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Sample records for 3d multiplexer integrated

  1. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  2. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-21

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K(+) channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44(+) EGFR(+) KV1.1(+) MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44(-) EGFR(-) KV1.1(+) 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third

  3. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  4. Free-space coherent optical communication with orbital angular, momentum multiplexing/demultiplexing using a hybrid 3D photonic integrated circuit.

    PubMed

    Guan, Binbin; Scott, Ryan P; Qin, Chuan; Fontaine, Nicolas K; Su, Tiehui; Ferrari, Carlo; Cappuzzo, Mark; Klemens, Fred; Keller, Bob; Earnshaw, Mark; Yoo, S J B

    2014-01-13

    We demonstrate free-space space-division-multiplexing (SDM) with 15 orbital angular momentum (OAM) states using a three-dimensional (3D) photonic integrated circuit (PIC). The hybrid device consists of a silica planar lightwave circuit (PLC) coupled to a 3D waveguide circuit to multiplex/demultiplex OAM states. The low excess loss hybrid device is used in individual and two simultaneous OAM states multiplexing and demultiplexing link experiments with a 20 Gb/s, 1.67 b/s/Hz quadrature phase shift keyed (QPSK) signal, which shows error-free performance for 379,960 tested bits for all OAM states.

  5. High density 3D printed microfluidic valves, pumps, and multiplexers.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hua; Woolley, Adam T; Nordin, Gregory P

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that 3D printing with a digital light processor stereolithographic (DLP-SLA) 3D printer can be used to create high density microfluidic devices with active components such as valves and pumps. Leveraging our previous work on optical formulation of inexpensive resins (RSC Adv., 2015, 5, 106621), we demonstrate valves with only 10% of the volume of our original 3D printed valves (Biomicrofluidics, 2015, 9, 016501), which were already the smallest that have been reported. Moreover, we show that incorporation of a thermal initiator in the resin formulation along with a post-print bake can dramatically improve the durability of 3D printed valves up to 1 million actuations. Using two valves and a valve-like displacement chamber (DC), we also create compact 3D printed pumps. With 5-phase actuation and a 15 ms phase interval, we obtain pump flow rates as high as 40 μL min(-1). We also characterize maximum pump back pressure (i.e., maximum pressure the pump can work against), maximum flow rate (flow rate when there is zero back pressure), and flow rate as a function of the height of the pump outlet. We further demonstrate combining 5 valves and one DC to create a 3-to-2 multiplexer with integrated pump. In addition to serial multiplexing, we also show that the device can operate as a mixer. Importantly, we illustrate the rapid fabrication and test cycles that 3D printing makes possible by implementing a new multiplexer design to improve mixing, and fabricate and test it within one day.

  6. High density 3D printed microfluidic valves, pumps, and multiplexers.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hua; Woolley, Adam T; Nordin, Gregory P

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that 3D printing with a digital light processor stereolithographic (DLP-SLA) 3D printer can be used to create high density microfluidic devices with active components such as valves and pumps. Leveraging our previous work on optical formulation of inexpensive resins (RSC Adv., 2015, 5, 106621), we demonstrate valves with only 10% of the volume of our original 3D printed valves (Biomicrofluidics, 2015, 9, 016501), which were already the smallest that have been reported. Moreover, we show that incorporation of a thermal initiator in the resin formulation along with a post-print bake can dramatically improve the durability of 3D printed valves up to 1 million actuations. Using two valves and a valve-like displacement chamber (DC), we also create compact 3D printed pumps. With 5-phase actuation and a 15 ms phase interval, we obtain pump flow rates as high as 40 μL min(-1). We also characterize maximum pump back pressure (i.e., maximum pressure the pump can work against), maximum flow rate (flow rate when there is zero back pressure), and flow rate as a function of the height of the pump outlet. We further demonstrate combining 5 valves and one DC to create a 3-to-2 multiplexer with integrated pump. In addition to serial multiplexing, we also show that the device can operate as a mixer. Importantly, we illustrate the rapid fabrication and test cycles that 3D printing makes possible by implementing a new multiplexer design to improve mixing, and fabricate and test it within one day. PMID:27242064

  7. Solid state light source for wavelength multiplex 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Junejei

    2012-10-01

    A solid state light source provided for wavelength multiplex 3D Display is proposed. The system of solid state light source includes blue laser arrays of two wavelengths, a 2-ring phosphor wheel, a multi-band filter and a TIR prism. Green and red phosphors excited by blue lasers provide the original green and red lights of wide bandwidth. By passing through or reflected by a multi-band filter, two groups of green and red lights of narrow bandwidth for left or right eyes are selected. Blue lasers of two wavelengths also provide two blue lights for left and right eyes. Instead of using a second rotated narrow band filters that synchronized with the first phosphor wheel, a wheel having two rings coated with mirrors and phosphors is used to replace the synchronization existing in the conventional two wheels method. After passing the 2-ring wheel, the light source switches between two light paths that lead to be reflected or transmitting through the multiband filter. The multi-band filter can be disposed in a telecentric optical path to secure a high efficiency for the filter. A compact spectral multiplex light source is realized and can be directly attached to any existing optical engine.

  8. Ultrafast laser inscription of 3D components for spatial multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Robert R.

    2016-02-01

    The thirst for bandwidth in telecommunications networks is becoming ever larger due to bandwidth hungry applications such as video-on-demand. To further increase the bandwidth capacity, engineers are now seeking to imprint information on the last remaining degree of freedom of the lightwave carrier - space. This has given rise to the field of Space Division Multiplexing (SDM). In essence, the concept of SDM simple; we aim to use the different spatial modes of an optical fibre as multiplexed data transmission channels. These modes could either be in the form of separate singlemodes in a multicore optical fibre, individual spatial modes of a multimode fibre, or indeed the individual spatial modes of a multimode multicore optical fibre. Regardless of the particular "flavour" of SDM in question, it is clear that significant interfacing issues exist between the optical fibres used in SDM and the conventional single-mode planar lightwave circuits that are essential to process the light (e.g. arrayed waveguide gratings and splitters), and efficient interconnect technologies will be required. One fabrication technology that has emerged as a possible route to solve these interconnection issues is ultrafast laser inscription (ULI), which relies on the use of focused ultrashort laser pulses to directly inscribe three-dimensional waveguide structures inside a bulk dielectric. In this paper, I describe some of the work that has been conducted around the world to apply the unique waveguide fabrication capabilities of ULI to the development of 3D photonic components for applications in SDM.

  9. Dual-view 3D displays based on integral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiong-Hua; Deng, Huan; Wu, Fei

    2016-03-01

    We propose three dual-view integral imaging (DVII) three-dimensional (3D) displays. In the spatial-multiplexed DVII 3D display, each elemental image (EI) is cut into a left and right sub-EIs, and they are refracted to the left and right viewing zones by the corresponding micro-lens array (MLA). Different 3D images are reconstructed in the left and right viewing zones, and the viewing angle is decreased. In the DVII 3D display using polarizer parallax barriers, a polarizer parallax barrier is used in front of both the display panel and the MLA. The polarizer parallax barrier consists of two parts with perpendicular polarization directions. The elemental image array (EIA) is cut to left and right parts. The lights emitted from the left part are modulated by the left MLA and reconstruct a 3D image in the right viewing zone, whereas the lights emitted from the right part reconstruct another 3D image in the left viewing zone. The 3D resolution is decreased. In the time-multiplexed DVII 3D display, an orthogonal polarizer array is attached onto both the display panel and the MLA. The orthogonal polarizer array consists of horizontal and vertical polarizer units and the polarization directions of the adjacent units are orthogonal. In State 1, each EI is reconstructed by its corresponding micro-lens, whereas in State 2, each EI is reconstructed by its adjacent micro-lens. 3D images 1 and 2 are reconstructed alternately with a refresh rate up to 120HZ. The viewing angle and 3D resolution are the same as the conventional II 3D display.

  10. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  11. Self assembled structures for 3D integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Madhav

    Three dimensional (3D) micro-scale structures attached to a silicon substrate have various applications in microelectronics. However, formation of 3D structures using conventional micro-fabrication techniques are not efficient and require precise control of processing parameters. Self assembly is a method for creating 3D structures that takes advantage of surface area minimization phenomena. Solder based self assembly (SBSA), the subject of this dissertation, uses solder as a facilitator in the formation of 3D structures from 2D patterns. Etching a sacrificial layer underneath a portion of the 2D pattern allows the solder reflow step to pull those areas out of the substrate plane resulting in a folded 3D structure. Initial studies using the SBSA method demonstrated low yields in the formation of five different polyhedra. The failures in folding were primarily attributed to nonuniform solder deposition on the underlying metal pads. The dip soldering method was analyzed and subsequently refined. A modified dip soldering process provided improved yield among the polyhedra. Solder bridging referred as joining of solder deposited on different metal patterns in an entity influenced the folding mechanism. In general, design parameters such as small gap-spacings and thick metal pads were found to favor solder bridging for all patterns studied. Two types of soldering: face and edge soldering were analyzed. Face soldering refers to the application of solder on the entire metal face. Edge soldering indicates application of solder only on the edges of the metal face. Mechanical grinding showed that face soldered SBSA structures were void free and robust in nature. In addition, the face soldered 3D structures provide a consistent heat resistant solder standoff height that serve as attachments in the integration of dissimilar electronic technologies. Face soldered 3D structures were developed on the underlying conducting channel to determine the thermo-electric reliability of

  12. 3D Integration for Wireless Multimedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimmich, Georg

    The convergence of mobile phone, internet, mapping, gaming and office automation tools with high quality video and still imaging capture capability is becoming a strong market trend for portable devices. High-density video encode and decode, 3D graphics for gaming, increased application-software complexity and ultra-high-bandwidth 4G modem technologies are driving the CPU performance and memory bandwidth requirements close to the PC segment. These portable multimedia devices are battery operated, which requires the deployment of new low-power-optimized silicon process technologies and ultra-low-power design techniques at system, architecture and device level. Mobile devices also need to comply with stringent silicon-area and package-volume constraints. As for all consumer devices, low production cost and fast time-to-volume production is key for success. This chapter shows how 3D architectures can bring a possible breakthrough to meet the conflicting power, performance and area constraints. Multiple 3D die-stacking partitioning strategies are described and analyzed on their potential to improve the overall system power, performance and cost for specific application scenarios. Requirements and maturity of the basic process-technology bricks including through-silicon via (TSV) and die-to-die attachment techniques are reviewed. Finally, we highlight new challenges which will arise with 3D stacking and an outlook on how they may be addressed: Higher power density will require thermal design considerations, new EDA tools will need to be developed to cope with the integration of heterogeneous technologies and to guarantee signal and power integrity across the die stack. The silicon/wafer test strategies have to be adapted to handle high-density IO arrays, ultra-thin wafers and provide built-in self-test of attached memories. New standards and business models have to be developed to allow cost-efficient assembly and testing of devices from different silicon and technology

  13. High resolution 3D nonlinear integrated inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Wang, Xuben; Li, Zhirong; Li, Qiong; Li, Zhengwen

    2009-06-01

    The high resolution 3D nonlinear integrated inversion method is based on nonlinear theory. Under layer control, the log data from several wells (or all wells) in the study area and seismic trace data adjacent to the wells are input to a network with multiple inputs and outputs and are integratedly trained to obtain an adaptive weight function of the entire study area. Integrated nonlinear mapping relationships are built and updated by the lateral and vertical geologic variations of the reservoirs. Therefore, the inversion process and its inversion results can be constrained and controlled and a stable seismic inversion section with high resolution with velocity inversion, impedance inversion, and density inversion sections, can be gained. Good geologic effects have been obtained in model computation tests and real data processing, which verified that this method has high precision, good practicality, and can be used for quantitative reservoir analysis.

  14. 3D Integration for Superconducting Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Danna; Yost, Donna-Ruth; Das, Rabindra; Hover, David; Racz, Livia; Weber, Steven; Yoder, Jonilyn; Kerman, Andrew; Oliver, William

    As the field of superconducting quantum computing advances from the few-qubit stage to large-scale fault-tolerant devices, scalability requirements will necessitate the use of standard 3D packaging and integration processes. While the field of 3D integration is well-developed, relatively little work has been performed to determine the compatibility of the associated processes with superconducting qubits. Qubit coherence time could potentially be affected by required process steps or by the proximity of an interposer that could introduce extra sources of charge or flux noise. As a first step towards a large-scale quantum information processor, we have used a flip-chip process to bond a chip with flux qubits to an interposer containing structures for qubit readout and control. We will present data on the effect of the presence of the interposer on qubit coherence time for various qubit-chip-interposer spacings and discuss the implications for integrated multi-qubit devices. This research was funded by the ODNI and IARPA under Air Force Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0002. The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of ODNI, IARPA, or the US Government.

  15. Multiplexing encoding method for full-color dynamic 3D holographic display.

    PubMed

    Xue, Gaolei; Liu, Juan; Li, Xin; Jia, Jia; Zhang, Zhao; Hu, Bin; Wang, Yongtian

    2014-07-28

    The multiplexing encoding method is proposed and demonstrated for reconstructing colorful images accurately by using single phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM). It will encode the light waves at different wavelengths into one pure-phase hologram at the same time based on the analytic formulas. The three-dimensional (3D) images can be reconstructed clearly when the light waves at different wavelengths are incident into the encoding hologram. Numerical simulations and optical experiments for 2D and 3D colorful images are performed. The results show that the colorful reconstructed images with high quality are achieved successfully. The proposed multiplexing method is a simple and fast encoding approach and the size of the system is small and compact. It is expected to be used for realizing full-color 3D holographic display in future.

  16. Integrated multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Tan, Hongdong

    2002-05-14

    The present invention provides an integrated multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system for the analysis of sample analytes. The system integrates and automates multiple components, such as chromatographic columns and separation capillaries, and further provides a detector for the detection of analytes eluting from the separation capillaries. The system employs multiplexed freeze/thaw valves to manage fluid flow and sample movement. The system is computer controlled and is capable of processing samples through reaction, purification, denaturation, pre-concentration, injection, separation and detection in parallel fashion. Methods employing the system of the invention are also provided.

  17. Multiplex acquisition approach for high speed 3D measurements with a chromatic confocal microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taphanel, Miro; Zink, Ralf; Längle, Thomas; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2015-05-01

    A technical realization of a multispectral camera is proposed, by multiplexing a light source with six different spectra. A monochrome line scan camera with six pixel rows is used as detector. The special feature of this acquisition approach is its high speed capability. The scan speed is as high as the frame rate of the line scan camera and not affected by the multiplexing. As application a chromatic confocal microscope was build up. From a data acquisition perspective up to 284 million 3D points per second can be measured. A real time signal processing is proposed, too.

  18. Biomaterials for integration with 3-D bioprinting.

    PubMed

    Skardal, Aleksander; Atala, Anthony

    2015-03-01

    Bioprinting has emerged in recent years as an attractive method for creating 3-D tissues and organs in the laboratory, and therefore is a promising technology in a number of regenerative medicine applications. It has the potential to (i) create fully functional replacements for damaged tissues in patients, and (ii) rapidly fabricate small-sized human-based tissue models, or organoids, for diagnostics, pathology modeling, and drug development. A number of bioprinting modalities have been explored, including cellular inkjet printing, extrusion-based technologies, soft lithography, and laser-induced forward transfer. Despite the innovation of each of these technologies, successful implementation of bioprinting relies heavily on integration with compatible biomaterials that are responsible for supporting the cellular components during and after biofabrication, and that are compatible with the bioprinting device requirements. In this review, we will evaluate a variety of biomaterials, such as curable synthetic polymers, synthetic gels, and naturally derived hydrogels. Specifically we will describe how they are integrated with the bioprinting technologies above to generate bioprinted constructs with practical application in medicine. PMID:25476164

  19. Development of 3D integrated circuits for HEP

    SciTech Connect

    Yarema, R.; /Fermilab

    2006-09-01

    Three dimensional integrated circuits are well suited to improving circuit bandwidth and increasing effective circuit density. Recent advances in industry have made 3D integrated circuits an option for HEP. The 3D technology is discussed in this paper and several examples are shown. Design of a 3D demonstrator chip for the ILC is presented.

  20. Mesoscopic in vivo 3-D tracking of sparse cell populations using angular multiplexed optical projection tomography

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lingling; Alexandrov, Yuriy; Kumar, Sunil; Andrews, Natalie; Dallman, Margaret J.; French, Paul M. W.; McGinty, James

    2015-01-01

    We describe an angular multiplexed imaging technique for 3-D in vivo cell tracking of sparse cell distributions and optical projection tomography (OPT) with superior time-lapse resolution and a significantly reduced light dose compared to volumetric time-lapse techniques. We demonstrate that using dual axis OPT, where two images are acquired simultaneously at different projection angles, can enable localization and tracking of features in 3-D with a time resolution equal to the camera frame rate. This is achieved with a 200x reduction in light dose compared to an equivalent volumetric time-lapse single camera OPT acquisition with 200 projection angles. We demonstrate the application of this technique to mapping the 3-D neutrophil migration pattern observed over ~25.5 minutes in a live 2 day post-fertilisation transgenic LysC:GFP zebrafish embryo following a tail wound. PMID:25909009

  1. Parallel Imaging of 3D Surface Profile with Space-Division Multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung Seok; Cho, Soon-Woo; Kim, Gyeong Hun; Jeong, Myung Yung; Won, Young Jae; Kim, Chang-Seok

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a modified optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) system that performs parallel imaging of three-dimensional (3D) surface profiles by using the space division multiplexing (SDM) method with dual-area swept sourced beams. We have also demonstrated that 3D surface information for two different areas could be well obtained in a same time with only one camera by our method. In this study, double field of views (FOVs) of 11.16 mm × 5.92 mm were achieved within 0.5 s. Height range for each FOV was 460 µm and axial and transverse resolutions were 3.6 and 5.52 µm, respectively.

  2. Three wafer stacking for 3D integration.

    SciTech Connect

    Greth, K. Douglas; Ford, Christine L.; Lantz, Jeffrey W.; Shinde, Subhash L.; Timon, Robert P.; Bauer, Todd M.; Hetherington, Dale Laird; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony

    2011-11-01

    Vertical wafer stacking will enable a wide variety of new system architectures by enabling the integration of dissimilar technologies in one small form factor package. With this LDRD, we explored the combination of processes and integration techniques required to achieve stacking of three or more layers. The specific topics that we investigated include design and layout of a reticle set for use as a process development vehicle, through silicon via formation, bonding media, wafer thinning, dielectric deposition for via isolation on the wafer backside, and pad formation.

  3. 3D integrated hybrid silicon laser.

    PubMed

    Song, Bowen; Stagarescu, Cristian; Ristic, Sasa; Behfar, Alex; Klamkin, Jonathan

    2016-05-16

    Lasers were realized on silicon by flip-chip bonding of indium phosphide (InP) devices containing total internal reflection turning mirrors for surface emission. Light is coupled to the silicon waveguides through surface grating couplers. With this technique, InP lasers were integrated on silicon. Laser cavities were also formed by coupling InP reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers to microring resonator filters and distributed Bragg reflector mirrors. Single-mode continuous wave lasing was demonstrated with a side mode suppression ratio of 30 dB. Up to 2 mW of optical power was coupled to the silicon waveguide. Thermal simulations were also performed to evaluate the low thermal impedance afforded by this architecture and potential for high wall-plug efficiency. PMID:27409867

  4. Wafer-Level 3D Integration for ULSI Interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutmann, Ronald J.; Lu, Jian-Qiang

    Three-dimensional (3D) integration in a system-in-a-package (SiP) implementation (packaging-based 3D) is becoming increasingly used in consumer, computer, and communication applications where form factor is critical. In particular, the hand-held market for a growing myriad of voice, data, messaging, and imaging products is enabled by packaging-based 3D integration (i.e., stacking and connecting individual chips). The key drivers are for increased memory capacity and for heterogeneous integration of different IC technologies and functions.

  5. Multiplexed 3D FRET imaging in deep tissue of live embryos

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ming; Wan, Xiaoyang; Li, Yu; Zhou, Weibin; Peng, Leilei

    2015-01-01

    Current deep tissue microscopy techniques are mostly restricted to intensity mapping of fluorophores, which significantly limit their applications in investigating biochemical processes in vivo. We present a deep tissue multiplexed functional imaging method that probes multiple Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET) sensors in live embryos with high spatial resolution. The method simultaneously images fluorescence lifetimes in 3D with multiple excitation lasers. Through quantitative analysis of triple-channel intensity and lifetime images, we demonstrated that Ca2+ and cAMP levels of live embryos expressing dual FRET sensors can be monitored simultaneously at microscopic resolution. The method is compatible with a broad range of FRET sensors currently available for probing various cellular biochemical functions. It opens the door to imaging complex cellular circuitries in whole live organisms. PMID:26387920

  6. 3D augmented reality with integral imaging display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xin; Hua, Hong; Javidi, Bahram

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) integral imaging display for augmented reality is presented. By implementing the pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion method, elemental image arrays with different capturing parameters can be transferred into the identical format for 3D display. With the proposed merging algorithm, a new set of elemental images for augmented reality display is generated. The newly generated elemental images contain both the virtual objects and real world scene with desired depth information and transparency parameters. The experimental results indicate the feasibility of the proposed 3D augmented reality with integral imaging.

  7. Polarimetric 3D integral imaging in photon-starved conditions.

    PubMed

    Carnicer, Artur; Javidi, Bahram

    2015-03-01

    We develop a method for obtaining 3D polarimetric integral images from elemental images recorded in low light illumination conditions. Since photon-counting images are very sparse, calculation of the Stokes parameters and the degree of polarization should be handled carefully. In our approach, polarimetric 3D integral images are generated using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation and subsequently reconstructed by means of a Total Variation Denoising filter. In this way, polarimetric results are comparable to those obtained in conventional illumination conditions. We also show that polarimetric information retrieved from photon starved images can be used in 3D object recognition problems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on 3D polarimetric photon counting integral imaging. PMID:25836861

  8. Distributed 3D Information Visualization - Towards Integration of the Dynamic 3D Graphics and Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucinic, Dean; Deen, Danny; Oanta, Emil; Batarilo, Zvonimir; Lacor, Chris

    This paper focuses on visualization and manipulation of graphical content in distributed network environments. The developed graphical middleware and 3D desktop prototypes were specialized for situational awareness. This research was done in the LArge Scale COllaborative decision support Technology (LASCOT) project, which explored and combined software technologies to support human-centred decision support system for crisis management (earthquake, tsunami, flooding, airplane or oil-tanker incidents, chemical, radio-active or other pollutants spreading, etc.). The performed state-of-the-art review did not identify any publicly available large scale distributed application of this kind. Existing proprietary solutions rely on the conventional technologies and 2D representations. Our challenge was to apply the "latest" available technologies, such Java3D, X3D and SOAP, compatible with average computer graphics hardware. The selected technologies are integrated and we demonstrate: the flow of data, which originates from heterogeneous data sources; interoperability across different operating systems and 3D visual representations to enhance the end-users interactions.

  9. Surviving sepsis--a 3D integrative educational simulator.

    PubMed

    Ježek, Filip; Tribula, Martin; Kulhánek, Tomáš; Mateják, Marek; Privitzer, Pavol; Šilar, Jan; Kofránek, Jiří; Lhotská, Lenka

    2015-08-01

    Computer technology offers greater educational possibilities, notably simulation and virtual reality. This paper presents a technology which serves to integrate multiple modalities, namely 3D virtual reality, node-based simulator, Physiomodel explorer and explanatory physiological simulators employing Modelica language and Unity3D platform. This emerging tool chain should allow the authors to concentrate more on educational content instead of application development. The technology is demonstrated through Surviving sepsis educational scenario, targeted on Microsoft Windows Store platform. PMID:26737091

  10. Surviving sepsis--a 3D integrative educational simulator.

    PubMed

    Ježek, Filip; Tribula, Martin; Kulhánek, Tomáš; Mateják, Marek; Privitzer, Pavol; Šilar, Jan; Kofránek, Jiří; Lhotská, Lenka

    2015-08-01

    Computer technology offers greater educational possibilities, notably simulation and virtual reality. This paper presents a technology which serves to integrate multiple modalities, namely 3D virtual reality, node-based simulator, Physiomodel explorer and explanatory physiological simulators employing Modelica language and Unity3D platform. This emerging tool chain should allow the authors to concentrate more on educational content instead of application development. The technology is demonstrated through Surviving sepsis educational scenario, targeted on Microsoft Windows Store platform.

  11. Accommodation response measurements for integral 3D image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiura, H.; Mishina, T.; Arai, J.; Iwadate, Y.

    2014-03-01

    We measured accommodation responses under integral photography (IP), binocular stereoscopic, and real object display conditions, and viewing conditions of binocular and monocular viewing conditions. The equipment we used was an optometric device and a 3D display. We developed the 3D display for IP and binocular stereoscopic images that comprises a high-resolution liquid crystal display (LCD) and a high-density lens array. The LCD has a resolution of 468 dpi and a diagonal size of 4.8 inches. The high-density lens array comprises 106 x 69 micro lenses that have a focal length of 3 mm and diameter of 1 mm. The lenses are arranged in a honeycomb pattern. The 3D display was positioned 60 cm from an observer under IP and binocular stereoscopic display conditions. The target was presented at eight depth positions relative to the 3D display: 15, 10, and 5 cm in front of the 3D display, on the 3D display panel, and 5, 10, 15 and 30 cm behind the 3D display under the IP and binocular stereoscopic display conditions. Under the real object display condition, the target was displayed on the 3D display panel, and the 3D display was placed at the eight positions. The results suggest that the IP image induced more natural accommodation responses compared to the binocular stereoscopic image. The accommodation responses of the IP image were weaker than those of a real object; however, they showed a similar tendency with those of the real object under the two viewing conditions. Therefore, IP can induce accommodation to the depth positions of 3D images.

  12. 3D circuit integration for Vertex and other detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Yarema, Ray; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    High Energy Physics continues to push the technical boundaries for electronics. There is no area where this is truer than for vertex detectors. Lower mass and power along with higher resolution and radiation tolerance are driving forces. New technologies such as SOI CMOS detectors and three dimensional (3D) integrated circuits offer new opportunities to meet these challenges. The fundamentals for SOI CMOS detectors and 3D integrated circuits are discussed. Examples of each approach for physics applications are presented. Cost issues and ways to reduce development costs are discussed.

  13. Progress in 3D imaging and display by integral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Cuenca, R.; Saavedra, G.; Martinez-Corral, M.; Pons, A.; Javidi, B.

    2009-05-01

    Three-dimensionality is currently considered an important added value in imaging devices, and therefore the search for an optimum 3D imaging and display technique is a hot topic that is attracting important research efforts. As main value, 3D monitors should provide the observers with different perspectives of a 3D scene by simply varying the head position. Three-dimensional imaging techniques have the potential to establish a future mass-market in the fields of entertainment and communications. Integral imaging (InI), which can capture true 3D color images, has been seen as the right technology to 3D viewing to audiences of more than one person. Due to the advanced degree of development, InI technology could be ready for commercialization in the coming years. This development is the result of a strong research effort performed along the past few years by many groups. Since Integral Imaging is still an emerging technology, the first aim of the "3D Imaging and Display Laboratory" at the University of Valencia, has been the realization of a thorough study of the principles that govern its operation. Is remarkable that some of these principles have been recognized and characterized by our group. Other contributions of our research have been addressed to overcome some of the classical limitations of InI systems, like the limited depth of field (in pickup and in display), the poor axial and lateral resolution, the pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion, the production of 3D images with continuous relief, or the limited range of viewing angles of InI monitors.

  14. Simultaneous multiplane imaging for 3D confocal microscopy using high-speed z-scanning multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duocastella, Marti; Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Diaspro, Alberto

    2015-03-01

    One of the key frontiers in optical imaging is to maximize the spatial information retrieved from a sample while minimizing acquisition time. Confocal laser scanning microscopy is a powerful imaging modality that allows real-time and high-resolution acquisition of two-dimensional (2D) sections. However, in order to obtain information from threedimensional (3D) volumes it is currently limited by a stepwise process that consists of acquiring multiple 2D sections from different focal planes by slow z-focus translation. Here, we present a novel method that enables the capture of an entire 3D sample in a single step. Our approach is based on an acoustically-driven varifocal lens integrated in a commercial confocal system that enables axial focus scanning at speeds of 140 kHz or above. Such high-speed allows for one or multiple focus sweeps on a pixel by pixel basis. By using a fast acquisition card, we can assign the photons detected at each pixel to their corresponding focal plane allowing simultaneous multiplane imaging. We exemplify this novel 3D confocal microscopy technique by imaging different biological fluorescent samples and comparing them with those obtained using traditional z-scanners. Based on these results, we find that image quality in this novel approach is similar to that obtained with traditional confocal methods, while speed is only limited by signal-to-noise-ratio. As the sensitivity of photodetectors increases and more efficient fluorescent labeling is developed, this novel 3D method can result in significant reduction in acquisition time allowing the study of new fundamental processes in science.

  15. [An integrated segmentation method for 3D ultrasound carotid artery].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Wu, Huihui; Liu, Yang; Xu, Hongwei; Liang, Huageng; Cai, Wenjuan; Fang, Mengjie; Wang, Yujie

    2013-07-01

    An integrated segmentation method for 3D ultrasound carotid artery was proposed. 3D ultrasound image was sliced into transverse, coronal and sagittal 2D images on the carotid bifurcation point. Then, the three images were processed respectively, and the carotid artery contours and thickness were obtained finally. This paper tries to overcome the disadvantages of current computer aided diagnosis method, such as high computational complexity, easily introduced subjective errors et al. The proposed method could get the carotid artery overall information rapidly, accurately and completely. It could be transplanted into clinical usage for atherosclerosis diagnosis and prevention. PMID:24195385

  16. Computational integral-imaging reconstruction-based 3-D volumetric target object recognition by using a 3-D reference object.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Cheol; Park, Seok-Chan; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel computational integral-imaging reconstruction (CIIR)-based three-dimensional (3-D) image correlator system for the recognition of 3-D volumetric objects by employing a 3-D reference object. That is, a number of plane object images (POIs) computationally reconstructed from the 3-D reference object are used for the 3-D volumetric target recognition. In other words, simultaneous 3-D image correlations between two sets of target and reference POIs, which are depth-dependently reconstructed by using the CIIR method, are performed for effective recognition of 3-D volumetric objects in the proposed system. Successful experiments with this CIIR-based 3-D image correlator confirmed the feasibility of the proposed method.

  17. A 3D printed fluidic device that enables integrated features.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kari B; Lockwood, Sarah Y; Martin, R Scott; Spence, Dana M

    2013-06-18

    Fluidic devices fabricated using conventional soft lithography are well suited as prototyping methods. Three-dimensional (3D) printing, commonly used for producing design prototypes in industry, allows for one step production of devices. 3D printers build a device layer by layer based on 3D computer models. Here, a reusable, high throughput, 3D printed fluidic device was created that enables flow and incorporates a membrane above a channel in order to study drug transport and affect cells. The device contains 8 parallel channels, 3 mm wide by 1.5 mm deep, connected to a syringe pump through standard, threaded fittings. The device was also printed to allow integration with commercially available membrane inserts whose bottoms are constructed of a porous polycarbonate membrane; this insert enables molecular transport to occur from the channel to above the well. When concentrations of various antibiotics (levofloxacin and linezolid) are pumped through the channels, approximately 18-21% of the drug migrates through the porous membrane, providing evidence that this device will be useful for studies where drug effects on cells are investigated. Finally, we show that mammalian cells cultured on this membrane can be affected by reagents flowing through the channels. Specifically, saponin was used to compromise cell membranes, and a fluorescent label was used to monitor the extent, resulting in a 4-fold increase in fluorescence for saponin treated cells.

  18. 3D-GNOME: an integrated web service for structural modeling of the 3D genome.

    PubMed

    Szalaj, Przemyslaw; Michalski, Paul J; Wróblewski, Przemysław; Tang, Zhonghui; Kadlof, Michal; Mazzocco, Giovanni; Ruan, Yijun; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2016-07-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology, such as Hi-C and ChIA-PET, have demonstrated the importance of 3D genome organization in development, cell differentiation and transcriptional regulation. There is now a widespread need for computational tools to generate and analyze 3D structural models from 3C data. Here we introduce our 3D GeNOme Modeling Engine (3D-GNOME), a web service which generates 3D structures from 3C data and provides tools to visually inspect and annotate the resulting structures, in addition to a variety of statistical plots and heatmaps which characterize the selected genomic region. Users submit a bedpe (paired-end BED format) file containing the locations and strengths of long range contact points, and 3D-GNOME simulates the structure and provides a convenient user interface for further analysis. Alternatively, a user may generate structures using published ChIA-PET data for the GM12878 cell line by simply specifying a genomic region of interest. 3D-GNOME is freely available at http://3dgnome.cent.uw.edu.pl/.

  19. 3D-GNOME: an integrated web service for structural modeling of the 3D genome

    PubMed Central

    Szalaj, Przemyslaw; Michalski, Paul J.; Wróblewski, Przemysław; Tang, Zhonghui; Kadlof, Michal; Mazzocco, Giovanni; Ruan, Yijun; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology, such as Hi-C and ChIA-PET, have demonstrated the importance of 3D genome organization in development, cell differentiation and transcriptional regulation. There is now a widespread need for computational tools to generate and analyze 3D structural models from 3C data. Here we introduce our 3D GeNOme Modeling Engine (3D-GNOME), a web service which generates 3D structures from 3C data and provides tools to visually inspect and annotate the resulting structures, in addition to a variety of statistical plots and heatmaps which characterize the selected genomic region. Users submit a bedpe (paired-end BED format) file containing the locations and strengths of long range contact points, and 3D-GNOME simulates the structure and provides a convenient user interface for further analysis. Alternatively, a user may generate structures using published ChIA-PET data for the GM12878 cell line by simply specifying a genomic region of interest. 3D-GNOME is freely available at http://3dgnome.cent.uw.edu.pl/. PMID:27185892

  20. 3D J-Integral Capability in Grizzly

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin Spencer; Marie Backman; Pritam Chakraborty; William Hoffman

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes work done to develop a capability to evaluate fracture contour J-Integrals in 3D in the Grizzly code. In the current fiscal year, a previously-developed 2D implementation of a J-Integral evaluation capability has been extended to work in 3D, and to include terms due both to mechanically-induced strains and due to gradients in thermal strains. This capability has been verified against a benchmark solution on a model of a curved crack front in 3D. The thermal term in this integral has been verified against a benchmark problem with a thermal gradient. These developments are part of a larger effort to develop Grizzly as a tool that can be used to predict the evolution of aging processes in nuclear power plant systems, structures, and components, and assess their capacity after being subjected to those aging processes. The capabilities described here have been developed to enable evaluations of Mode- stress intensity factors on axis-aligned flaws in reactor pressure vessels. These can be compared with the fracture toughness of the material to determine whether a pre-existing flaw would begin to propagate during a pos- tulated pressurized thermal shock accident. This report includes a demonstration calculation to show how Grizzly is used to perform a deterministic assessment of such a flaw propagation in a degraded reactor pressure vessel under pressurized thermal shock conditions. The stress intensity is calculated from J, and the toughness is computed using the fracture master curve and the degraded ductile to brittle transition temperature.

  1. Customisable 3D printed microfluidics for integrated analysis and optimisation.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, T; Harding, M J; Harris, R A; Friel, R J; Christie, S D R

    2016-08-16

    The formation of smart Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) devices featuring integrated sensing optics is currently hindered by convoluted and expensive manufacturing procedures. In this work, a series of 3D-printed LOC devices were designed and manufactured via stereolithography (SL) in a matter of hours. The spectroscopic performance of a variety of optical fibre combinations were tested, and the optimum path length for performing Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy determined. The information gained in these trials was then used in a reaction optimisation for the formation of carvone semicarbazone. The production of high resolution surface channels (100-500 μm) means that these devices were capable of handling a wide range of concentrations (9 μM-38 mM), and are ideally suited to both analyte detection and process optimisation. This ability to tailor the chip design and its integrated features as a direct result of the reaction being assessed, at such a low time and cost penalty greatly increases the user's ability to optimise both their device and reaction. As a result of the information gained in this investigation, we are able to report the first instance of a 3D-printed LOC device with fully integrated, in-line monitoring capabilities via the use of embedded optical fibres capable of performing UV-vis spectroscopy directly inside micro channels. PMID:27452498

  2. Simultaneous full-field 3-D vibrometry of the human eardrum using spatial-bandwidth multiplexed holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaleghi, Morteza; Guignard, Jérémie; Furlong, Cosme; Rosowski, John J.

    2015-11-01

    Holographic interferometric methods typically require the use of three sensitivity vectors in order to obtain three-dimensional (3-D) information. Methods based on multiple directions of illumination have limited applications when studying biological tissues that have temporally varying responses such as the tympanic membrane (TM). Therefore, to measure 3-D displacements in such applications, the measurements along all the sensitivity vectors have to be done simultaneously. We propose a multiple-illumination directions approach to measure 3-D displacements from a single-shot hologram that contains displacement information from three sensitivity vectors. The hologram of an object of interest is simultaneously recorded with three incoherently superimposed pairs of reference and object beams. The incident off-axis angles of the reference beams are adjusted such that the frequency components of the multiplexed hologram are completely separate. Because of the differences in the directions and wavelengths of the reference beams, the positions of each reconstructed image corresponding to each sensitivity vector are different. We implemented a registration algorithm to accurately translate individual components of the hologram into a single global coordinate system to calculate 3-D displacements. The results include magnitudes and phases of 3-D sound-induced motions of a human cadaveric TM at several excitation frequencies showing modal and traveling wave motions on its surface.

  3. Simultaneous full-field 3-D vibrometry of the human eardrum using spatial-bandwidth multiplexed holography

    PubMed Central

    Khaleghi, Morteza; Guignard, Jérémie; Furlong, Cosme; Rosowski, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Holographic interferometric methods typically require the use of three sensitivity vectors in order to obtain three-dimensional (3-D) information. Methods based on multiple directions of illumination have limited applications when studying biological tissues that have temporally varying responses such as the tympanic membrane (TM). Therefore, to measure 3-D displacements in such applications, the measurements along all the sensitivity vectors have to be done simultaneously. We propose a multiple-illumination directions approach to measure 3-D displacements from a single-shot hologram that contains displacement information from three sensitivity vectors. The hologram of an object of interest is simultaneously recorded with three incoherently superimposed pairs of reference and object beams. The incident off-axis angles of the reference beams are adjusted such that the frequency components of the multiplexed hologram are completely separate. Because of the differences in the directions and wavelengths of the reference beams, the positions of each reconstructed image corresponding to each sensitivity vector are different. We implemented a registration algorithm to accurately translate individual components of the hologram into a single global coordinate system to calculate 3-D displacements. The results include magnitudes and phases of 3-D sound-induced motions of a human cadaveric TM at several excitation frequencies showing modal and traveling wave motions on its surface. PMID:25984986

  4. Tunable quantum interference in a 3D integrated circuit.

    PubMed

    Chaboyer, Zachary; Meany, Thomas; Helt, L G; Withford, Michael J; Steel, M J

    2015-04-27

    Integrated photonics promises solutions to questions of stability, complexity, and size in quantum optics. Advances in tunable and non-planar integrated platforms, such as laser-inscribed photonics, continue to bring the realisation of quantum advantages in computation and metrology ever closer, perhaps most easily seen in multi-path interferometry. Here we demonstrate control of two-photon interference in a chip-scale 3D multi-path interferometer, showing a reduced periodicity and enhanced visibility compared to single photon measurements. Observed non-classical visibilities are widely tunable, and explained well by theoretical predictions based on classical measurements. With these predictions we extract Fisher information approaching a theoretical maximum. Our results open a path to quantum enhanced phase measurements.

  5. 3D integration with coaxial through silicon vias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamshick, Stephen

    3D integration using through-silicon-vias (TSVs) is gaining considerable attention due to its superior packaging efficiency resulting in higher functionality, improved performance and a reduction in power consumption. In order to implement 3D chip designs with TSV technology, robust TSV electrical models are required. Specifically, due to the increase of signal speeds into the gigahertz (GHz) spectrum, a high frequency electrical characterization best describes TSV behavior. This thesis focuses on coaxial TSV technology due to its superior performance compared to the current existing TSV technology at high frequencies. By confining signal propagation within the coaxial TSV shield, power losses to the silicon substrate are eliminated and unintentional signal coupling is avoided. To the best of our knowledge, coaxial TSV technology has only been characterized using finite element modeling. The work presented by this thesis focuses on fabricating coaxial TSVs within the confines of standard poly gate CMOS processing. In addition, we perform a high frequency electrical characterization using s-parameters and a thermal stress characterization using micro-Raman Spectroscopy. Furthermore, we investigate applications in SPICE modeling and antenna on chip (AoC) applications utilizing coaxial TSV technology. Our results indicate the coaxial TSV reduces signal attenuation by 35% and time delay by 25% compared to the standard non-shielded TSV technology. Coaxial TSV is consistent with previous TSV results regarding induced silicon stress. Lastly, we propose a 60 GHz antenna design using the coaxial TSV that significantly improves antenna gain compared to previous literature examples.

  6. Development of a temporal multiplexed 3D beam-scanning Lissajous trajectory microscope for rapid multimodal volumetric imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Justin A.; Sullivan, Shane Z.; Dinh, Janny; Sarkar, Sreya; Simpson, Garth J.

    2016-03-01

    A beam-scanning microscope is described based on a temporally multiplexed Lissajous trajectory for achieving 1 kHz frame rate 3D imaging. The microscope utilizes two fast-scan resonant mirrors to direct the optical beam on a circuitous, Lissajous trajectory through the field of view. Acquisition of two simultaneous focal planes is achieved by implementation of an optical delay line, producing a second incident beam at a different focal plane relative to the initial incident beam. High frame rates are achieved by separating the full time-domain data into shorter sub-trajectories resulting in undersampling of the field of view. A model-based image reconstruction (MBIR) 3D in-painting algorithm is utilized for interpolating the missing data to recover full images. The MBIR algorithm uses a maximum a posteriori estimation with a generalized Gaussian Markov random field prior model for image interpolation. Because images are acquired using photomultiplier tubes or photodiodes, parallelization for multi-channel imaging is straightforward. Preliminary results obtained using a Lissajous trajectory beam-scanning approach coupled with temporal multiplexing by the implementation of an optical delay line demonstrate the ability to acquire 2 distinct focal planes simultaneously at frame rates >450 Hz for full 512 × 512 images. The use of multi-channel data acquisition cards allows for simultaneous multimodal image acquisition with perfect image registry between all imaging modalities. Also discussed here is the implementation of Lissajous trajectory beam-scanning on commercially available microscope hardware.

  7. Pipe3D, a pipeline to analyze Integral Field Spectroscopy Data: I. New fitting philosophy of FIT3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; González, J. J.; Rosález-Ortega, F. F.; Cano-Dí az, M.; López-Cobá, C.; Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Mollá, M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.

    2016-04-01

    We present an improved version of FIT3D, a fitting tool for the analysis of the spectroscopic properties of the stellar populations and the ionized gas derived from moderate resolution spectra of galaxies. This tool was developed to analyze integral field spectroscopy data and it is the basis of Pipe3D, a pipeline used in the analysis of CALIFA, MaNGA, and SAMI data. We describe the philosophy and each step of the fitting procedure. We present an extensive set of simulations in order to estimate the precision and accuracy of the derived parameters for the stellar populations and the ionized gas. We report on the results of those simulations. Finally, we compare the results of the analysis using FIT3D with those provided by other widely used packages, and we find that the parameters derived by FIT3D are fully compatible with those derived using these other tools.

  8. 3D plasmonic nanoantennas integrated with MEA biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipalo, Michele; Messina, Gabriele C.; Amin, Hayder; La Rocca, Rosanna; Shalabaeva, Victoria; Simi, Alessandro; Maccione, Alessandro; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Berdondini, Luca; de Angelis, Francesco

    2015-02-01

    Neuronal signaling in brain circuits occurs at multiple scales ranging from molecules and cells to large neuronal assemblies. However, current sensing neurotechnologies are not designed for parallel access of signals at multiple scales. With the aim of combining nanoscale molecular sensing with electrical neural activity recordings within large neuronal assemblies, in this work three-dimensional (3D) plasmonic nanoantennas are integrated with multielectrode arrays (MEA). Nanoantennas are fabricated by fast ion beam milling on optical resist; gold is deposited on the nanoantennas in order to connect them electrically to the MEA microelectrodes and to obtain plasmonic behavior. The optical properties of these 3D nanostructures are studied through finite elements method (FEM) simulations that show a high electromagnetic field enhancement. This plasmonic enhancement is confirmed by surface enhancement Raman spectroscopy of a dye performed in liquid, which presents an enhancement of almost 100 times the incident field amplitude at resonant excitation. Finally, the reported MEA devices are tested on cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Neurons develop by extending branches on the nanostructured electrodes and extracellular action potentials are recorded over multiple days in vitro. Raman spectra of living neurons cultured on the nanoantennas are also acquired. These results highlight that these nanostructures could be potential candidates for combining electrophysiological measures of large networks with simultaneous spectroscopic investigations at the molecular level.Neuronal signaling in brain circuits occurs at multiple scales ranging from molecules and cells to large neuronal assemblies. However, current sensing neurotechnologies are not designed for parallel access of signals at multiple scales. With the aim of combining nanoscale molecular sensing with electrical neural activity recordings within large neuronal assemblies, in this work three-dimensional (3D) plasmonic

  9. Digital 3D Borobudur - Integration of 3D surveying and modeling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwardhi, D.; Menna, F.; Remondino, F.; Hanke, K.; Akmalia, R.

    2015-08-01

    The Borobudur temple (Indonesia) is one of the greatest Buddhist monuments in the world, now listed as an UNESCO World Heritage Site. The present state of the temple is the result of restorations after being exposed to natural disasters several times. Today there is still a growing rate of deterioration of the building stones whose causes need further researches. Monitoring programs, supported at institutional level, have been effectively executed to observe the problem. The paper presents the latest efforts to digitally document the Borobudur Temple and its surrounding area in 3D with photogrammetric techniques. UAV and terrestrial images were acquired to completely digitize the temple, produce DEM, orthoimages and maps at 1:100 and 1:1000 scale. The results of the project are now employed by the local government organizations to manage the heritage area and plan new policies for the conservation and preservation of the UNESCO site. In order to help data management and policy makers, a web-based information system of the heritage area was also built to visualize and easily access all the data and achieved 3D results.

  10. Integration of virtual and real scenes within an integral 3D imaging environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jinsong; Aggoun, Amar; McCormick, Malcolm

    2002-11-01

    The Imaging Technologies group at De Montfort University has developed an integral 3D imaging system, which is seen as the most likely vehicle for 3D television avoiding psychological effects. To create real fascinating three-dimensional television programs, a virtual studio that performs the task of generating, editing and integrating the 3D contents involving virtual and real scenes is required. The paper presents, for the first time, the procedures, factors and methods of integrating computer-generated virtual scenes with real objects captured using the 3D integral imaging camera system. The method of computer generation of 3D integral images, where the lens array is modelled instead of the physical camera is described. In the model each micro-lens that captures different elemental images of the virtual scene is treated as an extended pinhole camera. An integration process named integrated rendering is illustrated. Detailed discussion and deep investigation are focused on depth extraction from captured integral 3D images. The depth calculation method from the disparity and the multiple baseline method that is used to improve the precision of depth estimation are also presented. The concept of colour SSD and its further improvement in the precision is proposed and verified.

  11. Integrating visible light 3D scanning into the everyday world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    Visible light 3D scanning offers the potential to non-invasively and nearly non-perceptibly incorporate 3D imaging into the everyday world. This paper considers the various possible uses of visible light 3D scanning technology. It discusses multiple possible usage scenarios including in hospitals, security perimeter settings and retail environments. The paper presents a framework for assessing the efficacy of visible light 3D scanning for a given application (and compares this to other scanning approaches such as those using blue light or lasers). It also discusses ethical and legal considerations relevant to real-world use and concludes by presenting a decision making framework.

  12. Integrating 3D Visualization and GIS in Planning Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Li

    2010-01-01

    Most GIS-related planning practices and education are currently limited to two-dimensional mapping and analysis although 3D GIS is a powerful tool to study the complex urban environment in its full spatial extent. This paper reviews current GIS and 3D visualization uses and development in planning practice and education. Current literature…

  13. A monolithic 3D integrated nanomagnetic co-processing unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becherer, M.; Breitkreutz-v. Gamm, S.; Eichwald, I.; Žiemys, G.; Kiermaier, J.; Csaba, G.; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.

    2016-01-01

    As CMOS scaling becomes more and more challenging there is strong impetus for beyond CMOS device research to add new functionality to ICs. In this article, a promising technology with non-volatile ferromagnetic computing states - the so-called Perpendicular Nanomagnetic Logic (pNML) - is reviewed. After introducing the 2D planar implementation of NML with magnetization perpendicular to the surface, the path to monolithically 3D integrated systems is discussed. Instead of CMOS substitution, additional functionality is added by a co-processor architecture as a prospective back-end-of-line (BEOL) process, where the computing elements are clocked by a soft-magnetic on-chip inductor. The unconventional computation in the ferromagnetic domain can lead to highly dense computing structures without leakage currents, attojoule dissipation per bit operation and data-throughputs comparable to state-of-the-art high-performance CMOS CPUs. In appropriate applications and with specialized computing architectures they might even circumvent the bottleneck of time-consuming memory access, as computation is inherently performed with non-volatile computing states.

  14. Single DMD time-multiplexed 64-views autostereoscopic 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loreti, Luigi

    2013-03-01

    Based on previous prototype of the Real time 3D holographic display developed last year, we developed a new concept of auto-stereoscopic multiview display (64 views), wide angle (90°) 3D full color display. The display is based on a RGB laser light source illuminating a DMD (Discovery 4100 0,7") at 24.000 fps, an image deflection system made with an AOD (Acoustic Optic Deflector) driven by a piezo-electric transducer generating a variable standing acoustic wave on the crystal that acts as a phase grating. The DMD projects in fast sequence 64 point of view of the image on the crystal cube. Depending on the frequency of the standing wave, the input picture sent by the DMD is deflected in different angle of view. An holographic screen at a proper distance diffuse the rays in vertical direction (60°) and horizontally select (1°) only the rays directed to the observer. A telescope optical system will enlarge the image to the right dimension. A VHDL firmware to render in real-time (16 ms) 64 views (16 bit 4:2:2) of a CAD model (obj, dxf or 3Ds) and depth-map encoded video images was developed into the resident Virtex5 FPGA of the Discovery 4100 SDK, thus eliminating the needs of image transfer and high speed links

  15. 3D Vectorial Time Domain Computational Integrated Photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Kallman, J S; Bond, T C; Koning, J M; Stowell, M L

    2007-02-16

    The design of integrated photonic structures poses considerable challenges. 3D-Time-Domain design tools are fundamental in enabling technologies such as all-optical logic, photonic bandgap sensors, THz imaging, and fast radiation diagnostics. Such technologies are essential to LLNL and WFO sponsors for a broad range of applications: encryption for communications and surveillance sensors (NSA, NAI and IDIV/PAT); high density optical interconnects for high-performance computing (ASCI); high-bandwidth instrumentation for NIF diagnostics; micro-sensor development for weapon miniaturization within the Stockpile Stewardship and DNT programs; and applications within HSO for CBNP detection devices. While there exist a number of photonics simulation tools on the market, they primarily model devices of interest to the communications industry. We saw the need to extend our previous software to match the Laboratory's unique emerging needs. These include modeling novel material effects (such as those of radiation induced carrier concentrations on refractive index) and device configurations (RadTracker bulk optics with radiation induced details, Optical Logic edge emitting lasers with lateral optical inputs). In addition we foresaw significant advantages to expanding our own internal simulation codes: parallel supercomputing could be incorporated from the start, and the simulation source code would be accessible for modification and extension. This work addressed Engineering's Simulation Technology Focus Area, specifically photonics. Problems addressed from the Engineering roadmap of the time included modeling the Auston switch (an important THz source/receiver), modeling Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs, which had been envisioned as part of fast radiation sensors), and multi-scale modeling of optical systems (for a variety of applications). We proposed to develop novel techniques to numerically solve the 3D multi-scale propagation problem for both the microchip

  16. BioMEA: a versatile high-density 3D microelectrode array system using integrated electronics.

    PubMed

    Charvet, Guillaume; Rousseau, Lionel; Billoint, Olivier; Gharbi, Sadok; Rostaing, Jean-Pierre; Joucla, Sébastien; Trevisiol, Michel; Bourgerette, Alain; Chauvet, Philippe; Moulin, Céline; Goy, François; Mercier, Bruno; Colin, Mikael; Spirkovitch, Serge; Fanet, Hervé; Meyrand, Pierre; Guillemaud, Régis; Yvert, Blaise

    2010-04-15

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) offer a powerful tool to both record activity and deliver electrical microstimulations to neural networks either in vitro or in vivo. Microelectronics microfabrication technologies now allow building high-density MEAs containing several hundreds of microelectrodes. However, dense arrays of 3D micro-needle electrodes, providing closer contact with the neural tissue than planar electrodes, are not achievable using conventional isotropic etching processes. Moreover, increasing the number of electrodes using conventional electronics is difficult to achieve into compact devices addressing all channels independently for simultaneous recording and stimulation. Here, we present a full modular and versatile 256-channel MEA system based on integrated electronics. First, transparent high-density arrays of 3D-shaped microelectrodes were realized by deep reactive ion etching techniques of a silicon substrate reported on glass. This approach allowed achieving high electrode aspect ratios, and different shapes of tip electrodes. Next, we developed a dedicated analog 64-channel Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) including one amplification stage and one current generator per channel, and analog output multiplexing. A full modular system, called BIOMEA, has been designed, allowing connecting different types of MEAs (64, 128, or 256 electrodes) to different numbers of ASICs for simultaneous recording and/or stimulation on all channels. Finally, this system has been validated experimentally by recording and electrically eliciting low-amplitude spontaneous rhythmic activity (both LFPs and spikes) in the developing mouse CNS. The availability of high-density MEA systems with integrated electronics will offer new possibilities for both in vitro and in vivo studies of large neural networks.

  17. Integration of real-time 3D capture, reconstruction, and light-field display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Pei, Renjing; Liu, Yongchun; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-03-01

    Effective integration of 3D acquisition, reconstruction (modeling) and display technologies into a seamless systems provides augmented experience of visualizing and analyzing real objects and scenes with realistic 3D sensation. Applications can be found in medical imaging, gaming, virtual or augmented reality and hybrid simulations. Although 3D acquisition, reconstruction, and display technologies have gained significant momentum in recent years, there seems a lack of attention on synergistically combining these components into a "end-to-end" 3D visualization system. We designed, built and tested an integrated 3D visualization system that is able to capture in real-time 3D light-field images, perform 3D reconstruction to build 3D model of the objects, and display the 3D model on a large autostereoscopic screen. In this article, we will present our system architecture and component designs, hardware/software implementations, and experimental results. We will elaborate on our recent progress on sparse camera array light-field 3D acquisition, real-time dense 3D reconstruction, and autostereoscopic multi-view 3D display. A prototype is finally presented with test results to illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed integrated 3D visualization system.

  18. Improvements of 3-D image quality in integral display by reducing distortion errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakita, Masahiro; Sasaki, Hisayuki; Arai, Jun; Okano, Fumio; Suehiro, Koya; Haino, Yasuyuki; Yoshimura, Makoto; Sato, Masahito

    2008-02-01

    An integral three-dimensional (3-D) system based on the principle of integral photography can display natural 3-D images. We studied ways of improving the resolution and viewing angle of 3-D images by using extremely highresolution (EHR) video in an integral 3-D video system. One of the problems with the EHR projection-type integral 3-D system is that positional errors appear between the elemental image and the elemental lens when there is geometric distortion in the projected image. We analyzed the relationships between the geometric distortion in the elemental images caused by the projection lens and the spatial distortion of the reconstructed 3-D image. As a result, we clarified that 3-D images reconstructed far from the lens array were greatly affected by the distortion of the elemental images, and that the 3-D images were significantly distorted in the depth direction at the corners of the displayed images. Moreover, we developed a video signal processor that electrically compensated the distortion in the elemental images for an EHR projection-type integral 3-D system. Therefore, the distortion in the displayed 3-D image was removed, and the viewing angle of the 3-D image was expanded to nearly double that obtained with the previous prototype system.

  19. Multi Sensor Data Integration for AN Accurate 3d Model Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhatkuli, S.; Satoh, T.; Tachibana, K.

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a novel technique of data integration between two different data sets, i.e. laser scanned RGB point cloud and oblique imageries derived 3D model, to create a 3D model with more details and better accuracy. In general, aerial imageries are used to create a 3D city model. Aerial imageries produce an overall decent 3D city models and generally suit to generate 3D model of building roof and some non-complex terrain. However, the automatically generated 3D model, from aerial imageries, generally suffers from the lack of accuracy in deriving the 3D model of road under the bridges, details under tree canopy, isolated trees, etc. Moreover, the automatically generated 3D model from aerial imageries also suffers from undulated road surfaces, non-conforming building shapes, loss of minute details like street furniture, etc. in many cases. On the other hand, laser scanned data and images taken from mobile vehicle platform can produce more detailed 3D road model, street furniture model, 3D model of details under bridge, etc. However, laser scanned data and images from mobile vehicle are not suitable to acquire detailed 3D model of tall buildings, roof tops, and so forth. Our proposed approach to integrate multi sensor data compensated each other's weakness and helped to create a very detailed 3D model with better accuracy. Moreover, the additional details like isolated trees, street furniture, etc. which were missing in the original 3D model derived from aerial imageries could also be integrated in the final model automatically. During the process, the noise in the laser scanned data for example people, vehicles etc. on the road were also automatically removed. Hence, even though the two dataset were acquired in different time period the integrated data set or the final 3D model was generally noise free and without unnecessary details.

  20. Dual-view integral imaging 3D display using polarizer parallax barriers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fei; Wang, Qiong-Hua; Luo, Cheng-Gao; Li, Da-Hai; Deng, Huan

    2014-04-01

    We propose a dual-view integral imaging (DVII) 3D display using polarizer parallax barriers (PPBs). The DVII 3D display consists of a display panel, a microlens array, and two PPBs. The elemental images (EIs) displayed on the left and right half of the display panel are captured from two different 3D scenes, respectively. The lights emitted from two kinds of EIs are modulated by the left and right half of the microlens array to present two different 3D images, respectively. A prototype of the DVII 3D display is developed, and the experimental results agree well with the theory.

  1. Spatial integration of boundaries in a 3D virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Bouchekioua, Youcef; Miller, Holly C; Craddock, Paul; Blaisdell, Aaron P; Molet, Mikael

    2013-10-01

    Prior research, using two- and three-dimensional environments, has found that when both human and nonhuman animals independently acquire two associations between landmarks with a common landmark (e.g., LM1-LM2 and LM2-LM3), each with its own spatial relationship, they behave as if the two unique LMs have a known spatial relationship despite their never having been paired. Seemingly, they have integrated the two associations to create a third association with its own spatial relationship (LM1-LM3). Using sensory preconditioning (Experiment 1) and second-order conditioning (Experiment 2) procedures, we found that human participants integrated information about the boundaries of pathways to locate a goal within a three-dimensional virtual environment in the absence of any relevant landmarks. Spatial integration depended on the participant experiencing a common boundary feature with which to link the pathways. These results suggest that the principles of associative learning also apply to the boundaries of an environment.

  2. On the Implementation of 3D Galerkin Boundary Integral Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Nintcheu Fata, Sylvain; Gray, Leonard J

    2010-01-01

    In this article, a reverse contribution technique is proposed to accelerate the construction of the dense influence matrices associated with a Galerkin approximation of singular and hypersingular boundary integral equations of mixed-type in potential theory. In addition, a general-purpose sparse preconditioner for boundary element methods has also been developed to successfully deal with ill-conditioned linear systems arising from the discretization of mixed boundary-value problems on non-smooth surfaces. The proposed preconditioner, which originates from the precorrected-FFT method, is sparse, easy to generate and apply in a Krylov subspace iterative solution of discretized boundary integral equations. Moreover, an approximate inverse of the preconditioner is implicitly built by employing an incomplete LU factorization. Numerical experiments involving mixed boundary-value problems for the Laplace equation are included to illustrate the performance and validity of the proposed techniques.

  3. Display of travelling 3D scenes from single integral-imaging capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Corral, Manuel; Dorado, Adrian; Hong, Seok-Min; Sola-Pikabea, Jorge; Saavedra, Genaro

    2016-06-01

    Integral imaging (InI) is a 3D auto-stereoscopic technique that captures and displays 3D images. We present a method for easily projecting the information recorded with this technique by transforming the integral image into a plenoptic image, as well as choosing, at will, the field of view (FOV) and the focused plane of the displayed plenoptic image. Furthermore, with this method we can generate a sequence of images that simulates a camera travelling through the scene from a single integral image. The application of this method permits to improve the quality of 3D display images and videos.

  4. Reduced integral order 3D scalar wave integral equation Derivation and BEM approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, HyunSuk

    The Boundary Element Method (BEM) is a numerical method to solve partial differential equations (PDEs), which is derived from the integral equation (IE) that can be developed from certain PDEs. Among IEs, the 3D transient wave integral equation has a very special property which makes it distinguished from other integral equations; Dirac-delta and its derivative delta‧ appear in the fundamental-solution (or kernel-function). These delta and delta‧ generalized functions have continuity C-2 and C-3, respectively, and become a major hurdle for BEM implementation, because many numerical methods including BEM are based on the idea of continuity. More specifically, the integrands (kernel - shape function products) in the 3D transient wave IE become discontinuous (C-2 and C-3) and make numerical integration difficult. There are several existing approaches to overcome the delta difficulty, but none use the character of the Dirac-delta to cancel the integral. In this dissertation, a new method called the "Reduced order wave integral equation (Reduced IE)" is developed to deal with the difficulty in the 3D transient wave problem. In this approach, the sifting properties of delta and delta‧ are used to cancel an integration. As a result, smooth integrands are derived and the integral orders are reduced by one. Smooth integrands result in the more efficient and accurate numerical integration. In addition, there is no more coupling between the space-element size and time-step size. Non-zero initial condition (IC) can be considered also. Furthermore, space integrals need to be performed once, not per time-step. All of this reduces dramatically the computational requirement. As a result, the computation order for both time and space are reduced by 1 and one obtains an O(M N2) method, where M is the number of time steps and N is the number of spatial nodes on the boundary of the problem domain. A numerical approach to deal with the reduced IE is also suggested, and a simple

  5. Experiment for Integrating Dutch 3d Spatial Planning and Bim for Checking Building Permits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Berlo, L.; Dijkmans, T.; Stoter, J.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a research project in The Netherlands in which several SMEs collaborated to create a 3D model of the National spatial planning information. This 2D information system described in the IMRO data standard holds implicit 3D information that can be used to generate an explicit 3D model. The project realized a proof of concept to generate a 3D spatial planning model. The team used the model to integrate it with several 3D Building Information Models (BIMs) described in the open data standard Industry Foundation Classes (IFC). Goal of the project was (1) to generate a 3D BIM model from spatial planning information to be used by the architect during the early design phase, and (2) allow 3D checking of building permits. The team used several technologies like CityGML, BIM clash detection and GeoBIM to explore the potential of this innovation. Within the project a showcase was created with a part of the spatial plan from the city of The Hague. Several BIM models were integrated in the 3D spatial plan of this area. A workflow has been described that demonstrates the benefits of collaboration between the spatial domain and the AEC industry in 3D. The research results in a showcase with conclusions and considerations for both national and international practice.

  6. 3D thermal medical image visualization tool: Integration between MRI and thermographic images.

    PubMed

    Abreu de Souza, Mauren; Chagas Paz, André Augusto; Sanches, Ionildo Jóse; Nohama, Percy; Gamba, Humberto Remigio

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional medical image reconstruction using different images modalities require registration techniques that are, in general, based on the stacking of 2D MRI/CT images slices. In this way, the integration of two different imaging modalities: anatomical (MRI/CT) and physiological information (infrared image), to generate a 3D thermal model, is a new methodology still under development. This paper presents a 3D THERMO interface that provides flexibility for the 3D visualization: it incorporates the DICOM parameters; different color scale palettes at the final 3D model; 3D visualization at different planes of sections; and a filtering option that provides better image visualization. To summarize, the 3D thermographc medical image visualization provides a realistic and precise medical tool. The merging of two different imaging modalities allows better quality and more fidelity, especially for medical applications in which the temperature changes are clinically significant.

  7. Inhomogeneous Media 3D EM Modeling with Integral Equation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di, Q.; Wang, R.; An, Z.; Fu, C.; Xu, C.

    2010-12-01

    In general, only the half space of earth is considered in electromagnetic exploration. However, for the long bipole source, because the length is close to the height of ionosphere and also most offsets between source and receivers are equal or larger than the height of ionosphere, the effect of ionosphere on the electromagnetic (EM) field should be considered when observation is carried at a very far (about several thousands kilometers) location away from the source. At this point the problem becomes one which should contain ionosphere, atmosphere and earth that is “earth-ionosphere” case. There are a few of literatures to report the electromagnetic field results which is including ionosphere, atmosphere and earth media at the same time. We firstly calculate the electromagnetic fields with the traditional controlled source (CSEM) configuration using integral equation (IE) method for a three layers earth-ionosphere model. The modeling results agree well with the half space analytical results because the effect of ionosphere for this small scale bipole source can be ignorable. The comparison of small scale three layers earth-ionosphere modeling and half space analytical resolution shows that the IE method can be used to modeling the EM fields for long bipole large offset configuration. In order to discuss EM fields’ characteristics for complicate earth-ionosphere media excited by long bipole source in the far-field and wave-guide zones, we first modeled the decay characters of electromagnetic fields for three layers earth-ionosphere model. Because of the effect of ionosphere, the earth-ionosphere electromagnetic fields’ decay curves with given frequency show that there should be an extra wave guide zone for long bipole artificial source, and there are many different characters between this extra zone and far field zone. They are: 1) the amplitudes of EM fields decay much slower; 2) the polarization patterns change; 3) the positions better to measure Zxy and

  8. Novel accurate and scalable 3-D MT forward solver based on a contracting integral equation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruglyakov, M.; Geraskin, A.; Kuvshinov, A.

