment, accounting for site characteristics, injection gas composition and rate, and associated water-well extraction rates. Progress on the new simulator includes completion and system integration of a wall model, a rock spalling model, a cavity boundary tracking model, a one-dimensional cavity gas reactive transport model, a rudimentary rubble heat, mass, and reaction model, and coupling with a pre-existing hydrology simulator. An existing geomechanical simulator was enhanced to model cavity collapse and overburden subsidence. A commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code is being evaluated to model cavity gas flow and combustion in two and three dimensions. Although the simulator is midway in its development, it was applied to modeling the Hoe Creek III field test (Stephens, 1981) conducted in the 1970s, in order to evaluate and demonstrate the simulator's basic capabilities, gain experience, and guide future development. Furthermore, it is consistent with our philosophy of incremental, spiral software development, which helps in identifying and resolving potential problems early in the process. The simulation accounts for two coal seams, two injection points, and air and oxygen phases. Approximate extent and shape of cavity growth showed reasonable agreement with interpreted field data. Product gas composition and carbon consumed could not be simultaneously matched for a given set of parameter values due to the rudimentary rubble model currently used, although they can be matched using separate

  14. The 3-D image recognition based on fuzzy neural network technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirota, Kaoru; Yamauchi, Kenichi; Murakami, Jun; Tanaka, Kei

    1993-01-01

    Three dimensional stereoscopic image recognition system based on fuzzy-neural network technology was developed. The system consists of three parts; preprocessing part, feature extraction part, and matching part. Two CCD color camera image are fed to the preprocessing part, where several operations including RGB-HSV transformation are done. A multi-layer perception is used for the line detection in the feature extraction part. Then fuzzy matching technique is introduced in the matching part. The system is realized on SUN spark station and special image input hardware system. An experimental result on bottle images is also presented.

  15. Advances in 3D cell culture technologies enabling tissue-like structures to be created in vitro.

    PubMed

    Knight, Eleanor; Przyborski, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Research in mammalian cell biology often relies on developing in vitro models to enable the growth of cells in the laboratory to investigate a specific biological mechanism or process under different test conditions. The quality of such models and how they represent the behavior of cells in real tissues plays a critical role in the value of the data produced and how it is used. It is particularly important to recognize how the structure of a cell influences its function and how co-culture models can be used to more closely represent the structure of real tissue. In recent years, technologies have been developed to enhance the way in which researchers can grow cells and more readily create tissue-like structures. Here we identify the limitations of culturing mammalian cells by conventional methods on two-dimensional (2D) substrates and review the popular approaches currently available that enable the development of three-dimensional (3D) tissue models in vitro. There are now many ways in which the growth environment for cultured cells can be altered to encourage 3D cell growth. Approaches to 3D culture can be broadly categorized into scaffold-free or scaffold-based culture systems, with scaffolds made from either natural or synthetic materials. There is no one particular solution that currently satisfies all requirements and researchers must select the appropriate method in line with their needs. Using such technology in conjunction with other modern resources in cell biology (e.g. human stem cells) will provide new opportunities to create robust human tissue mimetics for use in basic research and drug discovery. Application of such models will contribute to advancing basic research, increasing the predictive accuracy of compounds, and reducing animal usage in biomedical science.

  16. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the

  17. Fabrication of corner cube array retro-reflective structure with DLP-based 3D printing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riahi, Mohammadreza

    2016-06-01

    In this article, the fabrication of a corner cube array retro-reflective structure is presented by using DLP-based 3D printing technology. In this additive manufacturing technology a pattern of a cube corner array is designed in a computer and sliced with specific software. The image of each slice is then projected from the bottom side of a reservoir, containing UV cure resin, utilizing a DLP video projector. The projected area is cured and attached to a base plate. This process is repeated until the entire part is made. The best orientation of the printing process and the effect of layer thicknesses on the surface finish of the cube has been investigated. The thermal reflow surface finishing and replication with soft molding has also been presented in this article.

  18. Summary Report on Phase I Results from the 3D Printing in Zero G Technology Demonstration Mission, Volume I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prater, T. J.; Bean, Q. A.; Beshears, R. D.; Rolin, T. D.; Werkheiser, N. J.; Ordonez, E. A.; Ryan, R. M.; Ledbetter, F. E., III

    2016-01-01

    Human space exploration to date has been confined to low-Earth orbit and the Moon. The International Space Station (ISS) provides a unique opportunity for researchers to prove out the technologies that will enable humans to safely live and work in space for longer periods of time and venture beyond the Earth/Moon system. The ability to manufacture parts in-space rather than launch them from Earth represents a fundamental shift in the current risk and logistics paradigm for human spaceflight. In September 2014, NASA, in partnership with Made In Space, Inc., launched the 3D Printing in Zero-G technology demonstration mission to explore the potential of additive manufacturing for in-space applications and demonstrate the capability to manufacture parts and tools on orbit using fused deposition modeling. This Technical Publication summarizes the results of testing to date of the ground control and flight prints from the first phase of this ISS payload.

  19. Performance of measuring contact holes using the Opti-Probe 7341 3-D RT/CD technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorkhabi, Osman; Pois, Heath; Chu, Hanyou; Wen, Youxian; Opsal, Jon; Kim, Won D.

    2005-05-01

    Spectra of contact hole arrays with target diameters ranging from 106 to 131 nm and pattern pitch ranging from 220 to 300 nm are taken from an off-axis (65°) rotating compensator spectroscopic ellipsometry (RCSE).[1] 3-dimensional finite difference (FD3D) model developed by H. Chu,[2] is applied in the studies. To ensure accuracy of optical dispersion of each film, the simultaneous use of angle resolved beam profile reflectometry (BPR), broadband spectroscopic reflectometry (BB), and SE of an Opti-Probe 7341 are used for characterizing of the resist and BARC films. In particular, The extracted n&k dispersions are used to model the contact hole SE data using Therma-Wave's proprietary 3-dimensional RT/CD technology.[3,4] The performance of stability of both static and dynamic repeatability, uniformity, and correlation to other independent technology (i.e., SEM) will be presented in this paper.

  20. Evaluation of a combined pre-processing and H.264-compression scheme for 3D integral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, Roger; Sjöström, Mårten; Xu, Youzhi

    2007-01-01

    To provide sufficient 3D-depth fidelity, integral imaging (II) requires an increase in spatial resolution of several orders of magnitude from today's 2D images. We have recently proposed a pre-processing and compression scheme for still II-frames based on forming a pseudo video sequence (PVS) from sub images (SI), which is later coded using the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video coding standard. The scheme has shown good performance on a set of reference images. In this paper we first investigate and present how five different ways to select the SIs when forming the PVS affect the schemes compression efficiency. We also study how the II-frame structure relates to the performance of a PVS coding scheme. Finally we examine the nature of the coding artifacts which are specific to the evaluated PVS-schemes. We can conclude that for all except the most complex reference image, all evaluated SI selection orders significantly outperforms JPEG 2000 where compression ratios of up to 342:1, while still keeping PSNR > 30 dB, is achieved. We can also confirm that when selecting PVS-scheme, the scheme which results in a higher PVS-picture resolution should be preferred to maximize compression efficiency. Our study of the coded II-frames also indicates that the SI-based PVS, contrary to other PVS schemes, tends to distribute its coding artifacts more homogenously over all 3D-scene depths.

  1. Evolving technologies for growing, imaging and analyzing 3D root system architecture of crop plants.

    PubMed

    Piñeros, Miguel A; Larson, Brandon G; Shaff, Jon E; Schneider, David J; Falcão, Alexandre Xavier; Yuan, Lixing; Clark, Randy T; Craft, Eric J; Davis, Tyler W; Pradier, Pierre-Luc; Shaw, Nathanael M; Assaranurak, Ithipong; McCouch, Susan R; Sturrock, Craig; Bennett, Malcolm; Kochian, Leon V

    2016-03-01

    A plant's ability to maintain or improve its yield under limiting conditions, such as nutrient deficiency or drought, can be strongly influenced by root system architecture (RSA), the three-dimensional distribution of the different root types in the soil. The ability to image, track and quantify these root system attributes in a dynamic fashion is a useful tool in assessing desirable genetic and physiological root traits. Recent advances in imaging technology and phenotyping software have resulted in substantive progress in describing and quantifying RSA. We have designed a hydroponic growth system which retains the three-dimensional RSA of the plant root system, while allowing for aeration, solution replenishment and the imposition of nutrient treatments, as well as high-quality imaging of the root system. The simplicity and flexibility of the system allows for modifications tailored to the RSA of different crop species and improved throughput. This paper details the recent improvements and innovations in our root growth and imaging system which allows for greater image sensitivity (detection of fine roots and other root details), higher efficiency, and a broad array of growing conditions for plants that more closely mimic those found under field conditions.

