Malapaka, Shiva Kumar; Mueller, Wolf-Christian
2013-09-01
Statistical properties of the Sun's photospheric turbulent magnetic field, especially those of the active regions (ARs), have been studied using the line-of-sight data from magnetograms taken by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and several other instruments. This includes structure functions and their exponents, flatness curves, and correlation functions. In these works, the dependence of structure function exponents ({zeta}{sub p}) of the order of the structure functions (p) was modeled using a non-intermittent K41 model. It is now well known that the ARs are highly turbulent and are associated with strong intermittent events. In this paper, we compare some of the observations from Abramenko et al. with the log-Poisson model used for modeling intermittent MHD turbulent flows. Next, we analyze the structure function data obtained from the direct numerical simulations (DNS) of homogeneous, incompressible 3D-MHD turbulence in three cases: sustained by forcing, freely decaying, and a flow initially driven and later allowed to decay (case 3). The respective DNS replicate the properties seen in the plots of {zeta}{sub p} against p of ARs. We also reproduce the trends and changes observed in intermittency in flatness and correlation functions of ARs. It is suggested from this analysis that an AR in the onset phase of a flare can be treated as a forced 3D-MHD turbulent system in its simplest form and that the flaring stage is representative of decaying 3D-MHD turbulence. It is also inferred that significant changes in intermittency from the initial onset phase of a flare to its final peak flaring phase are related to the time taken by the system to reach the initial onset phase.
3D MHD Simulations of Tokamak Disruptions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woodruff, Simon; Stuber, James
2014-10-01
Two disruption scenarios are modeled numerically by use of the CORSICA 2D equilibrium and NIMROD 3D MHD codes. The work follows the simulations of pressure-driven modes in DIII-D and VDEs in ITER. The aim of the work is to provide starting points for simulation of tokamak disruption mitigation techniques currently in the CDR phase for ITER. Pressure-driven instability growth rates previously observed in simulations of DIIID are verified; Halo and Hiro currents produced during vertical displacements are observed in simulations of ITER with implementation of resistive walls in NIMROD. We discuss plans to exercise new code capabilities and validation.
Coronal roots of solar wind streams: 3-D MHD modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pisanko, Yu. V.
1995-01-01
Weak (discontinuous) solutions of the 3-D MHD equations look like a promising tool to model the transonic solar wind with structural elements: current sheets, coronal plumes etc. Using the observational information about various coronal emissions one can include these structural elements into the 3-D MHD solar wind model by embedding the discontinuities of given type. Such 3-D MHD structured solar wind is calculated self-consistently: variants are examined via numerical experiments. In particular, the behavior of coronal plumes in the transonic solar wind flow, is modeled. The input information for numerical modeling (for example, the magnetic field map at the very base of the solar corona) can be adjusted so that fast stream arises over the center of the coronal hole, over the coronal hole boundaries and, even, over the region with closed magnetic topology. 3-D MHD equations have the analytical solution which can serve as a model of supersonic trans-alfvenic solar wind in the (5-20) solar radii heliocentric distance interval. The transverse, nonradial total (gas + magnetic field) pressure balance in the flow is the corner-stone of this solution. The solution describes the filamentation (ray-like structure of the solar corona) and streaming (formation of high-speed streams with velocities up to 800 km/sec) as a consequence of the magnetic field spatial inhomogeneous structure and trans-alfvenic character of the flow. The magnetic field works in the model as a 'controller' for the solar wind streaming and filamentation.
3D Hall MHD Reconnection Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huba, J. D.; Rudakov, L.
2002-05-01
A 3D Hall MHD simulation code (VooDoo) has recently been developed at the Naval Research Laboratory. We present preliminary results of a fully 3D magnetic reconnection study using this code. The initial configuration of the plasma system is as follows. The ambient, reversed magnetic field is in the x-direction and is proportional to B0 tanh(y/Ly) where Ly is the scale length of the current sheet. Perturbation fields δ Bx and δ By are introduced to initiate the reconnection process. This initial configuration is similar to that used in the 2D GEM reconnection study. However, the perturbation fields are localized in the z-direction. We consider two cases: no guide field (Bz = 0) and a weak guide field (Bz = 0.1B0). We find that the reconnection process is not stationary in the z-direction but propagates in the B x ∇ n direction consistent with Hall drift physics. Hence, an asymmetric disruption of the current sheet ensues. The flow structure of the plasma in the vicinity of the X-point is complex. We find that the `neutral line' (i.e, along the z-direction) is not an ignorable coordinate and is not periodic in Hall MHD reconnection dynamics; two assumptions that are often made in reconnection studies. \\ Research supported by NASA and ONR
3D MHD Models of Active Region Loops
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ofman, Leon
2004-01-01
Present imaging and spectroscopic observations of active region loops allow to determine many physical parameters of the coronal loops, such as the density, temperature, velocity of flows in loops, and the magnetic field. However, due to projection effects many of these parameters remain ambiguous. Three dimensional imaging in EUV by the STEREO spacecraft will help to resolve the projection ambiguities, and the observations could be used to setup 3D MHD models of active region loops to study the dynamics and stability of active regions. Here the results of 3D MHD models of active region loops are presented, and the progress towards more realistic 3D MHD models of active regions. In particular the effects of impulsive events on the excitation of active region loop oscillations, and the generation, propagations and reflection of EIT waves are shown. It is shown how 3D MHD models together with 3D EUV observations can be used as a diagnostic tool for active region loop physical parameters, and to advance the science of the sources of solar coronal activity.
Progress on accelerated calculation of 3D MHD equilibrium with the PIES code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raburn, Daniel; Reiman, Allan; Monticello, Donald
2016-10-01
Continuing progress has been made in accelerating the 3D MHD equilibrium code, PIES, using an external numerical wrapper. The PIES code (Princeton Iterative Equilibrium Solver) is capable of calculating 3D MHD equilibria with islands. The numerical wrapper has been demonstrated to greatly improve the rate of convergence in numerous cases corresponding to equilibria in the TFTR device where magnetic islands are present; the numerical wrapper makes use of a Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov solver along with adaptive preconditioning and a sophisticated subspace-restricted Levenberg backtracking algorithm. The wrapper has recently been improved by automation which combines the preexisting backtracking algorithm with insights gained from the stability of the Picard algorithm traditionally used with PIES. Improved progress logging and stopping criteria have also been incorporated in to the numerical wrapper.
MHD instabilities in accretion mounds - II. 3D simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Bhattacharya, Dipankar; Mignone, Andrea
2013-10-01
We investigate the onset of pressure-driven toroidal-mode instabilities in accretion mounds on neutron stars by 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the PLUTO MHD code. Our results confirm that for mounds beyond a threshold mass, instabilities form finger-like channels at the periphery, resulting in mass-loss from the magnetically confined mound. Ring-like mounds with hollow interior show the instabilities at the inner edge as well. We perform the simulations for mounds of different sizes to investigate the effect of the mound mass on the growth rate of the instabilities. We also investigate the effect of such instabilities on observables such as cyclotron resonant scattering features and timing properties of such systems.
Numerical MHD codes for modeling astrophysical flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koldoba, A. V.; Ustyugova, G. V.; Lii, P. S.; Comins, M. L.; Dyda, S.; Romanova, M. M.; Lovelace, R. V. E.
2016-05-01
We describe a Godunov-type magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code based on the Miyoshi and Kusano (2005) solver which can be used to solve various astrophysical hydrodynamic and MHD problems. The energy equation is in the form of entropy conservation. The code has been implemented on several different coordinate systems: 2.5D axisymmetric cylindrical coordinates, 2D Cartesian coordinates, 2D plane polar coordinates, and fully 3D cylindrical coordinates. Viscosity and diffusivity are implemented in the code to control the accretion rate in the disk and the rate of penetration of the disk matter through the magnetic field lines. The code has been utilized for the numerical investigations of a number of different astrophysical problems, several examples of which are shown.
3D MHD disruptions simulations of tokamaks plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paccagnella, Roberto; Strauss, Hank; Breslau, Joshua
2008-11-01
Tokamaks Vertical Displacement Events (VDEs) and disruptions simulations in toroidal geometry by means of a single fluid visco-resistive magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) model are presented in this paper. The plasma model, implemented in the M3D code [1], is completed with the presence of a 2D homogeneous wall with finite resistivity. This allows the study of the relatively slowly growing magneto-hydro-dynamical perturbation, the resistive wall mode (RWM), which is, in this work, the main drive of the disruptions. Amplitudes and asymmetries of the halo currents pattern at the wall are also calculated and comparisons with tokamak experimental databases and predictions for ITER are given. [1] W. Park, E.V. Belova, G.Y. Fu, X.Z. Tang, H.R. Strauss, L.E. Sugiyama, Phys. Plasmas 6 (1999) 1796.
3-D MHD Simulation of Oscillating Field Current Drive
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebrahimi, F.; Prager, S. C.; Wright, J. C.
2000-10-01
Oscillating Field Current Drive (OFCD) is a proposed low frequency steady-state current drive technique for the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP). In OFCD toroidal and poloidal oscillating electric fields are applied with 90^circ phase difference to inject magnetic helicity. In the present work, the 3-D nonlinear, resistive MHD code DEBS is used to simulate OFCD in relaxed RFP plasmas. The present simulations are at high Lundquist number S=10^5 and low spect ratio R/a=1.5. The physics issues investigated are the response of background magnetic fluctuations to the oscillating fields, the relative contributions of the tearing mode dynamo and the oscillating fields to the current profile, and the sustainment and control of the steady-state current profile. Initial results with low amplitude oscillating fields show the expected increase in magnetic helicity and current. Results with higher amplitude will also be presented.
3D MHD Simulations of Stratified Accretion Disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stone, James M.; Hawley, John F.; Gammie, Charles
1993-12-01
We investigate the growth and nonlinear saturation of a powerful local shear instability in weakly magnetised accretion disks using three dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. To achieve a sufficiently high numerical resolution, we use a local approximation for the disk and carry out the simulations on massively parallel supercomputers. Here we investigate the linear growth and nonlinear saturation of the instability in a vertically stratified, intially isothermal disk. A variety of initial field configurations and strengths are considered. The simulations allow a quantitative analysis of the role of bouyancy as a saturation mechanism, and possible dynamo action in the disk. This work is partially supported by NSF grant PHY-9018251 and NASA grants NAGW-1510 and NAGW-2376. Code development is supported by the NASA HPCC Initiative through grant NAG5-2202. Computations were carried out on the CM200 system of the National Center for Supercomputing Applications.
Simulation of 3-D Nonequilibrium Seeded Air Flow in the NASA-Ames MHD Channel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gupta, Sumeet; Tannehill, John C.; Mehta, Unmeel B.
2004-01-01
The 3-D nonequilibrium seeded air flow in the NASA-Ames experimental MHD channel has been numerically simulated. The channel contains a nozzle section, a center section, and an accelerator section where magnetic and electric fields can be imposed on the flow. In recent tests, velocity increases of up to 40% have been achieved in the accelerator section. The flow in the channel is numerically computed us ing a 3-D parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) algorithm that has been developed to efficiently compute MHD flows in the low magnetic Reynolds number regime: The MHD effects are modeled by introducing source terms into the PNS equations which can then be solved in a very efficient manner. The algorithm has been extended in the present study to account for nonequilibrium seeded air flows. The electrical conductivity of the flow is determined using the program of Park. The new algorithm has been used to compute two test cases that match the experimental conditions. In both cases, magnetic and electric fields are applied to the seeded flow. The computed results are in good agreement with the experimental data.
Calculating Pressure-Driven Current Near Magnetic Islands for 3D MHD Equilibria
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radhakrishnan, Dhanush; Reiman, Allan
2016-10-01
In general, 3D MHD equilibria in toroidal plasmas do not result in nested pressure surfaces. Instead, islands and chaotic regions appear in the equilibrium. Near small magnetic islands, the pressure varies within the flux surfaces, which has a significant effect on the pressure-driven current, introducing singularities. Previously, the MHD equilibrium current near a magnetic island was calculated, including the effect of ``stellarator symmetry,'' wherein the singular components of the pressure-driven current vanish [A. H. Reiman, Phys. Plasmas 23, 072502 (2016)]. Here we first solve for pressure in a cylindrical plasma from the heat diffusion equation, after adding a helical perturbation. We then numerically calculate the corresponding Pfirsch-Schluter current. At the small island limit, we compare the pressure-driven current with the previously calculated solution, and far from the island, we recover the solution for nested flux surfaces. Lastly, we compute the current for a toroidal plasma for symmetric and non-symmetric geometries.
Sawtooth mitigation in 3D MHD tokamak modelling with applied magnetic perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonfiglio, D.; Veranda, M.; Cappello, S.; Chacón, L.; Escande, D. F.
2017-01-01
The effect of magnetic perturbations (MPs) on the sawtoothing dynamics of the internal kink mode in the tokamak is discussed in the framework of nonlinear 3D MHD modelling. Numerical simulations are performed with the pixie3d code (Chacón 2008 Phys. Plasmas 15 056103) based on a D-shaped configuration in toroidal geometry. MPs are applied as produced by two sets of coils distributed along the toroidal direction, one set located above and the other set below the outboard midplane, like in experimental devices such as DIII-D and ASDEX Upgrade. The capability of n = 1 MPs to affect quasi-periodic sawteeth is shown to depend on the toroidal phase difference Δ φ between the perturbations produced by the two sets of coils. In particular, sawtooth mitigation is obtained for the Δ φ =π phasing, whereas no significant effect is observed for Δ φ =0 . Numerical findings are explained by the interplay between different poloidal harmonics in the spectrum of applied MPs, and appear to be consistent with experiments performed in the DIII-D device. Sawtooth mitigation and stimulation of self-organized helical states by applied MPs have been previously demonstrated in both circular tokamak and reversed-field pinch (RFP) experiments in the RFX-mod device, and in related 3D MHD modelling.
3D passive stabilization of n = 0 MHD modes in EAST tokamak
Chen, S. L.; Villone, F.; Xiao, B. J.; Barbato, L.; Luo, Z. P.; Liu, L.; Mastrostefano, S.; Xing, Z.
2016-01-01
Evidence is shown of the capability of non-axisymmetrical conducting structures in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) to guarantee the passive stabilization of the n = 0 MHD unstable mode. Suitable numerical modeling of the experiments allows a clear interpretation of the phenomenon. This demonstration and the availability of computational tools able to describe the effect of 3D conductors will have a huge impact on the design of future fusion devices, in which the conducting structures closest to plasma will be highly segmented. PMID:27597182
3D MHD simulations of planet migration in turbulent stratified disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uribe, Ana; Klahr, Hubert; Flock, Mario; Henning, Thomas
2011-11-01
We performed 3D MHD numerical simulations of planet migration in stratified disks using the Godunov code PLUTO (Mignone et al. 2007). The disk is invaded by turbulence generated by the magnetorotational instability (MRI). We study the migration for planets with different mass to primary mass ratio. The migration of the low-mass planet (q=Mp/Ms=10-5) is dominated by random fluctuations in the torque and there is no defined direction of migration on timescales of 100 orbits. The intermediate-mass planet (q=Mp/Ms=10-4) can experience systematic outwards migration that was sustained for the times we were able to simulate.
3D passive stabilization of n = 0 MHD modes in EAST tokamak.
Chen, S L; Villone, F; Xiao, B J; Barbato, L; Luo, Z P; Liu, L; Mastrostefano, S; Xing, Z
2016-09-06
Evidence is shown of the capability of non-axisymmetrical conducting structures in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) to guarantee the passive stabilization of the n = 0 MHD unstable mode. Suitable numerical modeling of the experiments allows a clear interpretation of the phenomenon. This demonstration and the availability of computational tools able to describe the effect of 3D conductors will have a huge impact on the design of future fusion devices, in which the conducting structures closest to plasma will be highly segmented.
Matsumoto, R.; Tajima, T.; Kaisig, M.; Shibata, K.; Ishido, Y.; Tsuneta, S.; Kawai, G; Kurokawa, H.; Akioka, M.; Acton, L.; Strong, K.; Nitta, N.
1992-01-01
The soft X-ray telescope on the Yohkoh mission enabled us to observe the evolution of emerging flux regions (EFR) in coronal X-rays with high spatial and temportal resolution. Futhermore, we now have enough computing capability to perform three-dimensional MHD simulation of EFRs with sufficient spacial resolution to study details of the flux emergence process. These new tools provide the opportunity to investigate the physics involved in the formation of coronal loops in much more detail. We carried out 3D MHD simulations of emerging magnetic flux regions under various initial conditions; (1) a horizontal magnetic flux sheet, (2) a bundle of horizontal flux tubes, and (3) a flux sheet with sheared magnetic fields. Numerical results show that coronal magnetic loops are formed due to the enhanced bouyancy resulting from gas precipitating along magnetic field lines. The interchange modes help to produce a fine fibrous structure perpendicular to the magnetic field direction in the linear stage, while the undular modes determine the overall loop structure. We observe in 3D simulations that during the ascendance of loops the bundle of flux tubes, or even the flux sheet, developes into dense filaments pinched between magnetic loops. We also find that magnetic field lines are twisted by the vortex motion produced by the horizontal expansion of magnetic loops. Our numerical results may explain the observed signatures such as (1) the spacial relation between soft X-ray loops and H[alpha] arch filaments obtained by coordinated observation between Yohkoh and ground-based observatories (Kawai et al. 1992), (2) the rate of increase in size of soft X-ray loops in EFRs (Ishido et al. 1992), (3) emergence of twisted magnetic loops, and (4) the threshold flux for formation of chromospheric arch filament systems (AFS).
An Improved 3D Radiative-MHD Model of the Convection Zone-to-Corona System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbett, William P.; Bercik, D. J.; Kazachenko, M.
2012-05-01
We present the latest results from an improved radiative-MHD model of the convection zone-to-corona system. The numerical methods of the RADMHD model of Abbett & Fisher (2012) have been significantly updated so that the underlying finite volume scheme is (1) no longer dimensionally split along coordinate axes; (2) of much higher order accuracy using a three-dimensional 27-point stencil; and (3) capable of performing much larger scale calculations in both spherical polar coordinates and Cartesian coordinates. We will describe the improvements of the underlying scheme in detail, present a 3D dynamic convection zone-to-corona quiet Sun model using the new formalism, and compare the latest results with previous models.
3-D General Relativistic MHD Simulations of Generating Jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Koide, S.; Shibata, K.; Kudoh, T.; Frank, J.; Sol, H.
1999-05-01
Koide et al have investigated the dynamics of an accretion disk initially threaded by a uniform poloidal magnetic field in a non-rotating corona (either in a steady-state infalling state or in hydrostatic equilibrium) around a non-rotating black hole using a 3-D GRMHD with the ``axisymmetry'' along the z-direction. Magnetic field is tightly twisted by the rotation of the disk, and plasmas in the shocked region of the disk are accelerated by J x B force to form bipolar relativistic jets. In order to investigate variabilities of generated relativistic jets and magnetic field structure inside jets, we have performed calculations using the 3-D GRMHD code on a full 3-dimensional system. We will investigate how the third dimension affects the global disk dynamics. 3-D RMHD simulations wil be also performed to investigate the dynamics of a jet with a helical mangetic field in it.
On the critical one-component velocity regularity criteria to 3-D incompressible MHD system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yanlin
2016-05-01
Let (u , b) be a smooth enough solution of 3-D incompressible MHD system. We prove that if (u , b) blows up at a finite time T*, then for any p ∈ ] 4 , ∞ [, there holds ∫0T* (‖u3(t‧) ‖ H ˙ 1/2 +2/p p + ‖b(t‧) ‖ H ˙ 1/2 +2/p p) dt‧ = ∞. We remark that all these quantities are in the critical regularity of the MHD system.
3-D General Relativistic MHD Simulations of Generating Jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Koide, S.; Shibata, K.; Kudoh, T.; Frank, J.; Sol, H.
1999-12-01
We have investigated the dynamics of an accretion disk around Schwarzschild black holes initially threaded by a uniform poloidal magnetic field in a non-rotating corona (either in a steady-state infalling state or in hydrostatic equilibrium) around a non-rotating black hole using a 3-D GRMHD with the ``axisymmetry'' along the z-direction. Magnetic field is tightly twisted by the rotation of the disk, and plasmas in the shocked region of the disk are accelerated by J x B force to form bipolar relativistic jets. In order to investigate variabilities of generated relativistic jets and magnetic field structure inside jets, we have performed calculations using the 3-D GRMHD code with a full 3-dimensional system. We will investigate how the third dimension affects the global disk dynamics and jet generation.
3-D General Relativistic MHD Simulations of Generating Jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Koide, S.; Shibata, K.; Kudoh, T.; Sol, H.; Hughes, J. P.
2001-12-01
We have investigated the dynamics of an accretion disk around Schwarzschild black holes initially threaded by a uniform poloidal magnetic field in a non-rotating corona (either in a steady-state infalling state) around a non-rotating black hole using a 3-D GRMHD with the ``axisymmetry'' along the z-direction. Magnetic field is tightly twisted by the rotation of the disk, and plasmas in the shocked region of the disk are accelerated by J x B force to form bipolar relativistic jets. In order to investigate variabilities of generated relativistic jets and magnetic field structure inside jets, we have performed calculations using the 3-D GRMHD code with a full 3-dimensional system without the axisymmetry. We have investigated how the third dimension affects the global disk dynamics and jet generation. We will perform simulations with various incoming flows from an accompanying star.
3-D General Relativistic MHD Simulations of Generating Jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Koide, S.; Shibata, K.; Kudoh, T.; Sol, H.; Hughes, J. P.
2000-12-01
We have investigated the dynamics of an accretion disk around Schwarzschild black holes initially threaded by a uniform poloidal magnetic field in a non-rotating corona (either in a steady-state infalling state) around a non-rotating black hole using a 3-D GRMHD with the ``axisymmetry'' along the z-direction. Magnetic field is tightly twisted by the rotation of the disk, and plasmas in the shocked region of the disk are accelerated by J x B force to form bipolar relativistic jets. In order to investigate variabilities of generated relativistic jets and magnetic field structure inside jets, we have performed calculations using the 3-D GRMHD code with a full 3-dimensional system. We will investigate how the third dimension affects the global disk dynamics and jet generation.
Jet Formation with 3-D General Relativistic MHD Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richardson, G. A.; Nishikawa, K.-I.; Preece, R.; Hardee, P.; Koide, S.; Shibata, K.; Kudoh, T.; Sol, H.; Hughes, J. P.; Fishman, J.
2002-12-01
We have investigated the dynamics of an accretion disk around Schwarzschild black holes initially threaded by a uniform poloidal magnetic field in a non-rotating corona (in a steady-state infalling state) around a non-rotating black hole using 3-D GRMHD with the ``axisymmetry'' along the z-direction. The magnetic field is tightly twisted by the rotation of the accretion disk, and plasmas in the shocked region of the disk are accelerated by the J x B force to form bipolar relativistic jets. In order to investigate variabilities of generated relativistic jets and the magnetic field structure inside jets, we have performed calculations using the 3-D GRMHD code with a full 3-dimensional system without the axisymmetry. We have investigated how the third dimension affects the global disk dynamics and jet generation. We will perform simulations with various incoming flows from an accompanying star.
3-D General Relativistic MHD Simulations of Generating Jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Koide, Shinji; Shibata, Kazunari; Kudoh, Takashiro; Sol, Helene; Hughes, John
2002-04-01
We have investigated the dynamics of an accretion disk around Schwarzschild black holes initially threaded by a uniform poloidal magnetic field in a non-rotating corona (either in a steady-state infalling state) around a non-rotating black hole using a 3-D GRMHD with the ``axisymmetry'' along the z-direction. Magnetic field is tightly twisted by the rotation of the disk, and plasmas in the shocked region of the disk are accelerated by J × B force to form bipolar relativistic jets. In order to investigate variabilities of generated relativistic jets and magnetic field structure inside jets, we have performed calculations using the 3-D GRMHD code with a full 3-dimensional system without the axisymmetry. We have investigated how the third dimension affects the global disk dynamics and jet generation. We will perform simulations with various incoming flows from an accompanying star.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayek, W.; Asplund, M.; Carlsson, M.; Trampedach, R.; Collet, R.; Gudiksen, B. V.; Hansteen, V. H.; Leenaarts, J.
2010-07-01
Aims: We present the implementation of a radiative transfer solver with coherent scattering in the new BIFROST code for radiative magneto-hydrodynamical (MHD) simulations of stellar surface convection. The code is fully parallelized using MPI domain decomposition, which allows for large grid sizes and improved resolution of hydrodynamical structures. We apply the code to simulate the surface granulation in a solar-type star, ignoring magnetic fields, and investigate the importance of coherent scattering for the atmospheric structure. Methods: A scattering term is added to the radiative transfer equation, requiring an iterative computation of the radiation field. We use a short-characteristics-based Gauss-Seidel acceleration scheme to compute radiative flux divergences for the energy equation. The effects of coherent scattering are tested by comparing the temperature stratification of three 3D time-dependent hydrodynamical atmosphere models of a solar-type star: without scattering, with continuum scattering only, and with both continuum and line scattering. Results: We show that continuum scattering does not have a significant impact on the photospheric temperature structure for a star like the Sun. Including scattering in line-blanketing, however, leads to a decrease of temperatures by about 350 K below log10 τ5000 ⪉ -4. The effect is opposite to that of 1D hydrostatic models in radiative equilibrium, where scattering reduces the cooling effect of strong LTE lines in the higher layers of the photosphere. Coherent line scattering also changes the temperature distribution in the high atmosphere, where we observe stronger fluctuations compared to a treatment of lines as true absorbers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pisanko, Yu. V.
1995-01-01
The calculation of the solar rotation electro-dynamical effects in the near-the-Sun solar wind seems more convenient from the non-inertial corotating reference frame. This implies some modification of the 3-D MHD equations generally on the base of the General Theory of Relativity. The paper deals with the search of stationary (in corotating non-inertial reference frame) solutions of the modified 3-D MHD equations for the in near-the-Sun high latitude sub-alfvenic solar wind. The solution is obtained requiring electric fields and field-aligned electric currents in the high latitude near-the-Sun solar wind. Various scenario are explored self-consistently via a number of numerical experiments. The analogy with the high latitude Earth's magnetosphere is used for the interpretation of the results. Possible observational manifestations are discussed.
FARGO3D: A NEW GPU-ORIENTED MHD CODE
Benitez-Llambay, Pablo; Masset, Frédéric S. E-mail: masset@icf.unam.mx
2016-03-15
We present the FARGO3D code, recently publicly released. It is a magnetohydrodynamics code developed with special emphasis on the physics of protoplanetary disks and planet–disk interactions, and parallelized with MPI. The hydrodynamics algorithms are based on finite-difference upwind, dimensionally split methods. The magnetohydrodynamics algorithms consist of the constrained transport method to preserve the divergence-free property of the magnetic field to machine accuracy, coupled to a method of characteristics for the evaluation of electromotive forces and Lorentz forces. Orbital advection is implemented, and an N-body solver is included to simulate planets or stars interacting with the gas. We present our implementation in detail and present a number of widely known tests for comparison purposes. One strength of FARGO3D is that it can run on either graphical processing units (GPUs) or central processing units (CPUs), achieving large speed-up with respect to CPU cores. We describe our implementation choices, which allow a user with no prior knowledge of GPU programming to develop new routines for CPUs, and have them translated automatically for GPUs.
Photon Scattering in 3D Radiative MHD Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayek, Wolfgang
2009-09-01
Recent results from 3D time-dependent radiative hydrodynamic simulations of stellar atmospheres are presented, which include the effects of coherent scattering in the radiative transfer treatment. Rayleigh scattering and electron scattering are accounted for in the source function, requiring an iterative solution of the transfer equation. Opacities and scattering coefficients are treated in the multigroup opacity approximation. The impact of scattering on the horizontal mean temperature structure is investigated, which is an important diagnostic for model atmospheres, with implications for line formation and stellar abundance measurements. We find that continuum scattering is not important for the atmosphere of a metal-poor Sun with metailicity [Fe/H] = -3.0, similar to the previously investigated photosphere at solar metallicity.
Nonlinear 3D MHD verification study: SpeCyl and PIXIE3D codes for RFP and Tokamak plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonfiglio, D.; Cappello, S.; Chacon, L.
2010-11-01
A strong emphasis is presently placed in the fusion community on reaching predictive capability of computational models. An essential requirement of such endeavor is the process of assessing the mathematical correctness of computational tools, termed verification [1]. We present here a successful nonlinear cross-benchmark verification study between the 3D nonlinear MHD codes SpeCyl [2] and PIXIE3D [3]. Excellent quantitative agreement is obtained in both 2D and 3D nonlinear visco-resistive dynamics for reversed-field pinch (RFP) and tokamak configurations [4]. RFP dynamics, in particular, lends itself as an ideal non trivial test-bed for 3D nonlinear verification. Perspectives for future application of the fully-implicit parallel code PIXIE3D to RFP physics, in particular to address open issues on RFP helical self-organization, will be provided. [4pt] [1] M. Greenwald, Phys. Plasmas 17, 058101 (2010) [0pt] [2] S. Cappello and D. Biskamp, Nucl. Fusion 36, 571 (1996) [0pt] [3] L. Chac'on, Phys. Plasmas 15, 056103 (2008) [0pt] [4] D. Bonfiglio, L. Chac'on and S. Cappello, Phys. Plasmas 17 (2010)
Role of a continuous MHD dynamo in the formation of 3D equilibria in fusion plasmas
Piovesan, P.; Bonfiglio, D.; Cianciosa, M.; ...
2017-04-28
Stationary 3D equilibria can form in fusion plasmas via saturation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities or stimulated by external 3D fields. In these cases the current profile is anomalously broad due to magnetic flux pumping produced by the MHD modes. Flux pumping plays an important role in hybrid tokamak plasmas, maintaining the minimum safety factor above unity and thus removing sawteeth. It also enables steady-state hybrid operation, by redistributing non-inductive current driven near the center by electron cyclotron waves. A validated flux pumping model is not yet available, but it would be necessary to extrapolate hybrid operation to future devices. Inmore » this work flux pumping physics is investigated for helical core equilibria stimulated by external 3D fields in DIII-D hybrid plasmas. We show that flux pumping can be produced in a continuous way by an MHD dynamo emf. The same effect maintains helical equilibria in reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas. The effective MHD dynamo loop voltage is calculated for experimental 3D equilibrium reconstructions, by balancing Ohm’s law over helical flux surfaces, and is consistent with the expected current redistribution. Similar results are also obtained with more sophisticated nonlinear MHD simulations. The same modelling approach is applied to helical RFP states forming spontaneously in RFX-mod as the plasma current is raised above 0.8–1 MA. This comparison allows to identify the underlying physics common to tokamak and RFP: a helical core displacement modulates parallel current density along flux tubes, which requires a helical electrostatic potential to build up, giving rise to a helical MHD dynamo flow.« less
Role of a continuous MHD dynamo in the formation of 3D equilibria in fusion plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piovesan, P.; Bonfiglio, D.; Cianciosa, M.; Luce, T. C.; Taylor, N. Z.; Terranova, D.; Turco, F.; Wilcox, R. S.; Wingen, A.; Cappello, S.; Chrystal, C.; Escande, D. F.; Holcomb, C. T.; Marrelli, L.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Piron, L.; Predebon, I.; Zaniol, B.; DIII-D, The; RFX-Mod Teams
2017-07-01
Stationary 3D equilibria can form in fusion plasmas via saturation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities or stimulated by external 3D fields. In these cases the current profile is anomalously broad due to magnetic flux pumping produced by the MHD modes. Flux pumping plays an important role in hybrid tokamak plasmas, maintaining the minimum safety factor above unity and thus removing sawteeth. It also enables steady-state hybrid operation, by redistributing non-inductive current driven near the center by electron cyclotron waves. A validated flux pumping model is not yet available, but it would be necessary to extrapolate hybrid operation to future devices. In this work flux pumping physics is investigated for helical core equilibria stimulated by external 3D fields in DIII-D hybrid plasmas. We show that flux pumping can be produced in a continuous way by an MHD dynamo emf. The same effect maintains helical equilibria in reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas. The effective MHD dynamo loop voltage is calculated for experimental 3D equilibrium reconstructions, by balancing Ohm’s law over helical flux surfaces, and is consistent with the expected current redistribution. Similar results are also obtained with more sophisticated nonlinear MHD simulations. The same modelling approach is applied to helical RFP states forming spontaneously in RFX-mod as the plasma current is raised above 0.8-1 MA. This comparison allows to identify the underlying physics common to tokamak and RFP: a helical core displacement modulates parallel current density along flux tubes, which requires a helical electrostatic potential to build up, giving rise to a helical MHD dynamo flow.
3D Numerical simulations of oblique subduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malatesta, C.; Gerya, T.; Scambelluri, M.; Crispini, L.; Federico, L.; Capponi, G.
2012-04-01
In the past 2D numerical studies (e.g. Gerya et al., 2002; Gorczyk et al., 2007; Malatesta et al., 2012) provided evidence that during intraoceanic subduction a serpentinite channel forms above the downgoing plate. This channel forms as a result of hydration of the mantle wedge by uprising slab-fluids. Rocks buried at high depths are finally exhumed within this buoyant low-viscosity medium. Convergence rate in these 2D models was described by a trench-normal component of velocity. Several present and past subduction zones worldwide are however driven by oblique convergence between the plates, where trench-normal motion of the subducting slab is coupled with trench-parallel displacement of the plates. Can the exhumation mechanism and the exhumation rates of high-pressure rocks be affected by the shear component of subduction? And how uprise of these rocks can vary along the plate margin? We tried to address these questions performing 3D numerical models that simulate an intraoceanic oblique subduction. The models are based on thermo-mechanical equations that are solved with finite differences method and marker-in-cell techniques combined with multigrid approach (Gerya, 2010). In most of the models a narrow oceanic basin (500 km-wide) surrounded by continental margins is depicted. The basin is floored by either layered or heterogeneous oceanic lithosphere with gabbro as discrete bodies in serpentinized peridotite and a basaltic layer on the top. A weak zone in the mantle is prescribed to control the location of subduction initiation and therefore the plate margins geometry. Finally, addition of a third dimension in the simulations allowed us to test the role of different plate margin geometries on oblique subduction dynamics. In particular in each model we modified the dip angle of the weak zone and its "lateral" geometry (e.g. continuous, segmented). We consider "continuous" weak zones either parallel or increasingly moving away from the continental margins
3D simulations of fluctuation spectra in the hall-MHD plasma.
Shaikh, Dastgeer; Shukla, P K
2009-01-30
Turbulent spectral cascades are investigated by means of fully three-dimensional (3D) simulations of a compressible Hall-magnetohydrodynamic (H-MHD) plasma in order to understand the observed spectral break in the solar wind turbulence spectra in the regime where the characteristic length scales associated with electromagnetic fluctuations are smaller than the ion gyroradius. In this regime, the results of our 3D simulations exhibit that turbulent spectral cascades in the presence of a mean magnetic field follow an omnidirectional anisotropic inertial-range spectrum close to k(-7/3). The latter is associated with the Hall current arising from nonequal electron and ion fluid velocities in our 3D H-MHD plasma model.
Application of a 3D, Adaptive, Parallel, MHD Code to Supernova Remnant Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kominsky, P.; Drake, R. P.; Powell, K. G.
2001-05-01
We at Michigan have a computational model, BATS-R-US, which incorporates several modern features that make it suitable for calculations of supernova remnant evolution. In particular, it is a three-dimensional MHD model, using a method called the Multiscale Adaptive Upwind Scheme for MagnetoHydroDynamics (MAUS-MHD). It incorporates a data structure that allows for adaptive refinement of the mesh, even in massively parallel calculations. Its advanced Godunov method, a solution-adaptive, upwind, high-resolution scheme, incorporates a new, flux-based approach to the Riemann solver with improved numerical properties. This code has been successfully applied to several problems, including the simulation of comets and of planetary magnetospheres, in the 3D context of the Heliosphere. The code was developed under a NASA computational grand challenge grant to run very rapidly on parallel platforms. It is also now being used to study time-dependent systems such as the transport of particles and energy from solar coronal mass ejections to the Earth. We are in the process of modifying this code so that it can accommodate the very strong shocks present in supernova remnants. Our test case simulates the explosion of a star of 1.4 solar masses with an energy of 1 foe, in a uniform background medium. We have performed runs of 250,000 to 1 million cells on 8 nodes of an Origin 2000. These relatively coarse grids do not allow fine details of instabilities to become visible. Nevertheless, the macroscopic evolution of the shock is simulated well, with the forward and reverse shocks visible in velocity profiles. We will show our work to date. This work was supported by NASA through its GSRP program.
Lattice Boltzmann Explicit Schemes for 3D MHD on Non-Uniform Grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schleif, C.; Vahala, G.; Vahala, L.; Macnab, A.; Soe, M.; Carter, J.
2004-11-01
Lattice-Boltzmann Model (LBM) is a very promising alternative computational approach to MHD and to other nonlinear macroscopic systems because of its simplicity, ease of imposition of geometric boundary conditions and ideal parallelization on multi-PE (and especially vector) platforms. For example, on the Earth Simulator our 2D explicit LBM-MHD code has achieved over 3.6 TFlops/sec. The disparate length and time scales that appear in the solutions of dissipative MHD require careful treatment of ill-conditioned matrices in direct solvers. In LBM-MHD one introduces a scalar distribution function for the velocity field and a vector distribution function for the magnetic field. Since the magnetic evolution equation is obtained at the 1st moment closures, less speeds are needed than to recover the momentum equation. We are also investigating the least square LBM for non-uniform spatial grids. In one approach, the standard LBM is applied to the fine scales while the least square LBM is applied to the large scales. Since the least square algorithm involves matrices that are only grid-dependent, these matrices need only be calculated once leading to an efficient algorithm. Our algorithm will be applied to the 3D Orszag-Tang vortex and compare our results to the 3D pseudo-spectral results of Poquet et. al.
3D MHD Coronal Oscillations about a Magnetic Null Point: Application of WKB Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McLaughlin, J. A.; Ferguson, J. S. L.; Hood, A. W.
2008-09-01
This paper is a demonstration of how the WKB approximation can be used to help solve the linearised 3D MHD equations. Using Charpit’s method and a Runge Kutta numerical scheme, we have demonstrated this technique for a potential 3D magnetic null point, B=[ x, ɛ y,-( ɛ+1) z]. Under our cold-plasma assumption, we have considered two types of wave propagation: fast magnetoacoustic and Alfvén waves. We find that the fast magnetoacoustic wave experiences refraction towards the magnetic null point and that the effect of this refraction depends upon the Alfvén speed profile. The wave and thus the wave energy accumulate at the null point. We have found that current buildup is exponential and the exponent is dependent upon ɛ. Thus, for the fast wave there is preferential heating at the null point. For the Alfvén wave, we find that the wave propagates along the field lines. For an Alfvén wave generated along the fan plane, the wave accumulates along the spine. For an Alfvén wave generated across the spine, the value of ɛ determines where the wave accumulation will occur: fan plane ( ɛ=1), along the x-axis (0< ɛ<1) or along the y-axis ( ɛ>1). We have shown analytically that currents build up exponentially, leading to preferential heating in these areas. The work described here highlights the importance of understanding the magnetic topology of the coronal magnetic field for the location of wave heating.
Classical MHD shocks: theory and numerical simulation
Pogorelov, Nikolai V.
2005-08-01
Recent results are surveyed in the investigation of the behavior of shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and corresponding structures in dissipative/resistive plasma flows. In contrast to evolutionary shocks, a solution of the problem of the nonevolutionary shock interaction with small perturbations is either nonunique or does not exist. The peculiarity of non-ideal MHD is in that some nonevolutionary shocks have dissipative structures. Since this structure is always non-plane, it can reveal itself in problems where transverse perturbations do not exist due to symmetries restrictions. We discuss the numerical behavior of nonevolutionary shocks and argue that they necessarily disappear once the problem is solved in a genuinely three-dimensional statement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buttery, Richard
2011-08-01
This annual workshop on MHD Stability Control has been held since 1996 with a focus on understanding and developing control of MHD instabilities for future fusion reactors. The workshop generally covers a wide range of stability topics: from disruptions, to tearing modes, error fields, ELMs, resistive wall modes (RWMs) and ideal MHD. It spans many device types, particularly tokamaks, stellarators and reversed field pinches, to pull out commonalities in the physics and improve understanding. In 2010 the workshop was held on 15-17 November at the University of Wisconsin in Madison and was combined with the annual US-Japan MHD Workshop. The theme was `3D Magnetic Field Effects in MHD Control', with a focus on multidisciplinary sessions exploring issues of plasma response to 3D fields, the manifestation of such fields in the plasma, and how they influence stability. This has been a topic of renewed interest, with utilisation of 3D fields for ELM control now planned in ITER, and a focus on the application of such fields for error field correction, disruption avoidance, and RWM control. Key issues included the physics of the interaction, types of coils and harmonic spectra needed to control instabilities, and subsidiary effects such as braking (or rotating) the plasma. More generally, a wider range of issues were discussed including RWM physics, tearing mode physics, disruption mitigation, ballooning stability, the snowflake divertor concept, and the line tied pinch! A novel innovation to the meeting was a panel discussion session, this year on Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity, which ran well; more will be tried next year. In this special section of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion we present several of the invited and contributed papers from the 2010 workshop, which have been subject to the normal refereeing procedures of the journal. These papers give a sense of the exceptional quality of the presentations at this workshop, all of which may be found at http://fusion.gat.com/conferences/mhd
Numerical Investigation of 3-D Separation: DNS, LES and URANS
2010-05-01
Final Report Numerical Investigation of 3-D Separation: DNS, LES and URANS Office of Naval Research Contract number: N00014-07-1-0401 Program...COVERED (From - To) 12/11/2006-12/31/2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Numerical Investigation of 3-D Separation: DNS, LES and URANS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER
20 and 3D Numerical Simulations of Flux Cancellation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karpen, Judith T.; DeVore, C.; Antiochos, S. K.; Linton, M. G.
2009-01-01
Cancellation of magnetic flux in the solar photosphere and chromosphere has been linked observationally and theoretically to a broad range of solar activity, from filament channel formation to CME initiation. Because this phenomenon is typically measured at only a single layer in the atmosphere, in the radial (line of sight) component of the magnetic field, the actual processes behind this observational signature are ambiguous. It is clear that reconnection is involved in some way, but the location of the reconnection sites and associated connectivity changes remain uncertain in most cases. We are using numerical modeling to demystify flux cancellation, beginning with the simplest possible configuration: a subphotospheric Lundquist flux tube surrounded by a potential field, immersed in a gravitationally stratified atmosphere, spanning many orders of magnitude in plasma beta. In this system, cancellation is driven slowly by a 2-cell circulation pattern imposed in the convection zone, such that the tops of the cells are located around the beta= 1 level (Le., the photosphere) and the flows converge and form a downdraft at the polarity inversion line; note however that no flow is imposed along the neutral line. We will present the results of 2D and 3D MHD-AMR simulations of flux cancellation, in which the flux at the photosphere begins in either an unsheared or sheared state. In all cases, a lOW-lying flux rope is formed by reconnection at the polarity inversion line within a few thousand seconds. The flux rope remains stable and does not rise, however, in contrast to models which do not include the presence of significant mass loading.
2D and 3D Numerical Simulations of Flux Cancellation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karpen, Judith T.; DeVore, C.; Antiochos, S. K.; Linton, M. G.
2009-01-01
Cancellation of magnetic flux in the solar photosphere and chromosphere has been linked observationally and theoretically to a broad range of solar activity, from filament channel formation to CME initiation. Because this phenomenon is typically measured at only a single layer in the atmosphere, in the radial (line of sight) component of the magnetic field, the actual processes behind this observational signature are ambiguous. It is clear that reconnection is involved in some way, but the location of the reconnection sites and associated connectivity changes remain uncertain in most cases. We are using numerical modeling to demystify flux cancellation, beginning with the simplest possible configuration: a subphotospheric Lundquist flux tube surrounded by a potential field, immersed in a gravitationally stratified atmosphere, spanning many orders of magnitude in plasma beta. In this system, cancellation is driven slowly by a 2-cell circulation pattern imposed in the convection zone, such that the tops of the cells are located around the beta=1 level (i.e., the photosphere) and the flows converge and form a downdraft at the polarity inversion line; note however that no flow is imposed along the neutral line. We will present the results of 2D and 3D MHD-AMR simulations of flux cancellation, in which the flux at the photosphere begins in either an unsheared or sheared state. In all cases, a low-lying flux rope is formed by reconnection at the polarity inversion line within a few thousand seconds. The flux rope remains stable and does not rise, however, in contrast to models which do not include the presence of significant mass loading.
2D and 3D Numerical Simulations of Flux Cancellation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karpen, Judith T.; DeVore, C.; Antiochos, S. K.; Linton, M. G.
2009-01-01
Cancellation of magnetic flux in the solar photosphere and chromosphere has been linked observationally and theoretically to a broad range of solar activity, from filament channel formation to CME initiation. Because this phenomenon is typically measured at only a single layer in the atmosphere, in the radial (line of sight) component of the magnetic field, the actual processes behind this observational signature are ambiguous. It is clear that reconnection is involved in some way, but the location of the reconnection sites and associated connectivity changes remain uncertain in most cases. We are using numerical modeling to demystify flux cancellation, beginning with the simplest possible configuration: a subphotospheric Lundquist flux tube surrounded by a potential field, immersed in a gravitationally stratified atmosphere, spanning many orders of magnitude in plasma beta. In this system, cancellation is driven slowly by a 2-cell circulation pattern imposed in the convection zone, such that the tops of the cells are located around the beta=1 level (i.e., the photosphere) and the flows converge and form a downdraft at the polarity inversion line; note however that no flow is imposed along the neutral line. We will present the results of 2D and 3D MHD-AMR simulations of flux cancellation, in which the flux at the photosphere begins in either an unsheared or sheared state. In all cases, a low-lying flux rope is formed by reconnection at the polarity inversion line within a few thousand seconds. The flux rope remains stable and does not rise, however, in contrast to models which do not include the presence of significant mass loading.
Numerical linearized MHD model of flapping oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korovinskiy, D. B.; Ivanov, I. B.; Semenov, V. S.; Erkaev, N. V.; Kiehas, S. A.
2016-06-01
Kink-like magnetotail flapping oscillations in a Harris-like current sheet with earthward growing normal magnetic field component Bz are studied by means of time-dependent 2D linearized MHD numerical simulations. The dispersion relation and two-dimensional eigenfunctions are obtained. The results are compared with analytical estimates of the double-gradient model, which are found to be reliable for configurations with small Bz up to values ˜ 0.05 of the lobe magnetic field. Coupled with previous results, present simulations confirm that the earthward/tailward growth direction of the Bz component acts as a switch between stable/unstable regimes of the flapping mode, while the mode dispersion curve is the same in both cases. It is confirmed that flapping oscillations may be triggered by a simple Gaussian initial perturbation of the Vz velocity.
Capabilities of a Global 3D MHD Model for Monitoring Extremely Fast CMEs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, C. C.; Plunkett, S. P.; Liou, K.; Socker, D. G.; Wu, S. T.; Wang, Y. M.
2015-12-01
Since the start of the space era, spacecraft have recorded many extremely fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) which have resulted in severe geomagnetic storms. Accurate and timely forecasting of the space weather effects of these events is important for protecting expensive space assets and astronauts and avoiding communications interruptions. Here, we will introduce a newly developed global, three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model (G3DMHD). The model takes the solar magnetic field maps at 2.5 solar radii (Rs) and intepolates the solar wind plasma and field out to 18 Rs using the algorithm of Wang and Sheeley (1990, JGR). The output is used as the inner boundary condition for a 3D MHD model. The G3DMHD model is capable of simulating (i) extremely fast CME events with propagation speeds faster than 2500 km/s; and (ii) multiple CME events in sequence or simultaneously. We will demonstrate the simulation results (and comparison with in-situ observation) for the fastest CME in record on 23 July 2012, the shortest transit time in March 1976, and the well-known historic Carrington 1859 event.
Integrated Modeling of Time Evolving 3D Kinetic MHD Equilibria and NTV Torque
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Logan, N. C.; Park, J.-K.; Grierson, B. A.; Haskey, S. R.; Nazikian, R.; Cui, L.; Smith, S. P.; Meneghini, O.
2016-10-01
New analysis tools and integrated modeling of plasma dynamics developed in the OMFIT framework are used to study kinetic MHD equilibria evolution on the transport time scale. The experimentally observed profile dynamics following the application of 3D error fields are described using a new OMFITprofiles workflow that directly addresses the need for rapid and comprehensive analysis of dynamic equilibria for next-step theory validation. The workflow treats all diagnostic data as fundamentally time dependent, provides physics-based manipulations such as ELM phase data selection, and is consistent across multiple machines - including DIII-D and NSTX-U. The seamless integration of tokamak data and simulation is demonstrated by using the self-consistent kinetic EFIT equilibria and profiles as input into 2D particle, momentum and energy transport calculations using TRANSP as well as 3D kinetic MHD equilibrium stability and neoclassical transport modeling using General Perturbed Equilibrium Code (GPEC). The result is a smooth kinetic stability and NTV torque evolution over transport time scales. Work supported by DE-AC02-09CH11466.
Interaction of a Variable Solar Wind with Jupiter's Magnetosphere: A 3D MHD Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ranquist, D. A.; Bagenal, F.; Delamere, P. A.; Ma, X.
2016-12-01
Jupiter's magnetosphere is the largest obstacle for the solar wind in the solar system. Voyager 2 even detected its presence on its approach to Saturn, 4.3 AU from Jupiter. Also, the time scale for the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) to change directions is smaller than the time for the solar wind to propagate the entire length of Jupiter's magnetotail. Due to the large spatial extent and long time scales, varied solar wind conditions are expected to interact with Jupiter's magnetosphere simultaneously, which can lead to magnetic reconnection and other plasma phenomena. Using the FLASH 3D magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code, we have simulated the global interaction between a variable solar wind and Jupiter's magnetosphere. We simulated Jupiter's magnetosphere as a viscous obstacle because of arguments made by Delamere & Bagenal (2010). For the solar wind, we used in situ data from the Ulysses spacecraft taken at 5 AU along the ecliptic plane. Here we present the 3D MHD simulation results with alternating IMF directions for several obstacle viscosities.
Numerical integration of structural elements in NIKE3D and DYNA3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maker, B. N.; Whirley, R. G.; Engelmann, B. E.
1992-08-01
The beam and shell elements found in many linear elastic finite element codes accept integrated cross sectional properties as input, and produce solutions using classical beam and shell theory. These theories are built upon the equation of resultant forces and moments with integrals of assumed stress distributions over the cross section. In contrast, the structural elements in NIKE3D and DYNA3D are formulated to represent nonlinear geometric and material behavior. Thus stress distributions may not necessarily be representable by simple functions of cross section variables. In NIKE3D and DYNA3D, the Hughes-Liu beam element and all shell elements accommodate these more general stress distributions by computing stresses at various points in the cross section. The integration of stresses within each element is then performed numerically, using a variety of methods. This report describes these numerical integration procedures in detail, and highlights their application to engineering problems. Several other features of the structural elements are also described, including force and moment resultants, user-defined reference surfaces, and user-defined integration rules. Finally, the shear correction factor is described in a section which relates results from NIKE3D and DYNA3D to those obtained from classical beam theory.
Casting the Coronal Magnetic Field Reconstruction Tools in 3D Using the MHD Bifrost Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fleishman, Gregory D.; Anfinogentov, Sergey; Loukitcheva, Maria; Mysh’yakov, Ivan; Stupishin, Alexey
2017-04-01
Quantifying the coronal magnetic field remains a central problem in solar physics. Nowadays, the coronal magnetic field is often modeled using nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) reconstructions, whose accuracy has not yet been comprehensively assessed. Here we perform a detailed casting of the NLFFF reconstruction tools, such as π-disambiguation, photospheric field preprocessing, and volume reconstruction methods, using a 3D snapshot of the publicly available full-fledged radiative MHD model. Specifically, from the MHD model, we know the magnetic field vector in the entire 3D domain, which enables us to perform a “voxel-by-voxel” comparison of the restored and the true magnetic fields in the 3D model volume. Our tests show that the available π-disambiguation methods often fail in the quiet-Sun areas dominated by small-scale magnetic elements, while they work well in the active region (AR) photosphere and (even better) chromosphere. The preprocessing of the photospheric magnetic field, although it does produce a more force-free boundary condition, also results in some effective “elevation” of the magnetic field components. This “elevation” height is different for the longitudinal and transverse components, which results in a systematic error in absolute heights in the reconstructed magnetic data cube. The extrapolations performed starting from the actual AR photospheric magnetogram are free from this systematic error, while other metrics are comparable with those for extrapolations from the preprocessed magnetograms. This finding favors the use of extrapolations from the original photospheric magnetogram without preprocessing. Our tests further suggest that extrapolations from a force-free chromospheric boundary produce measurably better results than those from a photospheric boundary.
Scaling laws of coronal loops compared to a 3D MHD model of an active region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourdin, Ph.-A.; Bingert, S.; Peter, H.
2016-05-01
Context. The structure and heating of coronal loops have been investigated for decades. Established scaling laws relate fundamental quantities like the loop apex temperature, pressure, length, and coronal heating. Aims: We test these scaling laws against a large-scale 3D magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) model of the solar corona, which became feasible with current high-performance computing. Methods: We drove an active region simulation with photospheric observations and find strong similarities to the observed coronal loops in X-rays and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength. A 3D reconstruction of stereoscopic observations shows that our model loops have a realistic spatial structure. We compared scaling laws to our model data extracted along an ensemble of field lines. Finally, we fit a new scaling law that represents hot loops and also cooler structures, which was not possible before based only on observations. Results: Our model data gives some support for scaling laws that were established for hot and EUV-emissive coronal loops. For the Rosner-Tucker-Vaiana (RTV) scaling law we find an offset to our model data, which can be explained by 1D considerations of a static loop with a constant heat input and conduction. With a fit to our model data we set up a new scaling law for the coronal heat input along magnetic field lines. Conclusions: RTV-like scaling laws were fitted to hot loops and therefore do not predict well the coronal heat input for cooler structures that are barely observable. The basic differences between 1D and self-consistent 3D modeling account for deviations between earlier scaling laws and ours. We also conclude that a heating mechanism by MHD-turbulent dissipation within a braided flux tube would heat the corona stronger than is consistent with our model corona.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, H.-S.; Jackson, B. V.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Odstrcil, D.; Wu, C.-C.; Davies, J. A.; Bisi, M. M.; Tokumaru, M.
2015-09-01
The University of California, San Diego, time-dependent analyses of the heliosphere provide three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of solar wind velocities and densities from observations of interplanetary scintillation (IPS). Using data from the Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Japan, these reconstructions provide a real-time prediction of the global solar-wind density and velocity throughout the whole heliosphere with a temporal cadence of about one day (ips.ucsd.edu). Updates to this modeling effort continue: in the present article, near-Sun results extracted from the time-dependent 3D reconstruction are used as inner boundary conditions to drive 3D-MHD models ( e.g. ENLIL and H3D-MHD). This allows us to explore the differences between the IPS kinematic-model data-fitting procedure and current 3D-MHD modeling techniques. The differences in these techniques provide interesting insights into the physical principles governing the expulsion of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Here we detail for the first time several specific CMEs and an induced shock that occurred in September 2011 that demonstrate some of the issues resulting from these analyses.
3D Neutronic Analysis in MHD Calculations at ARIES-ST Fusion Reactors Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hançerliogulları, Aybaba; Cini, Mesut
2013-10-01
In this study, we developed new models for liquid wall (FW) state at ARIES-ST fusion reactor systems. ARIES-ST is a 1,000 MWe fusion reactor system based on a low aspect ratio ST plasma. In this article, we analyzed the characteristic properties of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and heat transfer conditions by using Monte-Carlo simulation methods (ARIES Team et al. in Fusion Eng Des 49-50:689-695, 2000; Tillack et al. in Fusion Eng Des 65:215-261, 2003) . In fusion applications, liquid metals are traditionally considered to be the best working fluids. The working liquid must be a lithium-containing medium in order to provide adequate tritium that the plasma is self-sustained and that the fusion is a renewable energy source. As for Flibe free surface flows, the MHD effects caused by interaction with the mean flow is negligible, while a fairly uniform flow of thick can be maintained throughout the reactor based on 3-D MHD calculations. In this study, neutronic parameters, that is to say, energy multiplication factor radiation, heat flux and fissile fuel breeding were researched for fusion reactor with various thorium and uranium molten salts. Sufficient tritium amount is needed for the reactor to work itself. In the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) >1.05 ARIES-ST fusion model TBR is >1.1 so that tritium self-sufficiency is maintained for DT fusion systems (Starke et al. in Fusion Energ Des 84:1794-1798, 2009; Najmabadi et al. in Fusion Energ Des 80:3-23, 2006).
Dynamics of tokamak plasma surface current in 3D ideal MHD model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galkin, Sergei A.; Svidzinski, V. A.; Zakharov, L. E.
2013-10-01
Interest in the surface current which can arise on perturbed sharp plasma vacuum interface in tokamaks was recently generated by a few papers (see and references therein). In dangerous disruption events with plasma-touching-wall scenarios, the surface current can be shared with the wall leading to the strong, damaging forces acting on the wall A relatively simple analytic definition of δ-function surface current proportional to a jump of tangential component of magnetic field nevertheless leads to a complex computational problem on the moving plasma-vacuum interface, requiring the incorporation of non-linear 3D plasma dynamics even in one-fluid ideal MHD. The Disruption Simulation Code (DSC), which had recently been developed in a fully 3D toroidal geometry with adaptation to the moving plasma boundary, is an appropriate tool for accurate self-consistent δfunction surface current calculation. Progress on the DSC-3D development will be presented. Self-consistent surface current calculation under non-linear dynamics of low m kink mode and VDE will be discussed. Work is supported by the US DOE SBIR grant #DE-SC0004487.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ratkiewicz, R.; Barnes, A.; Molvik, G. A.; Spreiter, J. R.; Stahara, S. S.; Vinokur, M.; Venkateswaran, S.
1998-07-01
The aim of this paper is to present the effects of varying magnitude and orientation of the local interstellar magnetic field on the heliospheric boundary region (the region between the termination shock and the bow shock containing the heliopause). Other effects such as interstellar neutrals, cosmic rays and the asymmetry of the solar wind caused by its heliolatitude dependence are disregarded. We calculate the shape and structure of the heliospheric boundary region for different interstellar Alfvenic Mach numbers and various inclination angles between Very Local InterStellar Medium (VLISM) velocity and magnetic field vectors using a fully three-dimensional MHD computational analysis. The new results show the asymmetry of this region for inclination angles 0(deg) < alpha < 90(deg) and are in agreement with the Newtonian approximation theory (Fahr et al. 1986, 1988) concerning trends in the heliopause orientation and location. Unlike the NA model which only qualitatively indicates the effects of the VLISM magnetic field on the heliospheric boundary region the present 3D MHD calculations reveal fully the nature of these effects by capturing all discontinuities including the termination shock, heliopause and bow shock. The numerical scheme employed in this study is fully implicit and conservative, using a Roe-type Riemann solver in a generalized coordinate system.
A global 3-D MHD model of the solar wind with Alfven waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Usmanov, A. V.
1995-01-01
A fully three-dimensional solar wind model that incorporates momentum and heat addition from Alfven waves is developed. The proposed model upgrades the previous one by considering self-consistently the total system consisting of Alfven waves propagating outward from the Sun and the mean polytropic solar wind flow. The simulation region extends from the coronal base (1 R(sub s) out to beyond 1 AU. The fully 3-D MHD equations written in spherical coordinates are solved in the frame of reference corotating with the Sun. At the inner boundary, the photospheric magnetic field observations are taken as boundary condition and wave energy influx is prescribed to be proportional to the magnetic field strength. The results of the model application for several time intervals are presented.
Quasi 3D ECE imaging system for study of MHD instabilities in KSTAR
Yun, G. S. Choi, M. J.; Lee, J.; Kim, M.; Leem, J.; Nam, Y.; Choe, G. H.; Lee, W.; Park, H. K.; Park, H.; Woo, D. S.; Kim, K. W.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.; Ito, N.; Mase, A.; Lee, S. G.
2014-11-15
A second electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) system has been installed on the KSTAR tokamak, toroidally separated by 1/16th of the torus from the first ECEI system. For the first time, the dynamical evolutions of MHD instabilities from the plasma core to the edge have been visualized in quasi-3D for a wide range of the KSTAR operation (B{sub 0} = 1.7∼3.5 T). This flexible diagnostic capability has been realized by substantial improvements in large-aperture quasi-optical microwave components including the development of broad-band polarization rotators for imaging of the fundamental ordinary ECE as well as the usual 2nd harmonic extraordinary ECE.
Quasi 3D ECE imaging system for study of MHD instabilities in KSTAR.
Yun, G S; Lee, W; Choi, M J; Lee, J; Kim, M; Leem, J; Nam, Y; Choe, G H; Park, H K; Park, H; Woo, D S; Kim, K W; Domier, C W; Luhmann, N C; Ito, N; Mase, A; Lee, S G
2014-11-01
A second electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) system has been installed on the KSTAR tokamak, toroidally separated by 1/16th of the torus from the first ECEI system. For the first time, the dynamical evolutions of MHD instabilities from the plasma core to the edge have been visualized in quasi-3D for a wide range of the KSTAR operation (B0 = 1.7∼3.5 T). This flexible diagnostic capability has been realized by substantial improvements in large-aperture quasi-optical microwave components including the development of broad-band polarization rotators for imaging of the fundamental ordinary ECE as well as the usual 2nd harmonic extraordinary ECE.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorby, M.; Schwadron, N.; Torok, T.; Downs, C.; Lionello, R.; Linker, J.; Titov, V. S.; Mikic, Z.; Riley, P.; Desai, M. I.; Dayeh, M. A.
2014-12-01
Recent work on the coupling between the Energetic Particle Radiation Environment Module (EPREM, a 3D energetic particle model) and Magnetohydrodynamics Around a Sphere (MAS, an MHD code developed at Predictive Science, Inc.) has demonstrated the efficacy of compression regions around fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) for particle acceleration low in the corona (˜ 3 - 6 solar radii). These couplings show rapid particle acceleration over a broad longitudinal extent (˜ 80 degrees) resulting from the pile-up of magnetic flux in the compression regions and their subsequent expansion. The challenge for forming large SEP events in such compression-acceleration scenarios is to have enhanced scattering within the acceleration region while also allowing for efficient escape of accelerated particles downstream (away from the Sun) from the compression region. We present here the most recent simulation results including energetic particle and CME plasma profiles, the subsequent flux and dosages at 1AU, and an analysis of the compressional regions as efficient accelerators.
Jupiter Magnetotail Interaction with a Variable Solar Wind: A 3D MHD Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ranquist, D. A.; Bagenal, F.; Delamere, P. A.; Ma, X.
2015-12-01
Jupiter's magnetosphere is the largest object within the heliosphere. Voyager 2 detected its influence at Saturn's orbit, 4.3 AU away. It takes considerable time, therefore, for the solar wind to propagate such lengths down the tail. This propagation time is much greater than typical periods between changes in direction of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We expect these variable magnetic fields to create a jumbled structure in Jupiter's magnetotail, resulting in magnetic reconnection and other magnetic processes. We simulate the global interaction of the solar wind with Jupiter's magnetosphere using a 3D magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code. Delamere & Bagenal (2010) argue that the interaction is largely viscous, so we simulate the jovian magnetosphere as a region where the momentum equation has an added loss term. We also use in situ data gathered by the Ulysses spacecraft near Jupiter's orbit for solar wind input. Here, we report on the simulated dynamics in Jupiter's tail region.
3D MHD SIMULATION OF FLARE SUPRA-ARCADE DOWNFLOWS IN A TURBULENT CURRENT SHEET MEDIUM
Cécere, M.; Zurbriggen, E.; Costa, A.; Schneiter, M.
2015-07-01
Supra-arcade downflows (SADs) are sunward, generally dark, plasma density depletions originated above posteruption flare arcades. In this paper, using 3D MHD simulations we investigate whether the SAD cavities can be produced by a direct combination of the tearing mode and Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities leading to a turbulent current sheet (CS) medium or if the current sheet is merely the background where SADs are produced, triggered by an impulsive deposition of energy. We find that to give an account of the observational dark lane structures an addition of local energy, provided by a reconnection event, is required. We suggest that there may be a closed relation between characteristic SAD sizes and CS widths that must be satisfied to obtain an observable SAD.
3D Hall MHD Reconnection Dynamics in a Strongly Sheared System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huba, J. D.; Rudakov, L. I.
2002-12-01
A 3D Hall MHD simulation code (VooDoo) has recently been developed at the Naval Research Laboratory. Recent results have demonstrated that magnetic shock-like structures [Rudakov and Huba, 2002] and a `reconnection wave' [Huba and Rudakov, 2002] can propagate in three dimensional, reversed field plasma layers. In this talk we present preliminary results of a fully 3D magnetic reconnection process in a reversed field plasma that includes a strong guide field, i.e., no magnetic nulls. The initial configuration of the plasma system is as follows. The ambient, reversed magnetic field is in the x-direction with Bx = B0 tanh(y/Ly) where Ly is the scale length of the current sheet. The ambient guide field is in the z-direction with Bz = B0. Perturbation fields δ Bx and δ By are introduced to initiate the reconnection process. This initial configuration is similar to that used in the 2D GEM reconnection study. However, the perturbation fields are localized in the z-direction. We find that the magnetic topology of the system is reconfigured via a process akin to `magnetic flipping' described by Priest and Forbes (1992). A high-density, magnetic flux-rope forms in the center of the plasma sheet. Magnetic flipping occurs between the center of the flux-tube and the boundaries in the x-direction. Associated with this magnetic flipping geometry, the reconnected magnetic field component By reverses sign 3 times in the x-direction, in contrast to only once in the no-guide field case. As in previous Hall MHD reconnection simulation studies, the system evolves asymmetrically along the current. Huba, J.D. and L.I. Rudakov, to be published in Phys. Plasmas, 2002. Priest, E.R. and T.G. Forbes, J. Geophys. Res. 97, 1521, 1992. Rudakov, L.I. and J.D. Huba, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 095002, 2002. Research supported by NASA and ONR.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beck, C.; Fabbian, D.; Rezaei, R.; Puschmann, K. G.