    2016-11-01

    We present a novel, open source 3-D MT forward solver based on a method of integral equations (IE) with contracting kernel. Special attention in the solver is paid to accurate calculations of Green's functions and their integrals which are cornerstones of any IE solution. The solver supports massive parallelization and is able to deal with highly detailed and contrasting models. We report results of a 3-D numerical experiment aimed at analyzing the accuracy and scalability of the code.

  9. Integrated mode converter for mode division multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Galacho, Diego; Alonso-Ramos, Carlos Alberto; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Vakarin, Vladyslav; Le Roux, Xavier; Ortega-Moñux, Alejandro; Wangüemert-Perez, Juan Gonzalo; Vivien, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    The ever growing demands of bandwidth in optical communication systems are making traditional Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) based systems to reach its limit. In order to cope with future bandwidth demand is necessary to use new levels of orthogonality, such as the waveguide mode or the polarization state. Mode Division Multiplexing (MDM) has recently attracted attention as a possible solution to increase aggregate bandwidth. In this work we discuss the proposition a of mode converter that can cover the whole C-Band of optical communications. The Mode Converter is based on two Multimode Interference (MMI) couplers and a phase shifter. Insertion loss (IL) below 0.2 dB and Extinction ratio (ER) higher than 20 dB in a broad bandwidth range of 1.5 μm to 1.6 μm have been estimated. The total length of the device is less than 30 μm.

  10. Characterization and correction for scatter in 3D PET using rebinned plane integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.; Ordonez, C.E.; Chen, C.T. . Dept. of Radiology)

    1994-12-01

    The scatter characteristics of three-dimensional (3D) positron emission tomography (PET) in terms of the plane-integral scatter response function (SRF) are studied. To obtain the plane-integral SRF and study its properties, Monte Carlo simulations were carried out which generated coincidence events from point sources located at different positions in water-filled spheres of various sizes. In each simulation, the plane-integral SRF is obtained by rebinning the detected true and scatter events into two separate sets of plane integrals and then dividing the plane integrals of scatter events by the plane integral of true events of the plane in which the point source is located. A spherical PET scanner was assumed for these simulations. Examination of the SRF shows that the SRF in 3D PET can be modeled not by an exponential function as in the case of 2D PET, but by a Gaussian with its peak shifted away from the primary peak. Using this plane-integral SRF, a scatter correction method was developed for 3D PET that first converts an attenuation-corrected 3D PET data set into plane integrals, then obtains the scatter components in the rebinned plane integrals by integral transformation of the rebinned plane integrals with the SRF, and finally subtracts the scatter components from the rebinned plane integrals to yield the scatter-corrected plane integrals. From the scatter-corrected plane integrals, a 3D image was reconstructed by using a 3D filtered-backprojection algorithm. To test the method, a cylindrical PET scanner imaging an ellipsoid phantom with a 3-cm cold bar at the center was simulated, and 3D images of the phantom with and without scatter correction were reconstructed. Comparison of the two images shows that this method compensates reasonably well for scatter events. The advantages of the proposed method are that it treats the scatter in 3D PET in a truly 3D manner and that it is computationally efficient.

  11. Estimation of the degree of polarization in low-light 3D integral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnicer, Artur; Javidi, Bahram

    2016-06-01

    The calculation of the Stokes Parameters and the Degree of Polarization in 3D integral images requires a careful manipulation of the polarimetric elemental images. This fact is particularly important if the scenes are taken in low-light conditions. In this paper, we show that the Degree of Polarization can be effectively estimated even when elemental images are recorded with few photons. The original idea was communicated in [A. Carnicer and B. Javidi, "Polarimetric 3D integral imaging in photon-starved conditions," Opt. Express 23, 6408-6417 (2015)]. First, we use the Maximum Likelihood Estimation approach for generating the 3D integral image. Nevertheless, this method produces very noisy images and thus, the degree of polarization cannot be calculated. We suggest using a Total Variation Denoising filter as a way to improve the quality of the generated 3D images. As a result, noise is suppressed but high frequency information is preserved. Finally, the degree of polarization is obtained successfully.

  12. Quality assessment of stereoscopic 3D image compression by binocular integration behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Hsun; Wu, Ja-Ling

    2014-04-01

    The objective approaches of 3D image quality assessment play a key role for the development of compression standards and various 3D multimedia applications. The quality assessment of 3D images faces more new challenges, such as asymmetric stereo compression, depth perception, and virtual view synthesis, than its 2D counterparts. In addition, the widely used 2D image quality metrics (e.g., PSNR and SSIM) cannot be directly applied to deal with these newly introduced challenges. This statement can be verified by the low correlation between the computed objective measures and the subjectively measured mean opinion scores (MOSs), when 3D images are the tested targets. In order to meet these newly introduced challenges, in this paper, besides traditional 2D image metrics, the binocular integration behaviors-the binocular combination and the binocular frequency integration, are utilized as the bases for measuring the quality of stereoscopic 3D images. The effectiveness of the proposed metrics is verified by conducting subjective evaluations on publicly available stereoscopic image databases. Experimental results show that significant consistency could be reached between the measured MOS and the proposed metrics, in which the correlation coefficient between them can go up to 0.88. Furthermore, we found that the proposed metrics can also address the quality assessment of the synthesized color-plus-depth 3D images well. Therefore, it is our belief that the binocular integration behaviors are important factors in the development of objective quality assessment for 3D images.

  13. Integration of 3D anatomical data obtained by CT imaging and 3D optical scanning for computer aided implant surgery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A precise placement of dental implants is a crucial step to optimize both prosthetic aspects and functional constraints. In this context, the use of virtual guiding systems has been recognized as a fundamental tool to control the ideal implant position. In particular, complex periodontal surgeries can be performed using preoperative planning based on CT data. The critical point of the procedure relies on the lack of accuracy in transferring CT planning information to surgical field through custom-made stereo-lithographic surgical guides. Methods In this work, a novel methodology is proposed for monitoring loss of accuracy in transferring CT dental information into periodontal surgical field. The methodology is based on integrating 3D data of anatomical (impression and cast) and preoperative (radiographic template) models, obtained by both CT and optical scanning processes. Results A clinical case, relative to a fully edentulous jaw patient, has been used as test case to assess the accuracy of the various steps concurring in manufacturing surgical guides. In particular, a surgical guide has been designed to place implants in the bone structure of the patient. The analysis of the results has allowed the clinician to monitor all the errors, which have been occurring step by step manufacturing the physical templates. Conclusions The use of an optical scanner, which has a higher resolution and accuracy than CT scanning, has demonstrated to be a valid support to control the precision of the various physical models adopted and to point out possible error sources. A case study regarding a fully edentulous patient has confirmed the feasibility of the proposed methodology. PMID:21338504

  14. 3D/2D convertible projection-type integral imaging using concave half mirror array.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jisoo; Kim, Youngmin; Park, Soon-gi; Hong, Jong-Ho; Min, Sung-Wook; Lee, Sin-Doo; Lee, Byoungho

    2010-09-27

    We propose a new method for implementing 3D/2D convertible feature in the projection-type integral imaging by using concave half mirror array. The concave half mirror array has the partially reflective characteristic to the incident light. And the reflected term is modulated by the concave mirror array structure, while the transmitted term is unaffected. With such unique characteristic, 3D/2D conversion or even the simultaneous display of 3D and 2D images is also possible. The prototype was fabricated by the aluminum coating and the polydimethylsiloxane molding process. We could experimentally verify the 3D/2D conversion and the display of 3D image on 2D background with the fabricated prototype.

  15. Integration of Jeddah Historical BIM and 3D GIS for Documentation and Restoration of Historical Monument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, A.; Yaagoubi, R.; Boehm, J.

    2015-08-01

    This work outlines a new approach for the integration of 3D Building Information Modelling and the 3D Geographic Information System (GIS) to provide semantically rich models, and to get the benefits from both systems to help document and analyse cultural heritage sites. Our proposed framework is based on the Jeddah Historical Building Information Modelling process (JHBIM). This JHBIM consists of a Hijazi Architectural Objects Library (HAOL) that supports higher level of details (LoD) while decreasing the time of modelling. The Hijazi Architectural Objects Library has been modelled based on the Islamic historical manuscripts and Hijazi architectural pattern books. Moreover, the HAOL is implemented using BIM software called Autodesk Revit. However, it is known that this BIM environment still has some limitations with the non-standard architectural objects. Hence, we propose to integrate the developed 3D JHBIM with 3D GIS for more advanced analysis. To do so, the JHBIM database is exported and semantically enriched with non-architectural information that is necessary for restoration and preservation of historical monuments. After that, this database is integrated with the 3D Model in the 3D GIS solution. At the end of this paper, we'll illustrate our proposed framework by applying it to a Historical Building called Nasif Historical House in Jeddah. First of all, this building is scanned by the use of a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and Close Range Photogrammetry. Then, the 3D JHBIM based on the HOAL is designed on Revit Platform. Finally, this model is integrated to a 3D GIS solution through Autodesk InfraWorks. The shown analysis presented in this research highlights the importance of such integration especially for operational decisions and sharing the historical knowledge about Jeddah Historical City. Furthermore, one of the historical buildings in Old Jeddah, Nasif Historical House, was chosen as a test case for the project.

  16. Integrated bronchoscopic video tracking and 3D CT registration for virtual bronchoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, William E.; Helferty, James P.; Padfield, Dirk R.

    2003-05-01

    Lung cancer assessment involves an initial evaluation of 3D CT image data followed by interventional bronchoscopy. The physician, with only a mental image inferred from the 3D CT data, must guide the bronchoscope through the bronchial tree to sites of interest. Unfortunately, this procedure depends heavily on the physician's ability to mentally reconstruct the 3D position of the bronchoscope within the airways. In order to assist physicians in performing biopsies of interest, we have developed a method that integrates live bronchoscopic video tracking and 3D CT registration. The proposed method is integrated into a system we have been devising for virtual-bronchoscopic analysis and guidance for lung-cancer assessment. Previously, the system relied on a method that only used registration of the live bronchoscopic video to corresponding virtual endoluminal views derived from the 3D CT data. This procedure only performs the registration at manually selected sites; it does not draw upon the motion information inherent in the bronchoscopic video. Further, the registration procedure is slow. The proposed method has the following advantages: (1) it tracks the 3D motion of the bronchoscope using the bronchoscopic video; (2) it uses the tracked 3D trajectory of the bronchoscope to assist in locating sites in the 3D CT "virtual world" to perform the registration. In addition, the method incorporates techniques to: (1) detect and exclude corrupted video frames (to help make the video tracking more robust); (2) accelerate the computation of the many 3D virtual endoluminal renderings (thus, speeding up the registration process). We have tested the integrated tracking-registration method on a human airway-tree phantom and on real human data.

  17. An architecture for integrating planar and 3D cQED devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axline, C.; Reagor, M.; Heeres, R.; Reinhold, P.; Wang, C.; Shain, K.; Pfaff, W.; Chu, Y.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2016-07-01

    Numerous loss mechanisms can limit coherence and scalability of planar and 3D-based circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED) devices, particularly due to their packaging. The low loss and natural isolation of 3D enclosures make them good candidates for coherent scaling. We introduce a coaxial transmission line device architecture with coherence similar to traditional 3D cQED systems. Measurements demonstrate well-controlled external and on-chip couplings, a spectrum absent of cross-talk or spurious modes, and excellent resonator and qubit lifetimes. We integrate a resonator-qubit system in this architecture with a seamless 3D cavity, and separately pattern a qubit, readout resonator, Purcell filter, and high-Q stripline resonator on a single chip. Device coherence and its ease of integration make this a promising tool for complex experiments.

  18. Free segmentation in rendered 3D images through synthetic impulse response in integral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Corral, M.; Llavador, A.; Sánchez-Ortiga, E.; Saavedra, G.; Javidi, B.

    2016-06-01

    Integral Imaging is a technique that has the capability of providing not only the spatial, but also the angular information of three-dimensional (3D) scenes. Some important applications are the 3D display and digital post-processing as for example, depth-reconstruction from integral images. In this contribution we propose a new reconstruction method that takes into account the integral image and a simplified version of the impulse response function (IRF) of the integral imaging (InI) system to perform a two-dimensional (2D) deconvolution. The IRF of an InI system has a periodic structure that depends directly on the axial position of the object. Considering different periods of the IRFs we recover by deconvolution the depth information of the 3D scene. An advantage of our method is that it is possible to obtain nonconventional reconstructions by considering alternative synthetic impulse responses. Our experiments show the feasibility of the proposed method.

  19. Learning from graphically integrated 2D and 3D representations improves retention of neuroanatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naaz, Farah

    Visualizations in the form of computer-based learning environments are highly encouraged in science education, especially for teaching spatial material. Some spatial material, such as sectional neuroanatomy, is very challenging to learn. It involves learning the two dimensional (2D) representations that are sampled from the three dimensional (3D) object. In this study, a computer-based learning environment was used to explore the hypothesis that learning sectional neuroanatomy from a graphically integrated 2D and 3D representation will lead to better learning outcomes than learning from a sequential presentation. The integrated representation explicitly demonstrates the 2D-3D transformation and should lead to effective learning. This study was conducted using a computer graphical model of the human brain. There were two learning groups: Whole then Sections, and Integrated 2D3D. Both groups learned whole anatomy (3D neuroanatomy) before learning sectional anatomy (2D neuroanatomy). The Whole then Sections group then learned sectional anatomy using 2D representations only. The Integrated 2D3D group learned sectional anatomy from a graphically integrated 3D and 2D model. A set of tests for generalization of knowledge to interpreting biomedical images was conducted immediately after learning was completed. The order of presentation of the tests of generalization of knowledge was counterbalanced across participants to explore a secondary hypothesis of the study: preparation for future learning. If the computer-based instruction programs used in this study are effective tools for teaching anatomy, the participants should continue learning neuroanatomy with exposure to new representations. A test of long-term retention of sectional anatomy was conducted 4-8 weeks after learning was completed. The Integrated 2D3D group was better than the Whole then Sections

  20. Initiator-integrated 3D printing enables the formation of complex metallic architectures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolong; Guo, Qiuquan; Cai, Xiaobing; Zhou, Shaolin; Kobe, Brad; Yang, Jun

    2014-02-26

    Three-dimensional printing was used to fabricate various metallic structures by directly integrating a Br-containing vinyl-terminated initiator into the 3D resin followed by surface-initiated atomic-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and subsequent electroless plating. Cu- and Ni-coated complex structures, such as microlattices, hollow balls, and even Eiffel towers, were prepared. Moreover, the method is also capable of fabricating ultralight cellular metals with desired structures by simply etching the polymer template away. By combining the merits of 3D printing in structure design with those of ATRP in surface modification and polymer-assisted ELP of metals, this universal, robust, and cost-effective approach has largely extended the capability of 3D printing and will make 3D printing technology more practical in areas of electronics, acoustic absorption, thermal insulation, catalyst supports, and others. PMID:24328276

  1. Dual-view integral imaging 3D display by using orthogonal polarizer array and polarization switcher.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong-Hua; Ji, Chao-Chao; Li, Lei; Deng, Huan

    2016-01-11

    In this paper, a dual-view integral imaging three-dimensional (3D) display consisting of a display panel, two orthogonal polarizer arrays, a polarization switcher, and a micro-lens array is proposed. Two elemental image arrays for two different 3D images are presented by the display panel alternately, and the polarization switcher controls the polarization direction of the light rays synchronously. The two elemental image arrays are modulated by their corresponding and neighboring micro-lenses of the micro-lens array, and reconstruct two different 3D images in viewing zones 1 and 2, respectively. A prototype of the dual-view II 3D display is developed, and it has good performances.

  2. Strategies for Effectively Visualizing a 3D Flow Using Volume Line Integral Convolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interrante, Victoria; Grosch, Chester

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses strategies for effectively portraying 3D flow using volume line integral convolution. Issues include defining an appropriate input texture, clarifying the distinct identities and relative depths of the advected texture elements, and selectively highlighting regions of interest in both the input and output volumes. Apart from offering insights into the greater potential of 3D LIC as a method for effectively representing flow in a volume, a principal contribution of this work is the suggestion of a technique for generating and rendering 3D visibility-impeding 'halos' that can help to intuitively indicate the presence of depth discontinuities between contiguous elements in a projection and thereby clarify the 3D spatial organization of elements in the flow. The proposed techniques are applied to the visualization of a hot, supersonic, laminar jet exiting into a colder, subsonic coflow.

  3. Extended field-of-view and increased-signal 3D holographic illumination with time-division multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Samuel J; Allen, William E; Kauvar, Isaac; Andalman, Aaron S; Young, Noah P; Kim, Christina K; Marshel, James H; Wetzstein, Gordon; Deisseroth, Karl

    2015-12-14

    Phase spatial light modulators (SLMs) are widely used for generating multifocal three-dimensional (3D) illumination patterns, but these are limited to a field of view constrained by the pixel count or size of the SLM. Further, with two-photon SLM-based excitation, increasing the number of focal spots penalizes the total signal linearly--requiring more laser power than is available or can be tolerated by the sample. Here we analyze and demonstrate a method of using galvanometer mirrors to time-sequentially reposition multiple 3D holograms, both extending the field of view and increasing the total time-averaged two-photon signal. We apply our approach to 3D two-photon in vivo neuronal calcium imaging.

  4. Extended field-of-view and increased-signal 3D holographic illumination with time-division multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Samuel J; Allen, William E; Kauvar, Isaac; Andalman, Aaron S; Young, Noah P; Kim, Christina K; Marshel, James H; Wetzstein, Gordon; Deisseroth, Karl

    2015-12-14

    Phase spatial light modulators (SLMs) are widely used for generating multifocal three-dimensional (3D) illumination patterns, but these are limited to a field of view constrained by the pixel count or size of the SLM. Further, with two-photon SLM-based excitation, increasing the number of focal spots penalizes the total signal linearly--requiring more laser power than is available or can be tolerated by the sample. Here we analyze and demonstrate a method of using galvanometer mirrors to time-sequentially reposition multiple 3D holograms, both extending the field of view and increasing the total time-averaged two-photon signal. We apply our approach to 3D two-photon in vivo neuronal calcium imaging. PMID:26699047

  5. Extended field-of-view and increased-signal 3D holographic illumination with time-division multiplexing

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Samuel J.; Allen, William E.; Kauvar, Isaac; Andalman, Aaron S.; Young, Noah P.; Kim, Christina K.; Marshel, James H.; Wetzstein, Gordon; Deisseroth, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Phase spatial light modulators (SLMs) are widely used for generating multifocal three-dimensional (3D) illumination patterns, but these are limited to a field of view constrained by the pixel count or size of the SLM. Further, with two-photon SLM-based excitation, increasing the number of focal spots penalizes the total signal linearly—requiring more laser power than is available or can be tolerated by the sample. Here we analyze and demonstrate a method of using galvanometer mirrors to time-sequentially reposition multiple 3D holograms, both extending the field of view and increasing the total time-averaged two-photon signal. We apply our approach to 3D two-photon in vivo neuronal calcium imaging. PMID:26699047

  6. 3D Printed Microfluidic Device with Integrated Biosensors for Online Analysis of Subcutaneous Human Microdialysate.

    PubMed

    Gowers, Sally A N; Curto, Vincenzo F; Seneci, Carlo A; Wang, Chu; Anastasova, Salzitsa; Vadgama, Pankaj; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Boutelle, Martyn G

    2015-08-01

    This work presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of a robust 3D printed microfluidic analysis system that integrates with FDA-approved clinical microdialysis probes for continuous monitoring of human tissue metabolite levels. The microfluidic device incorporates removable needle type integrated biosensors for glucose and lactate, which are optimized for high tissue concentrations, housed in novel 3D printed electrode holders. A soft compressible 3D printed elastomer at the base of the holder ensures a good seal with the microfluidic chip. Optimization of the channel size significantly improves the response time of the sensor. As a proof-of-concept study, our microfluidic device was coupled to lab-built wireless potentiostats and used to monitor real-time subcutaneous glucose and lactate levels in cyclists undergoing a training regime. PMID:26070023

  7. 3D Printed Microfluidic Device with Integrated Biosensors for Online Analysis of Subcutaneous Human Microdialysate

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of a robust 3D printed microfluidic analysis system that integrates with FDA-approved clinical microdialysis probes for continuous monitoring of human tissue metabolite levels. The microfluidic device incorporates removable needle type integrated biosensors for glucose and lactate, which are optimized for high tissue concentrations, housed in novel 3D printed electrode holders. A soft compressible 3D printed elastomer at the base of the holder ensures a good seal with the microfluidic chip. Optimization of the channel size significantly improves the response time of the sensor. As a proof-of-concept study, our microfluidic device was coupled to lab-built wireless potentiostats and used to monitor real-time subcutaneous glucose and lactate levels in cyclists undergoing a training regime. PMID:26070023

  8. Novel fully integrated computer system for custom footwear: from 3D digitization to manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houle, Pascal-Simon; Beaulieu, Eric; Liu, Zhaoheng

    1998-03-01

    This paper presents a recently developed custom footwear system, which integrates 3D digitization technology, range image fusion techniques, a 3D graphical environment for corrective actions, parametric curved surface representation and computer numerical control (CNC) machining. In this system, a support designed with the help of biomechanics experts can stabilize the foot in a correct and neutral position. The foot surface is then captured by a 3D camera using active ranging techniques. A software using a library of documented foot pathologies suggests corrective actions on the orthosis. Three kinds of deformations can be achieved. The first method uses previously scanned pad surfaces by our 3D scanner, which can be easily mapped onto the foot surface to locally modify the surface shape. The second kind of deformation is construction of B-Spline surfaces by manipulating control points and modifying knot vectors in a 3D graphical environment to build desired deformation. The last one is a manual electronic 3D pen, which may be of different shapes and sizes, and has an adjustable 'pressure' information. All applied deformations should respect a G1 surface continuity, which ensure that the surface can accustom a foot. Once the surface modification process is completed, the resulting data is sent to manufacturing software for CNC machining.

  9. Integral imaging as a modality for 3D TV and displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, Malcolm; Davies, Neil A.; Milnthorpe, Graham; Aggoun, Amar; Forman, Matthew C.

    2002-11-01

    The development of 3D TV systems and displays for public use require that several important criteria be satisfied. The criteria are that the perceived resolution is as good as existing 2D TV, the image must be in full natural colour, compatibility with current 2D systems in terms of frame rate and transmission data must be ensured, human-factors concerns must be satisfied and seamless autostereoscopic viewing provided. There are several candidate 3D technologies, for example stereoscopic multiview, holographic and integral imaging that endeavor to satisfy the technological and other conditions. The perceived advantages of integral imaging are that the 3D data can be captured by a single aperture camera, the display is a scaled 3D optical model, and in viewing accommodation and convergence are as in normal sighting (natural) thereby preventing possible eye strain. Consequently it appears to be ideal for prolonged human use. The technological factors that inhibited the possible use of integral imaging for TV display have been shown to be less intractable than at first thought. For example compression algorithms are available such that terrestrial bandwidth is perfectly suitable for transmission purposes. Real-time computer generation of integral images is feasible and the high-resolution LCD panels currently available are sufficient to enable high contrast and high quality image display.

  10. Integration of GPR and Laser Position Sensors for Real-Time 3D Data Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasmueck, M.; Viggiano, D.

    2005-05-01

    Non-invasive 3D imaging visualizes anatomy and contents inside objects. Such tools are a commodity for medical doctors diagnosing a patient's health without scalpel and airport security staff inspecting the contents of baggage without opening. For geologists, hydrologists, archeologists and engineers wanting to see inside the shallow subsurface, such 3D tools are still a rarity. Theory and practice show that full-resolution 3D Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) imaging requires unaliased recording of dipping reflections and diffractions. For a heterogeneous subsurface, minimum grid spacing of GPR measurements should be at least quarter wavelength or less in all directions. Consequently, positioning precision needs to be better than eighth wavelength for correct grid point assignment. Until now 3D GPR imaging has not been practical: data acquisition and processing took weeks to months, data analysis required geophysical training with no versatile 3D systems commercially available. We have integrated novel rotary laser positioning technology with GPR into a highly efficient and simple to use 3D imaging system. The laser positioning enables acquisition of centimeter accurate x, y, and z coordinates from multiple small detectors attached to moving GPR antennae. Positions streaming with 20 updates/second from each detector are fused in real-time with the GPR data. We developed software for automated data acquisition and real-time 3D GPR data quality control on slices at selected depths. Standard formatted (SEGY) data cubes and animations are generated within an hour after the last trace has been acquired. Examples can be seen at www.3dgpr.info. Such instant 3D GPR can be used as an on-site imaging tool supporting field work, hypothesis testing, and optimal sample collection. Rotary laser positioning has the flexibility to be integrated with multiple moving GPR antennae and other geophysical sensors enabling simple and efficient high resolution 3D data acquisition at

  11. An orthognathic simulation system integrating teeth, jaw and face data using 3D cephalometry.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, N; Tsuji, M; Shigematsu, M; Goto, M

    2007-07-01

    A method for simulating the movement of teeth, jaw and face caused by orthognathic surgery is proposed, characterized by the use of 3D cephalometric data for 3D simulation. Computed tomography data are not required. The teeth and facial data are obtained by a laser scanner and the data for the patient's mandible are reconstructed and integrated according to 3D cephalometry using a projection-matching technique. The mandibular form is simulated by transforming a generic model to match the patient's cephalometric data. This system permits analysis of bone movement at each individual part, while also helping in the choice of optimal osteotomy design considering the influences on facial soft-tissue form.

  12. Three-Dimensional Integrated Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS). Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-01

    3D-ICAS is being developed to support Decontamination and Decommissioning operations for DOE addressing Research Area 6 (characterization) of the Program Research and Development Announcement. 3D-ICAS provides in-situ 3-dimensional characterization of contaminated DOE facilities. Its multisensor probe contains a GC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using noncontact infrared heating) sensor for organics, a molecular vibrational sensor for base material identification, and a radionuclide sensor for radioactive contaminants. It will provide real-time quantitative measurements of volatile organics and radionuclides on bare materials (concrete, asbestos, transite); it will provide 3-D display of the fusion of all measurements; and it will archive the measurements for regulatory documentation. It consists of two robotic mobile platforms that operate in hazardous environments linked to an integrated workstation in a safe environment.

  13. 3D Navigation and Integrated Hazard Display in Advanced Avionics: Workload, Performance, and Situation Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Alexander, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the ability for pilots to estimate traffic location in an Integrated Hazard Display, and how such estimations should be measured. Twelve pilots viewed static images of traffic scenarios and then estimated the outside world locations of queried traffic represented in one of three display types (2D coplanar, 3D exocentric, and split-screen) and in one of four conditions (display present/blank crossed with outside world present/blank). Overall, the 2D coplanar display best supported both vertical (compared to 3D) and lateral (compared to split-screen) traffic position estimation performance. Costs of the 3D display were associated with perceptual ambiguity. Costs of the split screen display were inferred to result from inappropriate attention allocation. Furthermore, although pilots were faster in estimating traffic locations when relying on memory, accuracy was greatest when the display was available.

  14. GPU based acceleration of 3D USCT image reconstruction with efficient integration into MATLAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretzek, Ernst; Zapf, Michael; Birk, Matthias; Gemmeke, Hartmut; Ruiter, Nicole V.

    2013-03-01

    3D ultrasound computer tomography (3D USCT) promises reproducible high-resolution images for early detection of breast tumors. The synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) used for image reconstruction is highly computeintensive but suitable for an accelerated execution on GPUs. In this paper we investigate how a previous implementation of the SAFT algorithm in CUDA C can be further accelerated and integrated into the existing MATLAB signal and image processing chain for 3D USCT. The focus is on an efficient preprocessing and preparation of data blocks in MATLAB as well as an improved utilisation of special hardware like the texture fetching units on GPUs. For 64 slices with 1024×1024 pixels each the overall runtime of the reconstruction including data loading and preprocessing could be decreased from 35 hours with CPU to 2.4 hours with eight GPUs.

  15. 3-D electromagnetic modeling for very early time sounding of shallow targets using integral equations

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Z.; Tripp, A.C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents an integral equation algorithm for 3D EM modeling at high frequencies for applications in engineering an environmental studies. The integral equation method remains the same for low and high frequencies, but the dominant roles of the displacements currents complicate both numerical treatments and interpretations. With singularity extraction technique they successively extended the application of the Hankel filtering technique to the computation of Hankel integrals occurring in high frequency EM modeling. Time domain results are calculated from frequency domain results via Fourier transforms. While frequency domain data are not obvious for interpretations, time domain data show wave-like pictures that resemble seismograms. Both 1D and 3D numerical results show clearly the layer interfaces.

  16. 3D shape shearography with integrated structured light projection for strain inspection of curved objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, Andrei G.; Groves, Roger M.

    2015-05-01

    Shearography (speckle pattern shearing interferometry) is a non-destructive testing technique that provides full-field surface strain characterization. Although real-life objects especially in aerospace, transport or cultural heritage are not flat (e.g. aircraft leading edges or sculptures), their inspection with shearography is of interest for both hidden defect detection and material characterization. Accurate strain measuring of a highly curved or free form surface needs to be performed by combining inline object shape measuring and processing of shearography data in 3D. Previous research has not provided a general solution. This research is devoted to the practical questions of 3D shape shearography system development for surface strain characterization of curved objects. The complete procedure of calibration and data processing of a 3D shape shearography system with integrated structured light projector is presented. This includes an estimation of the actual shear distance and a sensitivity matrix correction within the system field of view. For the experimental part a 3D shape shearography system prototype was developed. It employs three spatially-distributed shearing cameras, with Michelson interferometers acting as the shearing devices, one illumination laser source and a structured light projector. The developed system performance was evaluated with a previously reported cylinder specimen (length 400 mm, external diameter 190 mmm) loaded by internal pressure. Further steps for the 3D shape shearography prototype and the technique development are also proposed.

  17. Integration of 3D photogrammetric outcrop models in the reservoir modelling workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deschamps, Remy; Joseph, Philippe; Lerat, Olivier; Schmitz, Julien; Doligez, Brigitte; Jardin, Anne

    2014-05-01

    3D technologies are now widely used in geosciences to reconstruct outcrops in 3D. The technology used for the 3D reconstruction is usually based on Lidar, which provides very precise models. Such datasets offer the possibility to build well-constrained outcrop analogue models for reservoir study purposes. The photogrammetry is an alternate methodology which principles are based in determining the geometric properties of an object from photographic pictures taken from different angles. Outcrop data acquisition is easy, and this methodology allows constructing 3D outcrop models with many advantages such as: - light and fast acquisition, - moderate processing time (depending on the size of the area of interest), - integration of field data and 3D outcrops into the reservoir modelling tools. Whatever the method, the advantages of digital outcrop model are numerous as already highlighted by Hodgetts (2013), McCaffrey et al. (2005) and Pringle et al. (2006): collection of data from otherwise inaccessible areas, access to different angles of view, increase of the possible measurements, attributes analysis, fast rate of data collection, and of course training and communication. This paper proposes a workflow where 3D geocellular models are built by integrating all sources of information from outcrops (surface picking, sedimentological sections, structural and sedimentary dips…). The 3D geomodels that are reconstructed can be used at the reservoir scale, in order to compare the outcrop information with subsurface models: the detailed facies models of the outcrops are transferred into petrophysical and acoustic models, which are used to test different scenarios of seismic and fluid flow modelling. The detailed 3D models are also used to test new techniques of static reservoir modelling, based either on geostatistical approaches or on deterministic (process-based) simulation techniques. A modelling workflow has been designed to model reservoir geometries and properties from

  18. Proposal for the development of 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Gregory; Hoff, Jim; Kwan, Simon; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Ted; Ramberg, Erik; Todri, Aida; Yarema, Ray; Demarteua, Marcel,; Drake, Gary; Weerts, Harry; /Argonne /Chicago U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua

    2010-10-01

    Future particle physics experiments looking for rare processes will have no choice but to address the demanding challenges of fast pattern recognition in triggering as detector hit density becomes significantly higher due to the high luminosity required to produce the rare process. The authors propose to develop a 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM) chip for HEP applications, to advance the state-of-the-art for pattern recognition and track reconstruction for fast triggering.

  19. A Pipeline for 3D Multimodality Image Integration and Computer-assisted Planning in Epilepsy Surgery.

    PubMed

    Nowell, Mark; Rodionov, Roman; Zombori, Gergely; Sparks, Rachel; Rizzi, Michele; Ourselin, Sebastien; Miserocchi, Anna; McEvoy, Andrew; Duncan, John

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy surgery is challenging and the use of 3D multimodality image integration (3DMMI) to aid presurgical planning is well-established. Multimodality image integration can be technically demanding, and is underutilised in clinical practice. We have developed a single software platform for image integration, 3D visualization and surgical planning. Here, our pipeline is described in step-by-step fashion, starting with image acquisition, proceeding through image co-registration, manual segmentation, brain and vessel extraction, 3D visualization and manual planning of stereoEEG (SEEG) implantations. With dissemination of the software this pipeline can be reproduced in other centres, allowing other groups to benefit from 3DMMI. We also describe the use of an automated, multi-trajectory planner to generate stereoEEG implantation plans. Preliminary studies suggest this is a rapid, safe and efficacious adjunct for planning SEEG implantations. Finally, a simple solution for the export of plans and models to commercial neuronavigation systems for implementation of plans in the operating theater is described. This software is a valuable tool that can support clinical decision making throughout the epilepsy surgery pathway.

  20. A Pipeline for 3D Multimodality Image Integration and Computer-assisted Planning in Epilepsy Surgery.

    PubMed

    Nowell, Mark; Rodionov, Roman; Zombori, Gergely; Sparks, Rachel; Rizzi, Michele; Ourselin, Sebastien; Miserocchi, Anna; McEvoy, Andrew; Duncan, John

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy surgery is challenging and the use of 3D multimodality image integration (3DMMI) to aid presurgical planning is well-established. Multimodality image integration can be technically demanding, and is underutilised in clinical practice. We have developed a single software platform for image integration, 3D visualization and surgical planning. Here, our pipeline is described in step-by-step fashion, starting with image acquisition, proceeding through image co-registration, manual segmentation, brain and vessel extraction, 3D visualization and manual planning of stereoEEG (SEEG) implantations. With dissemination of the software this pipeline can be reproduced in other centres, allowing other groups to benefit from 3DMMI. We also describe the use of an automated, multi-trajectory planner to generate stereoEEG implantation plans. Preliminary studies suggest this is a rapid, safe and efficacious adjunct for planning SEEG implantations. Finally, a simple solution for the export of plans and models to commercial neuronavigation systems for implementation of plans in the operating theater is described. This software is a valuable tool that can support clinical decision making throughout the epilepsy surgery pathway. PMID:27286266

  1. A Pipeline for 3D Multimodality Image Integration and Computer-assisted Planning in Epilepsy Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Nowell, Mark; Rodionov, Roman; Zombori, Gergely; Sparks, Rachel; Rizzi, Michele; Ourselin, Sebastien; Miserocchi, Anna; McEvoy, Andrew; Duncan, John

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy surgery is challenging and the use of 3D multimodality image integration (3DMMI) to aid presurgical planning is well-established. Multimodality image integration can be technically demanding, and is underutilised in clinical practice. We have developed a single software platform for image integration, 3D visualization and surgical planning. Here, our pipeline is described in step-by-step fashion, starting with image acquisition, proceeding through image co-registration, manual segmentation, brain and vessel extraction, 3D visualization and manual planning of stereoEEG (SEEG) implantations. With dissemination of the software this pipeline can be reproduced in other centres, allowing other groups to benefit from 3DMMI. We also describe the use of an automated, multi-trajectory planner to generate stereoEEG implantation plans. Preliminary studies suggest this is a rapid, safe and efficacious adjunct for planning SEEG implantations. Finally, a simple solution for the export of plans and models to commercial neuronavigation systems for implementation of plans in the operating theater is described. This software is a valuable tool that can support clinical decision making throughout the epilepsy surgery pathway. PMID:27286266

  2. Aspects of the integration of 3D buildings models with database. (Polish Title: Aspekty integracji modeli 3D budynków z bazą danych opisowych)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraszewski, B.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years in Poland for many cities 3D models were created. These developments mainly building models which contain only geometric information were included. However, it is advisable to extend the functionality and spectrum of applications of these models by adding to them information from existing databases. In this article the integration of 3D building models with databases were presented. Two methods of connection of both sets of data were analyzed. First was based on independent connection CAD model with database file and the second was integrated both types of data in CityGML structure. The capabilities of both methods on example 3D data were examined. The 3D data interior and exterior part of building were included. Based on analyzes it was found that the first connection methods used ODBC interface was more friendly for user, because integration could be done in CAD software usually used to 3D models creation. This method to connection used unique identifier MSLINK definited for all database records. The structure of connected database allowed to connect together individual attribute to set of date (tables) collected in different department of institution. The CityGML standard allowed saving not only descriptive information, but also describe semantic and topology of the objects. This format on creation stage request from user a knowledge about specific recording structure based on XML code. In CityGML standard default attributes for individual spatial objects were defined. The values for this attributes in specific code list were determined. In both presented methods it was allowed to add user attributes

  3. Interpixel crosstalk in a 3D-integrated active pixel sensor for x-ray detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaMarr, Beverly; Bautz, Mark; Foster, Rick; Kissel, Steve; Prigozhin, Gregory; Suntharalingam, Vyshnavi

    2010-07-01

    MIT Lincoln Laboratories and MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research have developed an active pixel sensor for use as a photon counting device for imaging spectroscopy in the soft X-ray band. A silicon-on-insulator (SOI) readout circuit was integrated with a high-resistivity silicon diode detector array using a per-pixel 3D integration technique developed at Lincoln Laboratory. We have tested these devices at 5.9 keV and 1.5 keV. Here we examine the interpixel cross-talk measured with 5.9 keV X-rays.

  4. Integration of a 3D perspective view in the navigation display: featuring pilot's mental model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrecht, L.; Schmerwitz, S.

    2015-05-01

    Synthetic vision systems (SVS) appear as spreading technology in the avionic domain. Several studies prove enhanced situational awareness when using synthetic vision. Since the introduction of synthetic vision a steady change and evolution started concerning the primary flight display (PFD) and the navigation display (ND). The main improvements of the ND comprise the representation of colored ground proximity warning systems (EGPWS), weather radar, and TCAS information. Synthetic vision seems to offer high potential to further enhance cockpit display systems. Especially, concerning the current trend having a 3D perspective view in a SVS-PFD while leaving the navigational content as well as methods of interaction unchanged the question arouses if and how the gap between both displays might evolve to a serious problem. This issue becomes important in relation to the transition and combination of strategic and tactical flight guidance. Hence, pros and cons of 2D and 3D views generally as well as the gap between the egocentric perspective 3D view of the PFD and the exocentric 2D top and side view of the ND will be discussed. Further a concept for the integration of a 3D perspective view, i.e., bird's eye view, in synthetic vision ND will be presented. The combination of 2D and 3D views in the ND enables a better correlation of the ND and the PFD. Additionally, this supports the building of pilot's mental model. The authors believe it will improve the situational and spatial awareness. It might prove to further raise the safety margin when operating in mountainous areas.

  5. Integrating Data Clustering and Visualization for the Analysis of 3D Gene Expression Data

    SciTech Connect

    Data Analysis and Visualization and the Department of Computer Science, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis CA 95616, USA,; nternational Research Training Group ``Visualization of Large and Unstructured Data Sets,'' University of Kaiserslautern, Germany; Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Genomics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley CA 94720, USA; Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley CA 94720, USA,; Computer Science Division,University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA,; Computer Science Department, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA,; All authors are with the Berkeley Drosophila Transcription Network Project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,; Rubel, Oliver; Weber, Gunther H.; Huang, Min-Yu; Bethel, E. Wes; Biggin, Mark D.; Fowlkes, Charless C.; Hendriks, Cris L. Luengo; Keranen, Soile V. E.; Eisen, Michael B.; Knowles, David W.; Malik, Jitendra; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd

    2008-05-12

    The recent development of methods for extracting precise measurements of spatial gene expression patterns from three-dimensional (3D) image data opens the way for new analyses of the complex gene regulatory networks controlling animal development. We present an integrated visualization and analysis framework that supports user-guided data clustering to aid exploration of these new complex datasets. The interplay of data visualization and clustering-based data classification leads to improved visualization and enables a more detailed analysis than previously possible. We discuss (i) integration of data clustering and visualization into one framework; (ii) application of data clustering to 3D gene expression data; (iii) evaluation of the number of clusters k in the context of 3D gene expression clustering; and (iv) improvement of overall analysis quality via dedicated post-processing of clustering results based on visualization. We discuss the use of this framework to objectively define spatial pattern boundaries and temporal profiles of genes and to analyze how mRNA patterns are controlled by their regulatory transcription factors.

  6. Polymer optical fibers integrated directly into 3D orthogonal woven composites for sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamouda, Tamer; Seyam, Abdel-Fattah M.; Peters, Kara

    2015-02-01

    This study demonstrates that standard polymer optical fibers (POF) can be directly integrated into composites from 3D orthogonal woven preforms during the weaving process and then serve as in-situ sensors to detect damage due to bending or impact loads. Different composite samples with embedded POF were fabricated of 3D orthogonal woven composites with different parameters namely number of y-/x-layers and x-yarn density. The signal of POF was not affected significantly by the preform structure. During application of resin using VARTM technique, significant drop in backscattering level was observed due to pressure caused by vacuum on the embedded POF. Measurements of POF signal while in the final composites after resin cure indicated that the backscattering level almost returned to the original level of un-embedded POF. The POF responded to application of bending and impact loads to the composite with a reduction in the backscattering level. The backscattering level almost returned back to its original level after removing the bending load until damage was present in the composite. Similar behavior occurred due to impact events. As the POF itself is used as the sensor and can be integrated throughout the composite, large sections of future 3D woven composite structures could be monitored without the need for specialized sensors or complex instrumentation.

  7. Coarse integral holography approach for real 3D color video displays.

    PubMed

    Chen, J S; Smithwick, Q Y J; Chu, D P

    2016-03-21

    A colour holographic display is considered the ultimate apparatus to provide the most natural 3D viewing experience. It encodes a 3D scene as holographic patterns that then are used to reproduce the optical wavefront. The main challenge at present is for the existing technologies to cope with the full information bandwidth required for the computation and display of holographic video. We have developed a dynamic coarse integral holography approach using opto-mechanical scanning, coarse integral optics and a low space-bandwidth-product high-bandwidth spatial light modulator to display dynamic holograms with a large space-bandwidth-product at video rates, combined with an efficient rendering algorithm to reduce the information content. This makes it possible to realise a full-parallax, colour holographic video display with a bandwidth of 10 billion pixels per second, and an adequate image size and viewing angle, as well as all relevant 3D cues. Our approach is scalable and the prototype can achieve even better performance with continuing advances in hardware components. PMID:27136858

  8. Integrated 3-D quality control of geological interpretation through the use of simple methods and programs

    SciTech Connect

    Chatellier, J.Y.; Gustavo, F.; Magaly, Q.

    1996-12-31

    Integrating different petroleum geology disciplines gives insight and help in analyzing data and in checking the quality of different interpretations. Simple approaches and affordable programs allow rapid visualization of data in 3-D. Displaying geological data from stratigraphy, diagenesis, and structural geology together, allows identification of anomalies (i.e. development targets) and often gives clues of the controlling processes. Four case studies from world class fields are used to illustrate the vital need to integrate quality control of interpretation across disciplines. Distribution of diagenetic alterations is revealed by visualizing diagenetic and petrographic data against faults in a 3-D statistical program. Faults are transferred from 3-D seismic into such a program and then analyzed against other data. Fault intersections wrongly correlated are also easily picked. Other powerful tools include a modified use of the Bischke Plots that allow the identification of missing sections previously identified as fault cut-outs. The quality of interpretation has sometimes been assessed from the presence of stacked anomalies of various expression. In other cases repeated unexpected isopach trends revealed subtle faults such as riedels sealing and compartmentizing the reservoirs. Occasionally the timing of fault reactivation was assessed precisely whereas all other techniques failed even to identify these hidden features. Unrecognized porosity-depth trends were identified after filtering data for stratigraphy or sedimentology and studying it in its geographical and tectonic context. Three dimensional visualization was needed in cases of quartz overgrowth where grain size, depth, stratigraphy and location with respect to faults were all important.

  9. Integrated 3-D quality control of geological interpretation through the use of simple methods and programs

    SciTech Connect

    Chatellier, J.Y.; Gustavo, F.; Magaly, Q. )

    1996-01-01

    Integrating different petroleum geology disciplines gives insight and help in analyzing data and in checking the quality of different interpretations. Simple approaches and affordable programs allow rapid visualization of data in 3-D. Displaying geological data from stratigraphy, diagenesis, and structural geology together, allows identification of anomalies (i.e. development targets) and often gives clues of the controlling processes. Four case studies from world class fields are used to illustrate the vital need to integrate quality control of interpretation across disciplines. Distribution of diagenetic alterations is revealed by visualizing diagenetic and petrographic data against faults in a 3-D statistical program. Faults are transferred from 3-D seismic into such a program and then analyzed against other data. Fault intersections wrongly correlated are also easily picked. Other powerful tools include a modified use of the Bischke Plots that allow the identification of missing sections previously identified as fault cut-outs. The quality of interpretation has sometimes been assessed from the presence of stacked anomalies of various expression. In other cases repeated unexpected isopach trends revealed subtle faults such as riedels sealing and compartmentizing the reservoirs. Occasionally the timing of fault reactivation was assessed precisely whereas all other techniques failed even to identify these hidden features. Unrecognized porosity-depth trends were identified after filtering data for stratigraphy or sedimentology and studying it in its geographical and tectonic context. Three dimensional visualization was needed in cases of quartz overgrowth where grain size, depth, stratigraphy and location with respect to faults were all important.

  10. Coarse integral holography approach for real 3D color video displays.

    PubMed

    Chen, J S; Smithwick, Q Y J; Chu, D P

    2016-03-21

    A colour holographic display is considered the ultimate apparatus to provide the most natural 3D viewing experience. It encodes a 3D scene as holographic patterns that then are used to reproduce the optical wavefront. The main challenge at present is for the existing technologies to cope with the full information bandwidth required for the computation and display of holographic video. We have developed a dynamic coarse integral holography approach using opto-mechanical scanning, coarse integral optics and a low space-bandwidth-product high-bandwidth spatial light modulator to display dynamic holograms with a large space-bandwidth-product at video rates, combined with an efficient rendering algorithm to reduce the information content. This makes it possible to realise a full-parallax, colour holographic video display with a bandwidth of 10 billion pixels per second, and an adequate image size and viewing angle, as well as all relevant 3D cues. Our approach is scalable and the prototype can achieve even better performance with continuing advances in hardware components.

  11. Catch and Release: Integrated system for multiplexed detection of bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Verbarg, Jasenka; Plath, William D.; Shriver-Lake, Lisa C.; Howell, Peter B.; Erickson, Jeffrey S.; Golden, Joel P.; Ligler, Frances S.

    2013-01-01

    An integrated system with automated immunomagnetic separation and processing of fluidic samples was demonstrated for multiplexed optical detection of bacterial targets. Mixtures of target-specific magnetic bead sets were processed in the NRL MagTrap with the aid of rotating magnet arrays that entrapped and moved the beads within the channel during reagent processing. Processing was performed in buffer and human serum matrices with 10-fold dilutions in the range of 102 – 106 cells/mL of target bacteria. Reversal of magnets’ rotation post processing released the beads back into the flow and moved them into the Microflow Cytometer for optical interrogation. Identification of the beads and the detection of PE fluorescence were performed simultaneously for multiplexed detection. Multiplexing was performed with specifically targeted bead sets to detect E. coli 0157.H7, Salmonella Common Structural Antigen, Listeria sp. and Shigella sp. Dose-response curves were obtained, and limits of detection were calculated for each target in the buffer and clinical matrix. Additional tests demonstrated the potential for using the MagTrap to concentrate target from larger volumes of sample prior to the addition of assay reagents. PMID:23631439

  12. Integration of multiple view plus depth data for free viewpoint 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Kazuyoshi; Yoshida, Yuko; Kawamoto, Tetsuya; Fujii, Toshiaki; Mase, Kenji

    2014-03-01

    This paper proposes a method for constructing a reasonable scale of end-to-end free-viewpoint video system that captures multiple view and depth data, reconstructs three-dimensional polygon models of objects, and display them on virtual 3D CG spaces. This system consists of a desktop PC and four Kinect sensors. First, multiple view plus depth data at four viewpoints are captured by Kinect sensors simultaneously. Then, the captured data are integrated to point cloud data by using camera parameters. The obtained point cloud data are sampled to volume data that consists of voxels. Since volume data that are generated from point cloud data are sparse, those data are made dense by using global optimization algorithm. Final step is to reconstruct surfaces on dense volume data by discrete marching cubes method. Since accuracy of depth maps affects to the quality of 3D polygon model, a simple inpainting method for improving depth maps is also presented.

  13. A new 3-D integral code for computation of accelerator magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, L.R.; Kettunen, L.

    1991-01-01

    For computing accelerator magnets, integral codes have several advantages over finite element codes; far-field boundaries are treated automatically, and computed field in the bore region satisfy Maxwell's equations exactly. A new integral code employing edge elements rather than nodal elements has overcome the difficulties associated with earlier integral codes. By the use of field integrals (potential differences) as solution variables, the number of unknowns is reduced to one less than the number of nodes. Two examples, a hollow iron sphere and the dipole magnet of Advanced Photon Source injector synchrotron, show the capability of the code. The CPU time requirements are comparable to those of three-dimensional (3-D) finite-element codes. Experiments show that in practice it can realize much of the potential CPU time saving that parallel processing makes possible. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. The 3-D CFD modeling of gas turbine combustor-integral bleed flow interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, D. Y.; Reynolds, R. S.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was developed to analyze the flow interaction between a gas turbine combustor and an integral bleed plenum. In this model, the elliptic governing equations of continuity, momentum and the k-e turbulence model were solved on a boundary-fitted, curvilinear, orthogonal grid system. The model was first validated against test data from public literature and then applied to a gas turbine combustor with integral bleed. The model predictions agreed well with data from combustor rig testing. The model predictions also indicated strong flow interaction between the combustor and the integral bleed. Integral bleed flow distribution was found to have a great effect on the pressure distribution around the gas turbine combustor.

  15. 3D Porosity Estimation of the Nankai Trough Sediments from Core-log-seismic Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. O.

    2015-12-01

    The Nankai Trough off southwest Japan is one of the best subduction-zone to study megathrust earthquake fault. Historic, great megathrust earthquakes with a recurrence interval of 100-200 yr have generated strong motion and large tsunamis along the Nankai Trough subduction zone. At the Nankai Trough margin, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) is being subducted beneath the Eurasian Plate to the northwest at a convergence rate ~4 cm/yr. The Shikoku Basin, the northern part of the PSP, is estimated to have opened between 25 and 15 Ma by backarc spreading of the Izu-Bonin arc. The >100-km-wide Nankai accretionary wedge, which has developed landward of the trench since the Miocene, mainly consists of offscraped and underplated materials from the trough-fill turbidites and the Shikoku Basin hemipelagic sediments. Particularly, physical properties of the incoming hemipelagic sediments may be critical for seismogenic behavior of the megathrust fault. We have carried out core-log-seismic integration (CLSI) to estimate 3D acoustic impedance and porosity for the incoming sediments in the Nankai Trough. For the CLSI, we used 3D seismic reflection data, P-wave velocity and density data obtained during IODP (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program) Expeditions 322 and 333. We computed acoustic impedance depth profiles for the IODP drilling sites from P-wave velocity and density data. We constructed seismic convolution models with the acoustic impedance profiles and a source wavelet which is extracted from the seismic data, adjusting the seismic models to observed seismic traces with inversion method. As a result, we obtained 3D acoustic impedance volume and then converted it to 3D porosity volume. In general, the 3D porosities show decrease with depth. We found a porosity anomaly zone with alteration of high and low porosities seaward of the trough axis. In this talk, we will show detailed 3D porosity of the incoming sediments, and present implications of the porosity anomaly zone for the

  16. 3D probe array integrated with a front-end 100-channel neural recording ASIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ming-Yuan; Yao, Lei; Tan, Kwan Ling; Lim, Ruiqi; Li, Peng; Chen, Weiguo

    2014-12-01

    Brain-machine interface technology can improve the lives of spinal cord injury victims and amputees. A neural interface system, consisting of a 3D probe array and a custom low-power (1 mW) 100-channel (100-ch) neural recording application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), was designed and implemented to monitor neural activity. In this study, a microassembly 3D probe array method using a novel lead transfer technique was proposed to overcome the bonding plane mismatch encountered during orthogonal assembly. The proposed lead transfer technique can be completed using standard micromachining and packaging processes. The ASIC can be stacking-integrated with the probe array, minimizing the form factor of the assembled module. To minimize trauma to brain cells, the profile of the integrated probe array was controlled within 730 μm. The average impedance of the assembled probe was approximately 0.55 MΩ at 1 kHz. To verify the functionality of the integrated neural probe array, bench-top signal acquisitions were performed and discussed.

  17. Three-dimensional (3D) monolithically integrated photodetector and WDM receiver based on bulk silicon wafer.

    PubMed

    Song, Junfeng; Luo, Xianshu; Tu, Xiaoguang; Jia, Lianxi; Fang, Qing; Liow, Tsung-Yang; Yu, Mingbin; Lo, Guo-Qiang

    2014-08-11

    We propose a novel three-dimensional (3D) monolithic optoelectronic integration platform. Such platform integrates both electrical and photonic devices in a bulk silicon wafer, which eliminates the high-cost silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer and is more suitable for process requirements of electronic and photonic integrated circuits (ICs). For proof-of-concept, we demonstrate a three-dimensional photodetector and WDM receiver system. The Ge is grown on a 8-inch bulk silicon wafer while the optical waveguide is defined in a SiN layer which is deposited on top of it, with ~4 µm oxide sandwiched in between. The light is directed to the Ge photodetector from the SiN waveguide vertically by using grating coupler with a Aluminum mirror on top of it. The measured photodetector responsivity is ~0.2 A/W and the 3-dB bandwidth is ~2 GHz. Using such vertical-coupled photodetector, we demonstrated an 8-channel receiver by integrating a 1 × 8 arrayed waveguide grating (AWG). High-quality optical signal detection with up to 10 Gbit/s data rate is demonstrated, suggesting a 80 Gbit/s throughput. Such receiver can be applied to on-chip optical interconnect, DRAM interface, and telecommunication systems.

  18. Intracranial Catheter for Integrated 3D Ultrasound Imaging & Hyperthermia: Feasibility Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herickhoff, Carl D.; Light, Edward D.; Bing, Kristin Frinkley; Mukundan, Srinivasan; Grant, Gerald A.; Wolf, Patrick D.; Dixon-Tulloch, Ellen; Shih, Timothy; Hsu, Stephen J.; Smith, Stephen W.

    2009-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the feasibility of an intracranial catheter transducer capable of real-time 3D (RT3D) imaging and ultrasound hyperthermia, for application in the visualization and treatment of tumors in the brain. We designed and constructed a 12 Fr, integrated matrix and linear array catheter transducer prototype for combined RT3D imaging and heating capability. This dual-mode catheter incorporated 153 matrix array elements and 11 linear array elements, on a 0.2 mm pitch, with a total aperture size of 8.4 mm×2.3 mm. This array achieved a 3.5° C in vitro temperature rise at a 2 cm focal distance in tissue-mimicking material. The dual-mode catheter prototype was compared with a Siemens 10 Fr AcuNav™ catheter as a gold standard in experiments assessing image quality and therapeutic potential, and both probes were used in a canine brain model to image anatomical structures and color Doppler blood flow and to attempt in vivo heating.

  19. Application of CART3D to Complex Propulsion-Airframe Integration with Vehicle Sketch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) is an easy-to-use modeler used to generate aircraft geometries for use in conceptual design and analysis. It has been used in the past to generate metageometries for aerodynamic analyses ranging from handbook methods to Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD). As desirable as it is to bring high order analyses, such as CFD, into the conceptual design process, this has been difficult and time consuming in practice due to the manual nature of both surface and volume grid generation. Over the last couple of years, VSP has had a major upgrade of its surface triangulation and export capability. This has enhanced its ability to work with Cart3D, an inviscid, three dimensional fluid flow toolset. The combination of VSP and Cart3D allows performing inviscid CFD on complex geometries with relatively high productivity. This paper will illustrate the use of VSP with Cart3D through an example case of a complex propulsion-airframe integration (PAI) of an over-wing nacelle (OWN) airliner configuration.

  20. Generic camera model and its calibration for computational integral imaging and 3D reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiming; Li, Youfu

    2011-03-01

    Integral imaging (II) is an important 3D imaging technology. To reconstruct 3D information of the viewed objects, modeling and calibrating the optical pickup process of II are necessary. This work focuses on the modeling and calibration of an II system consisting of a lenslet array, an imaging lens, and a charge-coupled device camera. Most existing work on such systems assumes a pinhole array model (PAM). In this work, we explore a generic camera model that accommodates more generality. This model is an empirical model based on measurements, and we constructed a setup for its calibration. Experimental results show a significant difference between the generic camera model and the PAM. Images of planar patterns and 3D objects were computationally reconstructed with the generic camera model. Compared with the images reconstructed using the PAM, the images present higher fidelity and preserve more high spatial frequency components. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt in applying a generic camera model to an II system.

  1. A 3D integral imaging optical see-through head-mounted display.

    PubMed

    Hua, Hong; Javidi, Bahram

    2014-06-01

    An optical see-through head-mounted display (OST-HMD), which enables optical superposition of digital information onto the direct view of the physical world and maintains see-through vision to the real world, is a vital component in an augmented reality (AR) system. A key limitation of the state-of-the-art OST-HMD technology is the well-known accommodation-convergence mismatch problem caused by the fact that the image source in most of the existing AR displays is a 2D flat surface located at a fixed distance from the eye. In this paper, we present an innovative approach to OST-HMD designs by combining the recent advancement of freeform optical technology and microscopic integral imaging (micro-InI) method. A micro-InI unit creates a 3D image source for HMD viewing optics, instead of a typical 2D display surface, by reconstructing a miniature 3D scene from a large number of perspective images of the scene. By taking advantage of the emerging freeform optical technology, our approach will result in compact, lightweight, goggle-style AR display that is potentially less vulnerable to the accommodation-convergence discrepancy problem and visual fatigue. A proof-of-concept prototype system is demonstrated, which offers a goggle-like compact form factor, non-obstructive see-through field of view, and true 3D virtual display.

  2. Integration of 3D structure from disparity into biological motion perception independent of depth awareness.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Jiang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Images projected onto the retinas of our two eyes come from slightly different directions in the real world, constituting binocular disparity that serves as an important source for depth perception - the ability to see the world in three dimensions. It remains unclear whether the integration of disparity cues into visual perception depends on the conscious representation of stereoscopic depth. Here we report evidence that, even without inducing discernible perceptual representations, the disparity-defined depth information could still modulate the visual processing of 3D objects in depth-irrelevant aspects. Specifically, observers who could not discriminate disparity-defined in-depth facing orientations of biological motions (i.e., approaching vs. receding) due to an excessive perceptual bias nevertheless exhibited a robust perceptual asymmetry in response to the indistinguishable facing orientations, similar to those who could consciously discriminate such 3D information. These results clearly demonstrate that the visual processing of biological motion engages the disparity cues independent of observers' depth awareness. The extraction and utilization of binocular depth signals thus can be dissociable from the conscious representation of 3D structure in high-level visual perception.

  3. 3D integration of planar crossbar memristive devices with CMOS substrate.

    PubMed

    Lin, Peng; Pi, Shuang; Xia, Qiangfei

    2014-10-10

    Planar memristive devices with bottom electrodes embedded into the substrates were integrated on top of CMOS substrates using nanoimprint lithography to implement hybrid circuits with a CMOL-like architecture. The planar geometry eliminated the mechanically and electrically weak parts, such as kinks in the top electrodes in a traditional crossbar structure, and allowed the use of thicker and thus less resistive metal wires as the bottom electrodes. Planar memristive devices integrated with CMOS have demonstrated much lower programing voltages and excellent switching uniformity. With the inclusion of the Moiré pattern, the integration process has sub-20 nm alignment accuracy, opening opportunities for 3D hybrid circuits in applications in the next generation of memory and unconventional computing.

  4. 3D modeling of a dolerite intrusion from the photogrammetric and geophysical data integration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, João; Machadinho, Ana; Figueiredo, Fernando; Mira, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study is create a methodology based on the integration of data obtained from various available technologies, which allow a credible and complete evaluation of rock masses. In this particular case of a dolerite intrusion, which deployed an exploration of aggregates and belongs to the Jobasaltos - Extracção e Britagem. S.A.. Dolerite intrusion is situated in the volcanic complex of Serra de Todo-o-Mundo, Casais Gaiola, intruded in Jurassic sandstones. The integration of the surface and subsurface mapping, obtained by technology UAVs (Drone) and geophysical surveys (Electromagnetic Method - TEM 48 FAST), allows the construction of 2D and 3D models of the study local. The combination of the 3D point clouds produced from two distinct processes, modeling of photogrammetric and geophysical data, will be the basis for the construction of a single model of set. The rock masses in an integral perspective being visible their development above the surface and subsurface. The presentation of 2D and 3D models will give a perspective of structures, fracturation, lithology and their spatial correlations contributing to a better local knowledge, as well as its potential for the intended purpose. From these local models it will be possible to characterize and quantify the geological structures. These models will have its importance as a tool to assist in the analysis and drafting of regional models. The qualitative improvement in geological/structural modeling, seeks to reduce the value of characterization/cost ratio, in phase of prospecting, improving the investment/benefit ratio. This methodology helps to assess more accurately the economic viability of the projects.

  5. Fully analytical integration over the 3D volume bounded by the β sphere in topological atoms.

    PubMed

    Popelier, Paul L A

    2011-11-17

    Atomic properties of a topological atom are obtained by 3D integration over the volume of its atomic basin. Algorithms that compute atomic properties typically integrate over two subspaces: the volume bounded by the so-called β sphere, which is centered at the nucleus and completely contained within the atomic basin, and the volume of the remaining part of the basin. Here we show how the usual quadrature over the β sphere volume can be replaced by a fully analytical 3D integration leading to the atomic charge (monopole moment) for s, p, and d functions. Spherical tensor multipole moments have also been implemented and tested up to hexadecupole for s functions only, and up to quadrupole for s and p functions. The new algorithm is illustrated by operating on capped glycine (HF/6-31G, 35 molecular orbitals (MOs), 322 Gaussian primitives, 19 nuclei), the protein crambin (HF/3-21G, 1260 MOs, 5922 primitives and 642 nuclei), and tin (Z = 50) in Sn(2)(CH(3))(2) (B3LYP/cc-pVTZ and LANL2DZ, 59 MOs, 1352 primitives).

  6. Scipion: A software framework toward integration, reproducibility and validation in 3D electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa-Trevín, J M; Quintana, A; Del Cano, L; Zaldívar, A; Foche, I; Gutiérrez, J; Gómez-Blanco, J; Burguet-Castell, J; Cuenca-Alba, J; Abrishami, V; Vargas, J; Otón, J; Sharov, G; Vilas, J L; Navas, J; Conesa, P; Kazemi, M; Marabini, R; Sorzano, C O S; Carazo, J M

    2016-07-01

    In the past few years, 3D electron microscopy (3DEM) has undergone a revolution in instrumentation and methodology. One of the central players in this wide-reaching change is the continuous development of image processing software. Here we present Scipion, a software framework for integrating several 3DEM software packages through a workflow-based approach. Scipion allows the execution of reusable, standardized, traceable and reproducible image-processing protocols. These protocols incorporate tools from different programs while providing full interoperability among them. Scipion is an open-source project that can be downloaded from http://scipion.cnb.csic.es. PMID:27108186

  7. Scipion: A software framework toward integration, reproducibility and validation in 3D electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa-Trevín, J M; Quintana, A; Del Cano, L; Zaldívar, A; Foche, I; Gutiérrez, J; Gómez-Blanco, J; Burguet-Castell, J; Cuenca-Alba, J; Abrishami, V; Vargas, J; Otón, J; Sharov, G; Vilas, J L; Navas, J; Conesa, P; Kazemi, M; Marabini, R; Sorzano, C O S; Carazo, J M

    2016-07-01

    In the past few years, 3D electron microscopy (3DEM) has undergone a revolution in instrumentation and methodology. One of the central players in this wide-reaching change is the continuous development of image processing software. Here we present Scipion, a software framework for integrating several 3DEM software packages through a workflow-based approach. Scipion allows the execution of reusable, standardized, traceable and reproducible image-processing protocols. These protocols incorporate tools from different programs while providing full interoperability among them. Scipion is an open-source project that can be downloaded from http://scipion.cnb.csic.es.