  2. Development of 3D in vitro platform technology to engineer mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hosseinkhani, Hossein; Hong, Po-Da; Yu, Dah-Shyong; Chen, Yi-Ru; Ickowicz, Diana; Farber, Ira-Yudovin; Domb, Abraham J

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to develop a three-dimensional in vitro culture system to genetically engineer mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to express bone morphogenic protein-2. We employed nanofabrication technologies borrowed from the spinning industry, such as electrospinning, to mass-produce identical building blocks in a variety of shapes and sizes to fabricate electrospun nanofiber sheets comprised of composites of poly (glycolic acid) and collagen. Homogenous nanoparticles of cationic biodegradable natural polymer were formed by simple mixing of an aqueous solution of plasmid DNA encoded bone morphogenic protein-2 with the same volume of cationic polysaccharide, dextran-spermine. Rat bone marrow MSC were cultured on electrospun nanofiber sheets comprised of composites of poly (glycolic acid) and collagen prior to the incorporation of the nanoparticles into the nanofiber sheets. Bone morphogenic protein-2 was significantly detected in MSC cultured on nanofiber sheets incorporated with nanoparticles after 2 days compared with MSC cultured on nanofiber sheets incorporated with naked plasmid DNA. We conclude that the incorporation of nanoparticles into nanofiber sheets is a very promising strategy to genetically engineer MSC and can be used for further applications in regenerative medicine therapy.

  3. Investigation Of Integrating Three-Dimensional (3-D) Geometry Into The Visual Anatomical Injury Descriptor (Visual AID) Using WebGL

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    into the Visual Anatomical Injury Descriptor (Visual AID) Using WebGL AUTUMN KULAGA MENTOR: PATRICK GILLICH WARFIGHTER SURVIVABILITY BRANCH...Investigation Of Integrating Three-Dimensional (3-D) Geometry Into The Visual Anatomical Injury Descriptor (Visual AID) Using WebGL 5a. CONTRACT...discusses the Web-based 3-D environment prototype being developed to understand the feasibility of integrating WebGL into Visual AID. Using WebGL will

  4. Acquiring multi-viewpoint image of 3D object for integral imaging using synthetic aperture phase-shifting digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Min-Ok; Kim, Nam; Park, Jae-Hyeung; Jeon, Seok-Hee; Gil, Sang-Keun

    2009-02-01

    We propose a method generating elemental images for the auto-stereoscopic three-dimensional display technique, integral imaging, using phase-shifting digital holography. Phase shifting digital holography is a way recording the digital hologram by changing phase of the reference beam and extracting the complex field of the object beam. Since all 3D information is captured by the phase-shifting digital holography, the elemental images for any specifications of the lens array can be generated from single phase-shifting digital holography. We expanded the viewing angle of the generated elemental image by using the synthetic aperture phase-shifting digital hologram. The principle of the proposed method is verified experimentally.

  5. Evaluating integration of inland bathymetry in the U.S. Geological Survey 3D Elevation Program, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller-Corbett, Cynthia

    2016-09-01

    Inland bathymetry survey collections, survey data types, features, sources, availability, and the effort required to integrate inland bathymetric data into the U.S. Geological Survey 3D Elevation Program are assessed to help determine the feasibility of integrating three-dimensional water feature elevation data into The National Map. Available data from wading, acoustic, light detection and ranging, and combined technique surveys are provided by the U.S. Geological Survey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and other sources. Inland bathymetric data accessed through Web-hosted resources or contacts provide useful baseline parameters for evaluating survey types and techniques used for collection and processing, and serve as a basis for comparing survey methods and the quality of results. Historically, boat-mounted acoustic surveys have provided most inland bathymetry data. Light detection and ranging techniques that are beneficial in areas hard to reach by boat, that can collect dense data in shallow water to provide comprehensive coverage, and that can be cost effective for surveying large areas with good water clarity are becoming more common; however, optimal conditions and techniques for collecting and processing light detection and ranging inland bathymetry surveys are not yet well defined.Assessment of site condition parameters important for understanding inland bathymetry survey issues and results, and an evaluation of existing inland bathymetry survey coverage are proposed as steps to develop criteria for implementing a useful and successful inland bathymetry survey plan in the 3D Elevation Program. These survey parameters would also serve as input for an inland bathymetry survey data baseline. Integration and interpolation techniques are important factors to consider in developing a robust plan; however, available survey data are usually in a triangulated irregular network format or other format compatible with

  6. Integrated monolithic 3D MEMS scanner for switchable real time vertical/horizontal cross-sectional imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Haijun; Duan, Xiyu; Qiu, Zhen; Zhou, Quan; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Oldham, Kenn R; Wang, Thomas D

    2016-02-08

    We present an integrated monolithic, electrostatic 3D MEMS scanner with a compact chip size of 3.2 × 2.9 mm(2). Use of parametric excitation near resonance frequencies produced large optical deflection angles up to ± 27° and ± 28.5° in the X- and Y-axes and displacements up to 510 μm in the Z-axis with low drive voltages at atmospheric pressure. When packaged in a dual axes confocal endomicroscope, horizontal and vertical cross-sectional images can be collected seamlessly in tissue with a large field-of-view of >1 × 1 mm(2) and 1 × 0.41 mm(2), respectively, at 5 frames/sec.

  7. Extended depth-of-focus 3D micro integral imaging display using a bifocal liquid crystal lens.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Wang, Yu-Jen; Chen, Hung-Shan; Xiao, Xiao; Lin, Yi-Hsin; Javidi, Bahram

    2015-02-15

    We present a three dimensional (3D) micro integral imaging display system with extended depth of focus by using a polarized bifocal liquid crystal lens. This lens and other optical components are combined as the relay optical element. The focal length of the relay optical element can be controlled to project an elemental image array in multiple positions with various lenslet image planes, by applying different voltages to the liquid crystal lens. The depth of focus of the proposed system can therefore be extended. The feasibility of our proposed system is experimentally demonstrated. In our experiments, the depth of focus of the display system is extended from 3.82 to 109.43 mm.

  8. GPU-based, parallel-line, omni-directional integration of measured acceleration field to obtain the 3D pressure distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Zhang, Cao; Katz, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    A PIV based method to reconstruct the volumetric pressure field by direct integration of the 3D material acceleration directions has been developed. Extending the 2D virtual-boundary omni-directional method (Omni2D, Liu & Katz, 2013), the new 3D parallel-line omni-directional method (Omni3D) integrates the material acceleration along parallel lines aligned in multiple directions. Their angles are set by a spherical virtual grid. The integration is parallelized on a Tesla K40c GPU, which reduced the computing time from three hours to one minute for a single realization. To validate its performance, this method is utilized to calculate the 3D pressure fields in isotropic turbulence and channel flow using the JHU DNS Databases (http://turbulence.pha.jhu.edu). Both integration of the DNS acceleration as well as acceleration from synthetic 3D particles are tested. Results are compared to other method, e.g. solution to the Pressure Poisson Equation (e.g. PPE, Ghaemi et al., 2012) with Bernoulli based Dirichlet boundary conditions, and the Omni2D method. The error in Omni3D prediction is uniformly low, and its sensitivity to acceleration errors is local. It agrees with the PPE/Bernoulli prediction away from the Dirichlet boundary. The Omni3D method is also applied to experimental data obtained using tomographic PIV, and results are correlated with deformation of a compliant wall. ONR.

  9. A probabilistic approach to jointly integrate 3D/4D seismic, production data and geological information for building reservoir models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Scarlet A.

    Reservoir modeling aims at understanding static and dynamic components of the reservoir in order to make decisions about future surface operations. The practice of reservoir modeling calls for the integration of expertise from different disciplines, as well as the in tegration of a wide variety of data: geological data, (core data, well-logs, etc.), production data (fluid rates or volumes, pressure data, etc.), and geophysical data (3D seismic data). Although a single 3D seismic survey is the most common geophysical data available for most reservoirs, a suite of several 3D seismic surveys (4D seismic data) acquired for monitoring production can be available for mature reservoirs. The main contribution of this dissertation is to incorporate 4D seismic data within the reservoir modeling workflow while honoring all other available data. This dissertation proposes two general approaches to include 4D seismic data into the reservoir modeling workflow. The Probabilistic Data Integration approach (PDI), which consists of modeling the information content of 4D seismic through a spatial probability of facies occurrence; and the Forward Modeling (FM) approach, which consists of matching 4D seismic along with production data. The FM approach requires forward modeling the 4D seismic response, which requires to downscale the flow simulation response. This dissertation introduces a novel dynamic downscaling method that takes into account both static information (high-resolution per meability field) and dynamic information in the form of coarsened fluxes and saturations (flow simulation on the coarsened grid). The two proposed approaches (PDI and FM approaches) are applied to a prominent field in the North Sea, to model the channel facies of a fluvial reservoir. The PDI approach constrained the reservoir model to the spatial probability of facies occurrence (obtained from a calibration between well-log and 4D seismic data) as well as other static data while satisfactorily history

  10. Recent developments in multi-layer flat knitting technology for waste free production of complex shaped 3D-reinforcing structures for composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trümper, W.; Lin, H.; Callin, T.; Bollengier, Q.; Cherif, C.; Krzywinski, S.