2017-06-01
Before using three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations of the solar photosphere in the determination of elemental abundances, one has to ensure that the correct amount of magnetic flux is present in the simulations. The presence of magnetic flux modifies the thermal structure of the solar photosphere, which affects abundance determinations and the solar spectral irradiance. The amount of magnetic flux in the solar photosphere also constrains any possible heating in the outer solar atmosphere through magnetic reconnection. We compare the polarization signals in disk-center observations of the solar photosphere in quiet-Sun regions with those in Stokes spectra computed on the basis of 3D MHD simulations having average magnetic flux densities of about 20, 56, 112, and 224 G. This approach allows us to find the simulation run that best matches the observations. The observations were taken with the Hinode SpectroPolarimeter (SP), the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP), the Polarimetric Littrow Spectrograph (POLIS), and the GREGOR Fabry-Pèrot Interferometer (GFPI), respectively. We determine characteristic quantities of full Stokes profiles in a few photospheric spectral lines in the visible (630 nm) and near-infrared (1083 and 1565 nm). We find that the appearance of abnormal granulation in intensity maps of degraded simulations can be traced back to an initially regular granulation pattern with numerous bright points in the intergranular lanes before the spatial degradation. The linear polarization signals in the simulations are almost exclusively related to canopies of strong magnetic flux concentrations and not to transient events of magnetic flux emergence. We find that the average vertical magnetic flux density in the simulation should be less than 50 G to reproduce the observed polarization signals in the quiet-Sun internetwork. A value of about 35 G gives the best match across the SP, TIP, POLIS, and GFPI observations.
Test particle acceleration in a numerical MHD experiment of an anemone jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosdahl, K. J.; Galsgaard, K.
2010-02-01
Aims: To use a 3D numerical MHD experiment representing magnetic flux emerging into an open field region as a background field for tracing charged particles. The interaction between the two flux systems generates a localised current sheet where MHD reconnection takes place. We investigate how efficiently the reconnection region accelerates charged particles and what kind of energy distribution they acquire. Methods: The particle tracing is done numerically using the Guiding Center Approximation on individual data sets from the numerical MHD experiment. Results: We derive particle and implied photon distribution functions having power law forms, and look at the impact patterns of particles hitting the photosphere. We find that particles reach energies far in excess of those seen in observations of solar flares. However the structure of the impact region in the photosphere gives a good representation of the topological structure of the magnetic field. Three movies are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
FOI-PERFECT code: 3D relaxation MHD modeling and Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Gang-Hua; Duan, Shu-Chao; Comutational Physics Team Team
2016-10-01
One of the challenges in numerical simulations of electromagnetically driven high energy density (HED) systems is the existence of vacuum region. FOI-PERFECT code adopts a full relaxation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. The electromagnetic part of the conventional model adopts the magnetic diffusion approximation. The vacuum region is approximated by artificially increasing the resistivity. On one hand the phase/group velocity is superluminal and hence non-physical in the vacuum region, on the other hand a diffusion equation with large diffusion coefficient can only be solved by implicit scheme which is difficult to be parallelized and converge. A better alternative is to solve the full electromagnetic equations. Maxwell's equations coupled with the constitutive equation, generalized Ohm's law, constitute a relaxation model. The dispersion relation is given to show its transition from electromagnetic propagation in vacuum to resistive MHD in plasma in a natural way. The phase and group velocities are finite for this system. A better time stepping is adopted to give a 3rd full order convergence in time domain without the stiff relaxation term restriction. Therefore it is convenient for explicit & parallel computations. Some numerical results of FOI-PERFECT code are also given. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11571293) And Foundation of China Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant No. 2015B0201023).
HBT-EP Program: MHD Dynamics and Active Control through 3D Fields and Currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Navratil, G. A.; Abler, M. C.; Bialek, J.; Brooks, J. W.; Byrne, P. J.; Desanto, S.; Hughes, P. E.; Levesque, J. P.; Mauel, M. E.; Rhodes, D. J.; Hansen, C. J.
2016-10-01
The HBT-EP active mode control research program aims to: (i) advance understanding of the effects of 3D shaping on advanced tokamak fusion performance, (ii) resolve important MHD issues associated with disruptions, and (iii) measure and mitigate the effects of 3D scrape-off layer (SOL) currents through active and passive control of the plasma edge and conducting boundary structures. A GPU-based low latency control system uses 96 inputs and 64 outputs to control the plasma boundary. An in-vessel adjustable ferritic wall is used to study ferritic RWMs with increased growth rates, RMP response, and disruptivity. A quasi-linear sharp-boundary model is developed to study effects of toroidal curvature and plasma shaping on beta limits with resistive plasmas and walls. Measurement of currents between vessel sections reveals currents running from the plasma to the wall during wall-touching kink modes and disruptions. Asymmetries in plasma current are observed using segmented Rogowski coils. Biased electrodes in the plasma are used to control rotation of external kinks and drive currents in the SOL. An extensive array of SOL current monitors and edge drive electrodes will be installed for pioneering studies of helical edge current control. Supported by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02-86ER53222.
Intriligator, Devrie S.; Detman, Thomas; Fry, Craig D.; Sun Wei; Deehr, Charles; Intriligator, James
2005-08-01
A first-generation 3D kinematic, space weather forecasting solar wind model (HAFv2) has been used to show the importance of solar generated disturbances in Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 observations in the outer heliosphere. We extend this work by using a 3D MHD model (HHMS) that, like HAFv2, incorporates a global, pre-event, inhomogeneous, background solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic field. Initial comparisons are made between the two models of the solar wind out to 6 AU and with in-situ observations at the ACE spacecraft before and after the October/November 2003 solar events.
A novel high-order, entropy stable, 3D AMR MHD solver with guaranteed positive pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derigs, Dominik; Winters, Andrew R.; Gassner, Gregor J.; Walch, Stefanie
2016-07-01
We describe a high-order numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) solver built upon a novel non-linear entropy stable numerical flux function that supports eight travelling wave solutions. By construction the solver conserves mass, momentum, and energy and is entropy stable. The method is designed to treat the divergence-free constraint on the magnetic field in a similar fashion to a hyperbolic divergence cleaning technique. The solver described herein is especially well-suited for flows involving strong discontinuities. Furthermore, we present a new formulation to guarantee positivity of the pressure. We present the underlying theory and implementation of the new solver into the multi-physics, multi-scale adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulation code FLASH (http://flash.uchicago.edu).
An Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Discretization of MHD on 3D Unstructured Grids
Rieben, R N; White, D A; Wallin, B K; Solberg, J M
2006-06-12
We present an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) discretization of the equations of resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) on unstructured hexahedral grids. The method is formulated using an operator-split approach with three distinct phases: electromagnetic diffusion, Lagrangian motion, and Eulerian advection. The resistive magnetic dynamo equation is discretized using a compatible mixed finite element method with a 2nd order accurate implicit time differencing scheme which preserves the divergence-free nature of the magnetic field. At each discrete time step, electromagnetic force and heat terms are calculated and coupled to the hydrodynamic equations to compute the Lagrangian motion of the conducting materials. By virtue of the compatible discretization method used, the invariants of Lagrangian MHD motion are preserved in a discrete sense. When the Lagrangian motion of the mesh causes significant distortion, that distortion is corrected with a relaxation of the mesh, followed by a 2nd order monotonic remap of the electromagnetic state variables. The remap is equivalent to Eulerian advection of the magnetic flux density with a fictitious mesh relaxation velocity. The magnetic advection is performed using a novel variant of constrained transport (CT) that is valid for unstructured hexahedral grids with arbitrary mesh velocities. The advection method maintains the divergence free nature of the magnetic field and is second order accurate in regions where the solution is sufficiently smooth. For regions in which the magnetic field is discontinuous (e.g. MHD shocks) the method is limited using a novel variant of algebraic flux correction (AFC) which is local extremum diminishing (LED) and divergence preserving. Finally, we verify each stage of the discretization via a set of numerical experiments.
3D numerical model for NGC 6888 Nebula
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reyes-Iturbide, J.; Velázquez, P. F.; Rosado, M.
We present 3D numerical simulations of the NGC6888 nebula considering the proper motion and the evolution of the star, from the red supergiant (RSG) to the Wolf-Rayet (WR) phase. Our simulations reproduce the limb-brightened morphology observed in [OIII] and X-ray emission maps. The synthetic maps computed by the numerical simulations show filamentary and clumpy structures produced by instabilities triggered in the interaction between the WR wind and the RSG shell.
Numerical study on 3D composite morphing actuators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oishi, Kazuma; Saito, Makoto; Anandan, Nishita; Kadooka, Kevin; Taya, Minoru
2015-04-01
There are a number of actuators using the deformation of electroactive polymer (EAP), where fewer papers seem to have focused on the performance of 3D morphing actuators based on the analytical approach, due mainly to their complexity. The present paper introduces a numerical analysis approach on the large scale deformation and motion of a 3D half dome shaped actuator composed of thin soft membrane (passive material) and EAP strip actuators (EAP active coupon with electrodes on both surfaces), where the locations of the active EAP strips is a key parameter. Simulia/Abaqus Static and Implicit analysis code, whose main feature is the high precision contact analysis capability among structures, are used focusing on the whole process of the membrane to touch and wrap around the object. The unidirectional properties of the EAP coupon actuator are used as input data set for the material properties for the simulation and the verification of our numerical model, where the verification is made as compared to the existing 2D solution. The numerical results can demonstrate the whole deformation process of the membrane to wrap around not only smooth shaped objects like a sphere or an egg, but also irregularly shaped objects. A parametric study reveals the proper placement of the EAP coupon actuators, with the modification of the dome shape to induce the relevant large scale deformation. The numerical simulation for the 3D soft actuators shown in this paper could be applied to a wider range of soft 3D morphing actuators.
A numerical code for a three-dimensional magnetospheric MHD equilibrium model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Voigt, G.-H.
1992-01-01
Two dimensional and three dimensional MHD equilibrium models were begun for Earth's magnetosphere. The original proposal was motivated by realizing that global, purely data based models of Earth's magnetosphere are inadequate for studying the underlying plasma physical principles according to which the magnetosphere evolves on the quasi-static convection time scale. Complex numerical grid generation schemes were established for a 3-D Poisson solver, and a robust Grad-Shafranov solver was coded for high beta MHD equilibria. Thus, the effects were calculated of both the magnetopause geometry and boundary conditions on the magnetotail current distribution.
Two-Species, 3D, MHD Simulation of Europa's Interaction with Jupiter's Magnetosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Yifan; Nagy, Andrew F.; Kabin, Konstantin; Combi, Michael R.; DeZeeuw, Darren L.; Gombosi, Tamas I.; Powell, Kenneth G.
2000-01-01
The interaction of Europa with the Jovian a magnetosphere has been studied by using a two species in ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical model. This model considers the upstream plasma in the Jovian magnetosphere and the molecular oxygen ions in the ionosphere of Europa, separately. We present results a from simulation studies, which take into account impact ionization, recombination, and the effect of a possible induced dipole magnetic field of Europa. The total mass loading of the magnetospheric flow and the ionization frequency used in the model are consistent with the estimates of Europa's ionosphere and atmosphere. The multi-species MHD equations are solved by using a finite volume, high-order, Godunov-type method on an adoptively refined unstructured grid, which allows a detailed modeling of the region near Europa's surface, while still resolving both the upstream region and the satellite's wake. We have paid special attention to the wake of Europa, in order to be able to make comparisons with the Galileo's E4 flyby observations, as well as other model calculations. The calculated escape flux of a O2+ down the tail was found to be about 5.6 x 10(exp 25) s(sup -1).
A remark on the Beale-Kato-Majda criterion for the 3D MHD equations with zero magnetic diffusivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gala, Sadek; Ragusa, Maria Alessandra
2016-06-01
In this work, we show that a smooth solution of the 3D MHD equations with zero magnetic diffusivity in the whole space ℝ3 breaks down if and only if a certain norm of the magnetic field blows up at the same time.
The numerical measure of symmetry for 3D stick creatures.
Jaśkowski, Wojciech; Komosinski, Maciej
2008-01-01
This work introduces a numerical, continuous measure of symmetry for 3D stick creatures and solid 3D objects. Background information about the property of symmetry is provided, and motivations for developing a symmetry measure are described. Three approaches are mentioned, and two of them are presented in detail using formal mathematical language. The best approach is used to sort a set of creatures according to their symmetry. Experiments with a mixed set of 84 individuals originating from both human design and evolution are performed to examine symmetry within these two sources, and to determine if human designers and evolutionary processes prefer symmetry or asymmetry.
Plasmoid dynamics in 3D resistive MHD simulations of magnetic reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samtaney, R.; Loureiro, N. F.; Uzdensky, D. A.; Schekochihin, A. A.
2012-04-01
Magnetic reconnection is a well known plasma process believed to lie at the heart of a variety of phenomena such as sub-storms in the Earth's magnetosphere, solar/stellar and accretion-disk flares, sawteeth activity in fusion devices, etc. During reconnection, the global magnetic field topology changes rapidly, leading to the violent release of magnetic energy. Over the past few years, the basic understanding of this fundamental process has undergone profound changes. The validity of the most basic, and widely accepted, reconnection paradigm - the famous Sweet-Parker (SP) model, which predicts that, in MHD, reconnection is extremely slow, its rate scaling as S-1/2, where S is the Lundquist number of the system - has been called into question as it was analytically demonstrated that, for S ≫ 1, SP-like current sheets are violently unstable to the formation of a large number of secondary islands, or plasmoids. Subsequent numerical simulations in 2D have confirmed the validity of the linear theory, and shown that plasmoids quickly grow to become wider than the thickness of the original SP current sheet, thus effectively changing the underlying reconnection geometry. Ensuing numerical work has revealed that the process of plasmoid formation, coalescence and ejection from the sheet drastically modifies the steady state picture assumed by Sweet and Parker, and leads to the unexpected result that MHD reconnection is independent of S. In this talk, we review these recent developments and present results from three-dimensional simulations of high-Lundquist number reconnection in the presence of a guide field. A parametric study varying the strength of the guide field is presented. Plasmoid flux and width distribution functions are quantified and compared with corresponding two dimensional simulations.
Accurate, finite-volume methods for 3D MHD on unstructured Lagrangian meshes
Barnes, D.C.; Rousculp, C.L.
1998-10-01
Previous 2D methods for magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) have contributed both to development of core code capability and to physics applications relevant to AGEX pulsed-power experiments. This strategy is being extended to 3D by development of a modular extension of an ASCI code. Extension to 3D not only increases complexity by problem size, but also introduces new physics, such as magnetic helicity transport. The authors have developed a method which incorporates all known conservation properties into the difference scheme on a Lagrangian unstructured mesh. Because the method does not depend on the mesh structure, mesh refinement is possible during a calculation to prevent the well known problem of mesh tangling. Arbitrary polyhedral cells are decomposed into tetrahedrons. The action of the magnetic vector potential, A {center_dot} {delta}l, is centered on the edges of this extended mesh. For ideal flow, this maintains {del} {center_dot} B = 0 to round-off error. Vertex forces are derived by the variation of magnetic energy with respect to vertex positions, F = {minus}{partial_derivative}W{sub B}/{partial_derivative}r. This assures symmetry as well as magnetic flux, momentum, and energy conservation. The method is local so that parallelization by domain decomposition is natural for large meshes. In addition, a simple, ideal-gas, finite pressure term has been included. The resistive diffusion part is calculated using the support operator method, to obtain an energy conservative, symmetric method on an arbitrary mesh. Implicit time difference equations are solved by preconditioned, conjugate gradient methods. Results of convergence tests are presented. Initial results of an annular Z-pinch implosion problem illustrate the application of these methods to multi-material problems.
Smoothed MHD equations for numerical simulations of ideal quasi-neutral gas dynamic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popov, Mikhail V.; Elizarova, Tatiana G.
2015-11-01
We introduce a mathematical model and related numerical method for numerical modeling of ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) gas flows as an extension of previously known quasi-gasdynamic (QGD) equations. This approach is based on smoothing, or averaging of the original MHD equation system over a small time interval that leads to a new equation system, named quasi-MHD, or QMHD system. The QMHD equations are closely related to the original MHD system except for additional strongly non-linear dissipative τ-terms with a small parameter τ as a factor. The τ-terms depend on the solution itself and decrease in regions with the small space gradients of the solution. In this sense the QMHD system could be regarded as an approach with adaptive artificial dissipation. The QMHD is a generalization of regularized (or quasi-) gas dynamic equation system suggested in last three decades. In the QMHD numerical method the evolution of all physical variables is presented in a non-split divergence form. Divergence-free evolution of the magnetic field provides by using a constrained transport method based on Faraday's law of induction. Accuracy and convergence of the QMHD method is verified on a wide set of standard MHD tests including the 3D Orszag-Tang vortex flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skála, J.; Baruffa, F.; Büchner, J.; Rampp, M.
2015-08-01
Context. The numerical simulation of turbulence and flows in almost ideal astrophysical plasmas with large Reynolds numbers motivates the implementation of magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) computer codes with low resistivity. They need to be computationally efficient and scale well with large numbers of CPU cores, allow obtaining a high grid resolution over large simulation domains, and be easily and modularly extensible, for instance, to new initial and boundary conditions. Aims: Our aims are the implementation, optimization, and verification of a computationally efficient, highly scalable, and easily extensible low-dissipative MHD simulation code for the numerical investigation of the dynamics of astrophysical plasmas with large Reynolds numbers in three dimensions (3D). Methods: The new GOEMHD3 code discretizes the ideal part of the MHD equations using a fast and efficient leap-frog scheme that is second-order accurate in space and time and whose initial and boundary conditions can easily be modified. For the investigation of diffusive and dissipative processes the corresponding terms are discretized by a DuFort-Frankel scheme. To always fulfill the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy stability criterion, the time step of the code is adapted dynamically. Numerically induced local oscillations are suppressed by explicit, externally controlled diffusion terms. Non-equidistant grids are implemented, which enhance the spatial resolution, where needed. GOEMHD3 is parallelized based on the hybrid MPI-OpenMP programing paradigm, adopting a standard two-dimensional domain-decomposition approach. Results: The ideal part of the equation solver is verified by performing numerical tests of the evolution of the well-understood Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and of Orszag-Tang vortices. The accuracy of solving the (resistive) induction equation is tested by simulating the decay of a cylindrical current column. Furthermore, we show that the computational performance of the code scales very
3D numerical modeling of YSO accretion shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsakos, T.; Chièze, J.-P.; Stehlé, C.; González, M.; Ibgui, L.; de Sá, L.; Lanz, T.; Orlando, S.; Bonito, R.; Argiroffi, C.; Reale, F.; Peres, G.
2014-01-01
The dynamics of YSO accretion shocks is determined by radiative processes as well as the strength and structure of the magnetic field. A quasi-periodic emission signature is theoretically expected to be observed, but observations do not confirm any such pattern. In this work, we assume a uniform background field, in the regime of optically thin energy losses, and we study the multi-dimensional shock evolution in the presence of perturbations, i.e. clumps in the stream and an acoustic energy flux flowing at the base of the chromosphere. We perform 3D MHD simulations using the PLUTO code, modelling locally the impact of the infalling gas onto the chromosphere. We find that the structure and dynamics of the post-shock region is strongly dependent on the plasma-beta (thermal over magnetic pressure), different values of which may give distinguishable emission signatures, relevant for observations. In particular, a strong magnetic field effectively confines the plasma inside its flux tubes and leads to the formation of quasi-independent fibrils. The fibrils may oscillate out of phase and hence the sum of their contributions in the emission results in a smooth overall profile. On the contrary, a weak magnetic field is not found to have any significant effect on the shocked plasma and the turbulent hot slab that forms is found to retain its periodic signature.
Numerical simulation of propagation of the MHD waves in sunspots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parchevsky, K.; Kosovichev, A.; Khomenko, E.; Olshevsky, V.; Collados, M.
2010-11-01
We present results of numerical 3D simulation of propagation of MHD waves in sunspots. We used two self consistent magnetohydrostatic background models of sunspots. There are two main differences between these models: (i) the topology of the magnetic field and (ii) dependence of the horizontal profile of the sound speed on depth. The model with convex shape of the magnetic field lines near the photosphere has non-zero horizorntal perturbations of the sound speed up to the depth of 7.5 Mm (deep model). In the model with concave shape of the magnetic field lines near the photosphere Δ c/c is close to zero everywhere below 2 Mm (shallow model). Strong Alfven wave is generated at the wave source location in the deep model. This wave is almost unnoticeable in the shallow model. Using filtering technique we separated magnetoacoustic and magnetogravity waves. It is shown, that inside the sunspot magnetoacoustic and magnetogravity waves are not spatially separated unlike the case of the horizontally uniform background model. The sunspot causes anisotropy of the amplitude distribution along the wavefront and changes the shape of the wavefront. The amplitude of the waves is reduced inside the sunspot. This effect is stronger for the magnetogravity waves than for magnetoacoustic waves. The shape of the wavefront of the magnetogravity waves is distorted stronger as well. The deep model causes bigger anisotropy for both mgnetoacoustic and magneto gravity waves than the shallow model.
Using 3-D Numerical Weather Data in Piloted Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daniels, Taumi S.
2016-01-01
This report describes the process of acquiring and using 3-D numerical model weather data sets in NASA Langley's Research Flight Deck (RFD). A set of software tools implement the process and can be used for other purposes as well. Given time and location information of a weather phenomenon of interest, the user can download associated numerical weather model data. These data are created by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) model, and are then processed using a set of Mathworks' Matlab(TradeMark) scripts to create the usable 3-D weather data sets. Each data set includes radar re ectivity, water vapor, component winds, temperature, supercooled liquid water, turbulence, pressure, altitude, land elevation, relative humidity, and water phases. An open-source data processing program, wgrib2, is available from NOAA online, and is used along with Matlab scripts. These scripts are described with sucient detail to make future modi cations. These software tools have been used to generate 3-D weather data for various RFD experiments.
3D EFT imaging with planar electrode array: Numerical simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tuykin, T.; Korjenevsky, A.
2010-04-01
Electric field tomography (EFT) is the new modality of the quasistatic electromagnetic sounding of conductive media recently investigated theoretically and realized experimentally. The demonstrated results pertain to 2D imaging with circular or linear arrays of electrodes (and the linear array provides quite poor quality of imaging). In many applications 3D imaging is essential or can increase value of the investigation significantly. In this report we present the first results of numerical simulation of the EFT imaging system with planar array of electrodes which allows 3D visualization of the subsurface conductivity distribution. The geometry of the system is similar to the geometry of our EIT breast imaging system providing 3D conductivity imaging in form of cross-sections set with different depth from the surface. The EFT principle of operation and reconstruction approach differs from the EIT system significantly. So the results of numerical simulation are important to estimate if comparable quality of imaging is possible with the new contactless method. The EFT forward problem is solved using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method for the 8×8 square electrodes array. The calculated results of measurements are used then to reconstruct conductivity distributions by the filtered backprojections along electric field lines. The reconstructed images of the simple test objects are presented.
Relativistic MHD simulations of core-collapse GRB jets: 3D instabilities and magnetic dissipation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bromberg, Omer; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander
2016-02-01
Relativistic jets are associated with extreme astrophysical phenomena, like the core collapse of massive stars in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and the accretion on to supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei. It is generally accepted that these jets are powered electromagnetically, by the magnetized rotation of a central compact object (black hole or neutron star). However, how the jets produce the observed emission and survive the propagation for many orders of magnitude in distance without being disrupted by current-driven instabilities is the subject of active debate. We carry out time-dependent 3D relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of relativistic, Poynting-flux-dominated jets. The jets are launched self-consistently by the rotation of a strongly magnetized central object. This determines the natural degree of azimuthal magnetic field winding, a crucial factor that controls jet stability. We find that the jets are susceptible to two types of instability: (i) a global, external kink mode that grows on long time-scales. It bodily twists the jet, reducing its propagation velocity. We show analytically that in flat density profiles, like the ones associated with galactic cores, the external mode grows and may stall the jet. In the steep profiles of stellar envelopes the external kink weakens as the jet propagates outward. (ii) a local, internal kink mode that grows over short time-scales and causes small-angle magnetic reconnection and conversion of about half of the jet electromagnetic energy flux into heat. We suggest that internal kink instability is the main dissipation mechanism responsible for powering GRB prompt emission.
Three-fluid, 3D MHD solar wind modeling with turbulence transport and eddy viscosity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Usmanov, A. V.; Goldstein, M. L.; Matthaeus, W. H.
2014-12-01
We present results from a three-fluid, fully three-dimensional MHD solar wind model that includes turbulence transport, eddy viscosity, turbulent resistivity, and turbulent heating. The solar wind plasma is described as a co-moving system of three species: the solar wind protons, electrons, and interstellar pickup protons. Separate energy equations are employed for each species. We obtain numerical solutions of Reynolds-averaged solar wind equations coupled with turbulence transport equations in the region from 0.3 to 100 AU. The integrated system of equations includes the effects of electron heat conduction, Coulomb collisions, photoionization of interstellar hydrogen atoms and their charge exchange with the solar wind protons, turbulence energy generation by pickup protons, and turbulent heating of solar wind protons and electrons. Using either a dipole approximation for the solar magnetic field or synoptic solar magnetograms from the Wilcox Solar Observatory for assigning boundary conditions at the coronal base, we apply the model to study the global structure of the solar wind and its three-dimensional properties, including turbulence parameters, throughout the heliosphere. The model results are compared with observations on WIND, Ulysses and Voyager 2 spacecraft. This work is partially supported by LWS and Heliophysics Grand Challenges programs.
3D MHD Simulations of Radial Wire Array Z-pinches
Niasse, N.; Chittenden, J. P.; Bland, S. N.; Suzuki-Vidal, F. A.; Hall, G. N.; Lebedev, S. V.; Calamy, H.; Zucchini, F.; Lassalle, F.; Bedoch, J. P.
2009-01-21
Recent experiments carried out on the MAGPIE (1 MA, 250 ns), OEDIPE (730 kA, 1.5 {mu}s) and SPHINX (4 MA, 700 ns)[1] facilities have shown the relatively high level of scalability of the Radial Wire Array Z-pinches. These configurations where the wires stretch radially outwards from a central cathode offer numerous advantages over standard cylindrical arrays. In particular, imploding in a very stable and compact way, they seem suitable for coupling to small scale hohlraums. Making use of the 3D resistive magneto-hydrodynamic code GORGON[2] developed at Imperial College, the dynamic of the radial wire arrays is investigated. Influence of the cathode hotspots and wires angle on the x-ray emissions is also discussed. Comparison with experiments is offered to validate the numerical studies.
3D Numerical Simulations of the Breakout Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choe, G. S.; Cheng, C. Z.; Lee, J.; Lynch, B. J.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.; Zurbuchen, T. H.
2005-05-01
We present the continuing progress of the numerical simulations of the breakout model for coronal mass ejection initiation. To validate the 3D spherical ARMS code we have run the 2.5D breakout problem and compare the eruption to the published 2D results. The ARMS 2.5D CME also forms a large magnetic island ahead of the erupting plasmoid due to the code's excellent maintenance of equatorial symmetry. Progress on the fully 3D breakout problem is also discussed. To build up enough magnetic free energy for an eruption the active region field must be strong with a steep gradient near the polarity inversion line and the shear must be highly concentrated there. This requires adaptive griding techniques. In the current simulation, the active region to background field ratio is 20-to-1 and the neutral line is long compared to the active region width. We present the evolution of this topology under Br-conserving shearing flow and discuss implications for a 3D eruption. This work is supported by NASA and ONR. BJL is supported by NASA GSRP grant NGT5-50453.
The Biermann catastrophe of numerical MHD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graziani, C.; Tzeferacos, P.; Lee, D.; Lamb, D. Q.; Weide, K.; Fatenejad, M.; Miller, J.
2016-05-01
The Biermann Battery effect is frequently invoked in cosmic magnetogenesis and studied in High-Energy Density laboratory physics experiments. Unfortunately, direct implementation of the Biermann effect in MHD codes is known to produce unphysical magnetic fields at shocks whose value does not converge with resolution. We show that this convergence breakdown is due to naive discretization, which fails to account for the fact that discretized irrotational vector fields have spurious solenoidal components that grow without bound near a discontinuity. We show that careful consideration of the kinetics of ion viscous shocks leads to a formulation of the Biermann effect that gives rise to a convergent algorithm. We note a novel physical effect a resistive magnetic precursor in which Biermann-generated field in the shock “leaks” resistively upstream. The effect appears to be potentially observable in experiments at laser facilities.
Expected IPS variations due to a disturbance described by a 3-D MHD model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tappin, S. J.; Dryer, M.; Han, S. M.; Wu, S. T.
1988-01-01
The variations of interplanetary scintillation due to a disturbance described by a three-dimensional, time-dependent, MHD model of the interplanetary medium are calculated. The resulting simulated IPS maps are compared with observations of real disturbances and it is found that there is some qualitative agreement. It is concluded that the MHD model with a more realistic choice of input conditions would probably provide a useful description of many interplanetary disturbances.
Toward 3D MHD modeling of neoclassical tearing mode suppression by ECCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pratt, J.; Westerhof, E.
2012-09-01
We propose a framework to extend the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations to include electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) and discuss previous models proposed by Giruzzi et al. [2] and by Hegna and Callen [3]. To model neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) instabilities and study the growth of magnetic islands as NTMs evolve, we employ the nonlinear reduced-MHD simulation JOREK. We present tearing-mode growth-rate calculations from JOREK simulations.
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modelling of solar active phenomena via numerical methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, S. T.
1988-01-01
Numerical ideal MHD models for the study of solar active phenomena are summarized. Particular attention is given to the following physical phenomena: (1) local heating of a coronal loop in an isothermal and stratified atmosphere, and (2) the coronal dynamic responses due to magnetic field movement. The results suggest that local heating of a magnetic loop will lead to the enhancement of the density of the neighboring loops through MHD wave compression. It is noted that field lines can be pinched off and may form a self-contained magnetized plasma blob that may move outward into interplanetary space.
Untangling Slab Dynamics Using 3-D Numerical and Analytical Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holt, A. F.; Royden, L.; Becker, T. W.
2016-12-01
Increasingly sophisticated numerical models have enabled us to make significant strides in identifying the key controls on how subducting slabs deform. For example, 3-D models have demonstrated that subducting plate width, and the related strength of toroidal flow around the plate edge, exerts a strong control on both the curvature and the rate of migration of the trench. However, the results of numerical subduction models can be difficult to interpret, and many first order dynamics issues remain at least partially unresolved. Such issues include the dominant controls on trench migration, the interdependence of asthenospheric pressure and slab dynamics, and how nearby slabs influence each other's dynamics. We augment 3-D, dynamically evolving finite element models with simple, analytical force-balance models to distill the physics associated with subduction into more manageable parts. We demonstrate that for single, isolated subducting slabs much of the complexity of our fully numerical models can be encapsulated by simple analytical expressions. Rates of subduction and slab dip correlate strongly with the asthenospheric pressure difference across the subducting slab. For double subduction, an additional slab gives rise to more complex mantle pressure and flow fields, and significantly extends the range of plate kinematics (e.g., convergence rate, trench migration rate) beyond those present in single slab models. Despite these additional complexities, we show that much of the dynamics of such multi-slab systems can be understood using the physics illuminated by our single slab study, and that a force-balance method can be used to relate intra-plate stress to viscous pressure in the asthenosphere and coupling forces at plate boundaries. This method has promise for rapid modeling of large systems of subduction zones on a global scale.
The Biermann Catastrophe in Numerical MHD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graziani, Carlo; Tzeferacos, Petros; Lee, Dongwook; Weide, Klaus; Lamb, Donald; Fatenejad, Milad; Miller, Joshua
2014-10-01
The Biermann Battery (BB) effect is widely invoked as a mechanism to generate cosmic magnetic fields from unmagnetized plasmas. The BB effect, which relies on large, non-aligned gradients of electron density and pressure, is expected to function most efficiently at shocks, where such gradients are largest. Simulations of cosmic magnetogenesis have accordingly relied on shocks to enhance the BB effect. What went unnoticed until recently is the fact that straightforward algorithmic implementations of the BB effect in MHD codes break down precisely at hydrodynamic discontinuities such as shocks - where the BB effect is of greatest interest - yielding results that fail to converge with resolution. We discuss this breakdown, show its origin, and present an alternative algorithm that gives finite and convergent results. We demonstrate convergence using an implementation of the algorithm within the FLASH code, and verify that the algorithm yields physically sensible results at shocks. We discuss novel - and physically observable - effects that attend the BB effect at shocks. This work was supported in part at the University of Chicago by DOE NNSA ASC.
3-D numerical modeling of plume-induced subduction initiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baes, Marzieh; Gerya, taras; Sobolev, Stephan
2016-04-01
Investigation of mechanisms involved in formation of a new subduction zone can help us to better understand plate tectonics. Despite numerous previous studies, it is still unclear how and where an old oceanic plate starts to subduct beneath the other plate. One of the proposed scenarios for nucleation of subduction is plume-induced subduction initiation, which was investigated in detail, using 2-D models, by Ueda et al. (2008). Recently. Gerya et al. (2015), using 3D numerical models, proposed that plume-lithosphere interaction in the Archean led to the subduction initiation and onset of plate tectonic. In this study, we aim to pursue work of Ueda et al. (2008) by incorporation of 3-D thermo-mechanical models to investigate conditions leading to oceanic subduction initiation as a result of thermal-chemical mantle plume-lithosphere interaction in the modern earth. Results of our experiments show four different deformation regimes in response to plume-lithosphere interaction, that are a) self-sustaining subduction initiation where subduction becomes self-sustained, b) freezing subduction initiation where subduction stops at shallow depths, c) slab break-off where subducting circular slab breaks off soon after formation and d) plume underplating where plume does not pass through the lithosphere but spreads beneath it (failed subduction initiation). These different regimes depend on several parameters such as plume's size, composition and temperature, lithospheric brittle/plastic strength, age of the oceanic lithosphere and presence/absence of lithospheric heterogeneities. Results show that subduction initiates and becomes self-sustained when lithosphere is older than 10 Myr and non-dimensional ratio of the plume buoyancy force and lithospheric strength above the plume is higher than 2.
Numerical investigation of unsteady real gas flowfields with MHD effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munipalli, Ramakanth
1998-12-01
The design of ground based test facilities to simulate high temperature flight environments has received much attention in recent years. This dissertation deals with the numerical simulation of such facilities in order to assist their design and estimate their importance in modern aerodynamic research. The central problem addressed here is the simulation of a Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) based accelerator which can potentially improve the test Mach number range of conventional facilities while at the same time providing realistic gas chemistry at the appropriate flight conditions. The study uses two types of gas models: (a) an equilibrium model in which the flow is assumed to be in thermochemical equilibrium at all points and (b) a nonequilibrium model based on finite rate chemistry and two distinct flow temperatures. The latter is utilized to study accelerators based on nonequilibrium ionization. The effect of finite rate processes on MHD accelerators is studied. Equilibrium air models are used to validate nonequilibrium air calculations and to study the effect of adding seed material to increase electrical conductivity at relatively low temperatures. Some comparisons with experimental data are made to validate the basic gas models and numerical schemes. Simplified solutions to the Maxwell equations are used to simulate the electromagnetic field. Some general considerations in the design of seeded MHD accelerators are studied. Upwind based flux split schemes based on Roe's scheme are used to solve the flow equations. Steady and unsteady solutions are presented for a variety of MHD related problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krebs, I.; Jardin, S. C.; Günter, S.; Lackner, K.; Hoelzl, M.; Ferraro, N.
2016-10-01
We use the finite element 3D MHD code M3D-C1 to study large-scale instabilities in the center of tokamak plasmas. It has been shown that in 3D MHD simulations of plasmas with a flat central q 1 , an ideal interchange instability can develop that keeps the current density from peaking despite central heating. The instability yields a (m = 1 , n = 1) perturbation of the core plasma, i.a. a helical flow that flattens the central current density by (1) flattening the temperature profile and (2) combining with the perturbed magnetic field to generate a negative loop voltage through a dynamo effect. This might explain the ``flux-pumping'' effect observed in hybrid discharges. We study in which parameter range the two effects are strong enough to prevent sawtoothing. We describe a new regime of quasi-stationary oscillating states and analyze cases in between the stationary and the cycling regime in which the sawtooth behaviour is modified by the current flattening mechanisms. To connect to experimental observations, we have set up simulations starting with a scenario comparable to the current ramp-up phase.
3D visualization of numeric planetary data using JMARS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dickenshied, S.; Christensen, P. R.; Anwar, S.; Carter, S.; Hagee, W.; Noss, D.
2013-12-01
JMARS (Java Mission-planning and Analysis for Remote Sensing) is a free geospatial application developed by the Mars Space Flight Facility at Arizona State University. Originally written as a mission planning tool for the THEMIS instrument on board the MARS Odyssey Spacecraft, it was released as an analysis tool to the general public in 2003. Since then it has expanded to be used for mission planning and scientific data analysis by additional NASA missions to Mars, the Moon, and Vesta, and it has come to be used by scientists, researchers and students of all ages from more than 40 countries around the world. The public version of JMARS now also includes remote sensing data for Mercury, Venus, Earth, the Moon, Mars, and a number of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Additional datasets for asteroids and other smaller bodies are being added as they becomes available and time permits. In addition to visualizing multiple datasets in context with one another, significant effort has been put into on-the-fly projection of georegistered data over surface topography. This functionality allows a user to easily create and modify 3D visualizations of any regional scene where elevation data is available in JMARS. This can be accomplished through the use of global topographic maps or regional numeric data such as HiRISE or HRSC DTMs. Users can also upload their own regional or global topographic dataset and use it as an elevation source for 3D rendering of their scene. The 3D Layer in JMARS allows the user to exaggerate the z-scale of any elevation source to emphasize the vertical variance throughout a scene. In addition, the user can rotate, tilt, and zoom the scene to any desired angle and then illuminate it with an artificial light source. This scene can be easily overlain with additional JMARS datasets such as maps, images, shapefiles, contour lines, or scale bars, and the scene can be easily saved as a graphic image for use in presentations or publications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhai, Xiaoping; Yin, Zhaoyang
2017-02-01
The present paper is dedicated to the global well-posedness for the 3D inhomogeneous incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, in critical Besov spaces without smallness assumption on the variation of the density. We aim at extending the work by Abidi, Gui and Zhang (2012) [2], and (2013) [3] to a lower regularity index about the initial velocity. The key to that improvement is a new a priori estimate for an elliptic equation with nonconstant coefficients in Besov spaces which have the same degree as L2 in R3. Finally, we also generalize our well-posedness result to the inhomogeneous incompressible MHD equations.
3D MHD Simulations of Injector Coupling and Current Drive in HIT-SI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansen, Chris; Marklin, George; Jarboe, Thomas
2013-10-01
A new non-linear reduced MHD code has been developed using the PSI-TET framework, which is capable of modeling the full HIT-SI geometry with consistent boundary conditions for the insulator coated flux conserver. The PSI-TET framework provides general mechanics supporting the development of multi-physics simulation using high order finite methods with a tetrahedral spatial discretization. Using these capabilities an implementation of reduced Hall-MHD was developed where temperature and density are assumed to be uniform and constant, reducing the full MHD equations to the momentum and induction equations. A Nedelec vector basis set is used for the magnetic field, which preserves the divergence free property of the induction equation, and a scalar Lagrange basis is used for each component of the velocity. The equation system is advanced using a time centered implicit scheme, which is solved using a multi-grid preconditioned Newton-Krylov method. Results will be presented focusing on internal injector dynamics and coupling to the Spheromak region. Comparison between this code and experimental data as well as existing NIMROD simulations of HIT-SI, which model the injector operation with boundary conditions on an axisymmetric grid, will also be shown. Work supported by DOE.
Analysis and statistics of discontinuities as obtained from 3D simulation of MHD turbulence
Zhang, Lei; He, Jian-Sen Tu, Chuan-Yi; Wang, Xin; Wang, Ling-Hua; Yang, Li-Ping; Marsch, Eckart
2016-03-25
The turbulent solar wind abounds with MHD discontinuities, and such discontinuities are often found in close connection with turbulence intermittency, constituting a possible main contributor to the turbulence dissipation and solar wind heating. Among the discontinuities, tangential (TD) and rotational (RD) ones are two most important types. Recently, the connection between turbulence intermittency and proton thermodynamics has been being intensively investigated. Such connections are founded to be involved with MHD instablilities, but the difference of TDs an RDs in this process has not yet been covered. Herewith we define new methods for identifying TDs and RDs obtained from a three-dimensional MHD simulation with pressure anisotropy. Especially, we define the Total Variance of Increments (TVI) as a new measure of magnetic field changes. Based on the identified cases, we compare their occurrence rates and heating effects. More specifically, we find that the thermal states embedding TDs, compared with their RD counterparts, tend to be more associated with extreme plasma parameters or instabilites. Some other possible applications of TVI-like norms are also herewith discussed.
Numerical model of sonic boom in 3D kinematic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coulouvrat, François; Luquet, David; Marchiano, Régis
2015-10-01
Sonic boom is one of the key issues to be considered in the development of future supersonic or hypersonic civil aircraft concepts. The classical sonic boom, typical for Concorde with an N-wave shape and a ground amplitude of the order of 100 Pa, prevents overland flight. Future concepts target carefully shaped sonic booms with low amplitude weak shocks. However, sonic boom when perceived at the ground level is influenced not only by the aircraft characteristics, but also by atmospheric propagation. In particular, the effect of atmospheric turbulence on sonic boom propagation near the ground is not well characterized. Flight tests performed as early as the 1960s demonstrated that classical sonic booms are sensitive to atmospheric turbulence. However, this sensitivity remains only partially understood. This is related to the fact that i) turbulence is a random process that requires a statistical approach, ii) standard methods used to predict sonic booms, mainly geometrical acoustics based on ray tracing, are inadequate within the turbulent planetary boundary layer. Moreover, the ray theory fails to predict the acoustical field in many areas of interest, such as caustics or shadow zones. These zones are of major interest for sonic boom acceptability (highest levels, lateral extent of zone of impact). These limitations outline the need for a numerical approach that is sufficiently efficient to perform a large number of realizations for a statistical approach, but that goes beyond the limitations of ray theory. With this in view, a 3D one-way numerical method solving a nonlinear scalar wave equation established for heterogeneous, moving and absorbing atmosphere, is used to assess the effects of a 3D kinematic turbulence on sonic boom in various configurations. First, a plane N-wave is propagated in the free field through random realizations of kinematic fluctuations. Then the case of a more realistic Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) is investigated, with a mean
3D numerical modeling of India-Asia-like collision
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
-Erika Püsök, Adina; Kaus, Boris; Popov, Anton
2013-04-01
above a strong mantle lithosphere - the jelly sandwich model (Burov and Watts, 2006). 3D models are thus needed to investigate these hypotheses. However, fully 3D models of the dynamics of continent collision zones have only been developed very recently, and presently most research groups have relied on certain explicit assumptions for their codes. Here, we employ the parallel 3D code LaMEM (Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution Model), with a finite difference staggered grid solver, which is capable of simulating lithospheric deformation while simultaneously taking mantle flow and a free surface into account. We here report on first lithospheric and upper-mantle scale simulations in which the Indian lithosphere is indented into Asia. Acknowledgements. Funding was provided by the European Research Council under the European Community's Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) / ERC Grant agreement #258830. Numerical computations have been performed on JUQUEEN of the Jülich high-performance computing center. • Beaumont, C., Jamieson, R.A., Nguyen, M.H., Medvedev, S.E., 2004. Crustal channel flows: 1. Numerical models with applications to the tectonics of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogeny. J. Geophys. Res. 109, B06406. • Burov, E. & Watts, W.S., 2006. The long-term strength of continental lithosphere: "jelly sandwich" or "crème brûlée"?. GSA Today, 16, doi: 10.1130/1052-5173(2006)1016<1134:TLTSOC>1132.1130.CO;1132. • England P., Houseman, G., 1986. Finite strain calculations of continental deformation. 2. Comparison with the India-Asia collision zone. J. Geophys. Res.- Solid Earth and Planets 91 (B3), 3664-3676. • Jackson, J., 2002. Strength of the continental lithosphere: time to abandon the jelly sandwich?. GSA Today, September, 4-10. • Lechmann, S.M., May, D.A., Kaus, B.J.P., Schmalholz, S.M., 2011. Comparing thin-sheet models with 3D multilayer models for continental collision. Geophy. Int. J. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05164.x • Royden, L.H., Burchfiel, B
3D MHD VDE and disruptions simulations of tokamaks plasmas including some ITER scenarios
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paccagnella, R.; Strauss, H. R.; Breslau, J.
2009-03-01
Tokamaks vertical displacement events (VDEs) and disruptions simulations in toroidal geometry by means of a single fluid visco-resistive magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) model are presented in this paper. The plasma model is completed with the presence of a 2D wall with finite resistivity which allows the study of the relatively slowly growing magnetic perturbation, the resistive wall mode (RWM), which is, in this paper, the main drive of the disruption evolution. Amplitudes and asymmetries of the halo currents pattern at the wall are also calculated and comparisons with tokamak experimental databases and predictions for ITER are given.
3D Numerical Simulation of a New Model for Coronal Jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pariat, E.; Antiochos, S.; DeVore, C. R.; Patsourakos, S.
2008-09-01
Recent solar observations with STEREO and HINODE have revealed evidence of twisting motions during the evolution of coronal jets. Furthermore, the observations indicate that some jets achieve near-Alfvenic velocities. Most models of jet are not capable of explaining these new observational features. In addition, the impulsiveness of jets, manifested as a brief, violent energy release phase in contrast to a slow, quasi-static energy storage phase storage, is an issue not easily addressed. We will present the results of 3D numerical simulations of our model for coronal jets. The simulations were performed with our state-of-art adaptive mesh MHD solver ARMS. The basic idea of the model is that a jet is due to the release of magnetic twist when a closed field region undergoes interchange reconnection with surrounding open field. The fast reconnection between open and closed field results in the generation of nonlinear Alfven waves that propagate along the open field, accelerating plasma upward. We will show how the new stereoscopically-observed features of jets can be explained by the results of our numerical simulations
Numerical Results of 3-D Modeling of Moon Accumulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khachay, Yurie; Anfilogov, Vsevolod; Antipin, Alexandr
2014-05-01
For the last time for the model of the Moon usually had been used the model of mega impact in which the forming of the Earth and its sputnik had been the consequence of the Earth's collision with the body of Mercurial mass. But all dynamical models of the Earth's accumulation and the estimations after the Pb-Pb system, lead to the conclusion that the duration of the planet accumulation was about 1 milliard years. But isotopic results after the W-Hf system testify about a very early (5-10) million years, dividing of the geochemical reservoirs of the core and mantle. In [1,2] it is shown, that the account of energy dissipating by the decay of short living radioactive elements and first of all Al26,it is sufficient for heating even small bodies with dimensions about (50-100) km up to the iron melting temperature and can be realized a principal new differentiation mechanism. The inner parts of the melted preplanets can join and they are mainly of iron content, but the cold silicate fragments return to the supply zone and additionally change the content of Moon forming to silicates. Only after the increasing of the gravitational radius of the Earth, the growing area of the future Earth's core can save also the silicate envelope fragments [3]. For understanding the further system Earth-Moon evolution it is significant to trace the origin and evolution of heterogeneities, which occur on its accumulation stage.In that paper we are modeling the changing of temperature,pressure,velocity of matter flowing in a block of 3d spherical body with a growing radius. The boundary problem is solved by the finite-difference method for the system of equations, which include equations which describe the process of accumulation, the Safronov equation, the equation of impulse balance, equation Navier-Stocks, equation for above litho static pressure and heat conductivity in velocity-pressure variables using the Businesque approach.The numerical algorithm of the problem solution in velocity
3D Numerical Simulation on the Rockslide Generated Tsunamis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chuang, M.; Wu, T.; Wang, C.; Chu, C.
2013-12-01
The rockslide generated tsunami is one of the most devastating nature hazards. However, the involvement of the moving obstacle and dynamic free-surface movement makes the numerical simulation a difficult task. To describe both the fluid motion and solid movement at the same time, we newly developed a two-way fully-coupled moving solid algorithm with 3D LES turbulent model. The free-surface movement is tracked by volume of fluid (VOF) method. The two-step projection method is adopted to solve the Navier-Stokes type government equations. In the new moving solid algorithm, a fictitious body force is implicitly prescribed in MAC correction step to make the cell-center velocity satisfied with the obstacle velocity. We called this method the implicit velocity method (IVM). Because no extra terms are added to the pressure Poission correction, the pressure field of the fluid part is stable, which is the key of the two-way fluid-solid coupling. Because no real solid material is presented in the IVM, the time marching step is not restricted to the smallest effective grid size. Also, because the fictitious force is implicitly added to the correction step, the resulting velocity is accurate and fully coupled with the resulting pressure field. We validated the IVM by simulating a floating box moving up and down on the free-surface. We presented the time-history obstacle trajectory and compared it with the experimental data. Very accurate result can be seen in terms of the oscillating amplitude and the period (Fig. 1). We also presented the free-surface comparison with the high-speed snapshots. At the end, the IVM was used to study the rock-slide generated tsunamis (Liu et al., 2005). Good validations on the slide trajectory and the free-surface movement will be presented in the full paper. From the simulation results (Fig. 2), we observed that the rockslide generated waves are manly caused by the rebounding waves from two sides of the sliding rock after the water is dragging
Simulations of high current wire array Z-pinches using a parallel 3D resistive MHD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chittenden, J. P.; Jennings, C. A.; Ciardi, A.
2006-10-01
We present calculations of the implosion and stagnation phases of wire array Z-pinches at Sandia National Laboratory which model the full 3D plasma volume. Modelling the full volume in 3D is found to be necessary in order to accommodate all possible mechanisms for broadening the width of the imploding plasma and for modelling all modes of instability in the stagnated pinch. The width of the imploding plasma is shown to arise from the evolution of the uncorrelated modulations present on each wire in the array early in time into a globally correlated 3D instability structure. The 3D nature of the collision of two nested arrays is highlighted and the implications for radiation pulse shaping are discussed. The addition of a simple circuit model to model the Z generator allows the pinch energetics during stagnation to be treated more accurately and provides another point of comparison to experimental data. The implications of these results for improved X-ray production are discussed both for the keV range and for soft X-ray radiation sources used in inertial confinement fusion research. This work was partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through cooperative agreement DE-FC03-02NA00057.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Liwei; Ng, Chung-Sang; Bhattacharjee, Amitava
2011-10-01
We present a comprehensive re-programming of a 3D reduced MHD code for hardware acceleration using graphics processing units (GPUs) with Nvidia CUDA. The code (pseudo-spectral semi-implicit) is tailored for the study of a 3D model of coronal heating [Arxiv:1106.0515]. We discuss our general porting strategy and report code performance and detailed code tracing on GPU accelerated supercomputers (NCSA/Forge, NICS/Keeneland). At 20482 × 256 , the highest resolution tested, the chip-to-chip speedup is 18 × comparing Xeon Nehalem QC and Nvidia Fermi. Scaling well up to 256 GPUs, the code effectively gives a speedup of 46 × compared with our original code on a conventional CPU cluster. A test case is presented in which magnetic island coalescence is studied in 3D line-tied geometry, where very large Lundquist numbers are used to induce magnetic flux-tube sloshing. Results are compared with existing 2D simulations and the advantages of the GPU implementation are emphasized. This work is supported by NASA: NNX08BA71G, NNX06AC19G, DOE: DE-FG02-07ER54832, NSF: AGS-096247, and NSF TeraGrid grants at NCSA (TG-PHY100057) and NICS (UT-NTNL0092).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Willensdorfer, Matthias; Suttrop, Wolfgang; Strumberger, Erika; Zohm, Hartmut; Orain, Francois; Kirk, Andrew; Ryan, David; ASDEX Upgrade Team Team
2016-10-01
Best ELM mitigation/suppression at DIII-D and AUG are achieved by external magnetic perturbation (MP) fields, when the applied poloidal mode spectrum is aligned with the mode (kink) at the edge that is most strongly amplified by the plasma. This kink mode causes a 3D displacement of the plasma boundary, which is characterized at AUG using data from toroidally localized high resolution diagnostics and rigid rotating MP-fields with different applied poloidal mode spectra. Various profile and imaging diagnostics, e.g. electron cyclotron emission (ECE), are used to determine the amplitude, the penetration and the poloidal mode structure of the displacement around the outer midplane. The displacement around the X-point/plasma top, which is related to ELM mitigation, is measured using a new steerable ECE and SOFT X-ray. These measurements are compared to MHD codes like JOREK, MARS-F and VMEC. As predicted by MHD, the measured amplitudes clearly exceed the vacuum field calculations. The displacement measured by imaging ECE indicates a resonant response, although the calculated magnetic structure of this edge kink peaks at poloidal mode numbers larger than the resonant components.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Willensdorfer, M.; Denk, S. S.; Strumberger, E.; Suttrop, W.; Vanovac, B.; Brida, D.; Cavedon, M.; Classen, I.; Dunne, M.; Fietz, S.; Fischer, R.; Kirk, A.; Laggner, F. M.; Liu, Y. Q.; Odstrčil, T.; Ryan, D. A.; Viezzer, E.; Zohm, H.; Luhmann, I. C.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team; The EUROfusion MST1 Team
2016-11-01
The plasma response from an external n = 2 magnetic perturbation field in ASDEX Upgrade has been measured using mainly electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostics and a rigid rotating field. To interpret ECE and ECE-imaging (ECE-I) measurements accurately, forward modeling of the radiation transport has been combined with ray tracing. The measured data is compared to synthetic ECE data generated from a 3D ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equilibrium calculated by VMEC. The measured amplitudes of the helical displacement around the outboard midplane are in reasonable agreement with the one from the synthetic VMEC diagnostics. Both exceed the predictions from the vacuum field calculations and indicate the presence of a kink response at the edge, which amplifies the perturbation. VMEC and MARS-F have been used to calculate the properties of this kink mode. The poloidal mode structure of the magnetic perturbation of this kink mode at the edge peaks at poloidal mode numbers larger than the resonant components |m|>|nq| , whereas the poloidal mode structure of its displacement is almost resonant |m|≈ |nq| . This is expected from ideal MHD in the proximity of rational surfaces. The displacement measured by ECE-I confirms this resonant response.
Non-twist map bifurcation of drift-lines and drift-island formation in saturated 3D MHD equilibria
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pfefferle, David; Cooper, Wilfred A.; Graves, Jonathan P.
2015-11-01
Based on non-canonical perturbation theory, guiding-centre drift equations are identified as perturbed magnetic field-line equations. The topology of passing-particle orbits, called drift-lines, is completely determined by the magnetic configuration. In axisymmetric tokamak fields, drift-lines lie on shifted flux-surfaces, called drift-surfaces. Field-lines and drift-lines are subject to island structures at rational surfaces only when a non-axisymmetric component is added. The picture is different in the case of 3D saturated MHD equilibrium like the helical core associated with a non-resonant internal kink mode. In assuming nested flux-surfaces, these bifurcated states, expected for a reversed q-profile with qmin close yet above unity and conveniently obtained in VMEC, feature integrable field-lines. The helical drift-lines however become resonant with the axisymmetric component in the region of qmin and spontaneously generate drift-islands. Due to the locally reversed sheared q-profile, the drift-island structure follows the bifurcation/reconnection mechanism of non-twist maps. This result provides a theoretical interpretation of NBI fast ion helical hot-spots in Long-Lived Modes as well as snake-like impurity density accumulation in internal MHD activity.
VizieR Online Data Catalog: 3D-MHD model of a solar active region corona (Bourdin+, 2013)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourdin, P.-A.; Bingert, S.; Peter, H.
2013-08-01
Parameter and setup files used for a 3D-MHD simulation with the Pencil Code. The parameters are needed to reproduce the simulation, while the setup files show which modules of the Pencil Code were used to conduct the simulation. The parameters file are in the state as used at the end of the simulation, when the analysis was performed. With the logfile, one can reconstruct the state at any time during the simulation run (this applies to "run.in"). The code revision logfile indicates which code revision was used when, where only changes in the configuration are listed together with the full initial and final configuration. All *.in files are in Fortran Namelist format. The *.in and *.local files are all ready to be used with Pencil Code. The Pencil Code can be obtained at: http://pencil-code.nordita.org/ (7 data files).
Modeling solar wind mass-loading in the vicinity of the Sun using 3-D MHD simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rasca, A. P.; Horányi, M.; Oran, R.; Holst, B.
2014-01-01
Collisionless shocks due to mass-loading were first discussed to describe the solar wind flow around a cometary atmosphere, showing its choking effects on the flow. Recent observations have led to an increased interest in mass-loading occurring in the solar corona due to both sungrazing comets and collisional debris production by sunward migrating interplanetary dust particles. The 1-D simulations with a hydrodynamic model have illustrated the impact on the solar wind from abrupt mass-loading in the coronal region. Full 3-D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using a solar corona model based on the Block-Adaptive-Tree-Solarwind-Roe-Upwind-Scheme code provide a more realistic coronal environment for modeling specific events applicable to modeling the mass-loaded coronal wind. A specific application is introduced modeling the mass-loading effects from a sungrazing comet.
Numerical Results of Earth's Core Accumulation 3-D Modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khachay, Yurie; Anfilogov, Vsevolod
2013-04-01
For a long time as a most convenient had been the model of mega impact in which the early forming of the Earth's core and mantle had been the consequence of formed protoplanet collision with the body of Mercurial mass. But all dynamical models of the Earth's accumulation and the estimations after the Pb-Pb system, lead to the conclusion that the duration of the planet accumulation was about 1 milliard years. But isotopic results after the W-Hf system testify about a very early (5-10) million years, dividing of the geochemical reservoirs of the core and mantle. In [1,3] it is shown, that the account of energy dissipating by the decay of short living radioactive elements and first of all Al,it is sufficient for heating even small bodies with dimensions about (50-100) km up to the iron melting temperature and can be realized a principal new differentiation mechanism. The inner parts of the melted preplanets can join and they are mainly of iron content, but the cold silicate fragments return to the supply zone. Only after the increasing of the gravitational radius, the growing area of the future core can save also the silicate envelope fragments. All existing dynamical accumulation models are constructed by using a spherical-symmetrical model. Hence for understanding the further planet evolution it is significant to trace the origin and evolution of heterogeneities, which occur on the planet accumulation stage. In that paper we are modeling distributions of temperature, pressure, velocity of matter flowing in a block of 3D- spherical body with a growing radius. The boundary problem is solved by the finite-difference method for the system of equations, which include equations which describe the process of accumulation, the Safronov equation, the equation of impulse balance, equation Navier-Stocks, equation for above litho static pressure and heat conductivity in velocity-pressure variables using the Businesque approach. The numerical algorithm of the problem solution in
3D Multifluid MHD simulation for Uranus and Neptune: the seasonal variations of their magnetosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, X.; Paty, C. S.
2015-12-01
The interaction between Uranus' intrinsic magnetic field and the solar wind is quite different from the magnetospheric interactions of other planets. Uranus' large obliquity, coupled with the fact that its dipole moment is off-centered and highly tilted relative to the rotation axis, leads to unique and seasonally dependent interaction geometries with the solar wind. We present results from adapting a multifluid MHD simulation to examine these seasonally dependent geometries in terms of the global magnetospheric structure, magnetopause and bow shock location, and magnetotail configuration. The Voyager 2 spacecraft encountered Uranus near solstice, and was able to observe the magnetic field structure and plasma characteristics of a twisted magnetotail [Behannon et al., 1987]. We use such magnetometer and plasma observations as a basis for benchmarking our simulations for the solstice scenario. Auroral observations made by the Hubble Space Telescope during equinox [Lamy et al.,2012] give some indication of the magnetospheric interaction with the solar wind. We also demonstrate the structural difference of the magnetosphere between solstice and equinox seasons. The magnetosphere at equinox is quite distinct due to the orientation and rotation of the magnetic axis relative to the solar wind direction.
Whole Shot 3-D MHD Equilibrium Reconstruction using V3FIT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cianciosa, M. C.; Hanson, J. D.; Maurer, D. A.; Knowlton, S. F.; Hartwell, G. J.; Archmiller, M. C.; Ma, X.
2012-10-01
Equilibrium reconstruction is the process by which diagnostic signals are used to determine parameters of a MHD model. As modern stellarators are designed to achieve larger values of β with higher bootstrap currents, the deviation between vacuum magnetic fields and plasma magnetic fields becomes significant. Coupled with the intricately shaped magnetic field structures, a fully three dimensional equilibrium reconstruction becomes an important tool for understanding plasma response. On the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH) device, the V3FIT code plays an important role in the operations and interpretation of experiments. To facilitate this, a client-server system has been developed to allow remote, parallel execution of the V3FIT [1] code. This, coupled with client software, allows integration of V3FIT with diagnostic systems for automated (shot to shot) and whole shot reconstructions. This presentation will discuss the structure and development of this system. An example of whole shot reconstructions from CTH diagnostics using this system will be presented. The future direction of this system and the V3FIT code will also be discussed.[4pt] [1] J. D. Hanson, S. P. Hirshman, S. F. Knowlton, L. L. Lao, E. A. Lazarus, J. M. Shields, Nucl. Fusion, 49 (2009) 075031
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Chuanfei
This dissertation presents numerical simulation results of the solar wind interaction with the Martian upper atmosphere by using three comprehensive 3-D models: the Mars Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (M-GITM), the Mars exosphere Monte Carlo model Adaptive Mesh Particle Simulator (M-AMPS), and the BATS-R-US Mars multi-fluid MHD (MF-MHD) model. The coupled framework has the potential to provide improved predictions for ion escape rates for comparison with future data to be returned by the MAVEN mission (2014-2016) and thereby improve our understanding of present day escape processes. Estimates of ion escape rates over Mars history must start from properly validated models that can be extrapolated into the past. This thesis aims to build a model library for the NASA Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission, which will thus enhance the science return from the MAVEN mission. In this thesis, we aim to address the following four main scientific questions by adopting the one-way coupled framework developed here: (1) What are the Martian ion escape rates at the current epoch and ancient times? (2) What controls the ion escape processes at the current epoch? How are the ion escape variations connected to the solar cycle, crustal field orientation and seasonal variations? (3) How do the variable 3-D cold neutral thermosphere and hot oxygen corona affect the solar wind-Mars interaction? (4) How does the Martian atmosphere respond to extreme variations (e.g., ICMEs) in the solar wind and its interplanetary environment? These questions are closely related to the primary scientific goals of NASA's MAVEN mission and European Space Agency's Mars Express (MEX) mission. We reasonably answer all these four questions at the end of this thesis by employing the one-way coupled framework and comparing the simulation results with both MEX and MAVEN observational data.
Newest insights from MHD numerical modeling of Pulsar Wind Nebulae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olmi, B.; Del Zanna, L.; Amato, E.; Bucciantini, N.; Bandiera, R.
2016-06-01
Numerical MHD models are considered very successful in accounting for many of the observed properties of Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe), especially those concerning the high energy emission morphology and the inner nebula dynamics. Although PWNe are known to be among the most powerful accelerators in nature, producing particles up to PeV energies, the mechanisms responsible of such an efficient acceleration are still a deep mystery. Indeed, these processes take place in one of the most hostile environment for particle acceleration: the relativistic and highly magnetized termination shock of the pulsar wind. The newest results from numerical simulations of the Crab Nebula, the PWN prototype, will be presented, with special attention to the problem of particle acceleration. In particular it will be shown how a multi-wavelengths analysis of the wisps properties can be used to constrain the particle acceleration mechanisms working at the Crab's termination shock, by identifying the particle acceleration site at the shock front.
3D Multifluid MHD Simulations at Uranus and Neptune: Seasonal Variations of Their Magnetospheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, X.; Paty, C. S.
2016-12-01
The interaction between Uranus' and Neptune's intrinsic magnetic field and the solar wind is quite different from the magnetospheric interactions of other planets. Uranus' and Neptune's large obliquity, coupled with the fact that their dipole moments are off-centered and highly tilted relative to the rotation axis, leads to unique and seasonally dependent interaction geometries with the solar wind. We present results from adapting and generalizing a multifluid MHD simulation to examine these seasonally dependent geometries in terms of the global magnetospheric structures, magnetopauses and bow shock locations, and magnetotail configurations. The multifluid formulation enables us to track multiple ion species from sources such as the solar wind and ionosphere. The Voyager 2 spacecraft encountered Uranus near solstice, and was able to observe the magnetic field structure and plasma characteristics of a twisted magnetotail [Behannon et al., 1987]. Auroral observations made by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during equinox [Lamy et al.,2012] also give some indication of the magnetospheric interaction with the solar wind. We use these Voyager 2 and HST observations as a basis for benchmarking our simulations for the solstice scenario. We have previously explored Uranus' magnetosphere during solstice conditions and found a "switch-like" magnetosphere varying the field morphology between between open and closed during rotation [Cao and Paty, 2014, 2015]. In investigating Uranus' magnetosphere during equinox, we found similarities with the solstice case such as the "switch-like" magnetosphere, and propose this mechanism could apply to other ice giant planets (including exoplanets). We then applied the model to investigate Neptune's magnetosphere during both solstice and equinox seasons. We confirmed similar "switch-like" magnetospheric structures to that of Uranus (as recently reported in Mejnertsen et al., 2016), however, the different solar wind conditions and intrinsic
3D MHD Simulations of accreting neutron stars: evidence of QPO emission from the surface
Bachetti, Matteo; Burderi, Luciano; Romanova, Marina M.; Kulkarni, Akshay; Salvo, Tiziana di
2010-07-15
3D Magnetohydrodynamic simulations show that when matter accretes onto neutron stars, in particular if the misalignment angle is small, it does not constantly fall at a fixed spot. Instead, the location at which matter reaches the star moves. These moving hot spots can be produced both during stable accretion, where matter falls near the magnetic poles of the star, and unstable accretion, characterized by the presence of several tongues of matter which fall on the star near the equator, due to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Precise modeling with Monte Carlo simulations shows that those movements could be observed as high frequency Quasi Periodic Oscillations. We performed a number of new simulation runs with a much wider set of parameters, focusing on neutron stars with a small misalignment angle. In most cases we observe oscillations whose frequency is correlated with the mass accretion rate M. Moreover, in some cases double QPOs appear, each of them showing the same correlation with M.
Quiescent H-Mode 3D MHD Free-Boundary Equilibrium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooper, W. Anthony; Graves, Jonathan P.; Duval, Basil P.; Porte, Laurie; Sauter, Olivier; Tran, Trach-Minh; Brunetti, Daniele; Pfefferle, David; Raghunathan, Madhusudan; Faustin, Jonathan M.; Patten, Hamish; Kleiner, Andreas; Reimerdes, Holger
2015-11-01
Free boundary magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium states with spontaneous three dimensional deformations of the plasma-vacuum interface are computed with the 3D VMEC solver [Hirshman et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 43 (1986) 143]. The structures we have obtained have the appearance of saturated ideal external kink/peeling modes. Large edge pressure gradients yield toroidal mode number n = 1 corrugations when the edge bootstrap current is large and n = 4 distortions when this current is small. The deformations of the plasma boundary region induces a nonaxisymmetric Pfirsch-Schlüter current that drives a field-aligned current ribbon which is consistent with experimental observations reported. We claim that the equilibrium states we compute model the Edge Harmonic Oscillation [K.H. Burrell et al., Phys. Plasmas 22 (2005) 021805. W.M. Solomon et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 (2014) 135001] observed on DIII-D and the Outer Mode [E.R. Solano et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 (2014) 135001] found in JET during Quiescent H-mode operation. This work was supported in part by the Swiss National Science Foundation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bustamante, Miguel D.