  8. The OpenEarth Framework (OEF) for the 3D Visualization of Integrated Earth Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, David; Moreland, John; Baru, Chaitan; Crosby, Chris

    2010-05-01

    Data integration is increasingly important as we strive to combine data from disparate sources and assemble better models of the complex processes operating at the Earth's surface and within its interior. These data are often large, multi-dimensional, and subject to differing conventions for data structures, file formats, coordinate spaces, and units of measure. When visualized, these data require differing, and sometimes conflicting, conventions for visual representations, dimensionality, symbology, and interaction. All of this makes the visualization of integrated Earth science data particularly difficult. The OpenEarth Framework (OEF) is an open-source data integration and visualization suite of applications and libraries being developed by the GEON project at the University of California, San Diego, USA. Funded by the NSF, the project is leveraging virtual globe technology from NASA's WorldWind to create interactive 3D visualization tools that combine and layer data from a wide variety of sources to create a holistic view of features at, above, and beneath the Earth's surface. The OEF architecture is open, cross-platform, modular, and based upon Java. The OEF's modular approach to software architecture yields an array of mix-and-match software components for assembling custom applications. Available modules support file format handling, web service communications, data management, user interaction, and 3D visualization. File parsers handle a variety of formal and de facto standard file formats used in the field. Each one imports data into a general-purpose common data model supporting multidimensional regular and irregular grids, topography, feature geometry, and more. Data within these data models may be manipulated, combined, reprojected, and visualized. The OEF's visualization features support a variety of conventional and new visualization techniques for looking at topography, tomography, point clouds, imagery, maps, and feature geometry. 3D data such as

  9. On Integral Invariants for Effective 3-D Motion Trajectory Matching and Recognition.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhanpeng; Li, Youfu

    2016-02-01

    Motion trajectories tracked from the motions of human, robots, and moving objects can provide an important clue for motion analysis, classification, and recognition. This paper defines some new integral invariants for a 3-D motion trajectory. Based on two typical kernel functions, we design two integral invariants, the distance and area integral invariants. The area integral invariants are estimated based on the blurred segment of noisy discrete curve to avoid the computation of high-order derivatives. Such integral invariants for a motion trajectory enjoy some desirable properties, such as computational locality, uniqueness of representation, and noise insensitivity. Moreover, our formulation allows the analysis of motion trajectories at a range of scales by varying the scale of kernel function. The features of motion trajectories can thus be perceived at multiscale levels in a coarse-to-fine manner. Finally, we define a distance function to measure the trajectory similarity to find similar trajectories. Through the experiments, we examine the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed integral invariants and find that they can capture the motion cues in trajectory matching and sign recognition satisfactorily.

  10. 3D simulation of integrated multi-coil ICP source with azimuthal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brcka, Jozef

    2015-09-01

    Integrated multi-coil (IMC) planar ICP source with azimuthal motion is presented. Scaling ICP sources to larger substrate size is always complicated due to many technical issues and is challenged by the plasma chemistry. The source described in this work has capability of azimuthally moving plasma and has potential for large area and high density plasma applications. Hence, this system does not have an ideal axial symmetry, the 3D model approach has to be used to assess its transient performance. Moreover, reactor walls are imposing stronger boundary conditions on distribution of the radicals in ``off-axis reactive plasma.'' Intrinsic asymmetry of source and plasma were investigated by 3D fluid model developed under Plasma Module framework and supported by COMSOL Multiphysics solvers. Operation modes have potential to control plasma distribution, reaction chemistry and increase/modulate radicals' production. Simulation confirmed assumption that plasma distribution may essentially change in different gas. Under specific conditions integrated multi-coil ICP source is producing pulsed plasma. Temporal, spatial and population plasma characteristics were investigated in an inert carrier gas (Ar) and reactive plasma consisting of several gases (Ar, H2, CO and CH4).

  11. Integrating 3D seismic curvature and curvature gradient attributes for fracture characterization: Methodologies and interpretational implications

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Dengliang

    2013-03-01

    In 3D seismic interpretation, curvature is a popular attribute that depicts the geometry of seismic reflectors and has been widely used to detect faults in the subsurface; however, it provides only part of the solutions to subsurface structure analysis. This study extends the curvature algorithm to a new curvature gradient algorithm, and integrates both algorithms for fracture detection using a 3D seismic test data set over Teapot Dome (Wyoming). In fractured reservoirs at Teapot Dome known to be formed by tectonic folding and faulting, curvature helps define the crestal portion of the reservoirs that is associated with strong seismic amplitude and high oil productivity. In contrast, curvature gradient helps better define the regional northwest-trending and the cross-regional northeast-trending lineaments that are associated with weak seismic amplitude and low oil productivity. In concert with previous reports from image logs, cores, and outcrops, the current study based on an integrated seismic curvature and curvature gradient analysis suggests that curvature might help define areas of enhanced potential to form tensile fractures, whereas curvature gradient might help define zones of enhanced potential to develop shear fractures. In certain fractured reservoirs such as at Teapot Dome where faulting and fault-related folding contribute dominantly to the formation and evolution of fractures, curvature and curvature gradient attributes can be potentially applied to differentiate fracture mode, to predict fracture intensity and orientation, to detect fracture volume and connectivity, and to model fracture networks.

  12. Distributed network of integrated 3D sensors for transportation security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejmadi, Vic; Garcia, Fred

    2009-05-01

    The US Port Security Agency has strongly emphasized the needs for tighter control at transportation hubs. Distributed arrays of miniature CMOS cameras are providing some solutions today. However, due to the high bandwidth required and the low valued content of such cameras (simple video feed), large computing power and analysis algorithms as well as control software are needed, which makes such an architecture cumbersome, heavy, slow and expensive. We present a novel technique by integrating cheap and mass replicable stealth 3D sensing micro-devices in a distributed network. These micro-sensors are based on conventional structures illumination via successive fringe patterns on the object to be sensed. The communication bandwidth between each sensor remains very small, but is of very high valued content. Key technologies to integrate such a sensor are digital optics and structured laser illumination.

  13. CISUS: an integrated 3D ultrasound system for IGT using a modular tracking API

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boctor, Emad M.; Viswanathan, Anand; Pieper, Steve; Choti, Michael A.; Taylor, Russell H.; Kikinis, Ron; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2004-05-01

    Ultrasound has become popular in clinical/surgical applications, both as the primary image guidance modality and also in conjunction with other modalities like CT or MRI. Three dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) systems have also demonstrated usefulness in image-guided therapy (IGT). At the same time, however, current lack of open-source and open-architecture multi-modal medical visualization systems prevents 3DUS from fulfilling its potential. Several stand-alone 3DUS systems, like Stradx or In-Vivo exist today. Although these systems have been found to be useful in real clinical setting, it is difficult to augment their functionality and integrate them in versatile IGT systems. To address these limitations, a robotic/freehand 3DUS open environment (CISUS) is being integrated into the 3D Slicer, an open-source research tool developed for medical image analysis and surgical planning. In addition, the system capitalizes on generic application programming interfaces (APIs) for tracking devices and robotic control. The resulting platform-independent open-source system may serve as a valuable tool to the image guided surgery community. Other researchers could straightforwardly integrate the generic CISUS system along with other functionalities (i.e. dual view visualization, registration, real-time tracking, segmentation, etc) to rapidly create their medical/surgical applications. Our current driving clinical application is robotically assisted and freehand 3DUS-guided liver ablation, which is fully being integrated under the CISUS-3D Slicer. Initial functionality and pre-clinical feasibility are demonstrated on phantom and ex-vivo animal models.

  14. 77 FR 4982 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Smith-Lever 3(d) Extension Integrated Pest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ...-Lever 3(d) Extension Integrated Pest Management Competitive Grants Program AGENCY: National Institute of...-Grant Institutions, including Tuskegee University and West Virginia State University to compete for section 3(d) funds. Section 7417 of FCEA also provided the University of the District of Columbia...

  15. Multiplex microfluidic system integrating sequential operations of microalgal lipid production.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Ho Seok; Kim, Jaoon Young Hwan; Na, Sang Cheol; Jeon, Noo Li; Sim, Sang Jun

    2016-02-21

    The unit cost for the production of algal biofuel needs to be reduced in order to be a substitute for fossil fuel. To achieve this goal, the development of a novel system is needed for a rapid screening of numerous microalgal species to isolate superior strains with the highest lipid productivity. Here, we developed a PDMS-based multiplex microfluidic system with eight chambers and micropillar arrays to expedite multiple steps for lipid sample preparation from different microalgal strains. We could rapidly and efficiently perform sequential operations from cell culture to lipid extraction of eight different microalgal strains simultaneously on a single device without harvesting and purification steps, which are labor- and energy-intensive, by the simple injection of medium and solvent into the central inlet due to the integrated micropillar arrays connecting the chambers and central inlet. The lipid extraction efficiency using this system was comparable (94.5-102.6%) to the conventional Bligh-Dyer method. We investigated the cell growth and lipid productivity of different strains using the microfluidic device. We observed that each strain has a different lipid accumulation pattern according to stress conditions. These results demonstrate that our multiplex microfluidic approach can provide an efficient analytical tool for the rapid analysis of strain performances (e.g. cell growth and lipid productivities) and the determination of the optimal lipid induction condition for each strain. PMID:26783562

  16. Multiplexed polymer surface plasmon sensor with integrated optical coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyo, Hyeon-Bong; Park, Se Ho; Chung, Kwang Hyo; Choi, Chang Auck

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, we describe a novel multiplexed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor which is made of cyclic olefin copolymers (COCs, TOPAS TM). This material has excellent chemical resistance, low water uptake (< 0.01%), and high refractive index (n He- Ne=1.53) suitable to use as an optical coupler (prism) as well as a sensor substrate. We fabricated a standard slide glass sized, prism integrated, and injection molded COC-SPR sensor which are being applied toward the multiplexed detection of DNA single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). To evaluate the sensitivity of COC-SPR sensor, we first patterned MgF II on gold-coated COC-SPR sensor and observed the shift of minimum reflectivity (SPR dip) in pixel address. As incident light source we used an expanded, collimated, rectangular shaped He-Ne laser, with a diffuser for beam homogenization. With expanded laser beam we varied incident angle so that the angular shift is expressed as the darkest pixel shift on CCD. For optimized SPR characteristics and sensor configuration, analytical calculations (Fresnel equation) were performed, and the best SPR conditions were found to be d Au~48 nm at wavelength λ=633 nm with respected resonance angle at θ SPR =44.2° for COC-SPR sensor.

  17. Illustrating Surface Shape in Volume Data via Principal Direction-Driven 3D Line Integral Convolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interrante, Victoria

    1997-01-01

    The three-dimensional shape and relative depth of a smoothly curving layered transparent surface may be communicated particularly effectively when the surface is artistically enhanced with sparsely distributed opaque detail. This paper describes how the set of principal directions and principal curvatures specified by local geometric operators can be understood to define a natural 'flow' over the surface of an object, and can be used to guide the placement of the lines of a stroke texture that seeks to represent 3D shape information in a perceptually intuitive way. The driving application for this work is the visualization of layered isovalue surfaces in volume data, where the particular identity of an individual surface is not generally known a priori and observers will typically wish to view a variety of different level surfaces from the same distribution, superimposed over underlying opaque structures. By advecting an evenly distributed set of tiny opaque particles, and the empty space between them, via 3D line integral convolution through the vector field defined by the principal directions and principal curvatures of the level surfaces passing through each gridpoint of a 3D volume, it is possible to generate a single scan-converted solid stroke texture that may intuitively represent the essential shape information of any level surface in the volume. To generate longer strokes over more highly curved areas, where the directional information is both most stable and most relevant, and to simultaneously downplay the visual impact of directional information in the flatter regions, one may dynamically redefine the length of the filter kernel according to the magnitude of the maximum principal curvature of the level surface at the point around which it is applied.

  18. Scientific Subsurface data for EPOS - integration of 3D and 4D data services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerschke, Dorit; Hammitzsch, Martin; Wächter, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    The provision of efficient and easy access to scientific subsurface data sets obtained from field studies and scientific observatories or by geological 3D/4D-modeling is an important contribution to modern research infrastructures as they can facilitate the integrated analysis and evaluation as well as the exchange of scientific data. Within the project EPOS - European Plate Observing System, access to 3D and 4D data sets will be provided by 'WP15 - Geological information and modeling' and include structural geology models as well as numerical models, e.g., temperature, aquifers, and velocity. This also includes validated raw data, e.g., seismic profiles, from which the models where derived. All these datasets are of high quality and of unique scientific value as the process of modeling is time and cost intensive. However, these models are currently not easily accessible for the wider scientific community, much less to the public. For the provision of these data sets a data management platform based on common and standardized data models, protocols, and encodings as well as on a predominant use of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) has been devised. The interoperability for disciplinary and domain applications thus highly depends on the adoption of generally agreed technologies and standards (OGC, ISO…) originating from Spatial Data Infrastructure related efforts (e.g., INSPIRE). However, since not many standards for 3D and 4D geological data exists, this work also includes new approaches for project data management, interfaces for tools used by the researchers, and interfaces for the sharing and reusing of data.

  19. The Avignon Bridge: a 3d Reconstruction Project Integrating Archaeological, Historical and Gemorphological Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthelot, M.; Nony, N.; Gugi, L.; Bishop, A.; De Luca, L.

    2015-02-01

    The history and identity of the Avignon's bridge is inseparable from that of the Rhône river. Therefore, in order to share the history and memory of the Rhône, it is essential to get to know this bridge and especially to identify and make visible the traces of its past, its construction, its interaction with the river dynamics, which greatly influenced his life. These are the objectives of the PAVAGE project that focuses on digitally surveying, modelling and re-visiting a heritage site of primary importance with the aim of virtually restoring the link between the two sides which, after the disappearance of the Roman bridge of Arles, constituted for a long time the only connection between Lyon or Vienna and the sea. Therefore, this project has an important geo-historical dimension for which geo-morphological and paleoenvironmental studies were implemented in connection with the latest digital simulation methods exploiting geographic information systems. By integrating knowledge and reflections of archaeologists, historians, geomorphologists, environmentalists, architects, engineers and computer scientists, the result of this project (which involved 5 laboratories during 4 years) is a 3D digital model covering an extension of 50 km2 achieved by integrating satellite imagery, UAV-based acquisitions, terrestrial laser scanning and photogrammetry, etc. Beyond the actions of scientific valorisation concerning the historical and geomorphological dimensions of the project, the results of this work of this interdisciplinary investigation and interpretation of this site are today integrated within a location-based augmented reality application allowing tourists to exploring the virtual reconstruction of the bridge and its environment through tablets inside the portion of territory covered by this project (between Avignon and Villeneuve-lez-Avignon). This paper presents the main aspects of the 3D virtual reconstruction approach.

  20. THREE DIMENSIONAL INTEGRATED CHARACTERIZATION AND ARCHIVING SYSTEM (3D-ICAS)

    SciTech Connect

    George Jarvis

    2001-06-18

    The overall objective of this project is to develop an integrated system that remotely characterizes, maps, and archives measurement data of hazardous decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) areas. The system will generate a detailed 3-dimensional topography of the area as well as real-time quantitative measurements of volatile organics and radionuclides. The system will analyze substrate materials consisting of concrete, asbestos, and transite. The system will permanently archive the data measurements for regulatory and data integrity documentation. Exposure limits, rest breaks, and donning and removal of protective garments generate waste in the form of contaminated protective garments and equipment. Survey times are increased and handling and transporting potentially hazardous materials incur additional costs. Off-site laboratory analysis is expensive and time-consuming, often necessitating delay of further activities until results are received. The Three Dimensional Integrated Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS) has been developed to alleviate some of these problems. 3D-ICAS provides a flexible system for physical, chemical and nuclear measurements reduces costs and improves data quality. Operationally, 3D-ICAS performs real-time determinations of hazardous and toxic contamination. A prototype demonstration unit is available for use in early 2000. The tasks in this Phase included: (1) Mobility Platforms: Integrate hardware onto mobility platforms, upgrade surface sensors, develop unit operations and protocol. (2) System Developments: Evaluate metals detection capability using x-ray fluorescence technology. (3) IWOS Upgrades: Upgrade the IWOS software and hardware for compatibility with mobility platform. The system was modified, tested and debugged during 1999 and 2000. The 3D-ICAS was shipped on 11 May 2001 to FIU-HCET for demonstration and validation of the design modifications. These modifications included simplifying the design from a two

  1. Thin-dielectric-layer engineering for 3D nanostructure integration using an innovative planarization approach.

    PubMed

    Guerfi, Y; Doucet, J B; Larrieu, G

    2015-10-23

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures are emerging as promising building blocks for a large spectrum of applications. One critical issue in integration regards mastering the thin, flat, and chemically stable insulating layer that must be implemented on the nanostructure network in order to build striking nano-architectures. In this letter, we report an innovative method for nanoscale planarization on 3D nanostructures by using hydrogen silesquioxane as a spin-on-glass (SOG) dielectric material. To decouple the thickness of the final layer from the height of the nanostructure, we propose to embed the nanowire network in the insulator layer by exploiting the planarizing properties of the SOG approach. To achieve the desired dielectric thickness, the structure is chemically etched back with a highly diluted solution to control the etch rate precisely. The roughness of the top surface was less than 2 nm. There were no surface defects and the planarity was excellent, even in the vicinity of the nanowires. This newly developed process was used to realize a multilevel stack architecture with sub-deca-nanometer-range layer thickness.

  2. CATIA-V 3D Modeling for Design Integration of the Ignitor Machine Load Assembly^*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, A.; Parodi, B.; Gardella, F.; Coppi, B.

    2007-11-01

    In the framework of the ANSALDO industrial contribution to the Ignitor engineering design, the detailed design of all components of the machine core (Load Assembly) has been completed. The machine Central Post, Central Solenoid, and Poloidal Field Coil systems, the Plasma Chamber and First Wall system, the surrounding mechanical structures, the Vacuum Cryostat and the polyethylene boron sheets attached to it for neutron shielding, have all been analyzed to confirm that they can withstand both normal and off-normal operating loads, as well as the Plasma Chamber and First Wall baking operations, with proper safety margins, for the maximum plasma parameters scenario at 13 T/11 MA, for the reduced scenarios at 9 T/7 MA (limiter) and at 9 T/6 MA (double nul). Both 3D and 2D drawings of each individual component have been produced using the Dassault Systems CATIA-V software. After they have been all integrated into a single 3D CATIA model of the Load Assembly, the electro-fluidic and fluidic lines which supply electrical currents and helium cooling gas to the coils have been added and mechanically incorporated with the components listed above. A global seismic analysis of the Load Assembly with SSE/OBE response spectra has also been performed to verify that it is able to withstand such external events. ^*Work supported in part by ENEA of italy and by the US D.O.E.

  3. Thin-dielectric-layer engineering for 3D nanostructure integration using an innovative planarization approach.

    PubMed

    Guerfi, Y; Doucet, J B; Larrieu, G

    2015-10-23

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures are emerging as promising building blocks for a large spectrum of applications. One critical issue in integration regards mastering the thin, flat, and chemically stable insulating layer that must be implemented on the nanostructure network in order to build striking nano-architectures. In this letter, we report an innovative method for nanoscale planarization on 3D nanostructures by using hydrogen silesquioxane as a spin-on-glass (SOG) dielectric material. To decouple the thickness of the final layer from the height of the nanostructure, we propose to embed the nanowire network in the insulator layer by exploiting the planarizing properties of the SOG approach. To achieve the desired dielectric thickness, the structure is chemically etched back with a highly diluted solution to control the etch rate precisely. The roughness of the top surface was less than 2 nm. There were no surface defects and the planarity was excellent, even in the vicinity of the nanowires. This newly developed process was used to realize a multilevel stack architecture with sub-deca-nanometer-range layer thickness. PMID:26422697

  4. Thin-dielectric-layer engineering for 3D nanostructure integration using an innovative planarization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerfi, Y.; Doucet, J. B.; Larrieu, G.

    2015-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures are emerging as promising building blocks for a large spectrum of applications. One critical issue in integration regards mastering the thin, flat, and chemically stable insulating layer that must be implemented on the nanostructure network in order to build striking nano-architectures. In this letter, we report an innovative method for nanoscale planarization on 3D nanostructures by using hydrogen silesquioxane as a spin-on-glass (SOG) dielectric material. To decouple the thickness of the final layer from the height of the nanostructure, we propose to embed the nanowire network in the insulator layer by exploiting the planarizing properties of the SOG approach. To achieve the desired dielectric thickness, the structure is chemically etched back with a highly diluted solution to control the etch rate precisely. The roughness of the top surface was less than 2 nm. There were no surface defects and the planarity was excellent, even in the vicinity of the nanowires. This newly developed process was used to realize a multilevel stack architecture with sub-deca-nanometer-range layer thickness.

  5. The cross-correlation between 3D cosmic shear and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieser, Britta; Merkel, Philipp M.

    2016-06-01

    We present the first calculation of the cross-correlation between 3D cosmic shear and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (iSW) effect. Both signals are combined in a single formalism, which permits the computation of the full covariance matrix. In order to avoid the uncertainties presented by the non-linear evolution of the matter power spectrum and intrinsic alignments of galaxies, our analysis is restricted to large scales, i.e. multipoles below ℓ = 1000. We demonstrate in a Fisher analysis that this reduction compared to other studies of 3D weak lensing extending to smaller scales is compensated by the information that is gained if the additional iSW signal and in particular its cross-correlation with lensing data are considered. Given the observational standards of upcoming weak-lensing surveys like Euclid, marginal errors on cosmological parameters decrease by 10 per cent compared to a cosmic shear experiment if both types of information are combined without a cosmic wave background (CMB) prior. Once the constraining power of CMB data is added, the improvement becomes marginal.

  6. Multiple-mode Lamb wave scattering simulations using 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique.

    PubMed

    Leckey, Cara A C; Rogge, Matthew D; Miller, Corey A; Hinders, Mark K

    2012-02-01

    We have implemented three-dimensional (3D) elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) simulations to model Lamb wave scattering for two flaw-types in an aircraft-grade aluminum plate, a rounded rectangle flat-bottom hole and a disbond of the same shape. The plate thickness and flaws explored in this work include frequency-thickness regions where several Lamb wave modes exist and sometimes overlap in phase and/or group velocity. For the case of the flat-bottom hole the depth was incrementally increased to explore progressive changes in multiple-mode Lamb wave scattering due to the damage. The flat-bottom hole simulation results have been compared to experimental data and are shown to provide key insight for this well-defined experimental case by explaining unexpected results in experimental waveforms. For the rounded rectangle disbond flaw, which would be difficult to implement experimentally, we found that Lamb wave behavior differed significantly from the flat-bottom hole flaw. Most of the literature in this field is restricted to low frequency-thickness regions due to difficulties in interpreting data when multiple modes exist. We found that benchmarked 3D EFIT simulations can yield an understanding of scattering behavior for these higher frequency-thickness regions and in cases that would be difficult to set up experimentally. Additionally, our results show that 2D simulations would not have been sufficient for modeling the complicated scattering that occurred. PMID:21908011

  7. First Steps Towards AN Integrated Citygml-Based 3d Model of Vienna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agugiaro, G.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents and discusses the results regarding the initial steps (selection, analysis, preparation and eventual integration of a number of datasets) for the creation of an integrated, semantic, three-dimensional, and CityGML-based virtual model of the city of Vienna. CityGML is an international standard conceived specifically as information and data model for semantic city models at urban and territorial scale. It is being adopted by more and more cities all over the world. The work described in this paper is embedded within the European Marie-Curie ITN project "Ci-nergy, Smart cities with sustainable energy systems", which aims, among the rest, at developing urban decision making and operational optimisation software tools to minimise non-renewable energy use in cities. Given the scope and scale of the project, it is therefore vital to set up a common, unique and spatio-semantically coherent urban model to be used as information hub for all applications being developed. This paper reports about the experiences done so far, it describes the test area and the available data sources, it shows and exemplifies the data integration issues, the strategies developed to solve them in order to obtain the integrated 3D city model. The first results as well as some comments about their quality and limitations are presented, together with the discussion regarding the next steps and some planned improvements.

  8. 3Disease Browser: A Web server for integrating 3D genome and disease-associated chromosome rearrangement data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruifeng; Liu, Yifang; Li, Tingting; Li, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangement (CR) events have been implicated in many tumor and non-tumor human diseases. CR events lead to their associated diseases by disrupting gene and protein structures. Also, they can lead to diseases through changes in chromosomal 3D structure and gene expression. In this study, we search for CR-associated diseases potentially caused by chromosomal 3D structure alteration by integrating Hi-C and ChIP-seq data. Our algorithm rediscovers experimentally verified disease-associated CRs (polydactyly diseases) that alter gene expression by disrupting chromosome 3D structure. Interestingly, we find that intellectual disability may be a candidate disease caused by 3D chromosome structure alteration. We also develop a Web server (3Disease Browser, http://3dgb.cbi.pku.edu.cn/disease/) for integrating and visualizing disease-associated CR events and chromosomal 3D structure. PMID:27734896

  9. Real-time computer-generated integral imaging and 3D image calibration for augmented reality surgical navigation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junchen; Suenaga, Hideyuki; Liao, Hongen; Hoshi, Kazuto; Yang, Liangjing; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Sakuma, Ichiro

    2015-03-01

    Autostereoscopic 3D image overlay for augmented reality (AR) based surgical navigation has been studied and reported many times. For the purpose of surgical overlay, the 3D image is expected to have the same geometric shape as the original organ, and can be transformed to a specified location for image overlay. However, how to generate a 3D image with high geometric fidelity and quantitative evaluation of 3D image's geometric accuracy have not been addressed. This paper proposes a graphics processing unit (GPU) based computer-generated integral imaging pipeline for real-time autostereoscopic 3D display, and an automatic closed-loop 3D image calibration paradigm for displaying undistorted 3D images. Based on the proposed methods, a novel AR device for 3D image surgical overlay is presented, which mainly consists of a 3D display, an AR window, a stereo camera for 3D measurement, and a workstation for information processing. The evaluation on the 3D image rendering performance with 2560×1600 elemental image resolution shows the rendering speeds of 50-60 frames per second (fps) for surface models, and 5-8 fps for large medical volumes. The evaluation of the undistorted 3D image after the calibration yields sub-millimeter geometric accuracy. A phantom experiment simulating oral and maxillofacial surgery was also performed to evaluate the proposed AR overlay device in terms of the image registration accuracy, 3D image overlay accuracy, and the visual effects of the overlay. The experimental results show satisfactory image registration and image overlay accuracy, and confirm the system usability.

  10. Reverse engineering physical models employing a sensor integration between 3D stereo detection and contact digitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang-Chia; Lin, Grier C. I.

    1997-12-01

    A vision-drive automatic digitization process for free-form surface reconstruction has been developed, with a coordinate measurement machine (CMM) equipped with a touch-triggered probe and a CCD camera, in reverse engineering physical models. The process integrates 3D stereo detection, data filtering, Delaunay triangulation, adaptive surface digitization into a single process of surface reconstruction. By using this innovative approach, surface reconstruction can be implemented automatically and accurately. Least-squares B- spline surface models with the controlled accuracy of digitization can be generated for further application in product design and manufacturing processes. One industrial application indicates that this approach is feasible, and the processing time required in reverse engineering process can be significantly reduced up to more than 85%.

  11. 3D-NTT: a versatile integral field spectro-imager for the NTT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcelin, M.; Amram, P.; Balard, P.; Balkowski, C.; Boissin, O.; Boulesteix, J.; Carignan, C.; Daigle, O.; de Denus Baillargeon, M.-M.; Epinat, B.; Gach, J.-L.; Hernandez, O.; Rigaud, F.; Vallée, P.

    2008-07-01

    The 3D-NTT is a visible integral field spectro-imager offering two modes. A low resolution mode (R ~ 300 to 6 000) with a large field of view Tunable Filter (17'x17') and a high resolution mode (R ~ 10 000 to 40 000) with a scanning Fabry-Perot (7'x7'). It will be operated as a visitor instrument on the NTT from 2009. Two large programmes will be led: "Characterizing the interstellar medium of nearby galaxies with 2D maps of extinction and abundances" (PI M. Marcelin) and "Gas accretion and radiative feedback in the early universe" (PI J. Bland Hawthorn). Both will be mainly based on the Tunable Filter mode. This instrument is being built as a collaborative effort between LAM (Marseille), GEPI (Paris) and LAE (Montreal). The website adress of the instrument is : http://www.astro.umontreal.ca/3DNTT

  12. Flight tests of a hybrid-centered integrated 3D perspective-view primary flight display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Gang; Feyereisen, Thea; Wilson, Blake; Wyatt, Sandy; Engels, Jary

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes flight tests of a Honeywell Synthetic Vision System (SVS) prototype operating in a hybrid-centered mode on a Primus Epic TM large format display. This novel hybrid mode effectively resolves some cognitive and perceptual human factors issues associated with traditional heading-up or track-up display modes. By integrating synthetic 3D perspective view with advanced Head-Up Display (HUD) symbology in this mode, the test results demonstrate that the hybrid display mode provides clear indications of current track and crab conditions, and is effective in overcoming flight guidance symbology collision and resultant ambiguity. The hybrid-centering SVS display concept is shown to be effective in all phases of flight and is particularly valuable during landing operations with a strong cross-wind. The recorded flight test data from Honeywell's prototype SVS concept at Reno, Nevada on board Honeywell Citation V aircraft will be discussed.

  13. FDSOI bottom MOSFETs stability versus top transistor thermal budget featuring 3D monolithic integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenouillet-Beranger, C.; Previtali, B.; Batude, P.; Nemouchi, F.; Cassé, M.; Garros, X.; Tosti, L.; Rambal, N.; Lafond, D.; Dansas, H.; Pasini, L.; Brunet, L.; Deprat, F.; Grégoire, M.; Mellier, M.; Vinet, M.

    2015-11-01

    To set up specification for 3D monolithic integration, for the first time, the thermal stability of state-of-the-art FDSOI (Fully Depleted SOI) transistors electrical performance is quantified. Post fabrication annealings are performed on FDSOI transistors to mimic the thermal budget associated to top layer processing. Degradation of the silicide for thermal treatments beyond 400 °C is identified as the main responsible for performance degradation for PMOS devices. For the NMOS transistors, arsenic (As) and phosphorus (P) dopants deactivation adds up to this effect. By optimizing both the n-type extension implantations and the bottom silicide process, thermal stability of FDSOI can be extended to allow relaxing upwards the thermal budget authorized for top transistors processing.

  14. Integration of the virtual 3D model of a control system with the virtual controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbuś, K.; Ociepka, P.

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays the design process includes simulation analysis of different components of a constructed object. It involves the need for integration of different virtual object to simulate the whole investigated technical system. The paper presents the issues related to the integration of a virtual 3D model of a chosen control system of with a virtual controller. The goal of integration is to verify the operation of an adopted object of in accordance with the established control program. The object of the simulation work is the drive system of a tunneling machine for trenchless work. In the first stage of work was created an interactive visualization of functioning of the 3D virtual model of a tunneling machine. For this purpose, the software of the VR (Virtual Reality) class was applied. In the elaborated interactive application were created adequate procedures allowing controlling the drive system of a translatory motion, a rotary motion and the drive system of a manipulator. Additionally was created the procedure of turning on and off the output crushing head, mounted on the last element of the manipulator. In the elaborated interactive application have been established procedures for receiving input data from external software, on the basis of the dynamic data exchange (DDE), which allow controlling actuators of particular control systems of the considered machine. In the next stage of work, the program on a virtual driver, in the ladder diagram (LD) language, was created. The control program was developed on the basis of the adopted work cycle of the tunneling machine. The element integrating the virtual model of the tunneling machine for trenchless work with the virtual controller is the application written in a high level language (Visual Basic). In the developed application was created procedures responsible for collecting data from the running, in a simulation mode, virtual controller and transferring them to the interactive application, in which is verified the

  15. The Digital Bee Brain: Integrating and Managing Neurons in a Common 3D Reference System

    PubMed Central

    Rybak, Jürgen; Kuß, Anja; Lamecker, Hans; Zachow, Stefan; Hege, Hans-Christian; Lienhard, Matthias; Singer, Jochen; Neubert, Kerstin; Menzel, Randolf

    2010-01-01

    The honeybee standard brain (HSB) serves as an interactive tool for relating morphologies of bee brain neurons and provides a reference system for functional and bibliographical properties (http://www.neurobiologie.fu-berlin.de/beebrain/). The ultimate goal is to document not only the morphological network properties of neurons collected from separate brains, but also to establish a graphical user interface for a neuron-related data base. Here, we review the current methods and protocols used to incorporate neuronal reconstructions into the HSB. Our registration protocol consists of two separate steps applied to imaging data from two-channel confocal microscopy scans: (1) The reconstruction of the neuron, facilitated by an automatic extraction of the neuron's skeleton based on threshold segmentation, and (2) the semi-automatic 3D segmentation of the neuropils and their registration with the HSB. The integration of neurons in the HSB is performed by applying the transformation computed in step (2) to the reconstructed neurons of step (1). The most critical issue of this protocol in terms of user interaction time – the segmentation process – is drastically improved by the use of a model-based segmentation process. Furthermore, the underlying statistical shape models (SSM) allow the visualization and analysis of characteristic variations in large sets of bee brain data. The anatomy of neural networks composed of multiple neurons that are registered into the HSB are visualized by depicting the 3D reconstructions together with semantic information with the objective to integrate data from multiple sources (electrophysiology, imaging, immunocytochemistry, molecular biology). Ultimately, this will allow the user to specify cell types and retrieve their morphologies along with physiological characterizations. PMID:20827403

  16. Integrated gravity and gravity gradient 3D inversion using the non-linear conjugate gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Pengbo; Huang, Danian; Yuan, Yuan; Geng, Meixia; Liu, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Gravity data, which are critical in mineral, oil, and gas exploration, are obtained from the vertical component of the gravity field, while gravity gradient data are measured from changes in the gravity field in three directions. However, few studies have sought to improve exploration techniques by integrating gravity and gravity gradient data using inversion methods. In this study, we developed a new method to integrate gravity and gravity gradient data in a 3D density inversion using the non-linear conjugate gradient (NLCG) method and the minimum gradient support (MGS) functional to regularize the 3D inverse problem and to obtain a clear and accurate image of the anomalous body. The NLCG algorithm, which is suitable for solving large-scale nonlinear optimization problems and requires no memory storage, was compared to the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) quasi-Newton algorithm and the results indicated that the convergence rate of NLCG is slower, but that the storage requirement and computation time is lower. To counteract the decay in kernel function, we introduced a depth weighting function for anomalous bodies at the same depth, with information about anomalous body depth obtained from well log and seismic exploration data. For anomalous bodies at different depths, we introduced a spatial gradient weighting function to incorporate additional information obtained in the inversion. We concluded that the spatial gradient weighting function enhanced the spatial resolution of the recovered model. Furthermore, our results showed that including multiple components for inversion increased the resolution of the recovered model. We validated our model by applying our inversion method to survey data from Vinton salt dome, Louisiana, USA. The results showed good agreement with known geologic information; thus confirming the accuracy of this approach.

  17. Time And Temperature Dependent Micromechanical Properties Of Solder Joints For 3D-Package Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roellig, Mike; Meier, Karsten; Metasch, Rene

    2010-11-01

    The recent development of 3D-integrated electronic packages is characterized by the need to increase the diversity of functions and to miniaturize. Currently many 3D-integration concepts are being developed and all of them demand new materials, new designs and new processing technologies. The combination of simulation and experimental investigation becomes increasingly accepted since simulations help to shorten the R&D cycle time and reduce costs. Numerical calculations like the Finite-Element-Method are strong tools to calculate stress conditions in electronic packages resulting from thermal strains due to the manufacturing process and environmental loads. It is essential for the application of numerical calculations that the material data is accurate and describes sufficiently the physical behaviour. The developed machine allows the measurement of time and temperature dependent micromechanical properties of solder joints. Solder joints, which are used to mechanically and electrically connect different packages, are physically measured as they leave the process. This allows accounting for process influences, which may change material properties. Additionally, joint sizes and metallurgical interactions between solder and under bump metallization can be respected by this particular measurement. The measurement allows the determination of material properties within a temperature range of 20° C-200° C. Further, the time dependent creep deformation can be measured within a strain-rate range of 10-31/s-10-81/s. Solder alloys based on Sn-Ag/Sn-Ag-Cu with additionally impurities and joint sizes down to O/ 200 μm were investigated. To finish the material characterization process the material model coefficient were extracted by FEM-Simulation to increase the accuracy of data.

  18. A 3D bioprinting system to produce human-scale tissue constructs with structural integrity.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Sang Jin; Ko, In Kap; Kengla, Carlos; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    A challenge for tissue engineering is producing three-dimensional (3D), vascularized cellular constructs of clinically relevant size, shape and structural integrity. We present an integrated tissue-organ printer (ITOP) that can fabricate stable, human-scale tissue constructs of any shape. Mechanical stability is achieved by printing cell-laden hydrogels together with biodegradable polymers in integrated patterns and anchored on sacrificial hydrogels. The correct shape of the tissue construct is achieved by representing clinical imaging data as a computer model of the anatomical defect and translating the model into a program that controls the motions of the printer nozzles, which dispense cells to discrete locations. The incorporation of microchannels into the tissue constructs facilitates diffusion of nutrients to printed cells, thereby overcoming the diffusion limit of 100-200 μm for cell survival in engineered tissues. We demonstrate capabilities of the ITOP by fabricating mandible and calvarial bone, cartilage and skeletal muscle. Future development of the ITOP is being directed to the production of tissues for human applications and to the building of more complex tissues and solid organs. PMID:26878319

  19. A 3D bioprinting system to produce human-scale tissue constructs with structural integrity.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Sang Jin; Ko, In Kap; Kengla, Carlos; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    A challenge for tissue engineering is producing three-dimensional (3D), vascularized cellular constructs of clinically relevant size, shape and structural integrity. We present an integrated tissue-organ printer (ITOP) that can fabricate stable, human-scale tissue constructs of any shape. Mechanical stability is achieved by printing cell-laden hydrogels together with biodegradable polymers in integrated patterns and anchored on sacrificial hydrogels. The correct shape of the tissue construct is achieved by representing clinical imaging data as a computer model of the anatomical defect and translating the model into a program that controls the motions of the printer nozzles, which dispense cells to discrete locations. The incorporation of microchannels into the tissue constructs facilitates diffusion of nutrients to printed cells, thereby overcoming the diffusion limit of 100-200 μm for cell survival in engineered tissues. We demonstrate capabilities of the ITOP by fabricating mandible and calvarial bone, cartilage and skeletal muscle. Future development of the ITOP is being directed to the production of tissues for human applications and to the building of more complex tissues and solid organs.

  20. Fully 3D-Integrated Pixel Detectors for X-Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz W.; Gabriella, Carini; Enquist, Paul; Grybos, Pawel; Holm, Scott; Lipton, Ronald; Maj, Piotr; Patti, Robert; Siddons, David Peter; Szczygiel, Robert; Yarema, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    The vertically integrated photon imaging chip (VIPIC1) pixel detector is a stack consisting of a 500-μm-thick silicon sensor, a two-tier 34-μm-thick integrated circuit, and a host printed circuit board (PCB). The integrated circuit tiers were bonded using the direct bonding technology with copper, and each tier features 1-μm-diameter through-silicon vias that were used for connections to the sensor on one side, and to the host PCB on the other side. The 80-μm-pixel-pitch sensor was the direct bonding technology with nickel bonded to the integrated circuit. The stack was mounted on the board using Sn–Pb balls placed on a 320-μm pitch, yielding an entirely wire-bond-less structure. The analog front-end features a pulse response peaking at below 250 ns, and the power consumption per pixel is 25 μW. We successful completed the 3-D integration and have reported here. Additionally, all pixels in the matrix of 64 × 64 pixels were responding on well-bonded devices. Correct operation of the sparsified readout, allowing a single 153-ns bunch timing resolution, was confirmed in the tests on a synchrotron beam of 10-keV X-rays. An equivalent noise charge of 36.2 e- rms and a conversion gain of 69.5 μV/e- with 2.6 e- rms and 2.7 μV/e- rms pixel-to-pixel variations, respectively, were measured.

  1. Earth Science Research Discovery, Integration, 3D Visualization and Analysis using NASA World Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alameh, N.; Hogan, P.

    2008-12-01

    more possible to include virtual globe capability in support of any Earth science objective. 3- With the source code being fully accessible, anyone can advance this technology (including in a commercial or other proprietary manner). Such features enable World Wind to provide easy discovery, access and 3D integration/visualization/analysis of Earth observation data in a flexible, customizable open source tool. This positions World Wind to become a key part of an Advanced Information Systems infrastructure supporting a collaborative decision-making environment for a variety of applications.

  2. 3D Printed Microfluidic Devices with Integrated Versatile and Reusable Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Erkal, Jayda L.; Selimovic, Asmira; Gross, Bethany C.; Lockwood, Sarah Y.; Walton, Eric L.; McNamara, Stephen; Martin, R. Scott; Spence, Dana M.

    2014-01-01

    We report two 3D printed devices that can be used for electrochemical detection. In both cases, the electrode is housed in commercially available, polymer-based fittings so that the various electrode materials (platinum, platinum black, carbon, gold, silver) can be easily added to a threaded receiving port printed on the device; this enables a module-like approach to the experimental design, where the electrodes are removable and can be easily repolished for reuse after exposure to biological samples. The first printed device represents a microfluidic platform with a 500 × 500 μm channel and a threaded receiving port to allow integration of either polyetheretherketone (PEEK) nut-encased glassy carbon or platinum black (Pt-black) electrodes for dopamine and nitric oxide (NO) detection, respectively. The embedded 1 mm glassy carbon electrode had a limit of detection (LOD) of 500 nM for dopamine and a linear response (R2= 0.99) for concentrations between 25-500 μM. When the glassy carbon electrode was coated with 0.05% Nafion, significant exclusion of nitrite was observed when compared to signal obtained from equimolar injections of dopamine. When using flow injection analysis with a Pt/Pt-black electrode and standards derived from NO gas, a linear correlation (R2 = 0.99) over a wide range of concentrations (7.6 - 190 μM) was obtained, with the LOD for NO being 1 μM. The second application showcases a 3D printed fluidic device that allows collection of the biologically relevant analyte adenosine triphosphate (ATP) while simultaneously measuring the release stimulus (reduced oxygen concentration). The hypoxic sample (4.76 ± 0.53 ppm oxygen) released 2.37 ± 0.37 times more ATP than the normoxic sample (8.22 ± 0.60 ppm oxygen). Importantly, the results reported here verify the reproducible and transferable nature of using 3D printing as a fabrication technique, as devices and electrodes were moved between labs multiple times during completion of the study. PMID

  3. NFkB disrupts tissue polarity in 3D by preventing integration of microenvironmental signals.

    PubMed

    Becker-Weimann, Sabine; Xiong, Gaofeng; Furuta, Saori; Han, Ju; Kuhn, Irene; Akavia, Uri-David; Pe'er, Dana; Bissell, Mina J; Xu, Ren

    2013-11-01

    The microenvironment of cells controls their phenotype, and thereby the architecture of the emerging multicellular structure or tissue. We have reported more than a dozen microenvironmental factors whose signaling must be integrated in order to effect an organized, functional tissue morphology. However, the factors that prevent integration of signaling pathways that merge form and function are still largely unknown. We have identified nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) as a transcriptional regulator that disrupts important microenvironmental cues necessary for tissue organization. We compared the gene expression of organized and disorganized epithelial cells of the HMT-3522 breast cancer progression series: the non-malignant S1 cells that form polarized spheres ('acini'), the malignant T4-2 cells that form large tumor-like clusters, and the 'phenotypically reverted' T4-2 cells that polarize as a result of correction of the microenvironmental signaling. We identified 180 genes that display an increased expression in disorganized compared to polarized structures. Network, GSEA and transcription factor binding site analyses suggested that NFkB is a common activator for the 180 genes. NFkB was found to be activated in disorganized breast cancer cells, and inhibition of microenvironmental signaling via EGFR, beta1 integrin, MMPs, or their downstream signals suppressed its activation. The postulated role of NFkB was experimentally verified: Blocking the NFkB pathway with a specific chemical inhibitor or shRNA induced polarization and inhibited invasion of breast cancer cells in 3D cultures. These results may explain why NFkB holds promise as a target for therapeutic intervention: Its inhibition can reverse the oncogenic signaling involved in breast cancer progression and integrate the essential microenvironmental control of tissue architecture.

  4. Integrating 3D geological information with a national physically-based hydrological modelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Elizabeth; Parkin, Geoff; Kessler, Holger; Whiteman, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Robust numerical models are an essential tool for informing flood and water management and policy around the world. Physically-based hydrological models have traditionally not been used for such applications due to prohibitively large data, time and computational resource requirements. Given recent advances in computing power and data availability, a robust, physically-based hydrological modelling system for Great Britain using the SHETRAN model and national datasets has been created. Such a model has several advantages over less complex systems. Firstly, compared with conceptual models, a national physically-based model is more readily applicable to ungauged catchments, in which hydrological predictions are also required. Secondly, the results of a physically-based system may be more robust under changing conditions such as climate and land cover, as physical processes and relationships are explicitly accounted for. Finally, a fully integrated surface and subsurface model such as SHETRAN offers a wider range of applications compared with simpler schemes, such as assessments of groundwater resources, sediment and nutrient transport and flooding from multiple sources. As such, SHETRAN provides a robust means of simulating numerous terrestrial system processes which will add physical realism when coupled to the JULES land surface model. 306 catchments spanning Great Britain have been modelled using this system. The standard configuration of this system performs satisfactorily (NSE > 0.5) for 72% of catchments and well (NSE > 0.7) for 48%. Many of the remaining 28% of catchments that performed relatively poorly (NSE < 0.5) are located in the chalk in the south east of England. As such, the British Geological Survey 3D geology model for Great Britain (GB3D) has been incorporated, for the first time in any hydrological model, to pave the way for improvements to be made to simulations of catchments with important groundwater regimes. This coupling has involved

  5. Laser Scanning Holographic Lithography for Flexible 3D Fabrication of Multi-Scale Integrated Nano-structures and Optical Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Liang Leon; Herman, Peter R

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) periodic nanostructures underpin a promising research direction on the frontiers of nanoscience and technology to generate advanced materials for exploiting novel photonic crystal (PC) and nanofluidic functionalities. However, formation of uniform and defect-free 3D periodic structures over large areas that can further integrate into multifunctional devices has remained a major challenge. Here, we introduce a laser scanning holographic method for 3D exposure in thick photoresist that combines the unique advantages of large area 3D holographic interference lithography (HIL) with the flexible patterning of laser direct writing to form both micro- and nano-structures in a single exposure step. Phase mask interference patterns accumulated over multiple overlapping scans are shown to stitch seamlessly and form uniform 3D nanostructure with beam size scaled to small 200 μm diameter. In this way, laser scanning is presented as a facile means to embed 3D PC structure within microfluidic channels for integration into an optofluidic lab-on-chip, demonstrating a new laser HIL writing approach for creating multi-scale integrated microsystems.

  6. Laser Scanning Holographic Lithography for Flexible 3D Fabrication of Multi-Scale Integrated Nano-structures and Optical Biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Liang (Leon); Herman, Peter R.

    2016-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) periodic nanostructures underpin a promising research direction on the frontiers of nanoscience and technology to generate advanced materials for exploiting novel photonic crystal (PC) and nanofluidic functionalities. However, formation of uniform and defect-free 3D periodic structures over large areas that can further integrate into multifunctional devices has remained a major challenge. Here, we introduce a laser scanning holographic method for 3D exposure in thick photoresist that combines the unique advantages of large area 3D holographic interference lithography (HIL) with the flexible patterning of laser direct writing to form both micro- and nano-structures in a single exposure step. Phase mask interference patterns accumulated over multiple overlapping scans are shown to stitch seamlessly and form uniform 3D nanostructure with beam size scaled to small 200 μm diameter. In this way, laser scanning is presented as a facile means to embed 3D PC structure within microfluidic channels for integration into an optofluidic lab-on-chip, demonstrating a new laser HIL writing approach for creating multi-scale integrated microsystems.

  7. Laser Scanning Holographic Lithography for Flexible 3D Fabrication of Multi-Scale Integrated Nano-structures and Optical Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Liang (Leon); Herman, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) periodic nanostructures underpin a promising research direction on the frontiers of nanoscience and technology to generate advanced materials for exploiting novel photonic crystal (PC) and nanofluidic functionalities. However, formation of uniform and defect-free 3D periodic structures over large areas that can further integrate into multifunctional devices has remained a major challenge. Here, we introduce a laser scanning holographic method for 3D exposure in thick photoresist that combines the unique advantages of large area 3D holographic interference lithography (HIL) with the flexible patterning of laser direct writing to form both micro- and nano-structures in a single exposure step. Phase mask interference patterns accumulated over multiple overlapping scans are shown to stitch seamlessly and form uniform 3D nanostructure with beam size scaled to small 200 μm diameter. In this way, laser scanning is presented as a facile means to embed 3D PC structure within microfluidic channels for integration into an optofluidic lab-on-chip, demonstrating a new laser HIL writing approach for creating multi-scale integrated microsystems. PMID:26922872

  8. From 3D Bioprinters to a fully integrated Organ Biofabrication Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passamai, V. E.; Dernowsek, J. A.; Nogueira, J.; Lara, V.; Vilalba, F.; Mironov, V. A.; Rezende, R. A.; da Silva, J. V.

    2016-04-01

    About 30 years ago, the 3D printing technique appeared. From that time on, engineers in medical science field started to look at 3D printing as a partner. Firstly, biocompatible and biodegradable 3D structures for cell seeding called “scaffolds” were fabricated for in vitro and in vivo animal trials. The advances proved to be of great importance, but, the use of scaffolds faces some limitations, such as low homogeneity and low density of cell aggregates. In the last decade, 3D bioprinting technology emerged as a promising approach to overcome these limitations and as one potential solution to the challenge of organ fabrication, to obtain very similar 3D human tissues, not only for transplantation, but also for drug discovery, disease research and to decrease the usage of animals in laboratory experimentation. 3D bioprinting allowed the fabrication of 3D alive structures with higher and controllable cell density and homogeneity. Other advantage of biofabrication is that the tissue constructs are solid scaffold-free. This paper presents the 3D bioprinting technology; equipment development, stages and components of a complex Organ Bioprinting Line (OBL) and the importance of developing a Virtual OBL.

  9. Swarm Intelligence Integrated Graph-Cut for Liver Segmentation from 3D-CT Volumes.

    PubMed

    Eapen, Maya; Korah, Reeba; Geetha, G

    2015-01-01

    The segmentation of organs in CT volumes is a prerequisite for diagnosis and treatment planning. In this paper, we focus on liver segmentation from contrast-enhanced abdominal CT volumes, a challenging task due to intensity overlapping, blurred edges, large variability in liver shape, and complex background with cluttered features. The algorithm integrates multidiscriminative cues (i.e., prior domain information, intensity model, and regional characteristics of liver in a graph-cut image segmentation framework). The paper proposes a swarm intelligence inspired edge-adaptive weight function for regulating the energy minimization of the traditional graph-cut model. The model is validated both qualitatively (by clinicians and radiologists) and quantitatively on publically available computed tomography (CT) datasets (MICCAI 2007 liver segmentation challenge, 3D-IRCAD). Quantitative evaluation of segmentation results is performed using liver volume calculations and a mean score of 80.8% and 82.5% on MICCAI and IRCAD dataset, respectively, is obtained. The experimental result illustrates the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26689833

  10. Mercury Lightcraft Project Update: 3-D Modeling, Systems Analysis and Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckton, Thomas W.; Myrabo, Leik N.

    2005-04-01

    This paper is a progress report on the laser-propelled Mercury Lightcraft Project at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The laser-propelled, 1-person craft has a diameter of 252-cm, height of 217-cm, internal volume of 3 m3, `dry' mass of 700 kg, and gross liftoff mass of 1 metric ton. Expendable liquids including 70 kg of liquid hydrogen, and an equivalent mass (at least) of de-ionized water serves as open-cycle coolants for the 520 MWe laser/electric power conversion system. Its hyper-energetic airbreathing engine can easily accelerate the vehicle at 10 Gs or more. The tractor-beam lightcraft is intended as a prototype for use in a future global aerospace transportation system based on a constellation of satellite solar power stations in geostationary orbit, with laser relay stations in low Earth orbit. Using SolidWorks® 3-D modeling software, several important features were successfully integrated into the Mercury lightcraft model - principally: a rotating shroud (for spin stabilization) simple actuation system for a new variable-geometry air inlet; refined optical train for the laser-heated H2 plasma generators; pneumatically deployed, robotic quadra-pod landing gear; ejection seat/pod/hatch system; and a more detailed airframe structural concept. The CAD effort has brought the Mercury Lightcraft concept one significant step closer to reality.

  11. 3D integration of photonic crystal devices: vertical coupling with a silicon waveguide.

    PubMed

    Ferrier, L; Romeo, P Rojo; Letartre, X; Drouard, E; Viktorovitch, P

    2010-07-19

    Two integrated devices based on the vertical coupling between a photonic crystal microcavity and a silicon (Si) ridge waveguide are presented in this paper. When the resonator is coupled to a single waveguide, light can be spectrally extracted from the waveguide to free space through the far field emission of the resonator. When the resonator is vertically coupled to two waveguides, a vertical add-drop filter can be realized. The dropping efficiency of these devices relies on a careful design of the resonator. In this paper, we use a Fabry-Perot (FP) microcavity composed of two photonic crystal (PhC) slab mirrors. Thanks to the unique dispersion properties of slow Bloch modes (SBM) at the flat extreme of the dispersion curve, it is possible to design a FP cavity exhibiting two quasi-degenerate modes. This specific configuration allows for a coupling efficiency that can theoretically achieve 100%. Using 3D FDTD calculations, we discuss the design of such devices and show that high dropping efficiency can be achieved between the Si waveguides and the PhC microcavity.

  12. Acoustic backing in 3-D integration of CMUT with front-end electronics.

    PubMed

    Berg, Sigrid; Rønnekleiv, Arne

    2012-07-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) have shown promising qualities for medical imaging. However, there are still some problems to be investigated, and some challenges to overcome. Acoustic backing is necessary to prevent SAWs excited in the surface of the silicon substrate from affecting the transmit pattern from the array. In addition, echoes resulting from bulk waves in the substrate must be removed. There is growing interest in integrating electronic circuits to do some of the beamforming directly below the transducer array. This may be easier to achieve for CMUTs than for traditional piezoelectric transducers. We will present simulations showing that the thickness of the silicon substrate and thicknesses and acoustic properties of the bonding material must be considered, especially when designing highfrequency transducers. Through simulations, we compare the acoustic properties of 3-D stacks bonded with three different bonding techniques; solid-liquid interdiffusion (SLID) bonding, direct fusion bonding, and anisotropic conductive adhesives (ACA). We look at a CMUT array with a center frequency of 30 MHz and three silicon wafers underneath, having a total silicon thickness of 100 μm. We find that fusion bonding is most beneficial if we want to prevent surface waves from damaging the array response, but SLID and ACA are also promising if bonding layer thicknesses can be reduced.

  13. Liquid immersion thermal crosslinking of 3D polymer nanopatterns for direct carbonisation with high structural integrity

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Da-Young; Kim, Cheolho; Park, Gyurim; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    The direct pyrolytic carbonisation of polymer patterns has attracted interest for its use in obtaining carbon materials. In the case of carbonisation of nanopatterned polymers, the polymer flow and subsequent pattern change may occur in order to relieve their high surface energies. Here, we demonstrated that liquid immersion thermal crosslinking of polymer nanopatterns effectively enhanced the thermal resistance and maintained the structure integrity during the heat treatment. We employed the liquid immersion thermal crosslinking for 3D porous SU8 photoresist nanopatterns and successfully converted them to carbon nanopatterns while maintaining their porous features. The thermal crosslinking reaction and carbonisation of SU8 nanopatterns were characterised. The micro-crystallinity of the SU8-derived carbon nanopatterns was also characterised. The liquid immersion heat treatment can be extended to the carbonisation of various polymer or photoresist nanopatterns and also provide a facile way to control the surface energy of polymer nanopatterns for various purposes, for example, to block copolymer or surfactant self-assemblies. PMID:26677949

  14. Liquid immersion thermal crosslinking of 3D polymer nanopatterns for direct carbonisation with high structural integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Da-Young; Kim, Cheolho; Park, Gyurim; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2015-12-01

    The direct pyrolytic carbonisation of polymer patterns has attracted interest for its use in obtaining carbon materials. In the case of carbonisation of nanopatterned polymers, the polymer flow and subsequent pattern change may occur in order to relieve their high surface energies. Here, we demonstrated that liquid immersion thermal crosslinking of polymer nanopatterns effectively enhanced the thermal resistance and maintained the structure integrity during the heat treatment. We employed the liquid immersion thermal crosslinking for 3D porous SU8 photoresist nanopatterns and successfully converted them to carbon nanopatterns while maintaining their porous features. The thermal crosslinking reaction and carbonisation of SU8 nanopatterns were characterised. The micro-crystallinity of the SU8-derived carbon nanopatterns was also characterised. The liquid immersion heat treatment can be extended to the carbonisation of various polymer or photoresist nanopatterns and also provide a facile way to control the surface energy of polymer nanopatterns for various purposes, for example, to block copolymer or surfactant self-assemblies.

  15. The numerical integration and 3-D finite element formulation of a viscoelastic model of glass

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, R.S.

    1994-08-01

    The use of glasses is widespread in making hermetic, insulating seals for many electronic components. Flat panel displays and fiber optic connectors are other products utilizing glass as a structural element. When glass is cooled from sealing temperatures, residual stresses are generated due to mismatches in thermal shrinkage created by the dissimilar material properties of the adjoining materials. Because glass is such a brittle material at room temperature, tensile residual stresses must be kept small to ensure durability and avoid cracking. Although production designs and the required manufacturing process development can be deduced empirically, this is an expensive and time consuming process that does not necessarily lead to an optimal design. Agile manufacturing demands that analyses be used to reduce development costs and schedules by providing insight and guiding the design process through the development cycle. To make these gains, however, viscoelastic models of glass must be available along with the right tool to use them. A viscoelastic model of glass can be used to simulate the stress and volume relaxation that occurs at elevated temperatures as the molecular structure of the glass seeks to equilibrate to the state of the supercooled liquid. The substance of the numerical treatment needed to support the implementation of the model in a 3-D finite element program is presented herein. An accurate second-order, central difference integrator is proposed for the constitutive equations, and numerical solutions are compared to those obtained with other integrators. Inherent convergence problems are reviewed and fixes are described. The resulting algorithms are generally applicable to the broad class of viscoelastic material models. First-order error estimates are used as a basis for developing a scheme for automatic time step controls, and several demonstration problems are presented to illustrate the performance of the methodology.

  16. HSA: integrating multi-track Hi-C data for genome-scale reconstruction of 3D chromatin structure.

    PubMed

    Zou, Chenchen; Zhang, Yuping; Ouyang, Zhengqing

    2016-03-02

    Genome-wide 3C technologies (Hi-C) are being increasingly employed to study three-dimensional (3D) genome conformations. Existing computational approaches are unable to integrate accumulating data to facilitate studying 3D chromatin structure and function. We present HSA ( http://ouyanglab.jax.org/hsa/ ), a flexible tool that jointly analyzes multiple contact maps to infer 3D chromatin structure at the genome scale. HSA globally searches the latent structure underlying different cleavage footprints. Its robustness and accuracy outperform or rival existing tools on extensive simulations and orthogonal experiment validations. Applying HSA to recent in situ Hi-C data, we found the 3D chromatin structures are highly conserved across various human cell types.

  17. Interferometry based multispectral photon-limited 2D and 3D integral image encryption employing the Hartley transform.

    PubMed

    Muniraj, Inbarasan; Guo, Changliang; Lee, Byung-Geun; Sheridan, John T

    2015-06-15

    We present a method of securing multispectral 3D photon-counted integral imaging (PCII) using classical Hartley Transform (HT) based encryption by employing optical interferometry. This method has the simultaneous advantages of minimizing complexity by eliminating the need for holography recording and addresses the phase sensitivity problem encountered when using digital cameras. These together with single-channel multispectral 3D data compactness, the inherent properties of the classical photon counting detection model, i.e. sparse sensing and the capability for nonlinear transformation, permits better authentication of the retrieved 3D scene at various depth cues. Furthermore, the proposed technique works for both spatially and temporally incoherent illumination. To validate the proposed technique simulations were carried out for both the 2D and 3D cases. Experimental data is processed and the results support the feasibility of the encryption method. PMID:26193568

  18. Integrating airborne LiDAR dataset and photographic images towards the construction of 3D building model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idris, R.; Latif, Z. A.; Hamid, J. R. A.; Jaafar, J.; Ahmad, M. Y.

    2014-02-01

    A 3D building model of man-made objects is an important tool for various applications such as urban planning, flood mapping and telecommunication. The reconstruction of 3D building models remains difficult. No universal algorithms exist that can extract all objects in an image successfully. At present, advances in remote sensing such as airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) technology have changed the conventional method of topographic mapping and increased the interest of these valued datasets towards 3D building model construction. Airborne LiDAR has proven accordingly that it can provide three dimensional (3D) information of the Earth surface with high accuracy. In this study, with the availability of open source software such as Sketch Up, LiDAR datasets and photographic images could be integrated towards the construction of a 3D building model. In order to realize the work an area comprising residential areas situated at Putrajaya in the Klang Valley region, Malaysia, covering an area of two square kilometer was chosen. The accuracy of the derived 3D building model is assessed quantitatively. It is found that the difference between the vertical height (z) of the 3D building models derived from LiDAR dataset and ground survey is approximately ± 0.09 centimeter (cm). For the horizontal component (RMSExy), the accuracy estimates derived for the 3D building models were ± 0.31m. The result also shows that the qualitative assessment of the 3D building models constructed seems feasible for the depiction in the standard of LOD 3 (Level of details).

  19. Developement of 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Deputch, G.; Hoff, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Olsen, J.; Ramberg, E.; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Yarema, R.; Shochet, M.; Tang, F.; Demarteau, M.; /Argonne /INFN, Padova

    2011-04-13

    Many next-generation physics experiments will be characterized by the collection of large quantities of data, taken in rapid succession, from which scientists will have to unravel the underlying physical processes. In most cases, large backgrounds will overwhelm the physics signal. Since the quantity of data that can be stored for later analysis is limited, real-time event selection is imperative to retain the interesting events while rejecting the background. Scaling of current technologies is unlikely to satisfy the scientific needs of future projects, so investments in transformational new technologies need to be made. For example, future particle physics experiments looking for rare processes will have to address the demanding challenges of fast pattern recognition in triggering as detector hit density becomes significantly higher due to the high luminosity required to produce the rare processes. In this proposal, we intend to develop hardware-based technology that significantly advances the state-of-the-art for fast pattern recognition within and outside HEP using the 3D vertical integration technology that has emerged recently in industry. The ultimate physics reach of the LHC experiments will crucially depend on the tracking trigger's ability to help discriminate between interesting rare events and the background. Hardware-based pattern recognition for fast triggering on particle tracks has been successfully used in high-energy physics experiments for some time. The CDF Silicon Vertex Trigger (SVT) at the Fermilab Tevatron is an excellent example. The method used there, developed in the 1990's, is based on algorithms that use a massively parallel associative memory architecture to identify patterns efficiently at high speed. However, due to much higher occupancy and event rates at the LHC, and the fact that the LHC detectors have a much larger number of channels in their tracking detectors, there is an enormous challenge in implementing pattern recognition

  20. Evaluation of AN Integrated Gis-Based Crime Analysis & 3d Modelling for Izmir-Konak Municipality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarhan, C.; Deniz, D.

    2011-08-01

    GIS integrated 3D modelling is crucial for the city planning and design processes because urban modelling is a tool used in virtual environments, and provides convenience to work. Although, the creation and display of 3D city models for large regions is difficult it is vital for planning and designing safer cities, as well as public places. Today, crime is a significant problem in Turkey. When it was compared by years of crime rates, population growth and urbanization rate, an increasing more than in parallel has been observed. This paper aims to discuss GIS integrated 3D modelling affects in urban planning and design, explaining Turkish planning processes with GIS and 3D modelling. To do that, it presents a case study for Izmir Konak Municipality about GIS integrated crime analysis and 3D models of the crime scenes. Izmir crime records has been obtained from Izmir Police Department belonging to 2003-2004 and 2005 (D. Deniz, 2007) are used for districts' crime map. In the light of these data, the highest rate crime district, Konak, is analyzed between 2001 and 2005 data.

  1. Integration of both dense wavelength-division multiplexing and coarse wavelength-division multiplexing demultiplexer on one photonic crystal chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Huiping; Shen, Guansheng; Liu, Weijia; Ji, Yuefeng

    2013-07-01

    An integrated model of photonic crystal (PC) demultiplexer that can be used to combine dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) and coarse wavelength-division multiplexing (CWDM) systems is first proposed. By applying the PC demultiplexer, dense channel spacing 0.8 nm and coarse channel spacing 20 nm are obtained at the same time. The transmission can be improved to nearly 90%, and the crosstalk can be decreased to less than -18 dB by enlarging the width of the bus waveguide. The total size of the device is 21×42 μm2. Four channels on one side of the demultiplexer can achieve DWDM in the wavelength range between 1575 and 1578 nm, and the other four channels on the other side can achieve CWDM in the wavelength range between 1490 and 1565 nm, respectively. The demonstrated demultiplexer can be applied in the future CWDM and DWDM system, and the architecture costs can be significantly reduced.