    2016-07-01

    Constantly increasing prices for raw materials and energy as well as the current discourse on the reduction of CO2-emissions places a special emphasis on the advantages of lightweight constructions and its resource conserving production methods. Fibre-reinforced composites are already seeing a number of applications in automobile, energy and mechanical engineering. Future applications within the named areas require greater material and energy efficiency and therefore manufacturing methods for textile preforms and lightweight constructions enabling an optimal arrangement of the reinforcing fibres while in the same time limiting waste to a minimum. One manufacturing method for textile reinforced preforms fulfilling quite many of the named requirements is the multilayer weft knitting technology. Multilayer weft knitted fabrics containing straight reinforcing yarns at least in two directions. The arrangement of these yarns is fixed by the loop yarn. Used yarn material in each knitting row is adaptable e. g. according to the load requirements or for the local integration of sensors. Draping properties of these fabrics can be varied within a great range and through this enabling draping of very complex shaped 3D-preforms without wrinkles from just one uncut fabric. The latest developments at ITM are concentrating on the development of a full production chain considering the 3D-CAD geometry, the load analysis, the generation of machine control programs as well as the development of technology and machines to enable the manufacturing of innovative net shape 3D-multilayer weft knitted fabrics such as complex shaped spacer fabrics and tubular fabrics with biaxial reinforcement.

  11. Integration (Phase 3D),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    tension rods will be drilled prior to assembly. fixing AFA Point 10 gap 30 grillage 35 Detail at floor floor User cabinet ANS&A to consider providing...duplicate mount for AFA connector panels. ANS&A would remove AFA panel and mount in user cabinet. Termination panels AFA propose mounting points on...clearance holes in the boom divider for AFA . boom divider At the centre of the arm, the cable trays terminate against the drive box. Three cable support rails

  12. 3-D imaging using row-column-addressed arrays with integrated apodization - part i: apodization design and line element beamforming.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates the effect of transducerintegrated apodization in row-column-addressed arrays and presents a beamforming approach specific for such arrays. Row-column addressing 2-D arrays greatly reduces the number of active channels needed to acquire a 3-D volume. A disadvantage of row-column-addressed arrays is an apparent ghost effect in the point spread function caused by edge waves. This paper investigates the origin of the edge waves and the effect of introducing an integrated apodization to reduce the ghost echoes. The performance of a λ/2-pitch 5-MHz 128 + 128 row-column-addressed array with different apodizations is simulated. A Hann apodization is shown to decrease imaging performance away from the center axis of the array because of a decrease in main lobe amplitude. Instead, a static roll-off apodization region located at the ends of the line elements is proposed. In simulations, the peak ghost echo intensity of a scatterer at (x,y, z) = (8, 3, 30) mm was decreased by 43 dB by integrating roll-off apodization into the array. The main lobe was unaffected by the apodization. Simulations of a 3-mm-diameter anechoic blood vessel at 30 mm depth showed that applying the transducer-integrated apodization increased the apparent diameter of the vessel from 2.0 mm to 2.4 mm, corresponding to an increase from 67% to 80% of the true vessel diameter. The line element beamforming approach is shown to be essential for achieving correct time-of-flight calculations, and hence avoid geometrical distortions. In Part II of this work, experimental results from a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer with integrated roll-off apodization are given to validate the effect of integrating apodization into the line elements.

  13. 3D Printing, Additive Manufacturing, and Solid Freeform Fabrication: The Technologies of the Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaman, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    Starting in the late 1980's, several new technologies were created that have the potential to revolutionize manufacturing. These technologies are, for the most part, additive processes that build up parts layer by layer. In addition, the processes that are being touted for hard-core manufacturing are primarily laser or e-beam based processes. This presentation gives a brief history of Additive Manufacturing and gives an assessment for these technologies. These technologies initially grew out of a commercial need for rapid prototyping. This market has a different requirement for process and quality control than traditional manufacturing. The relatively poor process control of the existing commercial Additive Manufacturing equipment is a vestige of this history. This presentation discusses this history and improvements in quality over time. The emphasis will be on Additive Manufacturing processes that are being considered for direct manufacturing, which is a different market than the 3D Printing ``Makerbot'' market. Topics discussed include past and present machine sensors, materials, and operational methods that were used in the past and those that are used today to create manufactured parts. Finally, a discussion of new methods and future directions of AM is presented.

  14. An eliminating method of motion-induced vertical parallax for time-division 3D display technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Liyuan; Hou, Chunping

    2015-10-01

    A time difference between the left image and right image of the time-division 3D display makes a person perceive alternating vertical parallax when an object is moving vertically on a fixed depth plane, which causes the left image and right image perceived do not match and makes people more prone to visual fatigue. This mismatch cannot eliminate simply rely on the precise synchronous control of the left image and right image. Based on the principle of time-division 3D display technology and human visual system characteristics, this paper establishes a model of the true vertical motion velocity in reality and vertical motion velocity on the screen, and calculates the amount of the vertical parallax caused by vertical motion, and then puts forward a motion compensation method to eliminate the vertical parallax. Finally, subjective experiments are carried out to analyze how the time difference affects the stereo visual comfort by comparing the comfort values of the stereo image sequences before and after compensating using the eliminating method. The theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed method is reasonable and efficient.

  15. Shifting Sands and Turning Tides: Using 3D Visualization Technology to Shape the Environment for Undergraduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, H. S.; Gant, R.; Hopkins, D.

    2014-12-01

    Teaching natural science in a technologically advancing world requires that our methods reach beyond the traditional computer interface. Innovative 3D visualization techniques and real-time augmented user interfaces enable students to create realistic environments to understand the world around them. Here, we present a series of laboratory activities that utilize an Augmented Reality Sandbox to teach basic concepts of hydrology, geology, and geography to undergraduates at Harvard University and the University of Redlands. The Augmented Reality (AR) Sandbox utilizes a real sandbox that is overlain by a digital projection of topography and a color elevation map. A Microsoft Kinect 3D camera feeds altimetry data into a software program that maps this information onto the sand surface using a digital projector. Students can then manipulate the sand and observe as the Sandbox augments their manipulations with projections of contour lines, an elevation color map, and a simulation of water. The idea for the AR Sandbox was conceived at MIT by the Tangible Media Group in 2002 and the simulation software used here was written and developed by Dr. Oliver Kreylos of the University of California - Davis as part of the NSF funded LakeViz3D project. Between 2013 and 2014, we installed AR Sandboxes at Harvard and the University of Redlands, respectively, and developed laboratory exercises to teach flooding hazard, erosion and watershed development in undergraduate earth and environmental science courses. In 2013, we introduced a series of AR Sandbox laboratories in Introductory Geology, Hydrology, and Natural Disasters courses. We found laboratories that utilized the AR Sandbox at both universities allowed students to become quickly immersed in the learning process, enabling a more intuitive understanding of the processes that govern the natural world. The physical interface of the AR Sandbox reduces barriers to learning, can be used to rapidly illustrate basic concepts of geology

  16. Compilation of an integrated 3D soil and agrogeological database for the hydrophysical characterization of the unsaturated zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakacsi, Zsófia; Kuti, László; Pásztor, László; Vatai, József; Szabó, József; Müller, Tamás.

    2010-05-01

    Describing the water movement in the unsaturated zone, numerous soil hydraulic data as input parameter are required concerning the water retention curve and the hydraulic conductivity function as the main hydraulic properties. The direct measurements of the hydraulic parameters are quite difficult and time-consuming; the estimation of them can be an alternative especially for large areas. The most commonly used basis of the estimation is the particle-size distribution (PSD) data or texture class. The aim of our work was to compile an integrated and harmonized 3D pedo- and agrogeological database with the physical properties and stratification of the formations to the depth of the permanent groundwater level, which describes the unsaturated zone in a 690 km2 pilot area. Since the existing pedo- and agrogeological databases are not able to serve separately these 3D model requirements, their integration was necessary. Due to its appropriate spatial and thematic resolution and data processing status, the Digital Kreybig Soil Information System (DKSIS) was chosen as pedological data source of the 3D model. The DKSIS has been compiled in the Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, based on the 1:25,000 scale, national soil mapping program in Hungary. The survey sheets indicate the location of the observation sites. Due to the lack of measured PSD data, the field estimation of the textural classes, and the so-called "capillary rise of water" were used for the definition of the texture classes. The measured water uptake is supposed to have good relation with the textural class of the sample. During the data processing the inconsistent fields vs. capillary data pairs were excluded. In the DKSIS 649 polygons cover the pilot area, 484 soil profiles are occurring and characteristically each profile has two or three horizons. The agrogeological dataset is maintained by the Hungarian Geological Institute and derives

  17. Rapid Reconstitution Packages (RRPs) implemented by integration of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and 3D printed microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Chi, Albert; Curi, Sebastian; Clayton, Kevin; Luciano, David; Klauber, Kameron; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo; D'hers, Sebastian; Elman, Noel M

    2014-08-01

    Rapid Reconstitution Packages (RRPs) are portable platforms that integrate microfluidics for rapid reconstitution of lyophilized drugs. Rapid reconstitution of lyophilized drugs using standard vials and syringes is an error-prone process. RRPs were designed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques to optimize fluidic structures for rapid mixing and integrating physical properties of targeted drugs and diluents. Devices were manufactured using stereo lithography 3D printing for micrometer structural precision and rapid prototyping. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) was selected as the initial model drug to test the RRPs as it is unstable in solution. tPA is a thrombolytic drug, stored in lyophilized form, required in emergency settings for which rapid reconstitution is of critical importance. RRP performance and drug stability were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to characterize release kinetics. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were performed to test for drug activity after the RRPs were exposed to various controlled temperature conditions. Experimental results showed that RRPs provided effective reconstitution of tPA that strongly correlated with CFD results. Simulation and experimental results show that release kinetics can be adjusted by tuning the device structural dimensions and diluent drug physical parameters. The design of RRPs can be tailored for a number of applications by taking into account physical parameters of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), excipients, and diluents. RRPs are portable platforms that can be utilized for reconstitution of emergency drugs in time-critical therapies.