2011-06-01
We prove by an explicit construction that solutions to incompressible 3D Euler equations defined in the periodic cube Ω=[0 can be mapped bijectively to a new system of equations whose solutions are globally regular. We establish that the usual Beale-Kato-Majda criterion for finite-time singularity (or blowup) of a solution to the 3D Euler system is equivalent to a condition on the corresponding regular solution of the new system. In the hypothetical case of Euler finite-time singularity, we provide an explicit formula for the blowup time in terms of the regular solution of the new system. The new system is amenable to being integrated numerically using similar methods as in Euler equations. We propose a method to simulate numerically the new regular system and describe how to use this to draw robust and reliable conclusions on the finite-time singularity problem of Euler equations, based on the conservation of quantities directly related to energy and circulation. The method of mapping to a regular system can be extended to any fluid equation that admits a Beale-Kato-Majda type of theorem, e.g. 3D Navier-Stokes, 2D and 3D magnetohydrodynamics, and 1D inviscid Burgers. We discuss briefly the case of 2D ideal magnetohydrodynamics. In order to illustrate the usefulness of the mapping, we provide a thorough comparison of the analytical solution versus the numerical solution in the case of 1D inviscid Burgers equation.
3-D numerical simulations of volcanic ash transport and deposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Y. J.; Koyaguchi, T.
2012-12-01
During an explosive volcanic eruption, volcanic gas and pyroclasts are ejected from the volcanic vent. The pyroclasts are carried up within a convective plume, advected by the surrounding wind field, and sediment on the ground depending on their terminal velocity. The fine ash are expected to have atmospheric residence, whereas the coarser particles form fall deposits. Accurate modeling of particle transport and deposition is of critical importance from the viewpoint of disaster prevention. Previously, some particle-tracking models (e.g., PUFF) and advection-diffusion models (e.g., TEPHRA2 and FALL3D) tried to forecast particle concentration in the atmosphere and particle loading at ground level. However, these models assumed source conditions (the grain-size distribution, plume height, and mass release location) based on the simple 1-D model of convective plume. In this study, we aim to develop a new 3-D model which reproduces both of the dynamics of convective plume and the ash transport. The model is designed to describe the injection of eruption cloud and marker particles from a circular vent above a flat surface into the stratified atmosphere. Because the advection is the predominant mechanism of particle transport near the volcano, the diffusive process is not taken into account in this model. The distribution of wind velocity is given as an initial condition. The model of the eruption cloud dynamics is based on the 3-D time-dependent model of Suzuki et al. (2005). We apply a pseudo-gas model to calculate the eruption cloud dynamics: the effect of particle separation on the cloud dynamics is not considered. In order to reproduce the drastic change of eruption cloud density, we change the effective gas constant and heat capacity of the mixture in the equation of state for ideal gases with the mixing ratio between the ejected material and entrained air. In order to calculate the location and movement of ash particles, the present model employs Lagrangian marker
Numerical study for MHD peristaltic flow in a rotating frame.
Hayat, T; Zahir, Hina; Tanveer, Anum; Alsaedi, A
2016-12-01
The aim of present investigation is to model and analyze the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) peristaltic transport of Prandtl fluid in a channel with flexible walls. The whole system consisting of fluid and channel are in a rotating frame of reference with uniform angular velocity. Viscous dissipation in thermal equation is not ignored. The channel boundaries satisfy the convective conditions in terms of temperature. The arising complicated problems are reduced in solvable form using large wavelength and small Reynolds number assumptions. Numerical solution for axial and secondary velocities, temperature and heat transfer coefficient are presented. Main emphasis is given to the outcome of rotation and material parameters of Prandtl fluid on the physical quantities of interest.
MHD micropumping of power-law fluids: A numerical solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moghaddam, Saied
2013-02-01
The performance of MHD micropumps is studied numerically assuming that the viscosity of the fluid is shear-dependent. Using power-law model to represent the fluid of interest, the effect of power-law exponent, N, is investigated on the volumetric flow rate in a rectangular channel. Assuming that the flow is laminar, incompressible, two-dimensional, but (approximately) unidirectional, finite difference method (FDM) is used to solve the governing equations. It is found that shear-thinning fluids provide a larger flow rate as compared to Newtonian fluids provided that the Hartmann number is above a critical value. There exists also an optimum Hartmann number (which is larger than the critical Hartmann number) at which the flow rate is maximum. The power-law exponent, N, strongly affects the optimum geometry depending on the Hartmann number being smaller or larger than the critical Hartmann number.
Buoyancy effects on the 3D MHD stagnation-point flow of a Newtonian fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borrelli, A.; Giantesio, G.; Patria, M. C.; Roşca, N. C.; Roşca, A. V.; Pop, I.
2017-02-01
This work examines the steady three-dimensional stagnation-point flow of an electrically conducting Newtonian fluid in the presence of a uniform external magnetic field H0 under the Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation. We neglect the induced magnetic field and examine the three possible directions of H0 which coincide with the directions of the axes. In all cases it is shown that the governing nonlinear partial differential equations admit similarity solutions. We find that the flow has to satisfy an ordinary differential problem whose solution depends on the Hartmann number M, the buoyancy parameter λ and the Prandtl number Pr. The skin-friction components along the axes are computed and the stagnation-point is classified. The numerical integration shows the existence of dual solutions and the occurrence of the reverse flow for some values of the parameters.
MORPHOLOGY AND DYNAMICS OF SOLAR PROMINENCES FROM 3D MHD SIMULATIONS
Terradas, J.; Soler, R.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Luna, M.
2015-01-20
In this paper we present a numerical study of the time evolution of solar prominences embedded in sheared magnetic arcades. The prominence is represented by a density enhancement in a background-stratified atmosphere and is connected to the photosphere through the magnetic field. By solving the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations in three dimensions, we study the dynamics for a range of parameters representative of real prominences. Depending on the parameters considered, we find prominences that are suspended above the photosphere, i.e., detached prominences, but also configurations resembling curtain or hedgerow prominences whose material continuously connects to the photosphere. The plasma-β is an important parameter that determines the shape of the structure. In many cases magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and oscillatory phenomena develop. Fingers and plumes are generated, affecting the whole prominence body and producing vertical structures in an essentially horizontal magnetic field. However, magnetic shear is able to reduce or even to suppress this instability.
3D Numerical Modeling of Thermal Convection in Multiple Fractures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patterson, J. W.; Driesner, T.; Matthai, S.
2016-12-01
Thermal convection of water in the subsurface alters the thermal profile with depth by moving less dense, hotter water closer to the surface. This has many implications for geothermal exploitation and is well understood in porous media as well as single, planar faults or fractures. However, relatively little research has been done on thermal convection in multiple fractures. This scenario typifies enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), in which fluid transport is nearly exclusively within fractures. This research seeks to understand the fundamental behavior of thermal convection in fractured media using the Complex Systems Modeling Platform (CSMP++), a finite-element/finite-volume simulation platform. 3D models with unstructured meshes were created to investigate convection patterns formed in single, multiple parallel, and multiple intersecting fractures within a rock unit bounded above and below by impermeable rock. Fractures are modeled discretely as lower dimensional surfaces, and the full temperature and pressure dependencies of water properties are included. We show that thermal convection cells within a fracture can influence the behavior of cells in neighboring, unconnected fractures, within a certain distance. This may result in large-scale, particularly oriented thermal anomalies in both parallel fractures and multiple, intersecting fracture sets. It can also induce convection in otherwise non-convective fractures. As fracture spacing decreases, temperature patterns are increasingly similar to those in porous and permeable media. This research lays the groundwork for further investigation of thermal convection in geologically realistic fracture networks, and could aid in the interpretation of temperature patterns and fracture networks observed in EGS fields. We also show that the Rayleigh stability criteria for fracture convection may not be applicable to parallel fractures with spacing below a certain value nor to intersecting fractures.
Numerical grid generation in 3D Euler-flow simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boerstoel, J. W.
1988-04-01
The technical problems with grid generation are analyzed and an overview of proposed solutions is given. The usefulness of grid-generation techniques, for the numerical simulation of Euler (and Navier-Stokes) flows around complex three-dimensional aerodynamic configurations, is illustrated. It is shown that the core of the grid-generation problem is a topology problem. The following remarks are sketched: grid generation is a subtask in a numerical simulation of a flow in industrial and research environments; the design requirements of a grid generation concern the geometrical imput, the desired grid as output, the technical means to control grid resolution and quality and turnaround time performance; the construction of a blocked grid can be subdivided in a block-decomposition task and a grid-point distribution task. A technique for using connectivity relations to define conventions about local coordinate systems in edges, faces and blocks is presented. Experiences are reported and an example concerning a 96-blocked grid around a complex aerodynamic configuration is given. Concepts for improvements in the presented technique are discussed.
3-D Numerical Stratigraphic Forward Modeling of Rifts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lovely, P. J.; Harris, A.; Baumgardner, S. E.; Engelder, T.; Sun, T.; Lyons, R. P.; Granjeon, D.
2016-12-01
Continental rifts are of great interest and relevance to scientists and the general public because they contain numerous depositional environments at relatively compressed spatiotemporal scales, continuous climate records, and hydrocarbon resources. The interaction of climate, sediment routing, and tectonism controls the distribution and continuity of the depositional environments, but these relationships are nonlinear and complex. Conceptual stratigraphic models provide useful insight into facies distribution but are typically qualitative and may not capture the full range of geologically plausible scenarios generated by these interactions. Here, we use a numerical forward stratigraphic model to demonstrate that a deterministic, nonlinear diffusion-based sediment transport model can approximate key tectonostratigraphic processes interpreted from continental rift systems. The sediment transport model acts upon a simple elastic tectonic model that approximates appropriate distributions of subsidence and uplift associated with a schematic fault architecture typical of early stage continental rifting. Comparison of model results to observations of outcrops and the subsurface demonstrates the model's ability to reproduce key tectonostratigraphic features. We also show that such a model may be used to analyze the sensitivity of sand distributions to base-level, sediment, and water flux changes. We present an example analysis with a suite of metrics such as sand thickness, net-to-gross, and mass extraction methods that quantitatively describe the deposits that result from various inputs. This simple sensitivity analysis can be conducted by academic and industry groups to better characterize facies distribution or quantify uncertainties associated with continental rifts.
Terradas, J.; Soler, R.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Luna, M.; Wright, A. N.
2016-04-01
The temporal evolution of a solar prominence inserted in a three-dimensional magnetic flux rope is investigated numerically. Using the model of Titov and Démoulin under the regime of weak twist, the cold and dense prominence counteracts gravity by modifying the initially force-free magnetic configuration. In some cases a quasi-stationary situation is achieved after the relaxation phase, characterized by the excitation of standing vertical oscillations. These oscillations show a strong attenuation with time produced by the mechanism of continuum damping due to the inhomogeneous transition between the prominence and solar corona. The characteristic period of the vertical oscillations does not depend strongly on the twist of the flux rope. Nonlinearity is responsible for triggering the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability associated with the vertical oscillations and that eventually produces horizontal structures. Contrary to other configurations in which the longitudinal axis of the prominence is permeated by a perpendicular magnetic field, like in unsheared arcades, the orientation of the prominence along the flux rope axis prevents the development of Rayleigh–Taylor instabilities and therefore the appearance of vertical structuring along this axis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terradas, J.; Soler, R.; Luna, M.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Wright, A. N.
2016-04-01
The temporal evolution of a solar prominence inserted in a three-dimensional magnetic flux rope is investigated numerically. Using the model of Titov & Démoulin under the regime of weak twist, the cold and dense prominence counteracts gravity by modifying the initially force-free magnetic configuration. In some cases a quasi-stationary situation is achieved after the relaxation phase, characterized by the excitation of standing vertical oscillations. These oscillations show a strong attenuation with time produced by the mechanism of continuum damping due to the inhomogeneous transition between the prominence and solar corona. The characteristic period of the vertical oscillations does not depend strongly on the twist of the flux rope. Nonlinearity is responsible for triggering the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability associated with the vertical oscillations and that eventually produces horizontal structures. Contrary to other configurations in which the longitudinal axis of the prominence is permeated by a perpendicular magnetic field, like in unsheared arcades, the orientation of the prominence along the flux rope axis prevents the development of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and therefore the appearance of vertical structuring along this axis.
Numerical simulation of 3-D Benard convection with gravitational modulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biringen, S.; Peltier, L. J.
1990-01-01
In this numerical study, randomly and sinusoidally modulated gravitational fields imposed on three-dimensional Rayleigh-Benard convection are investigated in an effort to understand the effects of vibration (G-Jitter) on fluid systems. The time-dependent, Navier-Stokes equations and the energy equation with Boussinesq approximations are solved by a semi-implicit, pseudospectral procedure. An analysis of energy balances indicates that with increasing modulation amplitude, transition from synchronous to relaxation oscillation goes through the subharmonic response. Random modulations are found to be less stabilizing than sinusoidal and are shown to impose three-dimensionality on the flow for some parameter ranges both at terrestrial and zero base gravity conditions.
Numerical simulation of 3-D Benard convection with gravitational modulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biringen, S.; Peltier, L. J.
1990-01-01
In this numerical study, randomly and sinusoidally modulated gravitational fields imposed on three-dimensional Rayleigh-Benard convection are investigated in an effort to understand the effects of vibration (G-Jitter) on fluid systems. The time-dependent, Navier-Stokes equations and the energy equation with Boussinesq approximations are solved by a semi-implicit, pseudospectral procedure. An analysis of energy balances indicates that with increasing modulation amplitude, transition from synchronous to relaxation oscillation goes through the subharmonic response. Random modulations are found to be less stabilizing than sinusoidal and are shown to impose three-dimensionality on the flow for some parameter ranges both at terrestrial and zero base gravity conditions.
3D numerical simulations of vesicle and inextensible capsule dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farutin, Alexander; Biben, Thierry; Misbah, Chaouqi
2014-10-01
Vesicles are locally-inextensible fluid membranes, capsules are endowed with in-plane shear elasticity mimicking the cytoskeleton of red blood cells (RBCs), but are extensible, while RBCs are inextensible. We use boundary integral (BI) methods based on the Green function techniques to model and solve numerically their dynamics. We regularize the single layer integral by subtraction of exact identities for the terms involving the normal and the tangential components of the force. The stability and precision of BI calculation is enhanced by taking advantage of additional quadrature nodes located in vertices of an auxiliary mesh, constructed by a standard refinement procedure from the main mesh. We extend the partition of unity technique to boundary integral calculation on triangular meshes. The proposed algorithm offers the same treatment of near-singular integration regardless whether the source and the target points belong to the same surface or not. Bending forces are calculated by using expressions derived from differential geometry. Membrane incompressibility is handled by using two penalization parameters per suspended entity: one for deviation of the global area from prescribed value and another for the sum of squares of local strains defined on each vertex. Extensible or inextensible capsules, a model of RBC, are studied by storing the position in the reference configuration for each vertex. The elastic force is then calculated by direct variation of the elastic energy. Various nonequilibrium physical examples on vesicles and capsules will be presented and the convergence and precision tests highlighted. Overall, a good convergence is observed with numerical error inversely proportional to the number of vertices used for surface discretization, the highest order of convergence allowed by piece-wise linear interpolation of the surface.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, M. J.; Park, H. K.; Yun, G. S.; Lee, W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Lee, K. D.; Ko, W.-H.; Park, Y.-S.; Park, B. H.; In, Y.
2016-06-01
Minor and major disruptions by explosive MHD instabilities were observed with the novel quasi 3D electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) system in the KSTAR plasma. The fine electron temperature (T e) fluctuation images revealed two types of minor disruptions: a small minor disruption is a q∼ 2 localized fast transport event due to a single m/n = 2/1 magnetic island growth, while a large minor disruption is partial collapse of the q≤slant 2 region with two successive fast heat transport events by the correlated m/n = 2/1 and m/n = 1/1 instabilities. The m/n = 2/1 magnetic island growth during the minor disruption is normally limited below the saturation width. However, as the additional interchange-like perturbation grows near the inner separatrix of the 2/1 island, the 2/1 island can expand beyond the limit through coupling with the cold bubble formed by the interchange-like perturbation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nardon, E.; Fil, A.; Hoelzl, M.; Huijsmans, G.; contributors, JET
2017-01-01
3D non-linear MHD simulations of a D 2 massive gas injection (MGI) triggered disruption in JET with the JOREK code provide results which are qualitatively consistent with experimental observations and shed light on the physics at play. In particular, it is observed that the gas destabilizes a large m/n = 2/1 tearing mode, with the island O-point coinciding with the gas deposition region, by enhancing the plasma resistivity via cooling. When the 2/1 island gets so large that its inner side reaches the q = 3/2 surface, a 3/2 tearing mode grows. Simulations suggest that this is due to a steepening of the current profile right inside q = 3/2. Magnetic field stochastization over a large fraction of the minor radius as well as the growth of higher n modes ensue rapidly, leading to the thermal quench (TQ). The role of the 1/1 internal kink mode is discussed. An I p spike at the TQ is obtained in the simulations but with a smaller amplitude than in the experiment. Possible reasons are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fisher, Dustin; Zhang, Yue; Wallace, Ben; Gilmore, Mark; Manchester, Ward; Arge, C. Nick
2016-10-01
The Plasma Bubble Expansion Experiment (PBEX) at the University of New Mexico uses a coaxial plasma gun to launch jet and spheromak magnetic plasma configurations into the Helicon-Cathode (HelCat) plasma device. Plasma structures launched from the gun drag frozen-in magnetic flux into the background magnetic field of the chamber providing a rich set of dynamics to study magnetic turbulence, force-free magnetic spheromaks, and shocks. Preliminary modeling is presented using the highly-developed 3-D, MHD, BATS-R-US code developed at the University of Michigan. BATS-R-US employs an adaptive mesh refinement grid that enables the capture and resolution of shock structures and current sheets, and is particularly suited to model the parameter regime under investigation. CCD images and magnetic field data from the experiment suggest the stabilization of an m =1 kink mode trailing a plasma jet launched into a background magnetic field. Results from a linear stability code investigating the effect of shear-flow as a cause of this stabilization from magnetic tension forces on the jet will be presented. Initial analyses of a possible magnetic Rayleigh Taylor instability seen at the interface between launched spheromaks and their entraining background magnetic field will also be presented. Work supported by the Army Research Office Award No. W911NF1510480.
Experimental, Numerical and Analytical Studies of the MHD-driven plasma jet, instabilities and waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhai, Xiang
This thesis describes a series of experimental, numerical, and analytical studies involving the Caltech magnetohydrodynamically (MHD)-driven plasma jet experiment. The plasma jet is created via a capacitor discharge that powers a magnetized coaxial planar electrodes system. The jet is collimated and accelerated by the MHD forces. We present three-dimensional ideal MHD finite-volume simulations of the plasma jet experiment using an astrophysical magnetic tower as the baseline model. A compact magnetic energy/helicity injection is exploited in the simulation analogous to both the experiment and to astrophysical situations. Detailed analysis provides a comprehensive description of the interplay of magnetic force, pressure, and flow effects. We delineate both the jet structure and the transition process that converts the injected magnetic energy to other forms. When the experimental jet is sufficiently long, it undergoes a global kink instability and then a secondary local Rayleigh-Taylor instability caused by lateral acceleration of the kink instability. We present an MHD theory of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability on the cylindrical surface of a plasma flux rope in the presence of a lateral external gravity. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability is found to couple to the classic current-driven instability, resulting in a new type of hybrid instability. The coupled instability, produced by combination of helical magnetic field, curvature of the cylindrical geometry, and lateral gravity, is fundamentally different from the classic magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability occurring at a two-dimensional planar interface. In the experiment, this instability cascade from macro-scale to micro-scale eventually leads to the failure of MHD. When the Rayleigh-Taylor instability becomes nonlinear, it compresses and pinches the plasma jet to a scale smaller than the ion skin depth and triggers a fast magnetic reconnection. We built a specially designed high-speed 3D magnetic probe and
2D Numerical MHD Models of Solar Explosive Events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roussev, I.
2001-10-01
Observations of the Sun reveal a great variety of dynamic phenomena interpretable as a manifestation of magnetic reconnection. These range from small-scale 'Explosive events' seen in the 'quiet' Sun, through violent flares observed in active regions. The high degree of complexity of the magnetic field inferred from observations may locally produce a fruitful environment for the process of magnetic reconnection to take place. Explosive events are associated with regions undergoing magnetic flux cancellation. This thesis presents a 2-dimensional (2D) numerical study devoted to explore the idea that the salient spectral signatures seen in explosive events are most probably caused by bi-directional outflow jets as a results of an ongoing magnetic reconnection. In order to provide qualitative results needed for the better physical interpretation of solar explosive events, several models intended to represent a 'quiet' Sun transition of solar explosive events, several models intended to represent a 'quiet' Sun transition region undergoing magnetic reconnection are examined, in both unstratified and gravitationally stratified atmospheres. The magnetic reconnection is initiated in an ad hoc manner, and the dynamic evolution is followed by numerically solving the equations of 2D dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), including the effects of field-aligned thermal conduction, radiative losses, volumetric heating, and anomalous resistivity.
Numerical non-LTE 3D radiative transfer using a multigrid method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bjørgen, Johan P.; Leenaarts, Jorrit
2017-03-01
Context. 3D non-LTE radiative transfer problems are computationally demanding, and this sets limits on the size of the problems that can be solved. So far, multilevel accelerated lambda iteration (MALI) has been the method of choice to perform high-resolution computations in multidimensional problems. The disadvantage of MALI is that its computing time scales as O(n2), with n the number of grid points. When the grid becomes finer, the computational cost increases quadratically. Aims: We aim to develop a 3D non-LTE radiative transfer code that is more efficient than MALI. Methods: We implement a non-linear multigrid, fast approximation storage scheme, into the existing Multi3D radiative transfer code. We verify our multigrid implementation by comparing with MALI computations. We show that multigrid can be employed in realistic problems with snapshots from 3D radiative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations as input atmospheres. Results: With multigrid, we obtain a factor 3.3-4.5 speed-up compared to MALI. With full-multigrid, the speed-up increases to a factor 6. The speed-up is expected to increase for input atmospheres with more grid points and finer grid spacing. Conclusions: Solving 3D non-LTE radiative transfer problems using non-linear multigrid methods can be applied to realistic atmospheres with a substantial increase in speed.
A Numerical Study of Resistivity and Hall Effects for a Compressible MHD Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yee, H. C.; Sjogreen, B.
2005-01-01
The effect of resistive, Hall, and viscous terms on the flow structure compared with compressible ideal MHD is studied numerically for a one-fluid non-ideal MHD model. The goal of the present study is to shed some light on the emerging area of non-ideal MHD modeling and simulation. Numerical experiments are performed on a hypersonic blunt body flow with future application to plasma aerodynamics flow control in reentry vehicles. Numerical experiments are also performed on a magnetized time-developing mixing layer with possible application to magnetic/turbulence mixing.
Numerical study of MHD wave propagation in the solar atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sieyra, M. V.; Schneiter, E. M.; Costa, A.; Esquivel, A.
2017-07-01
We present a 2D MHD simulation of wave propagation across the solar atmosphere considering the photosphere-chromosphere temperature and density stratification. The system is forced by typical p-mode perturbations. We reproduce observational results from SDO AIA.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wichert, Viktoria; Arkenberg, Mario; Hauschildt, Peter H.
2016-10-01
Highly resolved state-of-the-art 3D atmosphere simulations will remain computationally extremely expensive for years to come. In addition to the need for more computing power, rethinking coding practices is necessary. We take a dual approach by introducing especially adapted, parallel numerical methods and correspondingly parallelizing critical code passages. In the following, we present our respective work on PHOENIX/3D. With new parallel numerical algorithms, there is a big opportunity for improvement when iteratively solving the system of equations emerging from the operator splitting of the radiative transfer equation J = ΛS. The narrow-banded approximate Λ-operator Λ* , which is used in PHOENIX/3D, occurs in each iteration step. By implementing a numerical algorithm which takes advantage of its characteristic traits, the parallel code's efficiency is further increased and a speed-up in computational time can be achieved.
Numerical Methods for 3D Magneto-Rotational Core-Collapse Supernova Simulation with Jet Formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Käppeli, R. Y.
2013-12-01
The work presented in this thesis is devoted to the development of a numerical model for the three dimensional simulation of magneto-rotational core-collapse supernovae (MHD-CCSNe) with jet formation. The numerical model then suggests that MHD-CCSNe naturally provide a possible site for the strong rapid neutron capture process in agreement with observations of the early Galactic chemical evolution. In the first part of this thesis, we develop several numerical methods and describe thoroughly their efficient implementations on current high-performance computer architectures. We develop a fast and simple computer code texttt{FISH} that solves the equations of magnetohydrodynamics. The code is parallelized with an optimal combination of shared and distributed memory paradigms and scales to several thousands processes on high-performance computer clusters. We develop a novel well-balanced numerical scheme for the Euler equations with gravitational source terms to preserve a discrete hydrostatic equilibrium exactly. Being able to accurately represent hydrostatic equilibria is of particular interest for the simulation of CCSN, because a large part of the newly forming neutron star evolves in a quasi-hydrostatic manner. We include an approximate and computationally efficient treatment of neutrino physics in the form of a spectral leakage scheme. It enables us to capture approximately the most important neutrino cooling effects, which are responsible for the shock stall and for the neutronisation of matter behind the shock. The latter is crucial for the nucleosynthesis yields. To fit into our multidimensional MHD-CCSN model, the spectral leakage scheme is implemented in a ray-by-ray approach. In the second part of this thesis, we apply our three-dimensional numerical model to the study of the MHD-CCSN explosion mechanism. We investigate a series of models with poloidal magnetic field and varying initial angular momentum distribution through the collapse, bounce and jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, C.; Feng, X.; Wu, S.; Hu, Q.
2012-12-01
Non-potentiality of the solar coronal magnetic field accounts for the solar explosion like flares and CMEs. We apply a data-driven CESE-MHD model to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) coronal magnetic field of NOAA active region (AR) 11117 around the time of a C-class confined flare occurred on 2010 October 25. The CESE-MHD model, based on the spacetime conservation-element and solution-element scheme, is designed to focus on the magnetic-field evolution and to consider a simplified solar atomsphere with finite plasma β. Magnetic vector-field data derived from the observations at the photoshpere is inputted directly to constrain the model. Assuming that the dynamic evolution of the coronal magnetic field can be approximated by successive equilibria, we solve a time sequence of MHD equilibria basing on a set of vector magnetograms for AR 11117 taken by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) around the time of flare. The model qualitatively reproduces the basic structures of the 3D magnetic field, as supported by the visual similarity between the field lines and the coronal loops observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), which shows that the coronal field can indeed be well characterized by the MHD equilibrium in most time. The magnetic configuration changes very limited during the studied time interval of two hours. A topological analysis reveals that the small flare is correlated with a bald patch (BP, where the magnetic field is tangent to the photoshpere), suggesting that the energy release of the flare can be understood by magnetic reconnection associated with the BP separatrices. The total magnetic flux and energy keep increasing slightly in spite of the flare, while the magnetic free energy drops during the flare with an amount of 1.7 × 1030 erg, which can be interpreted as the energy budget released by the minor C-class flare.
A 3-D model of superfluid helium suitable for numerical analysis
Darve, C.; Patankar, N.A.; Van Sciver, S.W.; /Natl. High Mag. Field Lab.
2008-01-01
The two-fluid description is a very successful phenomenological representation of the properties of Helium II. A 3-D model suitable for numerical analysis based on the Landau-Khalatnikov description of Helium II is proposed. In this paper we introduce a system of partial differential equations that is both complete and consistent as well as practical, to be used for a 3-D solution of the flow of Helium II. The development of a 3-D numerical model for Helium II is motivated by the need to validate experimental results obtained by observing the normal component velocity distribution in a Helium II thermal counter-flow using the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique.
Improvements to the RELAP5-3D Nearly-Implicit Numerical Scheme
Richard A. Riemke; Walter L. Weaver; RIchard R. Schultz
2005-05-01
The RELAP5-3D computer program has been improved with regard to its nearly-implicit numerical scheme for twophase flow and single-phase flow. Changes were made to the nearly-implicit numerical scheme finite difference momentum equations as follows: (1) added the velocity flip-flop mass/energy error mitigation logic, (2) added the modified Henry-Fauske choking model, (3) used the new time void fraction in the horizontal stratification force terms and gravity head, and (4) used an implicit form of the artificial viscosity. The code modifications allow the nearly-implicit numerical scheme to be more implicit and lead to enhanced numerical stability.
Numerical simulations and vorticity dynamics of self-propelled swimming of 3D bionic fish
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xin, ZhiQiang; Wu, ChuiJie
2012-02-01
Numerical simulations and the control of self-propelled swimming of three-dimensional bionic fish in a viscous flow and the mechanism of fish swimming are carried out in this study, with a 3D computational fluid dynamics package, which includes the immersed boundary method and the volume of fluid method, the adaptive multi-grid finite volume method, and the control strategy of fish swimming. Firstly, the mechanism of 3D fish swimming was studied and the vorticity dynamics root was traced to the moving body surface by using the boundary vorticity-flux theory. With the change of swimming speed, the contributions of the fish body and caudal fin to thrust are analyzed quantitatively. The relationship between vortex structures of fish swimming and the forces exerted on the fish body are also given in this paper. Finally, the 3D wake structure of self-propelled swimming of 3D bionic fish is presented. The in-depth analysis of the 3D vortex structure in the role of 3D biomimetic fish swimming is also performed.
3D Numerical Study of Typical CME Event: The 2010-04-03 Event
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Y.; Feng, X. S.; Zhao, X.
2014-12-01
The coronal mass ejection (CME) event on April 3, 2010 is the first fast CME observed by STEREO SECCHI/HI for the full Sun-Earth line. Such an event provides us a good opportunity to study the propagation and evolution of CME from the Sun up to 1 AU. In this paper, we study the time-dependent evolution and propagation of this event from the Sun to Earth using the 3D SIP-CESE MHD model. The CME is initiated by a simple spherical plasmoid model: a spheromak magnetic structure with high speed, high pressure and high plasma density plasmoid. We find that the results can successfully reproduce the observations in the STEREO A/B COR1 and COR2 field of view and generate many basic structures of the in situ measurement: such as the similar curves of the plasma density and velocity, an increase in the magnetic field magnitude, the large-scale smooth magnetic field rotation and prolonged southward IMF (a well known source of magnetic storms). The MHD model gives the shock arrival time at Earth with an error of ˜ 1.5 hours. Finally, we analyze in detail the propagation velocity, the spread angle, the trajectory of CME. The speed of the CME rapidly increases from near the Sun, then decreases due to interaction with the solar wind ambient. The spread angle of the CME quickly increases due to lateral material expansion by the pressure gradients within the realistic solar wind background, then the expansion decreases with distance and ends until a pressure equilibrium is established. We also study the CME deflection and find that the CME almost does not deflects in the latitudinal and longitudinal direction during its propagation from the Sun to 1 AU.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, C.; Chang, T.
2010-12-01
A new method in describing the multifractal characteristics of intermittent events was introduced by Cheng and Wu [Chang T. and Wu C.C., Physical Rev, E77, 045401(R), 2008]. The procedure provides a natural connection between the rank-ordered spectrum and the idea of one-parameter scaling for monofractals. This technique has been demonstrated using results obtained from a 2D MHD simulation. It has also been successfully applied to in-situ solar wind observations [Chang T., Wu, C.C. and Podesta, J., AIP Conf Proc. 1039, 75, 2008], and the broadband electric field oscillations from the auroral zone [Tam, S.W.Y. et al., Physical Rev, E81, 036414, 2010]. We take the next step in this procedure. By using the ROMA spectra and the scaled probability distribution functions (PDFs), raw PDFs can be calculated, which can be compared directly with PDFs from observations or simulation results. In addition to 2D MHD simulation results and in-situ solar wind observation, we show clearly using the ROMA analysis the multifractal character of the 3D fluid simulation data obtained from the JHU turbulence database cluster at http://turbulence.pha.jhu.edu. In particular, we show the scaling of the non-symmetrical PDF for the parallel-velocity fluctuations of this 3D fluid data.
The program FANS-3D (finite analytic numerical simulation 3-dimensional) and its applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bravo, Ramiro H.; Chen, Ching-Jen
1992-01-01
In this study, the program named FANS-3D (Finite Analytic Numerical Simulation-3 Dimensional) is presented. FANS-3D was designed to solve problems of incompressible fluid flow and combined modes of heat transfer. It solves problems with conduction and convection modes of heat transfer in laminar flow, with provisions for radiation and turbulent flows. It can solve singular or conjugate modes of heat transfer. It also solves problems in natural convection, using the Boussinesq approximation. FANS-3D was designed to solve heat transfer problems inside one, two and three dimensional geometries that can be represented by orthogonal planes in a Cartesian coordinate system. It can solve internal and external flows using appropriate boundary conditions such as symmetric, periodic and user specified.
3D numerical simulation analysis of passive drag near free surface in swimming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhan, Jie-min; Li, Tian-zeng; Chen, Xue-bin; Li, Yok-sheung; Wai, Wing-hong Onyx
2015-04-01
The aim of this work is to build a 3D numerical model to study the characteristics of passive drag on competitive swimmers taking into account the impact of the free surface. This model solves the 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using RNG k- ɛ turbulence closure. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is used to locate the free surface. The 3D virtual model is created by Computer Aided Industrial Design (CAID) software, Rhinoceros. Firstly, a specific posture of swimming is studied. The simulation results are in good agreement with the data from mannequin towing experiments. The effects of a swimmer's arms and legs positions on swimming performance are then studied. Finally, it is demonstrated that the present method is capable of simulating gliding near the free surface.
Solwnd: A 3D Compressible MHD Code for Solar Wind Studies. Version 1.0: Cartesian Coordinates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deane, Anil E.
1996-01-01
Solwnd 1.0 is a three-dimensional compressible MHD code written in Fortran for studying the solar wind. Time-dependent boundary conditions are available. The computational algorithm is based on Flux Corrected Transport and the code is based on the existing code of Zalesak and Spicer. The flow considered is that of shear flow with incoming flow that perturbs this base flow. Several test cases corresponding to pressure balanced magnetic structures with velocity shear flow and various inflows including Alfven waves are presented. Version 1.0 of solwnd considers a rectangular Cartesian geometry. Future versions of solwnd will consider a spherical geometry. Some discussions of this issue is presented.
Impact of 3D root uptake on solute transport: a numerical study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schröder, N.; Javaux, M.; Vanderborght, J.; Steffen, B.; Vereecken, H.
2011-12-01
Plant transpiration is an important component of the hydrological cycle. Through root water uptake, plants do not only affect the 3D soil water flow velocity distribution, but also solute movement in soil. This numerical study aims at investigating how solute fate is impacted by root uptake using the 3D biophysical model R-SWMS (Javaux et al., 2008). This model solves the Richards equation in 3D in the soil and the flow equation within the plant root xylem vessels. Furthermore, for solute transport simulations, the 3D particle tracker PARTRACE (Bechtold et al., 2011) was used. . We generated 3D virtual steady-state breakthrough curves (BTC) experiments in soils with transpiring plants. The averaged BTCs were then fitted with a 1D numerical flow model under steady-state conditions to obtain apparent CDE parameters. Two types of root architecture, a fibrous and a taprooted structure, were compared in virtual 3D experiments. The solute uptake type or the transpiration rate were also modified and we analyzed how these parameters affected apparent disperisivity and velocity profiles. Our simulation results show, that both, apparent velocity and dispersivity length are affected by water and solute root uptake. In addition, under high exclusion processes (slight or no active uptake), solute accumulates around roots and generates a long tailing to the breakthrough curves, which cannot be reproduced by 1D models that simulate root water uptake with solute exclusion. This observation may have an important impact on how to model pollutant mass transfer to groundwater at larger scales. Javaux, M., T. Schröder, J. Vanderborght, and H. Vereecken. 2008. Use of a three-dimensional detailed modeling approach for predicting root water uptake. Vadose Zone J. 7:1079-1088.doi: 10.2136/vzj2007.0115. Bechtold, M., S. Haber-Pohlmeier, J. Vanderborght, A. Pohlmeier, P.A. Ferre, and H. Vereecken. 2011. Near-surface solute redistribution during evaporation. Submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett
Numerical Optimization Strategy for Determining 3D Flow Fields in Microfluidics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eden, Alex; Sigurdson, Marin; Mezic, Igor; Meinhart, Carl
2015-11-01
We present a hybrid experimental-numerical method for generating 3D flow fields from 2D PIV experimental data. An optimization algorithm is applied to a theory-based simulation of an alternating current electrothermal (ACET) micromixer in conjunction with 2D PIV data to generate an improved representation of 3D steady state flow conditions. These results can be used to investigate mixing phenomena. Experimental conditions were simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics to solve the temperature and velocity fields, as well as the quasi-static electric fields. The governing equations were based on a theoretical model for ac electrothermal flows. A Nelder-Mead optimization algorithm was used to achieve a better fit by minimizing the error between 2D PIV experimental velocity data and numerical simulation results at the measurement plane. By applying this hybrid method, the normalized RMS velocity error between the simulation and experimental results was reduced by more than an order of magnitude. The optimization algorithm altered 3D fluid circulation patterns considerably, providing a more accurate representation of the 3D experimental flow field. This method can be generalized to a wide variety of flow problems. This research was supported by the Institute for Collaborative Biotechnologies through grant W911NF-09-0001 from the U.S. Army Research Office.
Numerical investigation of magneto-nanoparticles for unsteady 3D generalized Newtonian liquid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmad, Latif; Khan, Masood; Khan, Waqar Azeem
2017-09-01
The impact of Buongiorno's model in flow of a 3D unsteady Sisko fluid is discussed in the presence of zero mass nanoparticles flux conditions. The 3D unsteady Sisko fluid equations are first simplified through classical boundary layer approximations and then non-dimensionalized by employing the suitable transformations. The numerical solutions for the resulting flow, heat and mass transfer have been computed by utilizing the two different numerical techniques, namely the bvp4c function in Matlab and the shooting technique with the Runge-Kutta Fehlberg and Newton-Raphson methods. The results of the numerical computations are described in terms of the temperature and concentration plots. The distinct behaviors of nanoliquid velocity, temperature and concentration distributions for shear-thinning and shear-thickening are reported. It is perceived from the results that the effect of Brownian motion becomes negligible for the newly suggested revised relation. To see the validity of the numerical computations, we compare the results of the numerical techniques bvp4c with an efficient numerical method, namely the shooting technique and the RK45 Fehlberg method and perceived an excellent correlation between these methods.
3D SPH numerical simulation of the wave generated by the Vajont rockslide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vacondio, R.; Mignosa, P.; Pagani, S.
2013-09-01
A 3D numerical modeling of the wave generated by the Vajont slide, one of the most destructive ever occurred, is presented in this paper. A meshless Lagrangian Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) technique was adopted to simulate the highly fragmented violent flow generated by the falling slide in the artificial reservoir. The speed-up achievable via General Purpose Graphic Processing Units (GP-GPU) allowed to adopt the adequate resolution to describe the phenomenon. The comparison with the data available in literature showed that the results of the numerical simulation reproduce satisfactorily the maximum run-up, also the water surface elevation in the residual lake after the event. Moreover, the 3D velocity field of the flow during the event and the discharge hydrograph which overtopped the dam, were obtained.
Numerical Simulation of Propagation and Transformation of the MHD Waves in Sunspots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parchevsky, Konstantin; Zhao, J.; Kosovichev, A.
2010-05-01
Direct numerical simulation of propagation of MHD waves in stratified medium in regions with non-uniform magnetic field is very important for understanding of scattering and transformation of waves by sunspots. We present numerical simulations of wave propagation through the sunspot in 3D. We compare results propagation in two different magnitostatic models of sunspots refferred to as "deep" and "shallow" models. The "deep" model has convex shape of magnetic field lines near the photosphere and non-zero horizorntal perturbations of the sound speed up to the bottom of the model. The "shallow" model has concave shape of the magnetic field lines near the photosphere and horizontally uniform sound speed below 2 Mm. Waves reduce their amplitude when they reach the center of the sunspot and estore the amplitude when pass the center. For the "deep" model this effect is bigger than for the "shallow" model. The wave amplitude depends on the distance of the source from the sunspot center. For the "shallow" model and source distance of 9 Mm from the sunspot center the wave amplitude at some moment (when the wavefront passes the sunspot center) becomes bigger inside the sunspot than outside. For the source distance of 12 Mm the wave amplitude remains smaller inside the sunspot than outside for all moments of time. Using filtering technique we separated magnetoacoustic and magnetogravity waves. Simulations show that the sunspot changes the shape of the wave front and amplitude of the f-modes significantly stronger than the p-modes. It is shown, that inside the sunspot magnetoacoustic and magnetogravity waves are not spatially separated unlike the case of the horizontally uniform background model. We compared simulation results with the wave signals (Green's functions) extracted from the SOHO/MDI data for AR9787.
Ababou, R.
1996-12-31
Subsurface flow processes are inherently three-dimensional and heterogeneous over many scales. Taking this into account, for instance assuming random heterogeneity in 3-D space, puts heavy constraints on numerical models. An efficient numerical code has been developed for solving the porous media flow equations, appropriately generalized to account for 3-D, random-like heterogeneity. The code is based on implicit finite differences (or finite volumes), and uses specialized versions of pre-conditioned iterative solvers that take advantage of sparseness. With Diagonally Scaled Conjugate Gradients, in particular, large systems on the order of several million equations, with randomly variable coefficients, have been solved efficiently on Cray-2 and Cray-Y/MP8 machines, in serial mode as well as parallel mode (autotasking). The present work addresses, first, the numerical aspects and computational issues associated with detailed 3-D flow simulations, and secondly, presents a specific application related to the conductivity homogenization problem (identifying a macroscale conduction law, and an equivalent or effective conductivity). Analytical expressions of effective conductivities are compared with empirical values obtained from several large scale simulations conducted for single realizations of random porous media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogdanov, V. R.; Sulim, G. T.
2016-03-01
We develop a technique for calculating the plastic strain and fracture toughness fields of a material by solving dynamical 3D problems of determining the stress-strain state in the elastoplastic statement with possible unloading of the material taken into account. The numerical solution was obtained by a finite difference scheme applied to the three-point shock bending tests of parallelepiped-shaped bars made of different materials with plane crack-notches in the middle. The fracture toughness coefficient was determined for reactor steel. The numerically calculated stress tensor components, mean stresses, the Odquist parameter characterizing the accumulated plastic strain, and the fracture toughness are illustrated by graphs.
Comparison of flow and transport experiments on 3D printed 'rocks' with direct numerical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watson, F. E.; Geiger, S.; Mackay, E.; Singleton, M.; McGravie, T.; Anouilh, T.; Jobe, D.; Zhang, S.; Agar, S. M.; Ishutov, S.; Hasiuk, F.; Chalaturnyk, R. J.
2016-12-01
3D printing technology has the potential to revolutionise modelling of fluid flow and mass transport in porous media. Using 3D printing to replicate pore geometries from real rocks quickly and cheaply, and being able to assign specific properties to the samples, would enable us to repeat experiments where things such as permeability, porosity, reactivity, or wettability are known a priori. Destructive tests, such as reactive transport experiments, could then be performed using the same, realistic, initial geometry, in a repeatable fashion; in addition, specific properties of the porous media (e.g. the reactivity of individual grains) could be altered in a controlled way. Similarly, two-phase flow experiments could be carried out where relevant properties (e.g. individual grain wettability) are modified between experiments. Results from such experiments would shed new light on key physio-chemical processes occurring at the pore-scale during multi-phase reactive flow and would allow us to validate the suite of emerging direct numerical simulation techniques (e.g. Lattice Boltzman, Volume of Fluid) currently used to model pore-scale flow and transport. We have developed a novel experimental setup to investigate single-phase flow and transport through translucent 3D printed and Perspex samples and to visualise the experiments for comparison with numerical simulations. Dyed fluid is injected at one end of the sample and the behaviour of the system is recorded using a digital camera situated directly above it. Image processing techniques are employed to quantify dye concentration and location through time. We use the finite volume method to simulate the flow experiments in OpenFOAM, using the same input geometry that was used to print the sample. Comparison of experimental results with simulations enables us to identify similarities and differences between flow and transport observed in the 3D printed samples and behaviour expected from the numerical simulations.
Compressive Behavior of 3D Woven Composite Stiffened Panels: Experimental and Numerical Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Guangming; Pan, Ruqin; Li, Chao; Cai, Deng'an; Wang, Xiaopei
2016-10-01
The structural behavior and damage propagation of 3D woven composite stiffened panels with different woven patterns under axial-compression are here investigated. The panel is 2.5D interlock woven composites (2.5DIWC), while the straight-stiffeners are 3D woven orthogonal composites (3DWOC). They are coupled together with the Z-fibers from the stiffener passing straight thought the thickness of the panel. A "T-shape" model, in which the fiber bundle structure and resin matrix are drawn out to simulate the real situation of the connection area, is established to predict elastic constants and strength of the connection region. Based on Hashin failure criterion, a progressive damage model is carried out to simulate the compressive behavior of the stiffened panel. The 3D woven composite stiffened panels are manufactured using RTM process and then tested. A good agreement between experimental results and numerical predicted values for the compressive failure load is obtained. From initial damage to final collapse, the panel and stiffeners will not separate each other in the connection region. The main failure mode of 3D woven composite stiffened panels is compressive failure of fiber near the loading end corner.
Compressive Behavior of 3D Woven Composite Stiffened Panels: Experimental and Numerical Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Guangming; Pan, Ruqin; Li, Chao; Cai, Deng'an; Wang, Xiaopei
2017-08-01
The structural behavior and damage propagation of 3D woven composite stiffened panels with different woven patterns under axial-compression are here investigated. The panel is 2.5D interlock woven composites (2.5DIWC), while the straight-stiffeners are 3D woven orthogonal composites (3DWOC). They are coupled together with the Z-fibers from the stiffener passing straight thought the thickness of the panel. A "T-shape" model, in which the fiber bundle structure and resin matrix are drawn out to simulate the real situation of the connection area, is established to predict elastic constants and strength of the connection region. Based on Hashin failure criterion, a progressive damage model is carried out to simulate the compressive behavior of the stiffened panel. The 3D woven composite stiffened panels are manufactured using RTM process and then tested. A good agreement between experimental results and numerical predicted values for the compressive failure load is obtained. From initial damage to final collapse, the panel and stiffeners will not separate each other in the connection region. The main failure mode of 3D woven composite stiffened panels is compressive failure of fiber near the loading end corner.
Numerical investigations on cavitation intensity for 3D homogeneous unsteady viscous flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leclercq, C.; Archer, A.; Fortes-Patella, R.
2016-11-01
The cavitation erosion remains an industrial issue. In this paper, we deal with the cavitation intensity which can be described as the aggressiveness - or erosive capacity - of a cavitating flow. The estimation of this intensity is a challenging problem both in terms of modelling the cavitating flow and predicting the erosion due to cavitation. For this purpose, a model was proposed to estimate cavitation intensity from 3D unsteady cavitating flow simulations. An intensity model based on pressure and void fraction derivatives was developped and applied to a NACA 65012 hydrofoil tested at LMH-EPFL (École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne) [1]. 2D and 3D unsteady cavitating simulations were performed using a homogeneous model with void fraction transport equation included in Code_Saturne with cavitating module [2]. The article presents a description of the numerical code and the physical approach considered. Comparisons between 2D and 3D simulations, as well as between numerical and experimental results obtained by pitting tests, are analyzed in the paper.
Assessment of inlet efficiency through a 3D simulation: numerical and experimental comparison.
Gómez, Manuel; Recasens, Joan; Russo, Beniamino; Martínez-Gomariz, Eduardo
2016-10-01
Inlet efficiency is a requirement for characterizing the flow transfers between surface and sewer flow during rain events. The dual drainage approach is based on the joint analysis of both upper and lower drainage levels, and the flow transfer is one of the relevant elements to define properly this joint behaviour. This paper presents the results of an experimental and numerical investigation about the inlet efficiency definition. A full scale (1:1) test platform located in the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) reproduces both the runoff process in streets and the water entering the inlet. Data from tests performed on this platform allow the inlet efficiency to be estimated as a function of significant hydraulic and geometrical parameters. A reproduction of these tests through a numerical three-dimensional code (Flow-3D) has been carried out simulating this type of flow by solving the RANS equations. The aim of the work was to reproduce the hydraulic performance of a previously tested grated inlet under several flow and geometric conditions using Flow-3D as a virtual laboratory. This will allow inlet efficiencies to be obtained without previous experimental tests. Moreover, the 3D model allows a better understanding of the hydraulics of the flow interception and the flow patterns approaching the inlet.
A 3D numerical study of antimicrobial persistence in heterogeneous multi-species biofilms.
Zhao, Jia; Shen, Ya; Haapasalo, Markus; Wang, Zhejun; Wang, Qi
2016-03-07
We develop a 3D hydrodynamic model to investigate the mechanism of antimicrobial persistence in a multi-species oral biofilm and its recovery after being treated by bisbiguanide chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX). In addition to the hydrodynamic transport in the spatially heterogeneous biofilm, the model also includes mechanisms of solvent-biomass interaction, bacterial phenotype conversion, and bacteria-drug interaction. A numerical solver for the model is developed using a second order numerical scheme in 3D space and time and implemented on GPUs for high-performance computing. The model is calibrated against a set of experimental data obtained using confocal laser scan microscopy (CLSM) on multi-species oral biofilms, where a quantitative agreement is reached. Our numerical results reveal that quorum sensing molecules and growth factors in this model are instrumental in biofilm formation and recovery after the antimicrobial treatment. In particular, we show that (i) young biofilms are more susceptible to the antimicrobial treatment than the mature ones, (ii) this phenomenon is strongly correlated with volume fractions of the persister and EPS in the biofilm being treated. This suggests that antimicrobial treatment should be best administered to biofilms earlier before they mature to produce a thick protective EPS layer. In addition, the numerical study also indicates that an antimicrobial effect can be achieved should a proper mechanism be devised to minimize the conversion of susceptible bacteria to persisters during and even after the treatment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guerreiro, Nuno; Haberreiter, Margit; Hansteen, Viggo; Schmutz, Werner
2016-04-01
Aiming at better understanding the mechanism(s) responsible for the coronal heating and the ubiquitous redshifts observed in the lower transition region we focus on analyzing the properties of small-scale heating events (SSHEs) in the solar atmosphere. We present a comprehensive method to follow SSHEs over time in 3D-MHD simulations of the solar atmosphere. Applying the method we are able to better understand the properties of the SSHEs and how the plasma in their vicinity respond to them. We present results for the lifetime, energy and spectral signatures of the SSHEs. Ultimately, these results will be important for the coordinated scientific exploration of SPICE and EUI along with other interments on board solar orbiter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haberreiter, M.; Guerreiro, N.; Hansteen, V. H.; Schmutz, W. K.
2015-12-01
The physical mechanism that heats the solar corona is one of the still open science questions in solar physics. One of the proposed mechanism for coronal heating are nanoflares. To investigate their role in coronal heating we study the properties of the small-scale heating events in the solar atmosphere using 3D MHD simulations. We present a method to identify and track these heating events in time which allows us to study their life time, energy, and spectral signatures. These spectal signatures will be compared with available spectrosopic observations obtained with IRIS and SUMER. Ultimately, these results will be important for the coordinated scientific exploitation of SPICE and EUI along with other instruments onboard Solar Orbiter to address the coronal heating problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guerreiro, Nuno; Haberreiter, Margit; Schmutz, Werner; Hansteen, Viggo
2016-07-01
Aiming at better understanding the mechanism(s) responsible for the coronal heating we focus on analyzing the properties of the magnetically generated small-scale heating events (SSHEs) in the solar atmosphere. We present a comprehensive method to detect and follow SSHEs over time in 3D-MHD simulations of the solar atmosphere. Applying the method we are able to better understand the properties of the SSHEs and how the plasma in their vicinity respond to them. We study the lifetime, energy and spectral signatures and show that the energy flux dissipated by them is enough to heat the corona. Ultimately, these results will be important for the coordinated scientific exploration of SPICE and EUI along with other instruments on board solar orbiter.
The Vajont disaster: a 3D numerical simulation for the slide and the waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rubino, Angelo; Androsov, Alexey; Vacondio, Renato; Zanchettin, Davide; Voltzinger, Naum
2016-04-01
A very high resolution O(5 m), 3D hydrostatic nonlinear numerical model was used to simulate the dynamics of both the slide and the surface waves produced during the Vajont disaster (north Italy, 1963), one of the major landslide-induced tsunamis ever documented. Different simulated wave phenomena like, e.g., maximum run-up on the opposite shore, maximum height, and water velocity were analyzed and compared with data available in literature, including the results of a fully 3D simulation obtained with a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic code. The difference between measured and simulated after-slide bathymetries was calculated and used in an attempt to quantify the relative magnitude and extension of rigid and fluid motion components during the event.
The 3D modeling of high numerical aperture imaging in thin films
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flagello, D. G.; Milster, Tom
1992-01-01
A modelling technique is described which is used to explore three dimensional (3D) image irradiance distributions formed by high numerical aperture (NA is greater than 0.5) lenses in homogeneous, linear films. This work uses a 3D modelling approach that is based on a plane-wave decomposition in the exit pupil. Each plane wave component is weighted by factors due to polarization, aberration, and input amplitude and phase terms. This is combined with a modified thin-film matrix technique to derive the total field amplitude at each point in a film by a coherent vector sum over all plane waves. Then the total irradiance is calculated. The model is used to show how asymmetries present in the polarized image change with the influence of a thin film through varying degrees of focus.
3D numerical study of a feed jet in a rotating flow-field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, D. J.; Zeng, S.
2016-09-01
A contribution of a feed drive in the total counter-current flow in a gas centrifuge for isotope separation is an important problem in optimization of its separation performance. A 3D model is used to simulate flow structures of a feed jet in a rotating flow-field. By using a CFD code, the details of a feed jet are obtained under the axial feed jet boundary condition. It is demonstrated that because of the vacuum regime in the region near the axis of rotation, the results of numerical simulation of a CFD code bring errors. The 3D DSMC simulation is a feasible method to overcome this problem in the future.
Numerical Analysis of the Elastic Properties of 3D Needled Carbon/Carbon Composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Y.; Yan, Y.; Li, X.; Guo, F.
2017-09-01
Based on the observation of microstructures of 3D needled carbon/carbon (C/C) composites, a model of their representative volume element (RVE) considering the true distribution of fibers is established. Using the theories of mesoscopic mechanics and introducing periodic boundary conditions for displacements, their elastic properties, with account of porosity, are determined by finite-element methods. Quasi-static tensile tests were carried out, and the numerical predictions were found to be in good agreement with test results. This means that the RVE model of 3D needled C/C composites can predict their elastic properties efficiently. The effects of needling density, radius of needled fibers, and thickness ratio of a short-cut fiber web and a weftless ply on the elastic constants of the composites are analyzed.
Numerical and measured data from the 3D salt canopy physical modeling project
Bradley, C.; House, L.; Fehler, M.; Pearson, J.; TenCate, J.; Wiley, R.
1997-11-01
The evolution of salt structures in the Gulf of Mexico have been shown to provide a mechanism for the trapping of significant hydrocarbon reserves. Most of these structures have complex geometries relative to the surrounding sedimentary layers. This aspect in addition to high velocities within the salt tend to scatter and defocus seismic energy and make imaging of subsalt lithology extremely difficult. An ongoing program the SEG/EAEG modeling project (Aminzadeh et al. 1994a: Aminzadeh et al. 1994b: Aminzadeh et al. 1995), and a follow-up project funded as part of the Advanced Computational Technology Initiative (ACTI) (House et al. 1996) have sought to investigate problems with imaging beneath complex salt structures using numerical modeling and more recently, construction of a physical model patterned after the numerical subsalt model (Wiley and McKnight. 1996). To date, no direct comparison of the numerical and physical aspects of these models has been attempted. We present the results of forward modeling a numerical realization of the 3D salt canopy physical model with the French Petroleum Institute (IFP) acoustic finite difference algorithm used in the numerical subsalt tests. We compare the results from the physical salt canopy model, the acoustic modeling of the physical/numerical model and the original numerical SEG/EAEG Salt Model. We will be testing the sensitivity of migration to the presence of converted shear waves and acquisition geometry.
Numerical simulation of MHD turbulence in three dimensions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, M. L.; Roberts, D. A.; Deane, A.
1997-01-01
The evolution of Alfvenic turbulence in 3D spherical geometry can now be studied. In simulations, a fast stream is sandwiched between two slower streams. The inflow is both supersonic and superAlfvenic. Alfven waves entering the box are convected into the medium and interact nonlinearly with the velocity shear and with any structures (i.e., flux tubes) that might be present. These initial simulations suggest that velocity shear, even in spherical geometry, is able to drive a turbulent cascade which results in approximately Kolmogoroff-like power spectra.
Adaptive Numerical Dissipation Control in High Order Schemes for Multi-D Non-Ideal MHD
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yee, H. C.; Sjoegreen, B.
2005-01-01
The required type and amount of numerical dissipation/filter to accurately resolve all relevant multiscales of complex MHD unsteady high-speed shock/shear/turbulence/combustion problems are not only physical problem dependent, but also vary from one flow region to another. In addition, proper and efficient control of the divergence of the magnetic field (Div(B)) numerical error for high order shock-capturing methods poses extra requirements for the considered type of CPU intensive computations. The goal is to extend our adaptive numerical dissipation control in high order filter schemes and our new divergence-free methods for ideal MHD to non-ideal MHD that include viscosity and resistivity. The key idea consists of automatic detection of different flow features as distinct sensors to signal the appropriate type and amount of numerical dissipation/filter where needed and leave the rest of the region free from numerical dissipation contamination. These scheme-independent detectors are capable of distinguishing shocks/shears, flame sheets, turbulent fluctuations and spurious high-frequency oscillations. The detection algorithm is based on an artificial compression method (ACM) (for shocks/shears), and redundant multiresolution wavelets (WAV) (for the above types of flow feature). These filters also provide a natural and efficient way for the minimization of Div(B) numerical error.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakamizo, A.; Tanaka, T.
2006-12-01
Existing global models of the solar-wind/IMF expanding to the Earth's orbit are basically grounded in the idea of "source surface." It is widely accepted that the sector structure and the solar wind speed are primarily controlled by the magnetic field at the source surface and the so-called "expansion factor." On the other hand, 3-D MHD model is still off from practical use because both of scientific and technical problems. One of the former problems is the reproduction of supersonic solar-wind. From the viewpoint of the physics of the solar wind, coronal heating and outward acceleration mechanisms are invoked to explain the supersonic evolution of the solar wind. Since the mechanism responsible for the heating/acceleration is still one of the primary subjects of the physics of the solar wind, many MHD models have taken into account their effects by incorporating additional source terms corresponding to promising candidates such as thermal conductions, radiation losses and wave pressures. However there are few MHD models considering the effect of the expansion factor, which determines the solar-wind speed in the series of source surface models. In this study we newly incorporate the flux tube expansion rate into the MHD equation system including heat source function in the energy equation. Appling the unstructured grid system, we achieved the dense grid spacing at the inner boundary, which enable us to adopt realistic solar magnetic fields, and a size of simulation space of 1AU. Photospheric magnetic field data is used as the inner boundary condition.The simulation results are summarized as: (1) The variation of solar wind speed is well controlled by the structure of magnetic fields at and little above the solar surface and (2) Far above the solar surface, the interface between high and low speed flows evolves to a structure suggestive of CIRs. Comparing the data from simulation with the actual solar wind data obtained by spacecrafts, we will discuss the future
Filice, Luigino; Gagliardi, Francesco; Umbrello, Domenico; Shivpuri, Rajiv
2007-05-17
Metallic foams represent one of the most exciting materials introduced in the manufacturing scenario in the last years. In the study here addressed, the experimental and numerical investigations on the forging process of a simple foam billet shaped into complex sculptured parts were carried out. In particular, the deformation behavior of metallic foams and the development of density gradients were investigated through a series of experimental forging tests in order to produce a selected portion of a hip prosthesis. The human bone replacement was chosen as case study due to its industrial demand and for its particular 3D complex shape. A finite element code (Deform 3D) was utilized for modeling the foam behavior during the forging process and an accurate material rheology description was used based on a porous material model which includes the measured local density. Once the effectiveness of the utilized Finite Element model was verified through the comparison with the experimental evidences, a numerical study of the influence of the foam density was investigated. The obtained numerical results shown as the initial billet density plays an important role on the prediction of the final shape, the optimization of the flash as well as the estimation of the punch load.
Numerical and experimental investigation of the 3D free surface flow in a model Pelton turbine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiereder, R.; Riemann, S.; Schilling, R.
2010-08-01
This investigation focuses on the numerical and experimental analysis of the 3D free surface flow in a Pelton turbine. In particular, two typical flow conditions occurring in a full scale Pelton turbine - a configuration with a straight inlet as well as a configuration with a 90 degree elbow upstream of the nozzle - are considered. Thereby, the effect of secondary flow due to the 90 degree bending of the upstream pipe on the characteristics of the jet is explored. The hybrid flow field consists of pure liquid flow within the conduit and free surface two component flow of the liquid jet emerging out of the nozzle into air. The numerical results are validated against experimental investigations performed in the laboratory of the Institute of Fluid Mechanics (FLM). For the numerical simulation of the flow the in-house unstructured fully parallelized finite volume solver solver3D is utilized. An advanced interface capturing model based on the classic Volume of Fluid method is applied. In order to ensure sharp interface resolution an additional convection term is added to the transport equation of the volume fraction. A collocated variable arrangement is used and the set of non-linear equations, containing fluid conservation equations and model equations for turbulence and volume fraction, are solved in a segregated manner. For pressure-velocity coupling the SIMPLE and PISO algorithms are implemented. Detailed analysis of the observed flow patterns in the jet and of the jet geometry are presented.
Numerical and experimental study of gas flows in 2D and 3D microchannels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Xiaohui; Huang, Chihyung; Alexeenko, Alina; Sullivan, John
2008-02-01
In the experiments conducted at Purdue, the air flow in rectangular cross-section microchannels was investigated using pressure sensitive paint. The high resolution pressure measurements were obtained for inlet-to-outlet pressure ratios from 1.76 to 20 with the outlet Knudsen numbers in the range from 0.003 to 0.4 based on the hydraulic diameter of 151.7 µm and the length-to-height ratio of about 50. In the slip flow regime, the air flow was simulated by the 2D and 3D Navier-Stokes equations with no-slip and slip boundary conditions. For various pressure ratios, the entrance flow development, compressibility and rarefaction effects were observed in both experiments and numerical simulations. It was found that the accurate modeling of gas flows in finite-length channels requires the inlet and outlet reservoirs to be included in computations. Effects of entrance geometry on the friction factor were studied for 3D cases. In both experiments and numerical modeling, significant pressure drop was found starting at the inlet chamber. The numerical modeling also predicted an apparent temperature drop at the channel exit.
Numerical simulation of the 3D unsteady turbulent flow in a combustion chamber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stuparu, Adrian; Holotescu, Sorin
2011-06-01
The influence of turbulence models on the 3D unsteady flow in a combustion chamber with a central bluff body is analyzed. Three different turbulence models are used (realizable k-ɛ, Reynolds Stress Model and Large Eddy Simulation) and a comparison is made on the evolution of the velocity field over time. The numerical simulation of the gas flow in the combustion chamber was performed using FLUENT 6.3 software and the computational geometry, consisting of a structured mesh with 810,000 cells, was built using the pre-processor GAMBIT 2.4. The extent of the recirculation region behind the bluff body was determined for each turbulence model.
Numerical simulation of the 3D unsteady turbulent flow in a combustion chamber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stuparu, Adrian; Holotescu, Sorin
2011-06-01
The influence of turbulence models on the 3D unsteady flow in a combustion chamber with a central bluff body is analyzed. Three different turbulence models are used ( realizable k-ɛ, Reynolds Stress Model and Large Eddy Simulation) and a comparison is made on the evolution of the velocity field over time. The numerical simulation of the gas flow in the combustion chamber was performed using FLUENT 6.3 software and the computational geometry, consisting of a structured mesh with 810,000 cells, was built using the pre-processor GAMBIT 2.4. The extent of the recirculation region behind the bluff body was determined for each turbulence model.
Minimal duality breaking in the Kallen Lehman approach to 3D Ising model: A numerical test
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Astorino, Marco; Canfora, Fabrizio; Martínez, Cristián; Parisi, Luca
2008-06-01
A Kallen-Lehman approach to 3D Ising model is analyzed numerically both at low and high temperatures. It is shown that, even assuming a minimal duality breaking, one can fix three parameters of the model to get a very good agreement with the Monte Carlo results at high temperatures. With the same parameters the agreement is satisfactory both at low and near critical temperatures. How to improve the agreement with Monte Carlo results by introducing a more general duality breaking is shortly discussed.
Numerical investigation of band gaps in 3D printed cantilever-in-mass metamaterials
Qureshi, Awais; Li, Bing; Tan, K. T.
2016-01-01
In this research, the negative effective mass behavior of elastic/mechanical metamaterials is exhibited by a cantilever-in-mass structure as a proposed design for creating frequency stopping band gaps, based on local resonance of the internal structure. The mass-in-mass unit cell model is transformed into a cantilever-in-mass model using the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. An analytical model of the cantilever-in-mass structure is derived and the effects of geometrical dimensions and material parameters to create frequency band gaps are examined. A two-dimensional finite element model is created to validate the analytical results, and excellent agreement is achieved. The analytical model establishes an easily tunable metamaterial design to realize wave attenuation based on locally resonant frequency. To demonstrate feasibility for 3D printing, the analytical model is employed to design and fabricate 3D printable mechanical metamaterial. A three-dimensional numerical experiment is performed using COMSOL Multiphysics to validate the wave attenuation performance. Results show that the cantilever-in-mass metamaterial is capable of mitigating stress waves at the desired resonance frequency. Our study successfully presents the use of one constituent material to create a 3D printed cantilever-in-mass metamaterial with negative effective mass density for stress wave mitigation purposes. PMID:27329828
Volatile transport on inhomogeneous surfaces: II. Numerical calculations (VT3D)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Young, Leslie A.