  2. Estimation of uncertainties in geological 3D raster layer models as integral part of modelling procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maljers, Denise; den Dulk, Maryke; ten Veen, Johan; Hummelman, Jan; Gunnink, Jan; van Gessel, Serge

    2016-04-01

    applied for DGM Deep proves to be an effective way to (graphically) represent the reliability of the DGM Deep model, although the relative contribution of the various error sources needs further attention. For the DGM Shallow model a cross-validation procedure in a moving window environment has been used to calculate mean deviations and standard errors on a sub-regional scale. Subsequently, these cross validation standard errors have been rescaled to account for local data configuration and clustering. This resulted in standard deviations expressing both regional and local uncertainties. Both workflows are state-of-the-art, form an integral part of the geological modelling and result in reproducible uncertainty values. They can be considered a good starting point for incorporating other errors that contribute to uncertainties of geological 3D raster layer models. For example, the mis-positioning of data used or the error underlying mis-ties at well locations. An additional, perhaps more easy-to-read, parameter that can be calculated to visualize these uncertainties would be the information entropy, as proposed by Wellmann & Regenauer-Lieb (2012). Where a value of 0 means there is no uncertainty, and a value of 1 means there is a high uncertainty. At the moment depth uncertainty information is disseminated through our webportals (www.dinoloket.nl and www.nlog.nl) in an on-line map viewer and as downloadable GIS products.

  3. Augmenting 3d City Model Components by Geodata Joins to Facilitate Ad-Hoc Geometric-Topologically Sound Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaden, R.; Kolbe, T. H.

    2012-07-01

    Virtual 3D city models are integrated complex compositions of spatial data of different themes, origin, quality, scale, and dimensions. Within this paper, we address the problem of spatial compatibility of geodata aiming to provide support for ad-hoc integration of virtual 3D city models including geodata of different sources and themes like buildings, terrain, and city furniture. In contrast to related work which is dealing with the integration of redundant geodata structured according to different data models and ontologies, we focus on the integration of complex 3D models of the same representation (here: CityGML) but regarding to the geometric-topological consistent matching of non-homologous objects, e.g. a building is connected to a road, and their geometric homogenisation. Therefore, we present an approach including a data model for a Geodata Join and the general concept of an integration procedure using the join information. The Geodata Join aims to bridge the lack of information between fragmented geodata by describing the relationship between adjacent objects from different datasets. The join information includes the geometrical representation of those parts of an object, which have a specific/known topological or geometrical relationship to another object. This part is referred to as a Connector and is either described by points, lines, or surfaces of the existing object geometry or by additional join geometry. In addition, the join information includes the specification of the connected object in the other dataset and the description of the topological and geometrical relationship between both objects, which is used to aid the matching process. Furthermore, the Geodata Join contains object-related information like accuracy values and restrictions of movement and deformation which are used to optimize the integration process. Based on these parameters, a functional model including a matching algorithm, transformation methods, and conditioned adjustment

  4. Comparing and visualizing titanium implant integration in rat bone using 2D and 3D techniques.

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, Anna; Sarve, Hamid; Johansson, Carina B

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to compare the osseointegration of grit-blasted implants with and without a hydrogen fluoride treatment in rat tibia and femur, and to visualize bone formation using state-of-the-art 3D visualization techniques. Grit-blasted implants were inserted in femur and tibia of 10 Sprague-Dawley rats (4 implants/rat). Four weeks after insertion, bone implant samples were retrieved. Selected samples were imaged in 3D using Synchrotron Radiation-based μCT (SRμCT). The 3D data was quantified and visualized using two novel visualization techniques, thread fly-through and 2D unfolding. All samples were processed to cut and ground sections and 2D histomorphometrical comparisons of bone implant contact (BIC), bone area (BA), and mirror image area (MI) were performed. BA values were statistically significantly higher for test implants than controls (p < 0.05), but BIC and MI data did not differ significantly. Thus, the results partly indicate improved bone formation at blasted and hydrogen fluoride treated implants, compared to blasted implants. The 3D analysis was a valuable complement to 2D analysis, facilitating improved visualization. However, further studies are required to evaluate aspects of 3D quantitative techniques, with relation to light microscopy that traditionally is used for osseointegration studies.

  5. Comparing and visualizing titanium implant integration in rat bone using 2D and 3D techniques.

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, Anna; Sarve, Hamid; Johansson, Carina B

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to compare the osseointegration of grit-blasted implants with and without a hydrogen fluoride treatment in rat tibia and femur, and to visualize bone formation using state-of-the-art 3D visualization techniques. Grit-blasted implants were inserted in femur and tibia of 10 Sprague-Dawley rats (4 implants/rat). Four weeks after insertion, bone implant samples were retrieved. Selected samples were imaged in 3D using Synchrotron Radiation-based μCT (SRμCT). The 3D data was quantified and visualized using two novel visualization techniques, thread fly-through and 2D unfolding. All samples were processed to cut and ground sections and 2D histomorphometrical comparisons of bone implant contact (BIC), bone area (BA), and mirror image area (MI) were performed. BA values were statistically significantly higher for test implants than controls (p < 0.05), but BIC and MI data did not differ significantly. Thus, the results partly indicate improved bone formation at blasted and hydrogen fluoride treated implants, compared to blasted implants. The 3D analysis was a valuable complement to 2D analysis, facilitating improved visualization. However, further studies are required to evaluate aspects of 3D quantitative techniques, with relation to light microscopy that traditionally is used for osseointegration studies. PMID:24711247

  6. An Alignment Method for the Integration of Underwater 3D Data Captured by a Stereovision System and an Acoustic Camera.

    PubMed

    Lagudi, Antonio; Bianco, Gianfranco; Muzzupappa, Maurizio; Bruno, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The integration of underwater 3D data captured by acoustic and optical systems is a promising technique in various applications such as mapping or vehicle navigation. It allows for compensating the drawbacks of the low resolution of acoustic sensors and the limitations of optical sensors in bad visibility conditions. Aligning these data is a challenging problem, as it is hard to make a point-to-point correspondence. This paper presents a multi-sensor registration for the automatic integration of 3D data acquired from a stereovision system and a 3D acoustic camera in close-range acquisition. An appropriate rig has been used in the laboratory tests to determine the relative position between the two sensor frames. The experimental results show that our alignment approach, based on the acquisition of a rig in several poses, can be adopted to estimate the rigid transformation between the two heterogeneous sensors. A first estimation of the unknown geometric transformation is obtained by a registration of the two 3D point clouds, but it ends up to be strongly affected by noise and data dispersion. A robust and optimal estimation is obtained by a statistical processing of the transformations computed for each pose. The effectiveness of the method has been demonstrated in this first experimentation of the proposed 3D opto-acoustic camera. PMID:27089344

  7. An Alignment Method for the Integration of Underwater 3D Data Captured by a Stereovision System and an Acoustic Camera.

    PubMed

    Lagudi, Antonio; Bianco, Gianfranco; Muzzupappa, Maurizio; Bruno, Fabio

    2016-04-14

    The integration of underwater 3D data captured by acoustic and optical systems is a promising technique in various applications such as mapping or vehicle navigation. It allows for compensating the drawbacks of the low resolution of acoustic sensors and the limitations of optical sensors in bad visibility conditions. Aligning these data is a challenging problem, as it is hard to make a point-to-point correspondence. This paper presents a multi-sensor registration for the automatic integration of 3D data acquired from a stereovision system and a 3D acoustic camera in close-range acquisition. An appropriate rig has been used in the laboratory tests to determine the relative position between the two sensor frames. The experimental results show that our alignment approach, based on the acquisition of a rig in several poses, can be adopted to estimate the rigid transformation between the two heterogeneous sensors. A first estimation of the unknown geometric transformation is obtained by a registration of the two 3D point clouds, but it ends up to be strongly affected by noise and data dispersion. A robust and optimal estimation is obtained by a statistical processing of the transformations computed for each pose. The effectiveness of the method has been demonstrated in this first experimentation of the proposed 3D opto-acoustic camera.

  8. An Alignment Method for the Integration of Underwater 3D Data Captured by a Stereovision System and an Acoustic Camera

    PubMed Central

    Lagudi, Antonio; Bianco, Gianfranco; Muzzupappa, Maurizio; Bruno, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The integration of underwater 3D data captured by acoustic and optical systems is a promising technique in various applications such as mapping or vehicle navigation. It allows for compensating the drawbacks of the low resolution of acoustic sensors and the limitations of optical sensors in bad visibility conditions. Aligning these data is a challenging problem, as it is hard to make a point-to-point correspondence. This paper presents a multi-sensor registration for the automatic integration of 3D data acquired from a stereovision system and a 3D acoustic camera in close-range acquisition. An appropriate rig has been used in the laboratory tests to determine the relative position between the two sensor frames. The experimental results show that our alignment approach, based on the acquisition of a rig in several poses, can be adopted to estimate the rigid transformation between the two heterogeneous sensors. A first estimation of the unknown geometric transformation is obtained by a registration of the two 3D point clouds, but it ends up to be strongly affected by noise and data dispersion. A robust and optimal estimation is obtained by a statistical processing of the transformations computed for each pose. The effectiveness of the method has been demonstrated in this first experimentation of the proposed 3D opto-acoustic camera. PMID:27089344

  9. The capture and dissemination of integrated 3D geospatial knowledge at the British Geological Survey using GSI3D software and methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, Holger; Mathers, Steve; Sobisch, Hans-Georg

    2009-06-01

    The Geological Surveying and Investigation in 3 Dimensions (GSI3D) software tool and methodology has been developed over the last 15 years. Since 2001 this has been in cooperation with the British Geological Survey (BGS). To-date over a hundred BGS geologists have learned to use the software that is now routinely deployed in building systematic and commercial 3D geological models. The success of the GSI3D methodology and software is based on its intuitive design and the fact that it utilises exactly the same data and methods, albeit in digital forms, that geologists have been using for two centuries in order to make geological maps and cross-sections. The geologist constructs models based on a career of observation of geological phenomena, thereby incorporating tacit knowledge into the model. This knowledge capture is a key element to the GSI3D approach. In BGS GSI3D is part of a much wider set of systems and work processes that together make up the cyberinfrastructure of a modern geological survey. The GSI3D software is not yet designed to cope with bedrock structures in which individual stratigraphic surfaces are repeated or inverted, but the software is currently being extended by BGS to encompass these more complex geological scenarios. A further challenge for BGS is to enable its 3D geological models to become part of the semantic Web using GML application schema like GeoSciML. The biggest benefits of widely available systematic geological models will be an enhanced public understanding of the sub-surface in 3D, and the teaching of geoscience students.

  10. Ship-in-a-bottle integration by hybrid femtosecond laser technology for fabrication of true 3D biochips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sima, Felix; Wu, Dong; Xu, Jian; Midorikawa, Katsumi; Sugioka, Koji

    2015-03-01

    We propose herein the "ship-in-a-bottle" integration of three-dimensional (3D) polymeric sinusoidal ridges inside photosensitive glass microfluidic channel by a hybrid subtractive - additive femtosecond laser processing method. It consists of Femtosecond Laser Assisted Wet Etching (FLAE) of a photosensitive Foturan glass followed by Two-Photon Polymerization (TPP) of a SU-8 negative epoxy-resin. Both subtractive and additive processes are carried out using the same set-up with the change of laser focusing objective only. A 522 nm wavelength of the second harmonic generation from an amplified femtosecond Yb-fiber laser (FCPA µJewel D-400, IMRA America, 1045 nm; pulse width 360 fs, repetition rate 200 kHz) was employed for irradiation. The new method allows lowering the size limit of 3D objects created inside channels to smaller details down to the dimensions of a cell, and improve the structure stability. Sinusoidal periodic patterns and ridges are of great use as base scaffolds for building up new structures on their top or for modulating cell migration, guidance and orientation while created interspaces can be exploited for microfluidic applications. The glass microchannel offers robustness and appropriate dynamic flow conditions for cellular studies while the integrated patterns are reducing the size of structure to the level of cells responsiveness. Taking advantage of the ability to directly fabricate 3D complex shapes, both glass channels and polymeric integrated patterns enable us to 3D spatially design biochips for specific applications.

  11. Integrated 3-D Ground-Penetrating Radar, Outcrop, and Borehole Data Applied to Reservoir Characterization and Flow Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    George McMechan; Rucsandra Corbeanu; Craig Forster; Kristian Soegaard; Xiaoxian Zeng; Carlos Aiken; Robert Szerbiak; Janok Bhattacharya; Michael Wizevich; Xueming Xu; Stephen Snelgrove; Karen Roche; Siang Joo Lim; Djuro Navakovic; Christopher White; Laura Crossey; Deming Wang; John Thurmond; William Hammon III; Mamadou BAlde; Ari Menitove

    2001-08-31

    OAK-B135 (IPLD Cleared) Existing reservoir models are based on 2-D outcrop studies; 3-D aspects are inferred from correlation between wells, and so are inadequately constrained for reservoir simulations. To overcome these deficiencies, we initiated a multidimensional characterization of reservoir analogs in the Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone in Utah. The study was conducted at two sites (Corbula Gulch and Coyote Basin); results from both sites are contained in this report. Detailed sedimentary facies maps of cliff faces define the geometry and distribution of potential reservoir flow units, barriers and baffles at the outcrop. High resolution 2-D and 3-D ground-penetrating radar (GPR) images extend these reservoir characteristics into 3-D, to allow development of realistic 3-D reservoir models. Models use geometric information from the mapping and the GPR data, petrophysical data from surface and cliff-face outcrops, lab analyses of outcrop and core samples, and petrography. The measurements are all integrated into a single coordinate system using GPS and laser mapping of the main sedimentological features and boundaries.The final step is analysis of results of 3-D fluid flow modeling to demonstrate applicability of our reservoir analog studies to well siting and reservoir engineering for maximization of hydrocarbon production. The main goals of the project are achieved. These are the construction of a deterministic 3-D reservoir analog model from a variety of geophysical and geologic measurements at the field sites, integrating these into comprehensive petrophysical models, and flow simulations through these models. This unique approach represents a significant advance in characterization and use of reservoir analogs.

  12. An integrated 3D-printed platform for the automated isolation of N-glycans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mao-Mao; Laborda, Pedro; Conway, Louis Patrick; Duan, Xu-Chu; Huang, Kun; Liu, Li; Voglmeir, Josef

    2016-10-01

    The development of techniques for the rapid analysis of N-glycans is a key step in enabling the roles of glycoproteins in biological processes to be studied. Analysis is usually performed through the liberation of the carbohydrate moieties from proteins, followed by fluorescent labeling and identification using either standardized HPLC or mass spectrometry techniques. A simple and robust automated process for the release and isolation of N-glycans would greatly improve analytical throughput and reproducibility, and is thus highly desirable. Inspired by the increasing number of reported projects involving open source labware, which allows the design and construction of otherwise inaccessible laboratory equipment using low-cost 3D printers, we used this technique to fabricate a platform for the automated isolation of N-glycans. As a proof of concept, we demonstrated the successful recovery of glycan samples from the glycoprotein model fetuin using our self-made 3D-printed equipment.

  13. An integrated 3D-printed platform for the automated isolation of N-glycans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mao-Mao; Laborda, Pedro; Conway, Louis Patrick; Duan, Xu-Chu; Huang, Kun; Liu, Li; Voglmeir, Josef

    2016-10-01

    The development of techniques for the rapid analysis of N-glycans is a key step in enabling the roles of glycoproteins in biological processes to be studied. Analysis is usually performed through the liberation of the carbohydrate moieties from proteins, followed by fluorescent labeling and identification using either standardized HPLC or mass spectrometry techniques. A simple and robust automated process for the release and isolation of N-glycans would greatly improve analytical throughput and reproducibility, and is thus highly desirable. Inspired by the increasing number of reported projects involving open source labware, which allows the design and construction of otherwise inaccessible laboratory equipment using low-cost 3D printers, we used this technique to fabricate a platform for the automated isolation of N-glycans. As a proof of concept, we demonstrated the successful recovery of glycan samples from the glycoprotein model fetuin using our self-made 3D-printed equipment. PMID:27423878

  14. Performance of a non-tapered 3D morphing wing with integrated compliant ribs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Previtali, F.; Ermanni, P.

    2012-05-01

    Morphing wings have a high potential for improving the performance and reducing the fuel consumption of modern aircraft. Thanks to its simplicity, the compliant belt-rib concept is regarded by the authors as a promising solution. Using the compliant rib designed by Hasse and Campanile as a starting point, a compliant morphing wing made of composite materials is designed. Innovative methods for optimal placing of the actuation and for the quantification of the morphing are used. The performance of the compliant morphing wing in terms of three-dimensional (3D) structural behaviour and aerodynamic properties, both two- and three-dimensional, is presented and discussed. The fundamental importance of considering 3D coupling effects in the determination of the performance of morphing aerofoils is shown.

  15. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  16. Integrating biologically inspired nanomaterials and table-top stereolithography for 3D printed biomimetic osteochondral scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Nathan J.; O'Brien, Joseph; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2015-08-01

    The osteochondral interface of an arthritic joint is notoriously difficult to regenerate due to its extremely poor regenerative capacity and complex stratified architecture. Native osteochondral tissue extracellular matrix is composed of numerous nanoscale organic and inorganic constituents. Although various tissue engineering strategies exist in addressing osteochondral defects, limitations persist with regards to tissue scaffolding which exhibit biomimetic cues at the nano to micro scale. In an effort to address this, the current work focused on 3D printing biomimetic nanocomposite scaffolds for improved osteochondral tissue regeneration. For this purpose, two biologically-inspired nanomaterials have been synthesized consisting of (1) osteoconductive nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA) (primary inorganic component of bone) and (2) core-shell poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanospheres encapsulated with chondrogenic transforming growth-factor β1 (TGF-β1) for sustained delivery. Then, a novel table-top stereolithography 3D printer and the nano-ink (i.e., nHA + nanosphere + hydrogel) were employed to fabricate a porous and highly interconnected osteochondral scaffold with hierarchical nano-to-micro structure and spatiotemporal bioactive factor gradients. Our results showed that human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteochondral differentiation were greatly improved in the biomimetic graded 3D printed osteochondral construct in vitro. The current work served to illustrate the efficacy of the nano-ink and current 3D printing technology for efficient fabrication of a novel nanocomposite hydrogel scaffold. In addition, tissue-specific growth factors illustrated a synergistic effect leading to increased cell adhesion and directed stem cell differentiation.

  17. Integrating biologically inspired nanomaterials and table-top stereolithography for 3D printed biomimetic osteochondral scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Castro, Nathan J; O'Brien, Joseph; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2015-09-01

    The osteochondral interface of an arthritic joint is notoriously difficult to regenerate due to its extremely poor regenerative capacity and complex stratified architecture. Native osteochondral tissue extracellular matrix is composed of numerous nanoscale organic and inorganic constituents. Although various tissue engineering strategies exist in addressing osteochondral defects, limitations persist with regards to tissue scaffolding which exhibit biomimetic cues at the nano to micro scale. In an effort to address this, the current work focused on 3D printing biomimetic nanocomposite scaffolds for improved osteochondral tissue regeneration. For this purpose, two biologically-inspired nanomaterials have been synthesized consisting of (1) osteoconductive nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA) (primary inorganic component of bone) and (2) core-shell poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanospheres encapsulated with chondrogenic transforming growth-factor β1 (TGF-β1) for sustained delivery. Then, a novel table-top stereolithography 3D printer and the nano-ink (i.e., nHA + nanosphere + hydrogel) were employed to fabricate a porous and highly interconnected osteochondral scaffold with hierarchical nano-to-micro structure and spatiotemporal bioactive factor gradients. Our results showed that human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteochondral differentiation were greatly improved in the biomimetic graded 3D printed osteochondral construct in vitro. The current work served to illustrate the efficacy of the nano-ink and current 3D printing technology for efficient fabrication of a novel nanocomposite hydrogel scaffold. In addition, tissue-specific growth factors illustrated a synergistic effect leading to increased cell adhesion and directed stem cell differentiation.

  18. Parameterization of training images for aquifer 3-D facies modeling integrating geological interpretations and statistical inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Sanjeev Kumar; Comunian, Alessandro; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Kelly, Bryce F. J.

    2014-10-01

    We develop a stochastic approach to construct channelized 3-D geological models constrained to borehole measurements as well as geological interpretation. The methodology is based on simple 2-D geologist-provided sketches of fluvial depositional elements, which are extruded in the 3rd dimension. Multiple-point geostatistics (MPS) is used to impair horizontal variability to the structures by introducing geometrical transformation parameters. The sketches provided by the geologist are used as elementary training images, whose statistical information is expanded through randomized transformations. We demonstrate the applicability of the approach by applying it to modeling a fluvial valley filling sequence in the Maules Creek catchment, Australia. The facies models are constrained to borehole logs, spatial information borrowed from an analogue and local orientations derived from the present-day stream networks. The connectivity in the 3-D facies models is evaluated using statistical measures and transport simulations. Comparison with a statistically equivalent variogram-based model shows that our approach is more suited for building 3-D facies models that contain structures specific to the channelized environment and which have a significant influence on the transport processes.

  19. Integration of nano-scale components and supports in micromachined 3D silicon structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, J.; Azimi, S.; Y Dang, Z.; Breese, M. B. H.

    2014-04-01

    We have developed a process for the three-dimensional (3D) machining of p-type silicon on a micro- and nano-scale using high-energy ion beam irradiation with one or more energies and fluences, followed by electrochemical anodization in hydrofluoric acid. We present a study of the dependence of our fabricated structures on irradiating ion energies, fluences, geometries and wafer resistivity. All these factors determine whether the micro- and nano-scale features are properly connected to the supports in the 3D silicon structures. If wrongly chosen, any of these factors may cause a breakage at the connection through localized over-etching. Under optimum irradiation and anodization conditions, free-standing patterned membranes can be fabricated with feature dimensions of 100 nm over areas of many square millimeters. This investigation is based on silicon structures but is relevant to any electro-assisted etching process for 3D fabrication, paving the way for achieving free-standing silicon photonics, mechanical resonators and micro-/nano-electromechanical systems.

  20. Integrated WiFi/PDR/Smartphone Using an Unscented Kalman Filter Algorithm for 3D Indoor Localization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guoliang; Meng, Xiaolin; Wang, Yunjia; Zhang, Yanzhe; Tian, Peng; Yang, Huachao

    2015-01-01

    Because of the high calculation cost and poor performance of a traditional planar map when dealing with complicated indoor geographic information, a WiFi fingerprint indoor positioning system cannot be widely employed on a smartphone platform. By making full use of the hardware sensors embedded in the smartphone, this study proposes an integrated approach to a three-dimensional (3D) indoor positioning system. First, an improved K-means clustering method is adopted to reduce the fingerprint database retrieval time and enhance positioning efficiency. Next, with the mobile phone's acceleration sensor, a new step counting method based on auto-correlation analysis is proposed to achieve cell phone inertial navigation positioning. Furthermore, the integration of WiFi positioning with Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) obtains higher positional accuracy with the help of the Unscented Kalman Filter algorithm. Finally, a hybrid 3D positioning system based on Unity 3D, which can carry out real-time positioning for targets in 3D scenes, is designed for the fluent operation of mobile terminals. PMID:26404314

  1. Integrated WiFi/PDR/Smartphone Using an Unscented Kalman Filter Algorithm for 3D Indoor Localization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guoliang; Meng, Xiaolin; Wang, Yunjia; Zhang, Yanzhe; Tian, Peng; Yang, Huachao

    2015-01-01

    Because of the high calculation cost and poor performance of a traditional planar map when dealing with complicated indoor geographic information, a WiFi fingerprint indoor positioning system cannot be widely employed on a smartphone platform. By making full use of the hardware sensors embedded in the smartphone, this study proposes an integrated approach to a three-dimensional (3D) indoor positioning system. First, an improved K-means clustering method is adopted to reduce the fingerprint database retrieval time and enhance positioning efficiency. Next, with the mobile phone’s acceleration sensor, a new step counting method based on auto-correlation analysis is proposed to achieve cell phone inertial navigation positioning. Furthermore, the integration of WiFi positioning with Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) obtains higher positional accuracy with the help of the Unscented Kalman Filter algorithm. Finally, a hybrid 3D positioning system based on Unity 3D, which can carry out real-time positioning for targets in 3D scenes, is designed for the fluent operation of mobile terminals. PMID:26404314

  2. Integrated WiFi/PDR/Smartphone Using an Unscented Kalman Filter Algorithm for 3D Indoor Localization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guoliang; Meng, Xiaolin; Wang, Yunjia; Zhang, Yanzhe; Tian, Peng; Yang, Huachao

    2015-09-23

    Because of the high calculation cost and poor performance of a traditional planar map when dealing with complicated indoor geographic information, a WiFi fingerprint indoor positioning system cannot be widely employed on a smartphone platform. By making full use of the hardware sensors embedded in the smartphone, this study proposes an integrated approach to a three-dimensional (3D) indoor positioning system. First, an improved K-means clustering method is adopted to reduce the fingerprint database retrieval time and enhance positioning efficiency. Next, with the mobile phone's acceleration sensor, a new step counting method based on auto-correlation analysis is proposed to achieve cell phone inertial navigation positioning. Furthermore, the integration of WiFi positioning with Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) obtains higher positional accuracy with the help of the Unscented Kalman Filter algorithm. Finally, a hybrid 3D positioning system based on Unity 3D, which can carry out real-time positioning for targets in 3D scenes, is designed for the fluent operation of mobile terminals.

  3. Evaluation of dosimetric misrepresentations from 3D conventional planning of liver SBRT using 4D deformable dose integration.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Unjin A; Taylor, Michael L; Supple, Jeremy R; Siva, Shankar; Kron, Tomas; Pham, Daniel; Franich, Rick D

    2014-11-08

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dosimetric errors in 3D conventional plan- ning of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) by using a 4D deformable image registration (DIR)-based dose-warping and integration technique. Respiratory- correlated 4D CT image sets with 10 phases were acquired for four consecutive patients with five liver tumors. Average intensity projection (AIP) images were used to generate 3D conventional plans of SBRT. Quasi-4D path-integrated dose accumulation was performed over all 10 phases using dose-warping techniques based on DIR. This result was compared to the conventional plan in order to evalu- ate the appropriateness of 3D (static) dose calculations. In addition, we consider whether organ dose metrics derived from contours defined on the average intensity projection (AIP), or on a reference phase, provide the better approximation of the 4D values. The impact of using fewer (< 10) phases was also explored. The AIP- based 3D planning approach overestimated doses to targets by 1.4% to 8.7% (mean 4.2%) and underestimated dose to normal liver by up to 8% (mean -5.5%; range -2.3% to -8.0%), compared to the 4D methodology. The homogeneity of the dose distribution was overestimated when using conventional 3D calculations by up to 24%. OAR doses estimated by 3D planning were, on average, within 10% of the 4D calculations; however, differences of up to 100% were observed. Four-dimensional dose calculation using 3 phases gave a reasonable approximation of that calculated from the full 10 phases for all patients, which is potentially useful from a workload perspective. 4D evaluation showed that conventional 3D planning on an AIP can significantly overestimate target dose (ITV and GTV+5mm), underestimate normal liver dose, and overestimate dose homogeneity. Implementing nonadaptive quasi- 4D dose calculation can highlight the potential limitation of 3D conventional SBRT planning and the resultant misrepresentations of dose in some regions

  4. New 3D parallel GILD electromagnetic modeling and nonlinear inversion using global magnetic integral and local differential equation

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, G.; Li, J.; Majer, E.; Zuo, D.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes a new 3D parallel GILD electromagnetic (EM) modeling and nonlinear inversion algorithm. The algorithm consists of: (a) a new magnetic integral equation instead of the electric integral equation to solve the electromagnetic forward modeling and inverse problem; (b) a collocation finite element method for solving the magnetic integral and a Galerkin finite element method for the magnetic differential equations; (c) a nonlinear regularizing optimization method to make the inversion stable and of high resolution; and (d) a new parallel 3D modeling and inversion using a global integral and local differential domain decomposition technique (GILD). The new 3D nonlinear electromagnetic inversion has been tested with synthetic data and field data. The authors obtained very good imaging for the synthetic data and reasonable subsurface EM imaging for the field data. The parallel algorithm has high parallel efficiency over 90% and can be a parallel solver for elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic modeling and inversion. The parallel GILD algorithm can be extended to develop a high resolution and large scale seismic and hydrology modeling and inversion in the massively parallel computer.

  5. An Integrated Multi-component Processing and Interpretation Framework for 3D Borehole Seismic Data

    SciTech Connect

    M. Karrenbach

    2004-04-01

    This report covers the October 2003 until March 2004 time period. Work has continued successfully on several tasks 1 through 7. Most of these tasks have been executed independently. Due to availability of manpower during that time period we progressed steadily and completed some of the tasks, while others are still on going. We achieved the goals that we had set up in the task schedule. Reviewing the results of this work period indicates that our plan is on schedule and we did not encounter any unforeseen problems. The work plan will continue as projected. Several independent tasks pursuant the statement of project objectives have been executed simultaneously and are still on-going. This report summarizes the selection, test processing and test flow generation of a relevant 3D borehole seismic high-resolution test dataset. This multi-component data set is suitable for future use in this project due to data quality and unique acquisition characteristics. This report shows initial processing results that supported the data selection scheduled for Task 1. Use of real data is augmented by the creating a 3D layered synthetic geologic model in which multi-component 3D borehole seismic data were generated using 3D ray tracing. A gridded surface representation of the reflection interfaces as well as fully populated velocity grids were generated and archived. The model consists of a moderately dipping geologic setting with horizon undulations. A realistic velocity variation is used in between the three layers. Acquisition was simulated from a set of equidistant source locations at the surface of the model, while a close to vertical VSP well was used to capture the wave field data. The source pattern was close to a staggered grid pattern. Multi-component particle displacements were recorded every 50 ft down with an array length of 4,000 ft. P-P as well as P-S reflections were specified in the resulting wave field. We ensured a large enough aperture with enough fine sampling

  6. Integration Of 3D Geographic Information System (GIS) For Effective Waste Management Practice

    SciTech Connect

    Rood, G.J.; Hecox, G.R.

    2006-07-01

    Soil remediation in response to the presence of residual radioactivity resulting from past MED/AEC activities is currently in progress under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program near the St. Louis, MO airport. During GY05, approximately 92,000 cubic meters (120,000 cubic yards) of radioactive soil was excavated, packaged and transported via rail for disposal at U.S. Ecology or Envirocare of Utah, LLC. To facilitate the management of excavation/transportation/disposal activities, a 3D GIS was developed for the site that was used to estimate the in-situ radionuclide activities, activities in excavation block areas, and shipping activities using a sum-of ratio (SOR) method for combining various radionuclide compounds into applicable transportation and disposal SOR values. The 3D GIS was developed starting with the SOR values for the approximately 900 samples from 90 borings. These values were processed into a three-dimensional (3D) point grid using kriging with nominal grid spacing of 1.5 by 1.5 meter horizontal by 0.3 meter vertical. The final grid, clipped to the area and soil interval above the planned base of excavation, consisted of 210,000 individual points. Standard GIS volumetric and spatial join procedures were used to calculate the volume of soil represented by each grid point, the base of excavation, depth below ground surface, elevation, surface elevation and SOR values for each point in the final grid. To create the maps needed for management, the point grid results were spatially joined to each excavation area in 0.9 meter (3 foot) depth intervals and the average SOR and total volumes were calculations. The final maps were color-coded for easy identification of areas above the specific transportation or disposal criteria. (authors)

  7. Fabrication and characterization of gels with integrated channels using 3D printing with microfluidic nozzle for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Attalla, R; Ling, C; Selvaganapathy, P

    2016-02-01

    The lack of a simple and effective method to integrate vascular network with engineered scaffolds and tissue constructs remains one of the biggest challenges in true 3D tissue engineering. Here, we detail the use of a commercially available, low-cost, open-source 3D printer modified with a microfluidic print-head in order to develop a method for the generation of instantly perfusable vascular network integrated with gel scaffolds seeded with cells. The print-head features an integrated coaxial nozzle that allows the fabrication of hollow, calcium-polymerized alginate tubes that can be easily patterned using 3D printing techniques. The diameter of the hollow channel can be precisely controlled and varied between 500 μm - 2 mm by changing applied flow rates or print-head speed. These channels are integrated into gel layers with a thickness of 800 μm - 2.5 mm. The structural rigidity of these constructs allows the fabrication of multi-layered structures without causing the collapse of hollow channels in lower layers. The 3D printing method was fully characterized at a range of operating speeds (0-40 m/min) and corresponding flow rates (1-30 mL/min) were identified to produce precise definition. This microfluidic design also allows the incorporation of a wide range of scaffold materials as well as biological constituents such as cells, growth factors, and ECM material. Media perfusion of the channels causes a significant viability increase in the bulk of cell-laden structures over the long-term. With this setup, gel constructs with embedded arrays of hollow channels can be created and used as a potential substitute for blood vessel networks. PMID:26842949

  8. Fabrication and characterization of gels with integrated channels using 3D printing with microfluidic nozzle for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Attalla, R; Ling, C; Selvaganapathy, P

    2016-02-01

    The lack of a simple and effective method to integrate vascular network with engineered scaffolds and tissue constructs remains one of the biggest challenges in true 3D tissue engineering. Here, we detail the use of a commercially available, low-cost, open-source 3D printer modified with a microfluidic print-head in order to develop a method for the generation of instantly perfusable vascular network integrated with gel scaffolds seeded with cells. The print-head features an integrated coaxial nozzle that allows the fabrication of hollow, calcium-polymerized alginate tubes that can be easily patterned using 3D printing techniques. The diameter of the hollow channel can be precisely controlled and varied between 500 μm - 2 mm by changing applied flow rates or print-head speed. These channels are integrated into gel layers with a thickness of 800 μm - 2.5 mm. The structural rigidity of these constructs allows the fabrication of multi-layered structures without causing the collapse of hollow channels in lower layers. The 3D printing method was fully characterized at a range of operating speeds (0-40 m/min) and corresponding flow rates (1-30 mL/min) were identified to produce precise definition. This microfluidic design also allows the incorporation of a wide range of scaffold materials as well as biological constituents such as cells, growth factors, and ECM material. Media perfusion of the channels causes a significant viability increase in the bulk of cell-laden structures over the long-term. With this setup, gel constructs with embedded arrays of hollow channels can be created and used as a potential substitute for blood vessel networks.

  9. Integration of 3D and 2D imaging data for assured navigation in unknown environments: initial steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, Evan; Uijt de Haag, Maarten

    2009-05-01

    This paper discusses the initial steps of the development of a novel navigation method that integrates three-dimensional (3D) point cloud data, two-dimensional (2D) gray-level (intensity), and data from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). A time-of-flight camera such as MESA's Swissranger will output both the 3D and 2D data. The target application is position and attitude determination of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and autonomous ground vehicles (AGV) in urban or indoor environments. In urban and indoor environments a GPS position capability may not only be unavailable due to shadowing, significant signal attenuation or multipath, but also due to intentional denial or deception. The proposed algorithm extracts key features such as planar surfaces, lines and corner-points from both the 3D (point-cloud) and 2D (intensity) imagery. Consecutive observations of corresponding features in the 3D and 2D image frames are then used to compute estimates of position and orientation changes. Since the use of 3D image features for positioning suffers from limited feature observability resulting in deteriorated position accuracies, and the 2D imagery suffers from an unknown depth when estimating the pose from consecutive image frames, it is expected that the integration of both data sets will alleviate the problems with the individual methods resulting in an position and attitude determination method with a high level of assurance. An Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) is used to set up the tracking gates necessary to perform data association of the features in consecutive frames. Finally, the position and orientation change estimates can be used to correct for the IMU drift errors.

  10. Digital Reconstruction of AN Archaeological Site Based on the Integration of 3d Data and Historical Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, G.; Russo, M.; Angheleddu, D.

    2013-02-01

    The methodology proposed in this paper in based on an integrated approach for creating a 3D digital reconstruction of an archaeological site, using extensively the 3D documentation of the site in its current state, followed by an iterative interaction between archaeologists and digital modelers, leading to a progressive refinement of the reconstructive hypotheses. The starting point of the method is the reality-based model, which, together with ancient drawings and documents, is used for generating the first reconstructive step. Such rough approximation of a possible architectural structure can be annotated through archaeological considerations that has to be confronted with geometrical constraints, producing a reduction of the reconstructive hypotheses to a limited set, each one to be archaeologically evaluated. This refinement loop on the reconstructive choices is iterated until the result become convincing by both points of view, integrating in the best way all the available sources. The proposed method has been verified on the ruins of five temples in the My Son site, a wide archaeological area located in central Vietnam. The integration of 3D surveyed data and historical documentation has allowed to support a digital reconstruction of not existing architectures, developing their three-dimensional digital models step by step, from rough shapes to highly sophisticate virtual prototypes.

  11. Research on Joint Parameter Inversion for an Integrated Underground Displacement 3D Measuring Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Shentu, Nanying; Qiu, Guohua; Li, Qing; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Wang, Yanjie

    2015-01-01

    Underground displacement monitoring is a key means to monitor and evaluate geological disasters and geotechnical projects. There exist few practical instruments able to monitor subsurface horizontal and vertical displacements simultaneously due to monitoring invisibility and complexity. A novel underground displacement 3D measuring sensor had been proposed in our previous studies, and great efforts have been taken in the basic theoretical research of underground displacement sensing and measuring characteristics by virtue of modeling, simulation and experiments. This paper presents an innovative underground displacement joint inversion method by mixing a specific forward modeling approach with an approximate optimization inversion procedure. It can realize a joint inversion of underground horizontal displacement and vertical displacement for the proposed 3D sensor. Comparative studies have been conducted between the measured and inversed parameters of underground horizontal and vertical displacements under a variety of experimental and inverse conditions. The results showed that when experimentally measured horizontal displacements and vertical displacements are both varied within 0 ~ 30 mm, horizontal displacement and vertical displacement inversion discrepancies are generally less than 3 mm and 1 mm, respectively, under three kinds of simulated underground displacement monitoring circumstances. This implies that our proposed underground displacement joint inversion method is robust and efficient to predict the measuring values of underground horizontal and vertical displacements for the proposed sensor. PMID:25871714

  12. Research on joint parameter inversion for an integrated underground displacement 3D measuring sensor.

    PubMed

    Shentu, Nanying; Qiu, Guohua; Li, Qing; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Wang, Yanjie

    2015-01-01

    Underground displacement monitoring is a key means to monitor and evaluate geological disasters and geotechnical projects. There exist few practical instruments able to monitor subsurface horizontal and vertical displacements simultaneously due to monitoring invisibility and complexity. A novel underground displacement 3D measuring sensor had been proposed in our previous studies, and great efforts have been taken in the basic theoretical research of underground displacement sensing and measuring characteristics by virtue of modeling, simulation and experiments. This paper presents an innovative underground displacement joint inversion method by mixing a specific forward modeling approach with an approximate optimization inversion procedure. It can realize a joint inversion of underground horizontal displacement and vertical displacement for the proposed 3D sensor. Comparative studies have been conducted between the measured and inversed parameters of underground horizontal and vertical displacements under a variety of experimental and inverse conditions. The results showed that when experimentally measured horizontal displacements and vertical displacements are both varied within 0~30 mm, horizontal displacement and vertical displacement inversion discrepancies are generally less than 3 mm and 1 mm, respectively, under three kinds of simulated underground displacement monitoring circumstances. This implies that our proposed underground displacement joint inversion method is robust and efficient to predict the measuring values of underground horizontal and vertical displacements for the proposed sensor. PMID:25871714

  13. A study of stacked and miniature 3-D inductor performance for radio frequency integrated circuit design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goñi Iturri, A.; del Pino, F. J.; Khemchandani, S. L.; García, J.; González, B.; Hernández, A.

    2007-05-01

    The performance of stacked and miniature three-dimensional spiral inductors is analyzed and compared to standard planar coils. For this purpose, nine of these new structures have been fabricated in a 0.35-μm four-metal SiGe process. According to the measurement results, some of the proposed stacked inductors occupy only 48% of the area of a conventional planar inductor with the same inductance value and work frequency. The area reduction is even more significant with the miniature 3-D structures, which occupy only 22% in some cases, and translate the inductor self-resonance frequency to higher values than the conventional stacked inductors. In spite of this area reduction, these new structures employ metal levels close to the substrate, which significantly degrades the quality factor. So the standard planar coils continue to be the best choice if the designer requires high-quality inductors. However, stacked and 3-D miniature structures could be a better solution if the area saving is the circuit major priority.

  14. Integration of multi-modality imaging for accurate 3D reconstruction of human coronary arteries in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannoglou, George D.; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S.; Sianos, George; Tsikaderis, Dimitrios; Matakos, Antonis; Koutkias, Vassilios; Diamantopoulos, Panagiotis; Maglaveras, Nicos; Parcharidis, George E.; Louridas, George E.

    2006-12-01

    In conventional intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-based three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of human coronary arteries, IVUS images are arranged linearly generating a straight vessel volume. However, with this approach real vessel curvature is neglected. To overcome this limitation an imaging method was developed based on integration of IVUS and biplane coronary angiography (BCA). In 17 coronary arteries from nine patients, IVUS and BCA were performed. From each angiographic projection, a single end-diastolic frame was selected and in each frame the IVUS catheter was interactively detected for the extraction of 3D catheter path. Ultrasound data was obtained with a sheath-based catheter and recorded on S-VHS videotape. S-VHS data was digitized and lumen and media-adventitia contours were semi-automatically detected in end-diastolic IVUS images. Each pair of contours was aligned perpendicularly to the catheter path and rotated in space by implementing an algorithm based on Frenet-Serret rules. Lumen and media-adventitia contours were interpolated through generation of intermediate contours creating a real 3D lumen and vessel volume, respectively. The absolute orientation of the reconstructed lumen was determined by back-projecting it onto both angiographic planes and comparing the projected lumen with the actual angiographic lumen. In conclusion, our method is capable of performing rapid and accurate 3D reconstruction of human coronary arteries in vivo. This technique can be utilized for reliable plaque morphometric, geometrical and hemodynamic analyses.

  15. 3D Printed Programmable Release Capsules.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Maneesh K; Meng, Fanben; Johnson, Blake N; Kong, Yong Lin; Tian, Limei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Masters, Nina; Singamaneni, Srikanth; McAlpine, Michael C

    2015-08-12

    The development of methods for achieving precise spatiotemporal control over chemical and biomolecular gradients could enable significant advances in areas such as synthetic tissue engineering, biotic-abiotic interfaces, and bionanotechnology. Living organisms guide tissue development through highly orchestrated gradients of biomolecules that direct cell growth, migration, and differentiation. While numerous methods have been developed to manipulate and implement biomolecular gradients, integrating gradients into multiplexed, three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains a critical challenge. Here we present a method to 3D print stimuli-responsive core/shell capsules for programmable release of multiplexed gradients within hydrogel matrices. These capsules are composed of an aqueous core, which can be formulated to maintain the activity of payload biomolecules, and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA, an FDA approved polymer) shell. Importantly, the shell can be loaded with plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs), which permits selective rupturing of the capsule when irradiated with a laser wavelength specifically determined by the lengths of the nanorods. This precise control over space, time, and selectivity allows for the ability to pattern 2D and 3D multiplexed arrays of enzyme-loaded capsules along with tunable laser-triggered rupture and release of active enzymes into a hydrogel ambient. The advantages of this 3D printing-based method include (1) highly monodisperse capsules, (2) efficient encapsulation of biomolecular payloads, (3) precise spatial patterning of capsule arrays, (4) "on the fly" programmable reconfiguration of gradients, and (5) versatility for incorporation in hierarchical architectures. Indeed, 3D printing of programmable release capsules may represent a powerful new tool to enable spatiotemporal control over biomolecular gradients. PMID:26042472

  16. 3D Printed Programmable Release Capsules

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Maneesh K.; Meng, Fanben; Johnson, Blake N.; Kong, Yong Lin; Tian, Limei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Masters, Nina; Singamaneni, Srikanth; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    The development of methods for achieving precise spatiotemporal control over chemical and biomolecular gradients could enable significant advances in areas such as synthetic tissue engineering, biotic–abiotic interfaces, and bionanotechnology. Living organisms guide tissue development through highly orchestrated gradients of biomolecules that direct cell growth, migration, and differentiation. While numerous methods have been developed to manipulate and implement biomolecular gradients, integrating gradients into multiplexed, three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains a critical challenge. Here we present a method to 3D print stimuli-responsive core/shell capsules for programmable release of multiplexed gradients within hydrogel matrices. These capsules are composed of an aqueous core, which can be formulated to maintain the activity of payload biomolecules, and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA, an FDA approved polymer) shell. Importantly, the shell can be loaded with plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs), which permits selective rupturing of the capsule when irradiated with a laser wavelength specifically determined by the lengths of the nanorods. This precise control over space, time, and selectivity allows for the ability to pattern 2D and 3D multiplexed arrays of enzyme-loaded capsules along with tunable laser-triggered rupture and release of active enzymes into a hydrogel ambient. The advantages of this 3D printing-based method include (1) highly monodisperse capsules, (2) efficient encapsulation of biomolecular payloads, (3) precise spatial patterning of capsule arrays, (4) “on the fly” programmable reconfiguration of gradients, and (5) versatility for incorporation in hierarchical architectures. Indeed, 3D printing of programmable release capsules may represent a powerful new tool to enable spatiotemporal control over biomolecular gradients. PMID:26042472

  17. 3D Printed Programmable Release Capsules.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Maneesh K; Meng, Fanben; Johnson, Blake N; Kong, Yong Lin; Tian, Limei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Masters, Nina; Singamaneni, Srikanth; McAlpine, Michael C

    2015-08-12

    The development of methods for achieving precise spatiotemporal control over chemical and biomolecular gradients could enable significant advances in areas such as synthetic tissue engineering, biotic-abiotic interfaces, and bionanotechnology. Living organisms guide tissue development through highly orchestrated gradients of biomolecules that direct cell growth, migration, and differentiation. While numerous methods have been developed to manipulate and implement biomolecular gradients, integrating gradients into multiplexed, three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains a critical challenge. Here we present a method to 3D print stimuli-responsive core/shell capsules for programmable release of multiplexed gradients within hydrogel matrices. These capsules are composed of an aqueous core, which can be formulated to maintain the activity of payload biomolecules, and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA, an FDA approved polymer) shell. Importantly, the shell can be loaded with plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs), which permits selective rupturing of the capsule when irradiated with a laser wavelength specifically determined by the lengths of the nanorods. This precise control over space, time, and selectivity allows for the ability to pattern 2D and 3D multiplexed arrays of enzyme-loaded capsules along with tunable laser-triggered rupture and release of active enzymes into a hydrogel ambient. The advantages of this 3D printing-based method include (1) highly monodisperse capsules, (2) efficient encapsulation of biomolecular payloads, (3) precise spatial patterning of capsule arrays, (4) "on the fly" programmable reconfiguration of gradients, and (5) versatility for incorporation in hierarchical architectures. Indeed, 3D printing of programmable release capsules may represent a powerful new tool to enable spatiotemporal control over biomolecular gradients.

  18. Tightly coupled low cost 3D RISS/GPS integration using a mixture particle filter for vehicular navigation.

    PubMed

    Georgy, Jacques; Noureldin, Aboelmagd

    2011-01-01

    Satellite navigation systems such as the global positioning system (GPS) are currently the most common technique used for land vehicle positioning. However, in GPS-denied environments, there is an interruption in the positioning information. Low-cost micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS)-based inertial sensors can be integrated with GPS and enhance the performance in denied GPS environments. The traditional technique for this integration problem is Kalman filtering (KF). Due to the inherent errors of low-cost MEMS inertial sensors and their large stochastic drifts, KF, with its linearized models, has limited capabilities in providing accurate positioning. Particle filtering (PF) was recently suggested as a nonlinear filtering technique to accommodate for arbitrary inertial sensor characteristics, motion dynamics and noise distributions. An enhanced version of PF called the Mixture PF is utilized in this study to perform tightly coupled integration of a three dimensional (3D) reduced inertial sensors system (RISS) with GPS. In this work, the RISS consists of one single-axis gyroscope and a two-axis accelerometer used together with the vehicle's odometer to obtain 3D navigation states. These sensors are then integrated with GPS in a tightly coupled scheme. In loosely-coupled integration, at least four satellites are needed to provide acceptable GPS position and velocity updates for the integration filter. The advantage of the tightly-coupled integration is that it can provide GPS measurement update(s) even when the number of visible satellites is three or lower, thereby improving the operation of the navigation system in environments with partial blockages by providing continuous aiding to the inertial sensors even during limited GPS satellite availability. To effectively exploit the capabilities of PF, advanced modeling for the stochastic drift of the vertically aligned gyroscope is used. In order to benefit from measurement updates for such drift, which are

  19. Integration of Petrophysical Methods and 3D Printing Technology to Replicate Reservoir Pore Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishutov, S.; Hasiuk, F.; Gray, J.; Harding, C.

    2014-12-01

    Pore-scale imaging and modeling are becoming routine geoscience techniques of reservoir analysis and simulation in oil and gas industry. Three-dimensional printing may facilitate the transformation of pore-space imagery into rock models, which can be compared to traditional laboratory methods and literature data. Although current methodologies for rapid rock modeling and printing obscure many details of grain geometry, computed tomography data is one route to refine pore networks and experimentally test hypotheses related to rock properties, such as porosity and permeability. This study uses three-dimensional printing as a novel way of interacting with x-ray computed tomography data from reservoir core plugs based on digital modeling of pore systems in coarse-grained sandstones and limestones. The advantages of using artificial rocks as a proxy are to better understand the contributions of pore system characteristics at various scales to petrophysical properties in oil and gas reservoirs. Pore radii of reservoir sandstones used in this study range from 1 to 100s of microns, whereas the pore radii for limestones vary from 0.01 to 10s of microns. The resolution of computed tomography imaging is ~10 microns; the resolution of 3D digital printing used in the study varies from 2.5 to 300 microns. For this technology to be useful, loss of pore network information must be minimized in the course of data acquisition, modeling, and production as well as verified against core-scale measurements. The ultimate goal of this study is to develop a reservoir rock "photocopier" that couples 3D scanning and modeling with 3D printing to reproduce a) petrophyscially accurate copies of reservoir pore systems and b) digitally modified pore systems for testing hypotheses about reservoir flow. By allowing us to build porous media with known properties (porosity, permeability, surface area), technology will also advance our understanding of the tools used to measure these quantities (e

  20. 3D Integrated geophysical-petrological modelling of the Iranian lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Naeim; Ardestani, Vahid E.; Ebbing, Jörg; Fullea, Javier

    2016-04-01

    The present-day Iranian Plateau is the result of complex tectonic processes associated with the Arabia-Eurasia Plate convergence at a lithospheric scale. In spite of previous mostly 2D geophysical studies, fundamental questions regarding the deep lithospheric and sub-lithospheric structure beneath Iran remain open. A robust 3D model of the thermochemical lithospheric structure in Iran is an important step toward a better understanding of the geological history and tectonic events in the area. Here, we apply a combined geophysical-petrological methodology (LitMod3D) to investigate the present-day thermal and compositional structure in the crust and upper mantle beneath the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone using a comprehensive variety of constraining data: elevation, surface heat flow, gravity potential fields, satellite gravity gradients, xenoliths and seismic tomography. Different mantle compositions were tested in our model based on local xenolith samples and global data base averages for different tectonothermal ages. A uniform mantle composition fails to explain the observed gravity field, gravity gradients and surface topography. A tectonically regionalized lithospheric mantle compositional model is able to explain all data sets including seismic tomography models. Our preliminary thermochemical lithospheric study constrains the depth to Moho discontinuity and intra crustal geometries including depth to sediments. We also determine the depth to Curie isotherm which is known as the base of magnetized crustal/uppermost mantle bodies. Discrepancies with respect to previous studies include mantle composition and the geometry of Moho and Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary (LAB). Synthetic seismic Vs and Vp velocities match existing seismic tomography models in the area. In this study, depleted mantle compositions are modelled beneath cold and thick lithosphere in Arabian and Turan platforms. A more fertile mantle composition is found in collision zones. Based on our 3

  1. An Integrated Multi-component Processing and Interpretation Framework for 3D Borehole Seismic Data

    SciTech Connect

    M. Karrenbach

    2004-10-15

    This report covers the April 2004-September 2004 time period. Work has been performed successfully on several tasks 1 through 16. Part of this work has been reported in 15418R03. Most of portions of these tasks have been executed independently. We progressed steadily and completed some of the sub-tasks, while others are still on going. We achieved the goals that we had set up in the task schedule. Reviewing the results of this work period indicates that our plan is solid and we did not encounter any unforeseen problems. The work plan will continue as scheduled. A midyear review will be presented in November or December 2004. Several independent tasks pursuant the statement of project objectives have been executed simultaneously and are still on-going. Use of real seismic test data is augmented by the creation a 3D ray tracing synthetic test data. We used the previously constructed 3D layered model and simulated data acquisition from a set of circular source locations at the surface of the model, while a close to vertical VSP well was used to capture the wave field data. The source pattern was optimized with respect to Fresnel zone width at the target depth. Multi-component particle displacements were recorded every 50 ft down with an array length of 4,000 ft. P-P as well as P-S reflections were specified in the resulting wave field. We ensured a large enough aperture with enough fine sampling to perform advanced processing, imaging and analysis tests in the future during this project. We constantly improved the interfacing of our software libraries with newly designed 3C display classes and mechanisms. We used the previously implemented 3C Work Bench tool as the primary prototyping tool. This work bench allows to load as well as manipulate and display data items in a flexible manner. We continued to demonstrate its basic functionality by loading source maps, horizons, seismic and velocity volumes, well logs into the tool, performing basic QC steps as is necessary

  2. Virus enabled 3d nano-array electrodes for integrated Lithium/Sodium-ion microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yihang

    Multilayers of functional materials (carbon/electrode/nickel) were hierarchically architectured over tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) templates that were genetically modified to self-assemble in a vertical manner on current-collectors for battery applications. The spaces formed between individual rods effectively accommodated the volume expansion and contraction of electrodes during charge/discharge, while surface carbon coating engineered over these nanorods further enhance the electronic conductivity. The microbattery based on self aligned nanoforests with precise arrangement of various auxiliary material layers including a central nanometric metal core as direct electronic pathway to current collector, can deliver high energy density and stable cycling stability. C/LiFePO4/Ni/TMV nanoforest cathodes for Li-ion batteries and C/Sn/Ni/TMV nanoforest anodes for Na-ion batteries were assembled using physical sputtering deposition. Both 3D nanoforest electrodes show exceptional cycling stability and rate capability.

  3. 3D models mapping optimization through an integrated parameterization approach: cases studies from Ravenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipriani, L.; Fantini, F.; Bertacchi, S.

    2014-06-01

    Image-based modelling tools based on SfM algorithms gained great popularity since several software houses provided applications able to achieve 3D textured models easily and automatically. The aim of this paper is to point out the importance of controlling models parameterization process, considering that automatic solutions included in these modelling tools can produce poor results in terms of texture utilization. In order to achieve a better quality of textured models from image-based modelling applications, this research presents a series of practical strategies aimed at providing a better balance between geometric resolution of models from passive sensors and their corresponding (u,v) map reference systems. This aspect is essential for the achievement of a high-quality 3D representation, since "apparent colour" is a fundamental aspect in the field of Cultural Heritage documentation. Complex meshes without native parameterization have to be "flatten" or "unwrapped" in the (u,v) parameter space, with the main objective to be mapped with a single image. This result can be obtained by using two different strategies: the former automatic and faster, while the latter manual and time-consuming. Reverse modelling applications provide automatic solutions based on splitting the models by means of different algorithms, that produce a sort of "atlas" of the original model in the parameter space, in many instances not adequate and negatively affecting the overall quality of representation. Using in synergy different solutions, ranging from semantic aware modelling techniques to quad-dominant meshes achieved using retopology tools, it is possible to obtain a complete control of the parameterization process.

  4. Localization and visualization of excess chemical potential in statistical mechanical integral equation theory 3D-HNC-RISM.

    PubMed

    Du, Qi-Shi; Liu, Peng-Jun; Huang, Ri-Bo

    2008-02-01

    In this study the excess chemical potential of the integral equation theory, 3D-RISM-HNC [Q. Du, Q. Wei, J. Phys. Chem. B 107 (2003) 13463-13470], is visualized in three-dimensional form and localized at interaction sites of solute molecule. Taking the advantage of reference interaction site model (RISM), the calculation equations of chemical excess potential are reformulized according to the solute interaction sites s in molecular space. Consequently the solvation free energy is localized at every interaction site of solute molecule. For visualization of the 3D-RISM-HNC calculation results, the excess chemical potentials are described using radial and three-dimensional diagrams. It is found that the radial diagrams of the excess chemical potentials are more sensitive to the bridge functions than the radial diagrams of solvent site density distributions. The diagrams of average excess chemical potential provide useful information of solute-solvent electrostatic and van der Waals interactions. The local description of solvation free energy at active sites of solute in 3D-RISM-HNC may broaden the application scope of statistical mechanical integral equation theory in solution chemistry and life science.

  5. Multi-pulse time delay integration method for flexible 3D super-resolution range-gated imaging.

    PubMed

    Xinwei, Wang; Youfu, Li; Yan, Zhou

    2015-03-23

    Constructing flexible regular-shaped range-intensity profiles by the convolution of illuminator laser pulse and sensor gate pulse is crucial for 3D super-resolution range-gated imaging. However, ns-scale rectangular-shaped laser pulse with tunable pulse width is difficult to be obtained, especially for pulsed solid-stated lasers. In this paper we propose a multi-pulse time delay integration (MPTDI) method to reshape range-intensity profiles (RIP) free from the above limitation of pulsed lasers. An equivalent laser pulse temporal shaping model is established to evaluate and optimize the MPTDI method. By using MPTDI, the RIP shape and depth of viewing can both be flexibly changed as desired. Here typical triangular and trapezoidal RIPs are established for 3D imaging under triangular and trapezoidal range-intensity correlation algorithms. In addition, a prototype experiment is demonstrated to prove the feasibility of MPTDI.

  6. A 3-D skeleton model & SEMG approach for integrated neck and low back pain analysis test batteries.

    PubMed

    D'amico, M; D'amico, G; Frascarello, M; Paniccia, M; Roncoletta, P; Vallasciani, M

    2008-01-01

    Since several years our group is working on a project to merge into a full 3D reliable and detailed human skeleton representation various segmental biomechanical models presented in literature. The obtained 3D skeleton model is fully parametric and can be fitted to each subject anthropometric characteristics. A non-ionising approach based on 3D opto-electronic measurements of body landmarks labelled by passive markers has been chosen to build the 3D parametric biomechanical skeleton model. A special focus has been devoted to identify and model the spine with a correct degree of accuracy and reliability. In spine pain related pathologies is of major importance the evaluation of functional limitations associated. This requires to integrate morphological characteristics with information deriving from other measurements devices as force platform data, surface EMG, foot pressure maps. The aim of this study is to present a multi-factorial approach which integrates rachis morphological characteristics with full skeleton kinematic, dynamic and SEMG measurements to quantify spine function and mobility in particular for neck and low back pain. A set of clinical-biomechanical tests have been implemented. Static posture characteristics are first evaluated. After that, patient is asked to perform specific motion test batteries in order to fully measure the whole ROMs (spine angles ranges and spine shape modifications) for Axial rotations, forward-backward flexion-extension, lateral bendings per each spine functional units (Skull and neck, thoracic and lumbar districts). During forward bending also a digital Schober test is performed. Such data are correlated to simultaneous SEMG muscle activities recording to investigate motor co-ordination/dysfunction as well as the presence absence of flexion-relaxation phenomena associated to pain.

  7. Integrated 3D density modelling and segmentation of the Dead Sea Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götze, H.-J.; El-Kelani, R.; Schmidt, S.; Rybakov, M.; Hassouneh, M.; Förster, H.-J.; Ebbing, J.

    2007-04-01

    A 3D interpretation of the newly compiled Bouguer anomaly in the area of the “Dead Sea Rift” is presented. A high-resolution 3D model constrained with the seismic results reveals the crustal thickness and density distribution beneath the Arava/Araba Valley (AV), the region between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba/Elat. The Bouguer anomalies along the axial portion of the AV, as deduced from the modelling results, are mainly caused by deep-seated sedimentary basins ( D > 10 km). An inferred zone of intrusion coincides with the maximum gravity anomaly on the eastern flank of the AV. The intrusion is displaced at different sectors along the NNW-SSE direction. The zone of maximum crustal thinning (depth 30 km) is attained in the western sector at the Mediterranean. The southeastern plateau, on the other hand, shows by far the largest crustal thickness of the region (38-42 km). Linked to the left lateral movement of approx. 105 km at the boundary between the African and Arabian plate, and constrained with recent seismic data, a small asymmetric topography of the Moho beneath the Dead Sea Transform (DST) was modelled. The thickness and density of the crust suggest that the AV is underlain by continental crust. The deep basins, the relatively large intrusion and the asymmetric topography of the Moho lead to the conclusion that a small-scale asthenospheric upwelling could be responsible for the thinning of the crust and subsequent creation of the Dead Sea basin during the left lateral movement. A clear segmentation along the strike of the DST was obtained by curvature analysis: the northern part in the neighbourhood of the Dead Sea is characterised by high curvature of the residual gravity field. Flexural rigidity calculations result in very low values of effective elastic lithospheric thickness ( t e < 5 km). This points to decoupling of crust in the Dead Sea area. In the central, AV the curvature is less pronounced and t e increases to approximately 10 km

  8. Integration of Libration Point Orbit Dynamics into a Universal 3-D Autonomous Formation Flying Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The autonomous formation flying control algorithm developed by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for the New Millennium Program (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) mission is investigated for applicability to libration point orbit formations. In the EO-1 formation-flying algorithm, control is accomplished via linearization about a reference transfer orbit with a state transition matrix (STM) computed from state inputs. The effect of libration point orbit dynamics on this algorithm architecture is explored via computation of STMs using the flight proven code, a monodromy matrix developed from a N-body model of a libration orbit, and a standard STM developed from the gravitational and coriolis effects as measured at the libration point. A comparison of formation flying Delta-Vs calculated from these methods is made to a standard linear quadratic regulator (LQR) method. The universal 3-D approach is optimal in the sense that it can be accommodated as an open-loop or closed-loop control using only state information.

  9. 3D imaging of microbial biofilms: integration of synchrotron imaging and an interactive visualization interface.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Mathew; Marshall, Matthew J; Miller, Erin A; Kuprat, Andrew P; Kleese-van Dam, Kerstin; Carson, James P

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the structure of microbial biofilms and other complex microbial communities is now possible through x-ray microtomography imaging. Feature detection and image processing for this type of data focuses on efficiently identifying and segmenting biofilm biomass in the datasets. These datasets are very large and segmentation often requires manual interventions due to low contrast between objects and high noise levels. New software is required for the effectual interpretation and analysis of such data. This work specifies the evolution and ability to analyze and visualize high resolution x-ray microtomography datasets. Major functionalities include read/write with multiple popular file formats, down-sampling large datasets to generate quick-views on low-power computers, image processing, and generating high quality output images and videos. These capabilities have been wrapped into a new interactive software toolkit, BiofilmViewer. A major focus of our work is to facilitate data transfer and to utilize the capabilities of existing powerful visualization and analytical tools including MATLAB, ImageJ, Paraview, Chimera, Vaa3D, Cell Profiler, Icy, BioImageXD, and Drishti.

  10. Integrating eye tracking and motion sensor on mobile phone for interactive 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yu-Wei; Chiang, Chen-Kuo; Lai, Shang-Hong

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we propose an eye tracking and gaze estimation system for mobile phone. We integrate an eye detector, cornereye center and iso-center to improve pupil detection. The optical flow information is used for eye tracking. We develop a robust eye tracking system that integrates eye detection and optical-flow based image tracking. In addition, we further incorporate the orientation sensor information from the mobile phone to improve the eye tracking for accurate gaze estimation. We demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed eye tracking and gaze estimation system through experiments on some public video sequences as well as videos acquired directly from mobile phone.

  11. The Integration of GPR, GIS, and GPS for 3D Soil Morphologic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tischler, M.; Collins, M. E.

    2005-05-01

    Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) has become a useful and efficient instrument for gathering information about subsurface diagnostic horizons in Florida soils. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are a popular and valuable tool for spatial data analysis of real world features in a digital environment. Ground-Penetrating Radar can be linked to GIS by using Global Positioning Systems (GPS). By combining GPR, GPS, and GIS technologies, a more detailed geophysical survey can be completed for an area of interest by integratinghydrologic, pedologic, and geologic data. Thus, the objectives of this research were to identify subsurface soil layers using GPR and their geographic position with a highly accurate GPS; to develop a procedure to import GPR data into a popular software package, such as ArcGIS, and; to create 3D subsurface models based on the imported GPR data. The site for this study was the Plant Science Research and Education Center in Marion County, Florida. The soils are characterized by Recent-Pleistocene-age sand over the clayey, marine deposited Plio-Miocene-age Hawthorn Formation which drapes the Eocene-age Ocala Limestone. Consequently, soils in the research area vary from deep quartz sands (Typic Quartzipsamments) to shallow outcrops of the Hawthorn Formation (Arenic Hapludalfs). A GPR survey was performed on a 160 m x 320 m grid to gather data for processing. Four subsurface models estimating the depth to argillic horizon were created using a variety of specialized GPR data filters and geostatistical data analyses. The models were compared with ground-truth points that measured the depth to argillic horizon to validate each model and calculate error metrics. These models may assist research station personnel to determine best management practices (including experimental plot placement, irrigation management, fertilizer treatment, and pesticide applications). In addition, the developed methodology exploits the potential of combining GPR and GIS.

  12. Integrated 3D geophysical and geological modelling of the Hercynian Suture Zone in the Champtoceaux area (south Brittany, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martelet, G.; Calcagno, P.; Gumiaux, C.; Truffert, C.; Bitri, A.; Gapais, D.; Brun, J. P.