  18. Integration of 3D Printed and Micropatterned Polycaprolactone Scaffolds for Guidance of Oriented Collagenous Tissue Formation In vivo

    PubMed Central

    Pilipchuk, Sophia P; Monje, Alberto; Jiao, Yizu; Hao, Jie; Kruger, Laura; Flanagan, Colleen L; Hollister, Scott J

    2016-01-01

    Scaffold design incorporating multi-scale cues for clinically-relevant, aligned tissue regeneration has potential to improve structural and functional integrity of multi-tissue interfaces. The objective of this pre-clinical study was to develop poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds with mesoscale and microscale architectural cues specific to human ligament progenitor cells and assess their ability to form aligned bone-ligament-cementum complexes in vivo. PCL scaffolds were designed to integrate a 3D printed bone region with a micropatterned PCL thin film consisting of grooved pillars. The patterned film region was seeded with human ligament cells, fibroblasts transduced with BMP-7 genes seeded within the bone region, and a tooth dentin segment positioned on the ligament region prior to subcutaneous implantation into a murine model. Results indicated increased tissue alignment in vivo using micropatterned PCL films, compared to random-porous PCL. At 6 weeks, 30um groove depth significantly enhanced oriented collagen fiber thickness, overall cell alignment, and nuclear elongation relative to 10um groove depth. This study demonstrates for the first time that scaffolds with combined hierarchical mesoscale and microscale features can align cells in vivo for oral tissue repair with potential for improving the regenerative response of other bone-ligament complexes. PMID:26820240

  19. An intelligent recovery progress evaluation system for ACL reconstructed subjects using integrated 3-D kinematics and EMG features.

    PubMed

    Malik, Owais A; Senanayake, S M N Arosha; Zaheer, Dansih

    2015-03-01

    An intelligent recovery evaluation system is presented for objective assessment and performance monitoring of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed (ACL-R) subjects. The system acquires 3-D kinematics of tibiofemoral joint and electromyography (EMG) data from surrounding muscles during various ambulatory and balance testing activities through wireless body-mounted inertial and EMG sensors, respectively. An integrated feature set is generated based on different features extracted from data collected for each activity. The fuzzy clustering and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference techniques are applied to these integrated feature sets in order to provide different recovery progress assessment indicators (e.g., current stage of recovery, percentage of recovery progress as compared to healthy group, etc.) for ACL-R subjects. The system was trained and tested on data collected from a group of healthy and ACL-R subjects. For recovery stage identification, the average testing accuracy of the system was found above 95% (95-99%) for ambulatory activities and above 80% (80-84%) for balance testing activities. The overall recovery evaluation performed by the proposed system was found consistent with the assessment made by the physiotherapists using standard subjective/objective scores. The validated system can potentially be used as a decision supporting tool by physiatrists, physiotherapists, and clinicians for quantitative rehabilitation analysis of ACL-R subjects in conjunction with the existing recovery monitoring systems.

  20. Terrestrial and Aerial Laser Scanning Data Integration Using Wavelet Analysis for the Purpose of 3D Building Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Kedzierski, Michal; Fryskowska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Visualization techniques have been greatly developed in the past few years. Three-dimensional models based on satellite and aerial imagery are now being enhanced by models generated using Aerial Laser Scanning (ALS) data. The most modern of such scanning systems have the ability to acquire over 50 points per square meter and to register a multiple echo, which allows the reconstruction of the terrain together with the terrain cover. However, ALS data accuracy is less than 10 cm and the data is often incomplete: there is no information about ground level (in most scanning systems), and often around the facade or structures which have been covered by other structures. However, Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) not only acquires higher accuracy data (1–5 cm) but is also capable of registering those elements which are incomplete or not visible using ALS methods (facades, complicated structures, interiors, etc.). Therefore, to generate a complete 3D model of a building in high Level of Details, integration of TLS and ALS data is necessary. This paper presents the wavelet-based method of processing and integrating data from ALS and TLS. Methods of choosing tie points to combine point clouds in different datum will be analyzed. PMID:25004157

  1. Terrestrial and aerial laser scanning data integration using wavelet analysis for the purpose of 3D building modeling.

    PubMed

    Kedzierski, Michal; Fryskowska, Anna

    2014-07-07

    Visualization techniques have been greatly developed in the past few years. Three-dimensional models based on satellite and aerial imagery are now being enhanced by models generated using Aerial Laser Scanning (ALS) data. The most modern of such scanning systems have the ability to acquire over 50 points per square meter and to register a multiple echo, which allows the reconstruction of the terrain together with the terrain cover. However, ALS data accuracy is less than 10 cm and the data is often incomplete: there is no information about ground level (in most scanning systems), and often around the facade or structures which have been covered by other structures. However, Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) not only acquires higher accuracy data (1-5 cm) but is also capable of registering those elements which are incomplete or not visible using ALS methods (facades, complicated structures, interiors, etc.). Therefore, to generate a complete 3D model of a building in high Level of Details, integration of TLS and ALS data is necessary. This paper presents the wavelet-based method of processing and integrating data from ALS and TLS. Methods of choosing tie points to combine point clouds in different datum will be analyzed.

  2. Integration of 3D Printed and Micropatterned Polycaprolactone Scaffolds for Guidance of Oriented Collagenous Tissue Formation In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Pilipchuk, Sophia P; Monje, Alberto; Jiao, Yizu; Hao, Jie; Kruger, Laura; Flanagan, Colleen L; Hollister, Scott J; Giannobile, William V

    2016-03-01

    Scaffold design incorporating multiscale cues for clinically relevant, aligned tissue regeneration has potential to improve structural and functional integrity of multitissue interfaces. The objective of this preclinical study is to develop poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds with mesoscale and microscale architectural cues specific to human ligament progenitor cells and assess their ability to form aligned bone-ligament-cementum complexes in vivo. PCL scaffolds are designed to integrate a 3D printed bone region with a micropatterned PCL thin film consisting of grooved pillars. The patterned film region is seeded with human ligament cells, fibroblasts transduced with bone morphogenetic protein-7 genes seeded within the bone region, and a tooth dentin segment positioned on the ligament region prior to subcutaneous implantation into a murine model. Results indicate increased tissue alignment in vivo using micropatterned PCL films, compared to random-porous PCL. At week 6, 30 μm groove depth significantly enhances oriented collagen fiber thickness, overall cell alignment, and nuclear elongation relative to 10 μm groove depth. This study demonstrates for the first time that scaffolds with combined hierarchical mesoscale and microscale features can align cells in vivo for oral tissue repair with potential for improving the regenerative response of other bone-ligament complexes.

  3. Practical alignment method for X-ray spectral measurement in micro-CT system based on 3D printing technology.

    PubMed

    Ren, Liqiang; Wu, Di; Li, Yuhua; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Yong; Yang, Kai; Liu, Hong

    2016-06-01

    This study presents a practical alignment method for X-ray spectral measurement in a rotating gantry based micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) system using three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. In order to facilitate the spectrometer placement inside the gantry, supporting structures including a cover and a stand were dedicatedly designed and printed using a 3D printer. According to the relative position between the spectrometer and the stand, the upright projection of the spectrometer collimator onto the stand was determined and then marked by a tungsten pinhole. Thus, a visible alignment indicator of the X-ray central beam and the spectrometer collimator represented by the pinhole was established in the micro-CT live mode. Then, a rough alignment could be achieved through repeatedly adjusting and imaging the stand until the pinhole was located at the center of the acquired projection image. With the spectrometer being positioned back onto the stand, the precise alignment was completed by slightly translating the spectrometer-stand assembly around the rough location, until finding a "sweet spot" with the highest photon rate and proper distribution of the X-ray photons in the resultant spectrum. The spectra were acquired under precise alignment and misalignment of approximately 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0mm away from the precise alignment position, and then were compared in qualitative and quantitative analyses. Qualitative analysis results show that, with slight misalignment, the photon rate is reduced from 1302 to 1098, 1031, and 416 photons/second (p/s), respectively, and the characteristic peaks in the acquired spectra are gradually deteriorated. Quantitative analysis indicates that the energy resolutions for characteristic peak of Kα1 were calculated as 1.56% for precise alignment, while were 1.84% and 2.40% for slight misalignment of 0.2mm and 0.5mm. The mean energies were reduced from 43.93keV under precise alignment condition to 40.97, 39.63 and 37.78keV when