2017-03-01
Several distant icy worlds have atmospheres that are in vapor-pressure equilibrium with their surface volatiles, including Pluto, Triton, and, probably, several large KBOs near perihelion. Studies of the volatile and thermal evolution of these have been limited by computational speed, especially for models that treat surfaces that vary with both latitude and longitude. In order to expedite such work, I present a new numerical model for the seasonal behavior of Pluto and Triton which (i) uses initial conditions that improve convergence, (ii) uses an expedient method for handling the transition between global and non-global atmospheres, (iii) includes local conservation of energy and global conservation of mass to partition energy between heating, conduction, and sublimation or condensation, (iv) uses time-stepping algorithms that ensure stability while allowing larger timesteps, and (v) can include longitudinal variability. This model, called VT3D, has been used in Young (2012a, 2012b), Young (2013), Olkin et al. (2015), Young and McKinnon (2013), and French et al. (2015). Many elements of VT3D can be used independently. For example, VT3D can also be used to speed up thermophysical models (Spencer et al., 1989) for bodies without volatiles. Code implementation is included in the supplemental materials and is available from the author.
Numerical investigation of band gaps in 3D printed cantilever-in-mass metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qureshi, Awais; Li, Bing; Tan, K. T.
2016-06-01
In this research, the negative effective mass behavior of elastic/mechanical metamaterials is exhibited by a cantilever-in-mass structure as a proposed design for creating frequency stopping band gaps, based on local resonance of the internal structure. The mass-in-mass unit cell model is transformed into a cantilever-in-mass model using the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. An analytical model of the cantilever-in-mass structure is derived and the effects of geometrical dimensions and material parameters to create frequency band gaps are examined. A two-dimensional finite element model is created to validate the analytical results, and excellent agreement is achieved. The analytical model establishes an easily tunable metamaterial design to realize wave attenuation based on locally resonant frequency. To demonstrate feasibility for 3D printing, the analytical model is employed to design and fabricate 3D printable mechanical metamaterial. A three-dimensional numerical experiment is performed using COMSOL Multiphysics to validate the wave attenuation performance. Results show that the cantilever-in-mass metamaterial is capable of mitigating stress waves at the desired resonance frequency. Our study successfully presents the use of one constituent material to create a 3D printed cantilever-in-mass metamaterial with negative effective mass density for stress wave mitigation purposes.
NuSol - Numerical solver for the 3D stationary nuclear Schrödinger equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graen, Timo; Grubmüller, Helmut
2016-01-01
The classification of short hydrogen bonds depends on several factors including the shape and energy spacing between the nuclear eigenstates of the hydrogen. Here, we describe the NuSol program in which three classes of algorithms were implemented to solve the 1D, 2D and 3D time independent nuclear Schrödinger equation. The Schrödinger equation was solved using the finite differences based Numerov's method which was extended to higher dimensions, the more accurate pseudo-spectral Chebyshev collocation method and the sinc discrete variable representation by Colbert and Miller. NuSol can be applied to solve the Schrödinger equation for arbitrary analytical or numerical potentials with focus on nuclei bound by the potential of their molecular environment. We validated the methods against literature values for the 2D Henon-Heiles potential, the 3D linearly coupled sextic oscillators and applied them to study hydrogen bonding in the malonaldehyde derivate 4-cyano-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione. With NuSol, the extent of nuclear delocalization in a given molecular potential can directly be calculated without relying on linear reaction coordinates in 3D molecular space.
On the Measurements of Numerical Viscosity and Resistivity in Eulerian MHD Codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rembiasz, Tomasz; Obergaulinger, Martin; Cerdá-Durán, Pablo; Aloy, Miguel-Ángel; Müller, Ewald
2017-06-01
We propose a simple ansatz for estimating the value of the numerical resistivity and the numerical viscosity of any Eulerian MHD code. We test this ansatz with the help of simulations of the propagation of (magneto)sonic waves, Alfvén waves, and the tearing mode (TM) instability using the MHD code Aenus. By comparing the simulation results with analytical solutions of the resistive-viscous MHD equations and an empirical ansatz for the growth rate of TMs, we measure the numerical viscosity and resistivity of Aenus. The comparison shows that the fast magnetosonic speed and wavelength are the characteristic velocity and length, respectively, of the aforementioned (relatively simple) systems. We also determine the dependence of the numerical viscosity and resistivity on the time integration method, the spatial reconstruction scheme and (to a lesser extent) the Riemann solver employed in the simulations. From the measured results, we infer the numerical resolution (as a function of the spatial reconstruction method) required to properly resolve the growth and saturation level of the magnetic field amplified by the magnetorotational instability in the post-collapsed core of massive stars. Our results show that it is most advantageous to resort to ultra-high-order methods (e.g., the ninth-order monotonicity-preserving method) to tackle this problem properly, in particular, in three-dimensional simulations.
Towards more realistic 2D & 3D numerical models of Earth's mantle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghias, Sanaz
2011-12-01
There are a number of simplifying assumptions in modeling Earth's deep interior. These are mostly simplifying assumptions that make the mathematics simpler either for less complicated modeling or for numerical efficiency purposes. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of some of these simplifying assumptions on 2D and 3D mantle convection models. In particular, the cases with variable coefficients of thermal expansion, alpha, and the inclusion of mineral phase transitions and viscosity stratification have been studied. The coefficient of thermal expansion is temperature- and depth-dependent in Earth. But for simplicity, it has been considered as constant in most mantle convection models and only depth-dependent in others. 2D mantle convection models (2D Cartesian and 2D cylindrical) have been created based on an existing model from Jarvis [1992] to investigate the effects of temperature- and depth-dependent alpha on mantle convection compared with the simplified cases. Also an existing version of a 3D parallel mantle convection model, MC3D, from Lowman et al. [2001] have been modified to include the temperature- and depth-dependent alpha. In the 3D study it has also been investigated that how the effects of temperature- and depth-dependent alpha vary with or without lithospheric plates. There are at least two mineral phase transitions in Earth. There is an exothermic phase boundary at 410km below the surface and an endothermic phase boundary at 660km below the surface. For simplicity, most mantle convection models do not consider any of the phase boundaries. Some consider only the endothermic phase boundary. A 2D cylindrical model from Shahnas and Jarvas [2005] has been employed to investigate the effects of considering both phase boundaries compared to models with either no, or one, phase boundary. Different viscosity stratifications have been used in addition to the phase boundaries.
Numerical Solution of Boundary Layer MHD Flow with Viscous Dissipation
Mishra, S. R.; Jena, S.
2014-01-01
The present paper deals with a steady two-dimensional laminar flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid over a shrinking sheet in the presence of uniform transverse magnetic field with viscous dissipation. Using suitable similarity transformations the governing partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations and then solved numerically by fourth-order Runge-Kutta method with shooting technique. Results for velocity and temperature profiles for different values of the governing parameters have been discussed in detail with graphical representation. The numerical evaluation of skin friction and Nusselt number are also given in this paper. PMID:24672367
Parareal in time 3D numerical solver for the LWR Benchmark neutron diffusion transient model
Baudron, Anne-Marie; Riahi, Mohamed Kamel; Salomon, Julien
2014-12-15
In this paper we present a time-parallel algorithm for the 3D neutrons calculation of a transient model in a nuclear reactor core. The neutrons calculation consists in numerically solving the time dependent diffusion approximation equation, which is a simplified transport equation. The numerical resolution is done with finite elements method based on a tetrahedral meshing of the computational domain, representing the reactor core, and time discretization is achieved using a θ-scheme. The transient model presents moving control rods during the time of the reaction. Therefore, cross-sections (piecewise constants) are taken into account by interpolations with respect to the velocity of the control rods. The parallelism across the time is achieved by an adequate use of the parareal in time algorithm to the handled problem. This parallel method is a predictor corrector scheme that iteratively combines the use of two kinds of numerical propagators, one coarse and one fine. Our method is made efficient by means of a coarse solver defined with large time step and fixed position control rods model, while the fine propagator is assumed to be a high order numerical approximation of the full model. The parallel implementation of our method provides a good scalability of the algorithm. Numerical results show the efficiency of the parareal method on large light water reactor transient model corresponding to the Langenbuch–Maurer–Werner benchmark.
Effect of Frictions on the Ballistic Performance of a 3D Warp Interlock Fabric: Numerical Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ha-Minh, Cuong; Boussu, François; Kanit, Toufik; Crépin, David; Imad, Abdellatif
2012-06-01
3D interlock woven fabrics are promising materials to replace the 2D structures in the field of ballistic protection. The structural complexity of this material caused many difficulties in numerical modeling. This paper presents a new tool that permits to generate a geometry model of any woven fabric, then, mesh this model in shell or solid elements, and apply the mechanical properties of yarns to them. The tool shows many advantages over existing software. It is very handy in use with an organization of the functions in menu and using a graphic interface. It can describe correctly the geometry of all textile woven fabrics. With this tool, the orientation of the local axes of finite elements following the yarn direction facilitates defining the yarn mechanical properties in a numerical model. This tool can be largely applied because it is compatible with popular finite element codes such as Abaqus, Ansys, Radioss etc. Thanks to this tool, a finite element model was carried out to describe a ballistic impact on a 3D warp interlock Kevlar KM2® fabric. This work focuses on studying the effect of friction onto the ballistic impact behavior of this textile interlock structure. Results showed that the friction among yarns affects considerably on the impact behavior of this fabric. The effect of the friction between projectile and yarn is less important. The friction plays an important role in keeping the fabric structural stability during the impact event. This phenomenon explained why the projectile is easier to penetrate this 3D warp interlock fabric in the no-friction case. This result also indicates that the ballistic performance of the interlock woven fabrics can be improved by using fibers with great friction coefficients.
Local seismic hazard assessment in explosive volcanic settings by 3D numerical analyses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Razzano, Roberto; Pagliaroli, Alessandro; Moscatelli, Massimiliano; Gaudiosi, Iolanda; Avalle, Alessandra; Giallini, Silvia; Marcini, Marco; Polpetta, Federica; Simionato, Maurizio; Sirianni, Pietro; Sottili, Gianluca; Vignaroli, Gianluca; Bellanova, Jessica; Calamita, Giuseppe; Perrone, Angela; Piscitelli, Sabatino
2017-04-01
This work deals with the assessment of local seismic response in the explosive volcanic settings by reconstructing the subsoil model of the Stracciacappa maar (Sabatini Volcanic District, central Italy), whose pyroclastic succession records eruptive phases ended about 0.09 Ma ago. Heterogeneous characteristics of the Stracciacappa maar (stratification, structural setting, lithotypes, and thickness variation of depositional units) make it an ideal case history for understanding mechanisms and processes leading to modifications of amplitude-frequency-duration of seismic waves generated at earthquake sources and propagating through volcanic settings. New geological map and cross sections, constrained with recently acquired geotechnical and geophysical data, illustrate the complex geometric relationships among different depositional units forming the maar. A composite interfingering between internal lacustrine sediments and epiclastic debris, sourced from the rim, fills the crater floor; a 45 meters thick continuous coring borehole was drilled in the maar with sampling of undisturbed samples. Electrical Resistivity Tomography surveys and 2D passive seismic arrays were also carried out for constraining the geological model and the velocity profile of the S-waves, respectively. Single station noise measurements were collected in order to define natural amplification frequencies. Finally, the nonlinear cyclic soil behaviour was investigated through simple shear tests on the undisturbed samples. The collected dataset was used to define the subsoil model for 3D finite difference site response numerical analyses by using FLAC 3D software (ITASCA). Moreover, 1D and 2D numerical analyses were carried out for comparison purposes. Two different scenarios were selected as input motions: a moderate magnitude (volcanic event) and a high magnitude (tectonic event). Both earthquake scenarios revealed significant ground motion amplification (up to 15 in terms of spectral acceleration
Rayleigh Wave Numerical Dispersion in a 3D Finite-Difference Algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Preston, L. A.; Aldridge, D. F.
2010-12-01
A Rayleigh wave propagates laterally without dispersion in the vicinity of the plane stress-free surface of a homogeneous and isotropic elastic halfspace. The phase speed is independent of frequency and depends only on the Poisson ratio of the medium. However, after temporal and spatial discretization, a Rayleigh wave simulated by a 3D staggered-grid finite-difference (FD) seismic wave propagation algorithm suffers from frequency- and direction-dependent numerical dispersion. The magnitude of this dispersion depends critically on FD algorithm implementation details. Nevertheless, proper gridding can control numerical dispersion to within an acceptable level, leading to accurate Rayleigh wave simulations. Many investigators have derived dispersion relations appropriate for body wave propagation by various FD algorithms. However, the situation for surface waves is less well-studied. We have devised a numerical search procedure to estimate Rayleigh phase speed and group speed curves for 3D O(2,2) and O(2,4) staggered-grid FD algorithms. In contrast with the continuous time-space situation (where phase speed is obtained by extracting the appropriate root of the Rayleigh cubic), we cannot develop a closed-form mathematical formula governing the phase speed. Rather, we numerically seek the particular phase speed that leads to a solution of the discrete wave propagation equations, while holding medium properties, frequency, horizontal propagation direction, and gridding intervals fixed. Group speed is then obtained by numerically differentiating the phase speed with respect to frequency. The problem is formulated for an explicit stress-free surface positioned at two different levels within the staggered spatial grid. Additionally, an interesting variant involving zero-valued medium properties above the surface is addressed. We refer to the latter as an implicit free surface. Our preliminary conclusion is that an explicit free surface, implemented with O(4) spatial FD
Implementation of a 3d numerical model of a folded multilayer carbonate aquifer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Salvo, Cristina; Guyennon, Nicolas; Romano, Emanuele; Bruna Petrangeli, Anna; Preziosi, Elisabetta
2016-04-01
The main objective of this research is to present a case study of the numerical model implementation of a complex carbonate, structurally folded aquifer, with a finite difference, porous equivalent model. The case study aquifer (which extends over 235 km2 in the Apennine chain, Central Italy) provides a long term average of 3.5 m3/s of good quality groundwater to the surface river network, sustaining the minimum vital flow, and it is planned to be exploited in the next years for public water supply. In the downstream part of the river in the study area, a "Site of Community Importance" include the Nera River for its valuable aquatic fauna. However, the possible negative effects of the foreseen exploitation on groundwater dependent ecosystems are a great concern and model grounded scenarios are needed. This multilayer aquifer was conceptualized as five hydrostratigraphic units: three main aquifers (the uppermost unconfined, the central and the deepest partly confined), are separated by two locally discontinuous aquitards. The Nera river cuts through the two upper aquifers and acts as the main natural sink for groundwater. An equivalent porous medium approach was chosen. The complex tectonic structure of the aquifer requires several steps in defining the conceptual model; the presence of strongly dipping layers with very heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity, results in different thicknesses of saturated portions. Aquifers can have both unconfined or confined zones; drying and rewetting must be allowed when considering recharge/discharge cycles. All these characteristics can be included in the conceptual and numerical model; however, being the number of flow and head target scarce, the over-parametrization of the model must be avoided. Following the principle of parsimony, three steady state numerical models were developed, starting from a simple model, and then adding complexity: 2D (single layer), QUASI -3D (with leackage term simulating flow through aquitards) and
Numerical simulation of MHD shock waves in the solar wind
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steinolfson, R. S.; Dryer, M.
1978-01-01
The effects of the interplanetary magnetic field on the propagation speed of shock waves through an ambient solar wind are examined by numerical solutions of the time-dependent nonlinear equations of motion. The magnetic field always increases the velocity of strong shocks. Although the field may temporarily slow down weak shocks inside 1 AU, it eventually also causes weak shocks to travel faster than they would without the magnetic field at larger distances. Consistent with the increase in the shock velocity, the gas pressure ratio across a shock is reduced considerably in the presence of the magnetic field. The numerical method is used to simulate (starting at 0.3 AU) the large deceleration of a shock observed in the lower corona by ground-based radio instrumentation and the more gradual deceleration of the shock in the solar wind observed by the Pioneer 9 and Pioneer 10 spacecraft.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reiman, Allan H.
2016-07-01
In toroidal, magnetically confined plasmas, the heat and particle transport is strongly anisotropic, with transport along the field lines sufficiently strong relative to cross-field transport that the equilibrium pressure can generally be regarded as constant on the flux surfaces in much of the plasma. The regions near small magnetic islands, and those near the X-lines of larger islands, are exceptions, having a significant variation of the pressure within the flux surfaces. It is shown here that the variation of the equilibrium pressure within the flux surfaces in those regions has significant consequences for the pressure driven currents. It is further shown that the consequences are strongly affected by the symmetry of the magnetic field if the field is invariant under combined reflection in the poloidal and toroidal angles. (This symmetry property is called "stellarator symmetry.") In non-stellarator-symmetric equilibria, the pressure-driven currents have logarithmic singularities at the X-lines. In stellarator-symmetric MHD equilibria, the singular components of the pressure-driven currents vanish. These equilibria are to be contrasted with equilibria having B ṡ∇p =0 , where the singular components of the pressure-driven currents vanish regardless of the symmetry. They are also to be contrasted with 3D MHD equilibrium solutions that are constrained to have simply nested flux surfaces, where the pressure-driven current goes like 1 /x near rational surfaces, where x is the distance from the rational surface, except in the case of quasi-symmetric flux surfaces. For the purpose of calculating the pressure-driven currents near magnetic islands, we work with a closed subset of the MHD equilibrium equations that involves only perpendicular force balance, and is decoupled from parallel force balance. It is not correct to use the parallel component of the conventional MHD force balance equation, B ṡ∇p =0 , near magnetic islands. Small but nonzero values of B
Numerical Stability Analysis of Linear Wave Propagation in Extended MHD Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gan, Yu; Jardin, Stephen
2006-10-01
Extended MHD (2-fluid) modeling of fusion plasmas using a split semi-implicit time-advance based on a particular high-order finite element with C^1 continuity has been shown to offer significant advantages in efficiency and accuracy[1,2]. However, the method requires the introduction of several viscosity and hyper-viscosity coefficients to provide robust numerical stability. As a code-validation exercise, we report on a systematic study of the simulation of wave propagation in the linear regime. We initialize the simulation in a stable linear eigenmode of the extended MHD equations and follow the evolution to measure the numerical dispersion relation for the 3 sets of MHD waves. We present results showing how the stability, dispersion and dissipation depend on grid size, time step, and the magnitude of the viscosity and hyper-viscosity coefficients. These linear perturbation tests act as useful benchmarks and guides for numerical stability for nonlinear simulations. [1] S. Jardin, J. Comput. Phys. 200 (2004) 133 [2] S. Jardin and J. Breslau, Phys. Plasmas 12, 056101 (2005)
Terascale direct numerical simulations of turbulent combustion using S3D.
Sankaran, Ramanan; Mellor-Crummy, J.; DeVries, M.; Yoo, Chun Sang; Ma, K. L.; Podhorski, N.; Liao, W. K.; Klasky, S.; de Supinski, B.; Choudhary, A.; Hawkes, Evatt R.; Chen, Jacqueline H.; Shende, Sameer
2008-08-01
Computational science is paramount to the understanding of underlying processes in internal combustion engines of the future that will utilize non-petroleum-based alternative fuels, including carbon-neutral biofuels, and burn in new combustion regimes that will attain high efficiency while minimizing emissions of particulates and nitrogen oxides. Next-generation engines will likely operate at higher pressures, with greater amounts of dilution and utilize alternative fuels that exhibit a wide range of chemical and physical properties. Therefore, there is a significant role for high-fidelity simulations, direct numerical simulations (DNS), specifically designed to capture key turbulence-chemistry interactions in these relatively uncharted combustion regimes, and in particular, that can discriminate the effects of differences in fuel properties. In DNS, all of the relevant turbulence and flame scales are resolved numerically using high-order accurate numerical algorithms. As a consequence terascale DNS are computationally intensive, require massive amounts of computing power and generate tens of terabytes of data. Recent results from terascale DNS of turbulent flames are presented here, illustrating its role in elucidating flame stabilization mechanisms in a lifted turbulent hydrogen/air jet flame in a hot air co-flow, and the flame structure of a fuel-lean turbulent premixed jet flame. Computing at this scale requires close collaborations between computer and combustion scientists to provide optimized scaleable algorithms and software for terascale simulations, efficient collective parallel I/O, tools for volume visualization of multiscale, multivariate data and automating the combustion workflow. The enabling computer science, applied to combustion science, is also required in many other terascale physics and engineering simulations. In particular, performance monitoring is used to identify the performance of key kernels in the DNS code, S3D and especially memory
Terascale direct numerical simulations of turbulent combustion using S3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, J. H.; Choudhary, A.; de Supinski, B.; DeVries, M.; Hawkes, E. R.; Klasky, S.; Liao, W. K.; Ma, K. L.; Mellor-Crummey, J.; Podhorszki, N.; Sankaran, R.; Shende, S.; Yoo, C. S.
2009-01-01
Computational science is paramount to the understanding of underlying processes in internal combustion engines of the future that will utilize non-petroleum-based alternative fuels, including carbon-neutral biofuels, and burn in new combustion regimes that will attain high efficiency while minimizing emissions of particulates and nitrogen oxides. Next-generation engines will likely operate at higher pressures, with greater amounts of dilution and utilize alternative fuels that exhibit a wide range of chemical and physical properties. Therefore, there is a significant role for high-fidelity simulations, direct numerical simulations (DNS), specifically designed to capture key turbulence-chemistry interactions in these relatively uncharted combustion regimes, and in particular, that can discriminate the effects of differences in fuel properties. In DNS, all of the relevant turbulence and flame scales are resolved numerically using high-order accurate numerical algorithms. As a consequence terascale DNS are computationally intensive, require massive amounts of computing power and generate tens of terabytes of data. Recent results from terascale DNS of turbulent flames are presented here, illustrating its role in elucidating flame stabilization mechanisms in a lifted turbulent hydrogen/air jet flame in a hot air coflow, and the flame structure of a fuel-lean turbulent premixed jet flame. Computing at this scale requires close collaborations between computer and combustion scientists to provide optimized scaleable algorithms and software for terascale simulations, efficient collective parallel I/O, tools for volume visualization of multiscale, multivariate data and automating the combustion workflow. The enabling computer science, applied to combustion science, is also required in many other terascale physics and engineering simulations. In particular, performance monitoring is used to identify the performance of key kernels in the DNS code, S3D and especially memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Howell, S. M.; Ito, G.; Behn, M. D.; Olive, J. A. L.; Kaus, B.; Popov, A.; Mittelstaedt, E. L.; Morrow, T. A.
2016-12-01
Previous two-dimensional (2-D) modeling studies of abyssal-hill scale fault generation and evolution at mid-ocean ridges have predicted that M, the ratio of magmatic to total extension, strongly influences the total slip, spacing, and rotation of large faults, as well as the morphology of the ridge axis. Scaling relations derived from these 2-D models broadly explain the globally observed decrease in abyssal hill spacing with increasing ridge spreading rate, as well as the formation of large-offset faults close to the ends of slow-spreading ridge segments. However, these scaling relations do not explain some higher resolution observations of segment-scale variability in fault spacing along the Chile Ridge and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, where fault spacing shows no obvious correlation with M. This discrepancy between observations and 2-D model predictions illuminates the need for three-dimensional (3-D) numerical models that incorporate the effects of along-axis variations in lithospheric structure and magmatic accretion. To this end, we use the geodynamic modeling software LaMEM to simulate 3-D tectono-magmatic interactions in a visco-elasto-plastic lithosphere under extension. We model a single ridge segment subjected to an along-axis gradient in the rate of magma injection, which is simulated by imposing a mass source in a plane of model finite volumes beneath the ridge axis. Outputs of interest include characteristic fault offset, spacing, and along-axis gradients in seafloor morphology. We also examine the effects of along-axis variations in lithospheric thickness and off-axis thickening rate. The main objectives of this study are to quantify the relative importance of the amount of magmatic extension and the local lithospheric structure at a given along-axis location, versus the importance of along-axis communication of lithospheric stresses on the 3-D fault evolution and morphology of intermediate-spreading-rate ridges.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burtnyk, Mathieu; N'Djin, William Apoutou; Kobelevskiy, Ilya; Bronskill, Michael; Chopra, Rajiv
2011-09-01
MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy uses a linear array of transducer elements and active temperature feedback to create volumes of thermal coagulation shaped to predefined prostate geometries in 3-D. Numerical simulations have been used to determine robust feedback control algorithms, optimal transducer designs, effects of various tissue and imaging parameters, as well as to evaluate potential treatment accuracy and safety in patient-specific anatomical models. The goal of this work is to evaluate quantitatively the accuracy with which these numerical simulations predict the extent, shape and temperature pattern of 3-D heating produced in tissue-mimicking Zerdine* gel phantoms. Methods. Eleven experiments were performed in a 1.5T MRI scanner. Temperature feedback was used to control the rotation rate and ultrasound power of a transurethral device with five 3.5×5 mm transducer elements. Heating patterns shaped to 23 and 11 cc human prostate geometries were generated using devices operating at 4.7 and 8.0 MHz, respectively, and 10 W/cm2 surface acoustic intensity. Transducer surface velocity measurements were acquired using a vibrometer and used to calculate the resulting acoustic pressure distribution in gel. Temperature dynamics were determined according to a FDTD solution to Pennes' BHTE. Results. The numerical simulations predicted the extent and shape of the coagulation boundary produced in gel to within (mean±stdev [min, max]): 0.1±0.4 [-1.4, 1.7] and 0.0±0.3 [-1.0, 1.5] mm for the treatments at 4.7 and 8.0 MHz, respectively. The temperatures across all MRI thermometry images were predicted to within 10%, and the treatment time (˜20 min) to within 20%. The simulations showed excellent agreement in regions of sharp temperature gradients, near the transurethral and endorectal devices. Conclusion. Heating patterns predicted by the numerical simulations correspond closely to those produced experimentally in gel. This work quantifies the accuracy and
3D numerical simulation of the evolutionary process of aeolian downsized crescent-shaped dunes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Xiaosi; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Yuan; Li, Min
2016-06-01
A dune constitutive model was coupled with a large eddy simulation (LES) with the Smagorinsky subgrid-scale (SGS) model to accurately describe the evolutionary process of dunes from the macroscopic perspective of morphological dynamics. A 3D numerical simulation of the evolution of aeolian downsized crescent-shaped dunes was then performed. The evolution of the 3D structure of Gaussian-shaped dunes was simulated under the influence of gravity modulation, which was the same with the vertical oscillation of the sand bed to adjust the threshold of sand grain liftoff in wind tunnel experiments under the same wind speed. The influence of gravity modulation intensity on the characteristic scale parameter of the dune was discussed. Results indicated that the crescent shape of the dune was reproduced with the action of gravity during regulation of the saturation of wind-sand flow at specific times. The crescent shape was not dynamically maintained as time passed, and the dunes dwindled until they reached final decomposition because of wind erosion. The height of the dunes decreased over time, and the height-time curve converged as the intensity of modulation increased linearly. The results qualitatively agreed with those obtained from wind tunnel experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Guangming; Liu, Chang; Cai, Deng'an; Li, Wenlong; Wang, Xiaopei
2016-11-01
An experimental, theoretical and numerical investigation on the shear behavior of 3D woven hollow integrated sandwich composites was presented in this paper. The microstructure of the composites was studied, then the shear modulus and load-deflection curves were obtained by double lap shear tests on the specimens in two principal directions of the sandwich panels, called warp and weft. The experimental results showed that the shear modulus of the warp was higher than that of the weft and the failure occurred in the roots of piles. A finite element model was established to predict the shear behavior of the composites. The simulated results agreed well with the experimental data. Simultaneously, a theoretical method was developed to predict the shear modulus. By comparing with the experimental data, the accuracy of the theoretical method was verified. The influence of structural parameters on shear modulus was also discussed. The higher yarn number, yarn density and dip angle of the piles could all improve the shear modulus of 3D woven hollow integrated sandwich composites at different levels, while the increasing height would decrease the shear modulus.
Early Earth plume-lid tectonics: A high-resolution 3D numerical modelling approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischer, R.; Gerya, T.
2016-10-01
Geological-geochemical evidence point towards higher mantle potential temperature and a different type of tectonics (global plume-lid tectonics) in the early Earth (>3.2 Ga) compared to the present day (global plate tectonics). In order to investigate tectono-magmatic processes associated with plume-lid tectonics and crustal growth under hotter mantle temperature conditions, we conduct a series of 3D high-resolution magmatic-thermomechanical models with the finite-difference code I3ELVIS. No external plate tectonic forces are applied to isolate 3D effects of various plume-lithosphere and crust-mantle interactions. Results of the numerical experiments show two distinct phases in coupled crust-mantle evolution: (1) a longer (80-100 Myr) and relatively quiet 'growth phase' which is marked by growth of crust and lithosphere, followed by (2) a short (∼20 Myr) and catastrophic 'removal phase', where unstable parts of the crust and mantle lithosphere are removed by eclogitic dripping and later delamination. This modelling suggests that the early Earth plume-lid tectonic regime followed a pattern of episodic growth and removal also called episodic overturn with a periodicity of ∼100 Myr.
3D Numerical Study of the Shear Rheology of a Semi-dilute Viscoelastic Suspension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Mengfei; Krishnan, Sreenath; Shaqfeh, Eric
2016-11-01
The stress in suspensions of rigid particles in polymer solutions is of considerable interest in applications such as manufacturing processes and fracturing technologies. Deriving an analytic expression for the material functions of a viscoelastic suspension under shear is difficult due to the nonlinear particle-fluid and particle-particle interactions, and theoretical studies have been limited to dilute suspensions at low shear Weissenberg number (Wi) or low polymer concentrations. Previously, we performed 3D single-particle simulations and showed that the results agreed well with the existing theories in the appropriate parameter regimes. We found that suspensions in constant-viscosity elastic fluids shear-thicken over a range of Wi and their material properties plateau at higher Wi. However, discrepancies between simulation and existing experimental measurements for volume fractions as low as 2.5% suggested that interparticle hydrodynamic interactions could not be neglected. We now present 3D high fidelity numerical simulations of multiple spheres freely suspended in a sheared viscoelastic fluid using an immersed boundary framework to study the relationship between hydrodynamic interactions, particle structure formation, and the bulk rheology of viscoelastic suspensions. We observe that in a non-shear thinning elastic fluid, particles do not "chain", but their interactions induce additional polymer stresses in the fluid which contribute to a stronger particle effect than predicted in the dilute limit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Jian; Zhou, Guangming; Ji, Le; Wang, Xiaopei
2017-03-01
Mechanical properties and failure mechanisms of a newly designed 3D multi-layer braided composites are evaluated by experimental, numerical and theoretical studies. The microstructure of the composites is introduced. The unit cell technique is employed to address the periodic arrangement of the structure. The volume averaging method is used in theoretical solutions while FEM with reasonable periodic boundary conditions and meshing technique in numerical simulations. Experimental studies are also conducted to verify the feasibility of the proposed models. Predicted elastic properties agree well with the experimental data, indicating the feasibility of the proposed models. Numerical evaluation is more accurate than theoretical assessment. Deformations and stress distributions of the unit cell under tension shows displacement and traction continuity, guaranteeing the rationality of the applied periodic boundary conditions. Although compression and tension modulus are close, the compressive strength only reaches 70% of the tension strength. This indicates that the composites can be weakened in compressive loading. Additionally, by analysing the micrograph of fracture faces and strain-stress curves, a brittle failure mechanism is observed both in composites under tension and compression.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filice, Luigino; Gagliardi, Francesco; Shivpuri, Rajiv; Umbrello, Domenico
2007-05-01
Metallic foams represent one of the most exciting materials introduced in the manufacturing scenario in the last years. In the study here addressed, the experimental and numerical investigations on the forging process of a simple foam billet shaped into complex sculptured parts were carried out. In particular, the deformation behavior of metallic foams and the development of density gradients were investigated through a series of experimental forging tests in order to produce a selected portion of a hip prosthesis. The human bone replacement was chosen as case study due to its industrial demand and for its particular 3D complex shape. A finite element code (Deform 3D®) was utilized for modeling the foam behavior during the forging process and an accurate material rheology description was used based on a porous material model which includes the measured local density. Once the effectiveness of the utilized Finite Element model was verified through the comparison with the experimental evidences, a numerical study of the influence of the foam density was investigated. The obtained numerical results shown as the initial billet density plays an important role on the prediction of the final shape, the optimization of the flash as well as the estimation of the punch load.
Slab detachment in laterally varying subduction zones: 3-D numerical modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duretz, T.; Gerya, T. V.; Spakman, W.
2014-03-01
Understanding the three-dimensional (3-D) dynamics of subduction-collision systems is a longstanding challenge in geodynamics. We investigate the impact of slab detachment in collision systems that are subjected to along-trench variations. High-resolution thermomechanical numerical models, encompassing experimentally derived flow laws and a pseudo free surface, are employed to unravel lithospheric and topographic evolutions. First, we consider coeval subduction of adjacent continental and oceanic lithospheres (SCO). This configuration yields to two-stage slab detachment during collision, topographic buildup and extrusion, variable along-trench convergence rates, and associated trench deformation. The second setting considers a convergent margin, which is laterally limited by a transform boundary (STB). Such collisional system is affected by a single slab detachment, little trench deformation, and moderately confined upper plate topography. The effect of initial thermal slab age on SCO and STB models are explored. Similarities with natural analogs along the Arabia-Eurasia collision are discussed.
Temperature distributions in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell from 3-D numerical modeling
Rainey, E. S. G.; Kavner, A.; Hernlund, J. W.
2013-11-28
We present TempDAC, a 3-D numerical model for calculating the steady-state temperature distribution for continuous wave laser-heated experiments in the diamond anvil cell. TempDAC solves the steady heat conduction equation in three dimensions over the sample chamber, gasket, and diamond anvils and includes material-, temperature-, and direction-dependent thermal conductivity, while allowing for flexible sample geometries, laser beam intensity profile, and laser absorption properties. The model has been validated against an axisymmetric analytic solution for the temperature distribution within a laser-heated sample. Example calculations illustrate the importance of considering heat flow in three dimensions for the laser-heated diamond anvil cell. In particular, we show that a “flat top” input laser beam profile does not lead to a more uniform temperature distribution or flatter temperature gradients than a wide Gaussian laser beam.
Numerical modeling of time domain 3-D problems in accelerator physics
Harfoush, F.A.; Jurgens, T.G.
1990-06-01
Time domain analysis is relevant in particle accelerators to study the electromagnetic field interaction of a moving source particle on a lagging test particle as the particles pass an accelerating cavity or some other structure. These fields are called wake fields. The travelling beam inside a beam pipe may undergo more complicated interactions with its environment due to the presence of other irregularities like wires, thin slots, joints and other types of obstacles. Analytical solutions of such problems is impossible and one has to resort to a numerical method. In this paper we present results of our first attempt to model these problems in 3-D using our finite difference time domain (FDTD) code. 10 refs., 9 figs.
3D numerical investigation on landslide generated tsunamis around a conical island
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montagna, Francesca; Bellotti, Giorgio
2010-05-01
This paper presents numerical computations of tsunamis generated by subaerial and submerged landslides falling along the flank of a conical island. The study is inspired by the tsunamis that on 30th December 2002 attacked the coast of the volcanic island of Stromboli (South Tyrrhenian sea, Italy). In particular this paper analyzes the important feature of the lateral spreading of landside generated tsunamis and the associated flooding hazard. The numerical model used in this study is the full three dimensional commercial code FLOW-3D. The model has already been successfully used (Choi et al., 2007; 2008; Chopakatla et al, 2008) to study the interaction of waves and structures. In the simulations carried out in this work a particular feature of the code has been employed: the GMO (General Moving Object) algorithm. It allows to reproduce the interaction between moving objects, as a landslide, and the water. FLOW-3D has been firstly validated using available 3D experiments reproducing tsunamis generated by landslides at the flank of a conical island. The experiments have been carried out in the LIC laboratory of the Polytechnic of Bari, Italy (Di Risio et al., 2009). Numerical and experimental time series of run-up and sea level recorded at gauges located at the flanks of the island and offshore have been successfully compared. This analysis shows that the model can accurately represent the generation, the propagation and the inundation of landslide generated tsunamis and suggests the use of the numerical model as a tool for preparing inundation maps. At the conference we will present the validation of the model and parametric analyses aimed to investigate how wave properties depend on the landslide kinematic and on further parameters such as the landslide volume and shape, as well as the radius of the island. The expected final results of the research are precomputed inundation maps that depend on the characteristics of the landslide and of the island. Finally we
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panov, L. V.; Chirkov, D. V.; Cherny, S. G.; Pylev, I. M.
2014-01-01
A new approach was proposed for simulation of unsteady cavitating flow in the flow passage of a hydraulic power plant. 1D hydro-acoustics equations are solved in the penstock domain. 3D equations of turbulent flow of isothermal compressible liquid-vapor mixture are solved in the turbine domain. Cavitation is described by a transfer equation for liquid phase with a source term which is responsible for evaporation and condensation. The developed method was applied for simulation of pulsations in pressure, discharge, and total energy propagating along the flow conduit of the hydraulic power plant. Simulation results are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiment. The influence of key physical and numerical parameters like discharge, cavitation number, penstock length, time step, and vapor density on simulation results was studied.
Insights from 3D numerical simulations on the dynamics of the India-Asia collision zone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pusok, A. E.; Kaus, B.; Popov, A.
2013-12-01
The dynamics of the India-Asia collision zone remains one of the most remarkable topics of the current research interest: the transition from subduction to collision and uplift, followed by the rise of the abnormally thick Tibetan plateau, and the deformation at its Eastern and Western syntaxes, are processes still not fully understood. Models that have addressed this topic include wholescale underthrusting of Indian lithospheric mantle under Tibet, distributed homogeneous shortening or the thin-sheet model, slip-line field model for lateral extrusion or lower crustal flow models for the exhumation of the Himalayan units and lateral spreading of the Tibetan plateau. Of these, the thin-sheet model has successfully illustrated some of the basic physics of continental collision and has the advantage of a 3D model being reduced to 2D, but one of its major shortcomings is that it cannot simultaneously represent channel flow and gravitational collapse of the mantle lithosphere, since these mechanisms require the lithosphere to interact with the underlying mantle, or to have a vertically non-homogeneous rheology. As a consequence, 3D models are emerging as powerful tools to understand the dynamics of coupled systems. However, because of yet recent developments and various complexities, the current 3D models simulating the dynamics of continent collision zones have relied on certain explicit assumptions, such as replacing part of the asthenosphere with various types of boundary conditions that mimic the effect of mantle flow, in order to focus on the lithospheric/crustal deformation. Here, we employ the parallel 3D code LaMEM (Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution Model), with a finite difference staggered grid solver, which is capable of simulating lithospheric deformation while simultaneously taking mantle flow and a free surface into account. We present qualitative results on lithospheric and upper-mantle scale simulations in which the Indian lithosphere is subducted and
Tidal dynamics of the Terminos Lagoon, Mexico: observations and 3D numerical modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Contreras Ruiz Esparza, Adolfo; Douillet, Pascal; Zavala-Hidalgo, Jorge
2014-09-01
The tidal circulation patterns in the Terminos Lagoon were studied based on the analysis of 1 year of measurements and numerical simulations using a baroclinic 3D hydrodynamic model, the MARS3D. A gauging network was installed consisting of six self-recording pressure-temperature sensors, a tide gauge station and two current profilers, with pressure and temperature sensors moored in the main lagoon inlets. Model simulations were validated against current and sea level observations and were used to analyse the circulation patterns caused by the tidal forcing. The numerical model was forced with eight harmonic components, four diurnal ( K 1, O 1, P 1, Q 1) and four semi-diurnal ( M 2, S 2, N 2, K 2), extracted from the TPX0.7 database. The tidal patterns in the study area vary from mixed, mainly diurnal in the two main inlets of the lagoon, to diurnal in its interior. The tidal residual circulation inside the lagoon is dominated by a cyclonic gyre. The results indicate a net flux from the southwest Ciudad del Carmen inlet (CdC) towards the northeast Puerto Real inlet (PtR) along the southern side of the lagoon and the opposite in the northern side. The results indicate two areas of strong currents in the vicinity of the inlets and weak currents inside the lagoon. The area of strong currents in the vicinity of the CdC inlet is larger than that observed in the PtR inlet. Nevertheless, the current analysis indicates that the highest current speeds, which can reach a magnitude of 1.9 m s-1, occurred in PtR. A further analysis of the tide distortion in the inlets revealed that both passages are ebb dominated.
Zig-Zag Thermal-Chemical 3-D Instabilities in the Mantle Wedge: Numerical Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, G.; Gerya, T. V.; Arcay, D.; Yuen, D. A.
2008-12-01
To understand the plume initiation and propagation it is important to understand whether small-scale convection is occurring under the back-arc in the Low Viscosity Wedge(LVW) and its implication on the island-arc volcanism. Honda et al. [Honda and Saito, 2003; Honda, et al., 2007]) already deployed small- scale convection in the Low Viscosity Wedge (LVW) above a subducting slab with kinematically imposed velocity boundary condition. They have suggested that a roll (finger)-like pattern of hot and cold anomalies emerges in the mantle wedge above the subducting slab. Here, we perform three-dimensional coupled petrological-thermomechanical numerical simulations of intraoceanic one-sided subduction with spontaneously bending retreating slab characterized by weak hydrated upper interface by using multigrid approach combined with characteristics-based marker-in-cell method with conservative finite difference schemes[Gerya and Yuen, 2003a], to investigate the 3D instabilities above the slab and lateral variation along the arc. Our results show that water released from subducting slab through dehydration reactions may lower the viscosity of the mantle. It allows the existence of wave-like small-scale convection in the LVW, which is shown as roll-like structure in 2D petrological-thermomechanical numerical experiments [Gorczyk et al., 2006] using in-situ rock properties computed on the basis of Gibbs free energy minimization. However, in our 3D cases, the rolls aligning with the arc mainly occur earlier , while zig-zag small-scale thermal-chemical instabilities may episodically form above the slab at later stages, which is different from the aligning finger-like pattern in purely thermal models (Honda et al,2003;2007). Also in contrast to thermal convection chemically buoyant hydrated plumes rising from the slab in our models are actually colder then the mantle wedge [Gerya and Yuen 2003b] which also strongly modify both the convection pattern and the seismic structure in
3-D Numerical Simulation of Hydrostatic Tests of Porous Rocks Using Adapted Constitutive Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chemenda, A. I.; Daniel, M.
2014-12-01
The high complexity and poor knowledge of the constitutive properties of porous rocks are principal obstacles for the modeling of their deformation. Normally, the constitutive lows are to be derived from the experimental data (nominal strains and stresses). They are known, however, to be sensitive to the mechanical instabilities within the rock specimen and the boundary (notably friction) conditions at its ends. To elucidate the impact of these conditions on the measured mechanical response we use 3-D finite-difference simulations of experimental tests. Modeling of hydrostatic tests was chosen because it does not typically involve deformation instabilities. The ends of the cylindrical 'rock sample' are in contact with the 'steel' elastic platens through the frictional interfaces. The whole system is subjected to a normal stress Pc applied to the external model surface. A new constitutive model of porous rocks with the cap-type yield function is used. This function is quadratic in the mean stress σm and depends on the inelastic strain γp in a way to generate strain softening at small σm and strain-hardening at high σm. The corresponding material parameters are defined from the experimental data and have clear interpretation in terms of the geometry of the yield surface. The constitutive model with this yield function and the Drucker-Prager plastic potential has been implemented in 3-D dynamic explicit code Flac3D. The results of an extensive set of numerical simulations at different model parameters will be presented. They show, in particular, that the shape of the 'numerical' hydrostats is very similar to that obtained from the experimental tests and that it is practically insensitive to the interface friction. On the other hand, the stress and strain fields within the specimen dramatically depend on this parameter. The inelastic deformation at the specimen's ends starts well before reaching the grain crushing pressure P* and evolves heterogeneously with Pc
The Three-Dimensional (3D) Numerical Stability Analysis of Hyttemalmen Open-Pit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cała, Marek; Kowalski, Michał; Stopkowicz, Agnieszka
2014-10-01
The purpose of this paper was to perform the 3D numerical calculations allowing slope stability analysis of Hyttemalmen open pit (location Kirkenes, Finnmark Province, Norway). After a ramp rock slide, which took place in December 2010, as well as some other small-scale rock slope stability problems, it proved necessary to perform a serious stability analyses. The Hyttemalmen open pit was designed with a depth up to 100 m, a bench height of 24 m and a ramp width of 10 m. The rock formation in the iron mining district of Kirkenes is called the Bjornevaten Group. This is the most structurally complicated area connected with tectonic process such as folding, faults and metamorphosis. The Bjornevaten Group is a volcano-sedimentary sequence. Rock slope stability depends on the mechanical properties of the rock, hydro-geological conditions, slope topography, joint set systems and seismic activity. However, rock slope stability is mainly connected with joint sets. Joints, or general discontinuities, are regarded as weak planes within rock which have strength reducing consequences with regard to rock strength. Discontinuities within the rock mass lead to very low tensile strength. Several simulations were performed utilising the RocLab (2007) software to estimate the gneiss cohesion for slopes of different height. The RocLab code is dedicated to estimate rock mass strength using the Hoek-Brown failure criterion. Utilising both the GSI index and the Hoek-Brown strength criterion the equivalent Mohr-Coulomb parameters (cohesion and angle of internal friction) can be calculated. The results of 3D numerical calculations (with FLA3D code) show that it is necessary to redesign the slope-bench system in the Hyttemalmen open pit. Changing slope inclination for lower stages is recommended. The minimum factor of safety should be equal 1.3. At the final planned stage of excavation, the factor of safety drops to 1.06 with failure surface ranging through all of the slopes. In the case
Numerical modelling of MHD waves in the solar chromosphere.
Carlsson, Mats; Bogdan, Thomas J
2006-02-15
Acoustic waves are generated by the convective motions in the solar convection zone. When propagating upwards into the chromosphere they reach the height where the sound speed equals the Alfvén speed and they undergo mode conversion, refraction and reflection. We use numerical simulations to study these processes in realistic configurations where the wavelength of the waves is similar to the length scales of the magnetic field. Even though this regime is outside the validity of previous analytic studies or studies using ray-tracing theory, we show that some of their basic results remain valid: the critical quantity for mode conversion is the angle between the magnetic field and the k-vector: the attack angle. At angles smaller than 30 degrees much of the acoustic, fast mode from the photosphere is transmitted as an acoustic, slow mode propagating along the field lines. At larger angles, most of the energy is refracted/reflected and returns as a fast mode creating an interference pattern between the upward and downward propagating waves. In three-dimensions, this interference between waves at small angles creates patterns with large horizontal phase speeds, especially close to magnetic field concentrations. When damping from shock dissipation and radiation is taken into account, the waves in the low-mid chromosphere have mostly the character of upward propagating acoustic waves and it is only close to the reflecting layer we get similar amplitudes for the upward propagating and refracted/reflected waves. The oscillatory power is suppressed in magnetic field concentrations and enhanced in ring-formed patterns around them. The complex interference patterns caused by mode-conversion, refraction and reflection, even with simple incident waves and in simple magnetic field geometries, make direct inversion of observables exceedingly difficult. In a dynamic chromosphere it is doubtful if the determination of mean quantities is even meaningful.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reiter, Karsten; Heidbach, Oliver; Moeck, Inga
2013-04-01
For the assessment and exploration of a potential geothermal reservoir, the contemporary in-situ stress is of key importance in terms of well stability and orientation of possible fluid pathways. However, available data, e.g. Heidbach et al. (2009) or Zang et al. (2012), deliver only point wise information of parts of the six independent components of the stress tensor. Moreover most measurements of the stress orientation and magnitude are done for hydrocarbon industry obvious in shallow depth. Interpolation across long distances or extrapolation into depth is unfavourable, because this would ignore structural features, inhomogeneity's in the crust or other local effects like topography. For this reasons geomechanical numerical modelling is the favourable method to quantify orientations and magnitudes of the 3D stress field for a geothermal reservoir. A geomechanical-numerical modelling, estimating the 3D absolute stress state, requires the initial stress state as model constraints. But in-situ stress measurements within or close by a potential reservoir are rare. For that reason a larger regional geomechanical-numerical model is necessary, which derive boundary conditions for the wanted local reservoir model. Such a large scale model has to be tested against in-situ stress measurements, orientations and magnitudes. Other suitable and available data, like GPS measurements or fault slip rates are useful to constrain kinematic boundary conditions. This stepwise approach from regional to local scale takes all stress field factors into account, from first over second up to third order. As an example we present a large scale crustal and upper mantle 3D-geomechanical-numerical model of the Alberta Basin and the surroundings, which is constructed to describe continuously the full stress tensor. In-situ stress measurements are the most likely data, because they deliver the most direct information's of the stress field and they provide insights into different depths, a
Gas Core Reactor Numerical Simulation Using a Coupled MHD-MCNP Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kazeminezhad, F.; Anghaie, S.
2008-01-01
Analysis is provided in this report of using two head-on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks to achieve supercritical nuclear fission in an axially elongated cylinder filled with UF4 gas as an energy source for deep space missions. The motivation for each aspect of the design is explained and supported by theory and numerical simulations. A subsequent report will provide detail on relevant experimental work to validate the concept. Here the focus is on the theory of and simulations for the proposed gas core reactor conceptual design from the onset of shock generations to the supercritical state achieved when the shocks collide. The MHD model is coupled to a standard nuclear code (MCNP) to observe the neutron flux and fission power attributed to the supercritical state brought about by the shock collisions. Throughout the modeling, realistic parameters are used for the initial ambient gaseous state and currents to ensure a resulting supercritical state upon shock collisions.
Numerical simulation of flare energy build-up and release via Joule dissipation. [solar MHD model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, S. T.; Bao, J. J.; Wang, J. F.
1986-01-01
A new numerical MHD model is developed to study the evolution of an active region due to photospheric converging motion, which leads to magnetic-energy buildup in the form of electric current. Because this new MHD model has incorporated finite conductivity, the energy conversion occurs from magnetic mode to thermal mode through Joule dissipation. In order to test the causality relationship between the occurrence of flare and photospheric motion, a multiple-pole configuration with neutral point is used. Using these results it is found that in addition to the converging motion, the initial magnetic-field configuration and the redistribution of the magnetic flux at photospheric level enhance the possibility for the development of a flare.
Numerical simulation of unsteady flow characteristics for cavitation around a 3-D hydrofoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahn, S. H.; Xiao, Y. X.; Wang, Z. W.
2015-01-01
At present it is possible to predict more accurately by various numerical methods established for cavitation simulation around a hydrofoil. However, for the solution of the complex unsteady cavity flow, it is still marginal. In this paper, numerical method is adopted to simulate cavitation around 3-D NACA0015 hydrofoil with homogeneous two-phase flow calculation using commercial code CFX-solver with two turbulence models, the standard RNG k-epsilon turbulence model and the modified RNG k-epsilon turbulence model respectively. First, pressure coefficient for non-cavitating flow, time averaged values of unsteady cavity flow around a hydrofoil are verified to simulate more closely to an actual cavity flow. And then frequency analysis is performed with Fast Fourier Transform. The results show that the calculation results with modified RNG k-epsilon turbulence model agree with experimental results in terms of mean cavity length and pressure drop, but the unsteady flow characteristics of oscillating cavitation still deviate slightly in terms of unsteady cavity flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruh, Jonas B.; Sallarès, Valentí; Ranero, César R.; Gerya, Taras
2016-09-01
Seamounts or submarine volcanoes frequently collide with the overriding crust along presently active subduction zones locally modifying stress and permanent deformation patterns. Dynamics of this process is not fully understood, and several end-member scenarios of seamount-crust interaction are proposed. Here we use high-resolution 3-D numerical models to investigate evolution of crustal deformation and stress distribution within the upper plate induced by the underthrusting of subducting seamounts. The dynamical effects of the upper plate strength, subduction interface strength, and strain weakening of the crust are investigated. Experiment results demonstrate that characteristic crustal fracturing patterns formed in response to different seamount-crust interaction scenarios. Indenting seamounts strongly deform the overriding plate along a corridor as wide as the underthrusting seamount by constantly shifting subvertical shear zones rooted at the seamount extensions. A reentrant develops during initial seamount collision. A topographic bulge atop the seamount and lateral ridges emerge from further seamount subduction. Obtained stress pattern shows areas of large overpressure above the rearward and large underpressure above the trenchward flank of the seamount. Results of numerical experiments are consistent with seismic reflection images and seismic velocity models of the upper plate in areas of seamount subduction along the Middle America Trench and give important insights into the long-lasting question, whether subducting seamounts and rough seafloor act as barriers or asperities for megathrust earthquakes.
A parametric study of mucociliary transport by numerical simulations of 3D non-homogeneous mucus.
Chatelin, Robin; Poncet, Philippe
2016-06-14
Mucociliary clearance is the natural flow of the mucus which covers and protects the lung from the outer world. Pathologies, like cystic fibrosis, highly change the biological parameters of the mucus flow leading to stagnation situations and pathogens proliferation. As the lung exhibits a complex dyadic structure, in-vivo experimental study of mucociliary clearance is almost impossible and numerical simulations can bring important knowledge about this biological flow. This paper brings a detailed study of the biological parameters influence on the mucociliary clearance, in particular for pathological situations such as cystic fibrosis. Using recent suitable numerical methods, a non-homogeneous mucus flow (including non-linearities) can be simulated efficiently in 3D, allowing the identification of the meaningful parameters involved in this biological flow. Among these parameters, it is shown that the mucus viscosity, the stiffness transition between pericilliary fluid and mucus, the pericilliary fluid height as well as both cilia length and beating frequency have a great influence on the mucociliary transport. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Multigrid direct numerical simulation of the whole process of flow transition in 3-D boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Chaoqun; Liu, Zhining
1993-01-01
A new technology was developed in this study which provides a successful numerical simulation of the whole process of flow transition in 3-D boundary layers, including linear growth, secondary instability, breakdown, and transition at relatively low CPU cost. Most other spatial numerical simulations require high CPU cost and blow up at the stage of flow breakdown. A fourth-order finite difference scheme on stretched and staggered grids, a fully implicit time marching technique, a semi-coarsening multigrid based on the so-called approximate line-box relaxation, and a buffer domain for the outflow boundary conditions were all used for high-order accuracy, good stability, and fast convergence. A new fine-coarse-fine grid mapping technique was developed to keep the code running after the laminar flow breaks down. The computational results are in good agreement with linear stability theory, secondary instability theory, and some experiments. The cost for a typical case with 162 x 34 x 34 grid is around 2 CRAY-YMP CPU hours for 10 T-S periods.
Numerical 3D modelling of oil dispersion in the sea due to different accident scenarios
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guandalini, Roberto; Agate, Giordano; Moia, Fabio
2017-04-01
The purpose of the study has been the development of a methodology, based on a numerical 3D approach, for the analysis of oil dispersion in the sea, in order to simulate with a high level of accuracy the dynamic behavior of the oil plume and its displacement in the environment. As a matter of fact, the numerical simulation is the only approach currently able to analyse in detail possible accident scenarios, even with an high degree of complexity, of different type and intensity, allowing to follow their evolution both in time and space, and to evaluate the effectiveness of suggested prevention or recovery actions. The software for these calculations is therefore an essential tool in order to simulate the impact effects in the short, medium and long period, able to account for the complexity of the sea system involved in the dispersion process and its dependency on the meteorological, marine and morphological local conditions. This software, generally based on fluid dynamic 3D simulators and modellers, is therefore extremely specialized and requires expertise for an appropriate usage, but at the same time it allows detailed scenario analyses and design verifications. It takes into account different parameters as the sea current field and its turbulence, the wind acting on the sea surface, the salinity and temperature gradients, the local coastal morphology, the seabed bathymetry and the tide. The applied methodology is based on the Integrated Fluid Dynamic Simulation System HyperSuite developed by RSE. This simulation system includes the consideration of all the parameters previously listed, in the frame of a 3D Eulerian finite element fluid dynamic model, which accuracy is guaranteed by a very detailed spatial mesh and by an automatically optimized time step management. In order to assess the methodology features, an area of more than 2500 km2 and depth of 200 m located in the middle Adriatic Sea has been modelled. The information required for the simulation in
Optimising GPR modelling: A practical, multi-threaded approach to 3D FDTD numerical modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Millington, T. M.; Cassidy, N. J.
2010-09-01
The demand for advanced interpretational tools has lead to the development of highly sophisticated, computationally demanding, 3D GPR processing and modelling techniques. Many of these methods solve very large problems with stepwise methods that utilise numerically similar functions within iterative computational loops. Problems of this nature are readily parallelised by splitting the computational domain into smaller, independent chunks for direct use on cluster-style, multi-processor supercomputers. Unfortunately, the implications of running such facilities, as well as time investment needed to develop the parallel codes, means that for most researchers, the use of these advanced methods is too impractical. In this paper, we propose an alternative method of parallelisation which exploits the capabilities of the modern multi-core processors (upon which today's desktop PCs are built) by multi-threading the calculation of a problem's individual sub-solutions. To illustrate the approach, we have applied it to an advanced, 3D, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) GPR modelling tool in which the calculation of the individual vector field components is multi-threaded. To be of practical use, the FDTD scheme must be able to deliver accurate results with short execution times and we, therefore, show that the performance benefits of our approach can deliver runtimes less than half those of the more conventional, serial programming techniques. We evaluate implementations of the technique using different programming languages (e.g., Matlab, Java, C++), which will facilitate the construction of a flexible modelling tool for use in future GPR research. The implementations are compared on a variety of typical hardware platforms, having between one and eight processing cores available, and also a modern Graphical Processing Unit (GPU)-based computer. Our results show that a multi-threaded xyz modelling approach is easy to implement and delivers excellent results when implemented
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pusok, Adina E.; Kaus, Boris; Popov, Anton
2017-04-01
It is commonly accepted that slab detachment results from the development of extensional stresses within the subducting slab. Subduction slowdown due to arrival of buoyant continental material at the trench is considered to cause such stress build up in the slab. Following slab detachment, slab pull partially or completely loses its strength and hot asthenosphere may flow through the slab window, which can have major consequences for continental collision. The dynamics of slab detachment has been extensively studied in 2D (i.e. analytical and numerical), but 3D models of slab detachment during continental collision remain largely unexplored. Some of the previous 3D models have investigated the role of an asymmetric margin on the propagation of slab detachment (van Hunen and Allen, 2011), the impact of slab detachment on the curvature of orogenic belts (Capitanio and Replumaz, 2013), the role of the collision rate on slab detachment depth (Li et al., 2013) or the effect of along-trench variations on slab detachment (Duretz et al., 2014). However, rheology of mantle and lithosphere is known to have a major influence on the dynamics of subduction. Here, we explore a range of different rheological approximations to understand their sensitivity on the possible scenarios. We employ the code LaMEM (Kaus et al., 2016) to perform 3D simulations of subduction/continental collision in an integrated lithospheric and upper-mantle scale model. The models exhibit a wide range of behaviours depending on the rheological law employed: from linear, to temperature-dependent visco-elasto-plastic rheology that takes into account both diffusion and dislocation creep. For example, we find that slab dynamics varies drastically between end member models: in viscous approximations, slab detachment is slow, dominated by viscous thinning, while for a non-linear visco-elasto-plastic rheology, slab detachment is relatively fast, dominated by plastic breaking and inducing strong mantle flow in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McFall, B. C.; Fritz, H. M.; Horrillo, J. J.; Mohammed, F.
2014-12-01
Landslide generated tsunamis such as Lituya Bay, Alaska 1958 account for some of highest recorded tsunami runup heights. Source and runup scenarios based on real world events are physically modeled using generalized Froude similarity in the three dimensional NEES tsunami wave basin at Oregon State University. A novel pneumatic landslide tsunami generator (LTG) was deployed to simulate landslides with varying geometry and kinematics. The bathymetric and topographic scenarios tested with the LTG are the basin-wide propagation and runup, fjord, curved headland fjord and a conical island setting representing a landslide off an island or a volcano flank collapse. The LTG consists of a sliding box filled with 1,350 kg of landslide material which is accelerated by pneumatic pistons down slope. Two different landslide materials are used to study the granulometry effects: naturally rounded river gravel and cobble mixtures. Water surface elevations are recorded by an array of resistance wave gauges. The landslide deformation is measured from above and underwater camera recordings. The landslide deposit is measured on the basin floor with a multiple transducer acoustic array (MTA). Landslide surface reconstruction and kinematics are determined with a stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. Wave runup is recorded with resistance wave gauges along the slope and verified with video image processing. The measured landslide and wave parameters are compared between the planar hill slope used in various scenarios and the convex hill slope of the conical island. The energy conversion rates from the landslide motion to the wave train is quantified for the planar and convex hill slopes. The wave runup data on the opposing headland is analyzed and evaluated with wave theories. The measured landslide and tsunami data serve to validate and advance three-dimensional numerical landslide tsunami prediction models. Two 3D Navier-Stokes models were tested, the commercial code FLOW-3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esposti Ongaro, T.; Neri, A.; Menconi, G.; de'Michieli Vitturi, M.; Marianelli, P.; Cavazzoni, C.; Erbacci, G.; Baxter, P. J.
2008-12-01
Numerical simulations of column collapse and pyroclastic density current (PDC) scenarios at Vesuvius were carried out using a transient 3D flow model based on multiphase transport laws. The model describes the dynamics of the collapse as well as the effects of the 3D topography of the volcano on PDC propagation. Source conditions refer to a medium-scale sub-Plinian event and consider a pressure-balanced jet. Simulation results provide new insights into the complex dynamics of these phenomena. In particular: 1) column collapse can be characterized by different regimes, from incipient collapse to partial or nearly total collapse, thus confirming the possibility of a transitional field of behaviour of the column characterized by the contemporaneous and/or intermittent occurrence of ash fallout and PDCs; 2) the collapse regime can be characterized by its fraction of eruptive mass reaching the ground and generating PDCs; 3) within the range of the investigated source conditions, the propagation and hazard potential of PDCs appear to be directly correlated with the flow-rate of the mass collapsing to the ground, rather than to the collapse height of the column (this finding is in contrast with predictions based on the energy-line concept, which simply correlates the PDC runout and kinetic energy with the collapse height of the column); 4) first-order values of hazard variables associated with PDCs (i.e., dynamic pressure, temperature, airborne ash concentration) can be derived from simulation results, thereby providing initial estimates for the quantification of damage scenarios; 5) for scenarios assuming a location of the central vent coinciding with that of the present Gran Cono, Mount Somma significantly influences the propagation of PDCs, largely reducing their propagation in the northern sector, and diverting mass toward the west and southeast, accentuating runouts and hazard variables for these sectors; 6) the 2D modelling approximation can force an artificial
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mochalskyy, S.; Wünderlich, D.; Ruf, B.; Franzen, P.; Fantz, U.; Minea, T.
2014-02-01
Decreasing the co-extracted electron current while simultaneously keeping negative ion (NI) current sufficiently high is a crucial issue on the development plasma source system for ITER Neutral Beam Injector. To support finding the best extraction conditions the 3D Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo Collision electrostatic code ONIX (Orsay Negative Ion eXtraction) has been developed. Close collaboration with experiments and other numerical models allows performing realistic simulations with relevant input parameters: plasma properties, geometry of the extraction aperture, full 3D magnetic field map, etc. For the first time ONIX has been benchmarked with commercial positive ions tracing code KOBRA3D. A very good agreement in terms of the meniscus position and depth has been found. Simulation of NI extraction with different e/NI ratio in bulk plasma shows high relevance of the direct negative ion extraction from the surface produced NI in order to obtain extracted NI current as in the experimental results from BATMAN testbed.
Adaptive Numerical Dissipative Control in High Order Schemes for Multi-D Non-Ideal MHD
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yee, H. C.; Sjoegreen, B.
2004-01-01
The goal is to extend our adaptive numerical dissipation control in high order filter schemes and our new divergence-free methods for ideal MHD to non-ideal MHD that include viscosity and resistivity. The key idea consists of automatic detection of different flow features as distinct sensors to signal the appropriate type and amount of numerical dissipation/filter where needed and leave the rest of the region free of numerical dissipation contamination. These scheme-independent detectors are capable of distinguishing shocks/shears, flame sheets, turbulent fluctuations and spurious high-frequency oscillations. The detection algorithm is based on an artificial compression method (ACM) (for shocks/shears), and redundant multi-resolution wavelets (WAV) (for the above types of flow feature). These filter approaches also provide a natural and efficient way for the minimization of Div(B) numerical error. The filter scheme consists of spatially sixth order or higher non-dissipative spatial difference operators as the base scheme for the inviscid flux derivatives. If necessary, a small amount of high order linear dissipation is used to remove spurious high frequency oscillations. For example, an eighth-order centered linear dissipation (AD8) might be included in conjunction with a spatially sixth-order base scheme. The inviscid difference operator is applied twice for the viscous flux derivatives. After the completion of a full time step of the base scheme step, the solution is adaptively filtered by the product of a 'flow detector' and the 'nonlinear dissipative portion' of a high-resolution shock-capturing scheme. In addition, the scheme independent wavelet flow detector can be used in conjunction with spatially compact, spectral or spectral element type of base schemes. The ACM and wavelet filter schemes using the dissipative portion of a second-order shock-capturing scheme with sixth-order spatial central base scheme for both the inviscid and viscous MHD flux
Wind forcing of upland lake hydrodynamics: implementation and validation of a 3D numerical model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morales, L.; French, J.; Burningham, H.; Evans, C.; Battarbee, R.
2010-12-01
Upland lakes act as important archives of environmental change, yet inferences based on the analysis of sediment cores are frequently compromised by an incomplete understanding of the hydrodynamic processes controlling the distribution and completeness of lake sediment sequences and their linkages to wider environmental factors. Many upland lakes are characterized by complex vertical and horizontal circulation patterns induced by the action of wind on the water surface. Wind forcing is important not only for the resuspension of bottom sediments in shallow marginal areas, but may also control the broader distribution of sediment accumulation. The work presented here represents the first stage of a project aimed at elucidating the linkages between wind forcing and the distribution of bottom sediments in upland lakes and the extent to which simple 'sediment focusing' models provide an adequate basis for predicting optimal locations for the acquisition of core samples for palaeolimnological analysis. As a first step, a 3D numerical hydrodynamic model is implemented for Llyn Conwy, a small oligotrophic upland lake in North Wales, UK. This utilises the community ocean model, FVCOM, that solves the Navier-Stokes equations in 3D on an unstructured triangular mesh using the finite volume method. A new graphical user interface has been developed for FVCOM to facilitate pre- and post-processing of lake modelling problems. At Llyn Conwy, the model is forced using local meteorological data and validated against vertical temperature profiles recorded by a long-term buoy deployment and short-term observations of vertical current structure measured using an upward-looking acoustic doppler profiler and surface circulation obtained from GPS drifters. Challenges in the application of FVCOM to a small lake include the design of a mesh that ensures numerical stability whilst resolving a complex bathymetry, and the need for careful treatment of model 'spin-up'. Once calibrated, the
3-D Numerical Investigation of the Tsaoling Landslide Induced by Chi-Chi Earthquake, Taiwan.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, C.; Hu, J.