    2004-04-01

    This paper combines geological knowledge and geophysical imagery at the crustal scale to model the 3D geometry of a segment of the Hercynian suture zone of western Europe in the Champtoceaux area (Brittany, France). The Champtoceaux complex consists of a stack of metamorphic nappes of gneisses and micaschists, with eclogite-bearing units. The exhumation of the complex, during early Carboniferous times, was accompanied by deformation during regional dextral strike-slip associated with a major Hercynian shear zone (the South Armorican Shear Zone, SASZ). Dextral shearing produced a km-scale antiformal structure with a steeply dipping axial plane and a steeply eastward plunging axis. Armor 2 deep seismic profile shows that the regional structure was cut by a set of faults with northward thrusting components. Based on the seismic constraint, direct 2D crustal-scale modelling was performed throughout the Champtoceaux fold on seven radial gravity profiles, also using geological data, and density measurements from field and drill-hole samples. The 3D integration of the cross-sections, the digitised geological map, and the structural information (foliation dips) insure the geometrical and topological consistency of all sources of data. The 2D information is interpolated to the whole 3D space using a geostatistical analysis. Finally, the 3D gravity contribution of the resulting model is computed taking into account densities for each modelled geological body and compared to the Bouguer anomaly. The final 3D model is thus compatible with the seismic and gravity data, as well as with geological data. Main geological results derived from the modelling are (i) the overall 3D geometry of the south dipping thrust system interpreted on the seismic profile emphasises northward thrusting and folding of the Champtoceaux complex which was coeval with strike-slip along the South Armorican Shear Zone; (ii) the gravity modelling suggests the presence of a relatively dense body below the

  13. Numerical modeling of elastic waves in inhomogeneous anisotropic media using 3D-elastodynamic finite integration technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinta, Prashanth K.; Mayer, K.; Langenberg, K. J.

    2012-05-01

    Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) of elastic anisotropic media is very complex because of directional dependency of elastic stiffness tensor. Modeling of elastic waves in such materials gives us intuitive knowledge about the propagation and scattering phenomena. The wave propagation in three dimensional space in anisotropic media gives us the deep insight of the transition of the different elastic wave modes i.e. mode conversion, and scattering of these waves because of inhomogeneities present in the material. The numerical tool Three Dimensional-Elastodynamic Finite Integration Technique (3D-EFIT) has been proved to be a very efficient tool for the modeling of elastic waves in very complex geometries. The 3D-EFIT is validated using the analytical approach based on the Radon transform. The simulation results of 3D-EFIT applied to inhomogeneous austenitic steel welds and wood structures are presented. In the first application the geometry consists of an austenitic steel weld that joins two isotropic steel blocks. The vertical transversal isotropic (VTI) austenitic steel is used. The convolutional perfectly matched layers are applied at the boundaries that are supported by isotropic steel. In the second application the wave propagation in the orthotropic wooden structure with an air cavity inside is investigated. The wave propagation results are illustrated using time domain elastic wave snapshots.

  14. Pipe3D, a pipeline to analyze Integral Field Spectroscopy Data: II. Analysis sequence and CALIFA dataproducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; García-Benito, R.; Ibarra-Mede, H. J.; González, J. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.; Ascasibar, Y.; Bitsakis, T.; Law, D.; Cano-Díaz, M.; López-Cobá, C.; Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.; Galbany, L.; Mast, D.; Abril-Melgarejo, V.; Roman-Lopes, A.

    2016-04-01

    We present Pipe3D, an analysis pipeline based on the FIT3D fitting tool, developed to explore the properties of the stellar populations and ionized gas of integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data. Pipe3D was created to provide coherent, simple to distribute, and comparable dataproducts, independently of the origin of the data, focused on the data of the most recent IFU surveys (e.g., CALIFA, MaNGA, and SAMI), and the last generation IFS instruments (e.g., MUSE). In this article we describe the different steps involved in the analysis of the data, illustrating them by showing the dataproducts derived for NGC 2916, observed by CALIFA and P-MaNGA. As a practical example of the pipeline we present the complete set of dataproducts derived for the 200 datacubes that comprises the V500 setup of the CALIFA Data Release 2 (DR2), making them freely available through the network. Finally, we explore the hypothesis that the properties of the stellar populations and ionized gas of galaxies at the effective radius are representative of the overall average ones, finding that this is indeed the case.

  15. Accurate and efficient Nyström volume integral equation method for the Maxwell equations for multiple 3-D scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Duan; Cai, Wei; Zinser, Brian; Cho, Min Hyung

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we develop an accurate and efficient Nyström volume integral equation (VIE) method for the Maxwell equations for a large number of 3-D scatterers. The Cauchy Principal Values that arise from the VIE are computed accurately using a finite size exclusion volume together with explicit correction integrals consisting of removable singularities. Also, the hyper-singular integrals are computed using interpolated quadrature formulae with tensor-product quadrature nodes for cubes, spheres and cylinders, that are frequently encountered in the design of meta-materials. The resulting Nyström VIE method is shown to have high accuracy with a small number of collocation points and demonstrates p-convergence for computing the electromagnetic scattering of these objects. Numerical calculations of multiple scatterers of cubic, spherical, and cylindrical shapes validate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.

  16. A 3D boundary integral equation method for ultrasonic scattering in a fluid-loaded elastic half space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimoto, K.; Hirose, S.

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents a boundary integral equation method for 3D ultrasonic scattering problems in a fluid-loaded elastic half space. Since full scale of numerical calculation using finite element or boundary element method is still very expensive, we formulate a boundary integral equation for the scattered field, which is amenable to numerical treatment. In order to solve the problem using the integral equation, however, the wave field without scattering objects, so-called free field need to be given in advance. We calculate the free field by the plane wave spectral method where the asymptotic approximation is introduced for computational efficiency. To show the efficiency of our method, scattering by a spherical cavity near fluid-solid interface is solved and the validity of the results is discussed.

  17. A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout

    SciTech Connect

    Allman, M. S. Verma, V. B.; Stevens, M.; Gerrits, T.; Horansky, R. D.; Lita, A. E.; Mirin, R.; Nam, S. W.; Marsili, F.; Beyer, A.; Shaw, M. D.; Kumor, D.

    2015-05-11

    We demonstrate a 64-pixel free-space-coupled array of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors optimized for high detection efficiency in the near-infrared range. An integrated, readily scalable, multiplexed readout scheme is employed to reduce the number of readout lines to 16. The cryogenic, optical, and electronic packaging to read out the array as well as characterization measurements are discussed.

  18. 3D integration technology for sensor application using less than 5μm-pitch gold cone-bump connpdfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motoyoshi, M.; Miyoshi, T.; Ikebec, M.; Arai, Y.

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) integrated circuit (IC) technology is an effective solution to reduce the manufacturing costs of advanced two-dimensional (2D) large-scale integration (LSI) while ensuring equivalent device performance and functionalities. This technology allows a new device architecture using stacked detector/sensor devices with a small dead sensor area and high-speed operation that facilitates hyper-parallel data processing. In pixel detectors or focal-plane sensor devices, each pixel area must accommodate many transistors without increasing the pixel size. Consequently, many methods to realize 3D-LSI devices have been developed to meet this requirement by focusing on the unit processes of 3D-IC technology, such as through-silicon via formation and electrical and mechanical bonding between tiers of the stack. The bonding process consists of several unit processes such as bump or metal contact formation, chip/wafer alignment, chip/wafer bonding, and underfill formation; many process combinations have been reported. Our research focuses on a versatile bonding technology for silicon LSI, compound semiconductor, and microelectromechanical system devices at temperatures of less than 200oC for heterogeneous integration. A gold (Au) cone bump formed by nanoparticle deposition is one of the promising candidates for this purpose. This paper presents the experimental result of a fabricated prototype with 3-μm-diameter Au cone-bump connections with adhesive injection, and compares it with that of an indium microbump (μ-bump). The resistance of the 3-μm-diameter Au cone bump is approximately 6 Ω. We also investigated the influence of stress caused by the bump junction on the MOS characteristics.

  19. STORM: Integrated 3D stochastic reservoir modeling tool for geologists and reservoir engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Bratvold, R.B. [ODIN Reservoir Software and Services A Holden, L.; Svanes, T.; Tyler, K.

    1995-06-01

    The petroleum industry is focusing on improved reservoir characterization. Decision concerning development and depletion of hydrocarbon reservoirs must be made while giving consideration to the uncertainties of the formation involved. This requires combining geological and engineering data to develop a detailed reservoir model. Geostatistics and stochastic modeling techniques have emerged as promising approaches for integrating all relevant information and describing heterogeneous reservoirs. By use of stochastic techniques to generate a range of equiprobable reservoir descriptions, the uncertainty in the important reservoir parameters can be quantified. This quantification, together with the enhanced understanding of the reservoir characteristics given by stochastic reservoir modeling and visualization, provides an essential basis for making informed field-development decisions. This paper presents an integrated approach for stochastic reservoir evaluation. The presented approach has been implemented in the software system STORM.

  20. Rapid Low-Temperature 3D Integration of Silicon Nanowires on Flexible Substrates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoonkap; Kim, Han-Jung; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Choi, Dae-Geun; Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Jung, Joo-Yun; Jeon, Sohee; Lee, Eung-Sug; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Lee, Jihye

    2015-08-26

    The vertical integration of 1D nanostructures onto the 2D substrates has the potential to offer significant performance gains to flexible electronic devices due to high integration density, large surface area, and improved light absorption and trapping. A simple, rapid, and low temperature transfer bonding method has been developed for this purpose. Ultrasonic vibration is used to achieve a low temperature bonding within a few seconds, resulting in a polymer-matrix-free, electrically conducting vertical assembly of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with a graphene/PET substrate. The microscopic structure, and mechanical and electrical characteristics of the interface between the transferred SiNW array and graphene layer are subsequently investigated, revealing that this creates a mechanically robust and electrically Ohmic contact. This newly developed ultrasonic transfer bonding technique is also found to be readily adaptable for diverse substrates of both metal and polymer. It is therefore considered as a valuable technique for integrating 1D vertical nanostructures onto the 2D flexible substrates for flexible photovoltaics, energy storage, and water splitting systems.

  1. Integrated photonic reservoir computing based on hierarchical time-multiplexing structure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Feng, Xue; Li, Boxun; Wang, Yu; Cui, Kaiyu; Liu, Fang; Dou, Weibei; Huang, Yidong

    2014-12-15

    An integrated photonic reservoir computing (RC) based on hierarchical time-multiplexing structure is proposed by numerical simulations. A micro-ring array (MRA) is employed as a typical time delay implementation of RC. At the output port of the MRA, a secondary time-multiplexing is achieved by multi-mode interference (MMI) splitter and delay line array. This hierarchical time-multiplexing structure can ensure a large reservoir size with fast processing speed. Simulation results indicate that the proposed RC system yields better performance than previously reported ones. The achieved normalized mean square error between the system output and target sequence are 0.5% and 2.7% for signal classification and chaotic time series prediction, respectively, while the sample rate is as high as 1.3 Gbps.

  2. Switchable in-line monitor for multi-dimensional multiplexed photonic integrated circuit.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guanyu; Yu, Yu; Ye, Mengyuan; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-06-27

    A flexible monitor suitable for the discrimination of on-chip transmitted mode division multiplexed (MDM) and wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) signals is proposed and fabricated. By selectively extracting part of the incoming signals through the tunable wavelength and mode dependent drop filter, the in-line and switchable monitor can discriminate the wavelength, mode and power information of the transmitted signals. Being different from a conventional mode and wavelength demultiplexer, the monitor is specifically designed to ensure a flexible in-line monitoring. For demonstration, three mode and three wavelength multiplexed signals are successfully processed. Assisted by the integrated photodetectors (PDs), both the measured photo currents and eye diagrams validate the performance of the proposed device. The bit error ratio (BER) measurement results show less than 0.4 dB power penalty between different modes and ~2 dB power penalty for single wavelength and WDM cases under 10-9 BER level.

  3. Monolithically mode division multiplexing photonic integrated circuit for large-capacity optical interconnection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guanyu; Yu, Yu; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-08-01

    We propose and fabricate an on-chip mode division multiplexed (MDM) photonic interconnection system. Such a monolithically photonic integrated circuit (PIC) is composed of a grating coupler, two micro-ring modulators, mode multiplexer/demultiplexer, and two germanium photodetectors. The signals' generation, multiplexing, transmission, demultiplexing, and detection are successfully demonstrated on the same chip. Twenty Gb/s MDM signals are successfully processed with clear and open eye diagrams, validating the feasibility of the proposed circuit. The measured power penalties show a good performance of the MDM link. The proposed on-chip MDM system can be potentially used for large-capacity optical interconnection in future high-performance computers and big data centers.

  4. Monolithically mode division multiplexing photonic integrated circuit for large-capacity optical interconnection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guanyu; Yu, Yu; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-08-01

    We propose and fabricate an on-chip mode division multiplexed (MDM) photonic interconnection system. Such a monolithically photonic integrated circuit (PIC) is composed of a grating coupler, two micro-ring modulators, mode multiplexer/demultiplexer, and two germanium photodetectors. The signals' generation, multiplexing, transmission, demultiplexing, and detection are successfully demonstrated on the same chip. Twenty Gb/s MDM signals are successfully processed with clear and open eye diagrams, validating the feasibility of the proposed circuit. The measured power penalties show a good performance of the MDM link. The proposed on-chip MDM system can be potentially used for large-capacity optical interconnection in future high-performance computers and big data centers. PMID:27472614

  5. Switchable in-line monitor for multi-dimensional multiplexed photonic integrated circuit.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guanyu; Yu, Yu; Ye, Mengyuan; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-06-27

    A flexible monitor suitable for the discrimination of on-chip transmitted mode division multiplexed (MDM) and wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) signals is proposed and fabricated. By selectively extracting part of the incoming signals through the tunable wavelength and mode dependent drop filter, the in-line and switchable monitor can discriminate the wavelength, mode and power information of the transmitted signals. Being different from a conventional mode and wavelength demultiplexer, the monitor is specifically designed to ensure a flexible in-line monitoring. For demonstration, three mode and three wavelength multiplexed signals are successfully processed. Assisted by the integrated photodetectors (PDs), both the measured photo currents and eye diagrams validate the performance of the proposed device. The bit error ratio (BER) measurement results show less than 0.4 dB power penalty between different modes and ~2 dB power penalty for single wavelength and WDM cases under 10-9 BER level. PMID:27410636

  6. Conception d'un circuit d'etouffement pour photodiodes a avalanche en mode geiger pour integration heterogene 3d

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Alexandre

    Le Groupe de Recherche en Appareillage Medical de Sherbrooke (GRAMS) travaille actuellement sur un programme de recherche portant sur des photodiodes a avalanche mono-photoniques (PAMP) operees en mode Geiger en vue d'une application a la tomographie d'emission par positrons (TEP). Pour operer dans ce mode; la PAMP, ou SPAD selon l'acronyme anglais (Single Photon Avalanche Diode), requiert un circuit d'etouffement (CE) pour, d'une part, arreter l'avalanche pouvant causer sa destruction et, d'autre part. la reinitialiser en mode d'attente d'un nouveau photon. Le role de ce CE comprend egalement une electronique de communication vers les etages de traitement avance de signaux. La performance temporelle optimale du CE est realisee lorsqu'il est juxtapose a la PAMP. Cependant, cela entraine une reduction de la surface photosensible ; un element crucial en imagerie. L'integration 3D, a base d'interconnexions verticales, offre une solution elegante et performante a cette problematique par l'empilement de circuits integres possedant differentes fonctions (PAMP, CE et traitement avance de signaux). Dans l'approche proposee, des circuits d'etouffement de 50 pm x 50 pm realises sur une technologie CMOS 130 mn 3D Tezzaron, contenant chacun 112 transistors, sont matrices afin de correspondre a une matrice de PAMP localisee sur une couche electronique superieure. Chaque circuit d'etouffement possede une gigue temporelle de 7,47 ps RMS selon des simulations faites avec le logiciel Cadence. Le CE a la flexibilite d'ajuster les temps d'etouffement et de recharge pour la PAMP tout en presentant une faible consommation de puissance (~ 0,33 mW a 33 Mcps). La conception du PAMP necessite de supporter des tensions superieures aux 3,3 V de la technologie. Pour repondre a ce probleme, des transistors a drain etendu (DEMOS) ont ete realises. En raison de retards de production par Ies fabricants, les circuits n'ont pu etre testes physiquement par des mesures. Les resultats de ce memoire

  7. Transient 3d contact problems—NTS method: mixed methods and conserving integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesch, Christian; Betsch, Peter

    2011-10-01

    The present work deals with a new formulation for transient large deformation contact problems. It is well known, that one-step implicit time integration schemes for highly non-linear systems fail to conserve the total energy of the system. To deal with this drawback, a mixed method is newly proposed in conjunction with the concept of a discrete gradient. In particular, we reformulate the well known and widely-used node-to-segment methods and establish an energy-momentum scheme. The advocated approach ensures robustness and enhanced numerical stability, demonstrated in several three-dimensional applications of the proposed algorithm.

  8. Integrating Sensors into a Marine Drone for Bathymetric 3D Surveys in Shallow Waters.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Francesco; Mattei, Gaia; Parente, Claudio; Peluso, Francesco; Santamaria, Raffaele

    2015-12-29

    This paper demonstrates that accurate data concerning bathymetry as well as environmental conditions in shallow waters can be acquired using sensors that are integrated into the same marine vehicle. An open prototype of an unmanned surface vessel (USV) named MicroVeGA is described. The focus is on the main instruments installed on-board: a differential Global Position System (GPS) system and single beam echo sounder; inertial platform for attitude control; ultrasound obstacle-detection system with temperature control system; emerged and submerged video acquisition system. The results of two cases study are presented, both concerning areas (Sorrento Marina Grande and Marechiaro Harbour, both in the Gulf of Naples) characterized by a coastal physiography that impedes the execution of a bathymetric survey with traditional boats. In addition, those areas are critical because of the presence of submerged archaeological remains that produce rapid changes in depth values. The experiments confirm that the integration of the sensors improves the instruments' performance and survey accuracy.

  9. Integration of GIS, Geostatistics, and 3-D Technology to Assess the Spatial Distribution of Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, M.; Tsegaye, T.; Tadesse, W.; Coleman, T. L.; Fahsi, A.

    1998-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of near surface soil moisture is of fundamental importance to many physical, biological, biogeochemical, and hydrological processes. However, knowledge of these space-time dynamics and the processes which control them remains unclear. The integration of geographic information systems (GIS) and geostatistics together promise a simple mechanism to evaluate and display the spatial and temporal distribution of this vital hydrologic and physical variable. Therefore, this research demonstrates the use of geostatistics and GIS to predict and display soil moisture distribution under vegetated and non-vegetated plots. The research was conducted at the Winfred Thomas Agricultural Experiment Station (WTAES), Hazel Green, Alabama. Soil moisture measurement were done on a 10 by 10 m grid from tall fescue grass (GR), alfalfa (AA), bare rough (BR), and bare smooth (BS) plots. Results indicated that variance associated with soil moisture was higher for vegetated plots than non-vegetated plots. The presence of vegetation in general contributed to the spatial variability of soil moisture. Integration of geostatistics and GIS can improve the productivity of farm lands and the precision of farming.

  10. Integrating Sensors into a Marine Drone for Bathymetric 3D Surveys in Shallow Waters

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Francesco; Mattei, Gaia; Parente, Claudio; Peluso, Francesco; Santamaria, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that accurate data concerning bathymetry as well as environmental conditions in shallow waters can be acquired using sensors that are integrated into the same marine vehicle. An open prototype of an unmanned surface vessel (USV) named MicroVeGA is described. The focus is on the main instruments installed on-board: a differential Global Position System (GPS) system and single beam echo sounder; inertial platform for attitude control; ultrasound obstacle-detection system with temperature control system; emerged and submerged video acquisition system. The results of two cases study are presented, both concerning areas (Sorrento Marina Grande and Marechiaro Harbour, both in the Gulf of Naples) characterized by a coastal physiography that impedes the execution of a bathymetric survey with traditional boats. In addition, those areas are critical because of the presence of submerged archaeological remains that produce rapid changes in depth values. The experiments confirm that the integration of the sensors improves the instruments’ performance and survey accuracy. PMID:26729117

  11. Integrating Sensors into a Marine Drone for Bathymetric 3D Surveys in Shallow Waters.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Francesco; Mattei, Gaia; Parente, Claudio; Peluso, Francesco; Santamaria, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that accurate data concerning bathymetry as well as environmental conditions in shallow waters can be acquired using sensors that are integrated into the same marine vehicle. An open prototype of an unmanned surface vessel (USV) named MicroVeGA is described. The focus is on the main instruments installed on-board: a differential Global Position System (GPS) system and single beam echo sounder; inertial platform for attitude control; ultrasound obstacle-detection system with temperature control system; emerged and submerged video acquisition system. The results of two cases study are presented, both concerning areas (Sorrento Marina Grande and Marechiaro Harbour, both in the Gulf of Naples) characterized by a coastal physiography that impedes the execution of a bathymetric survey with traditional boats. In addition, those areas are critical because of the presence of submerged archaeological remains that produce rapid changes in depth values. The experiments confirm that the integration of the sensors improves the instruments' performance and survey accuracy. PMID:26729117

  12. Monolithically-integrated Young interferometers for label-free and multiplexed detection of biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savra, Eleftheria; Malainou, Antonia; Salapatas, Alexandros; Botsialas, Athanasios; Petrou, Panagiota; Raptis, Ioannis; Makarona, Eleni; Kakabakos, Sotirios E.; Misiakos, Konstantinos

    2016-03-01

    In this work, interferometric silicon chips with monolithically-integrated light-emitting devices coupled to co-integrated monomodal waveguides shaped as Young interferometers through mainstream silicon technology, are presented. Although the light sources are broad-band emitters, Young interferometry is possible through filtering. Chips with arrays of ten multiplexed interferometers have been employed for the label-free determination of pesticides in drinking water currently achieving detection limits in the ng/ml range.

  13. High-temperature compatible 3D-integration processes for a vacuum-sealed CNT-based NEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueye, R.; Lee, S. W.; Akiyama, T.; Briand, D.; Roman, C.; Hierold, C.; de Rooij, N. F.

    2013-03-01

    A System-in-Package (SiP) concept for the 3D-integration of a Single Wall Carbon Nanotube (SWCNT) resonator with its CMOS driving electronics is presented. The key element of this advanced SiP is the monolithic 3D-integration of the MEMS with the CMOS electronics using Through Silicon Vias (TSVs) on an SOI wafer. This SiP includes: A glass cap vacuum-sealed to the main wafer using an eutectic bonding process: a low leak rate of 2.7 10-9 mbar•l/s was obtained; Platinum-TSVs, compatible with the SWCNT growth and release process; The TSVs were developed in a "via first" process and characterized at high-temperature — up to 850 °C. An ohmic contact between the Pt-metallization and the SOI silicon device layer was obtained; The driving CMOS electronic device is assembled to the MEMS using an Au stud bump technology. Keywords: System-in-Package (SiP), vacuum packaging, eutectic bonding, "via-first" TSVs, high-temperature platinum interconnects, ohmic contacts, Au-stud bumps assembly, CMOS electronics.

  14. On the electrochemistry of an anode stack for all-solid-state 3D-integrated batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggetto, L.; Oudenhoven, J. F. M.; van Dongen, T.; Klootwijk, J. H.; Mulder, M.; Niessen, R. A. H.; de Croon, M. H. J. M.; Notten, P. H. L.

    This paper will report on the electrochemical and material characterization of a potential planar anode stack for all-solid-state 3D-integrated batteries. The first element of the stack is the silicon substrate. On top of silicon, a Li diffusion barrier layer material is deposited in order to effectively shield the substrate from the battery stack. Several materials are investigated with conventional electrochemical techniques. The best candidates, sputtered and atomic layer deposited (ALD) TiN, are studied in more detail with ex situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the reaction mechanism of these materials with Li is discussed. The third element of the stack is the active anode material. Thin films of poly-Si are studied towards their thermodynamic and kinetic properties. Moreover, the growth of SEI layers on top of poly-Si anodes cycled in two liquid electrolytes has been investigated by means of ex situ SEM. Strikingly, when poly-Si is covered with a solid-state electrolyte, prolonged lifetime is found, enabling future 3D-integrated all-solid-state batteries.

  15. Guided wave-based J-integral estimation for dynamic stress intensity factors using 3D scanning laser Doppler vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayers, J.; Owens, C. T.; Liu, K. C.; Swenson, E.; Ghoshal, A.; Weiss, V.

    2013-01-01

    The application of guided waves to interrogate remote areas of structural components has been researched extensively in characterizing damage. However, there exists a sparsity of work in using piezoelectric transducer-generated guided waves as a method of assessing stress intensity factors (SIF). This quantitative information enables accurate estimation of the remaining life of metallic structures exhibiting cracks, such as military and commercial transport vehicles. The proposed full wavefield approach, based on 3D laser vibrometry and piezoelectric transducer-generated guided waves, provides a practical means for estimation of dynamic stress intensity factors (DSIF) through local strain energy mapping via the J-integral. Strain energies and traction vectors can be conveniently estimated from wavefield data recorded using 3D laser vibrometry, through interpolation and subsequent spatial differentiation of the response field. Upon estimation of the Jintegral, it is possible to obtain the corresponding DSIF terms. For this study, the experimental test matrix consists of aluminum plates with manufactured defects representing canonical elliptical crack geometries under uniaxial tension that are excited by surface mounted piezoelectric actuators. The defects' major to minor axes ratios vary from unity to approximately 133. Finite element simulations are compared to experimental results and the relative magnitudes of the J-integrals are examined.

  16. Fabrication of Large-Scale Microlens Arrays Based on Screen Printing for Integral Imaging 3D Display.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiongtu; Peng, Yuyan; Peng, Rong; Zeng, Xiangyao; Zhang, Yong-Ai; Guo, Tailiang

    2016-09-14

    The low-cost large-scale fabrication of microlens arrays (MLAs) with precise alignment, great uniformity of focusing, and good converging performance are of great importance for integral imaging 3D display. In this work, a simple and effective method for large-scale polymer microlens arrays using screen printing has been successfully presented. The results show that the MLAs possess high-quality surface morphology and excellent optical performances. Furthermore, the microlens' shape and size, i.e., the diameter, the height, and the distance between two adjacent microlenses of the MLAs can be easily controlled by modifying the reflowing time and the size of open apertures of the screen. MLAs with the neighboring microlenses almost tangent can be achieved under suitable size of open apertures of the screen and reflowing time, which can remarkably reduce the color moiré patterns caused by the stray light between the blank areas of the MLAs in the integral imaging 3D display system, exhibiting much better reconstruction performance. PMID:27540754

  17. Low cost 3D-printing used in an undergraduate project: an integrating sphere for measurement of photoluminescence quantum yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomes, John J.; Finlayson, Chris E.

    2016-09-01

    We report upon the exploitation of the latest 3D printing technologies to provide low-cost instrumentation solutions, for use in an undergraduate level final-year project. The project addresses prescient research issues in optoelectronics, which would otherwise be inaccessible to such undergraduate student projects. The experimental use of an integrating sphere in conjunction with a desktop spectrometer presents opportunities to use easily handled, low cost materials as a means to illustrate many areas of physics such as spectroscopy, lasers, optics, simple circuits, black body radiation and data gathering. Presented here is a 3rd year undergraduate physics project which developed a low cost (£25) method to manufacture an experimentally accurate integrating sphere by 3D printing. Details are given of both a homemade internal reflectance coating formulated from readily available materials, and a robust instrument calibration method using a tungsten bulb. The instrument is demonstrated to give accurate and reproducible experimental measurements of luminescence quantum yield of various semiconducting fluorophores, in excellent agreement with literature values.

  18. Classification of Informal Settlements Through the Integration of 2d and 3d Features Extracted from Uav Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevaert, C. M.; Persello, C.; Sliuzas, R.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-06-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are capable of providing very high resolution and up-to-date information to support informal settlement upgrading projects. In order to provide accurate basemaps, urban scene understanding through the identification and classification of buildings and terrain is imperative. However, common characteristics of informal settlements such as small, irregular buildings with heterogeneous roof material and large presence of clutter challenge state-of-the-art algorithms. Especially the dense buildings and steeply sloped terrain cause difficulties in identifying elevated objects. This work investigates how 2D radiometric and textural features, 2.5D topographic features, and 3D geometric features obtained from UAV imagery can be integrated to obtain a high classification accuracy in challenging classification problems for the analysis of informal settlements. It compares the utility of pixel-based and segment-based features obtained from an orthomosaic and DSM with point-based and segment-based features extracted from the point cloud to classify an unplanned settlement in Kigali, Rwanda. Findings show that the integration of 2D and 3D features leads to higher classification accuracies.

  19. Model-based automatic 3d building model generation by integrating LiDAR and aerial images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, A.; Kwak, E.; Al-Durgham, M.

    2011-12-01

    Accurate, detailed, and up-to-date 3D building models are important for several applications such as telecommunication network planning, urban planning, and military simulation. Existing building reconstruction approaches can be classified according to the data sources they use (i.e., single versus multi-sensor approaches), the processing strategy (i.e., data-driven, model-driven, or hybrid), or the amount of user interaction (i.e., manual, semiautomatic, or fully automated). While it is obvious that 3D building models are important components for many applications, they still lack the economical and automatic techniques for their generation while taking advantage of the available multi-sensory data and combining processing strategies. In this research, an automatic methodology for building modelling by integrating multiple images and LiDAR data is proposed. The objective of this research work is to establish a framework for automatic building generation by integrating data driven and model-driven approaches while combining the advantages of image and LiDAR datasets.

  20. 3D Rheological Modeling of NW Intraplate Europe, Deciphering Spatial Integrated strength patterns, Mechanical Strong Layering and EET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beekman, F.; Hardebol, N.; Cloetingh, S.; Tesauro, M.

    2006-12-01

    Better understanding of 3D rheological heterogeneity of the European Lithosphere provide the key to tie the recorded intraplate deformation pattern to stress fields transmitted into plate interior from plate boundary forces. The first order strain patterns result from stresses transmitted through the European lithosphere that is marked by a patchwork of high strength variability from inherited structural and compositional heterogeneities and upper mantle thermal perturbations. As the lithospheric rheology depends primarily on its spatial structure, composition and thermal estate, the 3D strength model for the European lithosphere relies on a 3D compositional model that yields the compositional heterogeneities and an iteratively calculated thermal cube using Fouriers law for heat conduction. The accurate appraisal of spatial strength variability results from proper mapping and integration of the geophysical compositional and thermal input parameters. Therefore, much attention has been paid to a proper description of first order structural and tectonic features that facilitate compilation of the compositional and thermal input models. As such, the 3D strength model reflects the thermo-mechanical structure inherited from the Europeans polyphase deformation history. Major 3D spatial mechanical strength variability has been revealed. The East-European and Fennoscandian Craton to the NE exhibit high strength (30-50 1012 N/m) from low mantle temperatures and surface heatflow of 35-60 mW/m2 while central and western Europe reflect a polyphase Phanerozoic thermo- tectonic history. Here, regions with high rigidity are formed primarily by patches of thermally stabilized Variscan Massifs (e.g. Rhenish, Armorican, Bohemian, and Iberian Massif) with low heatflow and lithospheric thickness values (50-65 mW/m2; 110-150 km) yielding strengths of ~15-25 1012 N/m. In contrast, major axis of weakened lithosphere coincides with Cenozoic Rift System (e.g. Upper and Lower Rhine Grabens

  1. Applied Mathematics in EM Studies with Special Emphasis on an Uncertainty Quantification and 3-D Integral Equation Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, Oleg; Kuvshinov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    second part, we summarize modern trends in the development of efficient 3-D EM forward modelling schemes with special emphasis on recent advances in the integral equation approach.

  2. Writing of 3D optical integrated circuits with ultrashort laser pulses in the presence of strong spherical aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukharin, M. A.; Skryabin, N. N.; Khudyakov, D. V.; Vartapetov, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    A novel technique was proposed for 3D femtosecond writing of waveguides and optical integrated circuits in the presence of strong spherical aberration, caused by inscription at significantly different depth under the surface of optical glasses and crystals. Strong negative effect of spherical aberration and related asymmetry of created structures was reduced due to transition to the cumulative thermal regime of femtosecond interaction with the material. The differences in the influence of spherical aberration effect in a broad depth range (larger than 200 µm) was compensated by dynamic adjustment of laser pulse energy during the process of waveguides recording. The presented approach has been experimentally implemented in fused silica. Obtained results can be used in production of a broad class of femtosecond written three-dimensional integrated optical systems, inscripted at non-optimal (for focusing lens) optical depth or in significantly extended range of depths.

  3. Integrated 3D macro-trapping and light-sheet imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhengyi; Piksarv, Peeter; Ferrier, David E. K.; Gunn-Moore, Frank J.; Dholakia, Kishan

    2015-08-01

    Biological research requires high-speed and low-damage imaging techniques for live specimens in areas such as development study in embryos. Light sheet microscopy provides fast imaging speed whilst keeps the photo-damage and photo-blenching to minimum. Conventional sample embedding methods in light sheet imaging involves using agent such as agarose which potentially affects the behavior and the develop pattern of the specimens. Here we demonstrate integrating dual-beam trapping method into light sheet imaging system to confine and translate the specimen whilst light sheet images are taken. Tobacco plant cells as well as Spirobranchus lamarcki larva were trapped solely with optical force and sectional images were acquired. This now approach has the potential to extend the applications of light sheet imaging significantly.

  4. Monolithically integrated 20-channel optical add/drop multiplexer subsystem with hybrid-integrated 40-channel photodetector array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Andreas B.; Krabe, Detlef; Dieckroeger, Jens; Spott, Thorsten; Kraeker, Tobias; Martins, Evely; Zavrsnik, Miha; Schneider, Hartmut W.; Baumann, Ingo

    2003-03-01

    We built a 20 channel, 200 GHz, fully reconfigurable optical add-/drop multiplexer with integrated variable optical attenuators and power monitor diodes. A single planar lightwave circuit chip contains demultiplexer, switch array, attenuators and multiplexers. It also serves as an "optical motherboard" for a hybrid, flip-chip assembly containing four 10-channel photo detector arrays. A thermal management concept which considers both microscopic and macroscopic aspects of the device was developed. The final device exhibits an insertion loss of 9 dB from "in"- to "through"-port, a 1 dB bandwidth of >50 GHz and switch extinction ratios in excess of 40 dB.

  5. Functional morphology and integration of corvid skulls – a 3D geometric morphometric approach

    PubMed Central

    Kulemeyer, Christoph; Asbahr, Kolja; Gunz, Philipp; Frahnert, Sylke; Bairlein, Franz

    2009-01-01

    Background Sympatric corvid species have evolved differences in nesting, habitat choice, diet and foraging. Differences in the frequency with which corvid species use their repertoire of feeding techniques is expected to covary with bill-shape and with the frontal binocular field. Species that frequently probe are expected to have a relatively longer bill and more sidewise oriented orbits in contrast to species that frequently peck. We tested this prediction by analyzing computed tomography scans of skulls of six corvid species by means of three-dimensional geometric morphometrics. We (1) explored patterns of major variation using principal component analysis, (2) compared within and between species relationships of size and shape and (3) quantitatively compared patterns of morphological integration between bill and cranium by means of partial least squares (singular warp) analysis. Results Major shape variation occurs at the bill, in the orientation of orbits, in the position of the foramen magnum and in the angle between bill and cranium. The first principal component correlated positively with centroid-size, but within-species allometric relationships differed markedly. Major covariation between the bill and cranium lies in the difference in orbit orientation relative to bill-length and in the angle between bill and cranium. Conclusion Corvid species show pronounced differences in skull shape, which covary with foraging mode. Increasing bill-length, bill-curvature and sidewise orientation of the eyes is associated with an increase in the observed frequency in probing (vice versa in pecking). Hence, the frequency of probing, bill-length, bill-curvature and sidewise orientation of the eyes is progressively increased from jackdaw, to Eurasian jay, to black-billed magpie, to hooded crow, to rook and to common raven (when feeding on carcasses is considered as probing). Our results on the morphological integration suggest that most of the covariation between bill and

  6. Effect of Weaving Direction of Conductive Yarns on Electromagnetic Performance of 3D Integrated Microstrip Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fujun; Yao, Lan; Zhao, Da; Jiang, Muwen; Qiu, Yipping

    2013-10-01

    A three-dimensionally integrated microstrip antenna (3DIMA) is a microstrip antenna woven into the three-dimensional woven composite for load bearing while functioning as an antenna. In this study, the effect of weaving direction of conductive yarns on electromagnetic performance of 3DIMAs are investigated by designing, simulating and experimental testing of two microstrip antennas with different weaving directions of conductive yarns: one has the conductive yarns along the antenna feeding direction (3DIMA-Exp1) and the other has the conductive yarns perpendicular the antenna feeding direction (3DIMA-Exp2). The measured voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) of 3DIMA-Exp1 was 1.4 at the resonant frequencies of 1.39 GHz; while that of 3DIMA-Exp2 was 1.2 at the resonant frequencies of 1.35 GHz. In addition, the measured radiation pattern of the 3DIMA-Exp1 has smaller back lobe and higher gain value than those of the 3DIMA-Exp2. This result indicates that the waving direction of conductive yarns may have a significant impact on electromagnetic performance of textile structural antennas.

  7. RELAP5-3D Transient Modelling for NGNP Integrated Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sabharwall, P.; Anderson, N. A.

    2014-06-01

    The High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is designed with outlet temperatures ranging between 750°C and 800°C. These high outlet temperatures enhance the power production efficiency and facilitate a variety of industrial applications. The objective of this study is to understand the response of the primary system to potential transients in the secondary system. For this analysis, the transient condition originates in the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) or Steam Generator (SG) of the HTGR-integrated plant. The transients analysed are: a loss of pressure; loss of feedwater flow; inadvertent closure of main steam valve; decrease in returning gas temperature and heat load step change. The results show a large dependence on the negative reactivity added to the fuel as a function of increased temperature. The returning gas temperature decrease transient resulted in the highest fuel temperature (1361°C). Fuel temperature was shown to be less than the 1600°C fuel limit for each case analysed.

  8. IRIS Earthquake Browser with Integration to the GEON IDV for 3-D Visualization of Hypocenters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weertman, B. R.

    2007-12-01

    We present a new generation of web based earthquake query tool - the IRIS Earthquake Browser (IEB). The IEB combines the DMC's large set of earthquake catalogs (provided by USGS/NEIC, ISC and the ANF) with the popular Google Maps web interface. With the IEB you can quickly and easily find earthquakes in any region of the globe. Using Google's detailed satellite images, earthquakes can be easily co-located with natural geographic features such as volcanoes as well as man made features such as commercial mines. A set of controls allow earthquakes to be filtered by time, magnitude, and depth range as well as catalog name, contributor name and magnitude type. Displayed events can be easily exported in NetCDF format into the GEON Integrated Data Viewer (IDV) where hypocenters may be visualized in three dimensions. Looking "under the hood", the IEB is based on AJAX technology and utilizes REST style web services hosted at the IRIS DMC. The IEB is part of a broader effort at the DMC aimed at making our data holdings available via web services. The IEB is useful both educationally and as a research tool.

  9. How integrating 3D LiDAR data in the dike surveillance protocol: The French case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretar, F.; Mériaux, P.; Fauchard, C.

    2012-04-01

    carried out. A LiDAR system is able to acquire data on a dike structure of up to 80 km per day, which makes the use of this technique also valuable in case of emergency situations. It provides additional valuable products like precious information on dike slopes and crest or their near environment (river banks, etc.). Moreover, in case of vegetation, LiDAR data makes possible to study hidden structures or defaults from images like the erosion of riverbanks under forestry vegetation. The possibility of studying the vegetation is also of high importance: the development of woody vegetation near or onto the dike is a major risk factor. Surface singularities are often signs of disorder or suspected disorder in the dike itself: for example a subsidence or a sinkhole on a ridge may result from internal erosion collapse. Finally, high resolution topographic data contribute to build specific geomechanical model of the dike that, after incorporating data provided by geophysical and geotechnical surveys, are integrated in the calculations of the structure stability. Integrating the regular use of LiDAR data in the dike surveillance protocol is not yet operational in France. However, the high number of French stakeholders at the national level (on average, there is one stakeholder for only 8-9km of dike !) and the real added value of LiDAR data makes a spatial data infrastructure valuable (webservices for processing the data, consulting and filling the database on the field when performing the local diagnosis)

  10. Progress on a New Integrated 3-D UCG Simulator and its Initial Application

    SciTech Connect

    Nitao, J J; Camp, D W; Buscheck, T A; White, J A; Burton, G C; Wagoner, J L; Chen, M

    2011-09-22

    A comprehensive simulator is being developed for underground coal gasification (UCG), with the capability to support site selection, design, hazard analyses, operations, and monitoring (Nitao et al., 2010). UCG is computationally challenging because it involves tightly-coupled multi-physical/chemical processes, with vastly different timescales. This new capability will predict cavity growth, product gas composition and rate, and the interaction with the host environment, accounting for site characteristics, injection gas composition and rate, and associated water-well extraction rates. Progress on the new simulator includes completion and system integration of a wall model, a rock spalling model, a cavity boundary tracking model, a one-dimensional cavity gas reactive transport model, a rudimentary rubble heat, mass, and reaction model, and coupling with a pre-existing hydrology simulator. An existing geomechanical simulator was enhanced to model cavity collapse and overburden subsidence. A commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code is being evaluated to model cavity gas flow and combustion in two and three dimensions. Although the simulator is midway in its development, it was applied to modeling the Hoe Creek III field test (Stephens, 1981) conducted in the 1970s, in order to evaluate and demonstrate the simulator's basic capabilities, gain experience, and guide future development. Furthermore, it is consistent with our philosophy of incremental, spiral software development, which helps in identifying and resolving potential problems early in the process. The simulation accounts for two coal seams, two injection points, and air and oxygen phases. Approximate extent and shape of cavity growth showed reasonable agreement with interpreted field data. Product gas composition and carbon consumed could not be simultaneously matched for a given set of parameter values due to the rudimentary rubble model currently used, although they can be matched using separate

  11. Compact spatial multiplexers for mode division multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haoshuo; van Uden, Roy; Okonkwo, Chigo; Koonen, Ton

    2014-12-29

    Spatial multiplexer (SMUX) for mode division multiplexing (MDM) has evolved from mode-selective excitation, multiple-spot and photonic-lantern based solutions in order to minimize both mode-dependent loss (MDL) and coupler insertion loss (CIL). This paper discusses the implementation of all the three solutions by compact components in a small footprint. Moreover, the compact SMUX can be manufactured in mass production and packaged to assure high reliability. First, push-pull scheme and center launch based SMUXes are demonstrated on two mostly-popular photonic integration platforms: Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and Indium Phosphide (InP) for selectively exciting LP01 and LP11 modes. 2-dimensional (2D) top-coupling by using vertical emitters is explored to provide a coupling interface between a few-mode fiber (FMF) and the photonic integrated SMUX. SOI-based grating couplers and InP-based 45° vertical mirrors are proposed and researched as vertical emitters in each platform. Second, a 3-spot SMUX is realized on an InP-based circuit through employing 45° vertical mirrors. Third, as a newly-emerging photonic integration platform, laser-inscribed 3D waveguide (3DW) technology is applied for a fully-packaged dual-channel 6-mode SMUX including two 6-core photonic lantern structures as mode multiplexer and demultiplexer, respectively.

  12. Impact of integrated 3D reservoir modeling/flow simulation on development of deepwater sands, Mars Field, Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lerch, C.S.; Johnston, J.R.; Juedeman, M.E.

    1996-12-31

    Prospect Mars is a major Gulf of Mexico deep water oil discovery made under joint partnership between operator Shell Offshore Inc. and partner British Petroleum Inc. The discovery lies in 3000 feet of water, located 130 miles southeast of New Orleans, Louisiana. The field was discovered in 1989 and to date 14 significant reservoir intervals from 10,000 to 19000 feet below sea level have been penetrated. Estimated recoverable reserves for the first phase of field development are in excess of 500 MMBE and development plans include installation of a 24 slot tension leg platform and two subsea wells, with first production in mid-1996. Over a two year period a comprehensive effort was directed at creating a new set of reservoir models utilizing an integrated software package developed at Shell E&P Technology Co. This package is able to incorporate pertinent geological, geophysical, and petrophysical data into 3-D reservoir models which can be used to: (1) estimate reservoir quantity, quality, and continuity, (2) predict reservoir production performance, (3) select development well locations, and (4) facilitate reserve estimation. This software allows interpretations from 3-D seismic, well control, and analog outcrops to be effectively integrated and passed to the reservoir model for flow simulation. This integrated effort at modeling ensured a more realistic reservoir picture upon which to base field development. Almost all the development wells pre-drilled prior to platform installation have been affected or designed based on these reservoir models and well results have been used to keep the models updated and evergreen.

  13. An integrated statistical model for enhanced murine cardiomyocyte differentiation via optimized engagement of 3D extracellular matrices

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jangwook P.; Hu, Dongjian; Domian, Ibrahim J.; Ogle, Brenda M.

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) impacts stem cell differentiation, but identifying formulations supportive of differentiation is challenging in 3D models. Prior efforts involving combinatorial ECM arrays seemed intuitively advantageous. We propose an alternative that suggests reducing sample size and technological burden can be beneficial and accessible when coupled to design of experiments approaches. We predict optimized ECM formulations could augment differentiation of cardiomyocytes derived in vitro. We employed native chemical ligation to polymerize 3D poly (ethylene glycol) hydrogels under mild conditions while entrapping various combinations of ECM and murine induced pluripotent stem cells. Systematic optimization for cardiomyocyte differentiation yielded a predicted solution of 61%, 24%, and 15% of collagen type I, laminin-111, and fibronectin, respectively. This solution was confirmed by increased numbers of cardiac troponin T, α-myosin heavy chain and α-sarcomeric actinin-expressing cells relative to suboptimum solutions. Cardiomyocytes of composites exhibited connexin43 expression, appropriate contractile kinetics and intracellular calcium handling. Further, adding a modulator of adhesion, thrombospondin-1, abrogated cardiomyocyte differentiation. Thus, the integrated biomaterial platform statistically identified an ECM formulation best supportive of cardiomyocyte differentiation. In future, this formulation could be coupled with biochemical stimulation to improve functional maturation of cardiomyocytes derived in vitro or transplanted in vivo. PMID:26687770

  14. Integrating Dynamic Data and Sensors with Semantic 3D City Models in the Context of Smart Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, K.; Kolbe, T. H.

    2016-10-01

    Smart cities provide effective integration of human, physical and digital systems operating in the built environment. The advancements in city and landscape models, sensor web technologies, and simulation methods play a significant role in city analyses and improving quality of life of citizens and governance of cities. Semantic 3D city models can provide substantial benefits and can become a central information backbone for smart city infrastructures. However, current generation semantic 3D city models are static in nature and do not support dynamic properties and sensor observations. In this paper, we propose a new concept called Dynamizer allowing to represent highly dynamic data and providing a method for injecting dynamic variations of city object properties into the static representation. The approach also provides direct capability to model complex patterns based on statistics and general rules and also, real-time sensor observations. The concept is implemented as an Application Domain Extension for the CityGML standard. However, it could also be applied to other GML-based application schemas including the European INSPIRE data themes and national standards for topography and cadasters like the British Ordnance Survey Mastermap or the German cadaster standard ALKIS.

  15. Integrated 3D modelling, an effective way to improve geophysical data interpretation - the southwestern Barents Shelf as a case study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecile, B.; Joerg, E.; Laurent, G.

    2008-12-01

    We will demonstrate how seismic interpretation combined with density and magnetic modelling can help to better constrain the crustal structure below sedimentary basins and increase the accuracy of geophysical data interpretation. On the southwestern Barents Shelf, we applied 3D joint density and magnetic modelling to obtain maps of depth to the top basement and Moho and a basement characterisation in terms of density and magnetic properties of the crust and deep crust. We constrained our model using all available geological and geophysical data. The sedimentary succession is constrained by industrial depth-converted seismic horizons tied at wells. The top basement of our study area is complex and deeply buried under more than 15 km of sedimentary rocks in some areas. For an accurate assessment of the top basement and deep crustal structures we used seismic refraction models and a set of deep reflection profiles as well as 1D velocity laws extracted from the Barents50 model. Furthermore, a database compiling density, magnetic remanence and susceptibility measured on onshore samples from northern Norway was used to constraint the modelling values. The integration of all these data helps to avoid interpretation pitfalls and highlights discrepancies between published data and models. Overcoming these inconsistencies we propose a new 3D structural model. The 3D model contributes to understand the basement lithology distribution and the offshore prolongation of the Caledonian structures, well described onshore. The 3D model allows us also to discuss the tectonic evolution of the SW Barents Sea. A system with a unique Caledonides branch propagating toward the north and Caledonian nappes flowing asymmetrically in the West Barents Sea is confirmed. A unique Caledonian suture is proposed west of the Loppa High then propagating between the Svalbard and Franz Josef Land. The distribution of the Timanides structures possibly explains the limitation of the Caledonian nappes

  16. Improved integral imaging based image copyright protection algorithm using 3-D computational integral imaging pickup and super-resolution reconstruction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao Wei; Lee, In-Kwon; Kim, Seok Tae

    2014-11-01

    Cellular automata transform (CAT) based watermarking method can provide multi-transform planes for embedding watermark. In this paper, to overcome conventional transform-based watermarking methods have only one transform plane for watermark embedding, we propose a CAT-based watermarking system, in which the three-dimensional (3-D) watermark data is decomposed by the computational integral imaging (CII) technique and be embedded into the CAT domain. However, in the 3-D watermark reconstruction process, the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) technique in CII system that can degrade the quality of the extracted watermark due to the pixel overlapping. We introduce the super-resolution reconstruction technique that can effectively improve this problem. Some experiments are carried out to verify the performance of the CAT-based watermarking scheme. From the experimental results, the proposed watermarking system can provide good imperceptibility and high robustness.

  17. Improved Selectivity and Sensitivity of Gas Sensing Using a 3D Reduced Graphene Oxide Hydrogel with an Integrated Microheater.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin; Tao, Kai; Miao, Jianmin; Norford, Leslie K

    2015-12-16

    Low-cost, one-step, and hydrothermal synthesized 3D reduced graphene oxide hydrogel (RGOH) is exploited to fabricate a high performance NO2 and NH3 sensor with an integrated microheater. The sensor can experimentally detect NO2 and NH3 at low concentrations of 200 ppb and 20 ppm, respectively, at room temperature. In addition to accelerating the signal recovery rate by elevating the local silicon substrate temperature, the microheater is exploited for the first time to improve the selectivity of NO2 sensing. Specifically, the sensor response from NH3 can be effectively suppressed by a locally increased temperature, while the sensitivity of detecting NO2 is not significantly affected. This leads to good discrimination between NO2 and NH3. This strategy paves a new avenue to improve the selectivity of gas sensing by using the microheater to raise substrate temperature. PMID:26630364

  18. Integrated monolithic 3D MEMS scanner for switchable real time vertical/horizontal cross-sectional imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Haijun; Duan, Xiyu; Qiu, Zhen; Zhou, Quan; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Oldham, Kenn R; Wang, Thomas D

    2016-02-01

    We present an integrated monolithic, electrostatic 3D MEMS scanner with a compact chip size of 3.2 × 2.9 mm(2). Use of parametric excitation near resonance frequencies produced large optical deflection angles up to ± 27° and ± 28.5° in the X- and Y-axes and displacements up to 510 μm in the Z-axis with low drive voltages at atmospheric pressure. When packaged in a dual axes confocal endomicroscope, horizontal and vertical cross-sectional images can be collected seamlessly in tissue with a large field-of-view of >1 × 1 mm(2) and 1 × 0.41 mm(2), respectively, at 5 frames/sec.

  19. Development of a novel pixel-level signal processing chain for fast readout 3D integrated CMOS pixel sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Y.; Torheim, O.; Hu-Guo, C.; Degerli, Y.; Hu, Y.

    2013-03-01

    In order to resolve the inherent readout speed limitation of traditional 2D CMOS pixel sensors, operated in rolling shutter readout, a parallel readout architecture has been developed by taking advantage of 3D integration technologies. Since the rows of the pixel array are zero-suppressed simultaneously instead of sequentially, a frame readout time of a few microseconds is expected for coping with high hit rates foreseen in future collider experiments. In order to demonstrate the pixel readout functionality of such a pixel sensor, a 2D proof-of-concept chip including a novel pixel-level signal processing chain was designed and fabricated in a 0.13 μm CMOS technology. The functionalities of this chip have been verified through experimental characterization.

  20. Evaluating integration of inland bathymetry in the U.S. Geological Survey 3D Elevation Program, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller-Corbett, Cynthia

    2016-09-01

    Inland bathymetry survey collections, survey data types, features, sources, availability, and the effort required to integrate inland bathymetric data into the U.S. Geological Survey 3D Elevation Program are assessed to help determine the feasibility of integrating three-dimensional water feature elevation data into The National Map. Available data from wading, acoustic, light detection and ranging, and combined technique surveys are provided by the U.S. Geological Survey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and other sources. Inland bathymetric data accessed through Web-hosted resources or contacts provide useful baseline parameters for evaluating survey types and techniques used for collection and processing, and serve as a basis for comparing survey methods and the quality of results. Historically, boat-mounted acoustic surveys have provided most inland bathymetry data. Light detection and ranging techniques that are beneficial in areas hard to reach by boat, that can collect dense data in shallow water to provide comprehensive coverage, and that can be cost effective for surveying large areas with good water clarity are becoming more common; however, optimal conditions and techniques for collecting and processing light detection and ranging inland bathymetry surveys are not yet well defined.Assessment of site condition parameters important for understanding inland bathymetry survey issues and results, and an evaluation of existing inland bathymetry survey coverage are proposed as steps to develop criteria for implementing a useful and successful inland bathymetry survey plan in the 3D Elevation Program. These survey parameters would also serve as input for an inland bathymetry survey data baseline. Integration and interpolation techniques are important factors to consider in developing a robust plan; however, available survey data are usually in a triangulated irregular network format or other format compatible with

  1. Evaluating integration of inland bathymetry in the U.S. Geological Survey 3D Elevation Program, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller-Corbett, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Inland bathymetry survey collections, survey data types, features, sources, availability, and the effort required to integrate inland bathymetric data into the U.S. Geological Survey 3D Elevation Program are assessed to help determine the feasibility of integrating three-dimensional water feature elevation data into The National Map. Available data from wading, acoustic, light detection and ranging, and combined technique surveys are provided by the U.S. Geological Survey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and other sources. Inland bathymetric data accessed through Web-hosted resources or contacts provide useful baseline parameters for evaluating survey types and techniques used for collection and processing, and serve as a basis for comparing survey methods and the quality of results. Historically, boat-mounted acoustic surveys have provided most inland bathymetry data. Light detection and ranging techniques that are beneficial in areas hard to reach by boat, that can collect dense data in shallow water to provide comprehensive coverage, and that can be cost effective for surveying large areas with good water clarity are becoming more common; however, optimal conditions and techniques for collecting and processing light detection and ranging inland bathymetry surveys are not yet well defined.Assessment of site condition parameters important for understanding inland bathymetry survey issues and results, and an evaluation of existing inland bathymetry survey coverage are proposed as steps to develop criteria for implementing a useful and successful inland bathymetry survey plan in the 3D Elevation Program. These survey parameters would also serve as input for an inland bathymetry survey data baseline. Integration and interpolation techniques are important factors to consider in developing a robust plan; however, available survey data are usually in a triangulated irregular network format or other format compatible with

  2. 3-D imaging using row-column-addressed arrays with integrated apodization - part i: apodization design and line element beamforming.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates the effect of transducerintegrated apodization in row-column-addressed arrays and presents a beamforming approach specific for such arrays. Row-column addressing 2-D arrays greatly reduces the number of active channels needed to acquire a 3-D volume. A disadvantage of row-column-addressed arrays is an apparent ghost effect in the point spread function caused by edge waves. This paper investigates the origin of the edge waves and the effect of introducing an integrated apodization to reduce the ghost echoes. The performance of a λ/2-pitch 5-MHz 128 + 128 row-column-addressed array with different apodizations is simulated. A Hann apodization is shown to decrease imaging performance away from the center axis of the array because of a decrease in main lobe amplitude. Instead, a static roll-off apodization region located at the ends of the line elements is proposed. In simulations, the peak ghost echo intensity of a scatterer at (x,y, z) = (8, 3, 30) mm was decreased by 43 dB by integrating roll-off apodization into the array. The main lobe was unaffected by the apodization. Simulations of a 3-mm-diameter anechoic blood vessel at 30 mm depth showed that applying the transducer-integrated apodization increased the apparent diameter of the vessel from 2.0 mm to 2.4 mm, corresponding to an increase from 67% to 80% of the true vessel diameter. The line element beamforming approach is shown to be essential for achieving correct time-of-flight calculations, and hence avoid geometrical distortions. In Part II of this work, experimental results from a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer with integrated roll-off apodization are given to validate the effect of integrating apodization into the line elements. PMID:25974918

  3. Reconfigurable photonic integrated mode (de)multiplexer for SDM fiber transmission.

    PubMed

    Melati, Daniele; Alippi, Andrea; Melloni, Andrea

    2016-06-13

    Spatial division multiplexing in multi-mode fibers allows to largely enhance transmission capacity compared to single-mode links. Photonic integrated circuits can provide solutions for mode multiplexing at the transmitter and demultiplexing at the receiver but have to generally face high losses and inter-modal cross-talk issues. Here a photonic circuit for efficient mode multiplexing and demultiplexing in few-mode fibers is presented and demonstrated. Two 10 Gbit/s channels at the same wavelength and polarization are simultaneously transmitted over modes LP01 and LP11a of a few-mode fiber relying only on integrated mode MUX and DEMUX. The proposed Indium-Phosphide-based circuits have a good coupling efficiency with fiber modes and mode-dependant loss smaller than 1 dB. Measured mode excitation cross-talk is as low as -20 dB and a channel cross-talk after propagation and demultiplexing of -15 dB is achieved. An operational bandwidth of the full transmission system of at least 10 nm is demonstrated. Both mode MUX and DEMUX are fully reconfigurable and allow a dynamic switch of channel routing in the transmission system. These results enable fully-integrated fiber mode handling for high-bandwidth flexible optical networks. PMID:27410284

  4. Compilation of an integrated 3D soil and agrogeological database for the hydrophysical characterization of the unsaturated zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakacsi, Zsófia; Kuti, László; Pásztor, László; Vatai, József; Szabó, József; Müller, Tamás.

    2010-05-01

    Describing the water movement in the unsaturated zone, numerous soil hydraulic data as input parameter are required concerning the water retention curve and the hydraulic conductivity function as the main hydraulic properties. The direct measurements of the hydraulic parameters are quite difficult and time-consuming; the estimation of them can be an alternative especially for large areas. The most commonly used basis of the estimation is the particle-size distribution (PSD) data or texture class. The aim of our work was to compile an integrated and harmonized 3D pedo- and agrogeological database with the physical properties and stratification of the formations to the depth of the permanent groundwater level, which describes the unsaturated zone in a 690 km2 pilot area. Since the existing pedo- and agrogeological databases are not able to serve separately these 3D model requirements, their integration was necessary. Due to its appropriate spatial and thematic resolution and data processing status, the Digital Kreybig Soil Information System (DKSIS) was chosen as pedological data source of the 3D model. The DKSIS has been compiled in the Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, based on the 1:25,000 scale, national soil mapping program in Hungary. The survey sheets indicate the location of the observation sites. Due to the lack of measured PSD data, the field estimation of the textural classes, and the so-called "capillary rise of water" were used for the definition of the texture classes. The measured water uptake is supposed to have good relation with the textural class of the sample. During the data processing the inconsistent fields vs. capillary data pairs were excluded. In the DKSIS 649 polygons cover the pilot area, 484 soil profiles are occurring and characteristically each profile has two or three horizons. The agrogeological dataset is maintained by the Hungarian Geological Institute and derives

  5. Microgravity Characterization of the Hontomín CO2 Storage Site (Spain). Integration with 3D Seismic Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayarza, P.; Andres, J.; Alcalde, J.; Martí, D.; Marzán, I.; Martinez-Catalan, J. R.; Carbonell, R.; García Lobón, J. L.; Pérez Estaún, A.

    2014-12-01

    Hontomín hosts the first Spanish CO2storage Technology Development Plant. The area, located in the southern part of Mesozoic Basque-Cantabrian Basin, presents E-W and ESE-WNW faults formed during a Permian-Triassic extensional event. The latter were reactivated during the opening of the Bay of Biscay, while a new set of NNE-SSW faults developed. Fractures were reactivated again during the Alpine compression. The resulting configuration is a dome-like structure that includes the Mesozoic succession (Upper Triassic to Lower Cretaceous) and is crowned by Upper Cretaceous and Eocene rocks lying unconformably. The target injection pointis located at 1500 m depth, within a Jurassic carbonate saline formation. Several multidisciplinary studies have been carried out in Hontomín aiming to obtain a thorough geological characterization. Among these, a microgravity survey, acquired under the umbrella of the CIUDEN foundation, has provided us with a complete 3D image of the site. A 4x4 km2area, coincident with that surveyed by 3D seismic reflection, has been sampled using a dense grid with a station spacing of 100 m. The result is a high resolution Bouguer anomaly gravity map capable of offering insights into the subsurface geology down to the depth of the injection point. The application of mathematical procedures to the data has further enhanced its potential for interpretation. The calculated regional anomaly indicates that the dome structure strikes E-W to ENE-WSW, sub-parallel to a major fault: the South Fault, part of the Ubierna fault system. The resulting residual anomaly enhances a number of NW-SE features that have also been interpreted as faults and that can be observed after performing vertical and horizontal derivatives to the data. Calculation of the Euler solutions confirms the previous results and brings out a new NNW-SSE feature, namely the East Fault. Integration with 3D seismic data suggests that faults affect different levels of the sedimentary sequence

  6. A Prototype PZT Matrix Transducer With Low-Power Integrated Receive ASIC for 3-D Transesophageal Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Raghunathan, Shreyas B; Yu, Zili; Shabanimotlagh, Maysam; Chen, Zhao; Chang, Zu-yao; Blaak, Sandra; Prins, Christian; Ponte, Jacco; Noothout, Emile; Vos, Hendrik J; Bosch, Johan G; Verweij, Martin D; de Jong, Nico; Pertijs, Michiel A P

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and experimental evaluation of a prototype lead zirconium titanate (PZT) matrix transducer with an integrated receive ASIC, as a proof of concept for a miniature three-dimensional (3-D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) probe. It consists of an array of 9 ×12 piezoelectric elements mounted on the ASIC via an integration scheme that involves direct electrical connections between a bond-pad array on the ASIC and the transducer elements. The ASIC addresses the critical challenge of reducing cable count, and includes front-end amplifiers with adjustable gains and micro-beamformer circuits that locally process and combine echo signals received by the elements of each 3 ×3 subarray. Thus, an order-of-magnitude reduction in the number of receive channels is achieved. Dedicated circuit techniques are employed to meet the strict space and power constraints of TEE probes. The ASIC has been fabricated in a standard 0.18-μm CMOS process and consumes only 0.44 mW/channel. The prototype has been acoustically characterized in a water tank. The ASIC allows the array to be presteered across ±37° while achieving an overall dynamic range of 77 dB. Both the measured characteristics of the individual transducer elements and the performance of the ASIC are in good agreement with expectations, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.

  7. Rapid Reconstitution Packages (RRPs) implemented by integration of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and 3D printed microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Chi, Albert; Curi, Sebastian; Clayton, Kevin; Luciano, David; Klauber, Kameron; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo; D'hers, Sebastian; Elman, Noel M

    2014-08-01

    Rapid Reconstitution Packages (RRPs) are portable platforms that integrate microfluidics for rapid reconstitution of lyophilized drugs. Rapid reconstitution of lyophilized drugs using standard vials and syringes is an error-prone process. RRPs were designed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques to optimize fluidic structures for rapid mixing and integrating physical properties of targeted drugs and diluents. Devices were manufactured using stereo lithography 3D printing for micrometer structural precision and rapid prototyping. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) was selected as the initial model drug to test the RRPs as it is unstable in solution. tPA is a thrombolytic drug, stored in lyophilized form, required in emergency settings for which rapid reconstitution is of critical importance. RRP performance and drug stability were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to characterize release kinetics. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were performed to test for drug activity after the RRPs were exposed to various controlled temperature conditions. Experimental results showed that RRPs provided effective reconstitution of tPA that strongly correlated with CFD results. Simulation and experimental results show that release kinetics can be adjusted by tuning the device structural dimensions and diluent drug physical parameters. The design of RRPs can be tailored for a number of applications by taking into account physical parameters of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), excipients, and diluents. RRPs are portable platforms that can be utilized for reconstitution of emergency drugs in time-critical therapies.

  8. Terrestrial and aerial laser scanning data integration using wavelet analysis for the purpose of 3D building modeling.

    PubMed

    Kedzierski, Michal; Fryskowska, Anna

    2014-07-07

    Visualization techniques have been greatly developed in the past few years. Three-dimensional models based on satellite and aerial imagery are now being enhanced by models generated using Aerial Laser Scanning (ALS) data. The most modern of such scanning systems have the ability to acquire over 50 points per square meter and to register a multiple echo, which allows the reconstruction of the terrain together with the terrain cover. However, ALS data accuracy is less than 10 cm and the data is often incomplete: there is no information about ground level (in most scanning systems), and often around the facade or structures which have been covered by other structures. However, Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) not only acquires higher accuracy data (1-5 cm) but is also capable of registering those elements which are incomplete or not visible using ALS methods (facades, complicated structures, interiors, etc.). Therefore, to generate a complete 3D model of a building in high Level of Details, integration of TLS and ALS data is necessary. This paper presents the wavelet-based method of processing and integrating data from ALS and TLS. Methods of choosing tie points to combine point clouds in different datum will be analyzed.

  9. Integration of 3D Printed and Micropatterned Polycaprolactone Scaffolds for Guidance of Oriented Collagenous Tissue Formation In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Pilipchuk, Sophia P; Monje, Alberto; Jiao, Yizu; Hao, Jie; Kruger, Laura; Flanagan, Colleen L; Hollister, Scott J; Giannobile, William V

    2016-03-01

    Scaffold design incorporating multiscale cues for clinically relevant, aligned tissue regeneration has potential to improve structural and functional integrity of multitissue interfaces. The objective of this preclinical study is to develop poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds with mesoscale and microscale architectural cues specific to human ligament progenitor cells and assess their ability to form aligned bone-ligament-cementum complexes in vivo. PCL scaffolds are designed to integrate a 3D printed bone region with a micropatterned PCL thin film consisting of grooved pillars. The patterned film region is seeded with human ligament cells, fibroblasts transduced with bone morphogenetic protein-7 genes seeded within the bone region, and a tooth dentin segment positioned on the ligament region prior to subcutaneous implantation into a murine model. Results indicate increased tissue alignment in vivo using micropatterned PCL films, compared to random-porous PCL. At week 6, 30 μm groove depth significantly enhances oriented collagen fiber thickness, overall cell alignment, and nuclear elongation relative to 10 μm groove depth. This study demonstrates for the first time that scaffolds with combined hierarchical mesoscale and microscale features can align cells in vivo for oral tissue repair with potential for improving the regenerative response of other bone-ligament complexes.

  10. An intelligent recovery progress evaluation system for ACL reconstructed subjects using integrated 3-D kinematics and EMG features.

    PubMed

    Malik, Owais A; Senanayake, S M N Arosha; Zaheer, Dansih

    2015-03-01

    An intelligent recovery evaluation system is presented for objective assessment and performance monitoring of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed (ACL-R) subjects. The system acquires 3-D kinematics of tibiofemoral joint and electromyography (EMG) data from surrounding muscles during various ambulatory and balance testing activities through wireless body-mounted inertial and EMG sensors, respectively. An integrated feature set is generated based on different features extracted from data collected for each activity. The fuzzy clustering and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference techniques are applied to these integrated feature sets in order to provide different recovery progress assessment indicators (e.g., current stage of recovery, percentage of recovery progress as compared to healthy group, etc.) for ACL-R subjects. The system was trained and tested on data collected from a group of healthy and ACL-R subjects. For recovery stage identification, the average testing accuracy of the system was found above 95% (95-99%) for ambulatory activities and above 80% (80-84%) for balance testing activities. The overall recovery evaluation performed by the proposed system was found consistent with the assessment made by the physiotherapists using standard subjective/objective scores. The validated system can potentially be used as a decision supporting tool by physiatrists, physiotherapists, and clinicians for quantitative rehabilitation analysis of ACL-R subjects in conjunction with the existing recovery monitoring systems.

  11. Terrestrial and Aerial Laser Scanning Data Integration Using Wavelet Analysis for the Purpose of 3D Building Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Kedzierski, Michal; Fryskowska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Visualization techniques have been greatly developed in the past few years. Three-dimensional models based on satellite and aerial imagery are now being enhanced by models generated using Aerial Laser Scanning (ALS) data. The most modern of such scanning systems have the ability to acquire over 50 points per square meter and to register a multiple echo, which allows the reconstruction of the terrain together with the terrain cover. However, ALS data accuracy is less than 10 cm and the data is often incomplete: there is no information about ground level (in most scanning systems), and often around the facade or structures which have been covered by other structures. However, Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) not only acquires higher accuracy data (1–5 cm) but is also capable of registering those elements which are incomplete or not visible using ALS methods (facades, complicated structures, interiors, etc.). Therefore, to generate a complete 3D model of a building in high Level of Details, integration of TLS and ALS data is necessary. This paper presents the wavelet-based method of processing and integrating data from ALS and TLS. Methods of choosing tie points to combine point clouds in different datum will be analyzed. PMID:25004157

  12. ePlant and the 3D data display initiative: integrative systems biology on the world wide web.

    PubMed

    Fucile, Geoffrey; Di Biase, David; Nahal, Hardeep; La, Garon; Khodabandeh, Shokoufeh; Chen, Yani; Easley, Kante; Christendat, Dinesh; Kelley, Lawrence; Provart, Nicholas J

    2011-01-10

    Visualization tools for biological data are often limited in their ability to interactively integrate data at multiple scales. These computational tools are also typically limited by two-dimensional displays and programmatic implementations that require separate configurations for each of the user's computing devices and recompilation for functional expansion. Towards overcoming these limitations we have developed "ePlant" (http://bar.utoronto.ca/eplant) - a suite of open-source world wide web-based tools for the visualization of large-scale data sets from the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. These tools display data spanning multiple biological scales on interactive three-dimensional models. Currently, ePlant consists of the following modules: a sequence conservation explorer that includes homology relationships and single nucleotide polymorphism data, a protein structure model explorer, a molecular interaction network explorer, a gene product subcellular localization explorer, and a gene expression pattern explorer. The ePlant's protein structure explorer module represents experimentally determined and theoretical structures covering >70% of the Arabidopsis proteome. The ePlant framework is accessed entirely through a web browser, and is therefore platform-independent. It can be applied to any model organism. To facilitate the development of three-dimensional displays of biological data on the world wide web we have established the "3D Data Display Initiative" (http://3ddi.org).

  13. High-κ Al2O3 material in low temperature wafer-level bonding for 3D integration application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J.; Tu, L. C.; Tan, C. S.

    2014-03-01

    This work systematically investigated a high-κ Al2O3 material for low temperature wafer-level bonding for potential applications in 3D microsystems. A clean Si wafer with an Al2O3 layer thickness of 50 nm was applied as our experimental approach. Bonding was initiated in a clean room ambient after surface activation, followed by annealing under inert ambient conditions at 300 °C for 3 h. The investigation consisted of three parts: a mechanical support study using the four-point bending method, hermeticity measurements using the helium bomb test, and thermal conductivity analysis for potential heterogeneous bonding. Compared with samples bonded using a conventional oxide bonding material (SiO2), a higher interfacial adhesion energy (˜11.93 J/m2) and a lower helium leak rate (˜6.84 × 10-10 atm.cm3/sec) were detected for samples bonded using Al2O3. More importantly, due to the excellent thermal conductivity performance of Al2O3, this technology can be used in heterogeneous direct bonding, which has potential applications for enhancing the performance of Si photonic integrated devices.

  14. Direct laser-writing of ferroelectric single-crystal waveguide architectures in glass for 3D integrated optics.

    PubMed

    Stone, Adam; Jain, Himanshu; Dierolf, Volkmar; Sakakura, Masaaki; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Miura, Kiyotaka; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Lapointe, Jerome; Kashyap, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Direct three-dimensional laser writing of amorphous waveguides inside glass has been studied intensely as an attractive route for fabricating photonic integrated circuits. However, achieving essential nonlinear-optic functionality in such devices will also require the ability to create high-quality single-crystal waveguides. Femtosecond laser irradiation is capable of crystallizing glass in 3D, but producing optical-quality single-crystal structures suitable for waveguiding poses unique challenges that are unprecedented in the field of crystal growth. In this work, we use a high angular-resolution electron diffraction method to obtain the first conclusive confirmation that uniform single crystals can be grown inside glass by femtosecond laser writing under optimized conditions. We confirm waveguiding capability and present the first quantitative measurement of power transmission through a laser-written crystal-in-glass waveguide, yielding loss of 2.64 dB/cm at 1530 nm. We demonstrate uniformity of the crystal cross-section down the length of the waveguide and quantify its birefringence. Finally, as a proof-of-concept for patterning more complex device geometries, we demonstrate the use of dynamic phase modulation to grow symmetric crystal junctions with single-pass writing. PMID:25988599

  15. Direct laser-writing of ferroelectric single-crystal waveguide architectures in glass for 3D integrated optics

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Adam; Jain, Himanshu; Dierolf, Volkmar; Sakakura, Masaaki; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Miura, Kiyotaka; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Lapointe, Jerome; Kashyap, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Direct three-dimensional laser writing of amorphous waveguides inside glass has been studied intensely as an attractive route for fabricating photonic integrated circuits. However, achieving essential nonlinear-optic functionality in such devices will also require the ability to create high-quality single-crystal waveguides. Femtosecond laser irradiation is capable of crystallizing glass in 3D, but producing optical-quality single-crystal structures suitable for waveguiding poses unique challenges that are unprecedented in the field of crystal growth. In this work, we use a high angular-resolution electron diffraction method to obtain the first conclusive confirmation that uniform single crystals can be grown inside glass by femtosecond laser writing under optimized conditions. We confirm waveguiding capability and present the first quantitative measurement of power transmission through a laser-written crystal-in-glass waveguide, yielding loss of 2.64 dB/cm at 1530 nm. We demonstrate uniformity of the crystal cross-section down the length of the waveguide and quantify its birefringence. Finally, as a proof-of-concept for patterning more complex device geometries, we demonstrate the use of dynamic phase modulation to grow symmetric crystal junctions with single-pass writing. PMID:25988599

  16. Integrated ray tracing simulation of annual variation of spectral bio-signatures from cloud free 3D optical Earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Dongok; Kim, Sug-Whan; Kim, Dae Wook; Lee, Jae-Min; Lee, Hanshin; Park, Won Hyun; Seong, Sehyun; Ham, Sun-Jeong

    2010-09-01

    Understanding the Earth spectral bio-signatures provides an important reference datum for accurate de-convolution of collapsed spectral signals from potential earth-like planets of other star systems. This study presents a new ray tracing computation method including an improved 3D optical earth model constructed with the coastal line and vegetation distribution data from the Global Ecological Zone (GEZ) map. Using non-Lambertian bidirectional scattering distribution function (BSDF) models, the input earth surface model is characterized with three different scattering properties and their annual variations depending on monthly changes in vegetation distribution, sea ice coverage and illumination angle. The input atmosphere model consists of one layer with Rayleigh scattering model from the sea level to 100 km in altitude and its radiative transfer characteristics is computed for four seasons using the SMART codes. The ocean scattering model is a combination of sun-glint scattering and Lambertian scattering models. The land surface scattering is defined with the semi empirical parametric kernel method used for MODIS and POLDER missions. These three component models were integrated into the final Earth model that was then incorporated into the in-house built integrated ray tracing (IRT) model capable of computing both spectral imaging and radiative transfer performance of a hypothetical space instrument as it observes the Earth from its designated orbit. The IRT model simulation inputs include variation in earth orientation, illuminated phases, and seasonal sea ice and vegetation distribution. The trial simulation runs result in the annual variations in phase dependent disk averaged spectra (DAS) and its associated bio-signatures such as NDVI. The full computational details are presented together with the resulting annual variation in DAS and its associated bio-signatures.

  17. Integrated-Optic Wavelength Multiplexer In Glass Fabricated By A Charge Controlled Ion Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, R.; Jestel, D.; Lilienhof, H. J.; Rottman, F.; Voges, E.

    1989-02-01

    Integrated-optic wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) is commonly used in communication systems. These WDM-devices are also well suited to build up optical fiber networks for both intensity and interferometric sensor types. The operation principle of our wavelength division multiplexing devise is based on the wavelength dependent two-mode interference in a two-moded waveguide, which is coupled adiabatically to the single-mode input and output strip waveguides. The single-mode input and output waveguides are connected via two Y-branches ( "'kJ- 1° branching angle ) with a two-moded intersection region. The ratio of the light powers in the single-mode output waveguides depends on wavelength . The two-mode interference within the two-moded center waveguide leads to an almost wavelength periodic transmission caracteristic . Dual-channel multiplexers/demultiplexers were fabricated by a charge controlled field assisted pottasium exchange in B-270 glass (Desag). The devices have a typical channel separation of 30 - 40 nm and a far-end crosstalk attenuation of better than 16 dB. The operation wavelength regions of the fabricated devices are 0.6 - 0.8 µm and 1.3 - 1.6 µm, respectively.

  18. 3D documentation and visualization of external injury findings by integration of simple photography in CT/MRI data sets (IprojeCT).

    PubMed

    Campana, Lorenzo; Breitbeck, Robert; Bauer-Kreuz, Regula; Buck, Ursula

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of documenting patterned injury using three dimensions and true colour photography without complex 3D surface documentation methods. This method is based on a generated 3D surface model using radiologic slice images (CT) while the colour information is derived from photographs taken with commercially available cameras. The external patterned injuries were documented in 16 cases using digital photography as well as highly precise photogrammetry-supported 3D structured light scanning. The internal findings of these deceased were recorded using CT and MRI. For registration of the internal with the external data, two different types of radiographic markers were used and compared. The 3D surface model generated from CT slice images was linked with the photographs, and thereby digital true-colour 3D models of the patterned injuries could be created (Image projection onto CT/IprojeCT). In addition, these external models were merged with the models of the somatic interior. We demonstrated that 3D documentation and visualization of external injury findings by integration of digital photography in CT/MRI data sets is suitable for the 3D documentation of individual patterned injuries to a body. Nevertheless, this documentation method is not a substitution for photogrammetry and surface scanning, especially when the entire bodily surface is to be recorded in three dimensions including all external findings, and when precise data is required for comparing highly detailed injury features with the injury-inflicting tool.

  19. 3D documentation and visualization of external injury findings by integration of simple photography in CT/MRI data sets (IprojeCT).

    PubMed

    Campana, Lorenzo; Breitbeck, Robert; Bauer-Kreuz, Regula; Buck, Ursula

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of documenting patterned injury using three dimensions and true colour photography without complex 3D surface documentation methods. This method is based on a generated 3D surface model using radiologic slice images (CT) while the colour information is derived from photographs taken with commercially available cameras. The external patterned injuries were documented in 16 cases using digital photography as well as highly precise photogrammetry-supported 3D structured light scanning. The internal findings of these deceased were recorded using CT and MRI. For registration of the internal with the external data, two different types of radiographic markers were used and compared. The 3D surface model generated from CT slice images was linked with the photographs, and thereby digital true-colour 3D models of the patterned injuries could be created (Image projection onto CT/IprojeCT). In addition, these external models were merged with the models of the somatic interior. We demonstrated that 3D documentation and visualization of external injury findings by integration of digital photography in CT/MRI data sets is suitable for the 3D documentation of individual patterned injuries to a body. Nevertheless, this documentation method is not a substitution for photogrammetry and surface scanning, especially when the entire bodily surface is to be recorded in three dimensions including all external findings, and when precise data is required for comparing highly detailed injury features with the injury-inflicting tool. PMID:26496803

  20. 3D Numerical Optimization Modelling of Ivancich landslides (Assisi, Italy) via integration of remote sensing and in situ observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaldo, Raffaele; De Novellis, Vincenzo; Lollino, Piernicola; Manunta, Michele; Tizzani, Pietro

    2015-04-01

    The new challenge that the research in slopes instabilities phenomena is going to tackle is the effective integration and joint exploitation of remote sensing measurements with in situ data and observations to study and understand the sub-surface interactions, the triggering causes, and, in general, the long term behaviour of the investigated landslide phenomenon. In this context, a very promising approach is represented by Finite Element (FE) techniques, which allow us to consider the intrinsic complexity of the mass movement phenomena and to effectively benefit from multi source observations and data. In this context, we perform a three dimensional (3D) numerical model of the Ivancich (Assisi, Central Italy) instability phenomenon. In particular, we apply an inverse FE method based on a Genetic Algorithm optimization procedure, benefitting from advanced DInSAR measurements, retrieved through the full resolution Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) technique, and an inclinometric array distribution. To this purpose we consider the SAR images acquired from descending orbit by the COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) X-band radar constellation, from December 2009 to February 2012. Moreover the optimization input dataset is completed by an array of eleven inclinometer measurements, from 1999 to 2006, distributed along the unstable mass. The landslide body is formed of debris material sliding on a arenaceous marl substratum, with a thin shear band detected using borehole and inclinometric data, at depth ranging from 20 to 60 m. Specifically, we consider the active role of this shear band in the control of the landslide evolution process. A large field monitoring dataset of the landslide process, including at-depth piezometric and geological borehole observations, were available. The integration of these datasets allows us to develop a 3D structural geological model of the considered slope. To investigate the dynamic evolution of a landslide, various physical approaches can be considered

  1. Controlling Shear Stress in 3D Bioprinting is a Key Factor to Balance Printing Resolution and Stem Cell Integrity.

    PubMed

    Blaeser, Andreas; Duarte Campos, Daniela Filipa; Puster, Uta; Richtering, Walter; Stevens, Molly M; Fischer, Horst

    2016-02-01

    A microvalve-based bioprinting system for the manufacturing of high-resolution, multimaterial 3D-structures is reported. Applying a straightforward fluid-dynamics model, the shear stress at the nozzle site can precisely be controlled. Using this system, a broad study on how cell viability and proliferation potential are affected by different levels of shear stress is conducted. Complex, multimaterial 3D structures are printed with high resolution. This work pioneers the investigation of shear stress-induced cell damage in 3D bioprinting and might help to comprehend and improve the outcome of cell-printing studies in the future.

  2. Controlling Shear Stress in 3D Bioprinting is a Key Factor to Balance Printing Resolution and Stem Cell Integrity.

    PubMed

    Blaeser, Andreas; Duarte Campos, Daniela Filipa; Puster, Uta; Richtering, Walter; Stevens, Molly M; Fischer, Horst

    2016-02-01

    A microvalve-based bioprinting system for the manufacturing of high-resolution, multimaterial 3D-structures is reported. Applying a straightforward fluid-dynamics model, the shear stress at the nozzle site can precisely be controlled. Using this system, a broad study on how cell viability and proliferation potential are affected by different levels of shear stress is conducted. Complex, multimaterial 3D structures are printed with high resolution. This work pioneers the investigation of shear stress-induced cell damage in 3D bioprinting and might help to comprehend and improve the outcome of cell-printing studies in the future. PMID:26626828

  3. Fully integrated wearable sensor arrays for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gao, Wei; Emaminejad, Sam; Nyein, Hnin Yin Yin; Challa, Samyuktha; Chen, Kevin; Peck, Austin; Fahad, Hossain M.; Ota, Hiroki; Shiraki, Hiroshi; Kiriya, Daisuke; et al

    2016-01-27

    We report that wearable sensor technologies are essential to the realization of personalized medicine through continuously monitoring an individual’s state of health. Sampling human sweat, which is rich in physiological information13, could enable non-invasive monitoring. Previously reported sweat-based and other noninvasive biosensors either can only monitor a single analyte at a time or lack on-site signal processing circuitry and sensor calibration mechanisms for accurate analysis of the physiological state14–18. Given the complexity of sweat secretion, simultaneous and multiplexed screening of target biomarkers is critical and requires full system integration to ensure the accuracy of measurements. Here we present a mechanicallymore » flexible and fully integrated (that is, no external analysis is needed) sensor array for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis, which simultaneously and selectively measures sweat metabolites (such as glucose and lactate) and electrolytes (such as sodium and potassium ions), as well as the skin temperature (to calibrate the response of the sensors). Lastly, our work bridges the technological gap between signal transduction, conditioning (amplification and filtering), processing and wireless transmission in wearable biosensors by merging plasticbased sensors that interface with the skin with silicon integrated circuits consolidated on a flexible circuit board for complex signal processing.« less

  4. Efficient Multiplexed Integration of Synergistic Alleles and Metabolic Pathways in Yeasts via CRISPR-Cas.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Andrew A; Walter, Jessica M; Schubert, Max G; Kung, Stephanie H; Hawkins, Kristy; Platt, Darren M; Hernday, Aaron D; Mahatdejkul-Meadows, Tina; Szeto, Wayne; Chandran, Sunil S; Newman, Jack D

    2015-07-29

    CRISPR-Cas genome engineering in yeast has relied on preparation of complex expression plasmids for multiplexed gene knockouts and point mutations. Here we show that co-transformation of a single linearized plasmid with multiple PCR-generated guide RNA (gRNA) and donor DNA cassettes facilitates high-efficiency multiplexed integration of point mutations and large constructs. This technique allowed recovery of marker-less triple-engineering events with 64% efficiency without selection for expression of all gRNAs. The gRNA cassettes can be easily made by PCR and delivered in any combination. We employed this method to rapidly phenotype up to five specific allele combinations and identify synergistic effects. To prototype a pathway for the production of muconic acid, we integrated six DNA fragments totaling 24 kb across three loci in naive Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a single transformation. With minor modifications, we integrated a similar pathway in Kluyveromyces lactis. The flexibility afforded by combinatorial gRNA delivery dramatically accelerates complex strain engineering for basic research and industrial fermentation. PMID:27135688

  5. 3D printed electromagnetic transmission and electronic structures fabricated on a single platform using advanced process integration techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deffenbaugh, Paul Issac

    3D printing has garnered immense attention from many fields including in-office rapid prototyping of mechanical parts, outer-space satellite replication, garage functional firearm manufacture, and NASA rocket engine component fabrication. 3D printing allows increased design flexibility in the fabrication of electronics, microwave circuits and wireless antennas and has reached a level of maturity which allows functional parts to be printed. Much more work is necessary in order to perfect the processes of 3D printed electronics especially in the area of automation. Chapter 1 shows several finished prototypes of 3D printed electronics as well as newly developed techniques in fabrication. Little is known about the RF and microwave properties and applications of the standard materials which have been developed for 3D printing. Measurement of a wide variety of materials over a broad spectrum of frequencies up to 10 GHz using a variety of well-established measurement methods is performed throughout chapter 2. Several types of high frequency RF transmission lines are fabricated and valuable model-matched data is gathered and provided in chapter 3 for future designers' use. Of particular note is a fully 3D printed stripline which was automatically fabricated in one process on one machine. Some core advantages of 3D printing RF/microwave components include rapid manufacturing of complex, dimensionally sensitive circuits (such as antennas and filters which are often iteratively tuned) and the ability to create new devices that cannot be made using standard fabrication techniques. Chapter 4 describes an exemplary fully 3D printed curved inverted-F antenna.

  6. Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy with integrated dual-axis MEMS scanner for fast 3D imaging and metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canavesi, Cristina; Cogliati, Andrea; Hayes, Adam; Santhanam, Anand P.; Tankam, Patrice; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2015-10-01

    Fast, robust, nondestructive 3D imaging is needed for characterization of microscopic structures in industrial and clinical applications. A custom micro-electromechanical system (MEMS)-based 2D scanner system was developed to achieve 55 kHz A-scan acquisition in a Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy (GD-OCM) instrument with a novel multilevel GPU architecture for high-speed imaging. GD-OCM yields high-definition volumetric imaging with dynamic depth of focusing through a bio-inspired liquid lens-based microscope design, which has no moving parts and is suitable for use in a manufacturing setting or in a medical environment. A dual-axis MEMS mirror was chosen to replace two single-axis galvanometer mirrors; as a result, the astigmatism caused by the mismatch between the optical pupil and the scanning location was eliminated and a 12x reduction in volume of the scanning system was achieved. Imaging at an invariant resolution of 2 μm was demonstrated throughout a volume of 1 × 1 × 0.6 mm3, acquired in less than 2 minutes. The MEMS-based scanner resulted in improved image quality, increased robustness and lighter weight of the system - all factors that are critical for on-field deployment. A custom integrated feedback system consisting of a laser diode and a position-sensing detector was developed to investigate the impact of the resonant frequency of the MEMS and the driving signal of the scanner on the movement of the mirror. Results on the metrology of manufactured materials and characterization of tissue samples with GD-OCM are presented.

  7. Multiplex Identification of Human Papillomavirus 16 DNA Integration Sites in Cervical Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bo; Chotewutmontri, Sasithorn; Wolf, Stephan; Klos, Ursula; Schmitz, Martina; Dürst, Matthias; Schwarz, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is caused by high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV), in more than half of the worldwide cases by HPV16. Viral DNA integration into the host genome is a frequent mutation in cervical carcinogenesis. Because integration occurs into different genomic locations, it creates unique viral-cellular DNA junctions in every single case. This singularity complicates the precise identification of HPV integration sites enormously. We report here the development of a novel multiplex strategy for sequence determination of HPV16 DNA integration sites. It includes DNA fragmentation and adapter tagging, PCR enrichment of the HPV16 early region, Illumina next-generation sequencing, data processing, and validation of candidate integration sites by junction-PCR. This strategy was performed with 51 cervical cancer samples (47 primary tumors and 4 cell lines). Altogether 75 HPV16 integration sites (3′-junctions) were identified and assigned to the individual samples. By comparing the DNA junctions with the presence of viral oncogene fusion transcripts, 44 tumors could be classified into four groups: Tumors with one transcriptionally active HPV16 integrate (n = 12), tumors with transcribed and silent DNA junctions (n = 8), tumors carrying episomal HPV16 DNA (n = 10), and tumors with one to six DNA junctions, but without fusion transcripts (n = 14). The 3′-breakpoints of integrated HPV16 DNA show a statistically significant (p<0.05) preferential distribution within the early region segment upstream of the major splice acceptor underscoring the importance of deregulated viral oncogene expression for carcinogenesis. Half of the mapped HPV16 integration sites target cellular genes pointing to a direct influence of HPV integration on host genes (insertional mutagenesis). In summary, the multiplex strategy for HPV16 integration site determination worked very efficiently. It will open new avenues for comprehensive mapping of HPV integration sites and for the

  8. A 16-Channel Distributed-Feedback Laser Array with a Monolithic Integrated Arrayed Waveguide Grating Multiplexer for a Wavelength Division Multiplex-Passive Optical Network System Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jian-Yi; Chen, Xin; Zhou, Ning; Huang, Xiao-Dong; Cao, Ming-De; Liu, Wen

    2014-07-01

    A 16-channel distributed-feedback (DFB) laser array with a monolithic integrated arrayed waveguide grating multiplexer for a wavelength division multiplex-passive optical network system is fabricated by using the butt-joint metal organic chemical vapor deposition technology and nanoimpirnt technology. The results show that the threshold current is about 20-30 mA at 25°C. The DFB laser side output power is about 16 mW with a 150 mA injection current. The lasing wavelength is from 1550 nm to 1575 nm covering a more than 25 nm range with 200 GHz channel space. A more than 55 dB sidemode suppression ratio is obtained.

  9. First report of image integration of cine-angiography with 3D electro-anatomical mapping of the right ventricle in postoperative tetralogy of Fallot.

    PubMed

    Russo, Mario Salvatore; Righi, Daniela; Di Mambro, Corrado; Ruoppolo, Valentina; Silvetti, Massimo Stefano; Drago, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Ventricular tachycardia and, more rarely, sudden cardiac death are potential complications affecting the long-term outcome after Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) repair. Intraventricular septal scar, fibro-fatty substitution around infundibular resection and patchy myocardial fibrosis may provide anatomical substrates of abnormal depolarization and repolarization causing reentrant ventricular arrhythmias. Recently, three-dimensional electro-anatomical mapping (3D EAM) has allowed to investigate the electro-anatomical status of the right ventricle. Radiation exposure during cardiac electrophysiological procedures is still a major concern. We report the first case of 3D mapping of the right ventricle in a postoperative ToF patient performed with a new module of the CARTO® 3 System-the CARTOUnivu™ Module-that combines, simultaneously, fluoroscopic images or cine-angiographic sequences with 3D cardiac mapping to allow real-time visualization of the electrocatheter during the 3D EAM reconstruction. The same volume, previously evaluated with cardiac MRI, was mapped. A perfect match of the diastolic edges of the RV obtained either by cine-loop acquisition during contrast fluoroscopy and by the 3D EAM, was observed. The fluoroscopy time for 3D EAM was 10 s. In conclusion, CARTOUnivu™ Module can integrate, in real time, fluoroscopic images/cine-angiography in virtual biplane view and the 3D EAM allowing a contextual visualization of position and movement of all electrocatheters. This can further increase the accuracy of the 3D EAM in very complex-operated congenital heart diseases, even decreasing radiation exposure.

  10. Integrating structure-from-motion photogrammetry with geospatial software as a novel technique for quantifying 3D ecological characteristics of coral reefs

    PubMed Central

    Delparte, D; Gates, RD; Takabayashi, M

    2015-01-01

    The structural complexity of coral reefs plays a major role in the biodiversity, productivity, and overall functionality of reef ecosystems. Conventional metrics with 2-dimensional properties are inadequate for characterization of reef structural complexity. A 3-dimensional (3D) approach can better quantify topography, rugosity and other structural characteristics that play an important role in the ecology of coral reef communities. Structure-from-Motion (SfM) is an emerging low-cost photogrammetric method for high-resolution 3D topographic reconstruction. This study utilized SfM 3D reconstruction software tools to create textured mesh models of a reef at French Frigate Shoals, an atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. The reconstructed orthophoto and digital elevation model were then integrated with geospatial software in order to quantify metrics pertaining to 3D complexity. The resulting data provided high-resolution physical properties of coral colonies that were then combined with live cover to accurately characterize the reef as a living structure. The 3D reconstruction of reef structure and complexity can be integrated with other physiological and ecological parameters in future research to develop reliable ecosystem models and improve capacity to monitor changes in the health and function of coral reef ecosystems. PMID:26207190

  11. DNA Assembly in 3D Printed Fluidics.

    PubMed

    Patrick, William G; Nielsen, Alec A K; Keating, Steven J; Levy, Taylor J; Wang, Che-Wei; Rivera, Jaime J; Mondragón-Palomino, Octavio; Carr, Peter A; Voigt, Christopher A; Oxman, Neri; Kong, David S

    2015-01-01

    The process of connecting genetic parts-DNA assembly-is a foundational technology for synthetic biology. Microfluidics present an attractive solution for minimizing use of costly reagents, enabling multiplexed reactions, and automating protocols by integrating multiple protocol steps. However, microfluidics fabrication and operation can be expensive and requires expertise, limiting access to the technology. With advances in commodity digital fabrication tools, it is now possible to directly print fluidic devices and supporting hardware. 3D printed micro- and millifluidic devices are inexpensive, easy to make and quick to produce. We demonstrate Golden Gate DNA assembly in 3D-printed fluidics with reaction volumes as small as 490 nL, channel widths as fine as 220 microns, and per unit part costs ranging from $0.61 to $5.71. A 3D-printed syringe pump with an accompanying programmable software interface was designed and fabricated to operate the devices. Quick turnaround and inexpensive materials allowed for rapid exploration of device parameters, demonstrating a manufacturing paradigm for designing and fabricating hardware for synthetic biology. PMID:26716448

  12. DNA Assembly in 3D Printed Fluidics

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, William G.; Nielsen, Alec A. K.; Keating, Steven J.; Levy, Taylor J.; Wang, Che-Wei; Rivera, Jaime J.; Mondragón-Palomino, Octavio; Carr, Peter A.; Voigt, Christopher A.; Oxman, Neri; Kong, David S.

    2015-01-01

    The process of connecting genetic parts—DNA assembly—is a foundational technology for synthetic biology. Microfluidics present an attractive solution for minimizing use of costly reagents, enabling multiplexed reactions, and automating protocols by integrating multiple protocol steps. However, microfluidics fabrication and operation can be expensive and requires expertise, limiting access to the technology. With advances in commodity digital fabrication tools, it is now possible to directly print fluidic devices and supporting hardware. 3D printed micro- and millifluidic devices are inexpensive, easy to make and quick to produce. We demonstrate Golden Gate DNA assembly in 3D-printed fluidics with reaction volumes as small as 490 nL, channel widths as fine as 220 microns, and per unit part costs ranging from $0.61 to $5.71. A 3D-printed syringe pump with an accompanying programmable software interface was designed and fabricated to operate the devices. Quick turnaround and inexpensive materials allowed for rapid exploration of device parameters, demonstrating a manufacturing paradigm for designing and fabricating hardware for synthetic biology. PMID:26716448

  13. A rapid, straightforward, and print house compatible mass fabrication method for integrating 3D paper-based microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Liangpin; Liu, Xianming; Zhong, Runtao; Zhang, Kaiqing; Zhang, Xiaodi; Zhou, Xiaomian; Lin, Bingcheng; Du, Yuguang

    2013-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) paper-based microfluidics, which is featured with high performance and speedy determination, promise to carry out multistep sample pretreatment and orderly chemical reaction, which have been used for medical diagnosis, cell culture, environment determination, and so on with broad market prospect. However, there are some drawbacks in the existing fabrication methods for 3D paper-based microfluidics, such as, cumbersome and time-consuming device assembly; expensive and difficult process for manufacture; contamination caused by organic reagents from their fabrication process. Here, we present a simple printing-bookbinding method for mass fabricating 3D paper-based microfluidics. This approach involves two main steps: (i) wax-printing, (ii) bookbinding. We tested the delivery capability, diffusion rate, homogeneity and demonstrated the applicability of the device to chemical analysis by nitrite colorimetric assays. The described method is rapid (<30 s), cheap, easy to manipulate, and compatible with the flat stitching method that is common in a print house, making itself an ideal scheme for large-scale production of 3D paper-based microfluidics.

  14. How Students and Field Geologists Reason in Integrating Spatial Observations from Outcrops to Visualize a 3-D Geological Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastens, Kim A.; Agrawal, Shruti; Liben, Lynn S.

    2009-01-01

    Geologists and undergraduate students observed eight artificial "rock outcrops" in a realistically scaled field area, and then tried to envision a geological structure that might plausibly be formed by the layered rocks in the set of outcrops. Students were videotaped as they selected which of fourteen 3-D models they thought best represented the…

  15. Hierarchical Fabrication of Engineered Vascularized Bone Biphasic Constructs via Dual 3D Bioprinting: Integrating Regional Bioactive Factors into Architectural Design.

    PubMed

    Cui, Haitao; Zhu, Wei; Nowicki, Margaret; Zhou, Xuan; Khademhosseini, Ali; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-09-01

    A biphasic artificial vascularized bone construct with regional bioactive factors is presented using dual 3D bioprinting platform technique, thereby forming a large functional bone grafts with organized vascular networks. Biocompatible mussel-inspired chemistry and "thiol-ene" click reaction are used to regionally immobilize bioactive factors during construct fabrication for modulating or improving cellular events.

  16. Integrated quantum dot barcode smartphone optical device for wireless multiplexed diagnosis of infected patients.

    PubMed

    Ming, Kevin; Kim, Jisung; Biondi, Mia J; Syed, Abdullah; Chen, Kun; Lam, Albert; Ostrowski, Mario; Rebbapragada, Anu; Feld, Jordan J; Chan, Warren C W

    2015-03-24

    Inorganic nanoparticles are ideal precursors for engineering barcodes for rapidly detecting diseases. Despite advances in the chemical design of these barcodes, they have not advanced to clinical use because they lack sensitivity and are not cost-effective due to requirement of a large read-out system. Here we combined recent advances in quantum dot barcode technology with smartphones and isothermal amplification to engineer a simple and low-cost chip-based wireless multiplex diagnostic device. We characterized the analytical performance of this device and demonstrated that the device is capable of detecting down to 1000 viral genetic copies per milliliter, and this enabled the diagnosis of patients infected with HIV or hepatitis B. More importantly, the barcoding enabled us to detect multiple infectious pathogens simultaneously, in a single test, in less than 1 h. This multiplexing capability of the device enables the diagnosis of infections that are difficult to differentiate clinically due to common symptoms such as a fever or rash. The integration of quantum dot barcoding technology with a smartphone reader provides a capacity for global surveillance of infectious diseases and the potential to accelerate knowledge exchange transfer of emerging or exigent disease threats with healthcare and military organizations in real time. PMID:25661584

  17. Design and implementation of an integrated magnetic spectrometer for multiplexed biosensing.

    PubMed

    Sideris, Constantine; Hajimiri, Ali

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic spectroscopy allows for characterization of the magnetic susceptibility of magnetic beads across a broad frequency range. This enables differentiation and quantification of multiple beads of varying types concurrently present in the active volume of a sensor's surface. A magnetic spectrometer can be used for multi-probe tagging and identification akin to multi-color fluorescent bio-sensing. We propose a new sensing methodology to perform magnetic spectroscopy and analyze various important design parameters such as SNR and gain uniformity. We present a proof-of-concept design of a fully integrated CMOS magnetic spectrometer that can detect, quantify, and characterize magnetic materials in the 1.1 GHz to 3.3 GHz frequency range, where we demonstrate magnetic multiplexing capability using a mixture of two different kinds of magnetic beads. The sensor consumes less than 2 mW of DC power within the whole frequency range, requires no external biasing magnetic fields, is implemented in a standard CMOS process, and can be powered and operated completely from a USB interface. The magnetic spectrometer not only increases the throughput and multiplexing of biosensing experiments for a given sensor area, but also can enable additional applications, such as magnetic flow cytometry and signal-collocation assays of multiple probes. PMID:24473542

  18. An Integrated Quantum Dot Barcode Smartphone Optical Device for Wireless Multiplexed Diagnosis of Infected Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Kevin

    Integrating mobile-cellular devices with multiplex molecular diagnostics can potentially provide the most powerful platform for tracking, managing and preventing the transmission of infectious diseases. With over 6.9 billion subscriptions globally, handheld mobile-cellular devices can be programmed to spatially map, temporally track, and transmit information on infections over wide geographical space and boundaries. Current cell phone diagnostic technologies have poor limit of detection, dynamic range, and cannot detect multiple pathogen targets simultaneously, limiting their utility to single infections with high load. Here we combined recent advances in quantum dot barcode technology for molecular detection with smartphones to engineer a simple and low-cost chip-based wireless multiplex diagnostic device. We validated our device using a variety of synthetic genomic targets for the respiratory virus and blood-borne pathogens, and demonstrated that it could detect clinical samples after simple amplification. More importantly, we confirmed that the device is capable of detecting patients infected with a single or multiple infectious pathogens (e.g., HIV and hepatitis B) in a single test. This device advances the capacity for global surveillance of infectious diseases and has the potential to accelerate knowledge exchange-transfer of emerging or exigent disease threats with healthcare and military organizations in real-time.

  19. Integrated VR platform for 3D and image-based models: a step toward interactive image-based virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jayoung; Kim, Gerard J.

    2003-04-01

    Traditionally, three dimension models have been used for building virtual worlds, and a data structure called the "scene graph" is often employed to organize these 3D objects in the virtual space. On the other hand, image-based rendering has recently been suggested as a probable alternative VR platform for its photo-realism, however, due to limited interactivity, it has only been used for simple navigation systems. To combine the merits of these two approaches to object/scene representations, this paper proposes for a scene graph structure in which both 3D models and various image-based scenes/objects can be defined, traversed, and rendered together. In fact, as suggested by Shade et al., these different representations can be used as different LOD's for a given object. For instance, an object might be rendered using a 3D model at close range, a billboard at an intermediate range, and as part of an environment map at far range. The ultimate objective of this mixed platform is to breath more interactivity into the image based rendered VE's by employing 3D models as well. There are several technical challenges in devising such a platform: designing scene graph nodes for various types of image based techniques, establishing criteria for LOD/representation selection, handling their transitions, implementing appropriate interaction schemes, and correctly rendering the overall scene. Currently, we have extended the scene graph structure of the Sense8's WorldToolKit, to accommodate new node types for environment maps billboards, moving textures and sprites, "Tour-into-the-Picture" structure, and view interpolated objects. As for choosing the right LOD level, the usual viewing distance and image space criteria are used, however, the switching between the image and 3D model occurs at a distance from the user where the user starts to perceive the object's internal depth. Also, during interaction, regardless of the viewing distance, a 3D representation would be used, it if

  20. Fully integrated wearable sensor arrays for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Emaminejad, Sam; Nyein, Hnin Yin Yin; Challa, Samyuktha; Chen, Kevin; Peck, Austin; Fahad, Hossain M; Ota, Hiroki; Shiraki, Hiroshi; Kiriya, Daisuke; Lien, Der-Hsien; Brooks, George A; Davis, Ronald W; Javey, Ali

    2016-01-28

    Wearable sensor technologies are essential to the realization of personalized medicine through continuously monitoring an individual's state of health. Sampling human sweat, which is rich in physiological information, could enable non-invasive monitoring. Previously reported sweat-based and other non-invasive biosensors either can only monitor a single analyte at a time or lack on-site signal processing circuitry and sensor calibration mechanisms for accurate analysis of the physiological state. Given the complexity of sweat secretion, simultaneous and multiplexed screening of target biomarkers is critical and requires full system integration to ensure the accuracy of measurements. Here we present a mechanically flexible and fully integrated (that is, no external analysis is needed) sensor array for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis, which simultaneously and selectively measures sweat metabolites (such as glucose and lactate) and electrolytes (such as sodium and potassium ions), as well as the skin temperature (to calibrate the response of the sensors). Our work bridges the technological gap between signal transduction, conditioning (amplification and filtering), processing and wireless transmission in wearable biosensors by merging plastic-based sensors that interface with the skin with silicon integrated circuits consolidated on a flexible circuit board for complex signal processing. This application could not have been realized using either of these technologies alone owing to their respective inherent limitations. The wearable system is used to measure the detailed sweat profile of human subjects engaged in prolonged indoor and outdoor physical activities, and to make a real-time assessment of the physiological state of the subjects. This platform enables a wide range of personalized diagnostic and physiological monitoring applications.

  1. Fully integrated wearable sensor arrays for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Emaminejad, Sam; Nyein, Hnin Yin Yin; Challa, Samyuktha; Chen, Kevin; Peck, Austin; Fahad, Hossain M.; Ota, Hiroki; Shiraki, Hiroshi; Kiriya, Daisuke; Lien, Der-Hsien; Brooks, George A.; Davis, Ronald W.; Javey, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Wearable sensor technologies are essential to the realization of personalized medicine through continuously monitoring an individual’s state of health. Sampling human sweat, which is rich in physiological information, could enable non-invasive monitoring. Previously reported sweat-based and other non-invasive biosensors either can only monitor a single analyte at a time or lack on-site signal processing circuitry and sensor calibration mechanisms for accurate analysis of the physiological state. Given the complexity of sweat secretion, simultaneous and multiplexed screening of target biomarkers is critical and requires full system integration to ensure the accuracy of measurements. Here we present a mechanically flexible and fully integrated (that is, no external analysis is needed) sensor array for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis, which simultaneously and selectively measures sweat metabolites (such as glucose and lactate) and electrolytes (such as sodium and potassium ions), as well as the skin temperature (to calibrate the response of the sensors). Our work bridges the technological gap between signal transduction, conditioning (amplification and filtering), processing and wireless transmission in wearable biosensors by merging plastic-based sensors that interface with the skin with silicon integrated circuits consolidated on a flexible circuit board for complex signal processing. This application could not have been realized using either of these technologies alone owing to their respective inherent limitations. The wearable system is used to measure the detailed sweat profile of human subjects engaged in prolonged indoor and outdoor physical activities, and to make a real-time assessment of the physiological state of the subjects. This platform enables a wide range of personalized diagnostic and physiological monitoring applications.

  2. Fully integrated wearable sensor arrays for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Emaminejad, Sam; Nyein, Hnin Yin Yin; Challa, Samyuktha; Chen, Kevin; Peck, Austin; Fahad, Hossain M; Ota, Hiroki; Shiraki, Hiroshi; Kiriya, Daisuke; Lien, Der-Hsien; Brooks, George A; Davis, Ronald W; Javey, Ali

    2016-01-28

    Wearable sensor technologies are essential to the realization of personalized medicine through continuously monitoring an individual's state of health. Sampling human sweat, which is rich in physiological information, could enable non-invasive monitoring. Previously reported sweat-based and other non-invasive biosensors either can only monitor a single analyte at a time or lack on-site signal processing circuitry and sensor calibration mechanisms for accurate analysis of the physiological state. Given the complexity of sweat secretion, simultaneous and multiplexed screening of target biomarkers is critical and requires full system integration to ensure the accuracy of measurements. Here we present a mechanically flexible and fully integrated (that is, no external analysis is needed) sensor array for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis, which simultaneously and selectively measures sweat metabolites (such as glucose and lactate) and electrolytes (such as sodium and potassium ions), as well as the skin temperature (to calibrate the response of the sensors). Our work bridges the technological gap between signal transduction, conditioning (amplification and filtering), processing and wireless transmission in wearable biosensors by merging plastic-based sensors that interface with the skin with silicon integrated circuits consolidated on a flexible circuit board for complex signal processing. This application could not have been realized using either of these technologies alone owing to their respective inherent limitations. The wearable system is used to measure the detailed sweat profile of human subjects engaged in prolonged indoor and outdoor physical activities, and to make a real-time assessment of the physiological state of the subjects. This platform enables a wide range of personalized diagnostic and physiological monitoring applications. PMID:26819044

  3. Engineering Multi-scale Electrospun Structure for Integration into Architected 3-D Nanofibers for Cimex Annihilation: Fabrication and Mechanism Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shan; Zhang, Linxi; Liu, Ying; Rafailovich, Miriam; Garcia CenterPolymers at Engineered Interfaces Team

    In this study, engineered electrospun scaffolds with fibers oriented with designed curvature in three dimensions (3D) including the looped structure were developed based on the principle of electrostatic repulsion. Here we illustrate that 3D electrospun recycled polystyrene fibers could closely mimic the unique architectures of multi-direction and multi-layer nano-spiderweb. In contrast to virgin PS, the recycled PS (Dart Styrofoam) are known to contain zinc stearate which acts as a surfactant resulting in higher electrical charge and larger fiber curvature, hence, lower modulus. The surfactant, which is known to decrease the surface tension, may have also been effective at decreasing the confinement of the PS, where chain stretching was shown to occur, in response to the high surface tension at the air interface. Three dimensional flexible architecture with complex structures are shown to be necessary in order to block the motion of Cimex lectularius. Here we show how an engineered electrospun network of surfactant modified polymer fibers with calculated dimensions can be used to immobilize the insects. The mechanical response of the fibers has to be specifically tailored so that it is elastically deformed, without fracturing or flowing. Carefully controlling and tailoring the electrospinning parameters we can now utilize architected 3D nanofiber to create an environmental-friendly Cimex immobilization device which can lead to annihilation solution for all the other harmful insects.

  4. Integrating sediment biogeochemistry into 3D oceanic models: A study of benthic-pelagic coupling in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capet, Arthur; Meysman, Filip J. R.; Akoumianaki, Ioanna; Soetaert, Karline; Grégoire, Marilaure

    2016-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) ecosystem models of shelf environments should properly account for the biogeochemical cycling within the sea floor. However, a full and explicit representation of sediment biogeochemistry into 3D ocean models is computationally demanding. Here, we describe a simplified approach to include benthic processes in 3D ocean models, which includes a parameterization of the different pathways for organic matter mineralization and allows for organic matter remobilization by bottom currents and waves. This efficient approach enables decadal simulations that resolve the inertial contribution of the sea floor to the biogeochemical cycling in shelf environments. The model was implemented to analyze the benthic-pelagic coupling in the northwestern shelf of the Black Sea. Three distinct biogeochemical provinces were identified on the basis of fluxes and rates associated with benthic-pelagic coupling. Our model simulations suitably capture the seasonal variability of in situ flux data as well as their regional variation, which stresses the importance of incorporating temporally varying sediment biogeochemistry and resuspension/redeposition cycles in shelf ecosystem models.

  5. Wavelength-division multiplexed optical integrated circuit with vertical diffraction grating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Robert J. (Inventor); Forouhar, Siamak (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A semiconductor optical integrated circuit for wave division multiplexing has a semiconductor waveguide layer, a succession of diffraction grating points in the waveguide layer along a predetermined diffraction grating contour, a semiconductor diode array in the waveguide layer having plural optical ports facing the succession of diffraction grating points along a first direction, respective semiconductor diodes in the array corresponding to respective ones of a predetermined succession of wavelengths, an optical fiber having one end thereof terminated at the waveguide layer, the one end of the optical fiber facing the succession of diffraction grating points along a second direction, wherein the diffraction grating points are spatially distributed along the predetermined contour in such a manner that the succession of diffraction grating points diffracts light of respective ones of the succession of wavelengths between the one end of the optical fiber and corresponding ones of the optical ports.

  6. Spatiotemporally multiplexed integral imaging projector for large-scale high-resolution three-dimensional display.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ju-Seog; Oh, Yong-Seok; Javidi, Bahram

    2004-02-23

    We present a projection method in integral imaging for large-scale high-resolution three-dimensional display. In the proposed method, the entire set of high resolution elemental images with a large number of pixels is spatially divided into smaller image subsets. Then they are projected separately onto the corresponding lenslet array positions either simultaneously or in a sequence faster than the flicker fusion frequency of human eyes or both (i.e., spatiotemporal multiplexing). Thus display panels that do not have enough pixel numbers can be used to display the entire elemental images with a large number of pixels. Preliminary experiments were performed using a galvanometer-based optical scanner. PMID:19474856

  7. Silicon on-chip 1D photonic crystal nanobeam bandstop filters for the parallel multiplexing of ultra-compact integrated sensor array.

    PubMed

    Yang, Daquan; Wang, Chuan; Ji, Yuefeng

    2016-07-25

    We propose a novel multiplexed ultra-compact high-sensitivity one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal (PC) nanobeam cavity sensor array on a monolithic silicon chip, referred to as Parallel Integrated 1D PC Nanobeam Cavity Sensor Array (PI-1DPC-NCSA). The performance of the device is investigated numerically with three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D-FDTD) technique. The PI-1DPC-NCSA consists of multiple parallel-connected channels of integrated 1D PC nanobeam cavities/waveguides with gap separations. On each channel, by connecting two additional 1D PC nanobeam bandstop filters (1DPC-NBFs) to a 1D PC nanobeam cavity sensor (1DPC-NCS) in series, a transmission spectrum with a single targeted resonance is achieved for the purpose of multiplexed sensing applications. While the other spurious resonances are filtered out by the stop-band of 1DPC-NBF, multiple 1DPC-NCSs at different resonances can be connected in parallel without spectrum overlap. Furthermore, in order for all 1DPC-NCSs to be integrated into microarrays and to be interrogated simultaneously with a single input/output port, all channels are then connected in parallel by using a 1 × n taper-type equal power splitter and a n × 1 S-type power combiner in the input port and output port, respectively (n is the channel number). The concept model of PI-1DPC-NCSA is displayed with a 3-parallel-channel 1DPC-NCSs array containing series-connected 1DPC-NBFs. The bulk refractive index sensitivities as high as 112.6nm/RIU, 121.7nm/RIU, and 148.5nm/RIU are obtained (RIU = Refractive Index Unit). In particular, the footprint of the 3-parallel-channel PI-1DPC-NCSA is 4.5μm × 50μm (width × length), decreased by more than three orders of magnitude compared to 2D PC integrated sensor arrays. Thus, this is a promising platform for realizing ultra-compact lab-on-a-chip applications with high integration density and high parallel-multiplexing capabilities. PMID:27464080

  8. TransCAIP: A Live 3D TV system using a camera array and an integral photography display with interactive control of viewing parameters.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Yuichi; Koike, Takafumi; Takahashi, Keita; Naemura, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    The system described in this paper provides a real-time 3D visual experience by using an array of 64 video cameras and an integral photography display with 60 viewing directions. The live 3D scene in front of the camera array is reproduced by the full-color, full-parallax autostereoscopic display with interactive control of viewing parameters. The main technical challenge is fast and flexible conversion of the data from the 64 multicamera images to the integral photography format. Based on image-based rendering techniques, our conversion method first renders 60 novel images corresponding to the viewing directions of the display, and then arranges the rendered pixels to produce an integral photography image. For real-time processing on a single PC, all the conversion processes are implemented on a GPU with GPGPU techniques. The conversion method also allows a user to interactively control viewing parameters of the displayed image for reproducing the dynamic 3D scene with desirable parameters. This control is performed as a software process, without reconfiguring the hardware system, by changing the rendering parameters such as the convergence point of the rendering cameras and the interval between the viewpoints of the rendering cameras.

  9. Integration of 3D 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy data into neuronavigation systems for tumor biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanberoglu, Berkay; Moore, Nina Z.; Frakes, David; Karam, Lina J.; Debbins, Josef P.; Preul, Mark C.

    2013-03-01

    Many important applications in clinical medicine can benefit from the fusion of spectroscopy data with anatomical images. For example, the correlation of metabolite profiles with specific regions of interest in anatomical tumor images can be useful in characterizing and treating heterogeneous tumors that appear structurally homogeneous. Such applications can build on the correlation of data from in-vivo Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Imaging (1HMRSI) with data from genetic and ex-vivo Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. To establish that correlation, tissue samples must be neurosurgically extracted from specifically identified locations with high accuracy. Toward that end, this paper presents new neuronavigation technology that enhances current clinical capabilities in the context of neurosurgical planning and execution. The proposed methods improve upon the current state-of-the-art in neuronavigation through the use of detailed three dimensional (3D) 1H-MRSI data. MRSI spectra are processed and analyzed, and specific voxels are selected based on their chemical contents. 3D neuronavigation overlays are then generated and applied to anatomical image data in the operating room. Without such technology, neurosurgeons must rely on memory and other qualitative resources alone for guidance in accessing specific MRSI-identified voxels. In contrast, MRSI-based overlays provide quantitative visual cues and location information during neurosurgery. The proposed methods enable a progressive new form of online MRSI-guided neuronavigation that we demonstrate in this study through phantom validation and clinical application.

  10. Online process monitoring at quasi-simultaneous laser transmission welding using a 3D-scanner with integrated pyrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmailzl, A.; Steger, S.; Dostalek, M.; Hierl, S.

    2016-03-01

    Quasi-simultaneous laser transmission welding is a well-known joining technique for thermoplastics and mainly used in the automotive as well as in the medical industry. For process control usually the so called set-path monitoring is used, where the weld is specified as "good" if the irradiation time is inside a defined confidence interval. However, the detection of small-sized gaps or thermal damaged zones is not possible with this technique. The analyzation of the weld seam temperature during welding offers the possibility to overcome this problem. In this approach a 3D-scanner is used instead of a scanner with flat-field optic. By using a pyrometer in combination with a 3D-scanner no color-corrected optic is needed in order to provide that laser- and detection-spot are concentric. Experimental studies on polyethylene T-joints have shown that the quality of the signal is adequate, despite the use of an optical setup with a long working distance and a small optical aperture. The effects on temperature are studied for defects like a gap in the joining zone. Therefore a notch was milled into the absorbent polymer. In case of producing housings for electronic parts the effect of an electrical wire between the joining partners is also investigated. Both defects can be identified by a local temperature deviation even at a feed rate of four meters per second. Furthermore a strategy for signal-processing is demonstrated. By this, remaining defects can be identified. Consequently an online detection of local defects is possible, which makes a dynamic process control feasible.

  11. Development and application of a ray-tracing code integrating with 3D equilibrium mapping in LHD ECH experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimura, T., Ii; Kubo, S.; Takahashi, H.; Makino, R.; Seki, R.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Shimozuma, T.; Ida, K.; Suzuki, C.; Emoto, M.; Yokoyama, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Moon, C.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Kobayashi, S.; Ito, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Ejiri, A.; Mutoh, T.

    2015-11-01

    The central electron temperature has successfully reached up to 7.5 keV in large helical device (LHD) plasmas with a central high-ion temperature of 5 keV and a central electron density of 1.3× {{10}19} m-3. This result was obtained by heating with a newly-installed 154 GHz gyrotron and also the optimisation of injection geometry in electron cyclotron heating (ECH). The optimisation was carried out by using the ray-tracing code ‘LHDGauss’, which was upgraded to include the rapid post-processing three-dimensional (3D) equilibrium mapping obtained from experiments. For ray-tracing calculations, LHDGauss can automatically read the relevant data registered in the LHD database after a discharge, such as ECH injection settings (e.g. Gaussian beam parameters, target positions, polarisation and ECH power) and Thomson scattering diagnostic data along with the 3D equilibrium mapping data. The equilibrium map of the electron density and temperature profiles are then extrapolated into the region outside the last closed flux surface. Mode purity, or the ratio between the ordinary mode and the extraordinary mode, is obtained by calculating the 1D full-wave equation along the direction of the rays from the antenna to the absorption target point. Using the virtual magnetic flux surfaces, the effects of the modelled density profiles and the magnetic shear at the peripheral region with a given polarisation are taken into account. Power deposition profiles calculated for each Thomson scattering measurement timing are registered in the LHD database. The adjustment of the injection settings for the desired deposition profile from the feedback provided on a shot-by-shot basis resulted in an effective experimental procedure.

  12. 3D knife-edge characterization of two-photon absorption volume in silicon for integrated circuit testing.

    PubMed

    Shao, K; Morisset, A; Pouget, V; Faraud, E; Larue, C; Lewis, D; McMorrow, D

    2011-11-01

    We have performed three-dimensional characterization of the TPA effective laser spot size in silicon using an integrated knife-edge sensor. The TPA-induced response of a CMOS integrated circuit is analyzed based on these results and compared to simulation; we have found that the charge injection capacity in IC's active layer could be influenced by irradiance energy and focus depth.

  13. Differential and integrated cross sections for excitation to the 3s, 3p, and 3d states of atomic hydrogen by electron impact below the n=4 threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Philip L.; Bray, Igor; Stelbovics, Andris T.; Williams, J. F.; Mikosza, A. G.

    2006-08-15

    Integrated cross sections for the electron-impact excitation of ground-state hydrogen to the 3s, 3p, and 3d final states have been calculated using propagating exterior complex scaling and convergent close-coupling methods at energies between the n=3 and 4 excitation thresholds. The calculations are in excellent agreement and demonstrate that exterior complex scaling methods can accurately reproduce the resonance structure and magnitude of the excitation cross sections below the ionization threshold. Measurements of the separate 3s, 3p, and 3d differential cross sections were made at 12.24 eV, and are consistent with both calculations within a total experimental uncertainty of about 35%.

  14. Optical display of magnified, real and orthoscopic 3-D object images by moving-direct-pixel-mapping in the scalable integral-imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Miao; Piao, Yongri; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we proposed a novel approach for reconstruction of the magnified, real and orthoscopic three-dimensional (3-D) object images by using the moving-direct-pixel-mapping (MDPM) method in the MALT(moving-array-lenslet-technique)-based scalable integral-imaging system. In the proposed system, multiple sets of elemental image arrays (EIAs) are captured with the MALT, and these picked-up EIAs are computationally transformed into the depth-converted ones by using the proposed MDPM method. Then, these depth-converted EIAs are combined and interlaced together to form an enlarged EIA, from which a magnified, real and orthoscopic 3-D object images can be optically displayed without any degradation of resolution. Good experimental results finally confirmed the feasibility of the proposed method.

  15. Multi-sourced, 3D geometric characterization of volcanogenic karst features: Integrating lidar, sonar, and geophysical datasets (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, J. M.; Gary, M. O.; Reyes, R.; Halihan, T.; Fairfield, N.; Stone, W. C.

    2009-12-01

    Karstic aquifers can form very complex hydrogeological systems and 3-D mapping has been difficult, but Lidar, phased array sonar, and improved earth resistivity techniques show promise in this and in linking metadata to models. Zacatón, perhaps the Earth’s deepest cenote, has a sub-aquatic void space exceeding 7.5 x 106 cubic m3. It is the focus of this study which has created detailed 3D maps of the system. These maps include data from above and beneath the the water table and within the rock matrix to document the extent of the immense karst features and to interpret the geologic processes that formed them. Phase 1 used high resolution (20 mm) Lidar scanning of surficial features of four large cenotes. Scan locations, selected to achieve full feature coverage once registered, were established atop surface benchmarks with UTM coordinates established using GPS and Total Stations. The combined datasets form a geo-registered mesh of surface features down to water level in the cenotes. Phase 2 conducted subsurface imaging using Earth Resistivity Imaging (ERI) geophysics. ERI identified void spaces isolated from open flow conduits. A unique travertine morphology exists in which some cenotes are dry or contain shallow lakes with flat travertine floors; some water-filled cenotes have flat floors without the cone of collapse material; and some have collapse cones. We hypothesize that the floors may have large water-filled voids beneath them. Three separate flat travertine caps were imaged: 1) La Pilita, which is partially open, exposing cap structure over a deep water-filled shaft; 2) Poza Seca, which is dry and vegetated; and 3) Tule, which contains a shallow (<1 m) lake. A fourth line was run adjacent to cenote Verde. La Pilita ERI, verified by SCUBA, documented the existence of large water-filled void zones ERI at Poza Seca showed a thin cap overlying a conductive zone extending to at least 25 m depth beneath the cap with no lower boundary of this zone evident

  16. Reduction of Fluoroscopic Exposure Using a New Fluoroscopy Integrating Technology in a 3D-Mapping System During Pulmonary Vein Isolation With a Circular Multipolar Irrigated Catheter.

    PubMed

    Blockhaus, Christian; Schmidt, Jan; Kurt, Muhammed; Clasen, Lukas; Brinkmeyer, Christoph; Katsianos, Efstratios; Müller, Patrick; Gerguri, Shqipe; Kelm, Malte; Shin, Dong-In; Makimoto, Hisaki

    2016-05-25

    Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is a cornerstone therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). With increasing numbers of PVI procedures, demand arises to reduce the cumulative fluoroscopic radiation exposure for both the physician and the patient. New technologies are emerging to address this issue. Here, we report our first experiences with a new fluoroscopy integrating technology in addition to a current 3D-mapping system. The new fluoroscopy integrating system (FIS) with 3D-mapping was used prospectively in 15 patients with AF. Control PVI cases (n = 37) were collected retrospectively as a complete series. Total procedure time (skin to skin), fluoroscopic time, and dose-area-product (DAP) data were analyzed. All PVI procedures were performed by one experienced physician using a commercially available circular multipolar irrigated ablation catheter. All PVI procedures were successfully undertaken without major complications. Baseline characteristics of the two groups showed no significant differences. In the group using the FIS, the fluoroscopic time and DAP were significantly reduced from 571 ± 187 seconds versus 1011 ± 527 seconds (P = 0.0029) and 4342 ± 2073 cGycm(2) versus 6208 ± 3314 cGycm(2) (P = 0.049), respectively. Mean procedure time was not significantly affected and was 114 ± 31 minutes versus 104 ± 24 minutes (P = 0.23) by the FIS.The use of the new FIS with the current 3D-mapping system enables a significant reduction of the total fluoroscopy time and DAP compared to the previous combination of 3D-mapping system plus normal fluoroscopy during PVI utilizing a circular multipolar irrigated ablation catheter. However, the concomitant total procedure time is not affected. Thus, the new system reduces the radiation exposure for both the physicians and patients.

  17. 3D integration approaches for MEMS and CMOS sensors based on a Cu through-silicon-via technology and wafer level bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, L.; Dempwolf, S.; Reuter, D.; Ecke, R.; Gottfried, K.; Schulz, S. E.; Knechtel, R.; Geßner, T.

    2015-05-01

    Technologies for the 3D integration are described within this paper with respect to devices that have to retain a specific minimum wafer thickness for handling purposes (CMOS) and integrity of mechanical elements (MEMS). This implies Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs) with large dimensions and high aspect ratios (HAR). Moreover, as a main objective, the aspired TSV technology had to be universal and scalable with the designated utilization in a MEMS/CMOS foundry. Two TSV approaches are investigated and discussed, in which the TSVs were fabricated either before or after wafer thinning. One distinctive feature is an incomplete TSV Cu-filling, which avoids long processing and complex process control, while minimizing the thermomechanical stress between Cu and Si and related adverse effects in the device. However, the incomplete filling also includes various challenges regarding process integration. A method based on pattern plating is described, in which TSVs are metalized at the same time as the redistribution layer and which eliminates the need for additional planarization and patterning steps. For MEMS, the realization of a protective hermetically sealed capping is crucial, which is addressed in this paper by glass frit wafer level bonding and is discussed for hermetic sealing of MEMS inertial sensors. The TSV based 3D integration technologies are demonstrated on CMOS like test vehicle and on a MEMS device fabricated in Air Gap Insulated Microstructure (AIM) technology.

  18. FFT integration of instantaneous 3D pressure gradient fields measured by Lagrangian particle tracking in turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huhn, F.; Schanz, D.; Gesemann, S.; Schröder, A.

    2016-09-01

    Pressure gradient fields in unsteady flows can be estimated through flow measurements of the material acceleration in the fluid and the assumption of the governing momentum equation. In order to derive pressure from its gradient, almost exclusively two numerical methods have been used to spatially integrate the pressure gradient until now: first, direct path integration in the spatial domain, and second, the solution of the Poisson equation for pressure. Instead, we propose an alternative third method that integrates the pressure gradient field in Fourier space. Using a FFT function, the method is fast and easy to implement in programming languages for scientific computing. We demonstrate the accuracy of the integration scheme on a synthetic pressure field and apply it to an experimental example based on time-resolved material acceleration data from high-resolution Lagrangian particle tracking with the Shake-The-Box method.

  19. Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Through-Silicon Vias and Bonding Layers in Stacked Wafers for 3D Integrated Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Byoung-Joon; Lee, Ho-Young; Joo, Young-Chang

    2012-02-01

    Thermal stress issues in a three-dimensional (3D) stacked wafer system were examined using finite-element analysis of the stacked wafers. This paper elucidates the effects of the bonding dimensions on mechanical failure and the keep-away zone, where devices cannot be located because of the stress in the Si. The key factors in decreasing the thermal strain were the bonding diameter and thickness. When the bonding diameter decreased from 40 μm to 12 μm, the equivalent strain decreased by 83%. It is noteworthy that the keep-away zone also decreased from 17 μm to zero when the bonding diameter decreased from 40 μm to 12 μm. When the bonding thickness doubled, the equivalent strain decreased by 44%. The effects of the dimensions and arrangement of through-silicon vias (TSV) were also analyzed. Small TSV diameter and pitch are important to decrease the equivalent strain, especially when the amount of Cu per unit volume is fixed. When the TSV diameter and pitch decreased fourfold, the equivalent strain decreased by 70%. The effects of TSV height and the number of die stacks were not significant, because the underfill acted as a buffer against thermal strain.

  20. A 3D porous polymer monolith-based platform integrated in poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchips for immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Kang, Qin-Shu; Shen, Xiao-Fan; Hu, Na-Na; Hu, Meng-Jia; Liao, Hui; Wang, Han-Zhong; He, Zhi-Ke; Huang, Wei-Hua

    2013-05-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the immunocapture and on-line fluorescence immunoassay of protein and virus based on porous polymer monoliths (PPM) in microfluidic devices. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) [poly(GMA-co-EGDMA)] monoliths were successfully synthesized in the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels by in situ UV-initiated free radical polymerization. After surface modification, PPM provides a high-surface area and specific affinity 3D substrate for immunoassays. Combining with well controlled microfluidic devices, the direct immunoassay of IgG and sandwich immunoassay of inactivated H1N1 influenza virus using 5 μL sample has been accomplished, with detection limits of 4 ng mL(-1) and less than 10 pg mL(-1), respectively. The enhanced detection sensitivity is due to both high surface area of PPM and flow-through design. The detection time was obviously decreased mainly due to the shortened diffusion distance and improved convective mass transfer inside the monolith, which accelerates the reaction kinetics between antigen and antibody. This work provides a novel microfluidic immunoassay platform with high efficiency thereby enabling fast and sensitive immunoassay.

  1. Field Trial Results of a 14-channel GPR Integrated with a U.S. Program for 3-D Utility Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anspach, James H.

    2013-04-01

    utilities were mostly undetectable. Through a ground-truthing program of test holes to expose utilities, the depth values derived from the enhanced GPR were fairly consistent and within 15 cm of actual depth. The incomplete underground picture determined by the enhanced GPR reinforces previous studies that show that the mapping of existing underground utilities is a multi-tool effort that takes highly trained and skilled field technicians and data interpreters. The addition of a new GPR tool is valuable in determining continuous depth profiles of imaged utilities. A second and significant benefit is the interpretation of other geotechnical data that benefit project designers. This might include showing geometry, location, intensity, and depths of either areas of anomalies, or of known structures, such as paving thickness, substrate thickness, voids, water table, soil lenses, boulders, bedrock, and so forth. The Florida Department of Transportation has decided to take advantage of this new technology and has entered into an experimental contract with Cardno TBE to incorporate several enhanced GPR arrays with traditional utility detection tools. The goal of this contract will be to provide a 3-D model of existing underground utilities for use in automated construction. The GPR 3-D data model will be melded with conventional subsurface utility engineering and mapping practices and will be required to follow the ASCE 38 standard for utility data reliability.

  2. Integration of comprehensive 3D microCT and signaling analysis reveals differential regulatory mechanisms of craniofacial bone development.

    PubMed

    Ho, Thach-Vu; Iwata, Junichi; Ho, Hoang Anh; Grimes, Weston C; Park, Shery; Sanchez-Lara, Pedro A; Chai, Yang

    2015-04-15

    Growth factor signaling regulates tissue-tissue interactions to control organogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Specifically, transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling plays a crucial role in the development of cranial neural crest (CNC) cell-derived bone, and loss of Tgfbr2 in CNC cells results in craniofacial skeletal malformations. Our recent studies indicate that non-canonical TGFβ signaling is activated whereas canonical TGFβ signaling is compromised in the absence of Tgfbr2 (in Tgfbr2(fl/fl);Wnt1-Cre mice). A haploinsufficiency of Tgfbr1 (aka Alk5) (Tgfbr2(fl/fl);Wnt1-Cre;Alk5(fl/+)) largely rescues craniofacial deformities in Tgfbr2 mutant mice by reducing ectopic non-canonical TGFβ signaling. However, the relative involvement of canonical and non-canonical TGFβ signaling in regulating specific craniofacial bone formation remains unclear. We compared the size and volume of CNC-derived craniofacial bones (frontal bone, premaxilla, maxilla, palatine bone, and mandible) from E18.5 control, Tgfbr2(fl/fl);Wnt1-Cre, and Tgfbr2(fl/fl);Wnt1-Cre;Alk5(fl/+)mice. By analyzing three dimensional (3D) micro-computed tomography (microCT) images, we found that different craniofacial bones were restored to different degrees in Tgfbr2(fl/fl);Wnt1-Cre;Alk5(fl/+) mice. Our study provides comprehensive information on anatomical landmarks and the size and volume of each craniofacial bone, as well as insights into the extent that canonical and non-canonical TGFβ signaling cascades contribute to the formation of each CNC-derived bone. Our data will serve as an important resource for developmental biologists who are interested in craniofacial morphogenesis.

  3. Integrated 3D reservoir modeling at Ram-Powell field: A turbidite reservoir in the eastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lerch, C.S.; Bramlett, K.W.; Butler, W.H.

    1996-12-31

    Ram Powell is a stratigraphically trapped sequence of turbidite reservoirs in 2,500-4,000 ft of water in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico. The discovery was made in 1985 and the field has been the subject of extensive geoscience and engineering studies. In spite of this work there is still significant uncertainty in Ram Powell reserves. The Ram Powell development plan is underway, with fabrication of a tension-leg platform and 60,000 b/d plus 200 MMcf/d facility. Drilling will include 7 high rate horizontal wells and 3 water injection wells. Reserves accessed in this development scheme are approximately 250 million barrels equivalent. Model-based seismic inversion (constrained by 12 appraisal penetrations, rock property data and seismic interpretation) was employed over the main reservoir interval (J, L and N sands) to create models that are consistent with 3D seismic data. These models were used in several simulation studies including element models to determine optimal well placement, and full-field models to predict overall reservoir performance. The results of the study both reduced and enabled management of reservoir volume uncertainty; they were critical for determining the number, horizontal length and placement of wells (vertically and areally). The results also provided the basis for a proposal to increase the facility capacity limits to 70,000 b/d plus 260 MMcf/d. Some significant leanings are (1) model-based inversion is now in a production mode that can be rapidly applied to reservoir problems, (2) many reservoir complexities are simply below seismic resolution and inversion is unable to add with certainty significantly more resolution and, (3) detailed reservoir models that reflect reservoir conditions and are easily manipulated are required for reservoir optimization.

  4. Tectonics Of Eastern Offshore Trinidad Based On Integration Of BOLIVAR 2D Seismic Lines With Industry 3D Seismic Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, M. D.; Mann, P.; Wood, L. J.

    2004-12-01

    New MCS lines in the eastern offshore area of Trinidad augmented by existing 3D seismic surveys by industry provide new insights into complex, strain partitioning produced along this segment of the South America-Caribbean plate boundary. Two major tectonosequences are imaged separated by a Middle Miocene angular unconformity known from wells and mapping in Trinidad. A thick section of deep-marine carbonate and clastic rocks are cleanly truncated by the Middle Miocene unconformity and are chaotically deformed along vertical to northwest-dipping thrust faults. This shortening event reflects a major pulse of pre-Middle Miocene southeastward overthrusting of the Caribbean arc over the passive margin of South America. An upper 2-7-km-thick tectonosequence consisting of late Miocene-Quaternary shelf-related sandstone and shale was deposited by the nearby Orinoco delta. This section is folded to lesser degree and deformed by the sub-vertical, right-lateral Central Range fault zone (CRFZ), known from GPS studies to accommodate 12 mm/yr, of the total 20 mm/yr of interplate motion. Deep, continuous reflec-tors are observed at a depth of 12-17 km beneath eastern Trinidad are correlated with authochthonous, late Cretaceous-early Tertiary carbonate and clastic rocks of the South American passive margin. The Darien fault southeast of the CRFZ accommodates active shortening, elevates passive margin rocks to the surface in Trinidad, and forms the northeastern limit of a large, 12-km-thick foreland basin (Columbus basin) that extends onshore.

  5. High-efficiency and wideband interlayer grating couplers in multilayer Si/SiO2/SiN platform for 3D integration of optical functionalities.

    PubMed

    Sodagar, Majid; Pourabolghasem, Reza; Eftekhar, Ali A; Adibi, Ali

    2014-07-14

    We have designed interlayer grating couplers with single/double metallic reflectors for Si/SiO(2)/SiN multilayer material platform. Out-of-plane diffractive grating couplers separated by 1.6 μm thick buffer SiO(2) layer are vertically stacked against each other in Si and SiN layers. Geometrical optimization using genetic algorithm coupled with electromagnetic simulations using two-dimensional (2D) finite element method (FEM) results in coupler designs with high peak coupling efficiency of up to 89% for double- mirror and 64% for single-mirror structures at telecom wavelength. Also, 3-dB bandwidths of 40 nm and 50 nm are theoretically predicted for the two designs, respectively. We have fabricated the grating coupler structure with single mirror. Measured values for insertion loss and 3-dB bandwidth in the fabricated single-mirror coupler confirms the theoretical results. This opens up the possibility of low-loss 3D dense integration of optical functionalities in hybrid material platforms.

  6. MoldaNet: a network distributed molecular graphics and modelling program that integrates secure signed applet and Java 3D technologies.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, H; Rzepa, H S; Tonge, A P

    1998-06-01

    MoldaNet is a molecular graphics and modelling program that integrates several new Java technologies, including authentication as a Secure Signed Applet, and implementation of Java 3D classes to enable access to hardware graphics acceleration. It is the first example of a novel class of Internet-based distributed computational chemistry tool designed to eliminate the need for user pre-installation of software on their client computer other than a standard Internet browser. The creation of a properly authenticated tool using a signed digital X.509 certificate permits the user to employ MoldaNet to read and write the files to a local file store; actions that are normally disallowed in Java applets. The modularity of the Java language also allows straightforward inclusion of Java3D and Chemical Markup Language classes in MoldaNet to permit the user to filter their model into 3D model descriptors such as VRML97 or CML for saving on local disk. The implications for both distance-based training environments and chemical commerce are noted.

  7. Sleep as spatiotemporal integration of biological processes that evolved to periodically reinforce neurodynamic and metabolic homeostasis: The 2m3d paradigm of sleep.

    PubMed

    Mader, Edward Claro; Mader, Annie Cielo Llave

    2016-08-15

    Sleep continues to perplex scientists and researchers. Despite decades of sleep research, we still lack a clear understanding of the biological functions and evolution of sleep. In this review, we will examine sleep from a functional and phylogenetic perspective and describe some important conceptual gaps in understanding sleep. Classical theories of the biology and evolution of sleep emphasize sensory activation, energy balance, and metabolic homeostasis. Advances in electrophysiology, functional neuroimaging, and neuroplasticity allow us to view sleep within the framework of neural dynamics. With this paradigm shift, we have come to realize the importance of neurodynamic homeostasis in shaping the biology of sleep. Evidently, animals sleep to achieve neurodynamic and metabolic homeostasis. We are not aware of any framework for understanding sleep where neurodynamic, metabolic, homeostatic, chronophasic, and afferent variables are all taken into account. This motivated us to propose the two-mode three-drive (2m3d) paradigm of sleep. In the 2m3d paradigm, local neurodynamic/metabolic (N/M) processes switch between two modes-m0 and m1-in response to three drives-afferent, chronophasic, and homeostatic. The spatiotemporal integration of local m0/m1 operations gives rise to the global states of sleep and wakefulness. As a framework of evolution, the 2m3d paradigm allows us to view sleep as a robust adaptive strategy that evolved so animals can periodically reinforce neurodynamic and metabolic homeostasis while remaining sensitive to their internal and external environment.

  8. Increment of Access Points in Integrated System of Wavelength Division Multiplexed Passive Optical Network Radio over Fiber.

    PubMed

    Amiri, I S; Alavi, S E; Soltanian, M R K; Fisal, N; Supa'at, A S M; Ahmad, H

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a novel technique to increase the numbers of access points (APs) in a wavelength division multiplexed-passive optical network (WDM-PON) integrated in a 100 GHz radio-over-fiber (RoF). Eight multi-carriers separated by 25 GHz intervals were generated in the range of 193.025 to 193.200 THz using a microring resonator (MRR) system incorporating an add-drop filter system. All optically generated multi-carriers were utilized in an integrated system of WDM-PON-RoF for transmission of four 43.6 Gb/sec orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals. Results showed that an acceptable BER variation for different path lengths up to 25 km was achievable for all four access points and thus the transmission of four OFDM channels is feasible for a 25 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) path length. PMID:26153536

  9. Fully integrated multiplexed lab-on-a-card assay for enteric pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigl, B. H.; Gerdes, J.; Tarr, P.; Yager, P.; Dillman, L.; Peck, R.; Ramachandran, S.; Lemba, M.; Kokoris, M.; Nabavi, M.; Battrell, F.; Hoekstra, D.; Klein, E. J.; Denno, D. M.

    2006-01-01

    Under this NIH-funded project, we are developing a lab-on-a-card platform to identify enteric bacterial pathogens in patients presenting with acute diarrhea, with special reference to infections that might be encountered in developing countries. Component functions that are integrated on this platform include on-chip immunocapture of live or whole pathogens, multiplexed nucleic acid amplification and on-chip detection, sample processing to support direct use of clinical specimens, and dry reagent storage and handling. All microfluidic functions are contained on the lab card. This new diagnostic test will be able to rapidly identify and differentiate Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1, Shigella toxin-producing Escherichia coli, E. coli 0157, Campylobacter jejuni, and Salmonella and Shigella species. This presentation will report on progress to date on sample and bacteria processing methodologies, identification and validation of capture antibodies and strategy for organism immunocapture, identification and validation of specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer sequences for over 200 clinical isolates of enteric pathogens, and implementation of on-chip nucleic acid extraction for a subset of those pathogens.

  10. Preconditioning techniques for constrained vector potential integral equations, with application to 3-D magnetoquasistatic analysis of electronic packages

    SciTech Connect

    Kamon, M.; Phillips, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper techniques are presented for preconditioning equations generated by discretizing constrained vector integral equations associated with magnetoquasistatic analysis. Standard preconditioning approaches often fail on these problems. The authors present a specialized preconditioning technique and prove convergence bounds independent of the constraint equations and electromagnetic excitation frequency. Computational results from analyzing several electronic packaging examples are given to demonstrate that the new preconditioning approach can sometimes reduce the number of GMRES iterations by more than an order of magnitude.

  11. Data Integration Acquired from Micro-Uav and Terrestrial Laser Scanner for the 3d Mapping of Jesuit Ruins of São Miguel das Missões

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, M. L. L.; da Rocha, R. S.; Ferraz, R. S.; Cruz, V. C.; Morador, L. Q.; Yamawaki, M. K.; Rodrigues, E. L. S.; Cole, J. O.; Mezzomo, W.

    2016-06-01

    The Jesuit Missions the Guaranis were one of the great examples of cultural, social, and scientific of the eighteenth century, which had its decline from successive wars that followed the exchange of territories domain occupied by Portugal and Spain with the Madrid Treaty of January 13, 1750. One of the great examples of this development is materialized in the ruins of 30 churches and villages that remain in a territory that now comprises part of Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. These Churches, São Miguel das Missões is among the Brazilian ruins, the best preserved. The ruins of São Miguel das Missões were declared a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage in 1983 and the Institute of National Historical Heritage (IPHAN) is the Brazilian Federal agency that manages and maintains this heritage. In order to produce a geographic database to assist the IPHAN in the management of the Ruins of São Miguel das Missões it was proposed a three-dimensional mapping of these ruins never performed in this location before. The proposal is integrated data acquired from multiple sensors: two micro-UAV, an Asctec Falcon 8 (rotary wing) and a Sensefly e-Bee (fixed wing); photos from terrestrial cameras; two terrestrial LIDAR sensors, one Faro Focus 3D S-120 and Optec 3D-HD ILRIS. With this abundance of sensors has been possible to perform comparisons and integration of the acquired data, and produce a 3D reconstruction of the church with high completeness and accuracy (better than 25 mm), as can be seen in the presentation of this work.

  12. Integrated geophysical and geological modelling: insights in the 3D structure and kinematics of the Hercynian Suture Zone in the Champtoceaux area (Brittany, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martelet, G.; Calcagno, Ph.; Gumiaux, C.; Truffert, C.; Bitri, A.; Gapais, D.; Brun, J. P.

    2003-04-01

    Using the Editeur Géologique, a software specifically developed for the purpose of 3D geological modelling by the French Geological Survey (BRGM), we model a segment of the Hercynian suture zone of western Europe, in Champtoceaux area (Brittany, western France). The area shows exposures of strongly deformed eclogite-bearing gneisses and micaschists. These units were stacked during collision and exhumed during late Devonian to early Carboniferous times. Regional-scale dextral simple shear accompanied strike-slip movements along the SASZ (South Armorican Shear Zone). It produced a km-scale antiformal structure in the Champtoceaux metamorphic units with a steeply-dipping axial plane and a steeply eastward-plunging axis. Interpretation of the recent Armor2 seismic profile shows that the well-recognized north-dipping early lithological structuration is cross-cut by Carboniferous south-dipping inverse tectonics of crustal extension. In order to precise and extend in 3D the structures interpreted in the seismic profile, we model seven radial gravity profiles throughout Champtoceaux periclinal termination, based on data from the French gravity database. Direct 2D modelling is performed at a crustal scale, based on seismic constraints and geological field observations, as well as density measurements on samples or in drill holes. Input in the Editeur Géologique, the consistency of cross-sections, digitized geological map and structural information (foliation dips) is first checked. From the surface to the Moho, available spatialised 2D information is then interpolated in the whole 3D space using adapted geostatistical analysis. Finally, taking into account densities associated to each modelled geological body, the computation of the 3D gravity effect of the model is compared to the measured Bouguer anomaly, which insures that all complex 3D gravity effects are well taken into account. Results emphasise the usefulness of integrated geological and geophysical 3D modelling

  13. Integration of microfluidic chip with biomimetic hydrogel for 3D controlling and monitoring of cell alignment and migration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Ho; Lee, Ki Hwa; Lee, Jeonghoon; Choi, Hyuk; Lee, Donghee; Park, Yongdoo; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2014-04-01

    A biomimetic hydrogel was integrated into microfluidic chips to monitor glioma cell alignment and migration. The extracellular matrix-based biomimetic hydrogel was remodeled by matrix metalloprotease (MMP) secreted by glioma cells and the hydrogel could thus be used to assess cellular behavior. Both static and dynamic cell growth conditions (flow rate of 0.1 mL/h) were used. Cell culture medium with and without vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insensitive VEGF and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) were employed to monitor cell behavior. A concentration gradient formed in the hydrogel resulted in differences in cell behavior. Glioma cell viability in the microchannel was 75-85%. Cells in the VEGF-loaded microchannels spread extensively, degrading the MMP-sensitive hydrogel, and achieved cell sizes almost fivefold larger than seen in the control medium. Our integrated system can be used as a model for the study of cellular behavior in a controlled microenvironment generated by fluidic conditions in a biomimetic matrix.

  14. Monolithically Integrated InGaAs Nanowires on 3D Structured Silicon-on-Insulator as a New Platform for Full Optical Links.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunseok; Farrell, Alan C; Senanayake, Pradeep; Lee, Wook-Jae; Huffaker, Diana L

    2016-03-01

    Monolithically integrated III-V semiconductors on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform can be used as a building block for energy-efficient on-chip optical links. Epitaxial growth of III-V semiconductors on silicon, however, has been challenged by the large mismatches in lattice constants and thermal expansion coefficients between epitaxial layers and silicon substrates. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the monolithic integration of InGaAs nanowires on the SOI platform and its feasibility for photonics and optoelectronic applications. InGaAs nanowires are grown not only on a planar SOI layer but also on a 3D structured SOI layer by catalyst-free metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The precise positioning of nanowires on 3D structures, including waveguides and gratings, reveals the versatility and practicality of the proposed platform. Photoluminescence measurements exhibit that the composition of ternary InGaAs nanowires grown on the SOI layer has wide tunability covering all telecommunication wavelengths from 1.2 to 1.8 μm. We also show that the emission from an optically pumped single nanowire is effectively coupled and transmitted through an SOI waveguide, explicitly showing that this work lays the foundation for a new platform toward energy-efficient optical links.

  15. Monolithically Integrated InGaAs Nanowires on 3D Structured Silicon-on-Insulator as a New Platform for Full Optical Links.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunseok; Farrell, Alan C; Senanayake, Pradeep; Lee, Wook-Jae; Huffaker, Diana L

    2016-03-01

    Monolithically integrated III-V semiconductors on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform can be used as a building block for energy-efficient on-chip optical links. Epitaxial growth of III-V semiconductors on silicon, however, has been challenged by the large mismatches in lattice constants and thermal expansion coefficients between epitaxial layers and silicon substrates. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the monolithic integration of InGaAs nanowires on the SOI platform and its feasibility for photonics and optoelectronic applications. InGaAs nanowires are grown not only on a planar SOI layer but also on a 3D structured SOI layer by catalyst-free metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The precise positioning of nanowires on 3D structures, including waveguides and gratings, reveals the versatility and practicality of the proposed platform. Photoluminescence measurements exhibit that the composition of ternary InGaAs nanowires grown on the SOI layer has wide tunability covering all telecommunication wavelengths from 1.2 to 1.8 μm. We also show that the emission from an optically pumped single nanowire is effectively coupled and transmitted through an SOI waveguide, explicitly showing that this work lays the foundation for a new platform toward energy-efficient optical links. PMID:26901448

  16. Highly accelerated 3D dynamic contrast enhanced MRI from sparse spiral sampling using integrated partial separability model and JSENSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Jingyuan; Spincemaille, Pascal; Wang, Yi; Zhou, Yihang; Ren, Fuquan; Ying, Leslie

    2014-05-01

    Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI requires high spatial resolution for morphological information and high temporal resolution for contrast pharmacokinetics. The current techniques usually have to compromise the spatial information for the required temporal resolution. This paper presents a novel method that effectively integrates sparse sampling, parallel imaging, partial separable (PS) model, and sparsity constraints for highly accelerated DCE-MRI. Phased array coils were used to continuously acquire data from a stack of variable-density spiral trajectory with a golden angle. In reconstruction, the sparsity constraints, the coil sensitivities, spatial and temporal bases of the PS model are jointly estimated through alternating optimization. Experimental results from in vivo DCE liver imaging data show that the proposed method is able to achieve high spatial and temporal resolutions at the same time.

  17. 3D CFD Electrochemical and Heat Transfer Model of an Integrated-Planar Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Hawkes; James E. O'Brien

    2008-10-01

    A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) electrochemical model has been created to model high-temperature electrolysis cell performance and steam electrolysis in a new novel integrated planar porous-tube supported solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC). The model is of several integrated planar cells attached to a ceramic support tube. This design is being evaluated with modeling at the Idaho National Laboratory. Mass, momentum, energy, and species conservation and transport are provided via the core features of the commercial CFD code FLUENT. A solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) model adds the electrochemical reactions and loss mechanisms and computation of the electric field throughout the cell. The FLUENT SOFC user-defined subroutine was modified for this work to allow for operation in the SOEC mode. Model results provide detailed profiles of temperature, Nernst potential, operating potential, activation over-potential, anode-side gas composition, cathode-side gas composition, current density and hydrogen production over a range of stack operating conditions. Mean per-cell area-specific-resistance (ASR) values decrease with increasing current density. Predicted mean outlet hydrogen and steam concentrations vary linearly with current density, as expected. Effects of variations in operating temperature, gas flow rate, cathode and anode exchange current density, and contact resistance from the base case are presented. Contour plots of local electrolyte temperature, current density, and Nernst potential indicated the effects of heat transfer, reaction cooling/heating, and change in local gas composition. Results are discussed for using this design in the electrolysis mode. Discussion of thermal neutral voltage, enthalpy of reaction, hydrogen production, cell thermal efficiency, cell electrical efficiency, and Gibbs free energy are discussed and reported herein.

  18. Multi-scale simulation flow and multi-scale materials characterization for stress management in 3D through-silicon-via integration technologies - Effect of stress on 3D IC interconnect reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukharev, Valeriy; Zschech, Ehrenfried

    2014-06-01

    The paper addresses the growing need in a simulation-based design verification flow capable to analyze any design of 3D IC stacks and to determine across-layers implications in 3D IC reliability caused by through-silicon-via (TSV) and chip-package interaction (CPI) induced mechanical stresses. The limited characterization/measurement capabilities of 3D IC stacks and a strict "good die" requirement make this type of analysis really critical for the achievement of an acceptable level of functional and parametric yield and reliability. The paper focuses on the development of a design-for-manufacturability (DFM) type of methodology for managing mechanical stresses during a sequence of designs of 3D TSV-based dies, stacks and packages. A set of physics-based compact models for a multi-scale simulation, to assess the mechanical stress across the dies stacked and packaged with the 3D TSV technology, is proposed. As an example the effect of CPI/TSV induced stresses on stress migration (SM) and electromigration (EM) in the back-end-of-line (BEoL) and backside-redistribution-layer (BRDL) interconnect lines is considered. A strategy for a simulation feeding data generation and a respective materials characterization approach are proposed, with the goal to generate a database for multi-scale material parameters of wafer-level and package-level structures. A calibration technique based on fitting the simulation results to measured stress components and electrical characteristics of the test-chip devices is discussed.

  19. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  20. Three-dimensional (3D) coseismic deformation map produced by the 2014 South Napa Earthquake estimated and modeled by SAR and GPS data integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polcari, Marco; Albano, Matteo; Fernández, José; Palano, Mimmo; Samsonov, Sergey; Stramondo, Salvatore; Zerbini, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    In this work we present a 3D map of coseismic displacements due to the 2014 Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake, California, obtained by integrating displacement information data from SAR Interferometry (InSAR), Multiple Aperture Interferometry (MAI), Pixel Offset Tracking (POT) and GPS data acquired by both permanent stations and campaigns sites. This seismic event produced significant surface deformation along the 3D components causing several damages to vineyards, roads and houses. The remote sensing results, i.e. InSAR, MAI and POT, were obtained from the pair of SAR images provided by the Sentinel-1 satellite, launched on April 3rd, 2014. They were acquired on August 7th and 31st along descending orbits with an incidence angle of about 23°. The GPS dataset includes measurements from 32 stations belonging to the Bay Area Regional Deformation Network (BARDN), 301 continuous stations available from the UNAVCO and the CDDIS archives, and 13 additional campaign sites from Barnhart et al, 2014 [1]. These data constrain the horizontal and vertical displacement components proving to be helpful for the adopted integration method. We exploit the Bayes theory to search for the 3D coseismic displacement components. In particular, for each point, we construct an energy function and solve the problem to find a global minimum. Experimental results are consistent with a strike-slip fault mechanism with an approximately NW-SE fault plane. Indeed, the 3D displacement map shows a strong North-South (NS) component, peaking at about 15 cm, a few kilometers far from the epicenter. The East-West (EW) displacement component reaches its maximum (~10 cm) south of the city of Napa, whereas the vertical one (UP) is smaller, although a subsidence in the order of 8 cm on the east side of the fault can be observed. A source modelling was performed by inverting the estimated displacement components. The best fitting model is given by a ~N330° E-oriented and ~70° dipping fault with a prevailing

  1. Efficient compression of rearranged time-multiplexed elemental image arrays in MALT-based three-dimensional integral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Ho-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Gook; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, an approach to efficiently compress the time-multiplexed EIAs picked up from the MALT-based integral imaging system is proposed. In this method, the time-multiplexed EIAs are rearranged by collecting the elemental images occupied at the same position in each EIA to enhance the similarity among the elemental images. Then, MPEG-4 is applied to these rearranged elemental images for compression. From the experimental results, it is shown that the average correlation quality ( ACQ) value representing a degree of similarity between the elemental images, and the resultant compression efficiency have been enhanced by 11.50% and 9.97%, respectively on the average for three kinds of test scenarios in the proposed method, compared to those of the conventional method. Good experimental results finally confirmed the feasibility of the proposed scheme.

  2. Development of an integrated microsystem for the multiplexed detection of breast cancer markers in serum using electrochemical immunosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Alex; Laboria, Noemi; Botero, Mary Luz; Bejarano, Diego; Latta, Daniel; Hansen-Hagge, Thomas E.; Kemmner, Wolfgang; Katakis, Ioanis; Gärtner, Claudia; Drese, Klaus; O'Sullivan, Ciara K.

    2010-02-01

    A microsystem integrating electrochemical biosensoric detection for the simultaneous multiplexed detection of protein markers of breast cancer is reported. The immobilization of antibodies against each of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), prostate specific antigen (PSA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) was achieved via crosslinking to a bipodal dithiol chemisorbed on gold electrodes. This bipodal dithiol had the double function of eliminating non-specific binding and optimal spacing of the anchor antibodies for maximum accessibility to the target proteins. Storage conditions were optimized, demonstrating a long-term stability of the reporter conjugates jointly stored within a single reservoir in the microsystem. The final system has been optimized in terms of incubation times, temperatures and simultaneous, multiplexed detection of the protein markers was achieved in less than 10 minutes with less than ng/mL detection limits. The microsystem has been validated using real patient serum samples and excellent correlation with ELISA results obtained.

  3. The GLOBE 3D Genome Platform - towards a novel system-biological paper tool to integrate the huge complexity of genome organization and function.

    PubMed

    Knoch, Tobias A; Lesnussa, Michael; Kepper, Nick; Eussen, Hubert B; Grosveld, Frank G

    2009-01-01

    Genomes are tremendous co-evolutionary holistic systems for molecular storage, processing and fabrication of information. Their system-biological complexity remains, however, still largely mysterious, despite immense sequencing achievements and huge advances in the understanding of the general sequential, three-dimensional and regulatory organization. Here, we present the GLOBE 3D Genome Platform a completely novel grid based virtual "paper" tool and in fact the first system-biological genome browser integrating the holistic complexity of genomes in a single easy comprehensible platform: Based on a detailed study of biophysical and IT requirements, every architectural level from sequence to morphology of one or several genomes can be approached in a real and in a symbolic representation simultaneously and navigated by continuous scale-free zooming within a unique three-dimensional OpenGL and grid driven environment. In principle an unlimited number of multi-dimensional data sets can be visualized, customized in terms of arrangement, shape, colour, and texture etc. as well as accessed and annotated individually or in groups using internal or external data bases/facilities. Any information can be searched and correlated by importing or calculating simple relations in real-time using grid resources. A general correlation and application platform for more complex correlative analysis and a front-end for system-biological simulations both using again the huge capabilities of grid infrastructures is currently under development. Hence, the GLOBE 3D Genome Platform is an example of a grid based approach towards a virtual desktop for genomic work combining the three fundamental distributed resources: i) visual data representation, ii) data access and management, and iii) data analysis and creation. Thus, the GLOBE 3D Genome Platform is the novel system-biology oriented information system urgently needed to access, present, annotate, and to simulate the holistic genome

  4. The GLOBE 3D Genome Platform - towards a novel system-biological paper tool to integrate the huge complexity of genome organization and function.

    PubMed

    Knoch, Tobias A; Lesnussa, Michael; Kepper, Nick; Eussen, Hubert B; Grosveld, Frank G

    2009-01-01

    Genomes are tremendous co-evolutionary holistic systems for molecular storage, processing and fabrication of information. Their system-biological complexity remains, however, still largely mysterious, despite immense sequencing achievements and huge advances in the understanding of the general sequential, three-dimensional and regulatory organization. Here, we present the GLOBE 3D Genome Platform a completely novel grid based virtual "paper" tool and in fact the first system-biological genome browser integrating the holistic complexity of genomes in a single easy comprehensible platform: Based on a detailed study of biophysical and IT requirements, every architectural level from sequence to morphology of one or several genomes can be approached in a real and in a symbolic representation simultaneously and navigated by continuous scale-free zooming within a unique three-dimensional OpenGL and grid driven environment. In principle an unlimited number of multi-dimensional data sets can be visualized, customized in terms of arrangement, shape, colour, and texture etc. as well as accessed and annotated individually or in groups using internal or external data bases/facilities. Any information can be searched and correlated by importing or calculating simple relations in real-time using grid resources. A general correlation and application platform for more complex correlative analysis and a front-end for system-biological simulations both using again the huge capabilities of grid infrastructures is currently under development. Hence, the GLOBE 3D Genome Platform is an example of a grid based approach towards a virtual desktop for genomic work combining the three fundamental distributed resources: i) visual data representation, ii) data access and management, and iii) data analysis and creation. Thus, the GLOBE 3D Genome Platform is the novel system-biology oriented information system urgently needed to access, present, annotate, and to simulate the holistic genome

  5. Numerical modeling of the 3D dynamics of ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles using the boundary integral method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qianxi; Manmi, Kawa; Calvisi, Michael L.

    2015-02-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are microbubbles stabilized with a shell typically of lipid, polymer, or protein and are emerging as a unique tool for noninvasive therapies ranging from gene delivery to tumor ablation. While various models have been developed to describe the spherical oscillations of contrast agents, the treatment of nonspherical behavior has received less attention. However, the nonspherical dynamics of contrast agents are thought to play an important role in therapeutic applications, for example, enhancing the uptake of therapeutic agents across cell membranes and tissue interfaces, and causing tissue ablation. In this paper, a model for nonspherical contrast agent dynamics based on the boundary integral method is described. The effects of the encapsulating shell are approximated by adapting Hoff's model for thin-shell, spherical contrast agents. A high-quality mesh of the bubble surface is maintained by implementing a hybrid approach of the Lagrangian method and elastic mesh technique. The numerical model agrees well with a modified Rayleigh-Plesset equation for encapsulated spherical bubbles. Numerical analyses of the dynamics of UCAs in an infinite liquid and near a rigid wall are performed in parameter regimes of clinical relevance. The oscillation amplitude and period decrease significantly due to the coating. A bubble jet forms when the amplitude of ultrasound is sufficiently large, as occurs for bubbles without a coating; however, the threshold amplitude required to incite jetting increases due to the coating. When a UCA is near a rigid boundary subject to acoustic forcing, the jet is directed towards the wall if the acoustic wave propagates perpendicular to the boundary. When the acoustic wave propagates parallel to the rigid boundary, the jet direction has components both along the wave direction and towards the boundary that depend mainly on the dimensionless standoff distance of the bubble from the boundary. In all cases, the jet

  6. A heterogeneous sensor network simulation system with integrated terrain data for real-time target detection in 3D space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hong; Tanner, Steve; Rushing, John; Graves, Sara; Criswell, Evans

    2008-03-01

    Large scale sensor networks composed of many low-cost small sensors networked together with a small number of high fidelity position sensors can provide a robust, fast and accurate air defense and warning system. The team has been developing simulations of such large networks, and is now adding terrain data in an effort to provide more realistic analysis of the approach. This work, a heterogeneous sensor network simulation system with integrated terrain data for real-time target detection in a three-dimensional environment is presented. The sensor network can be composed of large numbers of low fidelity binary and bearing-only sensors, and small numbers of high fidelity position sensors, such as radars. The binary and bearing-only sensors are randomly distributed over a large geographic region; while the position sensors are distributed evenly. The elevations of the sensors are determined through the use of DTED Level 0 dataset. The targets are located through fusing measurement information from all types of sensors modeled by the simulation. The network simulation utilizes the same search-based optimization algorithm as in our previous two-dimensional sensor network simulation with some significant modifications. The fusion algorithm is parallelized using spatial decomposition approach: the entire surveillance area is divided into small regions and each region is assigned to one compute node. Each node processes sensor measurements and terrain data only for the assigned sub region. A master process combines the information from all the compute nodes to get the overall network state. The simulation results have indicated that the distributed fusion algorithm is efficient enough so that an optimal solution can be reached before the arrival of the next sensor data with a reasonable time interval, and real-time target detection can be achieved. The simulation was performed on a Linux cluster with communication between nodes facilitated by the Message Passing Interface

  7. Integration of a Decentralized Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian Control into GSFC's Universal 3-D Autonomous Formation Flying Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.; Carpenter, J. Russell

    1999-01-01

    A decentralized control is investigated for applicability to the autonomous formation flying control algorithm developed by GSFC for the New Millenium Program Earth Observer-1 (EO-1) mission. This decentralized framework has the following characteristics: The approach is non-hierarchical, and coordination by a central supervisor is not required; Detected failures degrade the system performance gracefully; Each node in the decentralized network processes only its own measurement data, in parallel with the other nodes; Although the total computational burden over the entire network is greater than it would be for a single, centralized controller, fewer computations are required locally at each node; Requirements for data transmission between nodes are limited to only the dimension of the control vector, at the cost of maintaining a local additional data vector. The data vector compresses all past measurement history from all the nodes into a single vector of the dimension of the state; and The approach is optimal with respect to standard cost functions. The current approach is valid for linear time-invariant systems only. Similar to the GSFC formation flying algorithm, the extension to linear LQG time-varying systems requires that each node propagate its filter covariance forward (navigation) and controller Riccati matrix backward (guidance) at each time step. Extension of the GSFC algorithm to non-linear systems can also be accomplished via linearization about a reference trajectory in the standard fashion, or linearization about the current state estimate as with the extended Kalman filter. To investigate the feasibility of the decentralized integration with the GSFC algorithm, an existing centralized LQG design for a single spacecraft orbit control problem is adapted to the decentralized framework while using the GSFC algorithm's state transition matrices and framework. The existing GSFC design uses both reference trajectories of each spacecraft in formation and

  8. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  9. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  10. The integration of 3D electrical resistivity tomography and ET flux measurements to characterize water mass balance in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanella, Daniela; Boaga, Jacopo; Perri, Maria Teresa; Consoli, Simona; Cassiani, Giorgio

    2014-05-01

    The system of soil, vegetation, and the adjacent atmosphere is characterized by complex patterns, structures, and processes that act on a wide range of time and space scales. While the exchange of energy and water is continuous between compartments, the pertinent fluxes are strongly heterogeneous and variable in space and time. Therefore, quantitatively predicting the systems' behaviour constitutes a major challenge. Traditionally, soil moisture beneath irrigated crops has been determined using point measurement methods such as neutron probes or capacitance systems. These approaches cannot measure soil moisture at depths beyond the root-zone of plants and have limited lateral coverage. Literature results show that electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can be used to reliable map the spatial heterogeneity in soil moisture. Here we present the application of the time-lapse non-invasive 3D micro - electrical tomography (ERT) to monitor soil-plant interactions in the root zone of an orange tree located in the Mediterranean semi-arid Sicilian (South Italy) context. The subsoil dynamics, particularly influenced by irrigation and root uptake, has been characterized a 3D ERT apparatus consisting of 48 buried electrodes on 4 instrumented micro boreholes plus 24 mini-electrodes on the surface spaced 0.1 m on a square grid. During the monitoring, repeated ERT soil moisture measurements were collected, as well as laboratory characterization of the soil electrical properties as a function of moisture content and pore water electrical conductivity. Plant transpiration was continuously monitored during the ERT experiment by the sap flow heat pulse (HP) method for a quantitative analysis of the mass balance in the soil-plant-atmosphere system under observation. In addition, evapo-transpiration has been continuously monitored at the same site using an eddy-correlation tower. The integration of measurements regarding soil,plant and atmosphere allows a better understanding of

  11. Integrated methodologies for the 3d survey and the structural monitoring of industrial archaeology: the case of the Casalecchio di Reno Dyke, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitelli, Gabriele; Girelli, Valentina A.; Vittuari, Luca; Zanutta, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The concept of "Industrial Archaeology" was introduced in the 1950s in England in order to consider the branch of Archaeology that, in integration with engineering, architecture and economics, studies the industrial past, with the purpose of document, protect and exploite the industrial-cultural heritage. The systematic study of this kind of structures and artefacts need a wide range approach, that starts from the investigation about the object historic fonts until its complete qualitative and quantitative description, also considering the characteristics of the surrounding territory. This task often needs the integration of different survey techniques for data capturing and processing, in order to perform the 3D modeling and to analize the structural deformations of manufactured articles. The paper presents the surveying and monitoring activities on the important structure of the Casalecchio di Reno dyke, near Bologna. The first historic notes on the dyke are very old; they are dated back to the I millenium A. D. and report the news of a wooden barrage of the Reno canal. The construction of the actual structure is in the period 1360-1367 and suffered during the centuries numerous interventions and restores. The surveying activities on the dyke were realized in 2005-2006 and 2009 and involved different techniques (classical topography, high precision geometric levelling, range-based method by terrestrial laser scanning, digital photogrammetry, thermal imagery) integrated together in a unique local reference system, in order to study the stability and the movements of the structure in a established period of time and to realize a 3D model. Together with detail surveys on the single parts of the structure, an analysis at a larger territorial scale was performed by aerial photogrammetry, either using current imagery and historical data. The topographic measurements with traditional differential techniques have achieved a very high level precision and the realized

  12. Transient 3D heat flow analysis for integrated circuit devices using the transmission line matrix method on a quad tree mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smy, T.; Walkey, D.; Dew, S. K.

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents a 3D transmission line matrix (TLM) implementation for the solution of transient heat flow in integrated semiconductor devices. The implementation uses a rectangular discontinuous mesh to allow for local mesh refinement. This approach is based on a quad tree meshing technique which can have a complex geometry using blocks of varying sizes. Each such block can have a maximum of two adjacent blocks on any vertical side and a maximum of four blocks on the top or bottom. The TLM implementation is based on a physical extraction of a resistance and capacitance network and then the creation of the appropriate TLM matrix. The formulation allows for temperature-dependent material parameters and a non-uniform time stepping. The simulator is first tested using a 2D example of a heat source in a rectangular region. Using this example the numerical error is determined and found to be less than 0.4%. Next, non-linearities are included, and a number of non-uniform time stepping algorithms are tested. Then, a 3D problem is also compared to an analytical solution and again the error is very small. Finally, an example of a full solution of heat flow in a realistic Si trench device is presented.

  13. Integrated computational tools for identification of CCR5 antagonists as potential HIV-1 entry inhibitors: homology modeling, virtual screening, molecular dynamics simulations and 3D QSAR analysis.

    PubMed

    Moonsamy, Suri; Dash, Radha Charan; Soliman, Mahmoud E S

    2014-04-23

    Using integrated in-silico computational techniques, including homology modeling, structure-based and pharmacophore-based virtual screening, molecular dynamic simulations, per-residue energy decomposition analysis and atom-based 3D-QSAR analysis, we proposed ten novel compounds as potential CCR5-dependent HIV-1 entry inhibitors. Via validated docking calculations, binding free energies revealed that novel leads demonstrated better binding affinities with CCR5 compared to maraviroc, an FDA-approved HIV-1 entry inhibitor and in clinical use. Per-residue interaction energy decomposition analysis on the averaged MD structure showed that hydrophobic active residues Trp86, Tyr89 and Tyr108 contributed the most to inhibitor binding. The validated 3D-QSAR model showed a high cross-validated rcv2 value of 0.84 using three principal components and non-cross-validated r2 value of 0.941. It was also revealed that almost all compounds in the test set and training set yielded a good predicted value. Information gained from this study could shed light on the activity of a new series of lead compounds as potential HIV entry inhibitors and serve as a powerful tool in the drug design and development machinery.

  14. Integrating 3D Flower-Like Hierarchical Cu2NiSnS4 with Reduced Graphene Oxide as Advanced Anode Materials for Na-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shuang; Wang, Sai; Li, Lin; Zhu, Yun-hai; Zhang, Xin-bo; Yan, Jun-min

    2016-04-13

    Development of an anode material with high performance and low cost is crucial for implementation of next-generation Na-ion batteries (NIBs) electrode, which is proposed to meet the challenges of large scale renewable energy storage. Metal chalcogenides are considered as promising anode materials for NIBs due to their high theoretical capacity, low cost, and abundant sources. Unfortunately, their practical application in NIBs is still hindered because of low conductivity and morphological collapse caused by their volume expansion and shrinkage during Na(+) intercalation/deintercalation. To solve the daunting challenges, herein, we fabricated novel three-dimensional (3D) Cu2NiSnS4 nanoflowers (CNTSNs) as a proof-of-concept experiment using a facile and low-cost method. Furthermore, homogeneous integration with reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (RGNs) endows intrinsically insulated CNTSNs with superior electrochemical performances, including high specific capacity (up to 837 mAh g(-1)), good rate capability, and long cycling stability, which could be attributed to the unique 3D hierarchical structure providing fast ion diffusion pathway and high contact area at the electrode/electrolyte interface.

  15. Design of a single projector multiview 3D display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jason

    2014-03-01

    Multiview three-dimensional (3D) display is able to provide horizontal parallax to viewers with high-resolution and fullcolor images being presented to each view. Most multiview 3D display systems are designed and implemented using multiple projectors, each generating images for one view. Although this multi-projector design strategy is conceptually straightforward, implementation of such multi-projector design often leads to a very expensive system and complicated calibration procedures. Even for a multiview system with a moderate number of projectors (e.g., 32 or 64 projectors), the cost of a multi-projector 3D display system may become prohibitive due to the cost and complexity of integrating multiple projectors. In this article, we describe an optical design technique for a class of multiview 3D display systems that use only a single projector. In this single projector multiview (SPM) system design, multiple views for the 3D display are generated in a time-multiplex fashion by the single high speed projector with specially designed optical components, a scanning mirror, and a reflective mirror array. Images of all views are generated sequentially and projected via the specially design optical system from different viewing directions towards a 3D display screen. Therefore, the single projector is able to generate equivalent number of multiview images from multiple viewing directions, thus fulfilling the tasks of multiple projectors. An obvious advantage of the proposed SPM technique is the significant reduction of cost, size, and complexity, especially when the number of views is high. The SPM strategy also alleviates the time-consuming procedures for multi-projector calibration. The design method is flexible and scalable and can accommodate systems with different number of views.

  16. Basement structure of the Hontomín CO2 storage site (Spain) determined by integration of microgravity and 3-D seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés, Juvenal; Alcalde, Juan; Ayarza, Puy; Saura, Eduard; Marzán, Ignacio; Martí, David; Ramón Martínez Catalán, José; Carbonell, Ramón; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés; García-Lobón, José Luis; Rubio, Félix Manuel

    2016-05-01

    A multidisciplinary study has been carried out in Hontomín (Spain) to determine the basement structural setting, its geometry and the geometry of the sedimentary succession of an area aimed to be the first Spanish pilot plant for CO2 storage. An integration of coincident 3-D seismic results, borehole data and unpublished microgravity data were used to reproduce the deep structure and topography of the basement and to quantify the thickness of the Triassic Keuper evaporites. The subsurface structure is characterized by a half-graben setting filled with Keuper evaporites (up to 2000 m thick), forming an extensional forced fold. All data sets clearly identify two main fault systems, compartmentalizing the main structural domain into three differentiated blocks. These faults have been interpreted to be reactivated normal faults that have led to the formation of the Hontomín dome.

  17. 3D modeling of the Buhi debris avalanche deposit of Iriga Volcano, Philippines by integrating shallow-seismic reflection and geological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minimo, Likha G.; Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar Francisco A.

    2016-06-01

    Numerical models for simulating volcanic debris avalanches commonly lack a critical initiation parameter, the source volume, which is difficult to estimate without data on the deposit thickness. This, in turn, limits how rheology can be characterized for simulating flow. Leapfrog Geo, a 3D geological modeling software, was used to integrate shallow-seismic reflection profiles with field and borehole data to determine the volume of the Buhi debris avalanche and the pre-collapse structure of Iriga Volcano. Volumes of the deposit calculated in this way are 34-71% larger than previous estimates. This technique may improve models of debris avalanches elsewhere in the world, and more precisely depict landslide runout and lateral extent, thus improving disaster prevention and mitigation for the many cities located near volcanoes.

  18. Rapid detection by multiplex PCR of Genomic Islands, prophages and Integrative Conjugative Elements in V. cholerae 7th pandemic variants.

    PubMed

    Spagnoletti, Matteo; Ceccarelli, Daniela; Colombo, Mauro M

    2012-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae poses a threat to human health, and new epidemic variants have been reported so far. Seventh pandemic V. cholerae strains are characterized by highly related genomic sequences but can be discriminated by a large set of Genomic Islands, phages and Integrative Conjugative Elements. Classical serotyping and biotyping methods do not easily discriminate among new variants arising worldwide, therefore the establishment of new methods for their identification is required. We developed a multiplex PCR assay for the rapid detection of the major 7th pandemic variants of V. cholerae O1 and O139. Three specific genomic islands (GI-12, GI-14 and GI-15), two phages (Kappa and TLC), Vibrio Seventh Pandemic Island 2 (VSP-II), and the ICEs of the SXT/R391 family were selected as targets of our multiplex PCR based on a comparative genomic approach. The optimization and specificity of the multiplex PCR was assessed on 5 V. cholerae 7th pandemic reference strains, and other 34 V. cholerae strains from various epidemic events were analyzed to validate the reliability of our method. This assay had sufficient specificity to identify twelve different V. cholerae genetic profiles, and therefore has the potential to be used as a rapid screening method.

  19. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  20. Integrating focal adhesion dynamics, cytoskeleton remodeling, and actin motor activity for predicting cell migration on 3D curved surfaces of the extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Cheol; Kim, Choong; Wood, Levi; Neal, Devin; Kamm, Roger D; Asada, H Harry

    2012-11-01

    An integrative cell migration model incorporating focal adhesion (FA) dynamics, cytoskeleton and nucleus remodeling and actin motor activity is developed for predicting cell migration behaviors on 3-dimensional curved surfaces, such as cylindrical lumens in the 3-D extracellular matrix (ECM). The work is motivated by 3-D microfluidic migration experiments suggesting that the migration speed and direction may vary depending on the cross sectional shape of the lumen along which the cell migrates. In this paper, the mechanical structure of the cell is modeled as double elastic membranes of cell and nucleus. The two elastic membranes are connected by stress fibers, which are extended from focal adhesions on the cell surface to the nuclear membrane. The cell deforms and gains traction as transmembrane integrins distributed over the outer cell membrane bind to ligands on the ECM, form focal adhesions, and activate stress fibers. Probabilities at which integrin ligand-receptor bonds are formed as well as ruptures are affected by the surface geometry, resulting in diverse migration behaviors that depend on the curvature of the surface. Monte Carlo simulations of the integrative model reveal that (a) the cell migration speed is dependent on the cross sectional area of the lumen with a maximum speed at a particular diameter or width, (b) as the lumen diameter increases, the cell tends to spread and migrate around the circumference of the lumen, while it moves in the longitudinal direction as the lumen diameter narrows, (c) once the cell moves in one direction, it tends to stay migrating in the same direction despite the stochastic nature of migration. The relationship between the cell migration speed and the lumen width agrees with microfluidic experimental data for cancer cell migration.

  1. Architecturing hierarchical function layers on self-assembled viral templates as 3D nano-array electrodes for integrated Li-ion microbatteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yihang; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Yujie; Luo, Yanting; Xu, Yunhua; Brown, Adam; Culver, James N; Lundgren, Cynthia A; Xu, Kang; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Chunsheng

    2013-01-01

    This work enables an elegant bottom-up solution to engineer 3D microbattery arrays as integral power sources for microelectronics. Thus, multilayers of functional materials were hierarchically architectured over tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) templates that were genetically modified to self-assemble in a vertical manner on current-collectors, so that optimum power and energy densities accompanied with excellent cycle-life could be achieved on a minimum footprint. The resultant microbattery based on self-aligned LiFePO(4) nanoforests of shell-core-shell structure, with precise arrangement of various auxiliary material layers including a central nanometric metal core as direct electronic pathway to current collector, delivers excellent energy density and stable cycling stability only rivaled by the best Li-ion batteries of conventional configurations, while providing rate performance per foot-print and on-site manufacturability unavailable from the latter. This approach could open a new avenue for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) applications, which would significantly benefit from the concept that electrochemically active components be directly engineered and fabricated as an integral part of the integrated circuit (IC). PMID:23252613

  2. The IntFOLD server: an integrated web resource for protein fold recognition, 3D model quality assessment, intrinsic disorder prediction, domain prediction and ligand binding site prediction.

    PubMed

    Roche, Daniel B; Buenavista, Maria T; Tetchner, Stuart J; McGuffin, Liam J

    2011-07-01

    The IntFOLD server is a novel independent server that integrates several cutting edge methods for the prediction of structure and function from sequence. Our guiding principles behind the server development were as follows: (i) to provide a simple unified resource that makes our prediction software accessible to all and (ii) to produce integrated output for predictions that can be easily interpreted. The output for predictions is presented as a simple table that summarizes all results graphically via plots and annotated 3D models. The raw machine readable data files for each set of predictions are also provided for developers, which comply with the Critical Assessment of Methods for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) data standards. The server comprises an integrated suite of five novel methods: nFOLD4, for tertiary structure prediction; ModFOLD 3.0, for model quality assessment; DISOclust 2.0, for disorder prediction; DomFOLD 2.0 for domain prediction; and FunFOLD 1.0, for ligand binding site prediction. Predictions from the IntFOLD server were found to be competitive in several categories in the recent CASP9 experiment. The IntFOLD server is available at the following web site: http://www.reading.ac.uk/bioinf/IntFOLD/.

  3. Integration of a calcined bovine bone and BMSC-sheet 3D scaffold and the promotion of bone regeneration in large defects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yihan; Ming, Leiguo; Luo, Hailang; Liu, Wenjia; Zhang, Yongjie; Liu, Hongchen; Jin, Yan

    2013-12-01

    Reconstruction of large area bone defect with mechanical integrity to the skeleton is important for patient's rehabilitation. However with the limitation of scaffold material and suitable seed cell sources, the best treating strategy remains to be identified though various tissue engineering methods were reported. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of applying calcined bovine bone (CBB) which was coated by allograft bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC)-sheet as a 3D scaffold material in bone repairing tissue engineering. The new scaffold material was implanted into osteoporosis rat cranial bone defects and repairing critical size bone defects (8 mm diameter). Data showed that CBB-BMSC-sheet combination had a stronger potential in osteogenic differentiation and mineralized formation both in vitro and in vivo than CBB-BMSC combination. In in vitro study BMSC-sheet had a more feasible characteristic upon bone repairing including richer ECM, larger mineralized area and stronger ALP activity in addition with a significant higher mRNA expression of osteogenic maker such as BMP-2, b-FGF, Col 1a1, OSX and Runx-2 than the control group. In in vivo study 3D reconstruction of micro CT, HE staining and bone strength results showed that newly formed bone in CBB-BMSC-sheet group was significant higher than that in CBB-BMSC group at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after transplantation in the aspect of area and volume. What was more, results indicated that allograft BMSC-sheet had survivaled in the scaffold material and participated in the newly formed bone which had the same thickness with surrounding autologous bone tissues after transplantation. Results of our study demonstrated that CBB-BMSC-sheet combination was a promising strategy in healing of large area bone defect in osteoporosis.

  4. Integration of Aerial and long-range Terrestrial Laser Scanner: alignment strategies and 3D models for landslide/rockslide description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertacchini, Eleonora; Rivola, Riccardo; Castagnetti, Cristina; Capra, Alessandro; Parmeggiani, Erika

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to integrate airborne and long-range (up to some kilometers) terrestrial laser scanning data in order to obtain a good and reliable description of the geomorphology of unstable slopes. 3D models derived from the integrated point clouds can be particularly useful to study and analyze complex morphology, vertical walls of rockslides and surfaces with sparse vegetation. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) are very efficient techniques for characterizing the morphostructure of slopes; although both techniques individually show some limits, their integration can overcome these limits. For example, for vertical walls of rock, the TLS could be recommended because of its "frontal" point of view, that permits a description of vertical walls with a higher point density than ALS can reach. On the other hand, the power of the ALS methodology is highlighted when a large and flat area is involved and/or when a lot of vegetation covers the area. The ALS can easily reach the ground with respect to TLS due to its vertical position of measurement and this allows a more reliable result even if the last generation of terrestrial laser scanners has the skill to penetrate inside the vegetation thanks to a multi-echo technology. All the problems and difficulties encountered will be fully described. When a reliable description of the morphology is requested and involved distances are of some kilometers, the alignment strategies, the point cloud management and filtering, along with the DTM generation are crucial aspects that cannot be underestimate. Thus, different alignment techniques were examined (ICP - Iterative Closest Point, backsigthing orientation with GPS positioning, alignment with targets or homologous points). Results could be optimized only combining the different alignment approaches. In addition, the DTM generation was deeply analyzed, comparing TIN (Triangular Irregular Network) and grid mesh format, different point

  5. Integrated 3D porous C-MoS2/nitrogen-doped graphene electrode for high capacity and prolonged stability lithium storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, D.; Tang, W. J.; Xia, X. H.; Wang, D. H.; Zhou, D.; Shi, F.; Wang, X. L.; Gu, C. D.; Tu, J. P.

    2015-11-01

    Scrupulous design and fabrication of advanced anode materials are of great importance for developing high-performance lithium ion batteries. Herein, we report a facile strategy for construction of free-standing and free-binder 3D porous carbon coated MoS2/nitrogen-doped graphene (C-MoS2/N-G) integrated electrode via a hydrothermal-induced self-assembly process. The preformed carbon coated MoS2 is strongly anchored on the porous nitrogen-doped graphene aerogel architecture. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the C-MoS2/N-G electrode delivers a high first discharge capacity of 1600 mAh g-1 and maintains 900 mAh g-1 after 500 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1. Impressively, superior high-rate capability is achieved for the C-MoS2/N-G with a reversible capacity of 500 mAh g-1 at a high current density of 4000 mA g-1. Furthermore, the lithium storage mechanism of the obtained integrated electrode is investigated by ex-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy in detail.

  6. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  7. Perception of detail in 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heynderickx, Ingrid; Kaptein, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    A lot of current 3D displays suffer from the fact that their spatial resolution is lower compared to their 2D counterparts. One reason for this is that the multiple views needed to generate 3D are often spatially multiplexed. Besides this, imperfect separation of the left- and right-eye view leads to blurring or ghosting, and therefore to a decrease in perceived sharpness. However, people watching stereoscopic videos have reported that the 3D scene contained more details, compared to the 2D scene with identical spatial resolution. This is an interesting notion, that has never been tested in a systematic and quantitative way. To investigate this effect, we had people compare the amount of detail ("detailedness") in pairs of 2D and 3D images. A blur filter was applied to one of the two images, and the blur level was varied using an adaptive staircase procedure. In this way, the blur threshold for which the 2D and 3D image contained perceptually the same amount of detail could be found. Our results show that the 3D image needed to be blurred more than the 2D image. This confirms the earlier qualitative findings that 3D images contain perceptually more details than 2D images with the same spatial resolution.

  8. Multiplexed Simultaneous High Sensitivity Sensors with High-Order Mode Based on the Integration of Photonic Crystal 1 × 3 Beam Splitter and Three Different Single-Slot PCNCs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Huang, Lijun; Fu, Zhongyuan; Sun, Fujun; Tian, Huiping

    2016-01-01

    We simulated an efficient method for the sensor array of high-sensitivity single-slot photonic crystal nanobeam cavities (PCNCs) on a silicon platform. With the combination of a well-designed photonic crystal waveguide (PhCW) filter and an elaborate single-slot PCNC, a specific high-order resonant mode was filtered for sensing. A 1 × 3 beam splitter carefully established was implemented to split channels and integrate three sensors to realize microarrays. By applying the three-dimensional finite-difference-time-domain (3D-FDTD) method, the sensitivities calculated were S₁ = 492 nm/RIU, S₂ = 244 nm/RIU, and S₃ = 552 nm/RIU, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first multiplexing design in which each sensor cite features such a high sensitivity simultaneously. PMID:27399712

  9. Multiplexed Simultaneous High Sensitivity Sensors with High-Order Mode Based on the Integration of Photonic Crystal 1 × 3 Beam Splitter and Three Different Single-Slot PCNCs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Huang, Lijun; Fu, Zhongyuan; Sun, Fujun; Tian, Huiping

    2016-07-07

    We simulated an efficient method for the sensor array of high-sensitivity single-slot photonic crystal nanobeam cavities (PCNCs) on a silicon platform. With the combination of a well-designed photonic crystal waveguide (PhCW) filter and an elaborate single-slot PCNC, a specific high-order resonant mode was filtered for sensing. A 1 × 3 beam splitter carefully established was implemented to split channels and integrate three sensors to realize microarrays. By applying the three-dimensional finite-difference-time-domain (3D-FDTD) method, the sensitivities calculated were S₁ = 492 nm/RIU, S₂ = 244 nm/RIU, and S₃ = 552 nm/RIU, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first multiplexing design in which each sensor cite features such a high sensitivity simultaneously.

  10. Multiplexed Simultaneous High Sensitivity Sensors with High-Order Mode Based on the Integration of Photonic Crystal 1 × 3 Beam Splitter and Three Different Single-Slot PCNCs

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jian; Huang, Lijun; Fu, Zhongyuan; Sun, Fujun; Tian, Huiping

    2016-01-01

    We simulated an efficient method for the sensor array of high-sensitivity single-slot photonic crystal nanobeam cavities (PCNCs) on a silicon platform. With the combination of a well-designed photonic crystal waveguide (PhCW) filter and an elaborate single-slot PCNC, a specific high-order resonant mode was filtered for sensing. A 1 × 3 beam splitter carefully established was implemented to split channels and integrate three sensors to realize microarrays. By applying the three-dimensional finite-difference-time-domain (3D-FDTD) method, the sensitivities calculated were S1 = 492 nm/RIU, S2 = 244 nm/RIU, and S3 = 552 nm/RIU, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first multiplexing design in which each sensor cite features such a high sensitivity simultaneously. PMID:27399712

  11. Automation and integration of multiplexed on-line sample preparation with capillary electrophoresis for DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, H.

    1999-03-31

    The purpose of this research is to develop a multiplexed sample processing system in conjunction with multiplexed capillary electrophoresis for high-throughput DNA sequencing. The concept from DNA template to called bases was first demonstrated with a manually operated single capillary system. Later, an automated microfluidic system with 8 channels based on the same principle was successfully constructed. The instrument automatically processes 8 templates through reaction, purification, denaturation, pre-concentration, injection, separation and detection in a parallel fashion. A multiplexed freeze/thaw switching principle and a distribution network were implemented to manage flow direction and sample transportation. Dye-labeled terminator cycle-sequencing reactions are performed in an 8-capillary array in a hot air thermal cycler. Subsequently, the sequencing ladders are directly loaded into a corresponding size-exclusion chromatographic column operated at {approximately} 60 C for purification. On-line denaturation and stacking injection for capillary electrophoresis is simultaneously accomplished at a cross assembly set at {approximately} 70 C. Not only the separation capillary array but also the reaction capillary array and purification columns can be regenerated after every run. DNA sequencing data from this system allow base calling up to 460 bases with accuracy of 98%.

  12. Increment of Access Points in Integrated System of Wavelength Division Multiplexed Passive Optical Network Radio over Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, I. S.; Alavi, S. E.; Soltanian, M. R. K.; Fisal, N.; Supa’at, A. S. M.; Ahmad, H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a novel technique to increase the numbers of access points (APs) in a wavelength division multiplexed-passive optical network (WDM-PON) integrated in a 100 GHz radio-over-fiber (RoF). Eight multi-carriers separated by 25 GHz intervals were generated in the range of 193.025 to 193.200 THz using a microring resonator (MRR) system incorporating an add-drop filter system. All optically generated multi-carriers were utilized in an integrated system of WDM-PON-RoF for transmission of four 43.6 Gb/sec orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals. Results showed that an acceptable BER variation for different path lengths up to 25 km was achievable for all four access points and thus the transmission of four OFDM channels is feasible for a 25 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) path length. PMID:26153536

  13. Monolithic integration of a quantum cascade laser array and an echelle grating multiplexer for widely tunable mid-infrared sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilles, Clément; Orbe, Luis J.; Carpintero, Guillermo; Abautret, Johan; Maisons, Grégory; Carras, Mathieu

    2016-03-01

    In the mid-infrared (Mid-IR), arrays of distributed feedback Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCL) have been developed as a serious alternative to obtain extended wavelength operation range of laser-based gas sensing systems. Narrow-linewidth, single mode operation and wide tunability are then gathered together on a single chip with high compactness and intrinsic stability. In order to benefit from this extended wavelength range in a single output beam we have developed a platform for InP-based photonics. After the validation of all required building blocks such as straight waveguides, adiabatic couplers between active and passive waveguides, and echelle grating multiplexers, we are tackling the integration into a single monolithic device. We present the design, fabrication and performances of a tunable source, fully monolithic based on the echelle grating approach. Advantages are design flexibility, relatively simple processing and the need for one single epitaxial growth for the entire structure. The evanescent coupler has been designed to transfer all light adiabatically from the active region to a low loss passive waveguide, while taking advantage of the high gain available in the quantum wells. The multiplexer is based on an etched diffraction grating, covering the whole range of the 30 lasers of the array while keeping a very compact size. These results show the first realization of a monolithic widely tunable source in the Mid-IR and would therefore benefit to the development of fully integrated spectroscopic sensor systems.