  4. Comparison of 3D Reconstructive Technologies Used for Morphometric Research and the Translation of Knowledge Using a Decision Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Charys M.; Roach, Victoria A.; Nguyen, Ngan; Rice, Charles L.; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2013-01-01

    The use of three-dimensional (3D) models for education, pre-operative assessment, presurgical planning, and measurement have become more prevalent. With the increase in prevalence of 3D models there has also been an increase in 3D reconstructive software programs that are used to create these models. These software programs differ in…

  5. Teacher Beliefs and Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, ChanMin; Kim, Min Kyu; Lee, Chiajung; Spector, J. Michael; DeMeester, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory mixed methods study was to investigate how teacher beliefs were related to technology integration practices. We were interested in how and to what extent teachers' (a) beliefs about the nature of knowledge and learning, (b) beliefs about effective ways of teaching, and (c) technology integration practices were…

  6. Characterization of the Effect of thermal Cycling on the Signal Integrity of Interconnect Structures used in 3D Integrated Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, Binayak

    2012-03-01

    The performance and reliability of the microelectronic devices are significantly influenced by the condition of interconnects in Integrated Circuits (IC). These interconnects serve primarily as signal transmission pathways in IC. Good interconnects enable free flow of electrical signals with low impedance. However, microelectronic devices are continuously subjected to fluctuating temperature conditions during their lifetime, which affect the signal integrity of interconnects. Therefore, this project takes a look at the effect of repeated temperature cycling on the reliability and performance of interconnects. Two types of interconnects: Back-End-of-Line (BEOL) and Through-Si-Via (TSV) were studied. We simulate the real world conditions by applying repeated temperature cycling, and use an RF network analyzer to extract the reflection and transmission signal characteristics of the interconnects. The mean-time-to-failure is determined upon their breakdown which is followed by the failure analysis to determine the root cause of failure.

  7. A General Method for Evaluation of 2D and 3D Domain Integrals Without Domain Discretization and its Application in BEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hematiyan, M. R.

    2007-03-01

    A robust method is presented to evaluate 2D and 3D domain integrals without domain discretization. Each domain integral is transformed into a double integral, a boundary integral and a 1D integral. Both integrals are evaluated by adaptive Simpson quadrature method. The method can be used to evaluate domain integrals over simply or multiply connected regions with any arbitrary form of integrands. As an application of the method, domain integrals produced in boundary element formulation of potential and elastostatic problems are analyzed. Several examples are provided to show the validity and accuracy of the method.

  8. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  9. Extended depth-of-field 3D endoscopy with synthetic aperture integral imaging using an electrically tunable focal-length liquid-crystal lens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Jen; Shen, Xin; Lin, Yi-Hsin; Javidi, Bahram

    2015-08-01

    Conventional synthetic-aperture integral imaging uses a lens array to sense the three-dimensional (3D) object or scene that can then be reconstructed digitally or optically. However, integral imaging generally suffers from a fixed and limited range of depth of field (DOF). In this Letter, we experimentally demonstrate a 3D integral-imaging endoscopy with tunable DOF by using a single large-aperture focal-length-tunable liquid crystal (LC) lens. The proposed system can provide high spatial resolution and an extended DOF in synthetic-aperture integral imaging 3D endoscope. In our experiments, the image plane in the integral imaging pickup process can be tuned from 18 to 38 mm continuously using a large-aperture LC lens, and the total DOF is extended from 12 to 51 mm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on synthetic aperture integral imaging 3D endoscopy with a large-aperture LC lens that can provide high spatial resolution 3D imaging with an extend DOF.

  10. Technology Integration and Teaching Expertise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierson, Melissa E.

    This paper reports on a study that investigated the relationships between technology-use and teaching ability in the practice of elementary teachers. Case study data from exemplary technology integrators, representing various levels of teaching and technology-use ability, led to the formulation of five assertions about ways these teachers taught…

  11. An innovative method of ocular prosthesis fabrication by bio-CAD and rapid 3-D printing technology: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Alam, Shahid; Sugavaneswaran, M; Arumaikkannu, G; Mukherjee, Bipasha

    2017-04-04

    Ocular prosthesis is either a readymade stock shell or custom made prosthesis (CMP). Presently, there is no other technology available, which is either superior or even comparable to the conventional CMP. The present study was designed to fabricate ocular prosthesis using computer aided design (CAD) and rapid manufacturing (RM) technology and to compare it with custom made prosthesis (CMP). The ocular prosthesis prepared by CAD was compared with conventional CMP in terms of time taken for fabrication, weight, cosmesis, comfort, and motility. Two eyes of two patients were included. Computerized tomography scan of wax model of socket was converted into three dimensional format using Materialize Interactive Medical Image Control System (MIMICS)software and further refined. This was given as an input to rapid manufacturing machine (Polyjet 3-D printer). The final painting on prototype was done by an ocularist. The average effective time required for fabrication of CAD prosthesis was 2.5 hours; and weight 2.9 grams. The same for CMP were 10 hours; and 4.4 grams. CAD prosthesis was more comfortable for both the patients. The study demonstrates the first ever attempt of fabricating a complete ocular prosthesis using CAD and rapid manufacturing and comparing it with conventional CMP. This prosthesis takes lesser time for fabrication, and is more comfortable. Studies with larger sample size will be required to further validate this technique.

  12. Mobile 3D television: development of core technological elements and user-centered evaluation methods toward an optimized system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotchev, Atanas; Smolic, Aljoscha; Jumisko-Pyykkö, Satu; Strohmeier, Dominik; Bozdagi Akar, Gozde; Merkle, Philipp; Daskalov, Nikolai

    2009-02-01

    A European consortium of six partners has been developing core technological components of a mobile 3D television system over DVB-H channel. In this overview paper, we present our current results on developing optimal methods for stereo-video content creation, coding and transmission and emphasize their significance for the power-constrained mobile platform, equipped with auto-stereoscopic display. We address the user requirements by applying modern usercentered approaches taking into account different user groups and usage contexts in contrast to the laboratory assessment methods which, though standardized, offer limited applicability to real applications. To this end, we have been aiming at developing a methodological framework for the whole system development process. One of our goals has been to further develop the user-centered approach towards experienced quality of critical system components. In this paper, we classify different research methods and technological solutions analyzing their pros and constraints. Based on this analysis we present the user-centered methodological framework being used throughout the whole development process of the system and aimed at achieving the best performance and quality appealing to the end user.

  13. A zero-footprint 3D visualization system utilizing mobile display technology for timely evaluation of stroke patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Young Woo; Guo, Bing; Mogensen, Monique; Wang, Kevin; Law, Meng; Liu, Brent

    2010-03-01

    When a patient is accepted in the emergency room suspected of stroke, time is of the utmost importance. The infarct brain area suffers irreparable damage as soon as three hours after the onset of stroke symptoms. A CT scan is one of standard first line of investigations with imaging and is crucial to identify and properly triage stroke cases. The availability of an expert Radiologist in the emergency environment to diagnose the stroke patient in a timely manner only increases the challenges within the clinical workflow. Therefore, a truly zero-footprint web-based system with powerful advanced visualization tools for volumetric imaging including 2D. MIP/MPR, 3D display can greatly facilitate this dynamic clinical workflow for stroke patients. Together with mobile technology, the proper visualization tools can be delivered at the point of decision anywhere and anytime. We will present a small pilot project to evaluate the use of mobile technologies using devices such as iPhones in evaluating stroke patients. The results of the evaluation as well as any challenges in setting up the system will also be discussed.

  14. Critical Analysis and Digital Reconstructions of Alberti's Architectures by the Use of 3d Morphometric Integrated Survey Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, F.; Medici, M.

    2017-02-01

    Since 2005, DIAPReM Centre of the Department of Architecture of the University of Ferrara, in collaboration with the "Centro Studi Leon Battista Alberti" Foundation and the Consorzio Futuro in Ricerca, is carrying out a research project for the creation of 3D databases that could allow the development of a critical interpretation of Alberti's architectural work. The project is primarily based on a common three-dimensional integrated survey methodology for the creation of a navigable multilayered database. The research allows the possibility of reiterative metrical analysis, thanks to the use of a coherent data in order to check and validate hypothesis by researchers, art historians and scholars on Alberti's architectural work. Coherently with this methodological framework, indeed, two case studies are explained in this paper: the church of San Sebastiano in Matua and The Church of the Santissima Annunziata in Florence. Furthermore, thanks to a brief introduction of further developments of the project, a short graphical analysis of preliminary results on Tempio Malatestiano in Rimini opens new perspectives of research.