2004-12-01
Large landslides occurred in the mountainous area near the epicenter of the Sept. 21st, 1999, Chi-Chi earthquake in central Taiwan. These landslides were triggered by the Mw = 7.6 earthquake, which resulted in more than 2,400 human casualties and widespread damage. The 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake triggered a catastrophic Tsaloing landslide, which mobilized about 0.125 km3 of rock and soil that slid across the Chingshui River and created a 5 km long natural dam. One fifth of the landslide mass dropped into the Chingshui River, the rest jumped over the river. At least five large landslides occurred in Tsaoling area are induced by big earthquake and heavy rainfalls since 1862 to 1999. Geological investigation shows that the prevailing attitude of sedimentary formation is about N45W with a dipping angle of 12S. First we used Remark Method to calculate the stability of slope. The bottom of slope has been eroded by Chingshui stream, and the PGA (Peak Ground Acceleration) in Chi-Chi earthquake was exceeded the yield acceleration along the sliding surface. The landslide mechanism may be including flowing, rolling, bouncing and sliding. The rock on the fault plane during faulting can generate pseudotachylyte resulted from melted rock by frictional heat energy along the sliding surface. The frictional melted rocks were found out in the Chiu-Fen-Erh-Shan collapses. However, we didn¡¦t found out the frictional melted rock in Tsaoling area. If we calculated the kinetic energy which was converted to heat energy, the increase of temperature was enough to melt the rocks on sliding surface. When the rocks on the sliding surface had been melted, the friction on the sliding surface must be decrease. Therefore, the 0.125 km3 debris had sufficient kinetic energy to across Chingshui River to the other side of the river. Using 3D distinct-element modeling (PFC3d code), we try to simulate kinematic process of Tsaoling landslide. Our numerical model was compose of about 10,000 spherical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiao-kang; Liu, Zhen-guo; Hu, Long; Wang, Yi-bo; Lei, Bing; Huang, Xiang
2017-02-01
Numerical studied on T-joints with three-dimensional four directional (3D4D) braided composite fillers was presented in this article. Compared with conventional unidirectional prepreg fillers, the 3D braided composite fillers have excellent ability to prevent crack from penetrating trigone fillers, which constantly occurred in the conventional fillers. Meanwhile, the 3D braided composite fillers had higher fiber volume fraction and eliminated the fiber folding problem in unidirectional prepreg fillers. The braiding technology and mechanical performance of 3D4D braided fillers were studied. The numerical model of carbon fiber T-joints with 3D4D braided composite fillers was built by finite element analysis software. The damage formation, extension and failing process of T-joints with 3D4D braided fillers under tensile load were investigated. Further investigation was extended to the effect of 3D4D braided fillers with different braiding angles on mechanical behavior of the T-joints. The study results revealed that the filling area was the weakest part of the T-joints where the damage first appeared and the crack then rapidly spread to the glue film around the filling area and the interface between over-laminate and soleplate. The 3D4D braided fillers were undamaged and the braiding angle change induced a little effect on the bearing capacity of T-joints.
Numerical Study of an AC MHD Generation with Double-side Exciting Winding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Intani, Pattana; Buttapeng, Chainarong; Sasaki, Toru; Kikuchi, Takashi; Harada, Nobuhiro
This paper studies physical phenomena, performance and optimal operating point of an AC MHD generator under the slip value by using a numerical simulation. The double-side exciting winding of the generator is considered. Its structure consists of a channel, an insulator and stators. Channel type is a flat rectangular and the liquid flows along the channel as a conductor. Channel wall acted as an insulator separates metal fluid and stator coils. The top and bottom stator winding of the generator is connected to polyphase system. Under this condition, it can produce a magnetic field by means of time harmonic function in the same direction of the metal fluid. An interaction between traveling wave and metal fluid is explained by finite element method under Maxwell's equation and Ohm law. The distribution of magnetic vector potential and magnetic flux density throughout channel is evidently shown in xy-plane. Power flow in AC MHD generator is evaluated by slip value. The optimal operating point of an AC MHD generator performance is reported by active power 0.99kW, reactive power 50kVAR, mechanical power 1.58kW, power dissipation 0.59kW and electrical efficiency 62.5%.
3D numerical modeling of an anthropogenic sinkhole in the Marsala area of western Sicily
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonamini, Marco; Di Maggio, Cipriano; Lollino, Piernicola; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Vattano, Marco
2013-04-01
processes, based on rock laboratory testing data and a detailed reconstruction of the underground cave geometry. At this goal, we took advantage of detailed topographic surveys of the underground quarry, carried out before (year 2000) and after occurrence of one the sinkholes, that opened in July 2011 at the eastern sector of the town of Marsala, causing significant damage to a school. In the implementation of the 3D-model, the geomechanical survey of the calcarenite rock mass was also taken into account, as a required input layer depicting the main discontinuity systems, and their main features (pervasiveness, joint opening and spacing, etc.). Relevant differences between the results from 2-D and 3-D analyses are pointed out in the paper, highlighting the need to perform 3D-modeling in order to define the real instability conditions of the rock mass, and to evaluate the possibility of sinkhole occurrence at the surface.
Numerical 3D models support two distinct hydrothermal circulation systems at fast spreading ridges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasenclever, Jörg; Theissen-Krah, Sonja; Rüpke, Lars
2013-04-01
We present 3D numerical calculations of hydrothermal fluid flow at fast spreading ridges. The setup of the 3D models is based our previous 2D studies, in which we have coupled numerical models for crustal accretion and hydrothermal fluid flow. One result of these calculations is a crustal permeability field that leads to a thermal structure in the crust that matches seismic tomography data of the East Pacific Rise (EPR). The 1000°C isotherm obtained from the 2D results is now used as the lower boundary of the 3D model domain, while the upper boundary is a smoothed bathymetry of the EPR. The same permeability field as in the 2D models is used, with the highest permeability at the ridge axis and a decrease with both depth and distance to the ridge. Permeability is also reduced linearly between 600 and 1000°C. Using a newly developed parallel finite element code written in Matlab that solves for thermal evolution, fluid pressure and Darcy flow, we simulate the flow patterns of hydrothermal circulation in a segment of 5000m along-axis, 10000m across-axis and up to 5000m depth. We observe two distinct hydrothermal circulation systems: An on-axis system forming a series of vents with a spacing ranging from 100 to 500m that is recharged by nearby (100-200m) downflows on both sides of the ridge axis. Simultaneously a second system with much broader extensions both laterally and vertically exists off-axis. It is recharged by fluids intruding between 1500m to 5000m off-axis and sampling both upper and lower crust. These fluids are channeled in the deepest and hottest regions with high permeability and migrate up-slope following the 600°C isotherm until reaching the edge of the melt lens. Depending on the width of the melt lens these off-axis fluids either merge with the on-axis hydrothermal system or form separate vents. We observe separate off-axis vent fields if the magma lens half-width exceeds 1000m and confluence of both systems for half-widths smaller than 500m. For
A 3D Numerical Survey of Seismic Waves Inside and Around an Underground Cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esterhazy, S.; Schneider, F. M.; Perugia, I.; Bokelmann, G.
2016-12-01
Motivated by the need to detect an underground cavity within the procedure of an On-Site-Inspection (OSI) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), which might be caused by a nuclear explo- sion/weapon testing, we present our findings of a numerical study on the elastic wave propagation inside and around such an underground cavity.The aim of the CTBTO is to ban all nuclear explosions of any size anywhere, by anyone. Therefore, it is essential to build a powerful strategy to efficiently investigate and detect critical signatures such as gas filled cavities, rubble zones and fracture networks below the surface. One method to investigate the geophysical properties of an under- ground cavity allowed by the Comprehensive Nuclear-test Ban Treaty is referred to as "resonance seismometry" - a resonance method that uses passive or active seismic techniques, relying on seismic cavity vibrations. This method is in fact not yet entirely determined by the Treaty and there are also only few experimental examples that have been suitably documented to build a proper scientific groundwork. This motivates to investigate this problem on a purely numerical level and to simulate these events based on recent advances in the mathematical understanding of the underlying physical phenomena.Our numerical study includes the full elastic wave field in three dimensions. We consider the effects from an in- coming plane wave as well as point source located in the surrounding of the cavity at the surface. While the former can be considered as passive source like a tele-seismic earthquake, the latter represents a man-made explosion or a viborseis as used for/in active seismic techniques. For our simulations in 3D we use the discontinuous Galerkin Spectral Element Code SPEED developed by MOX (The Laboratory for Modeling and Scientific Computing, Department of Mathematics) and DICA (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering) at the Politecnico di Milano. The
3D Numeric modeling of slab-plume interaction in Kamchatka
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Constantin Manea, Vlad; Portnyagin, Maxim; Manea, Marina
2010-05-01
Volcanic rocks located in the central segment of the Eastern Volcanic Belt of Kamchatka show a high variability, both in age as well as in the geochemical composition. Three principal groups have been identified, an older group (7-12 my) represented by rich alkaline and transitional basalts, a 7-8 my group exemplified by alkaline basalts of extreme plume type, and a younger group (3-8 my) characterized by calc-alkaline andesites and dacites rocks. Moreover, the younger group shows an adakitic signature. The magmas are assumed to originate from two principle sources: from a subduction modified Pacific MORB-type and from plume-type mantle. In this paper we study the interaction of a cold subducting slab and a hot plume by means of 3D numeric modeling integrated 30 my back in time. Our preliminary modeling results show a short episode of plume material inflowing into the mantle wedge at ~10 my consistent with the second rocks group (plume like). Also our models predict slab edge melting consistent with the youngest group.
Development of a 3D numerical methodology for fast prediction of gun blast induced loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa, E.; Lagasco, F.
2014-05-01
In this paper, the development of a methodology based on semi-empirical models from the literature to carry out 3D prediction of pressure loading on surfaces adjacent to a weapon system during firing is presented. This loading is consequent to the impact of the blast wave generated by the projectile exiting the muzzle bore. When exceeding a pressure threshold level, loading is potentially capable to induce unwanted damage to nearby hard structures as well as frangible panels or electronic equipment. The implemented model shows the ability to quickly predict the distribution of the blast wave parameters over three-dimensional complex geometry surfaces when the weapon design and emplacement data as well as propellant and projectile characteristics are available. Considering these capabilities, the use of the proposed methodology is envisaged as desirable in the preliminary design phase of the combat system to predict adverse effects and then enable to identify the most appropriate countermeasures. By providing a preliminary but sensitive estimate of the operative environmental loading, this numerical means represents a good alternative to more powerful, but time consuming advanced computational fluid dynamics tools, which use can, thus, be limited to the final phase of the design.
Coronary 3D reconstruction using IVUS images only: a numeric phantom investigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, Monica Mitiko Soares; Cardoso, Fernando Mitsuyama; Lemos, Pedro Alves; Furuie, Sergio Shiguemi
2010-03-01
Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) examination offers a tomographic view of the vessel, having the catheter tip as reference. During examination, the catheter is pulled back with a constant speed (0.5 or 1.0 mm/s) and the ultrasound transducer captures cross-sectional slices of the coronary. Currently, 3D IVUS reconstruction is based on single-plane or biplane angiography together with IVUS images. In this work, we present a preliminary approach to reconstruct tridimensionally the catheter path and coronary, based only on IVUS sequence. We have proposed a numeric phantom framework: coronary simulation, catheter dynamic path simulation, IVUS acquisition, reconstruction and validation. Our method infers the catheter path inside the coronary, based on shortest path graph algorithm. To reconstruct morphology, we have associated the catheter path and the position of the frame with smoothness costs, and solved it as a minimization problem. In this experiment we have used three different morphologies (straight, one curve and two curves) and 60 random initializations each for the initial point and angle of catheter insertion. The results for the plane containing the centerline of the catheter were 95.8% true positive and 8.5% false positive rates.
Numerical study of elastic turbulence in a 3D curvilinear micro-channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Hongna; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Li, Fengchen
2012-11-01
Elastic turbulence is an intriguing phenomenon of viscoelastic fluid flow, and dominated by the strong nonlinear elasticity due to the existence of flexible microstructures. It implies the possibility to generate a turbulent state (so-called an elastic turbulence) in the micro-scale devices by introducing the viscoelastic fluids, which could significantly enhance the mixing efficiency therein. Several experiments have been carried out to study its characteristics and underlying physics. However, the difficulty in measuring the flow information and behaviors of the microstructures, especially in the cross section normal to the mean flow direction, limits our current understanding and controlling. In the present study, the nondimensionalization method in which the characteristic velocity is defined as the ratio of the solution viscosity to the width of the channel was adopted to simulate the elastic turbulence in the micro-scale devices. And the elastic turbulent flow was obtained numerically in the 3D curvilinear micro-channel. Therein, the characteristics of the velocity field and polymer's behavior are discussed. Moreover, the energy transfer between the kinetic energy and the polymer's elastic energy is also investigated to understand its physical mechanism. Supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science research fellowship and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology via `Energy Science in the Age of Global Warming' of Global Center of Excellence (G-COE) program (J-051).
Computational time analysis of the numerical solution of 3D electrostatic Poisson's equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamboh, Shakeel Ahmed; Labadin, Jane; Rigit, Andrew Ragai Henri; Ling, Tech Chaw; Amur, Khuda Bux; Chaudhary, Muhammad Tayyab
2015-05-01
3D Poisson's equation is solved numerically to simulate the electric potential in a prototype design of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) ion-drag micropump. Finite difference method (FDM) is employed to discretize the governing equation. The system of linear equations resulting from FDM is solved iteratively by using the sequential Jacobi (SJ) and sequential Gauss-Seidel (SGS) methods, simulation results are also compared to examine the difference between the results. The main objective was to analyze the computational time required by both the methods with respect to different grid sizes and parallelize the Jacobi method to reduce the computational time. In common, the SGS method is faster than the SJ method but the data parallelism of Jacobi method may produce good speedup over SGS method. In this study, the feasibility of using parallel Jacobi (PJ) method is attempted in relation to SGS method. MATLAB Parallel/Distributed computing environment is used and a parallel code for SJ method is implemented. It was found that for small grid size the SGS method remains dominant over SJ method and PJ method while for large grid size both the sequential methods may take nearly too much processing time to converge. Yet, the PJ method reduces computational time to some extent for large grid sizes.
Numerical Calculations of 3-D High-Lift Flows and Comparison with Experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Compton, William B, III
2015-01-01
Solutions were obtained with the Navier-Stokes CFD code TLNS3D to predict the flow about the NASA Trapezoidal Wing, a high-lift wing composed of three elements: the main-wing element, a deployed leading-edge slat, and a deployed trailing-edge flap. Turbulence was modeled by the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation turbulence model. One case with massive separation was repeated using Menter's two-equation SST (Menter's Shear Stress Transport) k-omega turbulence model in an attempt to improve the agreement with experiment. The investigation was conducted at a free stream Mach number of 0.2, and at angles of attack ranging from 10.004 degrees to 34.858 degrees. The Reynolds number based on the mean aerodynamic chord of the wing was 4.3 x 10 (sup 6). Compared to experiment, the numerical procedure predicted the surface pressures very well at angles of attack in the linear range of the lift. However, computed maximum lift was 5% low. Drag was mainly under predicted. The procedure correctly predicted several well-known trends and features of high-lift flows, such as off-body separation. The two turbulence models yielded significantly different solutions for the repeated case.
The DESIRE Airborne gravity project in the Dead Sea Basin and 3D numerical gravity modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Sungchan; Götze, Hans-Jürgen; Meyer, Uwe; Desire-Group
2010-05-01
This geo-scientific research focuses on the geological setting of the Dead Sea Transform (DST) and the Dead Sea Basin (DSB) and its resulting pull-apart basins. Since the late 1970s, crustal scale geophysical experiments have been carried out in this region. However, the nature of the crust underlying the eastern and western shoulders of the DSB and underneath the DST itself is still a hotly debated topic among researchers. To address one of the central questions of plate tectonics - How do large transform systems work and what are their typical features? - An international geoscientific Dead Sea Integrated Research project (DESIRE) is being conducted by colleagues from Germany, Israel, Palestine, and Jordan. In order to provide a high resolution gravity database that support 3D numerical modeling and hence a more comprehensive understanding of the nature and segmentation of the DST, an airborne gravity survey as a part of the DESIRE project has been carried out from February to March 2007. The airborne gravity survey covered the DST from Elat/Aqaba in the South to the northern rim of the Dead Sea. The low speed and terrain-following helicopter gravity flights were performed to acquire the highest possible data quality. In total, 32 north-south profiles and 16 west-east profiles crossing the DST have been measured. Most of the profiles concentrated in areas that lacked terrestrial gravity data coverage, e. g. over the shoulders of the DSB. The airborne gravity data are merged with existing conventional (terrestrial) data sets to provide a seamless gravity map of the area of interest. The results of the 3D gravity modelling based the GPS analysis, magnetic field characters, seismic researches and analysis of earthquake data allow us to propose that (1) the DSB is divided into two tectonic blocks by the region between the Lisan peninsula and the southern margin of the northern DSB and (2) the tectonic system in the DSB is defined as a counter-clockwise rotating pull
The geothermal field of Denmark from borehole measurements and 3D numerical modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuchs, Sven; Balling, Niels
2017-04-01
We present a 3D numerical crustal temperature model and analyze the present-day geothermal field of onshore Denmark, including parts of the Danish Basin, the northernmost part of the North German Basin and the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone. An extensive analysis of borehole and well-log data on a basin scale is conducted to derive the model parameterization with a spatial distribution of rock thermal conductivity as well as new, regionally variable heat-flow values. A new structural geological model with lithological layers is provided by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS). Measured heat flow and borehole temperature observations (102 values from 47 wells) are used to constrain the modelling results in terms of calibration and validation. The prediction uncertainties between modelled and observed temperatures at deep borehole sites are small (rms = 1.3°C). For 22 deep boreholes, new values of terrestrial surface heat flow are derived ranging between 64 and 84 mW/m2 (mean of 77 ± 5 mW/m2) for the Danish Basin, between 60 and 95 mW/m2 (mean of 80 ± 10 mW/m2) for the very northern part of North German Basin, and between 63 and 66 mW/m2 (mean of 65 ± 2 mW/m2) in the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone, respectively. Heat flow from the mantle is estimated to be between 31 and 39 mW/m2 (q1-q3; mean of 34 ± 7 mW/m2). Lateral temperature variations found by 3D modelling are caused by complex geological structures, like salt structures, lateral variations in the thickness of basin sediments or tectonic features. The variations in rock thermal conductivity associated with different lithological units generate significant variations in temperature gradients and heat flow. Major geothermal sandstone reservoirs show significantly different temperatures according to a large variation in reservoir depth and different thermal conductivity of overlying lithologies. For example, temperatures of the Gassum Formation, covering most of the Danish onshore areas, are within the
Numerical simulations of Rock Avalanches with DAN-3D: from real case to analogue models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Longchamp, Céline; Penna, Ivanna; Sauthier, Claire; Jaboyedoff, Michel
2013-04-01
Rock avalanches are rapid events with capacity to develop long and unexpected runouts, which can evolve into catastrophic events difficult to predict. In order to better understand unusual travel distances, analogue and numerical modeling are often used. The comparison between real case, and analogue and dynamics models is key to constrain and understand parameters governing rock avalanches run outs. In the Pampeanas range (Argentina), the Potrero de Leyes rock avalanche involved 0.23 km3 of highly fractured metamorphic rocks that spread in the piedmont area without any topographical constrain, resulting in a runout of 4.8 km. In this study we first attempt to apply analogue models to replicate the rock avalanche deposit. The analogue modeling consists into the release of a granular material (calibrated and angular carborundum sand) along a slope, creating similar landscape conditions that the real case. The material is not constrained laterally and spread freely on a flat deposition surface. For a volume of 50 cm3, the runout is 50 cm, the deposit has as length of 10 cm and a width of 19 cm. For a volume of 100 cm3, the runout is 65 cm, the deposit has as length of 25 cm and a width of 30 cm. In a further step we model both the real case and the result of the analogue models. Dynamics models are carried out with DAN-3D, a dynamic model for the prediction of the run out of rapid landslide (O. Hungr, 1995; O. Hugr & S.G. Evans, 1996). The result of the simulations for both volumes tested with the analogue model give satisfactory results. In fact, for the volume of 50 cm3, the deposit has as length of 10 cm and a width of 20 cm and for the volume of 100 cm3, the deposit has as length of 25 cm and a width of 50 cm. The shape and the thickness of the deposit obtained with DAN-3D are also similar with those got with the analogue models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Y.; Iguchi, M.; Maeno, F.; Nakada, S.; Hashimoto, A.; Shimbori, T.; Ishii, K.
2014-12-01
The heights and expansion rate of eruption cloud and the dispersal pattern of tephra particles are key observable data for understanding the dynamics of volcanic plume. In general, when the volcanic plume rises in a stationary environment, the plume height and expansion rate of the umbrella cloud increases as the eruption intensity (i.e., the magma discharge rate) increases. On the other hand, when the plume is distorted by the atmospheric wind, it is difficult to quantify the relationship between the eruption conditions and the observable data. Therefore, we aim to develop a three-dimensional numerical model of volcanic plume and directly reproduce the plume dynamics and the tephra dispersal. We performed a numerical simulation of the 2014 eruption at Mount Kelud, Java, Indonesia, which formed a large volcanic plume and umbrella cloud in the wind field. We employ a 3D numerical model which is designed to simulate the injection of tephra particles and volcanic gas from a circular vent into the stratified atmosphere, using a combination of a pseudo-gas model for fluid motion and a Lagrangian model for particle motion (Suzuki and Koyaguchi, 2013 EPS). Using the estimated total mass (3.9—6.4×1011 kg) and the eruption duration (2.5 - 3 hours), the average mass discharge rate is estimated to be 3.6—7.1×107 kg/s. In this study, the magma discharge rate is set to be 5×107 kg/s. The weather data based on the radiosonde observation in Surabaya is applied to the atmospheric condition. The simulation results indicate that the top of plume reaches to nearly 30 km and the umbrella cloud radially spreads at the height of 17—20 km high. These simulated heights are consistent with the observations (e.g., NASA Earth Observatory). The particles are transported by the gravity current of the umbrella cloud. Between the umbrella cloud and the ground, the particles separated from the cloud are drifted by the easterly wind. Therefore, the dispersal axis of the main fall deposits
Dynamic coupling between fluid flow and vein growth in fractures: a 3D numerical model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwarz, J.-O.; Enzmann, F.
2012-04-01
Fluid flow is one of the main mass transport mechanisms in the Earth's crust and abundant mineral vein networks are important indicators for fluid flow and fluid rock interaction. These systems are dynamic and part of the so called RTM processes (reaction-transport-mechanics). Understanding of mineral vein systems requires coupling of these processes. Here we present a conceptional model for dynamic vein growth of syntaxial, posttectonic veins generated by advective fluid flow and show first results of a numerical model for this scenario. Vein generation requires three processes to occur: (i) fracture generation by mechanical stress e.g. hydro-fracturing, (ii) flow of a supersaturated fluid on that fracture and (iii) crystallization of phase(s) on or in the fracture. 3D synthetic fractures are generated with the SynFrac code (Ogilvie, et al. 2006). Subsequently solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation for this fracture are computed by a computational fluid dynamics code called GeoDict (Wiegmann 2007). Transport (advective and diffusive) of chemical species to growth sites in the fracture and vein growth are computed by a self-written MATLAB script. The numerical model discretizes the wall rock and fracture geometry by volumetric pixels (voxels). Based on this representation, the model computes the three basic functions for vein generation: (a) nucleation, (b) fluid flow with transport of chemical species and (c) growth. The following conditions were chosen for these three modules. Nucleation is heterogeneous and occurs instantaneously at the wall rock/fracture interface. Advective and diffusive flow of a supersaturated fluid and related transport of chemical species occurs according to the computed fluid flow field by GeoDict. Concentration of chemical species at the inflow is constant, representing external fluid buffering. Changes/decrease in the concentration of chemical species occurs only due to vein growth. Growth of nuclei is limited either by transport of
Di Renzo, Valeria; Wohletz, Kenneth; Civetta, Lucia; Moretti, Roberto; Orsi, Giovanni; Gasparini, Paolo
2016-11-11
In this paper, we illustrate a quantitative conductive/convective thermal model incorporating a wide range of geophysical, petrological, geological, geochemical and isotopical observations that constrain the thermal evolution and present state of the Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc) magmatic system. The proposed model has been computed on the basis of the current knowledge of: (1) the volcanic and magmatic history of the volcano over the last 44 ka, (2) its underlying crustal structure, and (3) the physical properties of the erupted magmas. 3D numerical simulations of heat conduction and convection within heterogeneous rock/magma materials with evolving heat sources and boundary conditions that simulate magma rise from a deep (≥ 8 km depth) to shallow (2–6 km) reservoirs, magma chamber formation, magma extrusion, caldera collapse, and intra-caldera hydrothermal convection, have been carried out. The evolution of the CFc magmatic system through time has been simulated through different steps related to its changes in terms of depth, location and size of magma reservoirs and their replenishment. The thermal modeling results show that both heat conduction and convection have played an important role in the CFc thermal evolution, although with different timing. Finally, the simulated present heat distribution is in agreement with the measured geothermal profiles (Agip, 1987), reproduces the thermal gradient peaks at the CFc margins in correspondence to the anomalies in surface gradients (Corrado et al., 1998), and suggests temperatures of 700 °C at depth of 4 km in the central portion of the caldera, in agreement with the estimated temperature for the brittle-ductile transition (Hill, 1992).
Di Renzo, Valeria; Wohletz, Kenneth; Civetta, Lucia; ...
2016-11-11
In this paper, we illustrate a quantitative conductive/convective thermal model incorporating a wide range of geophysical, petrological, geological, geochemical and isotopical observations that constrain the thermal evolution and present state of the Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc) magmatic system. The proposed model has been computed on the basis of the current knowledge of: (1) the volcanic and magmatic history of the volcano over the last 44 ka, (2) its underlying crustal structure, and (3) the physical properties of the erupted magmas. 3D numerical simulations of heat conduction and convection within heterogeneous rock/magma materials with evolving heat sources and boundary conditions thatmore » simulate magma rise from a deep (≥ 8 km depth) to shallow (2–6 km) reservoirs, magma chamber formation, magma extrusion, caldera collapse, and intra-caldera hydrothermal convection, have been carried out. The evolution of the CFc magmatic system through time has been simulated through different steps related to its changes in terms of depth, location and size of magma reservoirs and their replenishment. The thermal modeling results show that both heat conduction and convection have played an important role in the CFc thermal evolution, although with different timing. Finally, the simulated present heat distribution is in agreement with the measured geothermal profiles (Agip, 1987), reproduces the thermal gradient peaks at the CFc margins in correspondence to the anomalies in surface gradients (Corrado et al., 1998), and suggests temperatures of 700 °C at depth of 4 km in the central portion of the caldera, in agreement with the estimated temperature for the brittle-ductile transition (Hill, 1992).« less
Geodynamic background of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake based on 3D visco-elastic numerical modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chang; Zhu, Bojing; Yang, Xiaolin; Shi, Yaolin
2016-03-01
The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw7.9) occurred in the Longmen Shan fault zone. The stress change and crustal deformation during the accumulation period is computed using 3D finite element modelling assuming visco-elastic rheology. Our results support that the eastward movement of the Tibetan Plateau resulting from the India-Eurasia collision is obstructed at the Longmen Shan fault zone by the strong Yangtze craton. In response, the Tibetan ductile crust thickens and accumulates at the contact between the Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin. This process implies a strong uplift with the rate of about 1.8 mm/a of the upper crust and induces a stress concentration nearly at the bottom of the Longmen Shan fault zone. We believe that the stress concentration in the Longmen Shan fault zone provides a very important geodynamic background of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Using numerical experiments we find that the key factor controlling this stress concentration process is the large viscosity contrast in the middle and lower crusts between the Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin. The results show that large viscosity contrast in the middle and lower crusts accelerates the stress concentration in the Longmen Shan fault zone. Fast moving lower crustal flow accelerates this stress accumulation process. During the inter-seismic period, spatially the maximum stress accumulation rate of the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau is located nearly at the bottom of the brittle upper crust of the Longmen Shan fault zone. The spatial distribution of the stress accumulation along the strike of the Longmen Shan fault zone is as follows: the normal stress decreases while the shear stress increases from southwest to northeast along the Longmen Shan fault zone. This stress distribution explains the thrust motion in the SW and strike-slip motion in the NE during the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Renzo, Valeria; Wohletz, Kenneth; Civetta, Lucia; Moretti, Roberto; Orsi, Giovanni; Gasparini, Paolo
2016-12-01
We illustrate a quantitative conductive/convective thermal model incorporating a wide range of geophysical, petrological, geological, geochemical and isotopical observations that constrain the thermal evolution and present state of the Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc) magmatic system. The proposed model has been computed on the basis of the current knowledge of: (1) the volcanic and magmatic history of the volcano over the last 44 ka, (2) its underlying crustal structure, and (3) the physical properties of the erupted magmas. 3D numerical simulations of heat conduction and convection within heterogeneous rock/magma materials with evolving heat sources and boundary conditions that simulate magma rise from a deep (≥ 8 km depth) to shallow (2-6 km) reservoirs, magma chamber formation, magma extrusion, caldera collapse, and intra-caldera hydrothermal convection, have been carried out. The evolution of the CFc magmatic system through time has been simulated through different steps related to its changes in terms of depth, location and size of magma reservoirs and their replenishment. The thermal modeling results show that both heat conduction and convection have played an important role in the CFc thermal evolution, although with different timing. The simulated present heat distribution is in agreement with the measured geothermal profiles (Agip, 1987), reproduces the thermal gradient peaks at the CFc margins in correspondence to the anomalies in surface gradients (Corrado et al., 1998), and suggests temperatures of 700 °C at depth of 4 km in the central portion of the caldera, in agreement with the estimated temperature for the brittle-ductile transition (Hill, 1992).
Early Earth tectonics: A high-resolution 3D numerical modelling approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischer, R.; Gerya, T.
2014-12-01
Early Earth had a higher amount of remaining radiogenic elements as well as a higher amount of leftover primordial heat. Both contributed to the increased temperature in the Earth's interior and it is mainly this increased mantle potential temperature ΔTp that controls the dynamics of the crust and upper mantle and the style of Early Earth tectonics. For a minor increase in temperature ΔTp < 175 K a subduction-collision style ensues which is largely similar to present day plate tectonics. For a moderate increase in ΔTp = 175-250 K subduction can still occur, however plates are strongly weakened and buckling, delamination and Rayleigh-Taylor style dripping of the plate is observed in addition. For higher temperatures ΔTp > 250 K no subduction can be observed anymore and tectonics is dominated by delamination and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. We conduct 3D petrological-thermomechanical numerical modelling experiments of the crust and upper mantle under Early Earth conditions and a plume tectonics model setup. For varying crustal structures and an increased mantle potential temperature ΔTp, a thermal anomaly in the bottom temperature boundary introduces a plume. The model is able to self-sufficiently form depleted mantle lithosphere after repeated melt removal. New crust can be produced in the form of volcanics or plutonics. To simulate differentiation the newly formed crust can have a range in composition from basaltic over dacitic to granitic depending on its source rock. Models show large amounts of subcrustal decompression melting and consequently large amounts of new formed crust which in turn influences the dynamics. Mantle and crust are convecting separately. Dome-shaped plutons of mafic or felsic composition can be observed in the crust. Between these domes elongated belts of upper crust, volcanics and sediments are formed. These structures look similar to, for example, the Kaapvaal craton in South Africa where the elongated shape of the Barberton
Early Earth plume-lid tectonics: A high-resolution 3D numerical modelling approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischer, Ria; Gerya, Taras
2016-04-01
Early Earth had a higher amount of radiogenic elements as well as a higher amount of leftover primordial heat. Both contribute to the increased temperature in the Earth's interior and it is mainly this increased mantle potential temperature Tp that controls the dynamics of the crust and upper mantle and the predominant style of tectonics in the Archean Earth. We conduct 3D petrological-magmatic-thermomechanical numerical modelling experiments of the crust and upper mantle under Archean conditions using a plume-lid tectonics model setup. For varying crustal compositions and a mantle potential temperature increase ΔTp = 250K (compared to present day conditions), a hot lower thermal boundary layer introduces spontaneously developing mantle plumes and after repeated melt removal, depleted mantle lithosphere is formed self-consistently. New crust is produced in the form of both volcanic and plutonic magmatism. Models show large amounts of subcrustal decompression melting and production of new crust which in turn influences the dynamics. On short-term (10 - 20Myr) rising diapirs and sinking basaltic crust lead to crustal overturn and to the formation of the typical Archean dome-and-keel pattern. On long-term a long (˜ 80Myr) passive 'growth phase' with strong growth of crust and lithosphere is observed. Both crust and lithosphere thickness are regulated by thermochemical instabilities assisted by lower crustal eclogitisation and a subcrustal small-scale convection area. Delamination of lower crust and lithosphere is initiated by linear or cylindrical eclogite drips and occurs as one 'catastrophic' event within a 20Myr 'removal phase'.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Hunen, J.; Zhong, S.
2002-12-01
The seafloor topography around the Hawaiian islands is related to the dynamics of a rising plume. An approximately 1000 km wide bathymetric swell around the Hawaiian chain is a direct indication of the buoyancy of sublithospheric plume material. The size of this swell is a result of the competing effects of the input of new plume material from below, and the advection of this material by the moving overlying oceanic lithosphere. Lubrication theory has been invoked to describe the dynamics of the spreading upwelling plume material below the moving lithosphere. This theory assumes that the rheology of the swell material determines the spreading rate, and therefore the swell shape. In this study, we examine whether the behavior of the cooler, and therefore stronger, asthenopheric material around the swell also contributes significantly, and maybe predominantly to this spreading. We use a 3-D numerical model to relate the plume dynamics to the surface topography. Analysis of a large set of model calculations enabled us to predict the numerically obtained plume buoyancy flux F as a function of the plume excess temperature Δ T, the plume tail radius Rp, and the rheological flow parameters E* and η 0 in the following theoretically derived simple scaling law: F ~ η 0a Rpb Δ Tc^(d Δ T E*), where the scaling parameters a, b, c, and d fit best the values -1.2, 3.4, 2.2, and 1.2 x 10-5, respectively. The scaling law predicts the buoyancy flux of a model calculation within 10% correct over an order of magnitude flux range, which enables us to perform a set of experiments for the expected plume buoyancy range of the Hawaiian plume. Our model calculations suggest that, for given plume flux, the swell height H and width W near the plume are largely controlled by the E*, with smaller observed ratios H/W for larger E*. The spreading rate of the swell is predominantly a function of the asthenospheric viscosity η asth, with more rapid swell widening for lower η asth. Comparison
Guivier-Curien, Carine; Deplano, Valérie; Bertrand, Eric
2009-10-01
A numerical 3-D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model of a prosthetic aortic valve was developed, based on a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software program using an Arbitrary Eulerian Lagrangian (ALE) formulation. To make sure of the validity of this numerical model, an equivalent experimental model accounting for both the geometrical features and the hydrodynamic conditions was also developed. The leaflet and the flow behaviours around the bileaflet valve were investigated numerically and experimentally by performing particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Through quantitative and qualitative comparisons, it was shown that the leaflet behaviour and the velocity fields were similar in both models. The present study allows the validation of a fully coupled 3-D FSI numerical model. The promising numerical tool could be therefore used to investigate clinical issues involving the aortic valve.
Designing stream restoration structures using 3D hydro-morphodynamic numerical modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khosronejad, A.; Kozarek, J. L.; Hill, C.; Kang, S.; Plott, R.; Diplas, P.; Sotiropoulos, F.
2012-12-01
Efforts to stabilize and restore streams and rivers across the nation have grown dramatically in the last fifteen years, with over $1 billion spent every year since 1990. The development of effective and long-lasting strategies, however, is far from trivial and despite large investments it is estimated that at least 50% of stream restoration projects fail. This is because stream restoration is today more of an art than a science. The lack of physics-based engineering standards for stream restoration techniques is best underscored in the design and installation of shallow, in-stream, low-flow structures, which direct flow away from the banks, protect stream banks from erosion and scour, and increase habitat diversity. Present-day design guidelines for such in-stream structures are typically vague and rely heavily on empirical knowledge and intuition rather than physical understanding of the interactions of the structures the flow and sediment transport processes in the waterway. We have developed a novel computer-simulation based paradigm for designing in stream structures that is based on state-of-the-art 3D hydro-morphodynamic modeling validated with laboratory and field-scale experiments. The numerical model is based on the Curvilinear Immersed Boundary (CURVIB) approach of Kang et al. and Khosronejad et al. (Adv. in Water Res. 2010, 2011), which can simulate flow and sediment transport processes in arbitrarily complex waterways with embedded rock structures. URANS or large-eddy simulation (LES) models are used to simulate turbulence. Transport of bed materials is simulated using the non-equilibrium Exner equation for the bed surface elevation coupled with a transport equation for suspended load. Extensive laboratory and field-scale experiments have been carried out and employed to validate extensively the computational model. The numerical model is used to develop a virtual testing environment within which one or multiple in-stream structures can be embedded in
Numerical investigation of 3D effects on a 2D-dominated shocked mixing layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reese, Daniel; Weber, Christopher
2016-11-01
A nominally two-dimensional interface, unstable to the Rayleigh-Taylor or Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, will become three-dimensional at high Reynolds numbers due to the growth of background noise and 3D effects like vortex stretching. This three-dimensionality changes macroscopic features, such as the perturbation growth rate and mixing, as it enhances turbulent dissipation. In this study, a 2D perturbation with small-scale, 3D fluctuations is modeled using the hydrodynamics code Miranda. A Mach 1.95 shockwave accelerates a helium-over-SF6 interface, similar to the experiments of Motl et al. ["Experimental validation of a Richtmyer-Meshkov scaling law over large density ratio and shock strength ranges," Phys. Fluids 21(12), 126102 (2009)], to explore the regime where a 2D dominated flow will experience 3D effects. We report on the structure, growth, and mixing of the post-shocked interface in 2D and 3D.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cédric, Guyonnet-Benaize; Fabrice, Hollender; Maria, Manakou; Alexandros, Savvaidis; Elena, Zargli; Cécile, Cornou; Nikolaos, Veranis; Dimitrios, Raptakis; Artemios, Atzemoglou; Pierre-Yves, Bard; Nikolaos, Theodulidis; Kyriazis, Pitilakis; Emmanuelle, Chaljub
2013-04-01
The Mygdonian basin, located 30 km E-NE close to Thessaloniki, is a typical active tectonic basin, trending E-NW, filled by sediments 200 to 400 m thick. This basin has been chosen as a European experimental site since 1993 (European Commission research projects - EUROSEISTEST). It has been investigated for experimental and theoretical studies on site effects. The Mygdonian basin is currently covered by a permanent seismological network and has been mainly characterized in 2D and 3D with geophysical and geotechnical studies (Bastani et al, 2011; Cadet and Savvaidis, 2011; Gurk et al, 2007; Manakou et al, 2007; Manakou et al, 2010; Pitilakis et al, 1999; Raptakis et al, 2000; Raptakis et al, 2005). All these studies allowed understanding the influence of geological structures and local site conditions on seismic site response. For these reasons, this site has been chosen for a verification exercise for numerical simulations in the framework of an ongoing international collaborative research project (Euroseistest Verification and Validation Project - E2VP). The verification phase has been made using a first 3D geophysical and geotechnical model (Manakou, 2007) about 5 km wide and 15 km long, centered on the Euroseistest site. After this verification phase, it has been decided to update, optimize and extend this model in order to obtain a more detailed model of the 3D geometry of the entire basin, especially the bedrock 3D geometry which can affect drastically the results of numerical simulations for site effect studies. In our study, we build a 3D geological model of the present-day structure of the entire Mygdonian basin. This "precise" model is 12 km wide, 65 km long and is 400 m deep in average. It has been built using geophysical, geotechnical and geological data. The database is heterogeneous and composed of hydrogeological boreholes, seismic refraction surveys, array microtremor measurements, electrical and geotechnical surveys. We propose an integrated
Understanding heavy mineral enrichment – Using a 3D numerical model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartzke, Gerhard; Schmeeckle, Mark; Huhn, Katrin
2015-04-01
Layered deposits of light and heavy minerals can be found in many aquatic environments. Various researchers attempted to understand the role of the enrichment process of heavy minerals in placers using flume or in situ field experiments, because of their high economic value. However, a precise quantification of the physical processes occurring at the direct vicinity and in the interior of layered deposits is often limited with such techniques. To investigate the physical processes causing heavy particle enrichment in layers at the direct vicinity and in the interior of sediment beds, a 3D numerical model as an alternative to in situ measurement was used. The 3D model simulates particle transport in water by combining a turbulence-resolving large eddy simulation (LES) with a discrete element model (DEM) prescribing the motion of individual grains. The dimensions of model domain where X = 0.12 [m], Y = 0.06 [m], and Z = 0.04 [m]. A pressure gradient and cyclic boundaries at the side walls allowed the simulation of a recycling flow. For the generation of a granular bed 0.004 [m] in height 200,000 spherical particles (D50 = 500 µm) were generated randomly and deposited under gravity at the bottom of the domain. Seven suites of experiments were designed in which the concentration of heavy i.e. 5000 [kg/m³] over light particles i.e. 2560 [kg/m³] was increased ranging from 0%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 90%, to 100% heavy particle content. All beds where tested for five seconds at a predefined flow speed of 0.35 [m/s]. The model results showed that at the direct vicinity of the bed the presence of high-vorticity turbulence structures embedded within broader high speed fluid regions caused the formation of particle sweeps or high-speed wedges. The vertical extension of the sweeps decreased when a higher amount of heavy particles was mixed to the beds, which ultimately resulted in a decrease of the bed roughness. Further, the particle flux decreased when higher quantities of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Y. J.; Koyaguchi, T.
2011-12-01
During an explosive volcanic eruption, a mixture of volcanic gas and solid pyroclasts are ejected from a volcanic vent with a high temperature. As it rises, the mixture entrains ambient air owing to turbulent mixing. The entrained air expands by heating from the hot pyroclasts, and the eruption cloud (i.e., the ejected material plus the entrained air) rises as a buoyant plume. Because the plume height is principally determined by the balance between the thermal energy ejected at the vent and the work done in transporting the ejected material plus entrained air through the atmospheric stratification, it is controlled by the efficiency of turbulent mixing; as the amount of entrained air increases, the plume height decreases. In the 1-D models of eruption column (e.g., Woods, 1988), the plume height is calculated on the assumption that the mean inflow velocity across the edge of turbulent jet and/or plume is proportional to the mean vertical velocity (Morton et al., 1956). Experimental studies suggest that the proportionality constant (i.e., entrainment coefficient, k), which represents the efficiency of turbulent mixing, is about 0.10 for pure plumes when there is no wind. When an environmental wind is present, however, the interaction between a buoyant plume and the wind may enhance the entrainment of air and can significantly decrease the plume height (Bursik, 2001). In order to investigate the effects of wind on the vortical structures and the efficiency of turbulent mixing in an eruption cloud, we have carried out 3-D numerical simulations of eruption column which is ejected in a wind field. The simulation results indicate that a buoyant plume vertically rises as a "strong plume" (e.g., Bonadonna et al., 2003) when the wind velocity is low: the cloud reaches the neutral buoyancy level and overshoots until the upward momentum is exhausted. In this case, the plume height is consistent with prediction by the 1-D model with k~0.10. When the wind velocity is high, on
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmad, Rida; Mustafa, M.; Hayat, T.; Alsaedi, A.
2016-06-01
Recent advancements in nanotechnology have led to the discovery of new generation coolants known as nanofluids. Nanofluids possess novel and unique characteristics which are fruitful in numerous cooling applications. Current work is undertaken to address the heat transfer in MHD three-dimensional flow of magnetic nanofluid (ferrofluid) over a bidirectional exponentially stretching sheet. The base fluid is considered as water which consists of magnetite-Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Exponentially varying surface temperature distribution is accounted. Problem formulation is presented through the Maxwell models for effective electrical conductivity and effective thermal conductivity of nanofluid. Similarity transformations give rise to a coupled non-linear differential system which is solved numerically. Appreciable growth in the convective heat transfer coefficient is observed when nanoparticle volume fraction is augmented. Temperature exponent parameter serves to enhance the heat transfer from the surface. Moreover the skin friction coefficient is directly proportional to both magnetic field strength and nanoparticle volume fraction.
A constrained-gradient method to control divergence errors in numerical MHD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hopkins, Philip F.
2016-10-01
In numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), a major challenge is maintaining nabla \\cdot {B}=0. Constrained transport (CT) schemes achieve this but have been restricted to specific methods. For more general (meshless, moving-mesh, ALE) methods, `divergence-cleaning' schemes reduce the nabla \\cdot {B} errors; however they can still be significant and can lead to systematic errors which converge away slowly. We propose a new constrained gradient (CG) scheme which augments these with a projection step, and can be applied to any numerical scheme with a reconstruction. This iteratively approximates the least-squares minimizing, globally divergence-free reconstruction of the fluid. Unlike `locally divergence free' methods, this actually minimizes the numerically unstable nabla \\cdot {B} terms, without affecting the convergence order of the method. We implement this in the mesh-free code GIZMO and compare various test problems. Compared to cleaning schemes, our CG method reduces the maximum nabla \\cdot {B} errors by ˜1-3 orders of magnitude (˜2-5 dex below typical errors if no nabla \\cdot {B} cleaning is used). By preventing large nabla \\cdot {B} at discontinuities, this eliminates systematic errors at jumps. Our CG results are comparable to CT methods; for practical purposes, the nabla \\cdot {B} errors are eliminated. The cost is modest, ˜30 per cent of the hydro algorithm, and the CG correction can be implemented in a range of numerical MHD methods. While for many problems, we find Dedner-type cleaning schemes are sufficient for good results, we identify a range of problems where using only Powell or `8-wave' cleaning can produce order-of-magnitude errors.
The DESIRE Airborne gravity project in the Dead Sea Basin and 3D numerical gravity modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, S.; Goetze, H.; Meyer, U.; Group, D.
2008-12-01
This geo-scientific research focuses on the geological setting of the Dead Sea Transform (DST) and the Dead Sea Basin (DSB) and its resulting pull-apart basins. Since the late 1970s, crustal scale geophysical experiments have been carried out in this region. However, the nature of the crust underlying the eastern and western shoulders of the DSB and underneath the DST itself is still a hotly debated topic among researchers. To address one of the central questions of plate tectonics - How do large transform systems work and what are their typical features? - An international geoscientific Dead Sea Integrated Research project (DESIRE) is being conducted by colleagues from Germany, Israel, Palestine, and Jordan. In order to provide a high resolution gravity database that support 3D numerical modeling and hence a more comprehensive understanding of the nature and segmentation of the DST, an airborne gravity survey as a part of the DESIRE project has been carried out from February to March 2007. The airborne gravity survey covered the DST from Elat/Aqaba in the South to the northern rim of the Dead Sea. The low speed and terrain-following helicopter gravity flights were performed to acquire the highest possible data quality. In total, 32 north-south profiles and 16 west-east profiles crossing the DST have been measured. Most of the profiles concentrated in areas that lacked terrestrial gravity data coverage, e. g. over the shoulders of the DSB. The airborne gravity data are merged with existing conventional (terrestrial) data sets to provide a seamless gravity map of the area of interest. Using that combined gravity dataset and DESIRE wide angle refractions seismic interpretation we modified density structures in the DSB. As results we estimated that (1) the Moho depth varies from 26 km in the Israel side to 34 km in the Jordan side. (2) The maximum thickness of the Dead Sea sediment Basin is about 15 km. (3) The salt rock with an average thickness of about 5 km is
3D Numerical modelling of topography development associated with curved subduction zones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munch, Jessica; Ueda, Kosuke; Burg, Jean-Pierre; May, Dave; Gerya, Taras
2017-04-01
Curved subduction zones, also called oroclines, are geological features found in various places on Earth. They occur in diverse geodynamic settings: 1) single slab subduction in oceanic domain (e.g. Sandwich trench in the Southern Atlantic); 2) single slab subduction in continental domain, (e.g. Gibraltar-Alboran orocline in the Western Mediterranean) 3); multi-slab subduction (e.g. Caribbean orocline in the South-East of the Gulf of Mexico). These systems present various curvatures, lengths (few hundreds to thousands of km) and ages (less than 35 Ma for Gibraltar Alboran orocline, up to 100 Ma for the Caribbean). Recent studies suggested that the formation of curved subduction systems depends on slab properties (age, length, etc) and may be linked with processes such as retreating subduction and delamination. Plume induced subduction initiation has been proposed for the Caribbean. All of these processes involve deep mechanisms such as mantle and slab dynamics. However, subduction zones always generate topography (trenches, uplifts, etc), which is likely to be influenced by surface processes. Hence, surface processes may also influence the evolution of subduction zones. We focus on different kinds of subduction systems initiated by plume-lithosphere interactions (single slab subduction/multi-slab subduction) and scrutinize their surface expression. We use numerical modeling to examine large-scale subduction initiation and three-dimensional slab retreat. We perform two kinds of simulations: 1) large scale subduction initiation with the 3D-thermomechanical code I3ELVIS (Gerya and Yuen, 2007) in an oceanic domain and 2) large scale subduction initiation in oceanic domain using I3ELVIS coupled with a robust new surface processes model (SPM). One to several retreating slabs form in the absence of surface processes, when the conditions for subduction initiation are reached (c.f. Gerya et al., 2015), and ridges occur in the middle of the extensional domain opened by slab
Huang, Qinghua; Lin, Yufeng
2010-01-01
Although seismic electric signal (SES) has been used for short-term prediction of earthquakes, selectivity of SES still remains as one of the mysterious features. As a case study, we made a numerical simulation based on a 3D finite element method (FEM) on the selectivity of SES observed in the case of the 2000 Izu earthquake swarm. Our numerical results indicated that the existence of conductive channel under Niijima island could explain the reported SES selectivity.
Huang, Qinghua; Lin, Yufeng
2010-01-01
Although seismic electric signal (SES) has been used for short-term prediction of earthquakes, selectivity of SES still remains as one of the mysterious features. As a case study, we made a numerical simulation based on a 3D finite element method (FEM) on the selectivity of SES observed in the case of the 2000 Izu earthquake swarm. Our numerical results indicated that the existence of conductive channel under Niijima island could explain the reported SES selectivity. PMID:20228625
Ashby, S.F.; Falgout, R.D.; Smith, S.G.; Fogwell, T.W.
1994-09-01
This paper discusses the numerical simulation of groundwater flow through heterogeneous porous media. The focus is on the performance of a parallel multigrid preconditioner for accelerating convergence of conjugate gradients, which is used to compute the hydraulic pressure head. The numerical investigation considers the effects of enlarging the domain, increasing the grid resolution, and varying the geostatistical parameters used to define the subsurface realization. The results were obtained using the PARFLOW groundwater flow simulator on the Cray T3D massively parallel computer.
Numerical Investigation of 3D multichannel analysis of surface wave method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Limin; Xu, Yixian; Luo, Yinhe
2015-08-01
Multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) method is an efficient tool to obtain near-surface S-wave velocity, and it has gained popularity in engineering practice. Up to now, most examples of using the MASW technique are focused on 2D models or data from a 1D linear receiver spread. We propose a 3D MASW scheme. A finite-difference (FD) method is used to investigate the method using linear and fan-shaped receiver spreads. Results show that the 3D topography strongly affects propagation of Rayleigh waves. The energy concentration of dispersion image is distorted and bifurcated because of the influence of free-surface topography. These effects are reduced with the 3D MASW method. Lastly we investigate the relation between the array size and the resolution of dispersion measurement.
Numerical study of the 3-D effect on FEL performance and its application to the APS LEUTL FEL
Chae, Y.C.
1998-09-01
A Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) is under construction at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). In LEUTL periodic focusing is provided by external quadrupoles. This results in an elliptical beam with its betatron oscillation envelope varying along the undulators. The free-electron laser (FEL) interaction with such a beam will exhibit truly 3-D effects. Thus the investigation of 3-D effects is important in optimizing the FEL performance. The programs GINGER and TDA3D, coupled with theoretically known facts, have been used for this purpose. Both programs are fully 3-D in moving the particle, but model the interaction between particles and axially symmetric electromagnetic waves. Even though TDA3D can include a few azimuthal modes in the interaction, it is still not a fully 3-D FEL code. However, they show that these 2-D programs can still be used for an elliptical beam whose aspect ratio is within certain limits. The author presents numerical results of FEL performance for the circular beam, the elliptical beam, and finally for the beam in the realistic LEUTL lattice.
Some Methods of Applied Numerical Analysis to 3d Facial Reconstruction Software
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roşu, Şerban; Ianeş, Emilia; Roşu, Doina
2010-09-01
This paper deals with the collective work performed by medical doctors from the University Of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara and engineers from the Politechnical Institute Timisoara in the effort to create the first Romanian 3d reconstruction software based on CT or MRI scans and to test the created software in clinical practice.
Numerical simulation of 3D boundary-driven acoustic streaming in microfluidic devices.
Lei, Junjun; Hill, Martyn; Glynne-Jones, Peter
2014-02-07
This article discusses three-dimensional (3D) boundary-driven streaming in acoustofluidic devices. Firstly, the 3D Rayleigh streaming pattern in a microchannel is simulated and its effect on the movement of microparticles of various sizes is demonstrated. The results obtained from this model show good comparisons with 3D experimental visualisations and demonstrate the fully 3D nature of the acoustic streaming field and the associated acoustophoretic motion of microparticles in acoustofluidic devices. This method is then applied to another acoustofluidic device in order to gain insights into an unusual in-plane streaming pattern. The origin of this streaming has not been fully described and its characteristics cannot be explained from the classical theory of Rayleigh streaming. The simulated in-plane streaming pattern was in good agreement with the experimental visualisation. The mechanism behind it is shown to be related to the active sound intensity field, which supports our previous findings on the mechanism of the in-plane acoustic streaming pattern visualised and modelled in a thin-layered capillary device.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jungkwun; Yoon, Yong-Kyu; Allen, Mark G.
2016-03-01
This paper presents a computer-numerical-controlled ultraviolet light-emitting diode (CNC UV-LED) lithography scheme for three-dimensional (3D) microfabrication. The CNC lithography scheme utilizes sequential multi-angled UV light exposures along with a synchronized switchable UV light source to create arbitrary 3D light traces, which are transferred into the photosensitive resist. The system comprises a switchable, movable UV-LED array as a light source, a motorized tilt-rotational sample holder, and a computer-control unit. System operation is such that the tilt-rotational sample holder moves in a pre-programmed routine, and the UV-LED is illuminated only at desired positions of the sample holder during the desired time period, enabling the formation of complex 3D microstructures. This facilitates easy fabrication of complex 3D structures, which otherwise would have required multiple manual exposure steps as in the previous multidirectional 3D UV lithography approach. Since it is batch processed, processing time is far less than that of the 3D printing approach at the expense of some reduction in the degree of achievable 3D structure complexity. In order to produce uniform light intensity from the arrayed LED light source, the UV-LED array stage has been kept rotating during exposure. UV-LED 3D fabrication capability was demonstrated through a plurality of complex structures such as V-shaped micropillars, micropanels, a micro-‘hi’ structure, a micro-‘cat’s claw,’ a micro-‘horn,’ a micro-‘calla lily,’ a micro-‘cowboy’s hat,’ and a micro-‘table napkin’ array.
Goldberg, K.A. |; Tejnil, E.; Bokor, J. |
1995-12-01
A 3-D electromagnetic field simulation is used to model the propagation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV), 13-nm, light through sub-1500 {Angstrom} dia pinholes in a highly absorptive medium. Deviations of the diffracted wavefront phase from an ideal sphere are studied within 0.1 numerical aperture, to predict the accuracy of EUV point diffraction interferometersused in at-wavelength testing of nearly diffraction-limited EUV optical systems. Aberration magnitudes are studied for various 3-D pinhole models, including cylindrical and conical pinhole bores.
3D numerical simulations of dense water cascading in an idealised laboratory setting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wobus, F.; Shapiro, G. I.; Maqueda, M. A. M.; Huthnance, J. M.
2012-04-01
The sinking of dense waters flowing from shelf seas down the continental slope "cascading" contributes to ocean ventilation and water mass formation (notably in the Antarctic) and hence ocean circulation. It is also deemed to affect carbon cycling by providing an efficient mechanism of export of carbon-rich surface waters to a greater depth thus contributing to the "carbon pump". Cascading occurs where dense water - formed by cooling, evaporation or ice-formation with brine rejection over the shallow continental shelf - spills over the shelf edge and descends the continental slope as a near-bottom gravity current. During its descent, the plume is modified by mixing and entrainment, and detaches off the slope when reaching its neutral buoyancy level. Cascading over steep bottom topography is studied here in numerical experiments using POLCOMS, a 3D ocean circulation model which utilizes a terrain-following s-coordinate system (Wobus et al, 2011). The model setup is based on a previously conducted (Shapiro and Zatsepin, 1997) laboratory experiment of a continuous dense water flow from a central source on a conical slope in a rotating tank. The governing parameters of the experiments are the density difference between plume and ambient water, the flow rate, the speed of rotation and (in the model) diffusivity and viscosity. The descent of the dense flow as characterised by the length of the plume as a function of time is studied for a range of physical and model parameters. Very good agreement between the model and the laboratory results is shown in dimensional and non-dimensional variables. It is confirmed that a hydrostatic model is capable of reproducing the essential physics of cascading on a very steep slope if the model correctly resolves velocity veering in the bottom boundary layer. Experiments changing the height of the bottom Ekman layer (by changing viscosity) and modifying the plume from a 2-layer system to a stratified regime (by enhancing diapycnal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Y.; Feng, X. S.
2015-12-01
CMEs have been identified as a prime causal link between solar activity and large, nonrecurrent geomagnetic storm. In order to improve geomagnetic storm predictions, a careful study of CME's propagation characteristics is important. Here, we analyze and quantitatively study the evolution and propagation characteristics of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) launched at several positions into a structured real ambient solar wind by using a three-dimensional (3D) numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation. The ambient solar wind structure during Carrington rotation 2095 is selected, which is an appropriate around activity minimum and declining phase. The CME is initiated by a simple spherical plasmoid model: a spheromak magnetic structure with high speed, high pressure and high plasma density plasmoid. We present a detailed analysis of the plasma, magnetic field, geoeffectiveness, and composition signatures of these CMEs. Results show that the motion and local appearance of a CME in interplanetary space is strongly affected by its interaction with the background solar wind structure, including its velocity, density, and magnetic structures. The simulations show that the initial launched position substantially affects the IP evolution of the CMEs influencing the propagation velocity, the shape, the trajectory and even the geo-effectiveness
Comparison between 2D and 3D Numerical Modelling of a hot forging simulative test
Croin, M.; Ghiotti, A.; Bruschi, S.
2007-04-07
The paper presents the comparative analysis between 2D and 3D modelling of a simulative experiment, performed in laboratory environment, in which operating conditions approximate hot forging of a turbine aerofoil section. The plane strain deformation was chosen as an ideal case to analyze the process because of the thickness variations in the final section and the consequent distributions of contact pressure and sliding velocity at the interface that are closed to the conditions of the real industrial process. In order to compare the performances of 2D and 3D approaches, two different analyses were performed and compared with the experiments in terms of loads and temperatures peaks at the interface between the dies and the workpiece.
Numerical simulation of MHD for electromagnetic edge dam in continuous casting.
Chang, F. C.
1999-03-30
A computer model was developed to predict eddy currents and fluid flows in molten steel. The model was verified by comparing predictions with experimental results of liquid-metal containment and fluid flow in electromagnetic (EM) edge dams (EMDs) designed at Inland Steel for twin-roll casting. The model can optimize the EMD design so it is suitable for application, and minimize expensive, time-consuming full-scale testing. Numerical simulation was performed by coupling a three-dimensional (3-D) finite-element EM code (ELEKTRA) and a 3-D finite-difference fluids code (CaPS-EM) to solve heat transfer, fluid flow, and turbulence transport in a casting process that involves EM fields. ELEKTRA is able to predict the eddy-current distribution and the electromagnetic forces in complex geometries. CaPS-EM is capable of modeling fluid flows with free surfaces. Results of the numerical simulation compared measurements obtained from a static test.
Fundamental Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Active Control of 3-D Flows
2011-10-06
heat transfer sensing system to detect thermal footprints of passing flow structures. They identified three different types of vortical structures...based on scanning stereoscopic PIV system with multiple planes along the span to construct a 3-D flow field (similar to the technique used in the...the PIV system to issue from below the tunnel, as the top of the tunnel is not optically accessible. CCD cameras were mounted on an optical table
Nonlinear Numerical Modeling of Shape Control in IGNITOR in the Presence of 3D Structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, G.; de Tommasi, G.; Pironti, A.; Rubinacci, G.; Villone, F.; Ramogida, G.; Coppi, B.
2014-10-01
IGNITOR is a high field compact machine designed for the investigation of fusion burning plasmas at or close to ignition. The integrated plasma position, shape and current control plays an important role in its safe operation. The analysis of its behavior taking into account nonlinear and 3D effects can be of great interest for assessing its performances. In fact, the system was designed on the basis of an axisymmetric linearized model. To this purpose, we use a computational tool, called CarMa0NL, with the unprecedented capability of simultaneously considering three-dimensional effects of conductors surrounding the plasma and the inherent nonlinearity of the plasma behaviour itself, in the presence of the complex set of circuit equations describing the control system. Preliminary results already lead to the conclusion that the vertical position response is not much influenced by nonlinear and 3D effects, as the vertical stabilization controller is able to ``hide'' the differences in open-loop models. Here we assess the performance of the shape controller, by coupling the nonlinear plasma evolution in the presence of the 3D vessel with ports to the complex circuit dynamics simulating the integrated closed loop control system.
3D Numerical Simulation on the Sloshing Waves Excited by the Seismic Shacking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lin; Wu, Tso-Ren
2016-04-01
In the event of 2015 Nepal earthquake, a video clip broadcasted worldwide showed a violent water spilling in a hotel swimming pool. This sloshing phenomenon indicates a potential water loss in the sensitive facilities, e.g. the spent fuel pools in nuclear power plant, has to be taken into account carefully under the consideration of seismic-induced ground acceleration. In the previous studies, the simulation of sloshing mainly focused on the pressure force on the structure by using a simplified Spring-Mass Method developed in the field of solid mechanics. However, restricted by the assumptions of plane water surface and limited wave height, significant error will be made in evaluating the amount of water loss in the tank. In this paper, the computational fluid dynamical model, Splash3D, was adopted for studying the sloshing problem accurately. Splash3D solved 3D Navier-Stokes Equation directly with Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulent closure. The Volume-of-fluid (VOF) method with piecewise linear interface calculation (PLIC) was used to track the complex breaking water surface. The time series acceleration of a design seismic was loaded to excite the water. With few restrictions from the assumptions, the accuracy of the simulation results were improved dramatically. A series model validations were conducted by compared to a 2D theoretical solution, and a 3D experimental data. Good comparisons can be seen. After the validation, we performed the simulation for considering a sloshing case in a rectangular water tank with a dimension of 12 m long, 8 m wide, 8 m deep, which contained water with 7 m in depth. The seismic movement was imported by considering time-series acceleration in three dimensions, which were about 0.5 g to 1.2 g in the horizontal directions, and 0.3 g to 1 g in the vertical direction. We focused the discussions on the kinematics of the water surface, wave breaking, velocity field, pressure field, water force on the side walls, and, most
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandumpala Devassy, B.; Edelbauer, W.; Greif, D.
2015-12-01
Cavitation and its effect on spray formation and its dispersion play a crucial role in proper engine combustion and controlled emission. This study focuses on these effects in a typical common rail 6-hole diesel injector accounting for 3D needle movement and flow compressibility effects. Coupled numerical simulations using 1D and 3D CFD codes are used for this investigation. Previous studies in this direction have already presented a detailed structure of the adopted methodology. Compared to the previous analysis, the present study investigates the effect of 3D needle movement and cavitation on the spray formation for pilot and main injection events for a typical diesel engine operating point. The present setup performs a 3D compressible multiphase simulation coupled with a standalone 1D high pressure flow simulation. The simulation proceeds by the mutual communication between 1D and 3D solvers. In this work a typical common rail injector with a mini-sac nozzle is studied. The lateral and radial movement of the needle and its effect on the cavitation generation and the subsequent spray penetration are analyzed. The result indicates the effect of compressibility of the liquid on damping the needle forces, and also the difference in the spray penetration levels due to the asymmetrical flow field. Therefore, this work intends to provide an efficient and user-friendly engineering tool for simulating a complete fuel injector including spray propagation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horrillo, J.; Wood, A.; Kim, G.-B.; Parambath, A.
2013-12-01
A simplified three-dimensional Navier-Stokes (3-D NS) model for two fluids, water and landslide material (mudslide) is presented and validated with standard laboratory experiments. Dubbed TSUNAMI3D (Tsunami Solution Using Navier-Stokes Algorithm with Multiple Interfaces) is applied to a 3-D full-scale landslide scenario in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), i.e., the East-Breaks underwater landslide. The simplified 3-D NS model is conceived to be computationally efficient for tsunami calculations. The simplification is derived from the large aspect ratio of the tsunami waves (wavelength/wave-height) and the selected computational grid that has a smaller aspect ratio. This allows us to assume a horizontal fluid surface in each individual cell containing the interface (air-water, air-mudslide, and water-mudslide). The tracking of fluid interfaces is based on the Volume of Fluid method and the surfaces are obtained by integrating the fluxes of each individual fluid cell along the water column. In the momentum equation, the pressure term is split into two components, hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic. The internal friction is solved in a simplified manner by adjusting the viscosity coefficient. Despite the simplification to get an efficient solution, the numerical results agree fairly well with standard landslide laboratory experiments required by the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program for tsunami model validation. The numerical effect caused by using a sharp versus a diffusive water-mudslide interface for a full-scale landslide-tsunami scenario is also investigated. Observations from this experiment indicated that choosing a sharp or diffusive interface seems to have no remarkable effect at early stages of the tsunami wave propagation. Last, a large scale 3-D numerical simulation is carried out for the ancient GOM's East-Breaks landslide by using the simplified model to calculate the early stages of the tsunami wave propagation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Benyo, Theresa L.