  14. Fast and Broadband Signal Integrity Analysis of Multiple Vias in Heterogeneous 3D IC and Die-Level Packaging by Using Generalized Foldy-Lax Scattering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Xin

    This dissertation proposal is concerned with the use of fast and broadband full-wave electromagnetic methods for modeling high speed interconnects (e.g, vertical vias and horizontal traces) and passive components (e.g, decoupling capacitors) for structures of PCB and packages, in 3D IC, Die-level packaging and SIW based devices, to effectively modeling the designs signal integrity (SI) and power integrity (PI) aspects. The main contributions finished in this thesis is to create a novel methodology, which hybridizes the Foldy-Lax multiple scattering equations based fast full wave method, method of moment (MoM) based 1D technology, modes decoupling based geometry decomposition and cavity modes expansions, to model and simulate the electromagnetic scattering effects for the irregular power/ground planes, multiple vias and traces, for fast and accurate analysis of link level simulation on multilayer electronic structures. For the modeling details, the interior massively-coupled multiple vias problem is modeled most-analytically by using the Foldy-Lax multiple scattering equations. The dyadic Green's functions of the magnetic field are expressed in terms of waveguide modes in the vertical direction and vector cylindrical wave expansions or cavity modes expansions in the horizontal direction, combined with 2D MoM realized by 1D technology. For the incident field of the case of vias in the arbitrarily shaped antipad in finite large cavity/waveguide, the exciting and scattering field coefficients are calculated based on the transformation which converts surface integration of magnetic surface currents in antipad into 1D line integration of surface charges on the vias and on the ground plane. Geometry decomposition method is applied to model and integrate both the vertical and horizontal interconnects/traces in arbitrarily shaped power/ground planes. Moreover, a new form of multiple scattering equations is derived for solving coupling effects among mixed metallic

  15. Microfluidic Biosensor Array with Integrated Poly(2,7-Carbazole)/Fullerene-Based Photodiodes for Rapid Multiplexed Detection of Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Nuno Miguel Matos; Dong, Tao

    2013-01-01

    A multiplexed microfluidic biosensor made of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) was integrated into an array of organic blend heterojunction photodiodes (OPDs) for chemiluminescent detection of pathogens. Waterborne Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter jejuni and adenovirus were targeted in the PMMA chip, and detection of captured pathogens was conducted by poly(2,7-carbazole)/fullerene OPDs which showed a responsivity over 0.20 A/W at 425 nm. The limits of chemiluminescent detection were 5 × 105 cells/mL for E. coli, 1 × 105 cells/mL for C. jejuni, and 1 × 10−8 mg/mL for adenovirus. Parallel analysis for all three analytes in less than 35 min was demonstrated. Further recovery tests illustrated the potential of the integrated biosensor for detecting bacteria in real water samples. PMID:24287522

  16. Oblique incidence of semi-guided waves on step-like folds in planar dielectric slabs: Lossless vertical interconnects in 3D integrated photonic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, Andre; Alhaddad, Samer; Hammer, Manfred; Förstner, Jens

    2016-02-01

    Semi-guided light propagation across linear folds of slab waveguides is being considered. Radiation losses vanish beyond certain critical angles of incidence, as can be understood by arguments resembling Snell's law. One thus realizes lossless propagation through 90-degree corner configurations, where the remaining guided waves are still subject to pronounced reflection and polarization conversion. A step-like system of two of these sharp corners can then be viewed as a system akin to a Fabry-Perot interferometer, with two partial reflectors at a distance given by the vertical separation of the slab cores. The respective resonance effect enables full transmission of semiguided, laterally plane waves through the step structures. One obtains a configuration that optically connects guiding layers at different elevation levels in a 3-D integrated optical chip, without radiation losses, over large distances, and reasonably broadband. We show rigorous quasi-analytical results for typical high-contrast Si/SiO2 structures. Although the full-transmission effect requires a symmetric system, here realized by slab waveguides with a silicon core sandwiched between thick silica substrate and cover layers, simulations for configurations with air cover show that a certain asymmetry can well be afforded.

  17. Integration of 3D scale-based pseudo-enhancement correction and partial volume image segmentation for improving electronic colon cleansing in CT colonograpy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Lihong; Zhu, Hongbin; Han, Hao; Song, Bowen; Liang, Zhengrong

    2014-01-01

    Orally administered tagging agents are usually used in CT colonography (CTC) to differentiate residual bowel content from native colonic structures. However, the high-density contrast agents tend to introduce pseudo-enhancement (PE) effect on neighboring soft tissues and elevate their observed CT attenuation value toward that of the tagged materials (TMs), which may result in an excessive electronic colon cleansing (ECC) since the pseudo-enhanced soft tissues are incorrectly identified as TMs. To address this issue, we integrated a 3D scale-based PE correction into our previous ECC pipeline based on the maximum a posteriori expectation-maximization partial volume (PV) segmentation. The newly proposed ECC scheme takes into account both the PE and PV effects that commonly appear in CTC images. We evaluated the new scheme on 40 patient CTC scans, both qualitatively through display of segmentation results, and quantitatively through radiologists' blind scoring (human observer) and computer-aided detection (CAD) of colon polyps (computer observer). Performance of the presented algorithm has shown consistent improvements over our previous ECC pipeline, especially for the detection of small polyps submerged in the contrast agents. The CAD results of polyp detection showed that 4 more submerged polyps were detected for our new ECC scheme over the previous one.

  18. High-κ Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} material in low temperature wafer-level bonding for 3D integration application

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, J. Tu, L. C.; Tan, C. S.

    2014-03-15

    This work systematically investigated a high-κ Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} material for low temperature wafer-level bonding for potential applications in 3D microsystems. A clean Si wafer with an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer thickness of 50 nm was applied as our experimental approach. Bonding was initiated in a clean room ambient after surface activation, followed by annealing under inert ambient conditions at 300 °C for 3 h. The investigation consisted of three parts: a mechanical support study using the four-point bending method, hermeticity measurements using the helium bomb test, and thermal conductivity analysis for potential heterogeneous bonding. Compared with samples bonded using a conventional oxide bonding material (SiO{sub 2}), a higher interfacial adhesion energy (∼11.93 J/m{sup 2}) and a lower helium leak rate (∼6.84 × 10{sup −10} atm.cm{sup 3}/sec) were detected for samples bonded using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. More importantly, due to the excellent thermal conductivity performance of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, this technology can be used in heterogeneous direct bonding, which has potential applications for enhancing the performance of Si photonic integrated devices.

  19. Advanced 3-D analysis, client-server systems, and cloud computing—Integration of cardiovascular imaging data into clinical workflows of transcatheter aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Mathis; Falkner, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    Degenerative aortic stenosis is highly prevalent in the aging populations of industrialized countries and is associated with poor prognosis. Surgical valve replacement has been the only established treatment with documented improvement of long-term outcome. However, many of the older patients with aortic stenosis (AS) are high-risk or ineligible for surgery. For these patients, transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has emerged as a treatment alternative. The TAVR procedure is characterized by a lack of visualization of the operative field. Therefore, pre- and intra-procedural imaging is critical for patient selection, pre-procedural planning, and intra-operative decision-making. Incremental to conventional angiography and 2-D echocardiography, multidetector computed tomography (CT) has assumed an important role before TAVR. The analysis of 3-D CT data requires extensive post-processing during direct interaction with the dataset, using advance analysis software. Organization and storage of the data according to complex clinical workflows and sharing of image information have become a critical part of these novel treatment approaches. Optimally, the data are integrated into a comprehensive image data file accessible to multiple groups of practitioners across the hospital. This creates new challenges for data management requiring a complex IT infrastructure, spanning across multiple locations, but is increasingly achieved with client-server solutions and private cloud technology. This article describes the challenges and opportunities created by the increased amount of patient-specific imaging data in the context of TAVR. PMID:24282750

  20. Progress Toward an Integration of Process-Structure-Property-Performance Models for "Three-Dimensional (3-D) Printing" of Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, P. C.; Haden, C. V.; Ghamarian, I.; Hayes, B. J.; Ales, T.; Penso, G.; Dixit, V.; Harlow, G.

    2014-07-01

    Electron beam direct manufacturing, synonymously known as electron beam additive manufacturing, along with other additive "3-D printing" manufacturing processes, are receiving widespread attention as a means of producing net-shape (or near-net-shape) components, owing to potential manufacturing benefits. Yet, materials scientists know that differences in manufacturing processes often significantly influence the microstructure of even widely accepted materials and, thus, impact the properties and performance of a material in service. It is important to accelerate the understanding of the processing-structure-property relationship of materials being produced via these novel approaches in a framework that considers the performance in a statistically rigorous way. This article describes the development of a process model, the assessment of key microstructural features to be incorporated into a microstructure simulation model, a novel approach to extract a constitutive equation to predict tensile properties in Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-64), and a probabilistic approach to measure the fidelity of the property model against real data. This integrated approach will provide designers a tool to vary process parameters and understand the influence on performance, enabling design and optimization for these highly visible manufacturing approaches.

  1. Effects of surface treatment on the bonding quality of wafer-level Cu-to-Cu thermo-compression bonding for 3D integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J.; Lim, D. F.; Tan, C. S.

    2013-04-01

    Various surface treatments are applied for surface oxide removal prior to wafer-level Cu-to-Cu thermo-compression bonding and the bonding quality is systematically analyzed in this work. Three methods are investigated: self-assembled monolayer (SAM) passivation, forming gas annealing and acetic acid wet cleaning. The surface conditions are carefully examined including roughness, contact angle and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) scan. The wafer pairs are bonded at 250 °C under a bonding force of 5500 N for a duration of 1 h in a vacuum environment. The bonding medium consists of a Cu (300 nm) bonding layer and a Ti (50 nm) barrier layer. The bonding quality investigation consists of two parts: hermeticity based on helium leak test and mechanical strength using four-point bending method. Although all samples under test with different surface treatment methods present an excellent hermetic seal and a robust mechanical support, the measurement results show that samples bonded after SAM passivation exhibit the best hermeticity and bonding strength for 3D integration application.

  2. Development of an integrated endoscopic device for multiplexed low coherence interferometry measurements of microbicide gel coating thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Tyler K.; Robles, Francisco E.; DeSoto, Michael; Henderson, Marcus H.; Katz, David F.; Wax, Adam P.

    2009-02-01

    Microbicide gels are topical products that have recently been developed to combat sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS. The extent of gel coverage, thickness, and structure are crucial factors in gel effectiveness. It is necessary to be able to monitor gel distribution and behavior under various circumstances, such as coatis, and over an extended time scale in vivo. We have developed a multiplexed, Fourier-domain low coherence interferometry (LCI) system as a practical method of measuring microbicide gel distribution, with precision and accuracy comparable to currently used fluorometric techniques techniques. The multiplexed system achieved a broad scanning area without the need for a mechanical scanning device, typical of OCT systems, by utilizing six parallel channels with simultaneous data collection. We now propose an imaging module which will allow the integration of the multiplexed LCI system into the current fluorescence system in conjunction with an endoscope. The LCI imaging module will meet several key criteria in order to be compatible with the current system. The fluorescent system features a 4-mm diameter rigid endsoscope enclosed in a 27-mm diameter polycarbonate tube, with a water immersion tip. Therefore, the LCI module must be low-profile as well as water-resistant to fit inside the current design. It also must fulfill its primary function of delivering light from each of the six channels to the gel and collecting backscattered light. The performance of the imaging module will be characterized by scanning a calibration socket which contains grooves of known depths, and comparing these measurements to the fluorometric results.

  3. Derivation of 3-D surface deformation from an integration of InSAR and GNSS measurements based on Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Haipeng; Liu, Yang; Chen, Ting; Xu, Caijun; Wen, Yangmao

    2016-01-01

    We present a new method to derive 3-D surface deformation from an integration of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations based on Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC), considering relationship between deformations of neighbouring locations. This method avoids interpolated errors by excluding the interpolation of GNSS into the same spatial resolution as InSAR images and harnesses the data sets and the prior smooth constraints of surface deformation objectively and simultaneously by using ABIC, which were inherently unresolved in previous studies. In particular, we define surface roughness measuring smoothing degree to evaluate the performance of the prior constraints and deduce the formula of the covariance for the estimation errors to estimate the uncertainty of modelled solution. We validate this method using synthetic tests and the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake. We find that the optimal weights associated with ABIC minimum are generally at trade-off locations that balance contributions from InSAR, GNSS data sets and the prior constraints. We use this method to evaluate the influence of the interpolated errors from the Ordinary Kriging algorithm on the derivation of surface deformation. Tests show that the interpolated errors may contribute to biasing very large weights imposed on Kriged GNSS data, suggesting that fixing the relative weights is required in this case. We also make a comparison with SISTEM method, indicating that our method allows obtaining better estimations even with sparse GNSS observations. In addition, this method can be generalized to provide a solution for situations where some types of data sets are lacking and can be exploited further to account for data sets such as the integration of displacements along radar lines and offsets along satellite tracks.

  4. Complex angular momentum theory of state-to-state integral cross sections: resonance effects in the F + HD → HF(v' = 3) + D reaction.

    PubMed

    Sokolovski, D; Akhmatskaya, E; Echeverría-Arrondo, C; De Fazio, D

    2015-07-28

    State-to-state reactive integral cross sections (ICSs) are often affected by quantum mechanical resonances, especially near a reactive threshold. An ICS is usually obtained by summing partial waves at a given value of energy. For this reason, the knowledge of pole positions and residues in the complex energy plane is not sufficient for a quantitative description of the patterns produced by resonance. Such description is available in terms of the poles of an S-matrix element in the complex plane of the total angular momentum. The approach was recently implemented in a computer code ICS_Regge, available in the public domain [Comput. Phys. Commun., 2014, 185, 2127]. In this paper, we employ the ICS_Regge package to analyse in detail, for the first time, the resonance patterns predicted for integral cross sections (ICSs) of the benchmark F + HD → HF(v' = 3) + D reaction. The v = 0, j = 0, Ω = 0 → v' = 3, j' = 0, 1, 2, and Ω' = 0, 1, 2 transitions are studied for collision energies from 58.54 to 197.54 meV. For these energies, we find several resonances, whose contributions to the ICS vary from symmetric and asymmetric Fano shapes to smooth sinusoidal Regge oscillations. Complex energies of metastable states and Regge pole positions and residues are found by Padé reconstruction of the scattering matrix elements. The accuracy of the ICS_Regge code, relation between complex energies and Regge poles, various types of Regge trajectories, and the origin of the J-shifting approximation are also discussed.

  5. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  6. Integrated cladding-pumped multicore few-mode erbium-doped fibre amplifier for space-division-multiplexed communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Jin, C.; Huang, B.; Fontaine, N. K.; Ryf, R.; Shang, K.; Grégoire, N.; Morency, S.; Essiambre, R.-J.; Li, G.; Messaddeq, Y.; Larochelle, S.

    2016-08-01

    Space-division multiplexing (SDM), whereby multiple spatial channels in multimode and multicore optical fibres are used to increase the total transmission capacity per fibre, is being investigated to avert a data capacity crunch and reduce the cost per transmitted bit. With the number of channels employed in SDM transmission experiments continuing to rise, there is a requirement for integrated SDM components that are scalable. Here, we demonstrate a cladding-pumped SDM erbium-doped fibre amplifier (EDFA) that consists of six uncoupled multimode erbium-doped cores. Each core supports three spatial modes, which enables the EDFA to amplify a total of 18 spatial channels (six cores × three modes) simultaneously with a single pump diode and a complexity similar to a single-mode EDFA. The amplifier delivers >20 dBm total output power per core and <7 dB noise figure over the C-band. This cladding-pumped EDFA enables combined space-division and wavelength-division multiplexed transmission over multiple multimode fibre spans.

  7. Photonic integration enabling new multiplexing concepts in optical board-to-board and rack-to-rack interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostolopoulos, Dimitrios; Bakopoulos, Paraskevas; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitrios; Giannoulis, Giannis; Kanakis, Giannis; Iliadis, Nikos; Spatharakis, Christos; Bauwelinck, Johan; Avramopoulos, Hercules

    2014-03-01

    New broadband applications are causing the datacenters to proliferate, raising the bar for higher interconnection speeds. So far, optical board-to-board and rack-to-rack interconnects relied primarily on low-cost commodity optical components assembled in a single package. Although this concept proved successful in the first generations of opticalinterconnect modules, scalability is a daunting issue as signaling rates extend beyond 25 Gb/s. In this paper we present our work towards the development of two technology platforms for migration beyond Infiniband enhanced data rate (EDR), introducing new concepts in board-to-board and rack-to-rack interconnects. The first platform is developed in the framework of MIRAGE European project and relies on proven VCSEL technology, exploiting the inherent cost, yield, reliability and power consumption advantages of VCSELs. Wavelength multiplexing, PAM-4 modulation and multi-core fiber (MCF) multiplexing are introduced by combining VCSELs with integrated Si and glass photonics as well as BiCMOS electronics. An in-plane MCF-to-SOI interface is demonstrated, allowing coupling from the MCF cores to 340x400 nm Si waveguides. Development of a low-power VCSEL driver with integrated feed-forward equalizer is reported, allowing PAM-4 modulation of a bandwidth-limited VCSEL beyond 25 Gbaud. The second platform, developed within the frames of the European project PHOXTROT, considers the use of modulation formats of increased complexity in the context of optical interconnects. Powered by the evolution of DSP technology and towards an integration path between inter and intra datacenter traffic, this platform investigates optical interconnection system concepts capable to support 16QAM 40GBd data traffic, exploiting the advancements of silicon and polymer technologies.

  8. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  9. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.

    2009-05-01

    This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

  10. Novel System for Real-Time Integration of 3-D Echocardiography and Fluoroscopy for Image-Guided Cardiac Interventions: Preclinical Validation and Clinical Feasibility Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Housden, R. James; Ma, Yingliang; Rajani, Ronak; Gao, Gang; Nijhof, Niels; Cathier, Pascal; Bullens, Roland; Gijsbers, Geert; Parish, Victoria; Kapetanakis, Stamatis; Hancock, Jane; Rinaldi, C. Aldo; Cooklin, Michael; Gill, Jaswinder; Thomas, Martyn; O'neill, Mark D.; Razavi, Reza; Rhode, Kawal S.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time imaging is required to guide minimally invasive catheter-based cardiac interventions. While transesophageal echocardiography allows for high-quality visualization of cardiac anatomy, X-ray fluoroscopy provides excellent visualization of devices. We have developed a novel image fusion system that allows real-time integration of 3-D echocardiography and the X-ray fluoroscopy. The system was validated in the following two stages: 1) preclinical to determine function and validate accuracy; and 2) in the clinical setting to assess clinical workflow feasibility and determine overall system accuracy. In the preclinical phase, the system was assessed using both phantom and porcine experimental studies. Median 2-D projection errors of 4.5 and 3.3 mm were found for the phantom and porcine studies, respectively. The clinical phase focused on extending the use of the system to interventions in patients undergoing either atrial fibrillation catheter ablation (CA) or transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Eleven patients were studied with nine in the CA group and two in the TAVI group. Successful real-time view synchronization was achieved in all cases with a calculated median distance error of 2.2 mm in the CA group and 3.4 mm in the TAVI group. A standard clinical workflow was established using the image fusion system. These pilot data confirm the technical feasibility of accurate real-time echo-fluoroscopic image overlay in clinical practice, which may be a useful adjunct for real-time guidance during interventional cardiac procedures. PMID:27170872

  11. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  12. Mechanical integrity of a carbon nanotube/copper-based through-silicon via for 3D integrated circuits: a multi-scale modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Ibrahim; Ladani, Leila

    2015-12-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)/copper (Cu) composite material is proposed to replace Cu-based through-silicon vias (TSVs) in micro-electronic packages. The proposed material is believed to offer extraordinary mechanical and electrical properties and the presence of CNTs in Cu is believed to overcome issues associated with miniaturization of Cu interconnects, such as electromigration. This study introduces a multi-scale modeling of the proposed TSV in order to evaluate its mechanical integrity under mechanical and thermo-mechanical loading conditions. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was used to determine CNT/Cu interface adhesion properties. A cohesive zone model (CZM) was found to be most appropriate to model the interface adhesion, and CZM parameters at the nanoscale were determined using MD simulation. CZM parameters were then used in the finite element analysis in order to understand the mechanical and thermo-mechanical behavior of composite TSV at micro-scale. From the results, CNT/Cu separation does not take place prior to plastic deformation of Cu in bending, and separation does not take place when standard thermal cycling is applied. Further investigation is recommended in order to alleviate the increased plastic deformation in Cu at the CNT/Cu interface in both loading conditions.

  13. Mechanical integrity of a carbon nanotube/copper-based through-silicon via for 3D integrated circuits: a multi-scale modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Awad, Ibrahim; Ladani, Leila

    2015-12-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)/copper (Cu) composite material is proposed to replace Cu-based through-silicon vias (TSVs) in micro-electronic packages. The proposed material is believed to offer extraordinary mechanical and electrical properties and the presence of CNTs in Cu is believed to overcome issues associated with miniaturization of Cu interconnects, such as electromigration. This study introduces a multi-scale modeling of the proposed TSV in order to evaluate its mechanical integrity under mechanical and thermo-mechanical loading conditions. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was used to determine CNT/Cu interface adhesion properties. A cohesive zone model (CZM) was found to be most appropriate to model the interface adhesion, and CZM parameters at the nanoscale were determined using MD simulation. CZM parameters were then used in the finite element analysis in order to understand the mechanical and thermo-mechanical behavior of composite TSV at micro-scale. From the results, CNT/Cu separation does not take place prior to plastic deformation of Cu in bending, and separation does not take place when standard thermal cycling is applied. Further investigation is recommended in order to alleviate the increased plastic deformation in Cu at the CNT/Cu interface in both loading conditions.

  14. Mechanical integrity of a carbon nanotube/copper-based through-silicon via for 3D integrated circuits: a multi-scale modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Awad, Ibrahim; Ladani, Leila

    2015-12-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)/copper (Cu) composite material is proposed to replace Cu-based through-silicon vias (TSVs) in micro-electronic packages. The proposed material is believed to offer extraordinary mechanical and electrical properties and the presence of CNTs in Cu is believed to overcome issues associated with miniaturization of Cu interconnects, such as electromigration. This study introduces a multi-scale modeling of the proposed TSV in order to evaluate its mechanical integrity under mechanical and thermo-mechanical loading conditions. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was used to determine CNT/Cu interface adhesion properties. A cohesive zone model (CZM) was found to be most appropriate to model the interface adhesion, and CZM parameters at the nanoscale were determined using MD simulation. CZM parameters were then used in the finite element analysis in order to understand the mechanical and thermo-mechanical behavior of composite TSV at micro-scale. From the results, CNT/Cu separation does not take place prior to plastic deformation of Cu in bending, and separation does not take place when standard thermal cycling is applied. Further investigation is recommended in order to alleviate the increased plastic deformation in Cu at the CNT/Cu interface in both loading conditions. PMID:26559788

  15. 5-Gb/s 0.18-μm CMOS 2:1 multiplexer with integrated clock extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changchun, Zhang; Zhigong, Wang; Si, Shi; Peng, Miao; Ling, Tian

    2009-09-01

    A 5-Gb/s 2:1 MUX (multiplexer) with an on-chip integrated clock extraction circuit which possesses the function of automatic phase alignment (APA), has been designed and fabricated in SMIC's 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The chip area is 670 × 780 μm2. At a single supply voltage of 1.8 V, the total power consumption is 112 mW with an input sensitivity of less than 50 mV and an output single-ended swing of above 300 mV. The measurement results show that the IC can work reliably at any input data rate between 1.8 and 2.6 Gb/s with no need for external components, reference clock, or phase alignment between data and clock. It can be used in a parallel optic-fiber data interconnecting system.

  16. Integrated switchable mode exchange for reconfigurable mode-multiplexing optical networks.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chunlei; Yu, Yu; Chen, Guanyu; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-07-15

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an on-chip switchable mode exchange utilizing a Mach-Zehnder interferometer assisted by a phase shifter. The switchable functionality, which is essential for an advanced and reconfigurable optical network, can be realized by controlling the induced phase difference. The measured extinction ratio is ∼24  dB over the C band for OFF-ON switchover. For demonstration, open and clear-eye diagrams can be observed when processing non-return-to-zero on-off keying signals at 10 Gb/s. The bit error rate measurements indicate a reasonable power penalty of less than 1 dB for two-mode exchange. The proposed device can further promote advanced and flexible mode-multiplexing optical networks. PMID:27420509

  17. Venus in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaut, J. J.

    1993-08-01

    Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.

  18. 3D reservoir visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Van, B.T.; Pajon, J.L.; Joseph, P. )

    1991-11-01

    This paper shows how some simple 3D computer graphics tools can be combined to provide efficient software for visualizing and analyzing data obtained from reservoir simulators and geological simulations. The animation and interactive capabilities of the software quickly provide a deep understanding of the fluid-flow behavior and an accurate idea of the internal architecture of a reservoir.

  19. 3D-Printed Fluidic Devices for Nanoparticle Preparation and Flow-Injection Amperometry Using Integrated Prussian Blue Nanoparticle-Modified Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite, Jennifer E.; Bhakta, Snehasis; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Gillette, Kelsey M.; Chen, Eric; Rusling, James F.

    2015-01-01

    A consumer-grade fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3D printer was used to construct fluidic devices for nanoparticle preparation and electrochemical sensing. Devices were printed using poly(ethylene terephthalate) and featured threaded ports to connect polyetheretherketone (PEEK) tubing via printed fittings prepared from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). These devices included channels designed to have 800 × 800 µm2 square cross sections and were semitransparent to allow visualization of the solution-filled channels. A 3D-printed device with a Y-shaped mixing channel was used to prepare Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) under flow rates of 100 to 2000 µL min−1. PBNPs were then attached to gold electrodes for hydrogen peroxide sensing. 3D-printed devices used for electrochemical measurements featured threaded access ports into which a fitting equipped with reference, counter, and PBNP-modified working electrodes could be inserted. PBNP-modified electrodes enabled amperometric detection of H2O2 in the 3D-printed channel by flow-injection analysis, exhibiting a detection limit of 100 nM and linear response up to 20 µM. These experiments show that a consumer-grade FFF printer can be used to fabricate low-cost fluidic devices for applications similar to those that have been reported with more expensive 3D-printing methods. PMID:25901660

  20. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  1. Kinematic Analysis of Fold-Thrust-Belt Using Integrated Analogue Sandbox Modeling and 3D Palinspatic Reconstructions in Babar-Selaru Area, Banda Sea Region, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapiie, Benyamin; Hadiana, Meli; Kurniawan, Ade; Daniel, Dicky; Danio, Harya; Fujimoto, Masamichi; Ohara, Michio; Alam Perdana, Lisnanda; Saputra, Afif

    2016-04-01

    Kinematic analysis of Babar-Selaru fold-thrust-belt is challenging and often difficult particularly in conducting seismic interpretation due to complex structural geometries. Resolving such as issue, in this study we proposed to use integrated seismic interpretation, analogue sandbox modeling and 3D palinspatic reconstructions. This paper is presented results of detail kinematic analysis for understanding tectonic evolution as well as mechanism of fold-thrust-belt in relation to their hydrocarbon prospect. Babar-Selaru Area is located within the collisional boundary between Australian continental margin and Banda Arc region of Indonesia. The area is characterized by complex deformation zone of fold-thrust-belt, involving Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary sequences of Australian continental margin. The age of deformation is ranging from 8-5 Ma. Seismic interpretations show two styles of faults developed in the area, which are thrust and normal faults system. The last deformation observed in the Babar Selaru area is controlled by south verging imbricated thin-skinned thrust fault system, with the staircase style of fault detachment. Although, both structural styles occurred in separated locations, they are formed not only in the same time but also related in time and space. Total extension is ranging from 1-3 % where average shortening is in the order of 35-38%. Sandbox modeling is an effective way to study and understand the style, pattern and geometry of the deformed sedimentary sequences in the study area. Based on comparison of five settings experiments (mainly different geological boundary condition) with more than 50 different modeling; deformation is particularly controlled by types and thickness of lithology package and detachment geometry. These two parameters were quite sensitive in generating different deformation style and pattern in Babar-Selaru fold-thrust-belt. Therefore, choosing the right combination of stratigraphy model and material setting are

  2. Integrating depth functions and hyper-scale terrain analysis for 3D soil organic carbon modeling in agricultural fields at regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Lopez, L.; van Wesemael, B.; Stevens, A.; Doetterl, S.; Van Oost, K.; Behrens, T.; Schmidt, K.

    2012-04-01

    different depth functions, ii. The use of different machine learning approaches for modeling the parameters of the fitted depth functions using the ConMap features and iii. The influence of different spatial scales on the SOC profile distribution variability. Keywords: 3D modeling, Digital soil mapping, Depth functions, Terrain analysis. Reference Behrens, T., K. Schmidt, K., Zhu, A.X. Scholten, T. 2010. The ConMap approach for terrain-based digital soil mapping. European Journal of Soil Science, v. 61, p.133-143.

  3. 3D rapid mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaksson, Folke; Borg, Johan; Haglund, Leif

    2008-04-01

    In this paper the performance of passive range measurement imaging using stereo technique in real time applications is described. Stereo vision uses multiple images to get depth resolution in a similar way as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) uses multiple measurements to obtain better spatial resolution. This technique has been used in photogrammetry for a long time but it will be shown that it is now possible to do the calculations, with carefully designed image processing algorithms, in e.g. a PC in real time. In order to get high resolution and quantitative data in the stereo estimation a mathematical camera model is used. The parameters to the camera model are settled in a calibration rig or in the case of a moving camera the scene itself can be used for calibration of most of the parameters. After calibration an ordinary TV camera has an angular resolution like a theodolite, but to a much lower price. The paper will present results from high resolution 3D imagery from air to ground. The 3D-results from stereo calculation of image pairs are stitched together into a large database to form a 3D-model of the area covered.

  4. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie

    2015-01-09

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  5. Chopped molecular beam multiplexing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Billy R. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    The integration of a chopped molecular beam mass spectrometer with a time multiplexing system is described. The chopping of the molecular beam is synchronized with the time intervals by a phase detector and a synchronous motor. Arithmetic means are generated for phase shifting the chopper with respect to the multiplexer. A four channel amplifier provides the capacity to independently vary the baseline and amplitude in each channel of the multiplexing system.

  6. [3D reconstructions in radiotherapy planning].

    PubMed

    Schlegel, W

    1991-10-01

    3D Reconstructions from tomographic images are used in the planning of radiation therapy to study important anatomical structures such as the body surface, target volumes, and organs at risk. The reconstructed anatomical models are used to define the geometry of the radiation beams. In addition, 3D voxel models are used for the calculation of the 3D dose distributions with an accuracy, previously impossible to achieve. Further uses of 3D reconstructions are in the display and evaluation of 3D therapy plans, and in the transfer of treatment planning parameters to the irradiation situation with the help of digitally reconstructed radiographs. 3D tomographic imaging with subsequent 3D reconstruction must be regarded as a completely new basis for the planning of radiation therapy, enabling tumor-tailored radiation therapy of localized target volumes with increased radiation doses and improved sparing of organs at risk. 3D treatment planning is currently being evaluated in clinical trials in connection with the new treatment techniques of conformation radiotherapy. Early experience with 3D treatment planning shows that its clinical importance in radiotherapy is growing, but will only become a standard radiotherapy tool when volumetric CT scanning, reliable and user-friendly treatment planning software, and faster and cheaper PACS-integrated medical work stations are accessible to radiotherapists.

  7. Taming supersymmetric defects in 3d-3d correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Dongmin; Kim, Nakwoo; Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-07-01

    We study knots in 3d Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group {SL}(N,{{C}}), in the context of its relation with 3d { N }=2 theory (the so-called 3d-3d correspondence). The defect has either co-dimension 2 or co-dimension 4 inside the 6d (2,0) theory, which is compactified on a 3-manifold \\hat{M}. We identify such defects in various corners of the 3d-3d correspondence, namely in 3d {SL}(N,{{C}}) CS theory, in 3d { N }=2 theory, in 5d { N }=2 super Yang-Mills theory, and in the M-theory holographic dual. We can make quantitative checks of the 3d-3d correspondence by computing partition functions at each of these theories. This Letter is a companion to a longer paper [1], which contains more details and more results.

  8. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  9. Integrated Tsunami Database: simulation and identification of seismic tsunami sources, 3D visualization and post-disaster assessment on the shore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivorot'ko, Olga; Kabanikhin, Sergey; Marinin, Igor; Karas, Adel; Khidasheli, David

    2013-04-01

    One of the most important problems of tsunami investigation is the problem of seismic tsunami source reconstruction. Non-profit organization WAPMERR (http://wapmerr.org) has provided a historical database of alleged tsunami sources around the world that obtained with the help of information about seaquakes. WAPMERR also has a database of observations of the tsunami waves in coastal areas. The main idea of presentation consists of determining of the tsunami source parameters using seismic data and observations of the tsunami waves on the shore, and the expansion and refinement of the database of presupposed tsunami sources for operative and accurate prediction of hazards and assessment of risks and consequences. Also we present 3D visualization of real-time tsunami wave propagation and loss assessment, characterizing the nature of the building stock in cities at risk, and monitoring by satellite images using modern GIS technology ITRIS (Integrated Tsunami Research and Information System) developed by WAPMERR and Informap Ltd. The special scientific plug-in components are embedded in a specially developed GIS-type graphic shell for easy data retrieval, visualization and processing. The most suitable physical models related to simulation of tsunamis are based on shallow water equations. We consider the initial-boundary value problem in Ω := {(x,y) ?R2 : x ?(0,Lx ), y ?(0,Ly ), Lx,Ly > 0} for the well-known linear shallow water equations in the Cartesian coordinate system in terms of the liquid flow components in dimensional form Here ?(x,y,t) defines the free water surface vertical displacement, i.e. amplitude of a tsunami wave, q(x,y) is the initial amplitude of a tsunami wave. The lateral boundary is assumed to be a non-reflecting boundary of the domain, that is, it allows the free passage of the propagating waves. Assume that the free surface oscillation data at points (xm, ym) are given as a measured output data from tsunami records: fm(t) := ? (xm, ym,t), (xm

  10. Pseudo single crystal, direct-band-gap Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} on amorphous dielectric layers towards monolithic 3D photonic integration

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Haofeng; Brouillet, Jeremy; Wang, Xiaoxin; Liu, Jifeng

    2014-11-17

    We demonstrate pseudo single crystal, direct-band-gap Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} crystallized on amorphous layers at <450 °C towards 3D Si photonic integration. We developed two approaches to seed the lateral single crystal growth: (1) utilize the Gibbs-Thomson eutectic temperature depression at the tip of an amorphous GeSn nanotaper for selective nucleation; (2) laser-induced nucleation at one end of a GeSn strip. Either way, the crystallized Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} is dominated by a single grain >18 μm long that forms optoelectronically benign twin boundaries with others grains. These pseudo single crystal, direct-band-gap Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} patterns are suitable for monolithic 3D integration of active photonic devices on Si.

  11. FIT3D: Fitting optical spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; González, J. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Cano-Díaz, M.; López-Cobá, C.; Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Mollá, M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.

    2016-09-01

    FIT3D fits optical spectra to deblend the underlying stellar population and the ionized gas, and extract physical information from each component. FIT3D is focused on the analysis of Integral Field Spectroscopy data, but is not restricted to it, and is the basis of Pipe3D, a pipeline used in the analysis of datasets like CALIFA, MaNGA, and SAMI. It can run iteratively or in an automatic way to derive the parameters of a large set of spectra.

  12. An integrated multidisciplinary re-evaluation of the geothermal system at Valles Caldera, New Mexico, using an immersive three-dimensional (3D) visualization environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, A.; Bennett, S. E.; Wildgoose, M.; Cantwell, C.; Elliott, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    We describe an approach to explore the spatial relationships of a geothermal resource by examining diverse geological, geophysical, and geochemical data sets using the immersive 3-dimensional (3D) visualization capabilities of the UC Davis Keck Center for Active Visualization in the Earth Sciences (KeckCAVES). The KeckCAVES is a facility where stereoscopic images are projected onto four, surfaces (three walls and a floor), which the user perceives as a seamless 3D image of the data. The user can manipulate and interact with the data, allowing a more intuitive interpretation of data set relationships than is possible with traditional 2-dimensional techniques. We incorporate multiple data sets of the geothermal system at Valles Caldera, New Mexico: topography, lithology, faults, temperature, alteration mineralogy, and magnetotellurics. With the ability to rapidly and intuitively observe data relationships, we are able to efficiently and rapidly draw conclusions about the subsurface architecture of the Valles Caldera geothermal system. We identify two high-temperature anomalies, one that corresponds with normal faults along the western caldera ring fracture, and one that with the resurgent dome. A cold-temperature anomaly identified adjacent to the resurgent dome high-temperature anomaly appears to relate to a fault controlled graben valley that acts as a recharge zone, likely funneling cold meteoric water into the subsurface along normal faults observed on published maps and cross sections. These high-temperature anomalies broadly correspond to subsurface regions where previous magnetotelluric studies have identified low apparent resistivity. Existing hot springs in the Sulfur Springs area correspond to the only location where our modeled 100°C isotherm intersects the ground surface. Correlation between the first occurrence of key alteration minerals (pyrite, chlorite, epidote) in previously drilled boreholes and our temperature model vary, with chlorite showing a

  13. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  14. Multiplexing electro-optic architectures for advanced aircraft integrated flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seal, D. W.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the results of a 10 month program sponsored by NASA. The objective of this program was to evaluate various optical sensor modulation technologies and to design an optimal Electro-Optic Architecture (EOA) for servicing remote clusters of sensors and actuators in advanced aircraft flight control systems. The EOA's supply optical power to remote sensors and actuators, process the modulated optical signals returned from the sensors, and produce conditioned electrical signals acceptable for use by a digital flight control computer or Vehicle Management System (VMS) computer. This study was part of a multi-year initiative under the Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program to design, develop, and test a totally integrated fiber optic flight/propulsion control system for application to advanced aircraft. Unlike earlier FOCSI studies, this program concentrated on the design of the EOA interface rather than the optical transducer technology itself.

  15. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  16. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  17. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  18. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  19. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  20. Martian terrain - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This area of terrain near the Sagan Memorial Station was taken on Sol 3 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  1. DNA analysis using an integrated microchip for multiplex PCR amplification and electrophoresis for reference samples.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Delphine; Root, Brian E; Reedy, Carmen R; Hickey, Jeffrey A; Scott, Orion N; Bienvenue, Joan M; Landers, James P; Chassagne, Luc; de Mazancourt, Philippe

    2014-08-19

    A system that automatically performs the PCR amplification and microchip electrophoretic (ME) separation for rapid forensic short tandem repeat (STR) forensic profiling in a single disposable plastic chip is demonstrated. The microchip subassays were optimized to deliver results comparable to conventional benchtop methods. The microchip process was accomplished in sub-90 min compared with >2.5 h for the conventional approach. An infrared laser with a noncontact temperature sensing system was optimized for a 45 min PCR compared with the conventional 90 min amplification time. The separation conditions were optimized using LPA-co-dihexylacrylamide block copolymers specifically designed for microchip separations to achieve accurate DNA size calling in an effective length of 7 cm in a plastic microchip. This effective separation length is less than half of other reports for integrated STR analysis and allows a compact, inexpensive microchip design. This separation quality was maintained when integrated with microchip PCR. Thirty samples were analyzed conventionally and then compared with data generated by the microfluidic chip system. The microfluidic system allele calling was 100% concordant with the conventional process. This study also investigated allelic ladder consistency over time. The PCR-ME genetic profiles were analyzed using binning palettes generated from two sets of allelic ladders run three and six months apart. Using these binning palettes, no allele calling errors were detected in the 30 samples demonstrating that a microfluidic platform can be highly consistent over long periods of time.

  2. Integrated Particle Handling Methods for Multiplexed Microbial Identification and Characterization in Sediments and Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Darrell P. Chandler; Ann E. Jarrell; Craig S. Criddle

    2004-03-17

    Molecular methods are still relatively ineffectual for monitoring community dynamics during bioremediation, due primarily to the cost, technical difficulty and retrospective nature of the analyses. For nucleic acid analyses to meaningfully contribute to bioremediation efforts they must not only contribute to the fundamental understanding of microbial ecology, but also be formatted in such a manner that infield analysis can be achieved. The objective of this project is therefore to develop an integrated microbial and nucleic acid detection method and prototype system for the characterization and analysis of subsurface sediments, focusing on the molecular detection of metal and sulfate-reducing bacteria and activity in sediments obtained from the Oak Ridge Field Research Center. We are meeting this objective by combining environmental molecular microbiology with renewable surface techniques, microfluidic systems and microparticle analytical chemistry. The fluidic systems are used to evaluate hypotheses on the integrated biochemistry that is necessary to directly detect 16S rRNA from metal-reducing microbial communities on a suspension microarray, without using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These investigations include the use of peptide nucleic acid capture and detection probes and 'tunable surface' concepts to increase nucleic acid capture and detection efficiency and/or mitigate interferences due to co-extracted humic acids. The unified microparticle sample preparation method and suspension array is then used to characterize the 16S rRNA metal- and sulfate-reducing microbial community in FRC sediments before and after biostimulation.

  3. 3D modelling of the active normal fault network in the Apulian Ridge (Eastern Mediterranean Sea): Integration of seismic and bathymetric data with implicit surface methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bistacchi, Andrea; Pellegrini, Caludio; Savini, Alessandra; Marchese, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    The Apulian ridge (North-eastern Ionian Sea, Mediterranean), interposed between the facing Apennines and Hellenides subduction zones (to the west and east respectively), is characterized by thick cretaceous carbonatic sequences and discontinuous tertiary deposits crosscut by a penetrative network of NNW-SSE normal faults. These are exposed onshore in Puglia, and are well represented offshore in a dataset composed of 2D seismics and wells collected by oil companies from the '60s to the '80s, more recent seismics collected during research projects in the '90s, recent very high resolution seismics (VHRS - Sparker and Chirp-sonar data), multibeam echosounder bathymetry, and sedimentological and geo-chronological analyses of sediment samples collected on the seabed. Faults are evident in 2D seismics at all scales, and their along-strike geometry and continuity can be characterized with multibeam bathymetric data, which show continuous fault scarps on the seabed (only partly reworked by currents and covered by landslides). Fault scarps also reveal the finite displacement accumulated in the Holocene-Pleistocene. We reconstructed a 3D model of the fault network and suitable geological boundaries (mainly unconformities due to the discontinuous distribution of quaternary and tertiary sediments) with implicit surface methods implemented in SKUA/GOCAD. This approach can be considered very effective and allowed reconstructing in details complex structures, like the frequent relay zones that are particularly well imaged by seafloor geomorphology. Mutual cross-cutting relationships have been recognized between fault scarps and submarine mass-wasting deposits (Holocene-Pleistocene), indicating that, at least in places, these features are coeval, hence the fault network should be considered active. At the regional scale, the 3D model allowed measuring the horizontal WSW-ENE stretching, which can be associated to the bending moment applied to the Apulian Plate by the combined effect

  4. Integrating proximal soil sensing techniques and terrain indexes to generate 3D maps of soil restrictive layers in the Palouse region, Washington, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggio, Matteo; Brown, David J.; Gasch, Caley K.; Brooks, Erin S.; Yourek, Matt A.

    2015-04-01

    In the Palouse region of eastern Washington and northern Idaho (USA), spatially discontinuous restrictive layers impede rooting growth and water infiltration. Consequently, accurate maps showing the depth and spatial extent of these restrictive layers are essential for watershed hydrologic modeling appropriate for precision agriculture. In this presentation, we report on the use of a Visible and Near-Infrared (VisNIR) penetrometer fore optic to construct detailed maps of three wheat fields in the Palouse region. The VisNIR penetrometer was used to deliver in situ soil reflectance to an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD, Boulder, CO, USA) spectrometer and simultaneously acquire insertion force. With a hydraulic push-type soil coring systems for insertion (e.g. Giddings), we collected soil spectra and insertion force data along 41m x 41m grid points (2 fields) and 50m x 50m grid points (1 field) to ≈80cm depth, in addition to interrogation points at 36 representative instrumented locations per field. At each of the 36 instrumented locations, two soil cores were extracted for laboratory determination of clay content and bulk density. We developed calibration models of soil clay content and bulk density with spectra and insertion force collected in situ, using partial least squares regression 2 (PLSR2). Applying spline functions, we delineated clay and bulk density profiles at each points (grid and 24 locations). The soil profiles were then used as inputs in a regression-kriging model with terrain indexes and ECa data (derived from an EM38 field survey, Geonics, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada) as covariates to generate 3D soil maps. Preliminary results show that the VisNIR penetrometer can capture the spatial patterns of restrictive layers. Work is ongoing to evaluate the prediction accuracy of penetrometer-derived 3D clay content and restriction layer maps.

  5. 3D holoscopic video imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steurer, Johannes H.; Pesch, Matthias; Hahne, Christopher

    2012-03-01

    Since many years, integral imaging has been discussed as a technique to overcome the limitations of standard still photography imaging systems where a three-dimensional scene is irrevocably projected onto two dimensions. With the success of 3D stereoscopic movies, a huge interest in capturing three-dimensional motion picture scenes has been generated. In this paper, we present a test bench integral imaging camera system aiming to tailor the methods of light field imaging towards capturing integral 3D motion picture content. We estimate the hardware requirements needed to generate high quality 3D holoscopic images and show a prototype camera setup that allows us to study these requirements using existing technology. The necessary steps that are involved in the calibration of the system as well as the technique of generating human readable holoscopic images from the recorded data are discussed.

  6. 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology. PMID:25093879

  7. Charging YOYO-1 on capillary wall for online DNA intercalation and integrating this approach with multiplex PCR and bare narrow capillary-hydrodynamic chromatography for online DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huang; Zhu, Zaifang; Lu, Joann Juan; Liu, Shaorong

    2015-02-01

    Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been widely utilized for high-throughput pathogen identification. Often, a dye is used to intercalate the amplified DNA fragments, and identifications of the pathogens are carried out by DNA melting curve analysis or gel electrophoresis. Integrating DNA amplification and identification is a logic path toward maximizing the benefit of multiplex PCR. Although PCR and gel electrophoresis have been integrated, replenishing the gels after each run is tedious and time-consuming. In this technical note, we develop an approach to address this issue. We perform multiplex PCR inside a capillary, transfer the amplified fragments to a bare narrow capillary, and measure their lengths online using bare narrow capillary-hydrodynamic chromatography (BaNC-HDC), a new technique recently developed in our laboratory for free-solution DNA separation. To intercalate the DNA with YOYO-1 (a fluorescent dye) for BaNC-HDC, we flush the capillary column with a YOYO-1 solution; positively charged YOYO-1 is adsorbed (or charged) onto the negatively charged capillary wall. As DNA molecules are driven down the column for separation, they react with the YOYO-1 stored on the capillary wall and are online-intercalated with the dye. With a single YOYO-1 charging, the column can be used for more than 40 runs, although the fluorescence signal intensities of the DNA peaks decrease gradually. Although the dye-DNA intercalation occurs during the separation, it does not affect the retention times, separation efficiencies, or resolutions. PMID:25555111

  8. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication. PMID:26869728

  9. Modeling Cellular Processes in 3-D

    PubMed Central

    Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

    2011-01-01

    Summary Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated, we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3-D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3-D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3-D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2-D or 1-D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3-D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling. PMID:22036197

  10. The rendering context for stereoscopic 3D web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qinshui; Wang, Wenmin; Wang, Ronggang

    2014-03-01

    3D technologies on the Web has been studied for many years, but they are basically monoscopic 3D. With the stereoscopic technology gradually maturing, we are researching to integrate the binocular 3D technology into the Web, creating a stereoscopic 3D browser that will provide users with a brand new experience of human-computer interaction. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to apply stereoscopy technologies to the CSS3 3D Transforms. Under our model, each element can create or participate in a stereoscopic 3D rendering context, in which 3D Transforms such as scaling, translation and rotation, can be applied and be perceived in a truly 3D space. We first discuss the underlying principles of stereoscopy. After that we discuss how these principles can be applied to the Web. A stereoscopic 3D browser with backward compatibility is also created for demonstration purposes. We take advantage of the open-source WebKit project, integrating the 3D display ability into the rendering engine of the web browser. For each 3D web page, our 3D browser will create two slightly different images, each representing the left-eye view and right-eye view, both to be combined on the 3D display to generate the illusion of depth. And as the result turns out, elements can be manipulated in a truly 3D space.

  11. An automated integrated platform for rapid and sensitive multiplexed protein profiling using human saliva samples

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Shuai; Henley, W. Hampton; Miller, Scott E.; Zhang, Huaibin; Mayer, Kathryn M.; Dennis, Patty J.; Oblath, Emily A.; Alarie, Jean Pierre; Wu, Yue; Oppenheim, Frank G.; Little, Frédéric F.; Uluer, Ahmet Z.; Wang, Peidong; Ramsey, J. Michael

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, saliva has emerged as a potentially ideal diagnostic biofluid for noninvasive testing. In this paper, we present an automated, integrated platform useable by minimally trained personnel in the field for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases using human saliva as a sample specimen. In this platform, a saliva sample is loaded onto a disposable microfluidic chip containing all the necessary reagents and components required for saliva analysis. The chip is then inserted into the automated analyzer, the SDReader, where multiple potential protein biomarkers for respiratory diseases are measured simultaneously using a microsphere-based array via fluorescence sandwich immunoassays. The results are read optically, and the images are analyzed by a custom-designed algorithm. The fully automated assay requires as little as 10 μL of saliva sample, and the results are reported in 70 min. The performance of the platform was characterized by testing protein standard solutions, and the results were comparable to those from the 3.5-h lab bench assay that we have previously reported. The device was also deployed in two clinical environments where 273 human saliva samples collected from different subjects were successfully tested, demonstrating the device’s potential to assist clinicians with the diagnosis of respiratory diseases by providing timely protein biomarker profiling information. This platform, which combines non-invasive sample collection and fully automated analysis, can also be utilized in point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:24448498

  12. Demonstration of a Novel, Integrated, Multi-Scale Procedure for High-Resolution 3D Reservoir Characterization and Improved CO2-EOR/Sequestration Management, SACROC Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Scott R. Reeves

    2007-09-30

    The primary goal of this project was to demonstrate a new and novel approach for high resolution, 3D reservoir characterization that can enable better management of CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects and, looking to the future, carbon sequestration projects. The approach adopted has been the subject of previous research by the DOE and others, and relies primarily upon data-mining and advanced pattern recognition approaches. This approach honors all reservoir characterization data collected, but accepts that our understanding of how these measurements relate to the information of most interest, such as how porosity and permeability vary over a reservoir volume, is imperfect. Ideally the data needed for such an approach includes surface seismic to provide the greatest amount of data over the entire reservoir volume of interest, crosswell seismic to fill the resolution gap between surface seismic and wellbore-scale measurements, geophysical well logs to provide the vertical resolution sought, and core data to provide the tie to the information of most interest. These data are combined via a series of one or more relational models to enable, in its most successful application, the prediction of porosity and permeability on a vertical resolution similar to logs at each surface seismic trace location. In this project, the procedure was applied to the giant (and highly complex) SACROC unit of the Permian basin in West Texas, one of the world's largest CO{sub 2}-EOR projects and a potentially world-class geologic sequestration site. Due to operational scheduling considerations on the part of the operator of the field, the crosswell data was not obtained during the period of project performance (it is currently being collected however as part of another DOE project). This compromised the utility of the surface seismic data for the project due to the resolution gap between it and the geophysical well logs. An alternative approach was adopted that utilized a

  13. 3D Reservoir Modeling of Semutang Gas Field: A lonely Gas field in Chittagong-Tripura Fold Belt, with Integrated Well Log, 2D Seismic Reflectivity and Attributes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehin, Z.; Woobaidullah, A. S. M.; Snigdha, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Bengal Basin with its prolific gas rich province provides needed energy to Bangladesh. Present energy situation demands more Hydrocarbon explorations. Only 'Semutang' is discovered in the high amplitude structures, where rest of are in the gentle to moderate structures of western part of Chittagong-Tripura Fold Belt. But it has some major thrust faults which have strongly breached the reservoir zone. The major objectives of this research are interpretation of gas horizons and faults, then to perform velocity model, structural and property modeling to obtain reservoir properties. It is needed to properly identify the faults and reservoir heterogeneities. 3D modeling is widely used to reveal the subsurface structure in faulted zone where planning and development drilling is major challenge. Thirteen 2D seismic and six well logs have been used to identify six gas bearing horizons and a network of faults and to map the structure at reservoir level. Variance attributes were used to identify faults. Velocity model is performed for domain conversion. Synthetics were prepared from two wells where sonic and density logs are available. Well to seismic tie at reservoir zone shows good match with Direct Hydrocarbon Indicator on seismic section. Vsh, porosity, water saturation and permeability have been calculated and various cross plots among porosity logs have been shown. Structural modeling is used to make zone and layering accordance with minimum sand thickness. Fault model shows the possible fault network, those liable for several dry wells. Facies model have been constrained with Sequential Indicator Simulation method to show the facies distribution along the depth surfaces. Petrophysical models have been prepared with Sequential Gaussian Simulation to estimate petrophysical parameters away from the existing wells to other parts of the field and to observe heterogeneities in reservoir. Average porosity map for each gas zone were constructed. The outcomes of the research

  14. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

    2004-09-01

    , and scout ticket data were integrated with the 3D interpretations to evaluate drilling opportunities resulting in an initial three well drilling program. Thousands of miles of signed bit data exist. Much of this data was processed during a time when software and hardware capabilities were either incapable or cost prohibitive to glean the full potential of the data. In fact in some circles signed bit gained an undeserved reputation for being less than optimum. As a consequence much of the older signed bit data sits on the shelf long forgotten or overlooked. With the high cost of new acquisition and permitting it might behoove other exploration companies to reconsider resurrecting perfectly viable existing volumes and have them reprocessed at a fraction of the cost of new acquisition.

  15. Eye-tracking and EMG supported 3D Virtual Reality - an integrated tool for perceptual and motor development of children with severe physical disabilities: a research concept.

    PubMed

    Pulay, Márk Ágoston

    2015-01-01

    Letting children with severe physical disabilities (like Tetraparesis spastica) to get relevant motional experiences of appropriate quality and quantity is now the greatest challenge for us in the field of neurorehabilitation. These motional experiences may establish many cognitive processes, but may also cause additional secondary cognitive dysfunctions such as disorders in body image, figure invariance, visual perception, auditory differentiation, concentration, analytic and synthetic ways of thinking, visual memory etc. Virtual Reality is a technology that provides a sense of presence in a real environment with the help of 3D pictures and animations formed in a computer environment and enable the person to interact with the objects in that environment. One of our biggest challenges is to find a well suited input device (hardware) to let the children with severe physical disabilities to interact with the computer. Based on our own experiences and a thorough literature review we have come to the conclusion that an effective combination of eye-tracking and EMG devices should work well.

  16. Numerical simulations on inter-page crosstalk characteristics in three-dimensional shift multiplexed self-referential holographic data storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eto, Taisuke; Takabayashi, Masanori; Okamoto, Atsushi; Bunsen, Masatoshi; Okamoto, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) shift multiplexing technique is applied to increase the number of multiplexed datapages in self-referential holographic data storage (SR-HDS), enabling holographic recording with purely one-beam geometry. In the 3D shift multiplexing technique, the recording medium is shifted not only along the x- and y-axes but also along the z-axis to multiplex the datapages. Because the shift directions in the 3D shift multiplexing technique are expanded compared with the conventional 2D technique, the number of multiplexed datapages is expected to be increased. We numerically clarify the appropriate 3D recording layout of holograms in which the effect of the inter-page crosstalk can be reduced after showing that datapages are multiplexed on shifting the recording medium along the z-axis. The results show 3D shift multiplexing can effectively realize high-density SR-HDS when appropriately designed layouts are used.

  17. Integrated 3D view of postmating responses by the Drosophila melanogaster female reproductive tract, obtained by micro-computed tomography scanning.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Alexandra L; Riccio, Mark L; Avila, Frank W; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2015-07-01

    Physiological changes in females during and after mating are triggered by seminal fluid components in conjunction with female-derived molecules. In insects, these changes include increased egg production, storage of sperm, and changes in muscle contraction within the reproductive tract (RT). Such postmating changes have been studied in dissected RT tissues, but understanding their coordination in vivo requires a holistic view of the tissues and their interrelationships. Here, we used high-resolution, multiscale micro-computed tomography (CT) scans to visualize and measure postmating changes in situ in the Drosophila female RT before, during, and after mating. These studies reveal previously unidentified dynamic changes in the conformation of the female RT that occur after mating. Our results also reveal how the reproductive organs temporally shift in concert within the confines of the abdomen. For example, we observed chiral loops in the uterus and in the upper common oviduct that relax and constrict throughout sperm storage and egg movement. We found that specific seminal fluid proteins or female secretions mediate some of the postmating changes in morphology. The morphological movements, in turn, can cause further changes due to the connections among organs. In addition, we observed apparent copulatory damage to the female intima, suggesting a mechanism for entry of seminal proteins, or other exogenous components, into the female's circulatory system. The 3D reconstructions provided by high-resolution micro-CT scans reveal how male and female molecules and anatomy interface to carry out and coordinate mating-dependent changes in the female's reproductive physiology.

  18. Data analysis tools for 3D dosimetry: the use of CERR as a platform to integrate and compare measurements and treatment planning information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deasy, Joe; Apte, Aditya

    2010-11-01

    CERR, the Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research, is a mature Matlab-based application that allows users to visualize and analyze 3D treatment planning data exported using standard protocols from clinical treatment planning systems. In this presentation we will give an in-depth discussion of the use of CERR as a tool to analyze measurements compared to expected treatment planning systems. Extensions to CERR allow for straightforward import and registration of experimental data with the planning data. These tools allow users to compare the match between measurement and treatment planning calculation in detail, as provided by profile plots and other tools. Custom Matlab scripts can also be developed, providing complete flexibility in analysis methods. In addition, several offshoot tools have been developed by our group to facilitate dosimetric data analysis, including: A film QA tool, developed under a contract for the Radiological Physics Center (RPC), and a Monte Carlo recalculation tool, also developed under the same contract for the RPC. The film QA tool is meant to facilitate the analysis of film that is irradiated in a phantom. The tool provides a simple method for registering pin-marked points on film to corresponding points in a CT-scanned phantom. Similarly, the locations of point dosimeters can be found. Once registered, data can be compared with the expected treatment plan, interpolated from the converted CERR plan. The dose-distance gamma function is available to quantify agreement. We will discuss the ways these tools can be used to support dosimetry research. All the software discussed here is being made available under open-source licensing.

  19. Integrated 3D view of postmating responses by the Drosophila melanogaster female reproductive tract, obtained by micro-computed tomography scanning

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Alexandra L.; Riccio, Mark L.; Avila, Frank W.; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2015-01-01

    Physiological changes in females during and after mating are triggered by seminal fluid components in conjunction with female-derived molecules. In insects, these changes include increased egg production, storage of sperm, and changes in muscle contraction within the reproductive tract (RT). Such postmating changes have been studied in dissected RT tissues, but understanding their coordination in vivo requires a holistic view of the tissues and their interrelationships. Here, we used high-resolution, multiscale micro-computed tomography (CT) scans to visualize and measure postmating changes in situ in the Drosophila female RT before, during, and after mating. These studies reveal previously unidentified dynamic changes in the conformation of the female RT that occur after mating. Our results also reveal how the reproductive organs temporally shift in concert within the confines of the abdomen. For example, we observed chiral loops in the uterus and in the upper common oviduct that relax and constrict throughout sperm storage and egg movement. We found that specific seminal fluid proteins or female secretions mediate some of the postmating changes in morphology. The morphological movements, in turn, can cause further changes due to the connections among organs. In addition, we observed apparent copulatory damage to the female intima, suggesting a mechanism for entry of seminal proteins, or other exogenous components, into the female’s circulatory system. The 3D reconstructions provided by high-resolution micro-CT scans reveal how male and female molecules and anatomy interface to carry out and coordinate mating-dependent changes in the female’s reproductive physiology. PMID:26041806

  20. Projection type transparent 3D display using active screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamoshita, Hiroki; Yendo, Tomohiro

    2015-05-01

    Equipment to enjoy a 3D image, such as a movie theater, television and so on have been developed many. So 3D video are widely known as a familiar image of technology now. The display representing the 3D image are there such as eyewear, naked-eye, the HMD-type, etc. They has been used for different applications and location. But have not been widely studied for the transparent 3D display. If transparent large 3D display is realized, it is useful to display 3D image overlaid on real scene in some applications such as road sign, shop window, screen in the conference room etc. As a previous study, to produce a transparent 3D display by using a special transparent screen and number of projectors is proposed. However, for smooth motion parallax, many projectors are required. In this paper, we propose a display that has transparency and large display area by time multiplexing projection image in time-division from one or small number of projectors to active screen. The active screen is composed of a number of vertically-long small rotate mirrors. It is possible to realize the stereoscopic viewing by changing the image of the projector in synchronism with the scanning of the beam.3D vision can be realized by light is scanned. Also, the display has transparency, because it is possible to see through the display when the mirror becomes perpendicular to the viewer. We confirmed the validity of the proposed method by using simulation.

  1. 3D microfabrication technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Esheng; FuTing, Yi; Tian, Yangchao; Liang, Jingqiu; Xian, Dingchang

    1998-08-01

    In the late of this century the great success of VSIC impacts into almost every fields of our social. Following this idea people starts to integrate microsensor microprocessor and microactuators into a small space to forming a Micro Electro and Mechanical System. Such small robot parts are applied to including satellites, computer communication, medical, chemical, biological and environment and so on research fields. The development of MEMS would strongly influence industrial revolution in the next century. LIGA technology including X-ray deep etching lithography; electroplating and plastic molding developed by Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, Germany since the beginning of 1980. Its advantages are: it could make three-dimensional microstructures with lateral dimension in several micron range and thickness of several hundred microns with sub-micron precision. In principle all kinds of materials such as polymer, metal and ceramic could be used as microcomponents and could be mass- produced by plastic molding to a commercially available fabrication. LIGA process has become one of the most promising Microfabrication technologies for producing micromechanical, microfluid and micro-optical elements. It opens an additional field in the microstructure market.

  2. 3D multi-channel seismic imaging of melt-rich lenses beneath and off the East Pacific Rise Integrated Study Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Canales, J.; Carton, H. D.; Carbotte, S. M.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Mutter, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    Melt has a particularly strong effect on shear velocity, and therefore affects the amplitude versus offset behavior of P- and S-converted waves reflected off a crustal melt lens. The first 3D multi-streamer seismic reflection experiment conducted aboard R/V Langseth (Cruise MGL0812) collected a very dense dataset along and across the northern East Pacific Rise (EPR, ~9°34'N-9°58'N). In addition to P waves reflecting off the top of the axial magma chamber (AMC), this dataset contains evidence for the S-converted phase PAMCS, which allows us to qualitatively image melt-rich sections of the AMC (i.e., portions of the melt lens in which crystals are disconnected and cannot transmit shear stresses) by producing and comparing P- and S-wave partial-offset stacks. Reflection images obtained from a subset of data collected along the ridge crest between 9°42'N-9°54'N show a prominent melt-rich zone at ~9°42'N-9°44'N, ~10-12 km to the south of the southern end of the 2005-06 volcanic eruption. The preliminary images also show evidence for two other melt-rich sections where abundant hydrothermal activity has been documented: at ~9°47'N-9°48'N (southern edge of the 2005-06 eruption), and at ~9°50'N-9°52'N (near the center of the 2005-06 eruption), although data from these two areas require more analysis to confirm this finding. The melt-rich zones are ~2-4 km long and spaced every ~10-15 km along the ridge axis. We will also present results from data collected over melt lenses located several kilometers off-axis (see Canales et al., this meeting). This high resolution imaging of the distribution of crustal melt bodies and correlation with seafloor hydrothermal and biological activity will provide a key piece of information that is currently missing from our knowledge of the EPR mantle-to-microbe system.

  3. An Integrated 3D Hydrogeological, Geophysical, and Microbiological Investigation of Geochemical Gradients in a Pristine Aquifer Located in Laurentian Hills, ON, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokova, V.; Graves, L.; Stojanovic, S.; Enright, A. M.; Bank, C.; Ferris, F. G.

    2013-12-01

    A pristine glaciofluvial aquifer displaying naturally occurring geochemical gradients was investigated using hydrogeological, geophysical, and microbiological methods. A network of 25 piezometers was used to collect samples for groundwater chemical analysis, including parameters such as total iron (Fe), ferrous iron (Fe2+), sulphate (SO42-), sulfur (S2-), ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-), nitrite (NO2-), silica (SiO2), phosphate (PO43-), pH, and oxidation reduction potential (ORP). Ion concentration values between piezometers were interpolated using kriging and inverse distance weighting. Yearly analysis of the network shows spatially and temporally persistent plumes of iron and sulfur. A 3D model of the aquifer was compiled to aid in the understanding of the nature and origin of the geochemical gradients. The resulting maps showed zones with high concentrations of dissolved total iron (predominantly soluble ferric iron and complexed iron compounds), followed immediately downgradient by a high concentration of ferrous iron. Similarly, zones of high sulfide concentration were followed by areas of high sulfate concentration. There was some overlap between the iron and sulfur plumes, and ion concentrations were higher in years with a lower water table elevation. Metagenomic analysis revealed a diverse microbial community in the sediment, capable of the biogeochemical cycling of iron, sulfur, and nitrogen. The aquifer basin, as bounded by a till aquitard, was delineated using ground penetrating radar tomography from 45 lines. The plumes corresponded to an area where there is large, channel-like depression in the till boundary. Flow vectors from hydrogeological modelling indicated increased velocity followed by a slowing and convergence of groundwater in this location. Resistivity values from 20 lines varied in general from high values (2000-6000 Ohm.m) above 1-2 m to lower values (less than 1000 Ohm.m) below 2 to a 5m depth. The resistivity surveys consistently showed

  4. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  5. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  6. Fast Domain Partitioning Method for dynamic boundary integral equations applicable to non-planar faults dipping in 3-D elastic half-space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Ryosuke

    2016-11-01

    The elastodynamic boundary integral equation method (BIEM) in real space and in the temporal domain is an accurate semi-analytical tool to investigate the earthquake rupture dynamics on non-planar faults. However, its heavy computational demand for a historic integral generally increases with a time complexity of O(MN3)for the number of time steps N and elements M due to volume integration in the causality cone. In this study, we introduce an efficient BIEM, termed the `Fast Domain Partitioning Method' (FDPM), which enables us to reduce the computation time to the order of the surface integral, O(MN2), without degrading the accuracy. The memory requirement is also reduced to O(M2) from O(M2N). FDPM uses the physical nature of Green's function for stress to partition the causality cone into the domains of the P and S wave fronts, the domain in-between the P and S wave fronts, and the domain of the static equilibrium, where the latter two domains exhibit simpler dependences on time and/or space. The scalability of this method is demonstrated on the large-scale parallel computing environments of distributed memory systems. It is also shown that FDPM enables an efficient use of memory storage, which makes it possible to reduce computation times to a previously unprecedented level. We thus present FDPM as a powerful tool to break through the current fundamental difficulties in running dynamic simulations of coseismic ruptures and earthquake cycles under realistic conditions of fault geometries.

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