  15. ePlant and the 3D Data Display Initiative: Integrative Systems Biology on the World Wide Web

    PubMed Central

    Fucile, Geoffrey; Di Biase, David; Nahal, Hardeep; La, Garon; Khodabandeh, Shokoufeh; Chen, Yani; Easley, Kante; Christendat, Dinesh; Kelley, Lawrence; Provart, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Visualization tools for biological data are often limited in their ability to interactively integrate data at multiple scales. These computational tools are also typically limited by two-dimensional displays and programmatic implementations that require separate configurations for each of the user's computing devices and recompilation for functional expansion. Towards overcoming these limitations we have developed “ePlant” (http://bar.utoronto.ca/eplant) – a suite of open-source world wide web-based tools for the visualization of large-scale data sets from the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. These tools display data spanning multiple biological scales on interactive three-dimensional models. Currently, ePlant consists of the following modules: a sequence conservation explorer that includes homology relationships and single nucleotide polymorphism data, a protein structure model explorer, a molecular interaction network explorer, a gene product subcellular localization explorer, and a gene expression pattern explorer. The ePlant's protein structure explorer module represents experimentally determined and theoretical structures covering >70% of the Arabidopsis proteome. The ePlant framework is accessed entirely through a web browser, and is therefore platform-independent. It can be applied to any model organism. To facilitate the development of three-dimensional displays of biological data on the world wide web we have established the “3D Data Display Initiative” (http://3ddi.org). PMID:21249219

  16. ePlant and the 3D data display initiative: integrative systems biology on the world wide web.

    PubMed

    Fucile, Geoffrey; Di Biase, David; Nahal, Hardeep; La, Garon; Khodabandeh, Shokoufeh; Chen, Yani; Easley, Kante; Christendat, Dinesh; Kelley, Lawrence; Provart, Nicholas J

    2011-01-10

    Visualization tools for biological data are often limited in their ability to interactively integrate data at multiple scales. These computational tools are also typically limited by two-dimensional displays and programmatic implementations that require separate configurations for each of the user's computing devices and recompilation for functional expansion. Towards overcoming these limitations we have developed "ePlant" (http://bar.utoronto.ca/eplant) - a suite of open-source world wide web-based tools for the visualization of large-scale data sets from the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. These tools display data spanning multiple biological scales on interactive three-dimensional models. Currently, ePlant consists of the following modules: a sequence conservation explorer that includes homology relationships and single nucleotide polymorphism data, a protein structure model explorer, a molecular interaction network explorer, a gene product subcellular localization explorer, and a gene expression pattern explorer. The ePlant's protein structure explorer module represents experimentally determined and theoretical structures covering >70% of the Arabidopsis proteome. The ePlant framework is accessed entirely through a web browser, and is therefore platform-independent. It can be applied to any model organism. To facilitate the development of three-dimensional displays of biological data on the world wide web we have established the "3D Data Display Initiative" (http://3ddi.org).

  17. Direct laser-writing of ferroelectric single-crystal waveguide architectures in glass for 3D integrated optics

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Adam; Jain, Himanshu; Dierolf, Volkmar; Sakakura, Masaaki; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Miura, Kiyotaka; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Lapointe, Jerome; Kashyap, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Direct three-dimensional laser writing of amorphous waveguides inside glass has been studied intensely as an attractive route for fabricating photonic integrated circuits. However, achieving essential nonlinear-optic functionality in such devices will also require the ability to create high-quality single-crystal waveguides. Femtosecond laser irradiation is capable of crystallizing glass in 3D, but producing optical-quality single-crystal structures suitable for waveguiding poses unique challenges that are unprecedented in the field of crystal growth. In this work, we use a high angular-resolution electron diffraction method to obtain the first conclusive confirmation that uniform single crystals can be grown inside glass by femtosecond laser writing under optimized conditions. We confirm waveguiding capability and present the first quantitative measurement of power transmission through a laser-written crystal-in-glass waveguide, yielding loss of 2.64 dB/cm at 1530 nm. We demonstrate uniformity of the crystal cross-section down the length of the waveguide and quantify its birefringence. Finally, as a proof-of-concept for patterning more complex device geometries, we demonstrate the use of dynamic phase modulation to grow symmetric crystal junctions with single-pass writing. PMID:25988599

  18. STP 4-06 Model-Based Technical Data in Procurement, 3D PDF Technology Data Demonstration Project. Phase 1 Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    procure items, as well as items that can be procured using 3D printer tech- nology. However, until we have some hard facts, it’s hard to say ‘what’s in...O R G STP 4-06 MODEL-BASED TECHNICAL DATA IN PROCUREMENT 3D PDF TECHNOLOGY DATA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT PHASE 1 SUMMARY REPORT DL309T2...LMI’s ISO- certified quality management procedures. J U L Y 2 0 1 5 STP 4-06 MODEL-BASED TECHNICAL DATA IN PROCUREMENT 3D PDF TECHNICAL DATA

  19. Microplasma fabrication: from semiconductor technology for 2D-chips and microfluidic channels to rapid prototyping and 3D-printing of microplasma devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatford, R.; Karanassios, Vassili

    2014-05-01

    Microplasmas are receiving attention in recent conferences and current scientific literature. In our laboratory, microplasmas-on-chips proved to be particularly attractive. The 2D- and 3D-chips we developed became hybrid because they were fitted with a quartz plate (quartz was used due to its transparency to UV). Fabrication of 2D- and 3D-chips for microplasma research is described. The fabrication methods described ranged from semiconductor fabrication technology, to Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machining, to 3D-printing. These methods may prove to be useful for those contemplating in entering microplasma research but have no access to expensive semiconductor fabrication equipment.

  20. 3D Numerical Optimization Modelling of Ivancich landslides (Assisi, Italy) via integration of remote sensing and in situ observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaldo, Raffaele; De Novellis, Vincenzo; Lollino, Piernicola; Manunta, Michele; Tizzani, Pietro

    2015-04-01

    The new challenge that the research in slopes instabilities phenomena is going to tackle is the effective integration and joint exploitation of remote sensing measurements with in situ data and observations to study and understand the sub-surface interactions, the triggering causes, and, in general, the long term behaviour of the investigated landslide phenomenon. In this context, a very promising approach is represented by Finite Element (FE) techniques, which allow us to consider the intrinsic complexity of the mass movement phenomena and to effectively benefit from multi source observations and data. In this context, we perform a three dimensional (3D) numerical model of the Ivancich (Assisi, Central Italy) instability phenomenon. In particular, we apply an inverse FE method based on a Genetic Algorithm optimization procedure, benefitting from advanced DInSAR measurements, retrieved through the full resolution Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) technique, and an inclinometric array distribution. To this purpose we consider the SAR images acquired from descending orbit by the COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) X-band radar constellation, from December 2009 to February 2012. Moreover the optimization input dataset is completed by an array of eleven inclinometer measurements, from 1999 to 2006, distributed along the unstable mass. The landslide body is formed of debris material sliding on a arenaceous marl substratum, with a thin shear band detected using borehole and inclinometric data, at depth ranging from 20 to 60 m. Specifically, we consider the active role of this shear band in the control of the landslide evolution process. A large field monitoring dataset of the landslide process, including at-depth piezometric and geological borehole observations, were available. The integration of these datasets allows us to develop a 3D structural geological model of the considered slope. To investigate the dynamic evolution of a landslide, various physical approaches can be considered

  1. 3D documentation and visualization of external injury findings by integration of simple photography in CT/MRI data sets (IprojeCT).

    PubMed

    Campana, Lorenzo; Breitbeck, Robert; Bauer-Kreuz, Regula; Buck, Ursula

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of documenting patterned injury using three dimensions and true colour photography without complex 3D surface documentation methods. This method is based on a generated 3D surface model using radiologic slice images (CT) while the colour information is derived from photographs taken with commercially available cameras. The external patterned injuries were documented in 16 cases using digital photography as well as highly precise photogrammetry-supported 3D structured light scanning. The internal findings of these deceased were recorded using CT and MRI. For registration of the internal with the external data, two different types of radiographic markers were used and compared. The 3D surface model generated from CT slice images was linked with the photographs, and thereby digital true-colour 3D models of the patterned injuries could be created (Image projection onto CT/IprojeCT). In addition, these external models were merged with the models of the somatic interior. We demonstrated that 3D documentation and visualization of external injury findings by integration of digital photography in CT/MRI data sets is suitable for the 3D documentation of individual patterned injuries to a body. Nevertheless, this documentation method is not a substitution for photogrammetry and surface scanning, especially when the entire bodily surface is to be recorded in three dimensions including all external findings, and when precise data is required for comparing highly detailed injury features with the injury-inflicting tool.

  2. Innovation in Education--Inclusion of 3D-Printing Technology in Modern Education System of Pakistan: Case from Pakistani Educational Institutes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waseem, Kainat; Kainat, Hasnain Alam; Qureshi, Ovais Hussain

    2016-01-01

    On this research, the traditional education system of Pakistan has been analyzed in comparison to international modern education system with 3D printing technology. Also how this technology results in revolutionizing current education system and its future aspects. The study adopted semi-structured interviews to solicit an understanding of…

  3. Integrated technology wing design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, A. P.; Beck, W. E.; Morita, W. H.; Penrose, B. J.; Skarshaug, R. E.; Wainfan, B. S.