2011-01-01
Flow matching has been successfully achieved for an MHD energy bypass system on a supersonic turbojet engine. The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) environment helped perform a thermodynamic cycle analysis to properly match the flows from an inlet employing a MHD energy bypass system (consisting of an MHD generator and MHD accelerator) on a supersonic turbojet engine. Working with various operating conditions (such as the applied magnetic field, MHD generator length and flow conductivity), interfacing studies were conducted between the MHD generator, the turbojet engine, and the MHD accelerator. This paper briefly describes the NPSS environment used in this analysis. This paper further describes the analysis of a supersonic turbojet engine with an MHD generator/accelerator energy bypass system. Results from this study have shown that using MHD energy bypass in the flow path of a supersonic turbojet engine increases the useful Mach number operating range from 0 to 3.0 Mach (not using MHD) to a range of 0 to 7.0 Mach with specific net thrust range of 740 N-s/kg (at ambient Mach = 3.25) to 70 N-s/kg (at ambient Mach = 7). These results were achieved with an applied magnetic field of 2.5 Tesla and conductivity levels in a range from 2 mhos/m (ambient Mach = 7) to 5.5 mhos/m (ambient Mach = 3.5) for an MHD generator length of 3 m.
A hybrid experimental-numerical technique for determining 3D velocity fields from planar 2D PIV data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eden, A.; Sigurdson, M.; Mezić, I.; Meinhart, C. D.
2016-09-01
Knowledge of 3D, three component velocity fields is central to the understanding and development of effective microfluidic devices for lab-on-chip mixing applications. In this paper we present a hybrid experimental-numerical method for the generation of 3D flow information from 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV) experimental data and finite element simulations of an alternating current electrothermal (ACET) micromixer. A numerical least-squares optimization algorithm is applied to a theory-based 3D multiphysics simulation in conjunction with 2D PIV data to generate an improved estimation of the steady state velocity field. This 3D velocity field can be used to assess mixing phenomena more accurately than would be possible through simulation alone. Our technique can also be used to estimate uncertain quantities in experimental situations by fitting the gathered field data to a simulated physical model. The optimization algorithm reduced the root-mean-squared difference between the experimental and simulated velocity fields in the target region by more than a factor of 4, resulting in an average error less than 12% of the average velocity magnitude.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smirnov, E. M.; Smirnovsky, A. A.; Schur, N. A.; Zaitsev, D. K.; Smirnov, P. E.
2016-09-01
The contribution covers results of numerical study of air flow and heat transfer past a backward-facing step at the Reynolds number of 28,000. The numerical simulation was carried out under conditions of the experiments of Vogel&Eaton (1985), where nominally 2D fluid dynamics and heat transfer in a channel with expansion ratio of 1.25 was investigated. Two approaches were used for turbulence modelling. First, the Menter SST turbulence model was used to perform refined 2D and 3D RANS steady-state computations. The 3D analysis was undertaken to evaluate effects of boundary layers developing on the sidewalls of the experimental channel. Then, 3D time-dependent computations were carried out using the vortex-resolving IDDES method and applying the spanwise-periodicity conditions. Comparative computations were performed using an in-house finite-volume code SINF/Flag-S and the ANSYS Fluent. The codes produced practically identical RANS solutions, showing in particular a difference of 4% in the central-line peak Stanton number calculated in 2D and 3D cases. The IDDES results obtained with two codes are in a satisfactory agreement. Comparing with the experimental data, the IDDES produces the best agreement for the wall friction, whereas the RANS solutions show superiority in predictions of the local Stanton number distribution.
Numerical Simulations of High-Frequency Respiratory Flows in 2D and 3D Lung Bifurcation Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zixi; Parameswaran, Shamini; Hu, Yingying; He, Zhaoming; Raj, Rishi; Parameswaran, Siva
2014-07-01
To better understand the human pulmonary system and optimize the high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) design, numerical simulations were conducted under normal breathing frequency and HFOV condition using a CFD code Ansys Fluent and its user-defined C programs. 2D and 3D double bifurcating lung models were created, and the geometry corresponds to fifth to seventh generations of airways with the dimensions based on the Weibel's pulmonary model. Computations were carried out for different Reynolds numbers (Re = 400 and 1000) and Womersley numbers (α = 4 and 16) to study the air flow fields, gas transportation, and wall shear stresses in the lung airways. Flow structure was compared with experimental results. Both 2D and 3D numerical models successfully reproduced many results observed in the experiment. The oxygen concentration distribution in the lung model was investigated to analyze the influence of flow oscillation on gas transport inside the lung model.
3D numerical thermal stress analysis of the high power target for the SLC Positron Source
Reuter, E.M.; Hodgson, J.A.
1991-05-01
The volumetrically nonuniform power deposition of the incident 33 GeV electron beam in the SLC Positron Source Target is hypothesized to be the most likely cause target failure. The resultant pulsed temperature distributions are known to generate complicated stress fields with no known closed-form analytical solution. 3D finite element analyses of these temperature distributions and associated thermal stress fields in the new High Power Target are described here. Operational guidelines based on the results of these analyses combined with assumptions made about the fatigue characteristics of the exotic target material are proposed. 6 refs., 4 figs.
An approach to 3D magnetic field calculation using numerical and differential algebra methods
Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.; Brady, V.O.
1992-07-17
Motivated by the need for new means for specification and determination of 3D fields that are produced by electromagnetic lens elements in the region interior to coil windings and seeking to obtain techniques that will be convenient for accurate conductor placement and dynamical study of particle motion, we have conveniently gene the representation of a 2D magnetic field to 3D. We have shown that the 3 dimensioal magnetic field components of a multipole magnet in the curl-fire divergence-fire region near the axis r=0 can be derived from one dimensional functions A{sub n}(z) and their derivatives (part 1). In the region interior to coil windings of accelerator magnets the three spatial components of magnet fields can be expressed in terms of harmonic components'' proportional to functions sin (n{theta}) or cos (n{theta}) of the azimuthal angle. The r,z dependence of any such component can then be expressed in terms of powers of r times functions A{sub n}(z) and their derivatives. For twodimensional configurations B{sub z} of course is identically zero, the derivatives of A{sub n}(z) vanish, and the harmonic components of the transverse field then acquire a simple proportionality B{sub r,n} {proportional to} r{sup n-1} sin (n{theta}),B{sub {theta},n} {proportional to} r{sup n-1} cos (n{theta}), whereas in a 3-D configuration the more complex nature of the field gives rise to additional so-called psuedomultipole'' components as judged by additional powers of r required in the development of the field. Computation of the 3-D magnetic field arising at a sequence of field points, as a direct result of a specified current configuration or coil geometry, can be calculated explicitly through use of the Biot-Savart law and from such data the coefficients can then be derived for a general development of the type indicated above. We indicate, discuss, and illustrate two means by which this development may be performed.
Numerical simulation of a combined oxidation ditch flow using 3D k-epsilon turbulence model.
Luo, Lin; Li, Wei-min; Deng, Yong-sen; Wang, Tao
2005-01-01
The standard three dimensional(3D) k-epsilon turbulence model was applied to simulate the flow field of a small scale combined oxidation ditch. The moving mesh approach was used to model the rotor of the ditch. Comparison of the computed and the measured data is acceptable. A vertical reverse flow zone in the ditch was found, and it played a very important role in the ditch flow behavior. The flow pattern in the ditch is discussed in detail, and approaches are suggested to improve the hydrodynamic performance in the ditch.
2012-02-28
with MHD acceleration of the airstream for thrust enhancement and control. The range of alternative MHD-augmented propulsion configurations that...electrical power can be applied to accelerate the air slug, generating thrust (Figure 1b). The procedure can then be repeated at each cycle. (a...bypass channel takes place. Another alternative configuration by which MHD can be used to augment thrust generated by a PDRE is one in which energy
Analytical and numerical aspects in solving the controlled 3D Gross-Pitaevskii equation
Fedele, R.; Jovanovic, D.; De Nicola, S.; Eliasson, B.; Shukla, P. K.
2009-11-10
The results of recently developed investigations, that have been carried out within the framework of the controlling potential method (CPM), are reviewed. This method allows one to decompose a three dimensional (3D) Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) into the pair of coupled Schroedinger-type equations. Under suitable mathematical conditions, the solutions of the 3D controlled GPE can be constructed from the solutions of a 2D linear Schroedinger equation (the transverse component of the GPE) coupled with a 1D nonlinear Schroedinger equation (the longitudinal component of the GPE). Such decomposition allows one to cast the solutions in the form of the product of the solutions of the transverse and the longitudinal components of the GPE. The coupling between these two equations is the functional of both the transverse and the longitudinal profiles. It is shown that the CPM can be used to obtain a new class of three-dimensional solitary waves solutions of the GPE, which governs the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates. By imposing an external controlling potential, the desired time-dependent shape of the localized BECs is obtained. The stability of the exact solutions was checked with direct simulations of the time -dependent, three-dimensional GPE. Our simulations show that the localized condensates are stable with respect to perturbed initial conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrarin, Christian; Bergamasco, Alessandro; Umgiesser, Georg; Cucco, Andrea
2013-05-01
Since advection and diffusion are the main physical processes that influence the cleaning capacity of coastal transitional waters, the 3-D spatial distribution of the water renewal times was used to delineate a physically-based zonation scheme. The temporal and spatial variations of the hydrodynamics are assessed using a validated three dimensional hydrodynamic finite element model. The developed methodology was applied to the Cape Peloro system, a coastal protected area located in the Messina Strait (Italy) consisting of two connected small brackish basins: the shallow Lake Ganzirri and the deep meromictic Lake Faro. The hydrodynamics of the two coastal lakes shows strong seasonal and spatial variation. The 3-D distribution of the water renewal times suggests a horizontal partition of the Lake Ganzirri into two sub-basins and a vertical zonation of the Lake Faro, with the mixolimnion extending till 10 m depth and the presence of a persistent bottom stagnant layer. The derived physically-based zonation scheme helps in explaining the highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of many biogeochemical variables in the Cape Peloro coastal system.
Analytical and numerical aspects in solving the controlled 3D Gross-Pitaevskii equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedele, R.; Jovanović, D.; De Nicola, S.; Eliasson, B.; Shukla, P. K.
2009-11-01
The results of recently developed investigations, that have been carried out within the framework of the controlling potential method (CPM), are reviewed. This method allows one to decompose a three dimensional (3D) Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) into the pair of coupled Schrödinger-type equations. Under suitable mathematical conditions, the solutions of the 3D controlled GPE can be constructed from the solutions of a 2D linear Schrödinger equation (the transverse component of the GPE) coupled with a 1D nonlinear Schrödinger equation (the longitudinal component of the GPE). Such decomposition allows one to cast the solutions in the form of the product of the solutions of the transverse and the longitudinal components of the GPE. The coupling between these two equations is the functional of both the transverse and the longitudinal profiles. It is shown that the CPM can be used to obtain a new class of three-dimensional solitary waves solutions of the GPE, which governs the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates. By imposing an external controlling potential, the desired time-dependent shape of the localized BECs is obtained. The stability of the exact solutions was checked with direct simulations of the time -dependent, three-dimensional GPE. Our simulations show that the localized condensates are stable with respect to perturbed initial conditions.
Ash3d: A finite-volume, conservative numerical model for ash transport and tephra deposition
Schwaiger, Hans F.; Denlinger, Roger P.; Mastin, Larry G.
2012-01-01
We develop a transient, 3-D Eulerian model (Ash3d) to predict airborne volcanic ash concentration and tephra deposition during volcanic eruptions. This model simulates downwind advection, turbulent diffusion, and settling of ash injected into the atmosphere by a volcanic eruption column. Ash advection is calculated using time-varying pre-existing wind data and a robust, high-order, finite-volume method. Our routine is mass-conservative and uses the coordinate system of the wind data, either a Cartesian system local to the volcano or a global spherical system for the Earth. Volcanic ash is specified with an arbitrary number of grain sizes, which affects the fall velocity, distribution and duration of transport. Above the source volcano, the vertical mass distribution with elevation is calculated using a Suzuki distribution for a given plume height, eruptive volume, and eruption duration. Multiple eruptions separated in time may be included in a single simulation. We test the model using analytical solutions for transport. Comparisons of the predicted and observed ash distributions for the 18 August 1992 eruption of Mt. Spurr in Alaska demonstrate to the efficacy and efficiency of the routine.
Numerical 3D Hydrodynamics Study of Gravitational Instabilities in a Circumbinary Disk
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Desai, Karna Mahadev; Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.; Michael, Scott; Cai, Kai; Durisen, Richard H.
2016-01-01
We present a 3D hydrodynamical study of gravitational instabilities (GIs) in a circumbinary protoplanetary disk around a Solar mass star and a brown dwarf companion (0.02 M⊙). GIs can play an important, and at times dominant, role in driving the structural evolution of protoplanetary disks. The reported simulations were performed employing CHYMERA, a radiative 3D hydrodynamics code developed by the Indiana University Hydrodynamics Group. The simulations include disk self-gravity and radiative cooling governed by realistic dust opacities. We examine the role of GIs in modulating the thermodynamic state of the disks, and determine the strengths of GI-induced density waves, non-axisymmetric density structures, radial mass transport, and gravitational torques. The principal goal of this study is to determine how the presence of the companion affects the nature and strength of GIs. Results are compared with a parallel simulation of a protoplanetary disk without the presence of the brown dwarf binary companion. We detect no fragmentation in either disk. A persistent vortex forms in the inner region of both disks. The vortex seems to be stabilized by the presence of the binary companion.
An experimental and numerical study of 3-D braided structural textile composites
Abusafieh, A.; Kalidindi, S.R.; Franco, E.
1994-12-31
It has been reported in literature that isostrain models (also known as Fabric Geometry Models) provide good predictions of the elastic moduli of three-dimensional textile composites. This study reports a critical evaluation of the accuracy of the isostrain models by comparing the predictions against experimental measurements as well as finite element simulations of representative unit cells of the 3-D braided composites, over a range of braid angles and volume fractions. The accuracy of the isostrain model is found to be highly sensitive to the braid angles and the fraction of lay-in axial fibers in the composite system. Good correlations between isostrain model predictions of elastic moduli and measurements were observed when the loading direction is oriented along one of the fiber directions and is significantly away from the other fiber systems in the unit cell. In other situations, however, the isostrain model predictions were in significant errors. This study also reports on the influence of various modeling parameters in the development of finite element models for the simulation of the 3-D textile composite unit cells.
Sofronov, I.D.; Voronin, B.L.; Butnev, O.I.
1997-12-31
The aim of the work performed is to develop a 3D parallel program for numerical calculation of gas dynamics problem with heat conductivity on distributed memory computational systems (CS), satisfying the condition of numerical result independence from the number of processors involved. Two basically different approaches to the structure of massive parallel computations have been developed. The first approach uses the 3D data matrix decomposition reconstructed at temporal cycle and is a development of parallelization algorithms for multiprocessor CS with shareable memory. The second approach is based on using a 3D data matrix decomposition not reconstructed during a temporal cycle. The program was developed on 8-processor CS MP-3 made in VNIIEF and was adapted to a massive parallel CS Meiko-2 in LLNL by joint efforts of VNIIEF and LLNL staffs. A large number of numerical experiments has been carried out with different number of processors up to 256 and the efficiency of parallelization has been evaluated in dependence on processor number and their parameters.
A direct numerical reconstruction algorithm for the 3D Calderón problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delbary, Fabrice; Hansen, Per Christian; Knudsen, Kim
2011-04-01
In three dimensions Calderón's problem was addressed and solved in theory in the 1980s in a series of papers, but only recently the numerical implementation of the algorithm was initiated. The main ingredients in the solution of the problem are complex geometrical optics solutions to the conductivity equation and a (non-physical) scattering transform. The resulting reconstruction algorithm is in principle direct and addresses the full non-linear problem immediately. In this paper we will outline the theoretical reconstruction method and describe how the method can be implemented numerically. We will give three different implementations, and compare their performance on a numerical phantom.
Symmetry-plane model of 3D Euler flows: Mapping to regular systems and numerical solutions of blowup
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mulungye, Rachel M.; Lucas, Dan; Bustamante, Miguel D.
2014-11-01
We introduce a family of 2D models describing the dynamics on the so-called symmetry plane of the full 3D Euler fluid equations. These models depend on a free real parameter and can be solved analytically. For selected representative values of the free parameter, we apply the method introduced in [M.D. Bustamante, Physica D: Nonlinear Phenom. 240, 1092 (2011)] to map the fluid equations bijectively to globally regular systems. By comparing the analytical solutions with the results of numerical simulations, we establish that the numerical simulations of the mapped regular systems are far more accurate than the numerical simulations of the original systems, at the same spatial resolution and CPU time. In particular, the numerical integrations of the mapped regular systems produce robust estimates for the growth exponent and singularity time of the main blowup quantity (vorticity stretching rate), converging well to the analytically-predicted values even beyond the time at which the flow becomes under-resolved (i.e. the reliability time). In contrast, direct numerical integrations of the original systems develop unstable oscillations near the reliability time. We discuss the reasons for this improvement in accuracy, and explain how to extend the analysis to the full 3D case. Supported under the programme for Research in Third Level Institutions (PRTLI) Cycle 5 and co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund.
The numerical study of the cavitation-structure interaction around 3D flexible hydrofoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi-liang, Hu; Ying, Chen; Chuan-jing, Lu
2015-12-01
The closely coupled approach combined the Finite Volume Method (FVM) solver and the Finite Element Method (FEM) solver is applied to simulation the cavitation-structure interaction of a 3D cantilevered flexible hydrofoil in water tunnel. In the cavitating flow, the elastic hydrofoil would deform or vibrate in bending and twisting mode. And the motion of the foil would affect the characteristics of the cavity and the hydrodynamic load on the foil in turn. With smaller cavitation numbers (σv=2.15), the frequency spectrum of the lift on the foil would contain two frequencies which are associated to the cavity shedding and the first bend frequency of the hydrofoil. With larger cavitation number (σv=2.55), the frequency of the lift is completely dominated by the natural frequency of the foil.
Parallel 3D Finite Element Numerical Modelling of DC Electron Guns
Prudencio, E.; Candel, A.; Ge, L.; Kabel, A.; Ko, K.; Lee, L.; Li, Z.; Ng, C.; Schussman, G.; /SLAC
2008-02-04
In this paper we present Gun3P, a parallel 3D finite element application that the Advanced Computations Department at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is developing for the analysis of beam formation in DC guns and beam transport in klystrons. Gun3P is targeted specially to complex geometries that cannot be described by 2D models and cannot be easily handled by finite difference discretizations. Its parallel capability allows simulations with more accuracy and less processing time than packages currently available. We present simulation results for the L-band Sheet Beam Klystron DC gun, in which case Gun3P is able to reduce simulation time from days to some hours.
A 3D Numerical Study of Gravitational Instabilities in Young Circumbinary Disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Kai; Michael, Scott; Durisen, Richard
2013-07-01
Gravitational instabilities (GIs) in protoplanetary disks have been suggested as one of the major formation mechanisms of giant planets. Theoretical and computational studies have indicated that certain family of GIs can be excited in a circumbinary disk, which could lead to enhanced protoplanet formation (e.g., Sellwood & Lin 1989, Boss 2006). We have carried out a 3D simulation of a gravitationally unstable circumbinary disk around a young Sun-like star and a 0.02-Msun companion, both inside the central hole of the disk. Here we present a preliminary comparison between this simulation and a similarly simulated circumstellar disk around a solar-mass star but without the low-mass companion. The GIs stimulated by the binary and those that arise spontaneously are quite different in structure and strength. However, no fragmentation is observed, even after many orbital periods as measured in the outer disk.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sack, Jacqueline J.
2013-01-01
This article explicates the development of top-view numeric coding of 3-D cube structures within a design research project focused on 3-D visualization skills for elementary grades children. It describes children's conceptual development of 3-D cube structures using concrete models, conventional 2-D pictures and abstract top-view numeric…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sack, Jacqueline J.
2013-01-01
This article explicates the development of top-view numeric coding of 3-D cube structures within a design research project focused on 3-D visualization skills for elementary grades children. It describes children's conceptual development of 3-D cube structures using concrete models, conventional 2-D pictures and abstract top-view numeric…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Xuanji; Zhou, Yong
2015-09-01
We prove that a weak solution (u, b) to the MHD equations is smooth on (0, T ] if \\text{M}\\in {{L}α}≤ft(0,T;{{L}γ}≤ft({{{R}}3}\\right)\\right) with 2/α +3/γ =2 , 1≤slant α <∞ and 3/2<γ ≤slant ∞ , where \\text{M} is a 3× 3 mixture matrix (see its definition below). As we will explain later, this kind of regularity criteria is more likely to capture the nature of the coupling effects between the fluid velocity and the magnetic field in the evolution of the MHD flows. Moreover, the condition on \\text{M} is scaling invariant, i.e. it is of Ladyzhenskaya-Prodi-Serrin type.
3D numerical simulations of a LOVA reproduction inside the new facility STARDUST-UPGRADE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciparisse, J. F.; Malizia, A.; Poggi, L. A.; Tieri, F.; Gelfusa, M.; Murari, A.; Del Papa, C.; Giovannangeli, I.; Gaudio, P.
2017-02-01
A loss of vacuum in a vessel, containing or not dust, is the typical case study considered in the STARDUST-UPGRADE facility of the Quantum Electronics and Plasma Group of the university of Rome Tor Vergata. This kind of accident was simulated numerically, without including the presence of dust, for two mass flow rates and three different inlet ports (C, E and F). Numerical settings are explained and the results obtained in each case are shown and discussed. At the end of the work, conclusions about what seen and further foreseen developments of this research are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Benyo, Theresa L.
2010-01-01
Preliminary flow matching has been demonstrated for a MHD energy bypass system on a supersonic turbojet engine. The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) environment was used to perform a thermodynamic cycle analysis to properly match the flows from an inlet to a MHD generator and from the exit of a supersonic turbojet to a MHD accelerator. Working with various operating conditions such as the enthalpy extraction ratio and isentropic efficiency of the MHD generator and MHD accelerator, interfacing studies were conducted between the pre-ionizers, the MHD generator, the turbojet engine, and the MHD accelerator. This paper briefly describes the NPSS environment used in this analysis and describes the NPSS analysis of a supersonic turbojet engine with a MHD generator/accelerator energy bypass system. Results from this study have shown that using MHD energy bypass in the flow path of a supersonic turbojet engine increases the useful Mach number operating range from 0 to 3.0 Mach (not using MHD) to an explored and desired range of 0 to 7.0 Mach.
PFLOW: A 3-D Numerical Modeling Tool for Calculating Fluid-Pressure Diffusion from Coulomb Strain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wolf, L. W.; Lee, M.; Meir, A.; Dyer, G.; Ma, K.; Chan, C.
2009-12-01
A new 3D time-dependent pore-pressure diffusion model PFLOW is developed to investigate the response of pore fluids to the crustal deformation generated by strong earthquakes in heterogeneous geologic media. Given crustal strain generated by changes in Coulomb stress, this MATLAB-based code uses Skempton's coefficient to calculate resulting changes fluid pressure. Pore-pressure diffusion can be tracked over time in a user-defined model space with user-prescribed Neumann or Dirchilet boundary conditions and with spatially variable values of permeability. PFLOW employs linear or quadratic finite elements for spatial discretization and first order or second order, explicit or implicit finite difference discretization in time. PFLOW is easily interfaced with output from deformation modeling programs such as Coulomb (Toda et al., 2007) or 3D-DEF (Gomberg and Ellis, 1994). The code is useful for investigating to first-order the evolution of pore pressure changes induced by changes in Coulomb stress and their possible relation to water-level changes in wells or changes in stream discharge. It can also be used for student research and classroom instruction. As an example application, we calculate the coseismic pore pressure changes and diffusion induced by volumetric strain associated with the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw = 7.6) in Taiwan. The Chi-Chi earthquake provides an unique opportunity to investigate the spatial and time-dependent poroelastic response of near-field rocks and sediments because there exist extensive observational data of water-level changes and crustal deformation. The integrated model allows us to explore whether changes in Coulomb stress can adequately explain hydrologic anomalies observed in areas such as Taiwan’s western foothills and the Choshui River alluvial plain. To calculate coseismic strain, we use the carefully calibrated finite fault-rupture model of Ma et al. (2005) and the deformation modeling code Coulomb 3.1 (Toda et al., 2007
Sultan, E; Pourrezaei, K; Ghandjbakhche, A; Daryoush, A S
2014-03-01
Modeling behavior of broadband (30-1000 MHz) frequency modulated near infrared photons through a multilayer phantom is of interest to optical bio-imaging research. Photon dynamics in phantom are predicted using three-dimension (3D) finite element numerical simulation and are related to the measured insertion loss and phase for a given human head geometry in this paper based on three layers of phantom each with distinct optical parameter properties. Simulation and experimental results are achieved for single, two, and three layers solid phantoms using COMSOL (COMSOL AB, Tegnérgatan 23, SE-111 40, Stockholm, Sweden) (for FEM) simulation and custom-designed broadband free space optical transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) modules that are developed for photon migration at wavelengths of 680, 795, and 850 nm. Standard error is used to compute error between two-dimension and 3D FE modeling along with experimental results by fitting experimental data to the functional form of afrequency+b. Error results are shown at narrowband and broadband frequency modulation. Confidence in numerical modeling of the photonic behavior using 3D FEM for human head has been established here by comparing the reflection mode's experimental results with the predictions made by COMSOL for known commercial solid brain phantoms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bravo, Agustín; Barham, Richard; Ruiz, Mariano; López, Juan Manuel; De Arcas, Guillermo; Alonso, Jesus
2012-12-01
In part I, the feasibility of using three-dimensional (3D) finite elements (FEs) to model the acoustic behaviour of the IEC 60318-1 artificial ear was studied and the numerical approach compared with classical lumped elements modelling. It was shown that by using a more complex acoustic model that took account of thermo-viscous effects, geometric shapes and dimensions, it was possible to develop a realistic model. This model then had clear advantages in comparison with the models based on equivalent circuits using lumped parameters. In fact results from FE modelling produce a better understanding about the physical phenomena produced inside ear simulator couplers, facilitating spatial and temporal visualization of the sound fields produced. The objective of this study (part II) is to extend the investigation by validating the numerical calculations against measurements on an ear simulator conforming to IEC 60318-1. For this purpose, an appropriate commercially available device is taken and a complete 3D FE model developed for it. The numerical model is based on key dimensional data obtained with a non-destructive x-ray inspection technique. Measurements of the acoustic transfer impedance have been carried out on the same device at a national measurement institute using the method embodied in IEC 60318-1. Having accounted for the actual device dimensions, the thermo-viscous effects inside narrow slots and holes and environmental conditions, the results of the numerical modelling were found to be in good agreement with the measured values.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tischenko, Oleg; Hoeschen, Christoph; Zankl, Maria
2005-04-01
For the numerical simulation of the radiation transport in the female breast, it is necessary to generate a numerical model of it. Despite of the success achieved by creating such models, for a more precise numerical dosimetry of the radiation transport and optimization of the imaging process, one needs more detailed numerical models. Unfortunately it is not always possible to appropriately accomplish this task on the base of data available today from conventional tomographic devices. The reason is a low contrast in the reconstructed image. This kind of problem was faced when attempting to segment the glandular and interlobular tissues in the 3D data of a breast specimen reconstructed on the Siemens CT device in the University Hospital in Magdeburg. To solve this problem, we have created a set of different 2D x-ray images of the breast specimen on the digital flat panel detector. The 3D distribution of the absorption function of the specimen was then reconstructed from the grey values of these images.
MHD numerical study of coronal mass ejection and its latitudinal deflection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, X.; Zhou, Y.; Wu, S.
2013-12-01
To predict whether or not a CME can arrive on the Earth and its IMF Bz are an important topic for space weather study. Here, we analyze the latitudinal deflection (LD) of CME during its propagation by using our 3D SIP-CESE MHD model. A spherical plasmoid CME model is used to mimic the 12 May 1997 event, with the CME being assumed at the observed location to arise from the evolution of a spheromak magnetic structure with high-speed, -pressure, and -density plasmoid. The result produced a relatively satisfactory comparison with Wind, such as southward IMF Bz. The effect of the background magnetic field and the initiation parameters on the LD CMEs show that the parallel CMEs (with CME's initial magnetic field parallel to that of the ambient field) at high latitude show an obvious equatorward deflection firstly, and then propagate almost parallel to HCS, while the anti-parallel CMEs deflect toward the pole. The LD extent of parallel CMEs are mainly controlled by the background magnetic field strength, and the initial magnetic field strength of CMEs. There is an anti-relation between the LD extent and the CME average transit speed and the energy ratio Ecme/Esw. Three dimensional view of the initial coronal magnetic field. Field lines of the CME are shown in color to illustrate the magnetic field strength. The color contours represent the radial magnetic field strength on the solar surface. Comparison between the in situ obtained by the WIND and our simulation during the 12 May 1997 event. From top to bottom, shown are flow velocity, number density, magnetic field, and three components of magnetic field in GSE coordinates. The simulated results at the Earth are shown by solid lines. The WIND observations are shown by dots.
Numerical model of formation of a 3-D strike-slip fault system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chemenda, Alexandre I.; Cavalié, Olivier; Vergnolle, Mathilde; Bouissou, Stéphane; Delouis, Bertrand
2016-01-01
The initiation and the initial evolution of a strike-slip fault are modeled within an elastoplasticity constitutive framework taking into account the evolution of the hardening modulus with inelastic straining. The initial and boundary conditions are similar to those of the Riedel shear experiment. The models first deform purely elastically. Then damage (inelastic deformation) starts at the model surface. The damage zone propagates both normal to the forming fault zone and downwards. Finally, it affects the whole layer thickness, forming flower-like structure in cross-section. At a certain stage, a dense set of parallel Riedel shears forms at shallow depth. A few of these propagate both laterally and vertically, while others die. The faults first propagate in-plane, but then rapidly change direction to make a larger angle with the shear axis. New fault segments form as well, resulting in complex 3-D fault zone architecture. Different fault segments accommodate strike-slip and normal displacements, which results in the formation of valleys and rotations along the fault system.
Spent Fuel Ratio Estimates from Numerical Models in ALE3D
Margraf, J. D.; Dunn, T. A.
2016-08-02
Potential threat of intentional sabotage of spent nuclear fuel storage facilities is of significant importance to national security. Paramount is the study of focused energy attacks on these materials and the potential release of aerosolized hazardous particulates into the environment. Depleted uranium oxide (DUO_{2}) is often chosen as a surrogate material for testing due to the unreasonable cost and safety demands for conducting full-scale tests with real spent nuclear fuel. To account for differences in mechanical response resulting in changes to particle distribution it is necessary to scale the DUO_{2} results to get a proper measure for spent fuel. This is accomplished with the spent fuel ratio (SFR), the ratio of respirable aerosol mass released due to identical damage conditions between a spent fuel and a surrogate material like depleted uranium oxide (DUO_{2}). A very limited number of full-scale experiments have been carried out to capture this data, and the oft-questioned validity of the results typically leads to overly-conservative risk estimates. In the present work, the ALE3D hydrocode is used to simulate DUO_{2} and spent nuclear fuel pellets impacted by metal jets. The results demonstrate an alternative approach to estimate the respirable release fraction of fragmented nuclear fuel.
A 3D numerical simulation of different phases of friction stir welding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guerdoux, S.; Fourment, L.
2009-10-01
An adaptive arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation is developed to compute the material flow and the temperature evolution during the three phases of the friction stir welding (FSW) process. It follows a splitting approach: after the calculations of the velocity/pressure and temperature fields, the mesh velocity is derived from the domain boundary evolution and from an adaptive refinement criterion provided by error estimation, and finally state variables are remapped. In this way, the unilateral contact conditions between the plate and the tool are accurately taken into account, so allowing one to model various instabilities that may occur during the process, such as the role played by the plunge depth of the tool on the formations of flashes, the possible appearance of non-steady voids or tunnel holes and the influence of the threads on the material flow, the temperature field and the welding efforts. This formulation is implemented in the 3D Forge3 FE software with automatic remeshing. The non-steady phases of FSW can so be simulated, as well as the steady welding phase. The study of different process conditions shows that the main phenomena taking place during FSW can be simulated with the right sensitivities.
Multidimensional Numerical Investigation of NIF Saturn PDD Designs with 3-D Laser Ray Tracing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKenty, P. W.; Craxton, R. S.; Skupsky, S.; Marozas, J. A.; Collins, T. J. B.; Shvydky, A.; Keller, D.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; McCrory, R. L.
2007-11-01
The Laboratory for Laser Energetics continues to validate the use of the NIF and the LMJ in the x-ray-drive configuration for direct-drive-ignition experiments. Progress in this area indicates that polar direct drive (PDD) is a viable and attractive option for achieving ignition on these megajoule-class laser systems. Recent work has focused on the implementation of the Saturn PDD illumination scheme, which, employing an equatorial CH ring as a plasma lens, attempts to minimize target perturbations due to the absence of the equatorial beams in the x-ray-drive laser configuration. This paper will examine the implementation of the standard ``all-DT'' direct-drive-ignition design with a fixed CH equatorial ring. Previous work employed 2-D hybrid SAGE--DRACO calculations and indicated minimal performance degradation from 1-D results. We will report on recent 2-D hydrodynamic DRACO simulations, examining the effects of the Saturn PDD illumination as modeled with fully integrated 3-D ray-trace models. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC52-92SF19460.
Spong, Donald A
2016-06-20
AE3D solves for the shear Alfven eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies in a torodal magnetic fusion confinement device. The configuration can be either 2D (e.g. tokamak, reversed field pinch) or 3D (e.g. stellarator, helical reversed field pinch, tokamak with ripple). The equations solved are based on a reduced MHD model and sound wave coupling effects are not currently included.
The 3-D numerical simulation research of vacuum injector for linear induction accelerator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Dagang; Xie, Mengjun; Tang, Xinbing; Liao, Shuqing
2017-01-01
Simulation method for voltage in-feed and electron injection of vacuum injector is given, and verification of the simulated voltage and current is carried out. The numerical simulation for the magnetic field of solenoid is implemented, and a comparative analysis is conducted between the simulation results and experimental results. A semi-implicit difference algorithm is adopted to suppress the numerical noise, and a parallel acceleration algorithm is used for increasing the computation speed. The RMS emittance calculation method of the beam envelope equations is analyzed. In addition, the simulated results of RMS emittance are compared with the experimental data. Finally, influences of the ferromagnetic rings on the radial and axial magnetic fields of solenoid as well as the emittance of beam are studied.
Noise control in a 3-D structural acoustic system: Numerical simulations
Banks, H.T.; Smith, R.C.
1994-12-31
A PDE-based noise control methodology for structural acoustic systems is discussed and supporting numerical simulation results are presented. The noise in the systems is generated by vibrations in portions of the enclosing structure, and control is implemented though the excitation of piezoceramic patches bonded to the structure. The system is modeled by a coupled set of PDE`s with a corresponding finite dimensional system being obtained when the PDE`s are discretized. Periodic LQR full state feedback control results are used to obtain gains and hence voltages to the patches which ultimately lead to reduced interior sound pressure levels. The application of this theory is then demonstrated through numerical simulations comparing the uncontrolled and controlled dynamics of a structural acoustic system currently being used for validation experiments.
Parallel 3-D numerical simulation of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Houba, Tomas
Dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators have shown promise in a range of applications including flow control, sterilization and ozone generation. Developing numerical models of plasma actuators is of great importance, because a high-fidelity parallel numerical model allows new design configurations to be tested rapidly. Additionally, it provides a better understanding of the plasma actuator physics which is useful for further innovation. The physics of plasma actuators is studied numerically. A loosely coupled approach is utilized for the coupling of the plasma to the neutral fluid. The state of the art in numerical plasma modeling is advanced by the development of a parallel, three-dimensional, first-principles model with detailed air chemistry. The model incorporates 7 charged species and 18 reactions, along with a solution of the electron energy equation. To the author's knowledge, a parallel three-dimensional model of a gas discharge with a detailed air chemistry model and the solution of electron energy is unique. Three representative geometries are studied using the gas discharge model. The discharge of gas between two parallel electrodes is used to validate the air chemistry model developed for the gas discharge code. The gas discharge model is then applied to the discharge produced by placing a dc powered wire and grounded plate electrodes in a channel. Finally, a three-dimensional simulation of gas discharge produced by electrodes placed inside a riblet is carried out. The body force calculated with the gas discharge model is loosely coupled with a fluid model to predict the induced flow inside the riblet.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colombero, C.; Baillet, L.; Comina, C.; Jongmans, D.; Vinciguerra, S.
2017-08-01
The characterization of the fracturing state of a potentially unstable rock cliff is a crucial requirement for stability assessments and mitigation purposes. Classical measurements of fracture location and orientation can however be limited by inaccessible rock exposures. The steep topography and high-rise morphology of these cliffs, together with the widespread presence of fractures, can additionally condition the success of geophysical prospecting on these sites. In order to mitigate these limitations, an innovative approach combining noncontact geomechanical measurements, active and passive seismic surveys, and 3-D numerical modeling is proposed in this work to characterize the 3-D fracture setting of an unstable rock mass, located in NW Italian Alps (Madonna del Sasso, VB). The 3-D fracture geometry was achieved through a combination of field observations and noncontact geomechanical measurements on oriented pictures of the cliff, resulting from a previous laser-scanning and photogrammetric survey. The estimation of fracture persistence within the rock mass was obtained from surface active seismic surveys. Ambient seismic noise and earthquakes recordings were used to assess the fracture control on the site response. Processing of both data sets highlighted the resonance properties of the unstable rock volume decoupling from the stable massif. A finite element 3-D model of the site, including all the retrieved fracture information, enabled both validation and interpretation of the field measurements. The integration of these different methodologies, applied for the first time to a complex 3-D prone-to-fall mass, provided consistent information on the internal fracturing conditions, supplying key parameters for future monitoring purposes and mitigation strategies.
A numerical method for the inverse problem of cell traction in 3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vitale, G.; Preziosi, L.; Ambrosi, D.
2012-09-01
Force traction microscopy is an inversion method that allows us to obtain the stress field applied by a living cell on the environment on the basis of a pointwise knowledge of the displacement produced by the cell itself. This classical biophysical problem, usually addressed in terms of Green’s functions, can be alternatively tackled in a variational framework. In such a case, a variation of the error functional under suitable regularization is operated in view of its minimization. This setting naturally suggests the introduction of a new equation, based on the adjoint operator of the elasticity problem. In this paper, we illustrate a numerical strategy of the inversion method that discretizes the partial differential equations associated with the optimal control problem by finite elements. A detailed discussion of the numerical approximation of a test problem (with known solution) that contains most of the mathematical difficulties of the real one allows a precise evaluation of the degree of confidence that one can achieve in the numerical results.
Numerical Simulations of Natural and Actuated Flow over a 3D, Low-Aspect-Ratio Airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brès, Guillaume; Williams, David; Colonius, Tim
2010-11-01
Numerical simulations of the unsteady flow over a low-aspect-ratio, low Reynolds number semi-circular planform wing are performed using Lattice Boltzmann method. The simulations exactly match the flow conditions and the detailed geometry from previous wind-tunnel experiments, including the flow actuators installed internally along the leading edge of the wing. To reproduce the pulsed-blowing actuation used in the experiment, a single pulsed square wave forcing is imposed in the simulations as a mass flow boundary condition in the actuators. Three angles of attack, with the active flow control both on and off, are investigated. For both mean and unsteady lift and drag, the numerical simulations show good agreement with the experiments. In particular, the transient increase in lift after the forcing is turned off is well captured in the simulations. Both PIV measurements and transient numerical results indicate that this behavior is associated with the advection of large vortical structures generated by the flow actuation at the leading edge.
Filoux, Erwan; Callé, Samuel; Lou-Moeller, Rasmus; Lethiecq, Marc; Levassort, Franck
2010-05-01
The transient analysis of piezoelectric transducers is often performed using finite-element or finite-difference time-domain methods, which efficiently calculate the vibration of the structure but whose numerical dispersion prevents the modeling of waves propagating over large distances. A second analytical or numerical simulation is therefore often required to calculate the pressure field in the propagating medium (typically water) to deduce many important characteristics of the transducer, such as spatial resolutions and side lobe levels. This is why a hybrid algorithm was developed, combining finite- difference and pseudo-spectral methods in the case of 2-D configurations to simulate accurately both the generation of acoustic waves by the piezoelectric transducer and their propagation in the surrounding media using a single model. The algorithm was redefined in this study to take all three dimensions into account and to model single-element transducers, which usually present axisymmetrical geometry. This method was validated through comparison of its results with those of finite-element software, and was used to simulate the behavior of planar and lens-focused transducers. A high-frequency (30 MHz) transducer based on a screen-printed piezoelectric thick film was fabricated and characterized. The numerical results of the hybrid algorithm were found to be in good agreement with the experimental measurements of displacements at the surface of the transducer and of pressure radiated in water in front of the transducer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernandez, Naiara; Kaus, Boris J. P.
2015-08-01
Many salt diapirs are thought to have formed as a result of down-building, which implies that the top of the diapir remained close to the surface during syn-halokinetic sediment deposition. Down-building is largely a 3-D process and in order to better understand what controls the patterns of the diapirs that form by this process, we here perform 3-D numerical models of down-built diapirs initiated by the gravity instability in linear viscous materials and compare the results with analytical models. We vary several parameters of the numerical models such as initial salt thickness, sedimentation rate, salt viscosity, salt-sediment viscosity ratio as well as the density of sediments. Down-building of 3-D diapirs only occurs for a certain range of parameters and is favoured by lower sediment/salt viscosity contrasts and sedimentation rates in agreement with analytical predictions and findings from previous 2-D models. However, the models show that the sedimentation rate has an additional effect on the formation and evolution of 3-D diapir patterns. At low sedimentation rates, salt ridges that form during early model stages remain preserved at later stages as well. For higher sedimentation rates, the initial salt ridges are covered up and finger-like diapirs form at their junctions, which results in different salt exposure patterns at the surface. Once the initial pattern of diapirs is formed, higher sedimentation rate can also result in covered diapirs if the diapir extrusion velocity is insufficiently large. We quantify the effect of sedimentation rate on the number of diapirs exposed at the surface as well as on their spacing and we explain the observations with analytical predictions using thick-plate analytical models. In some cases, this final pattern is distinctly different from the initial polygonal pattern.
Felipe-Sesé, Luis; López-Alba, Elías; Hannemann, Benedikt; Schmeer, Sebastian; Diaz, Francisco A
2017-06-28
A quasistatic indentation numerical analysis in a round section specimen made of soft material has been performed and validated with a full field experimental technique, i.e., Digital Image Correlation 3D. The contact experiment specifically consisted of loading a 25 mm diameter rubber cylinder of up to a 5 mm indentation and then unloading. Experimental strains fields measured at the surface of the specimen during the experiment were compared with those obtained by performing two numerical analyses employing two different hyperplastic material models. The comparison was performed using an Image Decomposition new methodology that makes a direct comparison of full-field data independently of their scale or orientation possible. Numerical results show a good level of agreement with those measured during the experiments. However, since image decomposition allows for the differences to be quantified, it was observed that one of the adopted material models reproduces lower differences compared to experimental results.
Felipe-Sesé, Luis; López-Alba, Elías; Hannemann, Benedikt; Schmeer, Sebastian; Diaz, Francisco A.
2017-01-01
A quasistatic indentation numerical analysis in a round section specimen made of soft material has been performed and validated with a full field experimental technique, i.e., Digital Image Correlation 3D. The contact experiment specifically consisted of loading a 25 mm diameter rubber cylinder of up to a 5 mm indentation and then unloading. Experimental strains fields measured at the surface of the specimen during the experiment were compared with those obtained by performing two numerical analyses employing two different hyperplastic material models. The comparison was performed using an Image Decomposition new methodology that makes a direct comparison of full-field data independently of their scale or orientation possible. Numerical results show a good level of agreement with those measured during the experiments. However, since image decomposition allows for the differences to be quantified, it was observed that one of the adopted material models reproduces lower differences compared to experimental results. PMID:28773081
Numerical Analysis of Thermal Remediation in 3D Field-Scale Fractured Geologic Media.
Chen, Fei; Falta, Ronald W; Murdoch, Lawrence C
2015-01-01
Thermal methods are promising for remediating fractured geologic media contaminated with volatile organic compounds, and the success of this process depends on the coupled heat transfer, multiphase flow, and thermodynamics. This study analyzed field-scale removal of trichloroethylene (TCE) and heat transfer behavior in boiling fractured geologic media using the multiple interacting continua method. This method can resolve local gradients in the matrix and is less computationally demanding than alternative methods like discrete fracture-matrix models. A 2D axisymmetric model was used to simulate a single element of symmetry in a repeated pattern of extraction wells inside a large heated zone and evaluate effects of parameter sensitivity on contaminant recovery. The results showed that the removal of TCE increased with matrix permeability, and the removal rate was more sensitive to matrix permeability than any other parameter. Increasing fracture density promoted TCE removal, especially when the matrix permeability was low (e.g., <10(-17) m(2)). A 3D model was used to simulate an entire treatment zone and the surrounding groundwater in fractured material, with the interaction between them being considered. Boiling was initiated in the center of the upper part of the heated region and expanded toward the boundaries. This boiling process resulted in a large increase in the TCE removal rate and spread of TCE to the vadose zone and the peripheries of the heated zone. The incorporation of extraction wells helped control the contaminant from migrating to far regions. After 22 d, more than 99.3% of TCE mass was recovered in the simulation. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.
A real-time emergency response workstation using a 3-D numerical model initialized with sodar
Lawver, B.S.; Sullivan, T.J.; Baskett, R.L.
1993-01-28
Many emergency response dispersion modeling systems provide simple Gaussian models driven by single meteorological tower inputs to estimate the downwind consequences from accidental spills or stack releases. Complex meteorological or terrain settings demand more sophisticated resolution of the three-dimensional structure of the atmosphere to reliably calculate plume dispersion. Mountain valleys and sea breeze flows are two common examples of such settings. To address these complexities, the authors have implemented the three-dimensional diagnostic MATHEW mass-adjusted wind field and ADPIC particle-in-cell dispersion models on a workstation for use in real-time emergency response modeling. MATHEW/ADPIC have shown their utility in a variety of complex settings over the last 15 years within the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project. The models are initialized using an array of surface wind measurements from meteorological towers coupled with vertical profiles from an acoustic sounder (sodar). The workstation automatically acquires the meteorological data every 15 minutes. A source term is generated using either defaults or a real-time stack monitor. Model outputs include contoured isopleths displayed on site geography or plume densities shown over 3-D color shaded terrain. The models are automatically updated every 15 minutes to provide the emergency response manager with a continuous display of potentially hazardous ground-level conditions if an actual release were to occur. Model run time is typically less than 2 minutes on 6 megaflop ({approximately}30 MIPS) workstations. Data acquisition, limited by dial-up modem communications, requires 3 to 5 minutes.
Numerical validation framework for micromechanical simulations based on synchrotron 3D imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buljac, Ante; Shakoor, Modesar; Neggers, Jan; Bernacki, Marc; Bouchard, Pierre-Olivier; Helfen, Lukas; Morgeneyer, Thilo F.; Hild, François
2017-03-01
A combined computational-experimental framework is introduced herein to validate numerical simulations at the microscopic scale. It is exemplified for a flat specimen with central hole made of cast iron and imaged via in-situ synchrotron laminography at micrometer resolution during a tensile test. The region of interest in the reconstructed volume, which is close to the central hole, is analyzed by digital volume correlation (DVC) to measure kinematic fields. Finite element (FE) simulations, which account for the studied material microstructure, are driven by Dirichlet boundary conditions extracted from DVC measurements. Gray level residuals for DVC measurements and FE simulations are assessed for validation purposes.
Code and Solution Verification of 3D Numerical Modeling of Flow in the Gust Erosion Chamber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuen, A.; Bombardelli, F. A.
2014-12-01
Erosion microcosms are devices commonly used to investigate the erosion and transport characteristics of sediments at the bed of rivers, lakes, or estuaries. In order to understand the results these devices provide, the bed shear stress and flow field need to be accurately described. In this research, the UMCES Gust Erosion Microcosm System (U-GEMS) is numerically modeled using Finite Volume Method. The primary aims are to simulate the bed shear stress distribution at the surface of the sediment core/bottom of the microcosm, and to validate the U-GEMS produces uniform bed shear stress at the bottom of the microcosm. The mathematical model equations are solved by on a Cartesian non-uniform grid. Multiple numerical runs were developed with different input conditions and configurations. Prior to developing the U-GEMS model, the General Moving Objects (GMO) model and different momentum algorithms in the code were verified. Code verification of these solvers was done via simulating the flow inside the top wall driven square cavity on different mesh sizes to obtain order of convergence. The GMO model was used to simulate the top wall in the top wall driven square cavity as well as the rotating disk in the U-GEMS. Components simulated with the GMO model were rigid bodies that could have any type of motion. In addition cross-verification was conducted as results were compared with numerical results by Ghia et al. (1982), and good agreement was found. Next, CFD results were validated by simulating the flow within the conventional microcosm system without suction and injection. Good agreement was found when the experimental results by Khalili et al. (2008) were compared. After the ability of the CFD solver was proved through the above code verification steps. The model was utilized to simulate the U-GEMS. The solution was verified via classic mesh convergence study on four consecutive mesh sizes, in addition to that Grid Convergence Index (GCI) was calculated and based on
Numerical Solution of the 3-D Navier-Stokes Equations on the CRAY-1 Computer.
1979-01-01
for scientific computa- - ’ " ...... , z Cordinates in Cartesian tions; the CRAY-I, STAR 100 and ILLIAC IV Frame., , Transformed Coordinate Syst among...one fraccional time step. 1n2m n 4 2 (16) Each difference operator contains a-predictor and corrector. During a specific numerical sweep, the flux...82171979. WUr nthe (RAY-’I, " Report #134, Systems 31 . unin, P G. ,"Prelmdmr RfMinvrIng ILboratory, University of11. ~~. AUrning a.n, i l~1iaAhiigan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Wei; Kang, Hai-gui; Chen, Bing; Xie, Yu; Wang, Yin
2016-03-01
Vertical axis tidal current turbine is a promising device to extract energy from ocean current. One of the important components of the turbine is the connecting arm, which can bring about a significant effect on the pressure distribution along the span of the turbine blade, herein we call it 3D effect. However, so far the effect is rarely reported in the research, moreover, in numerical simulation. In the present study, a 3D numerical model of the turbine with the connecting arm was developed by using FLUENT software compiling the UDF (User Defined Function) command. The simulation results show that the pressure distribution along the span of blade with the connecting arm model is significantly different from those without the connecting arm. To facilitate the validation of numerical model, the laboratory experiment has been carried out by using three different types of NACA aerofoil connecting arm and circle section connecting arm. And results show that the turbine with NACA0012 connecting arm has the best start-up performance which is 0.346 m/s and the peak point of power conversion coefficient is around 0.33. A further study has been performed and a conclusion is drawn that the aerofoil and thickness of connecting arm are the most important factors on the power conversion coefficient of the vertical axis tidal current turbine.
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF PROPAGATION AND SCATTERING OF THE MHD WAVES IN SUNSPOTS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parchevsky, K.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Khomenko, E.; Collados, M.
2009-12-01
We present comparison of numerical simulation results of MHD wave propagation in two different magnitostatic models of sunspots refferred to as "deep" and "shallow" models. The "deep" model has convex shape of magnetic field lines near the photosphere and non-zero horizorntal perturbations of the sound speed up to the bottom of the model (7.5 Mm). The "shallow" model has concave shape of the magnetic field lines near the photosphere and horizontally uniform sound speed below 2 Mm. Common feature of MHD waves behaviour in these two models is that for weak magnetic field (less than 1kG at the photosphere) waves reduce their amplitude when they reach the center of the sunspot and restore the amplitude when pass the center. For the "deep" model this effect is bigger than for the "shallow" model. The wave amplitude inside sunspots depends on the strength of the magnetic field. For the "shallow" model with photospheric magnetic field of 2.2 kG the wave amplitude inside the sunspot becomes bigger than outside (opposite to the weak magnetic field). The wave amplitude depends on the distance of the source from the sunspot center. For the "shallow" model and source distance of 9 Mm from the sunspot center the wave amplitude at some moment (when the wavefront passes the sunspot center) becomes bigger inside the sunspot than outside. For the source distance of 12 Mm the wave amplitude remains smaller inside the sunspot than outside for all moments of time. Using filtering technique we separated magnetoacoustic and magnetogravity waves. Simulations show that the sunspot changes the shape of the wave front and amplitude of the f-modes significantly stronger than the p-modes. It is shown, that inside the sunspot magnetoacoustic and magnetogravity waves are not spatially separated unlike the case of the horizontally uniform background model. Strong Alfven wave is generated at the wave source location in the "deep" model. This wave exists in the "shallow" model as well, but with
Ferrara, P; Ciofini, M; Esposito, L; Hostaša, J; Labate, L; Lapucci, A; Pirri, A; Toci, G; Vannini, M; Gizzi, L A
2014-03-10
We present a study of Yb:YAG active media slabs, based on a ceramic layered structure with different doping levels. We developed a procedure allowing 3D numerical analysis of the slab optical properties as a consequence of the thermal load induced by the pump process. The simulations are compared with a set of experimental results in order to validate the procedure. These structured ceramics appear promising in appropriate geometrical configurations, and thus are intended to be applied in the construction of High Energy Diode Pumped Solid State Laser (DPSSL) systems working in high repetition-rate pulsed regimes.
Montant, S; Marre, G; Blanchot, N; Rouyer, C; Videau, L; Sauteret, C
2006-12-11
An important issue, mosaic grating compressor, is studied to recompress pulses for multiPetawatt, high energy laser systems. Alignment of the mosaic elements is crucial to control the focal spot and thus the intensity on target. No theoretical approach analyses the influence of compressor misalignment on spatial and temporal profiles in the focal plane. We describe a simple 3D numerical model giving access to the focal plane view after a compressor. This model is computationally inexpensive since it needs only 1D Fourier transforms to access to the temporal profile. We present simulations of monolithic and mosaic grating compressors.
3D numerical study of tumor microenvironmental flow in response to vascular-disrupting treatments.
Wu, Jie; Cai, Yan; Xu, Shixiong; Longs, Quan; Ding, Zurong; Dong, Cheng
2012-06-01
The effects of vascular-disrupting treatments on normalization of tumor microvasculature and its microenvironmental flow were investigated, by mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of tumor vascular-disrupting and tumor haemodynamics. Four disrupting approaches were designed according to the abnormal characteristics of tumor microvasculature compared with the normal one. The results predict that the vascular-disrupting therapies could improve tumor microenvironment, eliminate drug barrier and inhibit metastasis of tumor cells to some extent. Disrupting certain types of vessels may get better effects. In this study, the flow condition on the networks with "vascular-disrupting according to flowrate" is the best comparing with the other three groups, and disrupting vessels of lower maturity could effectively enhance fluid transport across vasculature into interstitial space.
3-D numerical investigation of the mantle dynamics associated with the breakup of Pangea
Baumgardner, J.R.
1992-01-01
Three-dimensional finite element calculations in spherical geometry are performed to study the response of the mantle with platelike blocks at its surface to an initial condition corresponding to subduction along the margins of Pangea. The mantle is treated as an infinite Prandtl number Boussinesq fluid inside a spherical shell with isothermal, undeformable, free-slip boundaries. Nonsubducting rigid blocks to model continental lithosphere are included in the topmost layer of the computational mesh. At the beginning of the numerical experiments these blocks represent the present continents mapped to their approximate Pangean positions. Asymmetrical downwelling at the margins of these nonsubducting blocks results in a pattern of stresses that acts to pull the supercontinent apart. The calculations suggest that the breakup of Pangea and the subsequent global pattern of seafloor spreading was driven largely by the subduction at the Pangean margins.
3-D numerical investigation of the mantle dynamics associated with the breakup of Pangea
Baumgardner, J.R.
1992-10-01
Three-dimensional finite element calculations in spherical geometry are performed to study the response of the mantle with platelike blocks at its surface to an initial condition corresponding to subduction along the margins of Pangea. The mantle is treated as an infinite Prandtl number Boussinesq fluid inside a spherical shell with isothermal, undeformable, free-slip boundaries. Nonsubducting rigid blocks to model continental lithosphere are included in the topmost layer of the computational mesh. At the beginning of the numerical experiments these blocks represent the present continents mapped to their approximate Pangean positions. Asymmetrical downwelling at the margins of these nonsubducting blocks results in a pattern of stresses that acts to pull the supercontinent apart. The calculations suggest that the breakup of Pangea and the subsequent global pattern of seafloor spreading was driven largely by the subduction at the Pangean margins.
FOAM3D: A numerical simulator for mechanistic prediciton of foam displacement in multidimensions
Kovscek, A.R.; Patzek, T.W.; Radke, C.J.
1995-03-01
Field application of foam is a technically viable enhanced oil recovery process (EOR) as demonstrated by recent steam-foam field studies. Traditional gas-displacement processes, such as steam drive, are improved substantially by controlling gas mobility and thereby improving volumetric displacement efficiency. For instance, Patzek and Koinis showed major oil-recovery response after about two years of foam injection in two different pilot studies at the Kern River field. They report increased production of 5.5 to 14% of the original oil in place over a five year period. Because reservoir-scale simulation is a vital component of the engineering and economic evaluation of any EOR project, efficient application of foam as a displacement fluid requires a predictive numerical model of foam displacement. A mechanistic model would also expedite scale-up of the process from the laboratory to the field scale. No general, mechanistic, field-scale model for foam displacement is currently in use.
Numerical study of 3-D inducer and impeller for pump model development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, G. C.; Chen, Y. S.; Garcia, R.; Williams, R. W.
1993-01-01
Current design of high-performance turbopumps for rocket engines requires effective and robust analytical tools to provide design information in a productive manner. The main goal of this study is to develop a robust and effective CFD pump model for general turbopump design and analysis applications. A finite difference Navier-Stokes flow solver, FDNS, which includes an extended k-epsilon turbulence model and appropriate moving zonal interface boundary conditions, was developed to analyze turbulent flows in turbomachinery devices. In the present study, two key components of the turbopump, the inducer and impeller, were investigated by the proposed pump model, and the numerical results were benchmarked by the experimental data provided by Rocketdyne.
Numerical study of 3-D inducer and impeller for pump model development
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, G. C.; Chen, Y. S.; Garcia, R.; Williams, R. W.
1993-07-01
Current design of high-performance turbopumps for rocket engines requires effective and robust analytical tools to provide design information in a productive manner. The main goal of this study is to develop a robust and effective CFD pump model for general turbopump design and analysis applications. A finite difference Navier-Stokes flow solver, FDNS, which includes an extended k-epsilon turbulence model and appropriate moving zonal interface boundary conditions, was developed to analyze turbulent flows in turbomachinery devices. In the present study, two key components of the turbopump, the inducer and impeller, were investigated by the proposed pump model, and the numerical results were benchmarked by the experimental data provided by Rocketdyne.
Numerical analysis of eddy current NDT for a tube with cracks using 3D indirect BIEM
Lee, H.B.; Kim, D.H.
1999-09-01
In this paper, the 3-dimensional indirect boundary integral equation method (BIEM) is applied to the numerical analysis of eddy current non-destructive testing (NDT) for a tube with cracks. The indirect BIEM is developed in terms of the equivalent surface current density and equivalent surface charge density on the interface. The existence and type of the crack in the pipe can be known from the distortion of the magnetic charge density distribution. The impedance signal is calculated from the equivalent surface charge density without calculating the self inductance. The axisymmetric and the 90-degree circular outer crack problems are calculated as an example. The result shows the usage of the indirect BIEM in the area of eddy current NDT.
3-D numerical simulations of a growing planet with the core formation by the impact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furuichi, M.; Nakagawa, T.
2011-12-01
The formation of a metallic core is widely accepted as the biggest differentiation event during the final stage of the planetary formation [e.g. Stevenson, 1990]. The early Earth hypothesis also suggested that the core formation process would be an important for understanding the initial condition (both thermal and chemical) of mantle convection [Labrosse et al., 2007]. Although the formation process of metallic core is still not clear, it is clear that the different time-scale of dynamics in solid and liquid contribute to that. Here, we assume the scenario that the planetesimal impact induces a significant volume of melt which laterally spreads over the global (magma ocean) or regional area (magma pond) in the short crystallization time scale (~300yr) [Reese and Solomatov, 2006]. After the solidification of magma ocean/pond, hot metallic and silicate rich layers are created [e.g. Senshu et al., 2002]. Since the heavy metal rich material causes the gravitational instability in the viscous planet's interior, the planetary core would form with sinking the metallic material into the center. The silicate layer which floods from the magma pond, deforms as a viscous flow on the planetary surface due to the isostatic adjustment. A series of event on the core formation would have the time-scale of ~100 Mys at the maximum. In order to investigate the scenario described above, we developed the simulation code to solve the Stokes flow with the free surface under the self-gravitating field in 3-D, designed for the massively parallel/vector supercomputer system Earth Simulator 2(ES2) [Furuichi, 2011]. Expressing the free surface motion, a stick air layer, which is the low viscosity layer surrounding the planetary surface, is assumed [e.g. Furuichi et al, 2009]. An ill conditioned Stokes problem of the finite difference discretization on a staggered grid, is solved by iterative Stokes flow solver, robust to large viscosity jumps, using a strong Schur complement preconditioner
3-D Numerical Modeling of Rupture Sequences of Large Shallow Subduction Earthquakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Y.; Rice, J. R.
2003-12-01
We study the rupture behavior of large earthquakes on a 3-D shallow subduction fault governed by a rate and state friction law, and loaded by imposed slip at rate Vpl far downdip along the thrust interface. Friction properties are temperature, and hence depth, dependent, so that sliding is stable ( a - b > 0) at depths below about 30 km. To perturb the system into a nonuniform slip mode, if such a solution exists, we introduce small along-strike variations in either the constitutive parameters a and (a - b), or the effective normal stress, or the initial conditions. Our results do show complex, nonuniform slip behavior over the thousands of simulation years. Large events of multiple magnitudes occur at various along-strike locations, with different recurrence intervals, like those of natural interplate earthquakes. In the model, a large event usually nucleates in a less well locked gap region (slipping at order of 0.1 to 1 times the plate convergence rate Vpl) between more firmly locked regions (slipping at 10-4 to 10-2 Vpl) which coincide with the rupture zones of previous large events. It then propagates in both the dip and strike directions. Along-strike propagation slows down as the rupture front encounters neighboring locked zones, whose sizes and locking extents affect further propagation. Different propagation speeds at two fronts results in an asymmetric coseismic slip distribution, as is consistent with the slip inversion results of some large subduction earthquakes [e.g., Chlieh et al., 2003]. Current grid resolution is dictated by limitations of available computers and algorithms, and forces us to use constitutive length scales that are much larger than realistic lab values; that causes nucleation sizes to be in the several kilometers (rather than several meters) range. Thus there is a tentativeness to present conclusions. But with current resolution, we observe that the heterogeneous slip at seismogenic depths (i.e., where a - b < 0 ) is sometimes
A Numerical Study on the Thermal Conductivity of 3D Woven C/C Composites at High Temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shigang, Ai; Rujie, He; Yongmao, Pei
2015-12-01
Experimental data for Carbon/Carbon (C/C) constituent materials are combined with a three dimensional steady state heat transfer finite element analysis to demonstrate the average in-plane and out-of-plane thermal conductivities (TCs) of C/C composites. The finite element analysis is carried out at two distinct length scales: (a) a micro scale comparable with the diameter of carbon fibres and (b) a meso scale comparable with the carbon fibre yarns. Micro-scale model calculate the TCs at the fibre yarn scale in the three orthogonal directions ( x, y and z). The output results from the micro-scale model are then incorporated in the meso-scale model to obtain the global TCs of the 3D C/C composite. The simulation results are quite consistent with the theoretical and experimental counterparts reported in references. Based on the numerical approach, TCs of the 3D C/C composite are calculated from 300 to 2500 K. Particular attention is given in elucidating the variations of the TCs with temperature. The multi-scale models provide an efficient approach to predict the TCs of 3D textile materials, which is helpful for the thermodynamic property analysis and structure design of the C/C composites.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dittrich, André; Weinmann, Martin; Hinz, Stefan
2017-04-01
In photogrammetry, remote sensing, computer vision and robotics, a topic of major interest is represented by the automatic analysis of 3D point cloud data. This task often relies on the use of geometric features amongst which particularly the ones derived from the eigenvalues of the 3D structure tensor (e.g. the three dimensionality features of linearity, planarity and sphericity) have proven to be descriptive and are therefore commonly involved for classification tasks. Although these geometric features are meanwhile considered as standard, very little attention has been paid to their accuracy and robustness. In this paper, we hence focus on the influence of discretization and noise on the most commonly used geometric features. More specifically, we investigate the accuracy and robustness of the eigenvalues of the 3D structure tensor and also of the features derived from these eigenvalues. Thereby, we provide both analytical and numerical considerations which clearly reveal that certain features are more susceptible to discretization and noise whereas others are more robust.
Pattern formation of down-built salt structures: insights from 3D numerical models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernandez, Naiara; Kaus, Boris
2015-04-01
Many salt diapirs are thought to have formed as a result of down-building, which implies that the top of the diapir remained close to the surface during sediment deposition. This process is largely three-dimensional and in order to better understand what controls the patterns that form as a result of this down-building process, we here perform three-dimensional numerical models and compare the results with analytical models. In our models, we vary several parameters such as initial salt thickness, sedimentation rate, salt viscosity, salt-sediment viscosity contrast as well as the density of sediments. Down-building of three-dimensional diapirs only occurs for a certain range of parameters and is favored by lower sediment/salt viscosity contrasts and sedimentation rates in agreement with analytical predictions and findings from previous 2D models. However, the models show that the sedimentation rate has an additional effect on the formation and evolution of three-dimensional diapir patterns. At low sedimentation rates, salt ridges that form during early model stages remain preserved at later stages as well. For higher sedimentation rates, the initial salt ridges break up and form finger-like diapirs at the junction of salt ridges, which results in different salt exposure patterns at the surface. Once the initial pattern of diapirs is formed, higher sedimentation rate can also result in covered diapirs if the diapir extrusion velocity is insufficiently large. We quantify the effect of sedimentation rate on the number of diapirs exposed at the surface as well as on their spacing. In some cases, this final pattern is distinctly different from the initial polygonal pattern. We also study the extrusion of salt through time in the simulations, and show that it can be related to the geometries of the sedimentary layers surrounding the diapirs. Acknowledgements. Funding was provided by the European Research Council under the European Community's Seventh Framework Program
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beretta, S.; Moia, F.; Guandalini, R.; Cappelletti, F.
2012-04-01
The research activities carried out by the Environment and Sustainable Development Department of RSE S.p.A. aim to evaluate the feasibility of CO2 geological sequestration in Italy, with particular reference to the storage into saline aquifers. The identification and geological characterization of the Italian potential storage sites, together with the study of the temporal and spatial evolution of the CO2 plume within the caprock-reservoir system, are performed using different modelling tools available in the Integrated Analysis Modelling System (SIAM) entirely powered in RSE. The numerical modelling approach is the only one that allows to investigate the behaviour of the injected CO2 regarding the fluid dynamic, geochemical and geomechanical aspects and effects due to its spread, in order to verify the safety of the process. The SIAM tools allow: - Selection of potential Italian storage sites through geological and geophysical data collected in the GIS-CO2 web database; - Characterization of caprock and aquifer parameters, seismic risk and environmental link for the selected site; - Creation of the 3D simulation model for the selected domain, using the modeller METHODRdS powered by RSE and the mesh generator GMSH; - Simulation of the injection and the displacement of CO2: multiphase fluid 3D dynamics is based on the modified version of TOUGH2 model; - Evaluation of geochemical reaction effects; - Evaluation of geomechanic effects, using the coupled 3D CANT-SD finite elements code; - Detailed local analysis through the use of open source auxiliary tools, such as SHEMAT and FEHM. - 3D graphic analysis of the results. These numerical tools have been successfully used for simulating the injection and the spread of CO2 into several real Italian reservoirs and have allowed to achieve accurate results in terms of effective storage capacity and safety analysis. The 3D geological models represent the high geological complexity of the Italian subsoil, where reservoirs are
Utilization of streamwise vortices to enhance mixing in supersonic 3D flows - Numerical approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamasaki, Nobuhiko; Sakata, Nobuyasu; Namba, Masanobu
As one of the effective ways to enhance mixing of supersonic flows without increasing the loss, the utilization of the streamwise, i.e., axial vortices produced by the lobed splitter plate with wavy trailing edge has been proposed. The paper presents numerical solutions of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations to show the production of axial vortices and to discuss the effects of parameters on the overall flow and temperature fields. It is shown that the lobed plate gives thicker shear-layer than the flat plate does. In addition, the convoluted shear-layer at the downstream position of the lobed mixer plate is susceptible to breaking down and gives higher mixing efficiency. Although the streamwise vortices dissipate at downstream locations, the maximum vorticity in the vortex cell appears unchanged, and the vortex cell structure remains unaltered even at far downstream locations. Thus, the generated streamwise vortices are expected to realize the efficient mixing with the least loss in the shear-layer.
Temperature Mapping of 3D Printed Polymer Plates: Experimental and Numerical Study
Kousiatza, Charoula; Chatzidai, Nikoleta; Karalekas, Dimitris
2017-01-01
In Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), which is a common thermoplastic Additive Manufacturing (AM) method, the polymer model material that is in the form of a flexible filament is heated above its glass transition temperature (Tg) to a semi-molten state in the head’s liquefier. The heated material is extruded in a rastering configuration onto the building platform where it rapidly cools and solidifies with the adjoining material. The heating and rapid cooling cycles of the work materials exhibited during the FDM process provoke non-uniform thermal gradients and cause stress build-up that consequently result in part distortions, dimensional inaccuracy and even possible part fabrication failure. Within the purpose of optimizing the FDM technique by eliminating the presence of such undesirable effects, real-time monitoring is essential for the evaluation and control of the final parts’ quality. The present work investigates the temperature distributions developed during the FDM building process of multilayered thin plates and on this basis a numerical study is also presented. The recordings of temperature changes were achieved by embedding temperature measuring sensors at various locations into the middle-plane of the printed structures. The experimental results, mapping the temperature variations within the samples, were compared to the corresponding ones obtained by finite element modeling, exhibiting good correlation. PMID:28245557
A numerical investigation of the 3-D flow in shell and tube heat exchangers
Prithiviraj, M.; Andrews, M.J.
1996-12-31
A three-dimensional computer program for simulation of the flow and heat transfer inside Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers has been developed. The simulation of shell and tube heat exchangers is based on a distributed resistance method that uses a modified two equation {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model along with non-equilibrium wall functions. Volume porosities and non-homogeneous surface permeabilities account for the obstructions due to the tubes and arbitrary arrangement of baffles. Sub-models are described for baffle-shell and baffle-tube leakage, shellside and tubeside heat transfer, with geometry generators for tubes, baffles, and nozzle inlets and outlets. The sub-models in HEATX use parameters that have not been altered from their published values. Computed heat transfer and pressure drop are compared with experimental data from the Delaware project (Bell, 1963). Numerically computed pressure drops are also compared for different baffle cuts, and different number of baffles with the experiments of Halle et al. (1984) which were performed in an industrial sized heat exchanger at Argonne National Labs. Discussion of the results is given with particular reference to global and local properties such as pressure drop, temperature variation, and heat transfer coefficients. Good agreement is obtained between the experiments and HEATX computations for the shellside pressure drop and outlet temperatures for the shellside and tubeside streams.
Temperature Mapping of 3D Printed Polymer Plates: Experimental and Numerical Study.
Kousiatza, Charoula; Chatzidai, Nikoleta; Karalekas, Dimitris
2017-02-24
In Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), which is a common thermoplastic Additive Manufacturing (AM) method, the polymer model material that is in the form of a flexible filament is heated above its glass transition temperature (Tg) to a semi-molten state in the head's liquefier. The heated material is extruded in a rastering configuration onto the building platform where it rapidly cools and solidifies with the adjoining material. The heating and rapid cooling cycles of the work materials exhibited during the FDM process provoke non-uniform thermal gradients and cause stress build-up that consequently result in part distortions, dimensional inaccuracy and even possible part fabrication failure. Within the purpose of optimizing the FDM technique by eliminating the presence of such undesirable effects, real-time monitoring is essential for the evaluation and control of the final parts' quality. The present work investigates the temperature distributions developed during the FDM building process of multilayered thin plates and on this basis a numerical study is also presented. The recordings of temperature changes were achieved by embedding temperature measuring sensors at various locations into the middle-plane of the printed structures. The experimental results, mapping the temperature variations within the samples, were compared to the corresponding ones obtained by finite element modeling, exhibiting good correlation.
A continuous flow microfluidic calorimeter: 3-D numerical modeling with aqueous reactants
Sen, Mehmet A.; Kowalski, Gregory J.; Fiering, Jason; Larson, Dale
2015-01-01
A computational analysis of the reacting flow field, species diffusion and heat transfer processes with thermal boundary layer effects in a microchannel reactor with a coflow configuration was performed. Two parallel adjacent streams of aqueous reactants flow along a wide, shallow, enclosed channel in contact with a substrate, which is affixed to a temperature controlled plate. The Fluent computational fluid dynamics package solved the Navier–Stokes, mass transport and energy equations. The energy model, including the enthalpy of reaction as a nonuniform heat source, was validated by calculating the energy balance at several control volumes in the microchannel. Analysis reveals that the temperature is nearly uniform across the channel thickness, in the direction normal to the substrate surface; hence, measurements made by sensors at or near the surface are representative of the average temperature. Additionally, modeling the channel with a glass substrate and a silicone cover shows that heat transfer is predominantly due to the glass substrate. Finally, using the numerical results, we suggest that a microcalorimeter could be based on this configuration, and that temperature sensors such as optical nanohole array sensors could have sufficient spatial resolution to determine enthalpy of reaction. PMID:25937678
A continuous flow microfluidic calorimeter: 3-D numerical modeling with aqueous reactants.
Sen, Mehmet A; Kowalski, Gregory J; Fiering, Jason; Larson, Dale
2015-03-10
A computational analysis of the reacting flow field, species diffusion and heat transfer processes with thermal boundary layer effects in a microchannel reactor with a coflow configuration was performed. Two parallel adjacent streams of aqueous reactants flow along a wide, shallow, enclosed channel in contact with a substrate, which is affixed to a temperature controlled plate. The Fluent computational fluid dynamics package solved the Navier-Stokes, mass transport and energy equations. The energy model, including the enthalpy of reaction as a nonuniform heat source, was validated by calculating the energy balance at several control volumes in the microchannel. Analysis reveals that the temperature is nearly uniform across the channel thickness, in the direction normal to the substrate surface; hence, measurements made by sensors at or near the surface are representative of the average temperature. Additionally, modeling the channel with a glass substrate and a silicone cover shows that heat transfer is predominantly due to the glass substrate. Finally, using the numerical results, we suggest that a microcalorimeter could be based on this configuration, and that temperature sensors such as optical nanohole array sensors could have sufficient spatial resolution to determine enthalpy of reaction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calvisi, Michael; Manmi, Kawa; Wang, Qianxi
2014-11-01
Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are microbubbles stabilized with a shell typically of lipid, polymer, or protein and are emerging as a unique tool for noninvasive therapies ranging from gene delivery to tumor ablation. The nonspherical dynamics of contrast agents are thought to play an important role in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications, for example, causing the emission of subharmonic frequency components and enhancing the uptake of therapeutic agents across cell membranes and tissue interfaces. A three-dimensional model for nonspherical contrast agent dynamics based on the boundary integral method is presented. The effects of the encapsulating shell are approximated by adapting Hoff's model for thin-shell, spherical contrast agents to the nonspherical case. A high-quality mesh of the bubble surface is maintained by implementing a hybrid approach of the Lagrangian method and elastic mesh technique. Numerical analyses for the dynamics of UCAs in an infinite liquid and near a rigid wall are performed in parameter regimes of clinical relevance. The results show that the presence of a coating significantly reduces the oscillation amplitude and period, increases the ultrasound pressure amplitude required to incite jetting, and reduces the jet width and velocity.
Along-axis transition between narrow and wide rifts: Insights from 3D numerical experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koptev, Alexander; Calais, Eric; Burov, Evgueni; Leroy, Sylvie; Gerya, Taras
2016-04-01
Based on performed high-resolution rheologically consistent three-dimensional thermo-mechanical numerical models, we show that there is a significant difference in the influence of the rheological profile on rifting style in the case of dominant active (plume-activated) rifting compared to dominant passive (far-field tectonic stresses) rifting. Narrow rifting, conventionally attributed to cold strong lithosphere in passive rifting mode, may develop in weak hot ultra-stretched lithosphere during active rifting, after plume impingement on a tectonically pre-stressed lithosphere. In that case, initially ultra-wide small-amplitude rift patterns focus, in a few Myr, in large-scale faults that form a narrow rift. Also, wide rifting may develop during ultra-slow spreading of strong lithosphere, and "switch" to the narrow rifting upon plume impingement. For further understanding the mechanisms behind the interactions between the mantle plume and far-field stresses in case of realistic horizontally heterogeneous lithosphere, we have tested our models on the case of the central East African Rift system (EARS). The EARS south of the Ethiopian Rift Valley bifurcates in two branches (eastern, magma-rich and western, magma-poor) surrounding the strong Tanzanian craton. Broad zones of low seismic velocity observed throughout the upper mantle beneath the central part of the EARS are consistent with the spreading of a deep mantle plume. The extensional features and topographic expression of the Eastern rift varies significantly north-southward: in northern Kenya the area of deformation is very wide (some 150-250 km in E-W direction), to the south the rift narrows to 60-70 km, yet further to the south this localized deformation widens again. Here we investigate this transition between localized and wide rifting using thermo-mechanical numerical modeling that couples, in a dynamic sense, the rise of the upper mantle material with the deformation of the African lithosphere below the
Numerical modeling of cutting processes for elastoplastic materials in 3D-statement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kukudzhanov, V. N.; Levitin, A. L.
2008-06-01
In the present paper, we use the finite element method to perform the three-dimensional modeling of unsteady process of cutting an elastoplastic plate (slab) by an absolutely rigid cutting tool moving at a constant velocity V 0 at different inclinations α of the tool face (Fig. 1). The modeling was based on the coupled thermomechanical model of an elastoviscoplastic material. The adiabatic process of cutting was compared with the regime in which the slab material heat conduction is taken into account. The cutting process was parametrically studied for variations in the slab and cutting tool geometry, in the rate and depth of cutting, and in the properties of the processed material. The slab thickness was varied in the direction of the axis z. The stressed state varied from the plane-stressed bar H = H/L≪ 1 (thin plate) to the plane-strained bar H ≫ 1 (wide plate), where H is the slab thickness and L is the slab length. The problem was solved on a moving adaptive Lagrange-Euler grid by the finite element method with splitting, by using the explicit-implicit integration schemes for equations [13]. It was shown that the numerical modeling of the problem in the three-dimensional statement permits studying the cutting processes with continuous chip formation and with chip destruction into separate pieces. The mechanism of this phenomenon in the case of orthogonal cutting ( α = 0) can be explained by the thermal softening with formation of adiabatic shear strips without using the damage models. In cutting by a sharper tool (the angle α is large), it is necessary to use the coupled model of thermal and structural softening. We obtain dependences of the force acting on the tool for different geometric and physical parameters of the problem. We also show that the quasimonotone and oscillating operation modes are possible and explain them from the physical standpoint.
Interplate deformation at early-stage oblique subduction: 3-D thermomechanical numerical modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malatesta, Cristina; Gerya, Taras; Crispini, Laura; Federico, Laura; Capponi, Giovanni
2016-07-01
Oblique subduction zones are complex settings where the simultaneous action of trench-normal and trench-parallel components of convergence can produce heterogeneous deformational pattern of the upper plate and affect the accretional/erosional behavior of the plate margin. Here we present three-dimensional thermomechanical numerical models that highlight some processes occurring in the early history (15-20 Myr) of intraoceanic oblique subduction zones, which so far represent the less studied case. These models have been compared with a simulation of a slab sinking under a continental plate. We test subduction starting in oceans floored by two classes of lithosphere: layered (fast spreading oceans) and serpentinite rich (slow to ultraslow spreading oceans). Two main domains develop along the margin of both type of oceanic plates: (a) a domain with a mostly stable trench, a shortening upper plate, characterized by the formation of a topographic relief, and (b) a domain with retreating trench and extending upper plate. In general, we observed that varying the subduction obliquity, the margin could either (i) record an erosional to a balanced accretion/erosion regime or (ii) be characterized by a predominant balanced accretion/erosion regime. In both cases, even where the sediment amount in the trench is high, the upper plate experiences tectonic erosion. We suggest that the formation of topographic reliefs on the fore arc is possibly related to the low amount of sediment in the trench, affecting interplate friction and promoting the upper plate indentation against the slab. The Puysegur subduction zone and the central Andes can be possibly natural examples of such a regime.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Yiyun; Lu, Bingjuan; Ge, Yunwang; Chen, Wenqing
Numerical electromagnetic field simulations of high-temperature superconductors (HTSC) bulk were carried out to calculate the magnetic force between the HTSC bulk and the permanent magnet railway (PMR). A 3D-modeling numerical calculation method is proposed using the finite element method. The model is formulated with the magnetic field vector (H-method). The resulting code was written with FORTRAN language. The electric field intensity E and the current density J constitutive relation of HTSC were described with E-J power law. The Kim macro-model is used to describe critical current density Jc of HTSC bulk. Two virtual HTSC bulks were used to solve the critical current density Jc anisotropic properties of HTSC materials. A superconducting levitation system composed of one HTSC bulk and PMR is successfully investigated using the proposed method. By this method, the influence of critical current density on magnetic levitation force of the superconducting levitation system is mathematically studied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Domej, Gisela; Bourdeau, Céline; Lenti, Luca; Pluta, Kacper
2017-04-01
Landsliding is a worldwide common phenomenon. Every year, and ranging in size from very small to enormous, landslides cause all too often loss of life and disastrous damage to infrastructure, property and the environment. One main reason for more frequent catastrophes is the growth of population on the Earth which entails extending urbanization to areas at risk. Landslides are triggered by a variety and combination of causes, among which the role of water and seismic activity appear to have the most serious consequences. In this regard, seismic shaking is of particular interest since topographic elevation as well as the landslide mass itself can trap waves and hence amplify incoming surface waves - a phenomenon known as "site effects". Research on the topic of landsliding due to seismic and non-seismic activity is extensive and a broad spectrum of methods for modeling slope deformation is available. Those methods range from pseudo-static and rigid-block based models to numerical models. The majority is limited to 2D modeling since more sophisticated approaches in 3D are still under development or calibration. However, the effect of lateral confinement as well as the mechanical properties of the adjacent bedrock might be of great importance because they may enhance the focusing of trapped waves in the landslide mass. A database was created to study 3D landslide geometries. It currently contains 277 distinct seismically and non-seismically triggered landslides spread all around the globe whose rupture bodies were measured in all available details. Therefore a specific methodology was developed to maintain predefined standards, to keep the bias as low as possible and to set up a query tool to explore the database. Besides geometry, additional information such as location, date, triggering factors, material, sliding mechanisms, event chronology, consequences, related literature, among other things are stored for every case. The aim of the database is to enable
Holzner, Felix; Hagmeyer, Britta; Schütte, Julia; Kubon, Massimo; Angres, Brigitte; Stelzle, Martin
2011-09-01
This research is part of a program aiming at the development of a fluidic microsystem for in vitro drug testing. For this purpose, primary cells need to be assembled to form cellular aggregates in such a way as to resemble the basic functional units of organs. By providing for in vivo-like cellular contacts, proper extracellular matrix interaction and medium perfusion it is expected that cells will retain their phenotype over prolonged periods of time. In this way, in vitro test systems exhibiting in vivo type predictivity in drug testing are envisioned. Towards this goal a 3-D microstructure micro-milled in a cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) was designed in such a way as to assemble liver cells via insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) in a sinusoid-type fashion. First, numeric modelling and simulation of dielectrophoretic and hydrodynamic forces acting on cells in this microsystem was performed. In particular, the problem of the discontinuity of the electric field at the interface between the fluid media in the system and the polymer materials it consists of was addressed. It was shown that in certain cases, the material of the microsystem may be neglected altogether without introducing considerable error into the numerical solution. This simplification enabled the simulation of 3-D cell trajectories in complex chip geometries. Secondly, the assembly of HepG2 cells by insulator-based dielectrophoresis in this device is demonstrated. Finally, theoretical results were validated by recording 3-D cell trajectories and the Clausius-Mossotti factor of liver cells was determined by combining results obtained from both simulation and experiment.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harris, Julius E.; Iyer, Venkit; Radwan, Samir
1987-01-01
The application of stability theory in Laminar Flow Control (LFC) research requires that density and velocity profiles be specified throughout the viscous flow field of interest. These profile values must be as numerically accurate as possible and free of any numerically induced oscillations. Guidelines for the present research project are presented: develop an efficient and accurate procedure for solving the 3-D boundary layer equation for aerospace configurations; develop an interface program to couple selected 3-D inviscid programs that span the subsonic to hypersonic Mach number range; and document and release software to the LFC community. The interface program was found to be a dependable approach for developing a user friendly procedure for generating the boundary-layer grid and transforming an inviscid solution from a relatively coarse grid to a sufficiently fine boundary-layer grid. The boundary-layer program was shown to be fourth-order accurate in the direction normal to the wall boundary and second-order accurate in planes parallel to the boundary. The fourth-order accuracy allows accurate calculations with as few as one-fifth the number of grid points required for conventional second-order schemes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magri, Fabien; Cacace, Mauro; Fischer, Thomas; Kolditz, Olaf; Wang, Wenqing; Watanabe, Norihiro
2017-04-01
In contrast to simple homogeneous 1D and 2D systems, no appropriate analytical solutions exist to test onset of thermal convection against numerical models of complex 3D systems that account for variable fluid density and viscosity as well as permeability heterogeneity (e.g. presence of faults). Owing to the importance of thermal convection for the transport of energy and minerals, the development of a benchmark test for density/viscosity driven flow is crucial to ensure that the applied numerical models accurately simulate the physical processes at hands. The presented study proposes a 3D test case for the simulation of thermal convection in a faulted system that accounts for temperature dependent fluid density and viscosity. The linear stability analysis recently developed by Malkovsky and Magri (2016) is used to estimate the critical Rayleigh number above which thermal convection of viscous fluids is triggered. The numerical simulations are carried out using the finite element technique. OpenGeoSys (Kolditz et al., 2012) and Moose (Gaston et al., 2009) results are compared to those obtained using the commercial software FEFLOW (Diersch, 2014) to test the ability of widely applied codes in matching both the critical Rayleigh number and the dynamical features of convective processes. The methodology and Rayleigh expressions given in this study can be applied to any numerical model that deals with 3D geothermal processes in faulted basins as by example the Tiberas Basin (Magri et al., 2016). References Kolditz, O., Bauer, S., Bilke, L., Böttcher, N., Delfs, J. O., Fischer, T., U. J. Görke, T. Kalbacher, G. Kosakowski, McDermott, C. I., Park, C. H., Radu, F., Rink, K., Shao, H., Shao, H.B., Sun, F., Sun, Y., Sun, A., Singh, K., Taron, J., Walther, M., Wang,W., Watanabe, N., Wu, Y., Xie, M., Xu, W., Zehner, B., 2012. OpenGeoSys: an open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical (THM/C) processes in porous media. Environmental
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sjoegreen, Bjoern; Yee, H. C.
2003-01-01
The generalization of a class of low-dissipative high order filter finite difference schemes for long time wave propagation of shock/turbulence/combustion compressible viscous gas dynamic flows to compressible MHD equations for structured curvilinear grids has been developed. The new scheme consists of a divergence free preserving high order spatial base scheme with a filter approach which can be divergence-free preserving depending on the type of filter operator being used, the method of applying the filter step, and the type of flow problem to be considered. Several variants of the filter approach that cater to different flow types are proposed. These filters provide a natural and efficient way for the minimization of the divergence of the magnetic field (Delta * B) numerical error in the sense that no standard divergence cleaning is required. Performance evaluation of these variants, and the key role that the proper treatment of their corresponding numerical boundary conditions can play will be illustrated. Many levels of grid refinement and detailed comparison with several commonly used compressible MHD shock-capturing schemes will be sought. For certain MHD 2-D test problems, divergence free preservation of the magnetic fields of these filter schemes has been achieved.
2014-01-01
The present work is devoted to study the numerical simulation for unsteady MHD flow and heat transfer of a couple stress fluid over a rotating disk. A similarity transformation is employed to reduce the time dependent system of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) to ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The Runge-Kutta method and shooting technique are employed for finding the numerical solution of the governing system. The influences of governing parameters viz. unsteadiness parameter, couple stress and various physical parameters on velocity, temperature and pressure profiles are analyzed graphically and discussed in detail. PMID:24835274
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moczo, P.; Kristek, J.; Galis, M.; Chaljub, E.; Chen, X.; Zhang, Z.
2012-04-01
Numerical modeling of earthquake ground motion in sedimentary basins and valleys often has to account for the P-wave to S-wave speed ratios (VP/VS) as large as five and even larger, mainly in sediments below groundwater level. The ratio can attain values larger than 10 - the unconsolidated lake sediments in Ciudad de México are a good example. At the same time, accuracy of the numerical schemes with respect to VP/VS has not been sufficiently analyzed. The numerical schemes are often applied without adequate check of the accuracy. We present theoretical analysis and numerical comparison of 18 3D numerical time-domain explicit schemes for modeling seismic motion for their accuracy with the varying VP/VS. The schemes are based on the finite-difference, spectral-element, finite-element and discontinuous-Galerkin methods. All schemes are presented in a unified form. Theoretical analysis compares accuracy of the schemes in terms of local errors in amplitude and vector difference. In addition to the analysis we compare numerically simulated seismograms with exact solutions for canonical configurations. We compare accuracy of the schemes in terms of the local errors, grid dispersion and full wavefield simulations with respect to the structure of the numerical schemes.
Riazi, Z; Afarideh, H; Sadighi-Bonabi, R
2011-09-01
Based on the determination of protons fluence at the phantom's surface, a 3D dose distribution is calculated inside a water phantom using a fast method. The dose contribution of secondary particles, originating from inelastic nuclear interactions, is also taken into account. This is achieved by assuming that 60% of the energy transferred to secondary particles is locally absorbed. Secondary radiation delivers approximately 16.8% of the total dose in the plateau region of the Bragg curve for monoenergetic protons of energy 190 MeV. The physical dose beyond the Bragg peak is obtained for a proton beam of 190 MeV using a Geant4 simulation. It is found that the dose beyond the Bragg peak is <0.02% of the maximum dose and is mainly delivered by protons produced via reactions of the secondary neutrons. The relative dose profile is also calculated by simulation of the proposed beam line in Geant4 code. The dose profile produced by our method agrees, within 2%, with the results predicted by the Fermi Eyges distribution function and the results of the Geant4 simulation. It is expected that the fast numerical approach proposed herein may be utilised in 3D deterministic treatment planning programs, to model proton propagation in order to analyse the effect of modifying the beam line.
Numerical simulation of jet aerodynamics using the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code PAB3D
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pao, S. Paul; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.
1996-01-01
This report presents a unified method for subsonic and supersonic jet analysis using the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code PAB3D. The Navier-Stokes code was used to obtain solutions for axisymmetric jets with on-design operating conditions at Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 3.0, supersonic jets containing weak shocks and Mach disks, and supersonic jets with nonaxisymmetric nozzle exit geometries. This report discusses computational methods, code implementation, computed results, and comparisons with available experimental data. Very good agreement is shown between the numerical solutions and available experimental data over a wide range of operating conditions. The Navier-Stokes method using the standard Jones-Launder two-equation kappa-epsilon turbulence model can accurately predict jet flow, and such predictions are made without any modification to the published constants for the turbulence model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Starodubtsev, Y. V.; Gogolev, I. G.; Solodov, V. G.
2005-06-01
The paper describes 3D numerical Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model and approximate sector approach for viscous turbulent flow through flow path of one stage axial supercharge gas turbine of marine diesel engine. Computational data are tested by comparison with experimental data. The back step flow path opening and tip clearance jet are taken into account. This approach could be applied for variety of turbine theory and design tasks: for offer optimal design in order to minimize kinetic energy stage losses; for solution of partial supply problem; for analysis of flow pattern in near extraction stages; for estimation of rotational frequency variable forces on blades; for sector vane adjustment (with thin leading edges mainly), for direct flow modeling in the turbine etc. The development of this work could be seen in the direction of unsteady stage model application.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stamps, S.; Bangerth, W.; Hager, B. H.
2014-12-01
The East African Rift System (EARS) is an active divergent plate boundary with slow, approximately E-W extension rates ranging from <1-6 mm/yr. Previous work using thin-sheet modeling indicates lithospheric buoyancy dominates the force balance driving large-scale Nubia-Somalia divergence, however GPS observations within the Western Branch of the EARS show along-rift motions that contradict this simple model. Here, we test the role of mantle flow at the rift-scale using our new, regional 3D numerical model based on the open-source code ASPECT. We define a thermal lithosphere with thicknesses that are systematically changed for generic models or based on geophysical constraints in the Western branch (e.g. melting depths, xenoliths, seismic tomography). Preliminary results suggest existing variations in lithospheric thicknesses along-rift in the Western Branch can drive upper mantle flow that is consistent with geodetic observations.
Making Faranoff-Riley I radio sources. I. Numerical hydrodynamic 3D simulations of low-power jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Massaglia, S.; Bodo, G.; Rossi, P.; Capetti, S.; Mignone, A.
2016-11-01
Context. Extragalactic radio sources have been classified into two classes, Fanaroff-Riley I and II, which differ in morphology and radio power. Strongly emitting sources belong to the edge-brightened FR II class, and weakly emitting sources to the edge-darkened FR I class. The origin of this dichotomy is not yet fully understood. Numerical simulations are successful in generating FR II morphologies, but they fail to reproduce the diffuse structure of FR Is. Aims: By means of hydro-dynamical 3D simulations of supersonic jets, we investigate how the displayed morphologies depend on the jet parameters. Bow shocks and Mach disks at the jet head, which are probably responsible for the hot spots in the FR II sources, disappear for a jet kinetic power ℒkin ≲ 1043 erg s-1. This threshold compares favorably with the luminosity at which the FR I/FR II transition is observed. Methods: The problem is addressed by numerical means carrying out 3D HD simulations of supersonic jets that propagate in a non-homogeneous medium with the ambient temperature that increases with distance from the jet origin, which maintains constant pressure. Results: The jet energy in the lower power sources, instead of being deposited at the terminal shock, is gradually dissipated by the turbulence. The jets spread out while propagating, and they smoothly decelerate while mixing with the ambient medium and produce the plumes characteristic of FR I objects. Conclusions: Three-dimensionality is an essential ingredient to explore the FR I evolution becausethe properties of turbulence in two and three dimensions are very different, since there is no energy cascade to small scales in two dimensions, and two-dimensional simulations with the same parameters lead to FRII-like behavior.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pusok, Adina E.; Kaus, Boris; Popov, Anton
2014-05-01
The Himalayas and the adjacent Tibetan Plateau represent the most remarkable feature of the Earth's surface as the largest region of elevated topography and anomalously thick crust. Understanding the formation and evolution of the Himalayan-Tibetan region has become of high interest in the scientific community and different models have emerged over the last decades. They range from wholescale underthrusting of Indian lithospheric mantle under Tibet, distributed homogeneous shortening or the thin-sheet model, slip-line field model to the lower crustal flow model for the exhumation of the Himalayan units and lateral spreading of the Tibetan plateau. While some of these models have successfully illustrated some of the basic physics of continental collision, none can simultaneously represent active processes such as subduction, underthrusting, delamination, channel flow or extrusion, which are thought to be important during continental convergence, since these mechanisms require the lithosphere to interact with the underlying mantle. As such, 3D numerical models prove to be powerful tools in understanding the dynamics of coupled systems. However, because of yet recent developments and various complexities, the current 3D models simulating the dynamics of continental collision zones have relied on certain explicit assumptions, either focusing on crustal dynamics or slab-mantle dynamics. Here, we employ the parallel 3D code LaMEM (Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution Model), with a finite difference staggered grid solver, which is capable of simulating lithospheric deformation while simultaneously taking mantle flow and an internal free surface into account, which allows for the development of topography. We investigate the way deep processes affect continental tectonics at convergent margins, addressing the role continent subduction and collision have on the future of the subducting and overriding plates, and we discuss the implications these offer for the Asian tectonics
A Numerical Approach to Solving the Hall MHD Equations Including Diamagnetic Drift (Preprint)
2008-02-19
References [1] J. Birn and et al. Geospace environmental modeling (gem) magnetic reconnection challenge. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106(A3):3715–3719...equations. Journal of Computational Physics, 179:495–538, 2002. [21] A. Otto. Geospace environment modeling (gem) magnetic reconnection challenge: Mhd
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Jager, Ocker
The γ-ray flux Fγ of a pulsar wind nebula in the GLAST/LAT domain can be shown to depend 2 on the pulsar birth period P0 as Fγ ∝ 1/P0 . Furthermore, it is also known that the PWN size depends on P0 , with the PWN radius overtaking the SNR forward shock if P0 is in the few millisecond domain. Whereas this is an interesting field of study, longer birth periods lead to slower PWN expansion, in which case the reverse shock compresses the PWN, One can therefore follow the time history of adiabatic losses versus adiabatic heating, which is important for multiwavelength modelling. We model composite SNRs as the time evolution of a PWN with its associated SNR forward/reverse shock and reflection wave. The effect of magnetic field is included via Faraday's induction equation. A high resolution numerical simulation scheme is followed whereby the explosion of a SNR with total explosion energy Esnr , ejecta mass Mej , ISM density ρISM and PWN energy via its pulsar birth period P0 , are followed through the Euler equations, describing inviscid flow. They are solved giving ρi (density), vi (velocity) and Pi (the pressure) with time. These equations correspond to the Navier-Stokes equations with zero viscosity and heat conduction terms. They describe the balance of mass, momentum and energy of different fluids, e.g. i = 1, 2, 3, ... and the interaction between these fluids are described by a source term Q(t), which, in the case of the PWN, is described by the spindown of the pulsar. We consider a two fluid scenario with non-relativistic (SNR) and relativistic (PWN) speeds (i = 1, 2), i.e. adiabatic indices of 5/3 and 4/3 respectively. The compressed ISM magnetic field is calculated through Faraday's Law. Note however that this is not a full MHD treatment since no backreaction on the fluid is considered. For the SNR we only consider the field of the ISM which gets compressed as the ISM is swept-up by the forward shock of the SNR. The same induction equation is also used to
Development of a numerical procedure to map a general 3-d body onto a near-circle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hommel, M. J.
1986-01-01
Conformal mapping is a classical technique utilized for solving problems in aerodynamics and hydrodynamics. Conformal mapping is utilized in the construction of grids around airfoils, engine inlets and other aircraft configurations. These shapes are transformed onto a near-circle image for which the equations of fluid motion are discretized on the mapped plane and solved numerically by utilizing the appropriate techniques. In comparison to other grid-generation techniques such as algerbraic or differential type, conformal mapping offers an analytical and accurate form even if the grid deformation is large. One of the most appealing features is that the grid can be constrained to remain orthogonal to the body after the transformation. Hence, the grid is suitable for analyzing the supersonic flow past a blunt object. The associated shock as a coordinate surface adjusts its position in the course of computation until convergence is reached. The present work applied conformal mapping to 3-D bodies with no axis of symmetry such as the Aerobraking Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle, transforming the AFE shape onto a near-circle image. A numerical procedure and code are used to generate grids around the AFE body.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Hardy, David; Badri, Mohd Afeef; Rousseau, Benoit; Chupin, Sylvain; Rochais, Denis; Favennec, Yann
2017-06-01
In order to explain the macroscopic radiative behaviour of an open-cell ceramic foam, knowledge of its solid phase distribution in space and the radiative contributions by this solid phase is required. The solid phase in an open-cell ceramic foam is arranged as a porous skeleton, which is itself composed of an interconnected network of ligament. Typically, ligaments being based on the assembly of grains more or less compacted, exhibit an anisotropic geometry with a concave cross section having a lateral size of one hundred microns. Therefore, ligaments are likely to emit, absorb and scatter thermal radiation. This framework explains why experimental investigations at this scale must be developed to extract accurate homogenized radiative properties regardless the shape and size of ligaments. To support this development, a 3D numerical investigation of the radiative intensity propagation through a real world ligament, beforehand scanned by X-Ray micro-tomography, is presented in this paper. The Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE), applied to the resulting meshed volume, is solved by combining Discrete Ordinate Method (DOM) and Streamline upwind Petrov-Garlekin (SUPG) numerical scheme. A particular attention is paid to propose an improved discretization procedure (spatial and angular) based on ordinate parallelization with the aim to reach fast convergence. Towards the end of this article, we present the effects played by the local radiative properties of three ceramic materials (silicon carbide, alumina and zirconia), which are often used for designing open-cell refractory ceramic foams.
Development of a numerical procedure to map a general 3-d body onto a near-circle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hommel, M. J.
1986-01-01
Conformal mapping is a classical technique utilized for solving problems in aerodynamics and hydrodynamics. Conformal mapping is utilized in the construction of grids around airfoils, engine inlets and other aircraft configurations. These shapes are transformed onto a near-circle image for which the equations of fluid motion are discretized on the mapped plane and solved numerically by utilizing the appropriate techniques. In comparison to other grid-generation techniques such as algerbraic or differential type, conformal mapping offers an analytical and accurate form even if the grid deformation is large. One of the most appealing features is that the grid can be constrained to remain orthogonal to the body after the transformation. Hence, the grid is suitable for analyzing the supersonic flow past a blunt object. The associated shock as a coordinate surface adjusts its position in the course of computation until convergence is reached. The present work applied conformal mapping to 3-D bodies with no axis of symmetry such as the Aerobraking Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle, transforming the AFE shape onto a near-circle image. A numerical procedure and code are used to generate grids around the AFE body.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lisha
We present fast and robust numerical algorithms for 3-D scattering from perfectly electrical conducting (PEC) and dielectric random rough surfaces in microwave remote sensing. The Coifman wavelets or Coiflets are employed to implement Galerkin's procedure in the method of moments (MoM). Due to the high-precision one-point quadrature, the Coiflets yield fast evaluations of the most off-diagonal entries, reducing the matrix fill effort from O(N2) to O( N). The orthogonality and Riesz basis of the Coiflets generate well conditioned impedance matrix, with rapid convergence for the conjugate gradient solver. The resulting impedance matrix is further sparsified by the matrix-formed standard fast wavelet transform (SFWT). By properly selecting multiresolution levels of the total transformation matrix, the solution precision can be enhanced while matrix sparsity and memory consumption have not been noticeably sacrificed. The unified fast scattering algorithm for dielectric random rough surfaces can asymptotically reduce to the PEC case when the loss tangent grows extremely large. Numerical results demonstrate that the reduced PEC model does not suffer from ill-posed problems. Compared with previous publications and laboratory measurements, good agreement is observed.
Featured Image: Tests of an MHD Code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna
2016-09-01
Creating the codes that are used to numerically model astrophysical systems takes a lot of work and a lot of testing! A new, publicly available moving-mesh magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code, DISCO, is designed to model 2D and 3D orbital fluid motion, such as that of astrophysical disks. In a recent article, DISCO creator Paul Duffell (University of California, Berkeley) presents the code and the outcomes from a series of standard tests of DISCOs stability, accuracy, and scalability.From left to right and top to bottom, the test outputs shown above are: a cylindrical Kelvin-Helmholtz flow (showing off DISCOs numerical grid in 2D), a passive scalar in a smooth vortex (can DISCO maintain contact discontinuities?), a global look at the cylindrical Kelvin-Helmholtz flow, a Jupiter-mass planet opening a gap in a viscous disk, an MHD flywheel (a test of DISCOs stability), an MHD explosion revealing shock structures, an MHD rotor (a more challenging version of the explosion), a Flock 3D MRI test (can DISCO study linear growth of the magnetorotational instability in disks?), and a nonlinear 3D MRI test.Check out the gif below for a closer look at each of these images, or follow the link to the original article to see even more!CitationPaul C. Duffell 2016 ApJS 226 2. doi:10.3847/0067-0049/226/1/2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Si-Tong; Wei, Jiu-Chuan; Cheng, Jiu-Long; Shi, Long-Qing; Wen, Zhi-Jie
2016-12-01
Currently, numerical simulations of seismic channel waves for the advance detection of geological structures in coal mine roadways focus mainly on modeling twodimensional wave fields and therefore cannot accurately simulate three-dimensional (3-D) full-wave fields or seismic records in a full-space observation system. In this study, we use the first-order velocity-stress staggered-grid finite difference algorithm to simulate 3-D full-wave fields with P-wave sources in front of coal mine roadways. We determine the three components of velocity V x, V y, and V z for the same node in 3-D staggered-grid finite difference models by calculating the average value of V y, and V z of the nodes around the same node. We ascertain the wave patterns and their propagation characteristics in both symmetrical and asymmetric coal mine roadway models. Our simulation results indicate that the Rayleigh channel wave is stronger than the Love channel wave in front of the roadway face. The reflected Rayleigh waves from the roadway face are concentrated in the coal seam, release less energy to the roof and floor, and propagate for a longer distance. There are surface waves and refraction head waves around the roadway. In the seismic records, the Rayleigh wave energy is stronger than that of the Love channel wave along coal walls of the roadway, and the interference of the head waves and surface waves with the Rayleigh channel wave is weaker than with the Love channel wave. It is thus difficult to identify the Love channel wave in the seismic records. Increasing the depth of the receivers in the coal walls can effectively weaken the interference of surface waves with the Rayleigh channel wave, but cannot weaken the interference of surface waves with the Love channel wave. Our research results also suggest that the Love channel wave, which is often used to detect geological structures in coal mine stopes, is not suitable for detecting geological structures in front of coal mine roadways
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2007-08-01
A novel numerical method is developed that integrates boundary-conforming grids with a sharp interface, immersed boundary methodology. The method is intended for simulating internal flows containing complex, moving immersed boundaries such as those encountered in several cardiovascular applications. The background domain (e.g. the empty aorta) is discretized efficiently with a curvilinear boundary-fitted mesh while the complex moving immersed boundary (say a prosthetic heart valve) is treated with the sharp-interface, hybrid Cartesian/immersed-boundary approach of Gilmanov and Sotiropoulos [A. Gilmanov, F. Sotiropoulos, A hybrid cartesian/immersed boundary method for simulating flows with 3d, geometrically complex, moving bodies, Journal of Computational Physics 207 (2005) 457-492.]. To facilitate the implementation of this novel modeling paradigm in complex flow simulations, an accurate and efficient numerical method is developed for solving the unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized curvilinear coordinates. The method employs a novel, fully-curvilinear staggered grid discretization approach, which does not require either the explicit evaluation of the Christoffel symbols or the discretization of all three momentum equations at cell interfaces as done in previous formulations. The equations are integrated in time using an efficient, second-order accurate fractional step methodology coupled with a Jacobian-free, Newton-Krylov solver for the momentum equations and a GMRES solver enhanced with multigrid as preconditioner for the Poisson equation. Several numerical experiments are carried out on fine computational meshes to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method for standard benchmark problems as well as for unsteady, pulsatile flow through a curved, pipe bend. To demonstrate the ability of the method to simulate flows with complex, moving immersed boundaries we apply it to calculate pulsatile, physiological flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esterhazy, Sofi; Schneider, Felix; Perugia, Ilaria; Bokelmann, Götz
2017-04-01
Motivated by the need to detect an underground cavity within the procedure of an On-Site-Inspection (OSI) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), which might be caused by a nuclear explosion/weapon testing, we aim to provide a basic numerical study of the wave propagation around and inside such an underground cavity. One method to investigate the geophysical properties of an underground cavity allowed by the Comprehensive Nuclear-test Ban Treaty is referred to as "resonance seismometry" - a resonance method that uses passive or active seismic techniques, relying on seismic cavity vibrations. This method is in fact not yet entirely determined by the Treaty and so far, there are only very few experimental examples that have been suitably documented to build a proper scientific groundwork. This motivates to investigate this problem on a purely numerical level and to simulate these events based on recent advances in numerical modeling of wave propagation problems. Our numerical study includes the full elastic wave field in three dimensions. We consider the effects from an incoming plane wave as well as point source located in the surrounding of the cavity at the surface. While the former can be considered as passive source like a tele-seismic earthquake, the latter represents a man-made explosion or a viborseis as used for/in active seismic techniques. Further we want to demonstrate the specific characteristics of the scattered wave field from a P-waves and S-wave separately. For our simulations in 3D we use the discontinuous Galerkin Spectral Element Code SPEED developed by MOX (The Laboratory for Modeling and Scientific Computing, Department of Mathematics) and DICA (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering) at the Politecnico di Milano. The computations are carried out on the Vienna Scientific Cluster (VSC). The accurate numerical modeling can facilitate the development of proper analysis techniques to detect the remnants of an
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riauka, Terence A.; Hooper, H. Richard; Gortel, Zbigniew W.
1996-07-01
Experimental tests for non-uniform attenuating media are performed to validate theoretical expressions for the photon detection kernel, obtained from a recently proposed analytical theory of photon propagation and detection for SPECT. The theoretical multi-dimensional integral expressions for the photon detection kernel, which are computed numerically, describe the probability that a photon emitted from a given source voxel will trigger detection of a photon at a particular projection pixel. The experiments were performed using a cylindrical water-filled phantom with large cylindrical air-filled inserts to simulate inhomogeneity of the medium. A point-like, a short thin cylindrical and a large cylindrical radiation source of were placed at various positions within the phantom. The values numerically calculated from the theoretical kernel expressions are in very good agreement with the experimentally measured data. The significance of Compton-scattered photons in planar image formation is discussed and highlighted by these results. Using both experimental measurements and the calculated values obtained from the theory, the kernel's size is investigated. This is done by determining the square pixel neighbourhood of the gamma camera that must be connected to a particular radiation source voxel to account for a specific fraction of all counts recorded at all camera pixels. It is shown that the kernel's size is primarily dependent upon the source position and the properties of the attenuating medium through Compton scattering events, with 3D depth-dependent collimator resolution playing an important but secondary role, at least for imaging situations involving parallel hole collimation. By considering small point-like sources within a non-uniform elliptical phantom, approximating the human thorax, it is demonstrated
Black Hole Variability in MHD: A Numerical Test of the Propagating Fluctuations Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hogg, J. Drew; Reynolds, Christopher S.
2017-08-01
The variability properties of accreting black hole systems offer a crucial probe of the accretion physics providing the angular momentum transport and enabling the mass accretion. A few of the most telling signatures are the characteristic log-normal flux distributions, linear RMS-flux relations, and frequency-dependent time lags between energy bands. These commonly observed properties are often interpreted as evidence of inward propagating mass accretion rate fluctuations where fluctuations in the accretion flow combine multiplicatively. We present recent results from a long, semi-global MHD simulation of a thin (h/r=0.1) accretion disk that naturally reproduces this phenomenology. This bolsters the theoretical underpinnings of the “propagating fluctuations” model and demonstrates the viability of this process manifesting in MHD turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability. We find that a key ingredient to this model is the modulation of the effective α parameter by the magnetic dynamo.
2-D MHD numerical simulations of EML plasma armatures with ablation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boynton, G. C.; Huerta, M. A.; Thio, Y. C.
1993-01-01
We use a 2-D) resistive MHD code to simulate an EML plasma armature. The energy equation includes Ohmic heating, radiation heat transport and the ideal gas equation of state, allowing for variable ionization using the Saha equations. We calculate rail ablation taking into account the flow of heat into the interior of the rails. Our simulations show the development of internal convective flows and secondary arcs. We use an explicit Flux Corrected Transport algorithm to advance all quantities in time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dehghan, Ali Naghi; Goshtasbi, Kamran; Ahangari, Kaveh; Jin, Yan; Bahmani, Aram
2017-02-01
A variety of 3D numerical models were developed based on hydraulic fracture experiments to simulate the propagation of hydraulic fracture at its intersection with natural (pre-existing) fracture. Since the interaction between hydraulic and pre-existing fractures is a key condition that causes complex fracture patterns, the extended finite element method was employed in ABAQUS software to simulate the problem. The propagation of hydraulic fracture in a fractured medium was modeled in two horizontal differential stresses (Δ σ) of 5e6 and 10e6 Pa considering different strike and dip angles of pre-existing fracture. The rate of energy release was calculated in the directions of hydraulic and pre-existing fractures (G_{{frac}} /G_{{rock}}) at their intersection point to determine the fracture behavior. Opening and crossing were two dominant fracture behaviors during the hydraulic and pre-existing fracture interaction at low and high differential stress conditions, respectively. The results of numerical studies were compared with those of experimental models, showing a good agreement between the two to validate the accuracy of the models. Besides the horizontal differential stress, strike and dip angles of the natural (pre-existing) fracture, the key finding of this research was the significant effect of the energy release rate on the propagation behavior of the hydraulic fracture. This effect was more prominent under the influence of strike and dip angles, as well as differential stress. The obtained results can be used to predict and interpret the generation of complex hydraulic fracture patterns in field conditions.
Amirav, Israel; Shakked, Tal; Broday, David M; Katoshevski, David
2008-06-01
A numerical investigation of a hood inhaler is presented, aiming at the assessment of the amount of aerosol that reaches the eyes of the patient when administering medications with such a device. Using a hood for aerosol therapy for infants was already found to be effective and friendly to handle over the commonly used face mask. Using a hood device may adversely deliver unwanted medications to the eyes of the infant. The current study addresses the extent of aerosol deposition at the infant's eye zone. We describe the development and utilization of a numerical simulation for studying the transport and fate of the aerosol particles within a 3D realistic representation of the hood and the infant's head, with a focus on the eye zone. The governing equations were solved using the commercial software, FLUENT 6.1, which is based on the finite volume method. The computational domain was created using the GAMBIT package. The computational geometry was built separately for each configuration of the hood and the infant. It is shown that under optimal working conditions (i.e., when the infant's head is aligned to the funnel) the percentage of aerosol reaching the eye zone is 0.48%. However, when the funnel is tilted toward the eyes the amount of aerosol reaching the eyes zone is predicted to be 4.7%. In general, the results obtained in this study are in good agreement with available in vitro data. It can be concluded that using the hood for aerosol therapy results in minimal deposition at the infant's eye area.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Wei; Yang, Qingchun; Martín, Jordi D.; Juncosa, Ricardo
2013-04-01
During the 1990s, groundwater overexploitation has resulted in seawater intrusion in the coastal aquifer of the Shenzhen city, China. Although water supply facilities have been improved and alleviated seawater intrusion in recent years, groundwater overexploitation is still of great concern in some local areas. In this work we present a three-dimensional density-dependent numerical model developed with the FEFLOW code, which is aimed at simulating the extent of seawater intrusion while including tidal effects and different groundwater pumping scenarios. Model calibration, using waterheads and reported chloride concentration, has been performed based on the data from 14 boreholes, which were monitored from May 2008 to December 2009. A fairly good fitness between the observed and computed values was obtained by a manual trial-and-error method. Model prediction has been carried out forward 3 years with the calibrated model taking into account high, medium and low tide levels and different groundwater exploitation schemes. The model results show that tide-induced seawater intrusion significantly affects the groundwater levels and concentrations near the estuarine of the Dasha river, which implies that an important hydraulic connection exists between this river and groundwater, even considering that some anti-seepage measures were taken in the river bed. Two pumping scenarios were considered in the calibrated model in order to predict the future changes in the water levels and chloride concentration. The numerical results reveal a decreased tendency of seawater intrusion if groundwater exploitation does not reach an upper bound of about 1.32 × 104 m3/d. The model results provide also insights for controlling seawater intrusion in such coastal aquifer systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zwaan, Frank; Schreurs, Guido; Naliboff, John; Buiter, Susanne J. H.
2016-12-01
Continental rifts often develop from linkage of distinct rift segments under varying degrees of extension obliquity. These rift segments arise from rift initiation at non-aligned crustal heterogeneities and need to interact to develop a full-scale rift system. Here, we test the effects of 1) oblique extension and 2) initial heterogeneity (seed) offset on continental rift interaction with the use of an improved analogue model set-up. X-ray computer tomography (CT) techniques are used to analyse the 3D models through time and the results are compared with additional numerical models and natural examples. The experimental results reveal that increasing extension obliquity strongly changes rift segment structures from wide rifts in orthogonal settings to narrower rifts with oblique internal structures under oblique extension conditions to narrow strike-slip dominated systems towards the strike-slip domain. We also find that both decreasing seed offset and increasing extension obliquity promote hard linkage of rift segments through the formation of continuous rift boundary faults at the surface. (Initial) soft linkage through the formation of relay ramps is more likely when seed offset increases or extension is more orthogonal. Rather than linking at depth, the rift boundary faults curve around each other at depth and merge towards the surface to form a continuous trough. Orthogonal extension promotes the formation of intra-rift horsts, which may provide hydrocarbon traps in nature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Z.; Honegger, D.; Hsu, T. J.; Shi, F.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.; Haller, M. C.
2016-12-01
The 3D nonhydrostatic surface- and terrain-following coastal model, NHwave, has been used to study shear instabilities and large coherent structures in estuaries during buoyant ebb flows and it was demonstrated that such modeling strategy is effective in providing the relationships between surface signatures and water column processes. In this study, NHwave is further used to help the understanding of the complex flow patterns and turbulent coherent structures during the flood condition in the Mouth of Columbia River (MCR). X-band marine radar imagery indicates strong surface velocity divergence at the MCR, which is associated with a landward-migrating, bottom-hopping saline current according to limited in-situ sensor data. We are able to demonstrate that NHwave can reproduce the strong surface velocity divergence during flood of MCR. The frontal zone of the modeled bottom-hopping density current can induce intense surface velocity divergence, which is of similar structure and magnitude to the observed radar signal. However, the numerical resolution is not sufficient to resolve shear instabilities due to the large domain size in the two horizontal directions in MCR. A detailed high-resolution simulation of a saline density current in an idealized channel with an internal Froude number and Reynolds number similar to the salt water intrusion at MCR is further carried out to understand the role of coherent structures in the frontal zone in determining the surface signatures and turbulent mixing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pathak, Himanshu; Singh, Akhilendra; Singh, Indra Vir
2017-06-01
In this work, finite element method (FEM) and element free Galerkin method (EFGM) are coupled for solving 3D crack domains subjected to cyclic thermal load of constant amplitude. Crack growth contours and fatigue life have been obtained for each of the considered numerical examples. Thermo-elastic problems are decoupled into thermal and elastic problems . Firstly, the unknown temperature field is obtained by solving heat conduction equation, then, it is used as the input load in the elastic problem to calculate the displacement and stress fields. The geometrical discontinuity across crack surface is modelled by extrinsically enriched EFGM and the remaining part of the domain is approximated by standard finite element method. At the crack interface, a ramp function based interpolation scheme has been implemented. This coupled approach combines the advantages of both EFGM and FEM. A linear successive crack increment approach is used to model crack growth. The growing crack surface is traced by level set function. Standard Paris law is used for life estimation of the three-dimensional crack models. Different cases of planar and non-planar crack problems have been solved and their results are compared with the results obtained using extended finite element method to check accuracy, efficiency and robustness of the coupled FE-EFG approach implemented in this study.
Hou, Hui-Hsiung; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Fu, Lung-Ming; Yang, Ruey-Jen
2009-07-01
This study presents a novel 3-D hydrodynamic focusing technique for micro-flow cytometers. In the proposed approach, the sample stream is compressed initially in the horizontal direction by a set of sheath flows such that it is constrained to the central region of the microchannel and is then focused in the vertical direction by a second pair of sheath flows. Thereafter, the focused sample stream passes over a micro-weir structure positioned directly beneath an optical detection system to capture polystyrene beads fluorescent signal. The microchannel configuration and operational parameters are optimized by performing a series of numerical simulations. An experimental investigation is then performed using a micro-flow cytometer fabricated using conventional micro-electro-mechanical systems techniques and an isotropic wet etching method. The results indicate that the two sets of sheath flows successfully constrain the sample stream within a narrow, well-defined region of the microchannel. Furthermore, the micro-weir structure prompts the separation of a mixed sample of 5 and 10 microm polystyrene beads in the vertical direction and ensures that the beads flow through the detection region of the microchannel in a sequential fashion and can therefore be reliably detected and counted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Z.; Huang, X. Y.; Liu, H. S.
2016-07-01
In this study, gas-assisted extrusion method was introduced into the extrusion of the hollow profiles. To validate the feasibility of the new extrusion method, 3D numerical simulation of the hollow profiles based on gas-assisted technique was carried out by using the finite element method. The Phan-Thien-Tanner (PTT) mode was selected as the construction equation. In the simulations, the physical field distributions of four different extrusion modes were obtained and analyzed. Results showed that the extrudate effect of traditional no gas- assisted mode was poor because the extrudate swell phenomenon is obvious and the physical field values are larger. For the gas-assisted of the inner wall, the extrudate swell of the melt was more obvious than that of the traditional no gas-assisted mode on account of the no-slip boundary condition on the outer wall. For the gas-assisted of the outer wall, the dimple effect of the inner wall is more obvious owing to the no-slip boundary condition on the inner wall. However, the extrusion effect of the double walls gas-assisted mode is very good because of the full-slip effect on the both walls.
Broken Ergodicity in MHD Turbulence in a Spherical Domain
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shebalin, John V.; wang, Yifan
2011-01-01
Broken ergodicity (BE) occurs in Fourier method numerical simulations of ideal, homogeneous, incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. Although naive statistical theory predicts that Fourier coefficients of fluid velocity and magnetic field are zero-mean random variables, numerical simulations clearly show that low-wave-number coefficients have non-zero mean values that can be very large compared to the associated standard deviation. In other words, large-scale coherent structure (i.e., broken ergodicity) in homogeneous MHD turbulence can spontaneously grow out of random initial conditions. Eigenanalysis of the modal covariance matrices in the probability density functions of ideal statistical theory leads to a theoretical explanation of observed BE in homogeneous MHD turbulence. Since dissipation is minimal at the largest scales, BE is also relevant for resistive magnetofluids, as evidenced in numerical simulations. Here, we move beyond model magnetofluids confined by periodic boxes to examine BE in rotating magnetofluids in spherical domains using spherical harmonic expansions along with suitable boundary conditions. We present theoretical results for 3-D and 2-D spherical models and also present computational results from dynamical simulations of 2-D MHD turbulence on a rotating spherical surface. MHD turbulence on a 2-D sphere is affected by Coriolus forces, while MHD turbulence on a 2-D plane is not, so that 2-D spherical models are a useful (and simpler) intermediate stage on the path to understanding the much more complex 3-D spherical case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Chenliang; Qi, Yijun; Wu, Jun; Yuan, Caojin; Nie, Shouping; Xia, Jun
2017-03-01
A method of calculating computer-generated hologram (CGH) for color holographic 3D projection is proposed. A color 3D object is decomposed into red, green and blue components. For each color component, a virtual wavefront recording plane (WRP) is established which is nonuniformly sampled according to the depth map of the 3D object. The hologram of each color component is calculated from the nonuniform sampled WRP using the shifted Fresnel diffraction algorithm. Finally three holograms of RGB components are encoded into one single CGH based on the multiplexing encoding method. The computational cost of CGH generation is reduced by converting diffraction calculation from huge 3D voxels to three 2D planar images. Numerical experimental results show that the CGH generated by our method is capable to project zoomable color 3D object with clear quality.
Numerical model of water flow and solute accumulation in vertisols using HYDRUS 2D/3D code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weiss, Tomáš; Dahan, Ofer; Turkeltub, Tuvia
2015-04-01
Keywords: dessication-crack-induced-salinization, preferential flow, conceptual model, numerical model, vadose zone, vertisols, soil water retention function, HYDRUS 2D/3D Vertisols cover a hydrologically very significant area of semi-arid regions often through which water infiltrates to groundwater aquifers. Understanding of water flow and solute accumulation is thus very relevant to agricultural activity and water resources management. Previous works suggest a conceptual model of dessication-crack-induced-salinization where salinization of sediment in the deep section of the vadose zone (up to 4 m) is induced by subsurface evaporation due to convective air flow in the dessication cracks. It suggests that the salinization is induced by the hydraulic gradient between the dry sediment in the vicinity of cracks (low potential) and the relatively wet sediment further from the main cracks (high potential). This paper presents a modified previously suggested conceptual model and a numerical model. The model uses a simple uniform flow approach but unconventionally prescribes the boundary conditions and the hydraulic parameters of soil. The numerical model is bound to one location close to a dairy farm waste lagoon, but the application of the suggested conceptual model could be possibly extended to all semi-arid regions with vertisols. Simulations were conducted using several modeling approaches with an ultimate goal of fitting the simulation results to the controlling variables measured in the field: temporal variation in water content across thick layer of unsaturated clay sediment (>10 m), sediment salinity and salinity the water draining down the vadose zone to the water table. The development of the model was engineered in several steps; all computed as forward solutions by try-and-error approach. The model suggests very deep instant infiltration of fresh water up to 12 m, which is also supported by the field data. The paper suggests prescribing a special atmospheric
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Y.; Zhang, H.; Shi, Y.
2010-12-01
China and its adjacent areas is one of the most active areas of tectonic activity and seismicity in the world. And the thermal structure is one of the determinants of the lithospheric rheology and physical properties. So the thermal structure has great influence on the tectonic deformation, the geological evolution and distribution of earthquakes in the depth. Previous estimations of geotherms are mainly deduced from surface heat flow density and thermal properties, the error would increase with depth. In this study, we will use both the surface temperature and the seismic constrained deep temperature as boundary conditions to make 3-D finite element modeling to investigate 3-D thermal structure of China. By taking the consideration of the presence of terrain in China continent and its adjacent regions, a three-dimensional finite element model was constructed in the spherical coordinate system. The temperature of upper mantle calculated by seismic wave velocity was adopted as the lower boundary condition of the model. The observed annual average atmosphere temperature was utilized as the upper surface boundary condition. According to observations and empirical formula, the heterogeneous thermal parameters were employed in our numerical model. The lithospheric thermal structure of China continent and its adjacent regions was calculated and analyzed in detail. The horizontal distribution of temperature and the heat flow values at different depths, as well as some lateral profiles of temperature fields in China continent are proposed in this paper. Our primary results showed that: at the depth of Moho surface from Crust2.0 data, the distribution of temperature in the eastern part of China continent was lower than that in the western part. On the contrary, the heat flow values in the eastern part were higher than that in western part of China continent. From the lateral profile of the thermal structure in the eastern China area is characterized as the “hot mantle and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartzke, Gerhard; Kuhlmann, Jannis; Huhn, Katrin
2016-04-01
The entrainment of single grains and, hence, their erosion characteristics are dependent on fluid forcing, grain size and density, but also shape variations. To quantitatively describe and capture the hydrodynamic conditions around individual grains, researchers commonly use empirical approaches such as laboratory flume tanks. Nonetheless, it is difficult with such physical experiments to measure the flow velocities in the direct vicinity or within the pore spaces of sediments, at a sufficient resolution and in a non-invasive way. As a result, the hydrodynamic conditions in the water column, at the fluid-porous interface and within pore spaces of a granular medium of various grain shapes is not yet fully understood. For that reason, there is a strong need for numerical models, since these are capable of quantifying fluid speeds within a granular medium. A 3D-SPH (Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics) numerical wave tank model was set up to provide quantitative evidence on the flow velocities in the direct vicinity and in the interior of granular beds composed of two shapes as a complementary method to the difficult task of in situ measurement. On the basis of previous successful numerical wave tank models with SPH, the model geometry was chosen in dimensions of X=2.68 [m], Y=0.48 [m], and Z=0.8 [m]. Three suites of experiments were designed with a range of particle shape models: (1) ellipsoids with the long axis oriented in the across-stream direction, (2) ellipsoids with the long axis oriented in the along-stream direction, and (3) spheres. Particle diameters ranged from 0.04 [m] to 0.08 [m]. A wave was introduced by a vertical paddle that accelerated to 0.8 [m/s] perpendicular to the granular bed. Flow measurements showed that the flow velocity values into the beds were highest when the grains were oriented across the stream direction and lowest in case when the grains were oriented parallel to the stream, indicating that the model was capable to simulate simultaneously
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Bin; Kieweg, Sarah
2010-11-01
Gravity-driven thin film flow down an incline is studied for optimal design of polymeric drug delivery vehicles, such as anti-HIV topical microbicides. We develop a 3D FEM model using non-Newtonian mechanics to model the flow of gels in response to gravity, surface tension and shear-thinning. Constant volume setup is applied within the lubrication approximation scope. The lengthwise profiles of the 3D model agree with our previous 2D finite difference model, while the transverse contact line patterns of the 3D model are compared to the experiments. With incorporation of surface tension, capillary ridges are observed at the leading front in both 2D and 3D models. Previously published studies show that capillary ridge can amplify the fingering instabilities in transverse direction. Sensitivity studies (2D & 3D) and experiments are carried out to describe the influence of surface tension and shear-thinning on capillary ridge and fingering instabilities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castaldo, Raffaele; De Novellis, Vincenzo; Lollino, Piernicola; Manunta, Michele; Tizzani, Pietro
2015-04-01
The new challenge that the research in slopes instabilities phenomena is going to tackle is the effective integration and joint exploitation of remote sensing measurements with in situ data and observations to study and understand the sub-surface interactions, the triggering causes, and, in general, the long term behaviour of the investigated landslide phenomenon. In this context, a very promising approach is represented by Finite Element (FE) techniques, which allow us to consider the intrinsic complexity of the mass movement phenomena and to effectively benefit from multi source observations and data. In this context, we perform a three dimensional (3D) numerical model of the Ivancich (Assisi, Central Italy) instability phenomenon. In particular, we apply an inverse FE method based on a Genetic Algorithm optimization procedure, benefitting from advanced DInSAR measurements, retrieved through the full resolution Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) technique, and an inclinometric array distribution. To this purpose we consider the SAR images acquired from descending orbit by the COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) X-band radar constellation, from December 2009 to February 2012. Moreover the optimization input dataset is completed by an array of eleven inclinometer measurements, from 1999 to 2006, distributed along the unstable mass. The landslide body is formed of debris material sliding on a arenaceous marl substratum, with a thin shear band detected using borehole and inclinometric data, at depth ranging from 20 to 60 m. Specifically, we consider the active role of this shear band in the control of the landslide evolution process. A large field monitoring dataset of the landslide process, including at-depth piezometric and geological borehole observations, were available. The integration of these datasets allows us to develop a 3D structural geological model of the considered slope. To investigate the dynamic evolution of a landslide, various physical approaches can be considered
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, C.; Bougher, S. W.; Ma, Y.; Toth, G.; Lee, Y.; Nagy, A. F.; Tenishev, V.; Pawlowski, D. J.; Meng, X.; Combi, M. R.
2013-12-01
The study of the solar wind interaction with Mars upper atmosphere/ionosphere has triggered a great of interest in recent years. Among the large number of topics in this research area, the investigation of ion escape fluxes has become increasingly important due to its potential impact on the long-term evolution of Mars atmosphere (e.g., loss of water) over its history. In the present work, we adopt the 3-D Mars cold neutral atmosphere profiles (0~300 km) from the newly developed and validated Mars Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (M-GITM) and the 3-D hot oxygen profiles (100km~5RM) from the exosphere Monte Carlo model Adaptive Mesh Particle Simulator (AMPS). We apply these 3-D model outputs fields into the 3-D BATS-R-US Mars multi-fluid MHD model (100km~20RM) that can better simulate the interplay between Mars upper atmosphere and solar wind by considering the dynamics of individual ion species. The multi-fluid model solves separate continuity, momentum and energy equations for each ion species (H+, O+, O2+, CO2+). The M-GITM model together with the AMPS exosphere model take into account the effects of solar cycle and seasonal variations on both cold and hot neutral atmospheres, allowing us to investigate the corresponding effects on the Mars upper atmosphere ion escape by using a one-way coupling approach, i.e., both the M-GITM and AMPS model outputs are used as the inputs for the multi-fluid model and M-GITM is used as input into the AMPS exosphere model. The calculations are carried out for selected cases with different nominal solar wind, solar cycle and crustal field orientation conditions. This work has the potential to provide predictions of ion escape rates for comparison to future data to be returned by the MAVEN primary mission (2014-2016) and thereby improve our understanding of present day escape processes. Acknowledgments: The work presented here was supported by NASA grants NNH10CC04C, NNX09AL26G, NSF grant ATM-0535811.
Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Birnbaumer, Gerald M; Zanghellini, Juergen; Ertl, Peter
2011-04-07
Interdigital electrode structures (IDES) play a major role in many technical and analytical applications. In particular, they are a key technology in modern lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices. As high sensitivity is a key component of any (bio)analytical method, the presented work is aimed at designing a novel dielectric sensing system, which exhibits maximum sensor sensitivity using passivated dielectric microsensors. Although the implementation of high-ε(r) dielectric passivation materials such as tantalum oxide or titanium oxide showed increased sensor sensitivity by a factor of 5, simulations revealed that sensor sensitivity is ultimately determined by the dielectric properties of the analyte. Ideally, dielectric properties of the passivation material need to be adjusted to the dielectric properties of the material under investigation and any deviations (e.g. higher or lower dielectric constants) will result in significant loss of sensitivity. To address these shortcomings we have developed a novel dielectric sensing concept based on a dual-material passivation geometry. The novel design consists of electric flux barriers that are layered between the finger electrodes, as well as electric flux guides which are located above the electrode structures that direct the entire generated electric flux to the object under investigation. Our 3D numerical results clearly show that the novel design offers two main advantages: firstly, the measurement sensitivity is further increased by more than a factor of two in comparison to a homogeneous passivation material sensing strategy. Secondly, maximum sensitivity for a given set of finger geometries can be achieved using a single sensor design regardless of the frequency-dependent dielectric properties of the measured objects. Hence, the novel approach is capable of reducing design and manufacturing costs of lab-on-a-chip devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minderhoud, Philip S. J.; Erkens, Gilles; Pham, Hung V.; Bui, Vuong T.; Kooi, Henk; Erban, Laura; Stouthamer, Esther
2017-04-01
The demand for groundwater in the Vietnamese Mekong delta has steadily risen over the past decades. As a result, hydraulic heads in the aquifers dropped on average 0.3-0.7 m/yr-1, potentially causing aquifer-system compaction. At present, the delta is experiencing subsidence rates up to several centimeters per year that outpace global sea level rise by an order of magnitude. However, the exact contribution of groundwater extraction to total subsidence in the delta has not been assessed yet. The objective of our study is to quantify the impact of 25 years of groundwater extraction on subsidence. We built a 3D numerical hydrogeological model comprising the multi-aquifer system of the entire Vietnamese Mekong delta. Groundwater dynamics in the aquifers was simulated over the past quarter-century based on the known extraction history and measured time series of hydraulic head. Subsequently, we calculated corresponding aquifer system compaction using a coupled land subsidence module, which includes a direct, elastic component and a secular, viscous component (i.e. creep). The hydrogeological model is able to reproduce the measured drawdowns in the multi-aquifer system of the past 25 years. Corresponding subsidence rates resulting from aquifer system compaction show a gradual increase over the past two decades to significant annual rates up to several centimeters. Groundwater extraction seems to be a dominant driver of subsidence in the delta, but does not explain the total measured subsidence. This process-based modeling approach can be used to quantify groundwater extraction-induced subsidence for coastal areas and at delta-scale worldwide.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ariyoshi, K.; Matsuzawa, T.; Hino, R.; Hasegawa, A.; Hori, T.; Kaneda, Y.
2007-12-01
We investigated depth dependence of the slip velocity of small repeating earthquakes using 3-D numerical simulations for a subduction zone involving large and small asperities based on a rate- and state-dependent friction law. In this study, we examined slip at small asperity located at depth of 5, 10 and 15 km. Our results reveal that the postseismic slip of a large earthquake trigger 'slow' slip (with slip velocity lower than that of the spontaneous rupture of the small asperity) rupture of the small asperity located at a depth of 15 km, whereas 'rapid' slip (with higher slip velocity) one at a depth of 5 km where the small asperity usually occur slow repeating earthquakes. In case of the small asperity at a depth of 10 km, all of events are seismic and recurrence intervals are temporally shorter in the passage of postseismic slip. Uchida et al. [2003; GRL] showed that the repeating earthquakes in the NE Japan subduction zones occur constantly, conforming with the rate of the plate convergence in the depth range of > ~40 km. On the other hand, shallow (< ~10 km) focus repeating earthquakes tend to be activated only in the postseismic period of nearby large interplate earthquakes and cumulative slip estimated from them is less than that expected from the plate convergence rate. In general, asperities in the shallower part are more stable than deeper ones because of low effective normal stress. Thus, most of the observed shallow repeating earthquakes may be 'rapid' slip events triggered by the postseismic slip of the neighboring large asperities, and the corresponding small asperities give rise to (aseismic) slow slip events usually.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reiter, Karsten; Hergert, Tobias; Heidbach, Oliver
2016-04-01
The in situ stress conditions are of key importance for the evaluation of radioactive waste repositories. In stage two of the Swiss site selection program, the three siting areas of high-level radioactive waste are located in the Alpine foreland in northern Switzerland. The sedimentary succession overlays the basement, consisting of variscan crystalline rocks as well as partly preserved Permo-Carboniferous deposits in graben structures. The Mesozoic sequence represents nearly the complete era and is covered by Cenozoic Molasse deposits as well as Quaternary sediments, mainly in the valleys. The target horizon (designated host rock) is an >100 m thick argillaceous Jurassic deposit (Opalinus Clay). To enlighten the impact of site-specific features on the state of stress within the sedimentary succession, 3-D-geomechanical-numerical models with elasto-plastic rock properties are set up for three potential siting areas. The lateral extent of the models ranges between 12 and 20 km, the vertical extent is up to a depth of 2.5 or 5 km below sea level. The sedimentary sequence plus the basement are separated into 10 to 14 rock mechanical units. The Mesozoic succession is intersected by regional fault zones; two or three of them are present in each model. The numerical problem is solved with the finite element method with a resolution of 100-150 m laterally and 10-30 m vertically. An initial stress state is established for all models taking into account the depth-dependent overconsolidation ratio in Opalinus Clay in northern Switzerland. The influence of topography, rock properties, friction on the faults as well as the impact of tectonic shortening on the state of stress is investigated. The tectonic stress is implemented with lateral displacement boundary conditions, calibrated on stress data that are compiled in Northern Switzerland. The model results indicate that the stress perturbation by the topography is significant to depths greater than the relief contrast. The
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartzke, Gerhard; Rogers, Benedict D.; Fourtakas, Georgios; Mokos, Athanasios; Canelas, Ricardo B.; Huhn, Katrin
2017-04-01
With experimental techniques it is difficult to measure flow characteristics, e.g. the velocity of pore water flow in sediments, at a sufficient resolution and in a non-intrusive way. As a result, the effect of fluid flow at the surface and in the interior of a sediment bed on particle motion is not yet fully understood. Numerical models may help to overcome these problems. In this study Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) was chosen since it is ideally suited to simulate flows in sediment beds, at a high temporal and spatial resolution. The solver chosen is DualSPHysics 4.0 (www.dual.sphysics.org), since this is validated for a range of flow conditions. For the present investigation a 3D numerical flow channel was generated with a length of 15.0 cm, a width of 0.5 cm and a height of 4.0 cm. The entire domain was flooded with 8 million fluid particles, while 400 mobile sediment particles were deposited under applied gravity (grain diameter D50=10 mm) to generate randomly packed beds. Periodic boundaries were applied to the sidewalls to mimic an endless flow. To drive the flow, an acceleration perpendicular to the bed was applied to the fluid, reaching a target value of 0.3 cm/s, simulating 12 seconds of real time. Comparison of the model results to the law of the wall showed that flow speeds decreased logarithmically from the top of the domain towards the surface of the beds, indicating a fully developed boundary layer. Analysis of the fluid surrounding the sediment particles revealed critical threshold velocities, subsequently resulting in the initiation of motion due to drag. Sediment flux measurements indicated that with increasing simulation time a larger quantity of sediment particles was transported at the direct vicinity of the bed, whereas the amount of transported particles along with flow speed values, within the pore spaces, decreased with depth. Moreover, sediment - sediment particle collisions at the sediment surface lead to the opening of new pore
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bagaiev, Andrii; Ivanov, Vitaliy
2014-05-01
The Black Sea north-western shelf plays a key role in economics of the developing countries such as Ukraine due to food supply, invaluable recreational potential and variety of the relevant maritime shipping routes. On the other hand, a shallow flat shelf is mostly affected by anthropogenic pollution, eutrophication, hypoxia and harmful algae blooms. The research is focused on modeling the transport and transformation of PCBs (PolyChlorinated Biphenyls) because they are exceedingly toxic and highly resistant to degradation, hence cumulatively affect marine ecosystems. Being lipophilic compounds, PCBs demonstrate the distinguishing sorption/desorption activity taking part in the biogeochemical fluxes via the organic matter particles and sediments. In the framework of the research, the coastal in-situ data on PCB concentration in the water column and sediments are processed, visualized and analyzed. It is concluded that the main sources of PCBs are related to the Danube discharge and resuspension from the shallow-water sediments. Developed 3D numerical model is aimed at simulation of PCB contamination of the water column and sediment. The model integrates the full physics hydrodynamic block as well as modules, which describe detritus transport and transformation and PCB dynamics. Three state variables are simulated in PCB transport module: concentration in solute, on the settling particles of detritus and in the top layer of sediments. PCB adsorption/desorption on detritus; the reversible PCB fluxes at the water-sediment boundary; destruction of detritus are taken into consideration. Formalization of PCB deposition/resuspension in the sediments is adapted from Van Rijn's model of the suspended sediment transport. The model was spun up to reconstruct the short term scenario of the instantaneous PCB release from the St. George Arm of Danube. It has been shown that PCB transport on sinking detritus represents the natural buffer mechanism damping the spreading PCB
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Detman, T. R.; Intriligator, D. S.; Dryer, M.; Sun, W.; Deehr, C. S.; Intriligator, J.
2012-01-01
We describe our 3-D, time ]dependent, MHD solar wind model that we recently modified to include the physics of pickup protons from interstellar neutral hydrogen. The model has a time-dependent lower boundary condition, at 0.1 AU, that is driven by source surface map files through an empirical interface module. We describe the empirical interface and its parameter tuning to maximize model agreement with background (quiet) solar wind observations at ACE. We then give results of a simulation study of the famous Halloween 2003 series of solar events. We began with shock inputs from the Fearless Forecast real ]time shock arrival prediction study, and then we iteratively adjusted input shock speeds to obtain agreement between observed and simulated shock arrival times at ACE. We then extended the model grid to 5.5 AU and compared those simulation results with Ulysses observations at 5.2 AU. Next we undertook the more difficult tuning of shock speeds and locations to get matching shock arrival times at both ACE and Ulysses. Then we ran this last case again with neutral hydrogen density set to zero, to identify the effect of pickup ions. We show that the speed of interplanetary shocks propagating from the Sun to Ulysses is reduced by the effects of pickup protons. We plan to make further improvements to the model as we continue our benchmarking process to 10 AU, comparing our results with Cassini observations, and eventually on to 100 AU, comparing our results with Voyager 1 and 2 observations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Detman, T. R.; Intriligator, D. S.; Dryer, M.; Sun, W.; Deehr, C. S.; Intriligator, J.
2012-01-01
We describe our 3-D, time ]dependent, MHD solar wind model that we recently modified to include the physics of pickup protons from interstellar neutral hydrogen. The model has a time-dependent lower boundary condition, at 0.1 AU, that is driven by source surface map files through an empirical interface module. We describe the empirical interface and its parameter tuning to maximize model agreement with background (quiet) solar wind observations at ACE. We then give results of a simulation study of the famous Halloween 2003 series of solar events. We began with shock inputs from the Fearless Forecast real ]time shock arrival prediction study, and then we iteratively adjusted input shock speeds to obtain agreement between observed and simulated shock arrival times at ACE. We then extended the model grid to 5.5 AU and compared those simulation results with Ulysses observations at 5.2 AU. Next we undertook the more difficult tuning of shock speeds and locations to get matching shock arrival times at both ACE and Ulysses. Then we ran this last case again with neutral hydrogen density set to zero, to identify the effect of pickup ions. We show that the speed of interplanetary shocks propagating from the Sun to Ulysses is reduced by the effects of pickup protons. We plan to make further improvements to the model as we continue our benchmarking process to 10 AU, comparing our results with Cassini observations, and eventually on to 100 AU, comparing our results with Voyager 1 and 2 observations.
Chen, Yuxi; Tóth, Gábor; Cassak, Paul; ...
2017-09-18
Here, we perform a three-dimensional (3D) global simulation of Earth's magnetosphere with kinetic reconnection physics to study the flux transfer events (FTEs) and dayside magnetic reconnection with the recently developed magnetohydrodynamics with embedded particle-in-cell model (MHD-EPIC). During the one-hour long simulation, the FTEs are generated quasi-periodically near the subsolar point and move toward the poles. We also find the magnetic field signature of FTEs at their early formation stage is similar to a ‘crater FTE’, which is characterized by a magnetic field strength dip at the FTE center. After the FTE core field grows to a significant value, it becomesmore » an FTE with typical flux rope structure. When an FTE moves across the cusp, reconnection between the FTE field lines and the cusp field lines can dissipate the FTE. The kinetic features are also captured by our model. A crescent electron phase space distribution is found near the reconnection site. A similar distribution is found for ions at the location where the Larmor electric field appears. The lower hybrid drift instability (LHDI) along the current sheet direction also arises at the interface of magnetosheath and magnetosphere plasma. Finally, the LHDI electric field is about 8 mV/m and its dominant wavelength relative to the electron gyroradius agrees reasonably with MMS observations.« less
1992-03-01
COSATI CODES 18 SuBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROlP Underwater Explosion 19. ABSTRACT...Continue on reverse if necessary and dentify by block number) Nonlinear 3-D Dynamic Analysis Code (VEC/DYNA3D) has been interfaced with Underwater...whipping mode. Large plastic strains occurred at the center of the cylinder on the reverse side to the explosive and near the ends of the cylinder on
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zanini, A.; Tanda, M.
2007-12-01
The groundwater in Italy plays an important role as drinking water; in fact it covers about the 30% of the national demand (70% in Northern Italy). The mineral water distribution in Italy is an important business with an increasing demand from abroad countries. The mineral water Companies have a great interest in order to increase the water extraction, but for the delicate and complex geology of the subsoil, where such very high quality waters are contained, a particular attention must be paid in order to avoid an excessive lowering of the groundwater reservoirs or great changes in the groundwater flow directions. A big water Company asked our University to set up a numerical model of the groundwater basin, in order to obtain a useful tool which allows to evaluate the strength of the aquifer and to design new extraction wells. The study area is located along Appennini Mountains and it covers a surface of about 18 km2; the topography ranges from 200 to 600 m a.s.l.. In ancient times only a spring with naturally sparkling water was known in the area, but at present the mineral water is extracted from deep pumping wells. The area is characterized by a very complex geology: the subsoil structure is described by a sequence of layers of silt-clay, marl-clay, travertine and alluvial deposit. Different groundwater layers are present and the one with best quality flows in the travertine layer; the natural flow rate seems to be not subjected to seasonal variations. The water age analysis revealed a very old water which means that the mineral aquifers are not directly connected with the meteoric recharge. The Geologists of the Company suggest that the water supply of the mineral aquifers comes from a carbonated unit located in the deep layers of the mountains bordering the spring area. The valley is crossed by a river that does not present connections to the mineral aquifers. Inside the area there are about 30 pumping wells that extract water at different depths. We built a 3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartzke, Gerhard; Rogers, Benedict D.; Fourtakas, Georgios; Mokos, Athanasios; Huhn, Katrin
2016-04-01
The processes that cause the creation of a variety of sediment morphological features, e.g. laminated beds, ripples, or dunes, are based on the initial motion of individual sediment grains. However, with experimental techniques it is difficult to measure the flow characteristics, i.e., the velocity of the pore water flow in sediments, at a sufficient resolution and in a non-intrusive way. As a result, the role of fluid infiltration at the surface and in the interior affecting the initiation of motion of a sediment bed is not yet fully understood. Consequently, there is a strong need for numerical models, since these are capable of quantifying fluid driven sediment transport processes of complex sediment beds composed of irregular shapes. The numerical method Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) satisfies this need. As a meshless and Lagrangian technique, SPH is ideally suited to simulating flows in sediment beds composed of various grain shapes, but also flow around single grains at a high temporal and spatial resolution. The solver chosen is DualSPHysics (www.dual.sphysics.org) since this is validated for a range of flow conditions. For the present investigation a 3-D numerical flume model was generated using SPH with a length of 4.0 cm, a width of 0.05 cm and a height of 0.2 cm where mobile sediment particles were deposited in a recess. An experimental setup was designed to test sediment configurations composed of irregular grain shapes (grain diameter, D50=1000 μm). Each bed consisted of 3500 mobile objects. After the bed generation process, the entire domain was flooded with 18 million fluid particles. To drive the flow, an oscillating motion perpendicular to the bed was applied to the fluid, reaching a peak value of 0.3 cm/s, simulating 4 seconds of real time. The model results showed that flow speeds decreased logarithmically from the top of the domain towards the surface of the beds, indicating a fully developed boundary layer. Analysis of the fluid
Blinov, V.I.; Kazachkov, I.V.; Kolesnichenko, A.F.
1988-01-01
Average characteristics are determined for the first stage of MHD flow in a conducting liquid containing nonconducting inclusions in a channel having nonmetallic walls exposed to crossed electric and magnetic fields. For the second stage, a structural approach is used to evaluate particle paths, clumping, and effects on clumping. Using these criteria, the angular velocity of the stationary rotational motion can be approximated. Particle motion in this rotating flow was considered. Particle paths were determined with an M-4030 computer by solving a second-order differential system. The Runge-Kutta method was used. Raising the field frequency and selecting the optimum ratio for the bulk electromagnetic forces was found to increase the particle concentration and the coagulation rate at the center.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohno, Jun; Liberati, Alessandro; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Okuno, Yoshihiro
Time dependent r-z two-dimensional numerical simulations with LES technique have been carried out in order to clarify the plasma fluid behavior and power generation characteristics of the disk MHD generator under the rated operation conditions demonstrated in the closed loop experimental facility at Tokyo Tech. The generator currently installed could suffer from the non-uniform and low electrical conductivity, and the boundary layer separation even under the rated operation conditions. The large amount of generated electric power is consumed in the boundary layer separation region, which reduces a net output power. Reducing the back pressure and improving the inlet plasma conditions surely provide the higher generator performance. The influence of 90 degree bend downstream duct on the generator performance is found to be not marked.
3D numerical model of the southern polar giant impact for the formation of the Martian dichotomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leone, Giovanni; Tackley, Paul J.; Gerya, Taras; May, David A.; Zhu, Guizhi
2013-04-01
Lack of volcanism and/or crustal flows in the northern lowlands poses serious problems to the hypothesis of formation of the Borealis basin by giant impact in the Northern Polar region of Mars. We use numerical modeling integrated with a geologic and volcanologic study of the surface of Mars to investigate an alternative process of formation that involves a giant impact on the South Pole, resulting in a hemispherical magma pond and resulting thicker crust. We have performed 3D simulations of Martian evolution from the immediate post-impact stage to the present day for different combinations of impactor sizes and compositions, ranging from 900 km radius and sideritic composition (up to 80% radius iron) to 1750 km radius and mesosiderite-type composition (50% radius iron; nickel neglected at the moment). The main reason for considering siderites is the presence of M-type asteroids like 16 Psyche (and several others) in the asteroid belt, the likely remnants of larger parent bodies in the 1-2 AU range which then migrated to their current position after giant impacts with protoplanets. We assume an impactor speed similar to the escape velocity of the target body, consistent with N-body simulations. Our results show that this is a viable formation hypothesis for the southern highlands. Our preferred scenario is of a lunar sized impactor of 1600 km radius with a 70% iron (by radius) fraction, hitting the south Pole at a speed of 5 km/s (the escape velocity of Mars), melting much of the interior and 1/2 of the planetary surface with the creation of a magma ocean that formed the highlands upon cooling and solidification. Regarding timing, we find that this should have happened after 4 Ma after CAI, because before this the strong heating from short-lived radiogenic elements coupled with the thermal anomaly generated by the giant impact would erase by re-melting any newly formed crust. Using a combination of I3ELVIS (immediate post-impact and core formation) and STAGYY (long
Numerical simulation of X-wing type biplane flapping wings in 3D using the immersed boundary method.
Tay, W B; van Oudheusden, B W; Bijl, H
2014-09-01
The numerical simulation of an insect-sized 'X-wing' type biplane flapping wing configuration is performed in 3D using an immersed boundary method solver at Reynolds numbers equal to 1000 (1 k) and 5 k, based on the wing's root chord length. This X-wing type flapping configuration draws its inspiration from Delfly, a bio-inspired ornithopter MAV which has two pairs of wings flapping in anti-phase in a biplane configuration. The objective of the present investigation is to assess the aerodynamic performance when the original Delfly flapping wing micro-aerial vehicle (FMAV) is reduced to the size of an insect. Results show that the X-wing configuration gives more than twice the average thrust compared with only flapping the upper pair of wings of the X-wing. However, the X-wing's average thrust is only 40% that of the upper wing flapping at twice the stroke angle. Despite this, the increased stability which results from the smaller lift and moment variation of the X-wing configuration makes it more suited for sharp image capture and recognition. These advantages make the X-wing configuration an attractive alternative design for insect-sized FMAVS compared to the single wing configuration. In the Reynolds number comparison, the vorticity iso-surface plot at a Reynolds number of 5 k revealed smaller, finer vortical structures compared to the simulation at 1 k, due to vortices' breakup. In comparison, the force output difference is much smaller between Re = 1 k and 5 k. Increasing the body inclination angle generates a uniform leading edge vortex instead of a conical one along the wingspan, giving higher lift. Understanding the force variation as the body inclination angle increases will allow FMAV designers to optimize the thrust and lift ratio for higher efficiency under different operational requirements. Lastly, increasing the spanwise flexibility of the wings increases the thrust slightly but decreases the efficiency. The thrust result is similar to one of the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Mair; Hussain, Arif; Malik, M. Y.; Salahuddin, T.; Khan, Farzana
This article presents the two-dimensional flow of MHD hyperbolic tangent fluid with nanoparticles towards a stretching surface. The mathematical modelling of current flow analysis yields the nonlinear set of partial differential equations which then are reduce to ordinary differential equations by using suitable scaling transforms. Then resulting equations are solved by using shooting technique. The behaviour of the involved physical parameters (Weissenberg number We , Hartmann number M , Prandtl number Pr , Brownian motion parameter Nb , Lewis number Le and thermophoresis number Nt) on velocity, temperature and concentration are interpreted in detail. Additionally, local skin friction, local Nusselt number and local Sherwood number are computed and analyzed. It has been explored that Weissenberg number and Hartmann number are decelerate fluid motion. Brownian motion and thermophoresis both enhance the fluid temperature. Local Sherwood number is increasing function whereas Nusselt number is reducing function for increasing values of Brownian motion parameter Nb , Prandtl number Pr , thermophoresis parameter Nt and Lewis number Le . Additionally, computed results are compared with existing literature to validate the accuracy of solution, one can see that present results have quite resemblance with reported data.
Numerical investigation of 3-D constraint effects on brittle fracture in SE(B) and C(T) specimens
Nevalainen, M.; Dodds, R.H. Jr.
1996-07-01
This investigation employs 3-D nonlinear finite element analyses to conduct an extensive parametric evaluation of crack front stress triaxiality for deep notch SE(B) and C(T) specimens and shallow notch SE(B) specimens, with and without side grooves. Crack front conditions are characterized in terms of J-Q trajectories and the constraint scaling model for cleavage fracture toughness proposed previously by Dodds and Anderson. The 3-D computational results imply that a significantly less strict size/deformation limit, relative to the limits indicated by previous plane-strain computations, is needed to maintain small-scale yielding conditions at fracture by a stress- controlled, cleavage mechanism in deep notch SE(B) and C(T) specimens. Additional new results made available from the 3-D analyses also include revised {eta}-plastic factors for use in experimental studies to convert measured work quantities to thickness average and maximum (local) J-values over the crack front.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selepeng, Ame Thato; Sakanaka, Shin'ya; Nishitani, Tadashi
2017-04-01
Under certain geological conditions, low induction number electromagnetic (LIN-EM) instruments are known to produce negative apparent conductivity (σa) responses. This is particularly the case when the shallow subsurface is characterised by highly conductive bodies, however little attention has been given to this issue in the research literature. To analyse negative σa anomalies and their causative structures, we make use of a 3D integral equation forward modelling technique based on a 3D weighting function. We present 3D numerical modelling results over a volcanic tuff body intruded by several dacite dikes, in Sugisawa, Akita Prefecture, Japan. Apparent conductivity data were acquired using a Geonics EM-34-3 system in the horizontal magnetic dipole (HMD) and vertical magnetic dipole (VMD) operating modes. Our 3D model resolved the horizontal and vertical extent of the dacite dikes and also delineated a high conductive zone between the volcanic tuff and the intrusive dacite dikes. This zone is the causative structure for negative σa responses in the VMD data, and is interpreted to be an alteration zone. Interestingly, the negative σa response was absent when the instrument alignment azimuth was changed, implying an anisotropic effect on the EM signature in the study area. The true conductivity model achieved by 3D forward modelling is shown to compare favourably with the DC resistivity data acquired in the same area.
Advanced Numerical Methods for Three-Dimensional Parallel Hybrid MHD/PIC.
1996-10-31
energy density plasmas . Prototype problems include studies of physical systems encountered in advanced weapons, space propulsion thrusters, pulsed power...We have developed, implemented, and applied coupled Eulerican/Lagrangian computational models for efficient parallel numerical simulation of high
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wohletz, K. H.; Ogden, D. E.
2008-12-01
An essential element of explosive volcanic eruptions is the effect of the evolving conduit and vent on the erupting multiphase flow and the effect of the flow upon the conduit and vent rocks, a 3D geological nozzle problem. This coupling of the host rock solid mechanics with the fluid dynamics of an erupting multiphase fluid has never been directly simulated and is poorly understood. We apply a library of computer codes called CFDLib, which has been developed by the Theoretical Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This code provides the unique capability of being able to solve the interaction of an Eulerian fluid with a Lagrangian solid in 3D while treating multiphase turbulence that this interaction generates. Our previous work with CFDLib has been directed at validating results with laboratory experiments, verification against analytical models, and free-jet decompression. This work demonstrated the importance of vent overpressure in determining the characteristics of an erupted column of gas and tephra. However, eruption of an overpressured jet is strongly coupled to the dynamics of the vent shape that in turn is dependent upon conduit dynamics. For this reason most previous computer simulations of volcanic eruptions have assumed pressure-balanced conditions of flow from the vent. Here we demonstrate our progress in simulating vent evolution during eruption of an overpressured multiphase (steam and magma/rock) fluid. With increasing overpressure the evolved vent radius increases with the formation of a crater. The Mach Stem structure of the erupted jet resembles those of our previous simulations from a fixed vent, but the evolving vent nozzle and contributions of eroded material to the jet make its structure more complicated and variable with time. Future work will focus on study of the effects of host rock properties and 3D conduit shape.
Bottenus, Danny; Jubery, Talukder Zaki; Dutta, Prashanta; Ivory, Cornelius F
2011-02-01
This paper describes both the experimental application and 3-D numerical simulation of isotachophoresis (ITP) in a 3.2 cm long "cascade" poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microfluidic chip. The microchip includes 10 × reductions in both the width and depth of the microchannel, which decreases the overall cross-sectional area by a factor of 100 between the inlet (cathode) and outlet (anode). A 3-D numerical simulation of ITP is outlined and is a first example of an ITP simulation in three dimensions. The 3-D numerical simulation uses COMSOL Multiphysics v4.0a to concentrate two generic proteins and monitor protein migration through the microchannel. In performing an ITP simulation on this microchip platform, we observe an increase in concentration by over a factor of more than 10,000 due to the combination of ITP stacking and the reduction in cross-sectional area. Two fluorescent proteins, green fluorescent protein and R-phycoerythrin, were used to experimentally visualize ITP through the fabricated microfluidic chip. The initial concentration of each protein in the sample was 1.995 μg/mL and, after preconcentration by ITP, the final concentrations of the two fluorescent proteins were 32.57 ± 3.63 and 22.81 ± 4.61 mg/mL, respectively. Thus, experimentally the two fluorescent proteins were concentrated by over a factor of 10,000 and show good qualitative agreement with our simulation results.
Luquet, David; Marchiano, Régis; Coulouvrat, François
2015-10-28
Many situations involve the propagation of acoustical shock waves through flows. Natural sources such as lightning, volcano explosions, or meteoroid atmospheric entries, emit loud, low frequency, and impulsive sound that is influenced by atmospheric wind and turbulence. The sonic boom produced by a supersonic aircraft and explosion noises are examples of intense anthropogenic sources in the atmosphere. The Buzz-Saw-Noise produced by turbo-engine fan blades rotating at supersonic speed also propagates in a fast flow within the engine nacelle. Simulating these situations is challenging, given the 3D nature of the problem, the long range propagation distances relative to the central wavelength, the strongly nonlinear behavior of shocks associated to a wide-band spectrum, and finally the key role of the flow motion. With this in view, the so-called FLHOWARD (acronym for FLow and Heterogeneous One-Way Approximation for Resolution of Diffraction) method is presented with three-dimensional applications. A scalar nonlinear wave equation is established in the framework of atmospheric applications, assuming weak heterogeneities and a slow wind. It takes into account diffraction, absorption and relaxation properties of the atmosphere, quadratic nonlinearities including weak shock waves, heterogeneities of the medium in sound speed and density, and presence of a flow (assuming a mean stratified wind and 3D turbulent ? flow fluctuations of smaller amplitude). This equation is solved in the framework of the one-way method. A split-step technique allows the splitting of the non-linear wave equation into simpler equations, each corresponding to a physical effect. Each sub-equation is solved using an analytical method if possible, and finite-differences otherwise. Nonlinear effects are solved in the time domain, and others in the frequency domain. Homogeneous diffraction is handled by means of the angular spectrum method. Ground is assumed perfectly flat and rigid. Due to the 3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luquet, David; Marchiano, Régis; Coulouvrat, François
2015-10-01
Many situations involve the propagation of acoustical shock waves through flows. Natural sources such as lightning, volcano explosions, or meteoroid atmospheric entries, emit loud, low frequency, and impulsive sound that is influenced by atmospheric wind and turbulence. The sonic boom produced by a supersonic aircraft and explosion noises are examples of intense anthropogenic sources in the atmosphere. The Buzz-Saw-Noise produced by turbo-engine fan blades rotating at supersonic speed also propagates in a fast flow within the engine nacelle. Simulating these situations is challenging, given the 3D nature of the problem, the long range propagation distances relative to the central wavelength, the strongly nonlinear behavior of shocks associated to a wide-band spectrum, and finally the key role of the flow motion. With this in view, the so-called FLHOWARD (acronym for FLow and Heterogeneous One-Way Approximation for Resolution of Diffraction) method is presented with three-dimensional applications. A scalar nonlinear wave equation is established in the framework of atmospheric applications, assuming weak heterogeneities and a slow wind. It takes into account diffraction, absorption and relaxation properties of the atmosphere, quadratic nonlinearities including weak shock waves, heterogeneities of the medium in sound speed and density, and presence of a flow (assuming a mean stratified wind and 3D turbulent ? flow fluctuations of smaller amplitude). This equation is solved in the framework of the one-way method. A split-step technique allows the splitting of the non-linear wave equation into simpler equations, each corresponding to a physical effect. Each sub-equation is solved using an analytical method if possible, and finite-differences otherwise. Nonlinear effects are solved in the time domain, and others in the frequency domain. Homogeneous diffraction is handled by means of the angular spectrum method. Ground is assumed perfectly flat and rigid. Due to the 3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spichak, V. V.
2011-01-01
Possibilities for three-dimensional (3D) magnetotelluric (MT) sounding of local objects contained in the Earth's crust are estimated in a case study of the magma chamber of the Vesuvius volcano. Stochastic inversion of the model MT data by the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method has shown that the most efficient approach is not simultaneous but successive estimation of the geometry and the depth of the anomaly and the assessment of the conductivity distribution within the anomalous region. A zone of equivalence is revealed between the a priori estimate of the depth of the anomalous zone and the a posteriori distribution of electric conductivity within it. Based on the present estimation and previous results, an algorithm for determination of the parameters of local crustal anomaly is proposed.
PROGRESS IN THE PEELING-BALLOONING MODEL OF ELMS: NUMERICAL STUDIES OF 3D NONLINEAR ELM DYNAMICS
SNYDER,P.B; WILSON,H.R; XU,X.Q
2004-11-01
Nonlinear simulations with the 3D electromagnetic two-fluid BOUT code are employed to study the dynamics of edge localized modes (ELMs) driven by intermediate wavelength peeling-ballooning modes. It is found that the early behavior of the modes is similar to expectations from linear, ideal peeling-ballooning mode theory, with the modes growing linearly at a fraction of the Alfven frequency. In the nonlinear phase, the modes grow explosively, forming a number of extended filaments which propagate rapidly from the outer closed flux region into the open flux region toward the outboard wall. Similarities to non-linear ballooning theory, as well as additional complexities are observed. Comparison to observations reveals a number of similarities. Implications of the simulations and proposals for the dynamics of the full ELM crash are discussed.
Progress in the Peeling-Ballooning Model of ELMs: Numerical Studies of 3D Nonlinear ELM Dynamics
Snyder, P B; Wilson, H R; Xu, X Q
2004-12-13
Nonlinear simulations with the 3D electromagnetic two-fluid BOUT code are employed to study the dynamics of edge localized modes (ELMs) driven by intermediate wavelength peeling-ballooning modes. It is found that the early behavior of the modes is similar to expectations from linear, ideal peeling-ballooning mode theory, with the modes growing linearly at a fraction of the Alfven frequency. In the non-linear phase, the modes grow explosively, forming a number of extended filaments which propagate rapidly from the outer closed flux region into the open flux region toward the outer wall. Similarities to non-linear linear ballooning theory, as well as additional complexities are observed. Comparison to observations reveals a number of similarities. Implications of the simulations and proposals for the dynamics of the full ELM crash are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benhamouche, Mehdi; Bernard, Laurent; Serhir, Mohammed; Pichon, Lionel; Lesselier, Dominique
2013-11-01
This paper proposes a criterion for locating obstacles by time reversal (TR) of electromagnetic (EM) waves based on the analysis of the density of EM energy map in time domain. Contrarily to a monochromatic study of the TR, the wide-band approach requires to determine the instant of the wave focus. This enables us to locate the focal spots that are indicative of the positions. The criterion proposed is compared to the inverse of the minimum entropy criterion as used in the literature [X. Xu, E.L. Miller, C.M. Rappaport, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1804 (2003)]. An application for the localization of 3D metal targets is proposed using finite integration technique (FIT) as computational tool at the modeling stage. An experimental validation is presented for canonical three-dimensional configurations with two kinds of metal objects. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Numelec 2012", Edited by Adel Razek.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LeVeque, R. J.; Motley, M. R.
2015-12-01
A series of tsunami wave basin experiments of flow through a scale model of Seaside, Oregon have been used as validation data for a 2015 benchmarking workshop hosted by the National Tsunami Mitigation Program, which focused on better understanding the ability of tsunami models to predict flow velocities and inundation depths following a coastal inundation event. As researchers begin to assess the safety of coastal infrastructures, proper assessment of tsunami-induced forces on coastal structures is critical. Hydrodynamic forces on these structures are fundamentally proportional to the local momentum flux of the fluid, and experimental data included momentum flux measurements at many instrumented gauge locations. The GeoClaw tsunami model, which solves the two-dimensional shallow water equations, was compared against other codes during the benchmarking workshop, and more recently a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model using the open-source OpenFOAM software has been developed and results from this model are being compared with both the experimental data and the 2D GeoClaw results. In addition, the 3D model allows for computation of fluid forces on the faces of structures, permitting an investigation of the common use of momentum flux as a proxy for these forces. This work aims to assess the potential to apply these momentum flux predictions locally within the model to determine tsunami-induced forces on critical structures. Difficulties in working with these data sets and cross-model comparisons will be discussed. Ultimately, application of the more computationally efficient GeoClaw model, informed by the 3D OpenFOAM models, to predict forces on structures at the community scale can be expected to improve the safety and resilience of coastal communities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bischoff, S. H.; Flesch, L. M.
2015-12-01
Piecing together the uplift and growth of the Tibetan Plateau requires a robust understanding of the present-day dynamics of the India-Eurasia collision zone. To aid in the understanding of mountain building and plateau growth, we developed a 3D finite element model of the Tibetan Plateau following Flesch and Bendick (2012). Our model is based on the vast collection of published geophysical data and employs COMSOL Multiphysics (www.comsol.com). We assume model material properties from the wide variety of published seismic and MT studies, incorporated with an updated, vertically averaged, effective viscosity distribution from Flesch et al. (2001). We test potential relationships between conductance/seismic velocity and strength (viscosity) by modeling strength difference contacts at imaged interfaces. We quantify fitness of candidate 3D viscosity functions by comparing solved model surface velocities to observed surface velocities inferred from GPS and Quaternary fault slip rates. The model geometry incorporates Earth curvature and extends eastward from 65° to 110°E, northward from 15° to 45°N, and vertically down to 100 km below sea level. The physics of deformation is governed by the Stokes equations describing incompressible Newtonian fluid flow. Boundary conditions consist of free slip across the bottom surface (representing the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary) and moving edge walls constrained by a GPS-derived, continuous velocity field. Model results indicate a tradeoff between crust and mantle dominant strength. Best-fit models are achieved by a combination of strong crust/upper mantle with additional strain accommodation in localized weak zones.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chauhan, D. S.; Agrawal, R.
2011-05-01
A viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid flow through a porous medium over a stretching sheet is considered in the presence of a magnetic field. Such flow problems have relevance in the process of a polymer sheet extrusion from a dye, and the numerical and approximate solutions of these problems are of great interest as these solutions serve practical purposes. By using the technique of stretching variables of the flow concern in porous medium and minimizing the residual of the resulting governing differential equations by the least squares method, we obtained an approximate solution for this problem of flow through porous medium near a stretching sheet. The results are also compared to a numerical solution determined by using the shooting method along with the Runge-Kutta method. The effects of various pertinent parameters on the velocity distribution and the residual function are investigated. The results are depicted graphically and discussed.
Chinyoka, T; Makinde, O D
2013-01-01
The thermodynamic second law analysis is utilized to investigate the inherent irreversibility in an unsteady hydromagnetic generalized Couette flow with variable electrical conductivity in the presence of induced electric field. Based on some simplified assumption, the model nonlinear governing equations are obtained and solved numerically using semidiscretization finite difference techniques. Effects of various thermophysical parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature, current density, skin friction, the Nusselt number, entropy generation number, and the Bejan number are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively.
Chinyoka, T.; Makinde, O. D.
2013-01-01
The thermodynamic second law analysis is utilized to investigate the inherent irreversibility in an unsteady hydromagnetic generalized Couette flow with variable electrical conductivity in the presence of induced electric field. Based on some simplified assumption, the model nonlinear governing equations are obtained and solved numerically using semidiscretization finite difference techniques. Effects of various thermophysical parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature, current density, skin friction, the Nusselt number, entropy generation number, and the Bejan number are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively. PMID:23956691
Burtnyk, Mathieu; N'Djin, William Apoutou; Kobelevskiy, Ilya; Bronskill, Michael; Chopra, Rajiv
2010-11-21
MRI-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy uses a linear array of transducer elements and active temperature feedback to create volumes of thermal coagulation shaped to predefined prostate geometries in 3D. The specific aims of this work were to demonstrate the accuracy and repeatability of producing large volumes of thermal coagulation (>10 cc) that conform to 3D human prostate shapes in a tissue-mimicking gel phantom, and to evaluate quantitatively the accuracy with which numerical simulations predict these 3D heating volumes under carefully controlled conditions. Eleven conformal 3D experiments were performed in a tissue-mimicking phantom within a 1.5T MR imager to obtain non-invasive temperature measurements during heating. Temperature feedback was used to control the rotation rate and ultrasound power of transurethral devices with up to five 3.5 × 5 mm active transducer elements. Heating patterns shaped to human prostate geometries were generated using devices operating at 4.7 or 8.0 MHz with surface acoustic intensities of up to 10 W cm(-2). Simulations were informed by transducer surface velocity measurements acquired with a scanning laser vibrometer enabling improved calculations of the acoustic pressure distribution in a gel phantom. Temperature dynamics were determined according to a FDTD solution to Pennes' BHTE. The 3D heating patterns produced in vitro were shaped very accurately to the prostate target volumes, within the spatial resolution of the MRI thermometry images. The volume of the treatment difference falling outside ± 1 mm of the target boundary was, on average, 0.21 cc or 1.5% of the prostate volume. The numerical simulations predicted the extent and shape of the coagulation boundary produced in gel to within (mean ± stdev [min, max]): 0.5 ± 0.4 [-1.0, 2.1] and -0.05 ± 0.4 [-1.2, 1.4] mm for the treatments at 4.7 and 8.0 MHz, respectively. The temperatures across all MRI thermometry images were predicted within -0.3 ± 1.6 °C and 0
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burtnyk, Mathieu; Apoutou N'Djin, William; Kobelevskiy, Ilya; Bronskill, Michael; Chopra, Rajiv
2010-11-01
MRI-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy uses a linear array of transducer elements and active temperature feedback to create volumes of thermal coagulation shaped to predefined prostate geometries in 3D. The specific aims of this work were to demonstrate the accuracy and repeatability of producing large volumes of thermal coagulation (>10 cc) that conform to 3D human prostate shapes in a tissue-mimicking gel phantom, and to evaluate quantitatively the accuracy with which numerical simulations predict these 3D heating volumes under carefully controlled conditions. Eleven conformal 3D experiments were performed in a tissue-mimicking phantom within a 1.5T MR imager to obtain non-invasive temperature measurements during heating. Temperature feedback was used to control the rotation rate and ultrasound power of transurethral devices with up to five 3.5 × 5 mm active transducer elements. Heating patterns shaped to human prostate geometries were generated using devices operating at 4.7 or 8.0 MHz with surface acoustic intensities of up to 10 W cm-2. Simulations were informed by transducer surface velocity measurements acquired with a scanning laser vibrometer enabling improved calculations of the acoustic pressure distribution in a gel phantom. Temperature dynamics were determined according to a FDTD solution to Pennes' BHTE. The 3D heating patterns produced in vitro were shaped very accurately to the prostate target volumes, within the spatial resolution of the MRI thermometry images. The volume of the treatment difference falling outside ±1 mm of the target boundary was, on average, 0.21 cc or 1.5% of the prostate volume. The numerical simulations predicted the extent and shape of the coagulation boundary produced in gel to within (mean ± stdev [min, max]): 0.5 ± 0.4 [-1.0, 2.1] and -0.05 ± 0.4 [-1.2, 1.4] mm for the treatments at 4.7 and 8.0 MHz, respectively. The temperatures across all MRI thermometry images were predicted within -0.3 ± 1.6 °C and 0
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guillen, Ph.; Borrel, M.; Dormieux, M.
1990-10-01
A numerical scheme of the MUSCL type used for the numerical simulation of gas flow of different types around complex configurations is described. Approximate Riemann solvers of the Van Leer, Roc, and Osher types, developed for perfect gas flows are used. These solvers have been extended to non-reactive mixtures of two species and real gas flows by Abgrall, Montagne and Vinokur. The architecture of the code, dictated by constraints in geometrical considerations, computational aspects, the specific nature of the flow, and ergonomy, is described.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haji Mohammadi, M.; Kang, S.; Sotiropoulos, F.
2011-12-01
It is well-known that meander bends impose local losses of energy to the flow in rivers. These local losses should be added together with friction loss to get the total loss of energy. In this work, we strive to develop a framework that considers the effect of bends in meandering rivers for one-dimensional (1-D) homogenous equations of flow. Our objective is to develop a simple, yet physically sound, and efficient model for carrying out engineering computations of flow through meander bends. We consider several approaches for calculating 1-D hydraulic properties of meandering rivers such as friction factor and Manning coefficient. The method of Kasper et al. (2005), which is based on channel top width, aspect ratio and radius of curvature, is adopted for further calculations. In this method, a correction is implemented in terms of local energy loss, due to helical motion and secondary currents of fluid particles driven by centrifugal force, in meanders. To validate the model, several test cases are simulated and the computed results are compared with the reported data in the literature in terms of water surface elevation, shear velocity, etc. For all cases the computed results are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data. 3-D RANS turbulent flow simulations are also carried out, using the method of Kang et al. (Adv. In Water Res., vol. 34, 2011), for different geometrical parameters of Kinoshita Rivers to determine the spatial distribution of shear stress on river bed and banks, which is the key factor in scour/deposition patterns. The 3-D solutions are then cross-sectionally averaged and compared with the respective solutions from the 1-D model. The comparisons show that the improved 1D model, which incorporates the effect of local bend loss, captures key flow parameters with reasonable accuracy. Our results also underscore the range of validity and limitations of 1D models for meander bend simulations. This work was supported by NSF Grants (as part of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menant, Armel; Sternai, Pietro; Jolivet, Laurent; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Gerya, Taras
2016-05-01
Interactions between subduction dynamics and magma genesis have been intensely investigated, resulting in several conceptual models derived from geological, geochemical and geophysical data. To provide physico-chemical constraints on these conceptual models, self-consistent numerical simulations containing testable thermo-mechanical parameters are required, especially considering the three-dimensional (3D) natural complexity of subduction systems. Here, we use a 3D high-resolution petrological and thermo-mechanical numerical model to quantify the relative contribution of oceanic and continental subduction/collision, slab roll-back and tearing to magma genesis and transport processes. Our modeling results suggest that the space and time distribution and composition of magmas in the overriding plate is controlled by the 3D slab dynamics and related asthenospheric flow. Moreover, the decrease of the bulk lithospheric strength induced by mantle- and crust-derived magmas promotes the propagation of strike-slip and extensional fault zones through the overriding crust as response to slab roll-back and continental collision. Reduction of the lithosphere/asthenosphere rheological contrast by lithospheric weakening also favors the transmission of velocities from the flowing mantle to the crust. Similarities between our modeling results and the late Cenozoic tectonic and magmatic evolution across the eastern Mediterranean region suggest an efficient control of mantle flow on the magmatic activity in this region, which in turn promotes lithospheric deformation by mantle drag via melt-induced weakening effects.
Numerical investigation of the turbulent MHD flow in a circular pipe with transverse magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dechamps, Xavier; Rasquin, Michel; Degrez, Gérard
2012-11-01
In modern industrial metallurgical processes, external magnetic fields are often applied to control the motion of liquid metals by a non-intrusive means. The desired results are for example the damping of unwanted motions or the homogenization of a liquid zone in a partially solidified ingot. Because of the commonly appearing parameters in these processes, one can assume the quasi-static assumption for the magnetohydrodynamic equations. Here we are interested in the numerical study of the turbulent flow of a liquid metal inside an electrically insulated pipe with a transverse uniform magnetic field. For this purpose, we will use a hybrid spectral/finite element solver, which allows to study complex flows in Cartesian and axisymmetric geometries. For the case of interest, we consider a bulk Reynolds number of 8200 and a Hartmann number ranging between 5 and 30. Here, the main points of interest are the evolution of the skin friction coefficient as a function of the ratio of the Hartmann number Ha over the Reynolds number Re (with 0 < Ha/Re < 75 × 10-4) as well as the energy budget (viscous, Joule and numerical dissipations, kinetic energy production) in a cross-section. These results will determine the transition point between laminar and turbulent flows. Support of the Fonds Nationals de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS) is aknowledged.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, M. M.; Alim, M. A.; Maleque, M. A.; Ahmed, Syed Sabbir
2017-06-01
A numerical study has been carried out to analyze the flow and heat transfer characteristics due to the effects of magnetohydrodynamic free convection flow in a differentially heated enclosure having a hot tilted square block. The vertical and horizontal walls of the cavity are non-uniformly heated while the walls of the tilted block are uniformly heated. The basic partial differential equations of the physical problem are solved numerically using finite element technique along with Galerkin's weighted residual simulation. Calculations have been performed for different values of buoyancy parameter (102 ≤ Ra ≤ 105) and magnetic field parameter (0 ≤ Ha ≤ 60) and obtained results are illustrated in terms of streamlines, isotherms, average Nusselt number and average temperature. The results show that the flow pattern and temperature distributions affected noticeably for the effect of aforementioned parameters. In addition, an increase in average Nusselt number is found for the whole range of Rayleigh number and average temperature decreased for increasing Rayleigh number. Comparison between the obtained results and the previously published results on the basis of special case is a good agreement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mutter, Kussay N.; Jafri, Zubir M.; Tan, Kok Chooi
2016-04-01
In this paper, the simulation and design of a waveguide for water turbidity sensing are presented. The structure of the proposed sensor uses a 2x2 array of multimode interference (MMI) coupler based on micro graphene waveguide for high sensitivity. The beam propagation method (BPM) are used to efficiently design the sensor structure. The structure is consist of an array of two by two elements of sensors. Each element has three sections of single mode for field input tapered to MMI as the main core sensor without cladding which is graphene based material, and then a single mode fiber as an output. In this configuration MMI responses to any change in the environment. We validate and present the results by implementing the design on a set of sucrose solution and showing how these samples lead to a sensitivity change in the sensor based on the MMI structures. Overall results, the 3D design has a feasible and effective sensing by drawing topographical distribution of suspended particles in the water.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Ting; You, Xue-yi
2017-04-01
A 3D sediment transport model based on the modified environmental fluid dynamics code (EFDC) and the nearshore waves simulation model (SWAN) is developed to study the change of suspended sediment concentration and bottom shear stress under the actions of pure current and wave-current. After being validated by the field measured data, the proposed sediment transport model is applied in the Oujiang River Estuary, China. The results show that the ratios of both bottom shear stress and suspended sediment concentration of pure current to those of wave-current show a gradually increase from shallow nearshore water to deep open sea. The results also show that the proportion of wave contributions on bottom shear stress and sediment concentration are above 60%, approximately 20-30% and less than 10% for the water depth of less than 5 m, 5-10 m and more than 20 m, respectively. For the waters among islands, the proportion of wave contribution to bottom shear stress and sediment concentration is reduced to 10-20% for -5 m water depth and this is more obvious for the waves of large amplitude. The bottom stress and suspended sediment concentration between islands are mainly controlled by tidal current, and the effect of wave is not significant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sangermano, J. J.; Zhou, Z.; Hsu, T.
2012-12-01
When a tsunami wave propagates toward the coast, the interactions of the waves, shoreline, and coastal hard structures can cause the generation of large coherent structures (vortices). These coherent structures are shown to last for a long time through Boussinesq wave modeling (Son et al. 2011, Ocean Modeling, 38) and are believed to cause damage to vessels and coastal structures. Here, we investigate the generation, evolution, and dissipation of these coherent structures using a 3D large eddy simulation approach with a dynamic Smagorinsky closure, and a volume of fluid scheme for free surface tracking. The open-source CFD library OpenFOAM model is validated by lab experiments conducted on solitary waves by Synolakis (1987, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 185) and Ting (2006, Coastal Engineering, 53). The model predicts wave shoaling, run up, ensemble-averaged velocity, and turbulence fields in agreement with laboratory observations. Analysis of simulation results focusses on the generation and evolution of turbulent coherent structures and their interaction with the seabed. Implications for sediment transport are investigated through nondimensional bottom stress (Shields parameter) and flow acceleration (Sleath parameter) as these are critical parameters for the initiation of sheet flow and plug flow. We pay special attention during the deceleration and drawdown stage of the simulation because large turbulence and bottom stress is known to occur according to prior literature. Preliminary results on the generation and evolution of horizontal coherent structures in shallow water due to solitary wave interaction with hard structures will also be presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Peng; Jiang, Shengyuan; Tang, Dewei; Xu, Bo
2017-05-01
For sake of striking a balance between the need of drilling efficiency and the constrains of power budget on the moon, the penetrations per revolution of drill bit are generally limited in the range around 0.1 mm, and besides the geometric angle of the cutting blade need to be well designed. This paper introduces a simulation approach based on PFC3D (particle flow code 3 dimensions) for analyzing the cutting load feature on lunar rock simulant, which is derived from different geometric-angle blades with a small cutting depth. The mean values of the cutting force of five blades in the survey region (four on the boundary points and one on the center point) are selected as the macroscopic responses of model. The method of experimental design which includes Plackett-Burman (PB) design and central composite design (CCD) method is adopted in the matching procedure of microparameters in PFC model. Using the optimization method of enumeration, the optimum set of microparameters is acquired. Then, the experimental validation is implemented by using other twenty-five blades with different geometric angles, and the results from both simulations and laboratory tests give fair agreements. Additionally, the rock breaking process cut by different blades are quantified from simulation analysis. This research provides the theoretical support for the refinement of the rock cutting load prediction and the geometric design of cutting blade on the drill bit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tromeur-Dervout, D.; Phuoc, L. Ta
Since 1979 ONERA has been studying the adequacy of the parallel architectures for numerical simulation in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). In this context a 3D Navier-Stokes code has been developed and implmented on INTEL iPSC860 with 128 processors. The code uses multigrid and ADI methods, to solve unsteady 3D Navier-Stokes equations in velocity-vorticity formulation. The lid-driven cavity of spanwise aspect ratio equal to 3:1, at a Reynolds number Re equal to 3200, constitutes a test case running on the INTEL iPSC860 system as on the Cray-YMP computer. Results are given for the characteristic times T = 50, 100, 200.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Yiyun; Qin, Yujie
2015-09-01
Numerical simulations of thermo-electromagnetic properties of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk levitating over a permanent magnetic guideway (PMG) are performed by resorting to the quasistatic approximation of the H-method coupling with the classical description of the heat conduction equation. The numerical resolving codes are practiced with the help of the finite element program generation system (FEPG) platform using finite element method (FEM). The E-J power law is used to describe the electric current nonlinear characteristics of HTS bulk. The simulation results show that the heat conduction and the critical current density are tightly relative to the thermal effects of the HTS bulk over the PMG. The heat intensity which responds to the heat loss of the HTS bulk is mainly distributed at the two bottom-corners of the bulk sample.
Catarino, Susana O; Pinto, Vania C; Sousa, Paulo J; Lima, Rui; Miranda, Joao M; Minas, Graca
2016-08-01
This paper reports a numerical and experimental study of acoustic streaming and micromixing in polydimethylsiloxane microchannels. The mixing between two fluids flowing in microchannels was evaluated through the following conditions: (1) using a 28 μm thick β-poly(vinylidene fluoride) (β-PVDF) as a piezoelectric transducer actuated with a 24 Vpp and 40 MHz sinusoidal voltage; (2) using different flow rates. The results suggest that the mixing length increases as the flow rate increases and that the acoustic streaming phenomenon leads to a reduction on the mixing length. The good qualitative agreement between numerical and experimental results is a valuable indicator to predict the mixing performance of microfluidic devices, for improving biological fluid analysis in diagnosis lab-on-a-chip devices.
Antonova, N; Dong, X; Tosheva, P; Kaliviotis, E; Velcheva, I
2014-01-01
The results for blood flow in the carotid artery bifurcation on the basis of numerical simulation of Navier-Stokes equations are presented in this study. Four cases of carotid bifurcation are considered: common carotid artery (CCA) bifurcation without stenoses and cases with one, two and three stenoses are also presented. The results are obtained by performing numerical simulations considering one pulse wave period based on the finite volume discretization of Navier-Stokes equations. The structures of the flow around the bifurcation are obtained and the deformation of the pulse wave from common carotid artery (CCA) to the internal carotid artery (ICA) and external carotid artery (ECA) is traced. The axial velocity and wall shear stress (WSS) distribution and contours are presented considering the characteristic time points. The results of the WSS distribution around the bifurcation allow a prediction of the probable sites of stenosis growth.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stegman, D. R.; Freeman, J. C.; Schellart, W. P.; Moresi, L.; May, D.
2006-12-01
Modeling the evolution of subduction in a 3-D geometry has revealed that recycling of lithospheric plates operates differently in the upper and lower mantles. We consider the mantle is composed of two coupled systems: 1) plates, slabs, and the upper mantle and 2) slabs and the lower mantle. Then, to develop a lucid understanding for the present day Earth, we must first consider the 4-d evolution of slabs in the upper mantle (1) before we can understand the lower mantle. This is primarily dependent upon plate's age and speed, the width of subduction zone, and how slabs interact with the mantle transition zone. We report the range of slab morphology produced in the upper mantle from 3-D models depending on the relative motion of the hinge during progressive subduction. For example, fast-retreating hinges result in a backward draping of a flat-lying slab atop the lower mantle. However, hinges which are stable in a time-averaged sense (oscillating between phases of slow hinge retreat and slow hinge advance) result in the accumulation of slab material at the 660 km disconituity alternating between forward- and backward-draping recumbent folds. Under certain conditions, long-lived stable hinges can produce slabs which continuously decend into the lower mantle. Finally, in the case of fast moving plates, hinges may advance with the plate and overrun previously subducted material, producing a slab lying prone atop the lower mantle (in the shape of the letter 'C'). This provides us a conceptual framework for interpretating seismic tomography of the upper mantle. The structures in upper mantle have largely been developed over the past 30-40 million years and the plate motions are entirely known for that period. The full specturm of slab morphology produced by the models is observed in the transition zone: backwards and forwards flat-lying slabs, folded-up piles, and slabs penetrating straight into the lower mantle. Because hinge retreat (rollback) occurs for over half of the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodrigues, Dario B.; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Salahi, Sara; Colebeck, Erin; Topsakal, Erdem; Pereira, Pedro J. S.; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Stauffer, Paul R.
2013-02-01
Background: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in whole body metabolism and could potentially mediate weight gain and insulin sensitivity. Although some imaging techniques allow BAT detection, there are currently no viable methods for continuous acquisition of BAT energy expenditure. We present a non-invasive technique for long term monitoring of BAT metabolism using microwave radiometry. Methods: A multilayer 3D computational model was created in HFSSTM with 1.5 mm skin, 3-10 mm subcutaneous fat, 200 mm muscle and a BAT region (2-6 cm3) located between fat and muscle. Based on this model, a log-spiral antenna was designed and optimized to maximize reception of thermal emissions from the target (BAT). The power absorption patterns calculated in HFSSTM were combined with simulated thermal distributions computed in COMSOL® to predict radiometric signal measured from an ultra-low-noise microwave radiometer. The power received by the antenna was characterized as a function of different levels of BAT metabolism under cold and noradrenergic stimulation. Results: The optimized frequency band was 1.5-2.2 GHz, with averaged antenna efficiency of 19%. The simulated power received by the radiometric antenna increased 2-9 mdBm (noradrenergic stimulus) and 4-15 mdBm (cold stimulus) corresponding to increased 15-fold BAT metabolism. Conclusions: Results demonstrated the ability to detect thermal radiation from small volumes (2-6 cm3) of BAT located up to 12 mm deep and to monitor small changes (0.5 °C) in BAT metabolism. As such, the developed miniature radiometric antenna sensor appears suitable for non-invasive long term monitoring of BAT metabolism.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morrow, T. A.; Mittelstaedt, E. L.; Olive, J. A. L.
2015-12-01
Observations along oceanic fracture zones suggest that some mid-ocean ridge transform faults (TFs) previously split into multiple strike-slip segments separated by short (<~50 km) intra-transform spreading centers and then reunited to a single TF trace. This history of segmentation appears to correspond with changes in plate motion direction. Despite the clear evidence of TF segmentation, the processes governing its development and evolution are not well characterized. Here we use a 3-D, finite-difference / marker-in-cell technique to model the evolution of localized strain at a TF subjected to a sudden change in plate motion direction. We simulate the oceanic lithosphere and underlying asthenosphere at a ridge-transform-ridge setting using a visco-elastic-plastic rheology with a history-dependent plastic weakening law and a temperature- and stress-dependent mantle viscosity. To simulate the development of topography, a low density, low viscosity 'sticky air' layer is present above the oceanic lithosphere. The initial thermal gradient follows a half-space cooling solution with an offset across the TF. We impose an enhanced thermal diffusivity in the uppermost 6 km of lithosphere to simulate the effects of hydrothermal circulation. An initial weak seed in the lithosphere helps localize shear deformation between the two offset ridge axes to form a TF. For each model case, the simulation is run initially with TF-parallel plate motion until the thermal structure reaches a steady state. The direction of plate motion is then rotated either instantaneously or over a specified time period, placing the TF in a state of trans-tension. Model runs continue until the system reaches a new steady state. Parameters varied here include: initial TF length, spreading rate, and the rotation rate and magnitude of spreading obliquity. We compare our model predictions to structural observations at existing TFs and records of TF segmentation preserved in oceanic fracture zones.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Jianfeng; Kaus, Boris
2016-04-01
The mechanism of intraplate deformation remains incompletely understood by plate tectonics theory. The India-Asia collision zone is the largest present-day example of continental collision, which makes it an ideal location to study the processes of continental deformation. Existing models of lithospheric deformation are typically quasi two-dimensional and often assume that the lithosphere is a thin viscous sheet, which deforms homogeneously as a result of the collision, or flows above a partially molten lower crust, which explains the exhumation of Himalayan units and lateral spreading of Tibetan plateau. An opposing view is that most deformation localize in shear zones separating less deformed blocks, requiring the lithosphere to have an elasto-plastic rather than a viscous rheology. In order to distinguish which model best fits the observations we develop a 3-D visco-elasto-plastic model, which can model both distributed and highly localized deformation. In our preliminary result, most of the large-scale strike-slips faults including Altyn-Tagh fault, Xianshuihe fault, Red-River fault, Sagaing fault and Jiali fault can be simulated. The topography is consistent with observations that flat plateau in central Tibet and steep, abrupt margins adjacent to Sichuan basin, and gradual topography in southeast Tibet. These models suggest that the localized large-scale strike-slip faults accommodate the continental deformation. These results show the importance of a weak lower crust and topographic effects, as well as the effect of rheology and temperature structure of the lithosphere on the deformation patterns.
Rodrigues, Dario B; Maccarini, Paolo F; Salahi, Sara; Colebeck, Erin; Topsakal, Erdem; Pereira, Pedro J S; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Stauffer, Paul R
2013-02-26
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in whole body metabolism and could potentially mediate weight gain and insulin sensitivity. Although some imaging techniques allow BAT detection, there are currently no viable methods for continuous acquisition of BAT energy expenditure. We present a non-invasive technique for long term monitoring of BAT metabolism using microwave radiometry. A multilayer 3D computational model was created in HFSS™ with 1.5 mm skin, 3-10 mm subcutaneous fat, 200 mm muscle and a BAT region (2-6 cm(3)) located between fat and muscle. Based on this model, a log-spiral antenna was designed and optimized to maximize reception of thermal emissions from the target (BAT). The power absorption patterns calculated in HFSS™ were combined with simulated thermal distributions computed in COMSOL® to predict radiometric signal measured from an ultra-low-noise microwave radiometer. The power received by the antenna was characterized as a function of different levels of BAT metabolism under cold and noradrenergic stimulation. The optimized frequency band was 1.5-2.2 GHz, with averaged antenna efficiency of 19%. The simulated power received by the radiometric antenna increased 2-9 mdBm (noradrenergic stimulus) and 4-15 mdBm (cold stimulus) corresponding to increased 15-fold BAT metabolism. Results demonstrated the ability to detect thermal radiation from small volumes (2-6 cm(3)) of BAT located up to 12 mm deep and to monitor small changes (0.5 °C) in BAT metabolism. As such, the developed miniature radiometric antenna sensor appears suitable for non-invasive long term monitoring of BAT metabolism.
Rodrigues, Dario B.; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Salahi, Sara; Colebeck, Erin; Topsakal, Erdem; Pereira, Pedro J. S.; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Stauffer, Paul R.
2013-01-01
Background Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in whole body metabolism and could potentially mediate weight gain and insulin sensitivity. Although some imaging techniques allow BAT detection, there are currently no viable methods for continuous acquisition of BAT energy expenditure. We present a non-invasive technique for long term monitoring of BAT metabolism using microwave radiometry. Methods A multilayer 3D computational model was created in HFSS™ with 1.5 mm skin, 3–10 mm subcutaneous fat, 200 mm muscle and a BAT region (2–6 cm3) located between fat and muscle. Based on this model, a log-spiral antenna was designed and optimized to maximize reception of thermal emissions from the target (BAT). The power absorption patterns calculated in HFSS™ were combined with simulated thermal distributions computed in COMSOL® to predict radiometric signal measured from an ultra-low-noise microwave radiometer. The power received by the antenna was characterized as a function of different levels of BAT metabolism under cold and noradrenergic stimulation. Results The optimized frequency band was 1.5–2.2 GHz, with averaged antenna efficiency of 19%. The simulated power received by the radiometric antenna increased 2–9 mdBm (noradrenergic stimulus) and 4–15 mdBm (cold stimulus) corresponding to increased 15-fold BAT metabolism. Conclusions Results demonstrated the ability to detect thermal radiation from small volumes (2–6 cm3) of BAT located up to 12 mm deep and to monitor small changes (0.5 °C) in BAT metabolism. As such, the developed miniature radiometric antenna sensor appears suitable for non-invasive long term monitoring of BAT metabolism. PMID:24244831
Nadeem, Sohail; Masood, Sadaf; Mehmood, Rashid; Sadiq, Muhammad Adil
2015-01-01
The present analysis deals with flow and heat transfer aspects of a micropolar nanofluid between two horizontal parallel plates in a rotating system. The governing partial differential equations for momentum, energy, micro rotation and nano-particles concentration are presented. Similarity transformations are utilized to convert the system of partial differential equations into system of ordinary differential equations. The reduced equations are solved analytically with the help of optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM). Analytical solutions for velocity, temperature, micro-rotation and concentration profiles are expressed graphically against various emerging physical parameters. Physical quantities of interest such as skin friction co-efficient, local heat and local mass fluxes are also computed both analytically and numerically through mid-point integration scheme. It is found that both the solutions are in excellent agreement. Local skin friction coefficient is found to be higher for the case of strong concentration i.e. n=0, as compared to the case of weak concentration n=0.50. Influence of strong and weak concentration on Nusselt and Sherwood number appear to be similar in a quantitative sense. PMID:26046637
Nadeem, Sohail; Masood, Sadaf; Mehmood, Rashid; Sadiq, Muhammad Adil
2015-01-01
The present analysis deals with flow and heat transfer aspects of a micropolar nanofluid between two horizontal parallel plates in a rotating system. The governing partial differential equations for momentum, energy, micro rotation and nano-particles concentration are presented. Similarity transformations are utilized to convert the system of partial differential equations into system of ordinary differential equations. The reduced equations are solved analytically with the help of optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM). Analytical solutions for velocity, temperature, micro-rotation and concentration profiles are expressed graphically against various emerging physical parameters. Physical quantities of interest such as skin friction co-efficient, local heat and local mass fluxes are also computed both analytically and numerically through mid-point integration scheme. It is found that both the solutions are in excellent agreement. Local skin friction coefficient is found to be higher for the case of strong concentration i.e. n=0, as compared to the case of weak concentration n=0.50. Influence of strong and weak concentration on Nusselt and Sherwood number appear to be similar in a quantitative sense.
Numerical investigation of MHD flow of blood and heat transfer in a stenosed arterial segment