    1984-01-01

    The technology development costs and associated benefits in applying advanced technology associated with the design of a new wing for a new or derivative trijet with a capacity for 350 passengers and maximum range of 8519 km, entering service in 1990 were studied. The areas of technology are: (1) airfoil technology; (2) planform parameters; (3) high lift; (4) pitch active control system; (5) all electric systems; (6) E to 3rd power propulsion; (7) airframe/propulsion integration; (8) graphite/epoxy composites; (9) advanced aluminum alloys; (10) titanium alloys; and (11) silicon carbide/aluminum composites. These technologies were applied to the reference aircraft configuration. Payoffs were determined for block fuel reductions and net value of technology. These technologies are ranked for the ratio of net value of technology (NVT) to technology development costs.

  4. Controlling Shear Stress in 3D Bioprinting is a Key Factor to Balance Printing Resolution and Stem Cell Integrity.

    PubMed

    Blaeser, Andreas; Duarte Campos, Daniela Filipa; Puster, Uta; Richtering, Walter; Stevens, Molly M; Fischer, Horst

    2016-02-04

    A microvalve-based bioprinting system for the manufacturing of high-resolution, multimaterial 3D-structures is reported. Applying a straightforward fluid-dynamics model, the shear stress at the nozzle site can precisely be controlled. Using this system, a broad study on how cell viability and proliferation potential are affected by different levels of shear stress is conducted. Complex, multimaterial 3D structures are printed with high resolution. This work pioneers the investigation of shear stress-induced cell damage in 3D bioprinting and might help to comprehend and improve the outcome of cell-printing studies in the future.

  5. Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy with integrated dual-axis MEMS scanner for fast 3D imaging and metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canavesi, Cristina; Cogliati, Andrea; Hayes, Adam; Santhanam, Anand P.; Tankam, Patrice; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2015-10-01

    Fast, robust, nondestructive 3D imaging is needed for characterization of microscopic structures in industrial and clinical applications. A custom micro-electromechanical system (MEMS)-based 2D scanner system was developed to achieve 55 kHz A-scan acquisition in a Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy (GD-OCM) instrument with a novel multilevel GPU architecture for high-speed imaging. GD-OCM yields high-definition volumetric imaging with dynamic depth of focusing through a bio-inspired liquid lens-based microscope design, which has no moving parts and is suitable for use in a manufacturing setting or in a medical environment. A dual-axis MEMS mirror was chosen to replace two single-axis galvanometer mirrors; as a result, the astigmatism caused by the mismatch between the optical pupil and the scanning location was eliminated and a 12x reduction in volume of the scanning system was achieved. Imaging at an invariant resolution of 2 μm was demonstrated throughout a volume of 1 × 1 × 0.6 mm3, acquired in less than 2 minutes. The MEMS-based scanner resulted in improved image quality, increased robustness and lighter weight of the system - all factors that are critical for on-field deployment. A custom integrated feedback system consisting of a laser diode and a position-sensing detector was developed to investigate the impact of the resonant frequency of the MEMS and the driving signal of the scanner on the movement of the mirror. Results on the metrology of manufactured materials and characterization of tissue samples with GD-OCM are presented.

  6. 3D printed electromagnetic transmission and electronic structures fabricated on a single platform using advanced process integration techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deffenbaugh, Paul Issac

    3D printing has garnered immense attention from many fields including in-office rapid prototyping of mechanical parts, outer-space satellite replication, garage functional firearm manufacture, and NASA rocket engine component fabrication. 3D printing allows increased design flexibility in the fabrication of electronics, microwave circuits and wireless antennas and has reached a level of maturity which allows functional parts to be printed. Much more work is necessary in order to perfect the processes of 3D printed electronics especially in the area of automation. Chapter 1 shows several finished prototypes of 3D printed electronics as well as newly developed techniques in fabrication. Little is known about the RF and microwave properties and applications of the standard materials which have been developed for 3D printing. Measurement of a wide variety of materials over a broad spectrum of frequencies up to 10 GHz using a variety of well-established measurement methods is performed throughout chapter 2. Several types of high frequency RF transmission lines are fabricated and valuable model-matched data is gathered and provided in chapter 3 for future designers' use. Of particular note is a fully 3D printed stripline which was automatically fabricated in one process on one machine. Some core advantages of 3D printing RF/microwave components include rapid manufacturing of complex, dimensionally sensitive circuits (such as antennas and filters which are often iteratively tuned) and the ability to create new devices that cannot be made using standard fabrication techniques. Chapter 4 describes an exemplary fully 3D printed curved inverted-F antenna.

  7. Integrate Technology with Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Drew; Lindeman, Patrick; Wolf, Trent; Dunnerstick, Robert

    2011-01-01

    As information technology continues to progress, teaching mathematic with multimedia is becoming a new way of instruction. Integrating technology enables students to become more active in the learning process. When students feel more vested in actual learning, retention of the material tends to rise significantly. This article describes how tools…

  8. Integral imaging-based large-scale full-color 3-D display of holographic data by using a commercial LCD panel.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiao-Bin; Ai, Ling-Yu; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2016-02-22

    We propose a new type of integral imaging-based large-scale full-color three-dimensional (3-D) display of holographic data based on direct ray-optical conversion of holographic data into elemental images (EIs). In the proposed system, a 3-D scene is modeled as a collection of depth-sliced object images (DOIs), and three-color hologram patterns for that scene are generated by interfering each color DOI with a reference beam, and summing them all based on Fresnel convolution integrals. From these hologram patterns, full-color DOIs are reconstructed, and converted into EIs using a ray mapping-based direct pickup process. These EIs are then optically reconstructed to be a full-color 3-D scene with perspectives on the depth-priority integral imaging (DPII)-based 3-D display system employing a large-scale LCD panel. Experiments with a test video confirm the feasibility of the proposed system in the practical application fields of large-scale holographic 3-D displays.

  9. Technology Strategy Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    73 Boot, War made New: Technology, Warfare, and the Course of History, 1500 to Today, 129. 74 David Herbert ... Herbert Horatio Kitchener as commander in chief, were present at the battle. Sadly, it seems that the lesson being taught that day was missed by both men...the establishment still balked at the idea of the submarine performing an oceanic role, and instead, based on the testimony of Admiral George Dewey to

  10. Three-dimensional image technology in forensic anthropology: Assessing the validity of biological profiles derived from CT-3D images of the skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia de Leon Valenzuela, Maria Julia

    This project explores the reliability of building a biological profile for an unknown individual based on three-dimensional (3D) images of the individual's skeleton. 3D imaging technology has been widely researched for medical and engineering applications, and it is increasingly being used as a tool for anthropological inquiry. While the question of whether a biological profile can be derived from 3D images of a skeleton with the same accuracy as achieved when using dry bones has been explored, bigger sample sizes, a standardized scanning protocol and more interobserver error data are needed before 3D methods can become widely and confidently used in forensic anthropology. 3D images of Computed Tomography (CT) scans were obtained from 130 innominate bones from Boston University's skeletal collection (School of Medicine). For each bone, both 3D images and original bones were assessed using the Phenice and Suchey-Brooks methods. Statistical analysis was used to determine the agreement between 3D image assessment versus traditional assessment. A pool of six individuals with varying experience in the field of forensic anthropology scored a subsample (n = 20) to explore interobserver error. While a high agreement was found for age and sex estimation for specimens scored by the author, the interobserver study shows that observers found it difficult to apply standard methods to 3D images. Higher levels of experience did not result in higher agreement between observers, as would be expected. Thus, a need for training in 3D visualization before applying anthropological methods to 3D bones is suggested. Future research should explore interobserver error using a larger sample size in order to test the hypothesis that training in 3D visualization will result in a higher agreement between scores. The need for the development of a standard scanning protocol focusing on the optimization of 3D image resolution is highlighted. Applications for this research include the possibility

  11. Field Trial Results of a 14-channel GPR Integrated with a U.S. Program for 3-D Utility Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anspach, James H.

    2013-04-01

    utilities were mostly undetectable. Through a ground-truthing program of test holes to expose utilities, the depth values derived from the enhanced GPR were fairly consistent and within 15 cm of actual depth. The incomplete underground picture determined by the enhanced GPR reinforces previous studies that show that the mapping of existing underground utilities is a multi-tool effort that takes highly trained and skilled field technicians and data interpreters. The addition of a new GPR tool is valuable in determining continuous depth profiles of imaged utilities. A second and significant benefit is the interpretation of other geotechnical data that benefit project designers. This might include showing geometry, location, intensity, and depths of either areas of anomalies, or of known structures, such as paving thickness, substrate thickness, voids, water table, soil lenses, boulders, bedrock, and so forth. The Florida Department of Transportation has decided to take advantage of this new technology and has entered into an experimental contract with Cardno TBE to incorporate several enhanced GPR arrays with traditional utility detection tools. The goal of this contract will be to provide a 3-D model of existing underground utilities for use in automated construction. The GPR 3-D data model will be melded with conventional subsurface utility engineering and mapping practices and will be required to follow the ASCE 38 standard for utility data reliability.

  12. Fast and Broadband Signal Integrity Analysis of Multiple Vias in Heterogeneous 3D IC and Die-Level Packaging by Using Generalized Foldy-Lax Scattering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Xin

    This dissertation proposal is concerned with the use of fast and broadband full-wave electromagnetic methods for modeling high speed interconnects (e.g, vertical vias and horizontal traces) and passive components (e.g, decoupling capacitors) for structures of PCB and packages, in 3D IC, Die-level packaging and SIW based devices, to effectively modeling the designs signal integrity (SI) and power integrity (PI) aspects. The main contributions finished in this thesis is to create a novel methodology, which hybridizes the Foldy-Lax multiple scattering equations based fast full wave method, method of moment (MoM) based 1D technology, modes decoupling based geometry decomposition and cavity modes expansions, to model and simulate the electromagnetic scattering effects for the irregular power/ground planes, multiple vias and traces, for fast and accurate analysis of link level simulation on multilayer electronic structures. For the modeling details, the interior massively-coupled multiple vias problem is modeled most-analytically by using the Foldy-Lax multiple scattering equations. The dyadic Green's functions of the magnetic field are expressed in terms of waveguide modes in the vertical direction and vector cylindrical wave expansions or cavity modes expansions in the horizontal direction, combined with 2D MoM realized by 1D technology. For the incident field of the case of vias in the arbitrarily shaped antipad in finite large cavity/waveguide, the exciting and scattering field coefficients are calculated based on the transformation which converts surface integration of magnetic surface currents in antipad into 1D line integration of surface charges on the vias and on the ground plane. Geometry decomposition method is applied to model and integrate both the vertical and horizontal interconnects/traces in arbitrarily shaped power/ground planes. Moreover, a new form of multiple scattering equations is derived for solving coupling effects among mixed metallic

  13. Combining marker-less patient setup and respiratory motion monitoring using low cost 3D camera technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahavori, F.; Adams, E.; Dabbs, M.; Aldridge, L.; Liversidge, N.; Donovan, E.; Jordan, T.; Evans, PM.; Wells, K.

    2015-03-01

    Patient set-up misalignment/motion can be a significant source of error within external beam radiotherapy, leading to unwanted dose to healthy tissues and sub-optimal dose to the target tissue. Such inadvertent displacement or motion of the target volume may be caused by treatment set-up error, respiratory motion or an involuntary movement potentially decreasing therapeutic benefit. The conventional approach to managing abdominal-thoracic patient set-up is via skin markers (tattoos) and laser-based alignment. Alignment of the internal target volume with its position in the treatment plan can be achieved using Deep Inspiration Breath Hold (DIBH) in conjunction with marker-based respiratory motion monitoring. We propose a marker-less single system solution for patient set-up and respiratory motion management based on low cost 3D depth camera technology (such as the Microsoft Kinect). In this new work we assess this approach in a study group of six volunteer subjects. Separate simulated treatment mimic treatment "fractions" or set-ups are compared for each subject, undertaken using conventional laser-based alignment and with intrinsic depth images produced by Kinect. Microsoft Kinect is also compared with the well-known RPM system for respiratory motion management in terms of monitoring free-breathing and DIBH. Preliminary results suggest that Kinect is able to produce mm-level surface alignment and a comparable DIBH respiratory motion management when compared to the popular RPM system. Such an approach may also yield significant benefits in terms of patient throughput as marker alignment and respiratory motion can be automated in a single system.

  14. Three-Dimensional Integration Technology for Advanced Focal Planes and Integrated Circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Keast, Craig

    2007-02-28

    Over the last five years MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT-LL) has developed a three-dimensional (3D) circuit integration technology that exploits the advantages of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology to enable wafer-level stacking and micrometer-scale electrical interconnection of fully fabricated circuit wafers. Advanced focal plane arrays have been the first applications to exploit the benefits of this 3D integration technology because the massively parallel information flow present in 2D imaging arrays maps very nicely into a 3D computational structure as information flows from circuit-tier to circuit-tier in the z-direction. To date, the MIT-LL 3D integration technology has been used to fabricate four different focal planes including: a 2-tier 64 x 64 imager with fully parallel per-pixel A/D conversion; a 3-tier 640 x 480 imager consisting of an imaging tier, an A/D conversion tier, and a digital signal processing tier; a 2-tier 1024 x 1024 pixel, 4-side-abutable imaging modules for tiling large mosaic focal planes, and a 3-tier Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (APD) 3-D LIDAR array, using a 30 volt APD tier, a 3.3 volt CMOS tier, and a 1.5 volt CMOS tier. Recently, the 3D integration technology has been made available to the circuit design research community through DARPA-sponsored Multiproject fabrication runs. The first Multiproject Run (3DL1) completed fabrication in early 2006 and included over 30 different circuit designs from 21 different research groups. 3D circuit concepts explored in this run included stacked memories, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), and mixed-signal circuits. The second Multiproject Run (3DM2) is currently in fabrication and includes particle detector readouts designed by Fermilab. This talk will provide a brief overview of MIT-LL's 3D-integration process, discuss some of the focal plane applications where the technology is being applied, and provide a summary of some of the Multiproject Run circuit results.

  15. Integrating structure-from-motion photogrammetry with geospatial software as a novel technique for quantifying 3D ecological characteristics of coral reefs

    PubMed Central

    Delparte, D; Gates, RD; Takabayashi, M

    2015-01-01

    The structural complexity of coral reefs plays a major role in the biodiversity, productivity, and overall functionality of reef ecosystems. Conventional metrics with 2-dimensional properties are inadequate for characterization of reef structural complexity. A 3-dimensional (3D) approach can better quantify topography, rugosity and other structural characteristics that play an important role in the ecology of coral reef communities. Structure-from-Motion (SfM) is an emerging low-cost photogrammetric method for high-resolution 3D topographic reconstruction. This study utilized SfM 3D reconstruction software tools to create textured mesh models of a reef at French Frigate Shoals, an atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. The reconstructed orthophoto and digital elevation model were then integrated with geospatial software in order to quantify metrics pertaining to 3D complexity. The resulting data provided high-resolution physical properties of coral colonies that were then combined with live cover to accurately characterize the reef as a living structure. The 3D reconstruction of reef structure and complexity can be integrated with other physiological and ecological parameters in future research to develop reliable ecosystem models and improve capacity to monitor changes in the health and function of coral reef ecosystems. PMID:26207190

  16. Application of 3D Printing Technology in Increasing the Diagnostic Performance of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harpal; Shimojima, Masayuki; Shiratori, Tomomi; An, Le Van; Sugamata, Masami; Yang, Ming

    2015-07-08

    Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)-based diagnosis is the mainstay for measuring antibody response in infectious diseases and to support pathogen identification of potential use in infectious disease outbreaks and clinical care of individual patients. The development of laboratory diagnostics using readily available 3D printing technologies provides a timely opportunity for further expansion of this technology into immunodetection systems. Utilizing available 3D printing platforms, a '3D well' was designed and developed to have an increased surface area compared to those of 96-well plates. The ease and rapidity of the development of the 3D well prototype provided an opportunity for its rapid validation through the diagnostic performance of ELISA in infectious disease without modifying current laboratory practices for ELISA. The improved sensitivity of the 3D well of up to 2.25-fold higher compared to the 96-well ELISA provides a potential for the expansion of this technology towards miniaturization and Lab-On-a-Chip platforms to reduce time, volume of reagents and samples needed for such assays in the laboratory diagnosis of infectious and other diseases including applications in other disciplines.

  17. Comparison of 3D reconstructive technologies used for morphometric research and the translation of knowledge using a decision matrix.

    PubMed

    Martin, Charys M; Roach, Victoria A; Nguyen, Ngan; Rice, Charles L; Wilson, Timothy D

    2013-01-01

    The use of three-dimensional (3D) models for education, pre-operative assessment, presurgical planning, and measurement have become more prevalent. With the increase in prevalence of 3D models there has also been an increase in 3D reconstructive software programs that are used to create these models. These software programs differ in reconstruction concepts, operating system requirements, user features, cost, and no one program has emerged as the standard. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic comparison of three widely available 3D reconstructive software programs, Amira(®), OsiriX, and Mimics(®) , with respect to the software's ability to be used in two broad themes: morphometric research and education to translate morphological knowledge. Cost, system requirements, and inherent features of each program were compared. A novel concept selection tool, a decision matrix, was used to objectify comparisons of usability of the interface, quality of the output, and efficiency of the tools. Findings indicate that Mimics was the best-suited program for construction of 3D anatomical models and morphometric analysis, but for creating a learning tool the results were less clear. OsiriX was very user-friendly; however, it had limited capabilities. Conversely, although Amira had endless potential and could create complex dynamic videos, it had a challenging interface. These results provide a resource for morphometric researchers and educators to assist the selection of appropriate reconstruction programs when starting a new 3D modeling project.

  18. Modeling cellular processes in 3D.

    PubMed

    Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

    2011-12-01

    Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2D or 1D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling.

  19. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies