Science.gov

Sample records for 3d open framework

  1. The OpenEarth Framework (OEF) for the 3D Visualization of Integrated Earth Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, David; Moreland, John; Baru, Chaitan; Crosby, Chris

    2010-05-01

    Data integration is increasingly important as we strive to combine data from disparate sources and assemble better models of the complex processes operating at the Earth's surface and within its interior. These data are often large, multi-dimensional, and subject to differing conventions for data structures, file formats, coordinate spaces, and units of measure. When visualized, these data require differing, and sometimes conflicting, conventions for visual representations, dimensionality, symbology, and interaction. All of this makes the visualization of integrated Earth science data particularly difficult. The OpenEarth Framework (OEF) is an open-source data integration and visualization suite of applications and libraries being developed by the GEON project at the University of California, San Diego, USA. Funded by the NSF, the project is leveraging virtual globe technology from NASA's WorldWind to create interactive 3D visualization tools that combine and layer data from a wide variety of sources to create a holistic view of features at, above, and beneath the Earth's surface. The OEF architecture is open, cross-platform, modular, and based upon Java. The OEF's modular approach to software architecture yields an array of mix-and-match software components for assembling custom applications. Available modules support file format handling, web service communications, data management, user interaction, and 3D visualization. File parsers handle a variety of formal and de facto standard file formats used in the field. Each one imports data into a general-purpose common data model supporting multidimensional regular and irregular grids, topography, feature geometry, and more. Data within these data models may be manipulated, combined, reprojected, and visualized. The OEF's visualization features support a variety of conventional and new visualization techniques for looking at topography, tomography, point clouds, imagery, maps, and feature geometry. 3D data such as

  2. A new 3-D open-framework cadmium borovanadate with plane-shaped channels and high catalytic activity for the oxidation of cyclohexanol.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuquan; Qiu, Dongfang; Fan, Huitao; Li, Min; Huang, Qunzeng; Shi, Hengzhen

    2015-05-21

    A new 3-D open-framework cadmium borovanadate with 6-connected topology was hydrothermally obtained and structurally characterized. It not only features new cadmium(II) borovanadate which possesses an open-framework structure with unique plane-shaped channels, but also exhibits interesting absorption properties and high catalytic activities for the oxidation of cyclohexanol. PMID:25882921

  3. Synthesis, Structure, Multiband Optical, and Electrical Conductive Properties of a 3D Open Cubic Framework Based on [Cu8Sn6S24](z-) Clusters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian; Wang, Qiuran; Ma, Zhimin; He, Jianqiao; Wang, Zhe; Zheng, Chong; Lin, Jianhua; Huang, Fuqiang

    2015-06-01

    Two compounds with the formulas of Na4Cu32Sn12S48·4H2O and K11Cu32Sn12S48·4H2O were synthesized via flux (with thiourea as reactive flux) and hydrothermal method, respectively. The black crystals of Na4Cu32Sn12S48·4H2O and K11Cu32Sn12S48·4H2O both crystallize in the cubic space group of Fm3̅c with the cell constants a = 17.921(2) Å and a = 18.0559(6) Å, respectively. The crystal structures feature a 3D open-framework with the unique [Cu8Sn6S24](z-) (z = 13 for Na4Cu32Sn12S48·4H2O; z = 14.75 for K11Cu32Sn12S48·4H2O) clusters acting as building blocks. The [Cu8Sn6S24](z-) cluster of the Th symmetry is built up by eight [CuS3] triangles and six [SnS4] tetrahedra. The powder samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction and optical absorption measurements. Both phase-pure compounds show multiabsorption character with a main absorption edge (2.0 eV for Na4Cu32Sn12S48·4H2O and 1.9 eV for K11Cu32Sn12S48·4H2O) and an additional absorption peak (1.61 eV for Na4Cu32Sn12S48·4H2O and 1.52 eV for K11Cu32Sn12S48·4H2O), which are perfectly consistent with the first-principle calculation results. The analyses of the density of states further reveal that the two optical absorption bands in each compound are attributed to the two transitions of Cu-3d-S-3p → Sn-5s. The multiband nature of two compounds also enhances photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation, with which the degradation of methyl blue over Na4Cu32Sn12S48·4H2O reached 100% in 3 h. The 3D open-framework features also facilitate the ionic conductivity nature of the Na4Cu32Sn12S48·4H2O compound, which achieved ∼10(-5) S/cm at room temperature. PMID:25955506

  4. A 3D radiative transfer framework. VI. PHOENIX/3D example applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauschildt, P. H.; Baron, E.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: We demonstrate the application of our 3D radiative transfer framework in the model atmosphere code PHOENIX for a number of spectrum synthesis calculations for very different conditions. Methods: The 3DRT framework discussed in the previous papers of this series was added to our general-purpose model atmosphere code PHOENIX/1D and an extended 3D version PHOENIX/3D was created. The PHOENIX/3D code is parallelized via the MPI library using a hierarchical domain decomposition and displays very good strong scaling. Results: We present the results of several test cases for widely different atmosphere conditions and compare the 3D calculations with equivalent 1D models to assess the internal accuracy of the 3D modeling. In addition, we show the results for a number of parameterized 3D structures. Conclusions: With presently available computational resources it is possible to solve the full 3D radiative transfer (including scattering) problem with the same micro-physics as included in 1D modeling.

  5. Stability and electronic properties of 3D covalent organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Lukose, Binit; Kuc, Agnieszka; Heine, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are a class of covalently linked crystalline nanoporous materials, versatile for nanoelectronic and storage applications. 3D COFs, in particular, have very large pores and low mass densities. Extensive theoretical studies of their energetic and mechanical stability, as well as their electronic properties, have been carried out for all known 3D COFs. COFs are energetically stable and their bulk modulus ranges from 3 to 20 GPa. Electronically, all COFs are semiconductors with band gaps corresponding to the HOMO-LUMO gaps of the building units. PMID:23212235

  6. Efficient framework for deformable 2D-3D registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fluck, Oliver; Aharon, Shmuel; Khamene, Ali

    2008-03-01

    Using 2D-3D registration it is possible to extract the body transformation between the coordinate systems of X-ray and volumetric CT images. Our initial motivation is the improvement of accuracy of external beam radiation therapy, an effective method for treating cancer, where CT data play a central role in radiation treatment planning. Rigid body transformation is used to compute the correct patient setup. The drawback of such approaches is that the rigidity assumption on the imaged object is not valid for most of the patient cases, mainly due to respiratory motion. In the present work, we address this limitation by proposing a flexible framework for deformable 2D-3D registration consisting of a learning phase incorporating 4D CT data sets and hardware accelerated free form DRR generation, 2D motion computation, and 2D-3D back projection.

  7. Hybrid segmentation framework for 3D medical image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ting; Metaxas, Dimitri N.

    2003-05-01

    Medical image segmentation is the process that defines the region of interest in the image volume. Classical segmentation methods such as region-based methods and boundary-based methods cannot make full use of the information provided by the image. In this paper we proposed a general hybrid framework for 3D medical image segmentation purposes. In our approach we combine the Gibbs Prior model, and the deformable model. First, Gibbs Prior models are applied onto each slice in a 3D medical image volume and the segmentation results are combined to a 3D binary masks of the object. Then we create a deformable mesh based on this 3D binary mask. The deformable model will be lead to the edge features in the volume with the help of image derived external forces. The deformable model segmentation result can be used to update the parameters for Gibbs Prior models. These methods will then work recursively to reach a global segmentation solution. The hybrid segmentation framework has been applied to images with the objective of lung, heart, colon, jaw, tumor, and brain. The experimental data includes MRI (T1, T2, PD), CT, X-ray, Ultra-Sound images. High quality results are achieved with relatively efficient time cost. We also did validation work using expert manual segmentation as the ground truth. The result shows that the hybrid segmentation may have further clinical use.

  8. Quasi-3D Multi-scale Modeling Framework Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, A.; Jung, J.

    2008-12-01

    When models are truncated in or near an energetically active range of the spectrum, model physics must be changed as the resolution changes. The model physics of GCMs and that of CRMs are, however, quite different from each other and at present there is no unified formulation of model physics that automatically provides transition between these model physics. The Quasi-3D (Q3D) Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) is an attempt to bridge this gap. Like the recently proposed Heterogeneous Multiscale Method (HMM) (E and Engquist 2003), MMF combines a macroscopic model, GCM, and a microscopic model, CRM. Unlike the traditional multiscale methods such as the multi-grid and adapted mesh refinement techniques, HMM and MMF are for solving multi-physics problems. They share the common objective "to design combined macroscopic-microscopic computational methods that are much more efficient than solving the full microscopic model and at the same time give the information we need" (E et al. 2008). The question is then how to meet this objective in practice, which can be highly problem dependent. In HHM, the efficiency is gained typically by localization of the microscale problem. Following the pioneering work by Grabowski and Smolarkiewicz (1999) and Grabowski (2001), MMF takes advantage of the fact that 2D CRMs are reasonably successful in simulating deep clouds. In this approach, the efficiency is gained by sacrificing the three-dimensionality of cloud-scale motion. It also "localizes" the algorithm through embedding a CRM in each GCM grid box using cyclic boundary condition. The Q3D MMF is an attempt to reduce the expense due to these constraints by partially including the cloud-scale 3D effects and extending the CRM beyond individual GCM grid boxes. As currently formulated, the Q3D MMF is a 4D estimation/prediction framework that combines a GCM with a 3D anelastic cloud-resolving vector vorticity equation model (VVM) applied to a network of horizontal grids. The network

  9. 3-D HYDRODYNAMIC MODELING IN A GEOSPATIAL FRAMEWORK

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, J; Alfred Garrett, A; Larry Koffman, L; David Hayes, D

    2006-08-24

    3-D hydrodynamic models are used by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to simulate the transport of thermal and radionuclide discharges in coastal estuary systems. Development of such models requires accurate bathymetry, coastline, and boundary condition data in conjunction with the ability to rapidly discretize model domains and interpolate the required geospatial data onto the domain. To facilitate rapid and accurate hydrodynamic model development, SRNL has developed a pre- and post-processor application in a geospatial framework to automate the creation of models using existing data. This automated capability allows development of very detailed models to maximize exploitation of available surface water radionuclide sample data and thermal imagery.

  10. Triangular framework mesh generation of 3D geological structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xianhai; Zhou, Kun; Li, Jigang; Yang, Qin

    2013-03-01

    The dynamic simulation of oil migration and accumulation is an important issue on the research of petroleum exploration, and it is a numerical simulation process with special requirement on the framework mesh of 3D geological models, which means that the mesh should have same geometry and topology relation near the intersected part of geological surfaces. In this paper, basing on the conforming Delaunay triangulation algorithm to construct mesh of individual geological stratum or fault, a novel link-Delaunay-triangulation method is presented to achieve the geometric and topological consistency in the intersected line between two surfaces, also with the analysis of termination of our algorithm. Finally, some examples of the geological framework mesh are provided and the experimental result proved that the algorithm's effectiveness in engineering practice.

  11. Embedding Knowledge in 3D Data Frameworks in Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughenour, C. M.; Vincent, M. L.; de Kramer, M.; Senecal, S.; Fritsch, D.; Flores Gutirrez, M.; Lopez-Menchero Bendicho, V. M.; Ioannides, M.

    2015-08-01

    At present, where 3D modeling and visualisation in cultural heritage are concerned, an object's documentation lacks its interconnected memory provided by multidisciplinary examination and linked data. As the layers of paint, wood, and brick recount a structure's physical properties, the intangible, such as the forms of worship through song, dance, burning incense, and oral traditions, contributes to the greater story of its cultural heritage import. Furthermore, as an object or structure evolves through time, external political, religious, or environmental forces can affect it as well. As tangible and intangible entities associated with the structure transform, its narrative becomes dynamic and difficult to easily record. The Initial Training Network for Digital Cultural Heritage (ITN-DCH), a Marie Curie Actions project under the EU 7th Framework Programme, seeks to challenge this complexity by developing a novel methodology capable of offering such a holistic framework. With the integration of digitisation, conservation, linked data, and retrieval systems for DCH, the nature of investigation and dissemination will be augmented significantly. Examples of utilisating and evaluating this framework will range from a UNESCOWorld Heritage site, the Byzantine church of Panagia Forviotissa Asinou in the Troodos Mountains of Cyprus, to various religious icons and a monument located at the Monastery of Saint Neophytos. The application of this effort to the Asinou church, representing the first case study of the ITN-DCH project, is used as a template example in order to assess the technical challenges involved in the creation of such a framework.

  12. Unified framework for generation of 3D web visualization for mechatronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severa, O.; Goubej, M.; Konigsmarkova, J.

    2015-11-01

    The paper deals with development of a unified framework for generation of 3D visualizations of complex mechatronic systems. It provides a high-fidelity representation of executed motion by allowing direct employment of a machine geometry model acquired from a CAD system. Open-architecture multi-platform solution based on latest web standards is achieved by utilizing a web browser as a final 3D renderer. The results are applicable both for simulations and development of real-time human machine interfaces. Case study of autonomous underwater vehicle control is provided to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach.

  13. Internet-based hardware/software co-design framework for embedded 3D graphics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chi-Tsai; Wang, Chun-Hao; Huang, Ing-Jer; Wong, Weng-Fai

    2011-12-01

    Advances in technology are making it possible to run three-dimensional (3D) graphics applications on embedded and handheld devices. In this article, we propose a hardware/software co-design environment for 3D graphics application development that includes the 3D graphics software, OpenGL ES application programming interface (API), device driver, and 3D graphics hardware simulators. We developed a 3D graphics system-on-a-chip (SoC) accelerator using transaction-level modeling (TLM). This gives software designers early access to the hardware even before it is ready. On the other hand, hardware designers also stand to gain from the more complex test benches made available in the software for verification. A unique aspect of our framework is that it allows hardware and software designers from geographically dispersed areas to cooperate and work on the same framework. Designs can be entered and executed from anywhere in the world without full access to the entire framework, which may include proprietary components. This results in controlled and secure transparency and reproducibility, granting leveled access to users of various roles.

  14. Open Labware: 3-D printing your own lab equipment.

    PubMed

    Baden, Tom; Chagas, Andre Maia; Gage, Gregory J; Gage, Greg; Marzullo, Timothy C; Marzullo, Timothy; Prieto-Godino, Lucia L; Euler, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    The introduction of affordable, consumer-oriented 3-D printers is a milestone in the current "maker movement," which has been heralded as the next industrial revolution. Combined with free and open sharing of detailed design blueprints and accessible development tools, rapid prototypes of complex products can now be assembled in one's own garage--a game-changer reminiscent of the early days of personal computing. At the same time, 3-D printing has also allowed the scientific and engineering community to build the "little things" that help a lab get up and running much faster and easier than ever before. PMID:25794301

  15. Open Labware: 3-D Printing Your Own Lab Equipment

    PubMed Central

    Baden, Tom; Chagas, Andre Maia; Gage, Greg; Marzullo, Timothy; Prieto-Godino, Lucia L.; Euler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of affordable, consumer-oriented 3-D printers is a milestone in the current “maker movement,” which has been heralded as the next industrial revolution. Combined with free and open sharing of detailed design blueprints and accessible development tools, rapid prototypes of complex products can now be assembled in one’s own garage—a game-changer reminiscent of the early days of personal computing. At the same time, 3-D printing has also allowed the scientific and engineering community to build the “little things” that help a lab get up and running much faster and easier than ever before. PMID:25794301

  16. Open-source 3D-printable optics equipment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenlong; Anzalone, Nicholas C; Faria, Rodrigo P; Pearce, Joshua M

    2013-01-01

    Just as the power of the open-source design paradigm has driven down the cost of software to the point that it is accessible to most people, the rise of open-source hardware is poised to drive down the cost of doing experimental science to expand access to everyone. To assist in this aim, this paper introduces a library of open-source 3-D-printable optics components. This library operates as a flexible, low-cost public-domain tool set for developing both research and teaching optics hardware. First, the use of parametric open-source designs using an open-source computer aided design package is described to customize the optics hardware for any application. Second, details are provided on the use of open-source 3-D printers (additive layer manufacturing) to fabricate the primary mechanical components, which are then combined to construct complex optics-related devices. Third, the use of the open-source electronics prototyping platform are illustrated as control for optical experimental apparatuses. This study demonstrates an open-source optical library, which significantly reduces the costs associated with much optical equipment, while also enabling relatively easily adapted customizable designs. The cost reductions in general are over 97%, with some components representing only 1% of the current commercial investment for optical products of similar function. The results of this study make its clear that this method of scientific hardware development enables a much broader audience to participate in optical experimentation both as research and teaching platforms than previous proprietary methods. PMID:23544104

  17. Open-Source 3D-Printable Optics Equipment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chenlong; Anzalone, Nicholas C.; Faria, Rodrigo P.; Pearce, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Just as the power of the open-source design paradigm has driven down the cost of software to the point that it is accessible to most people, the rise of open-source hardware is poised to drive down the cost of doing experimental science to expand access to everyone. To assist in this aim, this paper introduces a library of open-source 3-D-printable optics components. This library operates as a flexible, low-cost public-domain tool set for developing both research and teaching optics hardware. First, the use of parametric open-source designs using an open-source computer aided design package is described to customize the optics hardware for any application. Second, details are provided on the use of open-source 3-D printers (additive layer manufacturing) to fabricate the primary mechanical components, which are then combined to construct complex optics-related devices. Third, the use of the open-source electronics prototyping platform are illustrated as control for optical experimental apparatuses. This study demonstrates an open-source optical library, which significantly reduces the costs associated with much optical equipment, while also enabling relatively easily adapted customizable designs. The cost reductions in general are over 97%, with some components representing only 1% of the current commercial investment for optical products of similar function. The results of this study make its clear that this method of scientific hardware development enables a much broader audience to participate in optical experimentation both as research and teaching platforms than previous proprietary methods. PMID:23544104

  18. Scipion: A software framework toward integration, reproducibility and validation in 3D electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa-Trevín, J M; Quintana, A; Del Cano, L; Zaldívar, A; Foche, I; Gutiérrez, J; Gómez-Blanco, J; Burguet-Castell, J; Cuenca-Alba, J; Abrishami, V; Vargas, J; Otón, J; Sharov, G; Vilas, J L; Navas, J; Conesa, P; Kazemi, M; Marabini, R; Sorzano, C O S; Carazo, J M

    2016-07-01

    In the past few years, 3D electron microscopy (3DEM) has undergone a revolution in instrumentation and methodology. One of the central players in this wide-reaching change is the continuous development of image processing software. Here we present Scipion, a software framework for integrating several 3DEM software packages through a workflow-based approach. Scipion allows the execution of reusable, standardized, traceable and reproducible image-processing protocols. These protocols incorporate tools from different programs while providing full interoperability among them. Scipion is an open-source project that can be downloaded from http://scipion.cnb.csic.es. PMID:27108186

  19. Physics and 3D in Flash Simulations: Open Source Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harold, J. B.; Dusenbery, P.

    2009-12-01

    Over the last decade our ability to deliver simulations over the web has steadily advanced. The improvements in speed of the Adobe Flash engine, and the development of open source tools to expand it, allow us to deliver increasingly sophisticated simulation based games through the browser, with no additional downloads required. In this paper we will present activities we are developing as part of two asteroids education projects: Finding NEO (funded through NSF and NASA SMD), and Asteroids! (funded through NSF). The first activity is Rubble!, an asteroids deflection game built on the open source Box2D physics engine. This game challenges players to push asteroids in to safe orbits before they crash in to the Earth. The Box2D engine allows us to go well beyond simple 2-body orbital calculations and incorporate “rubble piles”. These objects, which are representative of many asteroids, are composed of 50 or more individual rocks which gravitationally bind and separate in realistic ways. Even bombs can be modeled with sufficient physical accuracy to convince players of the hazards of trying to “blow up” incoming asteroids. The ability to easily build games based on underlying physical models allows us to address physical misconceptions in a natural way: by having the player operate in a world that directly collides with those misconceptions. Rubble! provides a particularly compelling example of this due to the variety of well documented misconceptions regarding gravity. The second activity is a Light Curve challenge, which uses the open source PaperVision3D tools to analyze 3D asteroid models. The goal of this activity is to introduce the player to the concept of “light curves”, measurements of asteroid brightness over time which are used to calculate the asteroid’s period. These measurements can even be inverted to generate three dimensional models of asteroids that are otherwise too small and distant to directly image. Through the use of the Paper

  20. Met.3D - a new open-source tool for interactive 3D visualization of ensemble weather forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenhaus, Marc; Kern, Michael; Schäfler, Andreas; Westermann, Rüdiger

    2015-04-01

    We introduce Met.3D, a new open-source tool for the interactive 3D visualization of numerical ensemble weather predictions. The tool has been developed to support weather forecasting during aircraft-based atmospheric field campaigns, however, is applicable to further forecasting, research and teaching activities. Our work approaches challenging topics related to the visual analysis of numerical atmospheric model output -- 3D visualisation, ensemble visualization, and how both can be used in a meaningful way suited to weather forecasting. Met.3D builds a bridge from proven 2D visualization methods commonly used in meteorology to 3D visualization by combining both visualization types in a 3D context. It implements methods that address the issue of spatial perception in the 3D view as well as approaches to using the ensemble in order to assess forecast uncertainty. Interactivity is key to the Met.3D approach. The tool uses modern graphics hardware technology to achieve interactive visualization of present-day numerical weather prediction datasets on standard consumer hardware. Met.3D supports forecast data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts and operates directly on ECMWF hybrid sigma-pressure level grids. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the software --illustrated with short video examples--, and give information on its availability.

  1. A Parameterizable Framework for Replicated Experiments in Virtual 3D Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biella, Daniel; Luther, Wolfram

    This paper reports on a parameterizable 3D framework that provides 3D content developers with an initial spatial starting configuration, metaphorical connectors for accessing exhibits or interactive 3D learning objects or experiments, and other optional 3D extensions, such as a multimedia room, a gallery, username identification tools and an avatar selection room. The framework is implemented in X3D and uses a Web-based content management system. It has been successfully used for an interactive virtual museum for key historical experiments and in two additional interactive e-learning implementations: an African arts museum and a virtual science centre. It can be shown that, by reusing the framework, the production costs for the latter two implementations can be significantly reduced and content designers can focus on developing educational content instead of producing cost-intensive out-of-focus 3D objects.

  2. 3D Oxidized Graphene Frameworks for Efficient Nano Sieving.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Pranav Bhagwan; Saxena, Sumit; Badhe, Dhanashree Kamlesh; Chaudhary, Raghvendra Pratap; Shukla, Shobha

    2016-01-01

    The small size of Na(+) and Cl(-) ions provides a bottleneck in desalination and is a challenge in providing alternatives for continuously depleting fresh water resources. Graphene by virtue of its structural properties has the potential to address this issue. Studies have indicated that use of monolayer graphene can be used to filter micro volumes of saline solution. Unfortunately it is extremely difficult, resource intensive and almost impractical with current technology to fabricate operational devices using mono-layered graphene. Nevertheless, graphene based devices still hold the key to solve this problem due to its nano-sieving ability. Here we report synthesis of oxidized graphene frameworks and demonstrate a functional device to desalinate and purify seawater from contaminants including Na(+) and Cl(-) ions, dyes and other microbial pollutants. Micro-channels in these frameworks help in immobilizing larger suspended solids including bacteria, while nano-sieving through graphene enables the removal of dissolved ions (e.g. Cl(-)). Nano-sieving incorporated with larger frameworks has been used in filtering Na(+) and Cl(-) ions in functional devices. PMID:26892277

  3. 3D Oxidized Graphene Frameworks for Efficient Nano Sieving

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Pranav Bhagwan; Saxena, Sumit; Badhe, Dhanashree Kamlesh; Chaudhary, Raghvendra Pratap; Shukla, Shobha

    2016-01-01

    The small size of Na+ and Cl− ions provides a bottleneck in desalination and is a challenge in providing alternatives for continuously depleting fresh water resources. Graphene by virtue of its structural properties has the potential to address this issue. Studies have indicated that use of monolayer graphene can be used to filter micro volumes of saline solution. Unfortunately it is extremely difficult, resource intensive and almost impractical with current technology to fabricate operational devices using mono-layered graphene. Nevertheless, graphene based devices still hold the key to solve this problem due to its nano-sieving ability. Here we report synthesis of oxidized graphene frameworks and demonstrate a functional device to desalinate and purify seawater from contaminants including Na+ and Cl− ions, dyes and other microbial pollutants. Micro-channels in these frameworks help in immobilizing larger suspended solids including bacteria, while nano-sieving through graphene enables the removal of dissolved ions (e.g. Cl−). Nano-sieving incorporated with larger frameworks has been used in filtering Na+ and Cl− ions in functional devices. PMID:26892277

  4. Point Cloud Visualization in AN Open Source 3d Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Calle, M.; Gómez-Deck, D.; Koehler, O.; Pulido, F.

    2011-09-01

    During the last years the usage of 3D applications in GIS is becoming more popular. Since the appearance of Google Earth, users are familiarized with 3D environments. On the other hand, nowadays computers with 3D acceleration are common, broadband access is widespread and the public information that can be used in GIS clients that are able to use data from the Internet is constantly increasing. There are currently several libraries suitable for this kind of applications. Based on these facts, and using libraries that are already developed and connected to our own developments, we are working on the implementation of a real 3D GIS with analysis capabilities. Since a 3D GIS such as this can be very interesting for tasks like LiDAR or Laser Scanner point clouds rendering and analysis, special attention is given to get an optimal handling of very large data sets. Glob3 will be a multidimensional GIS in which 3D point clouds could be explored and analysed, even if they are consist of several million points.The latest addition to our visualization libraries is the development of a points cloud server that works regardless of the cloud's size. The server receives and processes petitions from a 3d client (for example glob3, but could be any other, such as one based on WebGL) and delivers the data in the form of pre-processed tiles, depending on the required level of detail.

  5. A Computational Framework for 3D Mechanical Modeling of Plant Morphogenesis with Cellular Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Gilles, Benjamin; Hamant, Olivier; Boudaoud, Arezki; Traas, Jan; Godin, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The link between genetic regulation and the definition of form and size during morphogenesis remains largely an open question in both plant and animal biology. This is partially due to the complexity of the process, involving extensive molecular networks, multiple feedbacks between different scales of organization and physical forces operating at multiple levels. Here we present a conceptual and modeling framework aimed at generating an integrated understanding of morphogenesis in plants. This framework is based on the biophysical properties of plant cells, which are under high internal turgor pressure, and are prevented from bursting because of the presence of a rigid cell wall. To control cell growth, the underlying molecular networks must interfere locally with the elastic and/or plastic extensibility of this cell wall. We present a model in the form of a three dimensional (3D) virtual tissue, where growth depends on the local modulation of wall mechanical properties and turgor pressure. The model shows how forces generated by turgor-pressure can act both cell autonomously and non-cell autonomously to drive growth in different directions. We use simulations to explore lateral organ formation at the shoot apical meristem. Although different scenarios lead to similar shape changes, they are not equivalent and lead to different, testable predictions regarding the mechanical and geometrical properties of the growing lateral organs. Using flower development as an example, we further show how a limited number of gene activities can explain the complex shape changes that accompany organ outgrowth. PMID:25569615

  6. A computational framework for 3D mechanical modeling of plant morphogenesis with cellular resolution.

    PubMed

    Boudon, Frédéric; Chopard, Jérôme; Ali, Olivier; Gilles, Benjamin; Hamant, Olivier; Boudaoud, Arezki; Traas, Jan; Godin, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The link between genetic regulation and the definition of form and size during morphogenesis remains largely an open question in both plant and animal biology. This is partially due to the complexity of the process, involving extensive molecular networks, multiple feedbacks between different scales of organization and physical forces operating at multiple levels. Here we present a conceptual and modeling framework aimed at generating an integrated understanding of morphogenesis in plants. This framework is based on the biophysical properties of plant cells, which are under high internal turgor pressure, and are prevented from bursting because of the presence of a rigid cell wall. To control cell growth, the underlying molecular networks must interfere locally with the elastic and/or plastic extensibility of this cell wall. We present a model in the form of a three dimensional (3D) virtual tissue, where growth depends on the local modulation of wall mechanical properties and turgor pressure. The model shows how forces generated by turgor-pressure can act both cell autonomously and non-cell autonomously to drive growth in different directions. We use simulations to explore lateral organ formation at the shoot apical meristem. Although different scenarios lead to similar shape changes, they are not equivalent and lead to different, testable predictions regarding the mechanical and geometrical properties of the growing lateral organs. Using flower development as an example, we further show how a limited number of gene activities can explain the complex shape changes that accompany organ outgrowth. PMID:25569615

  7. UCVM: An Open Source Software Package for Querying and Visualizing 3D Velocity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, D.; Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Chen, P.; Lee, E. J.; Taborda, R.; Olsen, K. B.; Callaghan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) seismic velocity models provide foundational data for ground motion simulations that calculate the propagation of earthquake waves through the Earth. The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has developed the Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) package for both Linux and OS X. This unique framework provides a cohesive way for querying and visualizing 3D models. UCVM v14.3.0, supports many Southern California velocity models including CVM-S4, CVM-H 11.9.1, and CVM-S4.26. The last model was derived from 26 full-3D tomographic iterations on CVM-S4. Recently, UCVM has been used to deliver a prototype of a new 3D model of central California (CCA) also based on full-3D tomographic inversions. UCVM was used to provide initial plots of this model and will be used to deliver CCA to users when the model is publicly released. Visualizing models is also possible with UCVM. Integrated within the platform are plotting utilities that can generate 2D cross-sections, horizontal slices, and basin depth maps. UCVM can also export models in NetCDF format for easy import into IDV and ParaView. UCVM has also been prototyped to export models that are compatible with IRIS' new Earth Model Collaboration (EMC) visualization utility. This capability allows for user-specified horizontal slices and cross-sections to be plotted in the same 3D Earth space. UCVM was designed to help a wide variety of researchers. It is currently being use to generate velocity meshes for many SCEC wave propagation codes, including AWP-ODC-SGT and Hercules. It is also used to provide the initial input to SCEC's CyberShake platform. For those interested in specific data points, the software framework makes it easy to extract P and S wave propagation speeds and other material properties from 3D velocity models by providing a common interface through which researchers can query earth models for a given location and depth. Also included in the last release was the ability to add small

  8. 3D metal-organic frameworks based on elongated tetracarboxylate building blocks for hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liqing; Lee, Jeong Yong; Li, Jing; Lin, Wenbin

    2008-05-19

    Two 3D metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with a new biphenol-derived tetracarboxylate linker and Cu(II) and Zn(II) metal-connecting points were synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray crystallographic studies. The two isostructural MOFs exhibit distorted PtS network topology and show markedly different framework stability. The porosity and hydrogen uptake of the frameworks were determined by gas adsorption experiments. PMID:18416546

  9. A Framework for 3D Vessel Analysis using Whole Slide Images of Liver Tissue Sections

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yanhui; Wang, Fusheng; Treanor, Darren; Magee, Derek; Roberts, Nick; Teodoro, George; Zhu, Yangyang; Kong, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) high resolution microscopic images have high potential for improving the understanding of both normal and disease processes where structural changes or spatial relationship of disease features are significant. In this paper, we develop a complete framework applicable to 3D pathology analytical imaging, with an application to whole slide images of sequential liver slices for 3D vessel structure analysis. The analysis workflow consists of image registration, segmentation, vessel cross-section association, interpolation, and volumetric rendering. To identify biologically-meaningful correspondence across adjacent slides, we formulate a similarity function for four association cases. The optimal solution is then obtained by constrained Integer Programming. We quantitatively and qualitatively compare our vessel reconstruction results with human annotations. Validation results indicate a satisfactory concordance as measured both by region-based and distance-based metrics. These results demonstrate a promising 3D vessel analysis framework for whole slide images of liver tissue sections. PMID:27034719

  10. An Integrated Multi-component Processing and Interpretation Framework for 3D Borehole Seismic Data

    SciTech Connect

    M. Karrenbach

    2004-04-01

    to perform advanced processing, imaging and analysis tests in the future during this project. Preparation of our software libraries for interfacing 3C display classes and mechanisms were carried out. We extensively tested the OIV and QT software library for usefulness in displaying 3C data and we thoroughly tested 3D scene graph communication between QT, OpenInventor and our existing software classes, which lead to optimizing the interface between them. We assembled an application skeleton which serves as a basis for future high level software tools. Based on this skeleton we implemented a 3C Work Bench tool as the primary prototyping tool for all future developments within this project. This work bench allows to load, manipulate and display data items. We demonstrated its basic functionality by loading source maps, horizons, seismic and velocity volumes, well logs into the tool, performing basic QC steps as is necessary in normal processing. All tasks were performed successfully, ensuring the continued progress of this project as outlined in the original proposal. Deliverables generated during this time period consist of reporting details and synthetically modeled seismic data for a 3D layered geological model. The numerically modeled SEGY data, as well as the model representation data, are ready to be sent out to DOE facilities for archiving. Based on the successful conclusion of work performed during this six month period we continue to generate synthetically modeled 3D borehole seismic data, according to Tasks 2 and 3. At the same time we proceed to design, implement and test according to the original plan the basic data classes and the basic framework outlined in Tasks 5 through 8.

  11. A topological framework for interactive queries on 3D models in the Web.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Mauro; Rodrigues, José I; Silvestre, Ivo; Veiga-Pires, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Several technologies exist to create 3D content for the web. With X3D, WebGL, and X3DOM, it is possible to visualize and interact with 3D models in a web browser. Frequently, three-dimensional objects are stored using the X3D file format for the web. However, there is no explicit topological information, which makes it difficult to design fast algorithms for applications that require adjacency and incidence data. This paper presents a new open source toolkit TopTri (Topological model for Triangle meshes) for Web3D servers that builds the topological model for triangular meshes of manifold or nonmanifold models. Web3D client applications using this toolkit make queries to the web server to get adjacent and incidence information of vertices, edges, and faces. This paper shows the application of the topological information to get minimal local points and iso-lines in a 3D mesh in a web browser. As an application, we present also the interactive identification of stalactites in a cave chamber in a 3D web browser. Several tests show that even for large triangular meshes with millions of triangles, the adjacency and incidence information is returned in real time making the presented toolkit appropriate for interactive Web3D applications. PMID:24977236

  12. A Topological Framework for Interactive Queries on 3D Models in the Web

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Mauro; Rodrigues, José I.; Silvestre, Ivo; Veiga-Pires, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Several technologies exist to create 3D content for the web. With X3D, WebGL, and X3DOM, it is possible to visualize and interact with 3D models in a web browser. Frequently, three-dimensional objects are stored using the X3D file format for the web. However, there is no explicit topological information, which makes it difficult to design fast algorithms for applications that require adjacency and incidence data. This paper presents a new open source toolkit TopTri (Topological model for Triangle meshes) for Web3D servers that builds the topological model for triangular meshes of manifold or nonmanifold models. Web3D client applications using this toolkit make queries to the web server to get adjacent and incidence information of vertices, edges, and faces. This paper shows the application of the topological information to get minimal local points and iso-lines in a 3D mesh in a web browser. As an application, we present also the interactive identification of stalactites in a cave chamber in a 3D web browser. Several tests show that even for large triangular meshes with millions of triangles, the adjacency and incidence information is returned in real time making the presented toolkit appropriate for interactive Web3D applications. PMID:24977236

  13. 3D microporous base-functionalized covalent organic frameworks for size-selective catalysis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Qianrong; Gu, Shuang; Zheng, Jie; Zhuang, Zhongbin; Qiu, Shilun; Yan, Yushan

    2014-03-10

    The design and synthesis of 3D covalent organic frameworks (COFs) have been considered a challenge, and the demonstrated applications of 3D COFs have so far been limited to gas adsorption. Herein we describe the design and synthesis of two new 3D microporous base-functionalized COFs, termed BF-COF-1 and BF-COF-2, by the use of a tetrahedral alkyl amine, 1,3,5,7-tetraaminoadamantane (TAA), combined with 1,3,5-triformylbenzene (TFB) or triformylphloroglucinol (TFP). As catalysts, both BF-COFs showed remarkable conversion (96% for BF-COF-1 and 98% for BF-COF-2), high size selectivity, and good recyclability in base-catalyzed Knoevenagel condensation reactions. This study suggests that porous functionalized 3D COFs could be a promising new class of shape-selective catalysts. PMID:24604810

  14. Semantic 3D scene interpretation: A framework combining optimal neighborhood size selection with relevant features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinmann, M.; Jutzi, B.; Mallet, C.

    2014-08-01

    3D scene analysis by automatically assigning 3D points a semantic label has become an issue of major interest in recent years. Whereas the tasks of feature extraction and classification have been in the focus of research, the idea of using only relevant and more distinctive features extracted from optimal 3D neighborhoods has only rarely been addressed in 3D lidar data processing. In this paper, we focus on the interleaved issue of extracting relevant, but not redundant features and increasing their distinctiveness by considering the respective optimal 3D neighborhood of each individual 3D point. We present a new, fully automatic and versatile framework consisting of four successive steps: (i) optimal neighborhood size selection, (ii) feature extraction, (iii) feature selection, and (iv) classification. In a detailed evaluation which involves 5 different neighborhood definitions, 21 features, 6 approaches for feature subset selection and 2 different classifiers, we demonstrate that optimal neighborhoods for individual 3D points significantly improve the results of scene interpretation and that the selection of adequate feature subsets may even further increase the quality of the derived results.

  15. Spatial 3D infrastructure: display-independent software framework, high-speed rendering electronics, and several new displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Won-Suk; Napoli, Joshua; Cossairt, Oliver S.; Dorval, Rick K.; Hall, Deirdre M.; Purtell, Thomas J., II; Schooler, James F.; Banker, Yigal; Favalora, Gregg E.

    2005-03-01

    We present a software and hardware foundation to enable the rapid adoption of 3-D displays. Different 3-D displays - such as multiplanar, multiview, and electroholographic displays - naturally require different rendering methods. The adoption of these displays in the marketplace will be accelerated by a common software framework. The authors designed the SpatialGL API, a new rendering framework that unifies these display methods under one interface. SpatialGL enables complementary visualization assets to coexist through a uniform infrastructure. Also, SpatialGL supports legacy interfaces such as the OpenGL API. The authors" first implementation of SpatialGL uses multiview and multislice rendering algorithms to exploit the performance of modern graphics processing units (GPUs) to enable real-time visualization of 3-D graphics from medical imaging, oil & gas exploration, and homeland security. At the time of writing, SpatialGL runs on COTS workstations (both Windows and Linux) and on Actuality"s high-performance embedded computational engine that couples an NVIDIA GeForce 6800 Ultra GPU, an AMD Athlon 64 processor, and a proprietary, high-speed, programmable volumetric frame buffer that interfaces to a 1024 x 768 x 3 digital projector. Progress is illustrated using an off-the-shelf multiview display, Actuality"s multiplanar Perspecta Spatial 3D System, and an experimental multiview display. The experimental display is a quasi-holographic view-sequential system that generates aerial imagery measuring 30 mm x 25 mm x 25 mm, providing 198 horizontal views.

  16. Open-Source 3-D Platform for Low-Cost Scientific Instrument Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Wijnen, B; Pearce, J M

    2016-08-01

    The combination of open-source software and hardware provides technically feasible methods to create low-cost, highly customized scientific research equipment. Open-source 3-D printers have proven useful for fabricating scientific tools. Here the capabilities of an open-source 3-D printer are expanded to become a highly flexible scientific platform. An automated low-cost 3-D motion control platform is presented that has the capacity to perform scientific applications, including (1) 3-D printing of scientific hardware; (2) laboratory auto-stirring, measuring, and probing; (3) automated fluid handling; and (4) shaking and mixing. The open-source 3-D platform not only facilities routine research while radically reducing the cost, but also inspires the creation of a diverse array of custom instruments that can be shared and replicated digitally throughout the world to drive down the cost of research and education further. PMID:26763293

  17. UCVM: Open Source Software for Understanding and Delivering 3D Velocity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, D.; Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Chen, P.; Lee, E. J.; Taborda, R.; Olsen, K. B.; Callaghan, S.

    2014-12-01

    Physics-based ground motion simulations can calculate the propagation of earthquake waves through 3D velocity models of the Earth. The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has developed the Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) framework to help researchers build structured or unstructured velocity meshes from 3D velocity models for use in wave propagation simulations. The UCVM software framework makes it easy to extract P and S wave propagation speeds and other material properties from 3D velocity models by providing a common interface through which researchers can query earth models for a given location and depth. Currently, the platform supports multiple California models, including SCEC CVM-S4 and CVM-H 11.9.1, and has been designed to support models from any region on earth. UCVM is currently being use to generate velocity meshes for many SCEC wave propagation codes, including AWP-ODC-SGT and Hercules. In this presentation, we describe improvements to the UCVM software. The current version, UCVM 14.3.0, released in March of 2014, supports the newest Southern California velocity model, CVM-S4.26, which was derived from 26 full-3D tomographic iterations using CVM-S4 as the starting model (Lee et al., this meeting), and the Broadband 1D velocity model used in the CyberShake 14.2 study. We have ported UCVM to multiple Linux distributions and OS X. Also included in this release is the ability to add small-scale stochastic heterogeneities to extract Cartesian meshes for use in high-frequency ground motion simulations. This tool was built using the C language open-source FFT library, FFTW. The stochastic parameters (Hurst exponent, correlation length, and the horizontal/vertical aspect ratio) can be customized by the user. UCVM v14.3.0 also provides visualization scripts for constructing cross-sections, horizontal slices, basin depths, and Vs30 maps. The interface allows researchers to visually review velocity models . Also, UCVM v14.3.0 can extract

  18. A client–server framework for 3D remote visualization of radiotherapy treatment space

    PubMed Central

    Santhanam, Anand P.; Min, Yugang; Dou, Tai H.; Kupelian, Patrick; Low, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy is safely employed for treating wide variety of cancers. The radiotherapy workflow includes a precise positioning of the patient in the intended treatment position. While trained radiation therapists conduct patient positioning, consultation is occasionally required from other experts, including the radiation oncologist, dosimetrist, or medical physicist. In many circumstances, including rural clinics and developing countries, this expertise is not immediately available, so the patient positioning concerns of the treating therapists may not get addressed. In this paper, we present a framework to enable remotely located experts to virtually collaborate and be present inside the 3D treatment room when necessary. A multi-3D camera framework was used for acquiring the 3D treatment space. A client–server framework enabled the acquired 3D treatment room to be visualized in real-time. The computational tasks that would normally occur on the client side were offloaded to the server side to enable hardware flexibility on the client side. On the server side, a client specific real-time stereo rendering of the 3D treatment room was employed using a scalable multi graphics processing units (GPU) system. The rendered 3D images were then encoded using a GPU-based H.264 encoding for streaming. Results showed that for a stereo image size of 1280 × 960 pixels, experts with high-speed gigabit Ethernet connectivity were able to visualize the treatment space at approximately 81 frames per second. For experts remotely located and using a 100 Mbps network, the treatment space visualization occurred at 8–40 frames per second depending upon the network bandwidth. This work demonstrated the feasibility of remote real-time stereoscopic patient setup visualization, enabling expansion of high quality radiation therapy into challenging environments. PMID:23440605

  19. A framework for human spine imaging using a freehand 3D ultrasound system.

    PubMed

    Purnama, Ketut E; Wilkinson, Michael H F; Veldhuizen, Albert G; van Ooijen, Peter M A; Lubbers, Jaap; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Sardjono, Tri A; Verkerke, Gijbertus J

    2010-01-01

    The use of 3D ultrasound imaging to follow the progression of scoliosis, i.e., a 3D deformation of the spine, is described. Unlike other current examination modalities, in particular based on X-ray, its non-detrimental effect enables it to be used frequently to follow the progression of scoliosis which sometimes may develop rapidly. Furthermore, 3D ultrasound imaging provides information in 3D directly in contrast to projection methods. This paper describes a feasibility study of an ultrasound system to provide a 3D image of the human spine, and presents a framework of procedures to perform this task. The framework consist of an ultrasound image acquisition procedure to image a large part of the human spine by means of a freehand 3D ultrasound system and a volume reconstruction procedure which was performed in four stages: bin-filling, hole-filling, volume segment alignment, and volume segment compounding. The overall results of the procedures in this framework show that imaging of the human spine using ultrasound is feasible. Vertebral parts such as the transverse processes, laminae, superior articular processes, and spinous process of the vertebrae appear as clouds of voxels having intensities higher than the surrounding voxels. In sagittal slices, a string of transverse processes appears representing the curvature of the spine. In the bin-filling stage the estimated mean absolute noise level of a single measurement of a single voxel was determined. Our comparative study for the hole-filling methods based on rank sum statistics proved that the pixel nearest neighbour (PNN) method with variable radius and with the proposed olympic operation is the best method. Its mean absolute grey value error was less in magnitude than the noise level of a single measurement. PMID:20231799

  20. Framework for quantitative evaluation of 3D vessel segmentation approaches using vascular phantoms in conjunction with 3D landmark localization and registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wörz, Stefan; Hoegen, Philipp; Liao, Wei; Müller-Eschner, Matthias; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Rohr, Karl

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a framework for quantitative evaluation of 3D vessel segmentation approaches using vascular phantoms. Phantoms are designed using a CAD system and created with a 3D printer, and comprise realistic shapes including branches and pathologies such as abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). To transfer ground truth information to the 3D image coordinate system, we use a landmark-based registration scheme utilizing fiducial markers integrated in the phantom design. For accurate 3D localization of the markers we developed a novel 3D parametric intensity model that is directly fitted to the markers in the images. We also performed a quantitative evaluation of different vessel segmentation approaches for a phantom of an AAA.

  1. High nitrogen-containing cotton derived 3D porous carbon frameworks for high-performance supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Fan, Li-Zhen; Chen, Tian-Tian; Song, Wei-Li; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Shichao

    2015-01-01

    Supercapacitors fabricated by 3D porous carbon frameworks, such as graphene- and carbon nanotube (CNT)-based aerogels, have been highly attractive due to their various advantages. However, their high cost along with insufficient yield has inhibited their large-scale applications. Here we have demonstrated a facile and easily scalable approach for large-scale preparing novel 3D nitrogen-containing porous carbon frameworks using ultralow-cost commercial cotton. Electrochemical performance suggests that the optimal nitrogen-containing cotton-derived carbon frameworks with a high nitrogen content (12.1 mol%) along with low surface area 285 m(2) g(-1) present high specific capacities of the 308 and 200 F g(-1) in KOH electrolyte at current densities of 0.1 and 10 A g(-1), respectively, with very limited capacitance loss upon 10,000 cycles in both aqueous and gel electrolytes. Moreover, the electrode exhibits the highest capacitance up to 220 F g(-1) at 0.1 A g(-1) and excellent flexibility (with negligible capacitance loss under different bending angles) in the polyvinyl alcohol/KOH gel electrolyte. The observed excellent performance competes well with that found in the electrodes of similar 3D frameworks formed by graphene or CNTs. Therefore, the ultralow-cost and simply strategy here demonstrates great potential for scalable producing high-performance carbon-based supercapacitors in the industry. PMID:26472144

  2. High nitrogen-containing cotton derived 3D porous carbon frameworks for high-performance supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Li-Zhen; Chen, Tian-Tian; Song, Wei-Li; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Shichao

    2015-01-01

    Supercapacitors fabricated by 3D porous carbon frameworks, such as graphene- and carbon nanotube (CNT)-based aerogels, have been highly attractive due to their various advantages. However, their high cost along with insufficient yield has inhibited their large-scale applications. Here we have demonstrated a facile and easily scalable approach for large-scale preparing novel 3D nitrogen-containing porous carbon frameworks using ultralow-cost commercial cotton. Electrochemical performance suggests that the optimal nitrogen-containing cotton-derived carbon frameworks with a high nitrogen content (12.1 mol%) along with low surface area 285 m2 g−1 present high specific capacities of the 308 and 200 F g−1 in KOH electrolyte at current densities of 0.1 and 10 A g−1, respectively, with very limited capacitance loss upon 10,000 cycles in both aqueous and gel electrolytes. Moreover, the electrode exhibits the highest capacitance up to 220 F g−1 at 0.1 A g−1 and excellent flexibility (with negligible capacitance loss under different bending angles) in the polyvinyl alcohol/KOH gel electrolyte. The observed excellent performance competes well with that found in the electrodes of similar 3D frameworks formed by graphene or CNTs. Therefore, the ultralow-cost and simply strategy here demonstrates great potential for scalable producing high-performance carbon-based supercapacitors in the industry. PMID:26472144

  3. High nitrogen-containing cotton derived 3D porous carbon frameworks for high-performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Li-Zhen; Chen, Tian-Tian; Song, Wei-Li; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Shichao

    2015-10-01

    Supercapacitors fabricated by 3D porous carbon frameworks, such as graphene- and carbon nanotube (CNT)-based aerogels, have been highly attractive due to their various advantages. However, their high cost along with insufficient yield has inhibited their large-scale applications. Here we have demonstrated a facile and easily scalable approach for large-scale preparing novel 3D nitrogen-containing porous carbon frameworks using ultralow-cost commercial cotton. Electrochemical performance suggests that the optimal nitrogen-containing cotton-derived carbon frameworks with a high nitrogen content (12.1 mol%) along with low surface area 285 m2 g-1 present high specific capacities of the 308 and 200 F g-1 in KOH electrolyte at current densities of 0.1 and 10 A g-1, respectively, with very limited capacitance loss upon 10,000 cycles in both aqueous and gel electrolytes. Moreover, the electrode exhibits the highest capacitance up to 220 F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 and excellent flexibility (with negligible capacitance loss under different bending angles) in the polyvinyl alcohol/KOH gel electrolyte. The observed excellent performance competes well with that found in the electrodes of similar 3D frameworks formed by graphene or CNTs. Therefore, the ultralow-cost and simply strategy here demonstrates great potential for scalable producing high-performance carbon-based supercapacitors in the industry.

  4. A series of new lanthanide fumarates displaying three types of 3-D frameworks.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiao-Feng; Zhou, Jian; Fu, Lianshe; Xiao, Hong-Ping; Zou, Hua-Hong; Tang, Qiuling

    2016-03-28

    A series of lanthanide fumarates [Sm2(fum)3(H2fum)(H2O)2] (1, H2fum = fumaric acid), [Ln2(fum)3-(H2O)4]·3H2O {Ln = Tb (2a), Dy (2b)} and [Ln2(fum)3(H2O)4] {Ln = Y (3a), Ho (3b), Er (3c), Tm (3d)} were prepared by the hydrothermal method and their structures were classified into three types. The 3-D framework of compound 1 contains a 1-D infinite [Sm-O-Sm]n chain built up from the connection of SmO8(H2O) polyhedra sharing edges via three -COO group bridges of fumarate ligands, which is further constructed into a 3-D network structure with three kinds of fumarate ligands. Compounds 2a-b are isostructural and consist of a 3-D porous framework with 0-D cavities for the accommodation of chair-like hexameric (H2O)6 clusters. Compounds 3a-d are isostructural and have a 3-D network structure remarkably different from those of 1 and 2a-b, due to the different coordination numbers for the Ln(3+) ions and distinct fumarate ligand bridging patterns. A systematic investigation of seven lanthanide fumarates and five reported compounds revealed that the well-known lanthanide contraction has a significant influence on the formation of lanthanide fumarates. The magnetic properties of compounds 1, 2b and 3b-3d were also investigated. PMID:26894939

  5. A framework for the recognition of 3D faces and expressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Barreto, Armando

    2006-04-01

    Face recognition technology has been a focus both in academia and industry for the last couple of years because of its wide potential applications and its importance to meet the security needs of today's world. Most of the systems developed are based on 2D face recognition technology, which uses pictures for data processing. With the development of 3D imaging technology, 3D face recognition emerges as an alternative to overcome the difficulties inherent with 2D face recognition, i.e. sensitivity to illumination conditions and orientation positioning of the subject. But 3D face recognition still needs to tackle the problem of deformation of facial geometry that results from the expression changes of a subject. To deal with this issue, a 3D face recognition framework is proposed in this paper. It is composed of three subsystems: an expression recognition system, a system for the identification of faces with expression, and neutral face recognition system. A system for the recognition of faces with one type of expression (happiness) and neutral faces was implemented and tested on a database of 30 subjects. The results proved the feasibility of this framework.

  6. 3D Reconstruction and Restoration Monitoring of Sculptural Artworks by a Multi-Sensor Framework

    PubMed Central

    Barone, Sandro; Paoli, Alessandro; Razionale, Armando Viviano

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, optical sensors are used to digitize sculptural artworks by exploiting various contactless technologies. Cultural Heritage applications may concern 3D reconstructions of sculptural shapes distinguished by small details distributed over large surfaces. These applications require robust multi-view procedures based on aligning several high resolution 3D measurements. In this paper, the integration of a 3D structured light scanner and a stereo photogrammetric sensor is proposed with the aim of reliably reconstructing large free form artworks. The structured light scanner provides high resolution range maps captured from different views. The stereo photogrammetric sensor measures the spatial location of each view by tracking a marker frame integral to the optical scanner. This procedure allows the computation of the rotation-translation matrix to transpose the range maps from local view coordinate systems to a unique global reference system defined by the stereo photogrammetric sensor. The artwork reconstructions can be further augmented by referring metadata related to restoration processes. In this paper, a methodology has been developed to map metadata to 3D models by capturing spatial references using a passive stereo-photogrammetric sensor. The multi-sensor framework has been experienced through the 3D reconstruction of a Statue of Hope located at the English Cemetery in Florence. This sculptural artwork has been a severe test due to the non-cooperative environment and the complex shape features distributed over a large surface. PMID:23223079

  7. 3D reconstruction and restoration monitoring of sculptural artworks by a multi-sensor framework.

    PubMed

    Barone, Sandro; Paoli, Alessandro; Razionale, Armando Viviano

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, optical sensors are used to digitize sculptural artworks by exploiting various contactless technologies. Cultural Heritage applications may concern 3D reconstructions of sculptural shapes distinguished by small details distributed over large surfaces. These applications require robust multi-view procedures based on aligning several high resolution 3D measurements. In this paper, the integration of a 3D structured light scanner and a stereo photogrammetric sensor is proposed with the aim of reliably reconstructing large free form artworks. The structured light scanner provides high resolution range maps captured from different views. The stereo photogrammetric sensor measures the spatial location of each view by tracking a marker frame integral to the optical scanner. This procedure allows the computation of the rotation-translation matrix to transpose the range maps from local view coordinate systems to a unique global reference system defined by the stereo photogrammetric sensor. The artwork reconstructions can be further augmented by referring metadata related to restoration processes. In this paper, a methodology has been developed to map metadata to 3D models by capturing spatial references using a passive stereo-photogrammetric sensor. The multi-sensor framework has been experienced through the 3D reconstruction of a Statue of Hope located at the English Cemetery in Florence. This sculptural artwork has been a severe test due to the non-cooperative environment and the complex shape features distributed over a large surface. PMID:23223079

  8. AQUAgpusph, a new free 3D SPH solver accelerated with OpenCL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cercos-Pita, J. L.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, AQUAgpusph, a new free Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) software accelerated with OpenCL, is described. The main differences and progress with respect to other existing alternatives are considered. These are the use of the Open Computing Language (OpenCL) framework instead of the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), the implementation of the most popular boundary conditions, the easy customization of the code to different problems, the extensibility with regard to Python scripts, and the runtime output which allows the tracking of simulations in real time, or a higher frequency in saving some results without a significant performance lost. These modifications are shown to improve the solver speed, the results quality, and allow for a wider areas of application. AQUAgpusph has been designed trying to provide researchers and engineers with a valuable tool to test and apply the SPH method. Three practical applications are discussed in detail. The evolution of a dam break is used to quantify and compare the computational performance and modeling accuracy with the most popular SPH Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) accelerated alternatives. The dynamics of a coupled system, a Tuned Liquid Damper (TLD), is discussed in order to show the integration capabilities of the solver with external dynamics. Finally, the sloshing flow inside a nuclear reactor is simulated in order to show the capabilities of the solver to treat 3-D problems with complex geometries and of industrial interest.

  9. Anisotropic thermal expansion of a 3D metal–organic framework with hydrophilic and hydrophobic pores

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, Atsushi Maeda, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-15

    A 3D flexible metal–organic framework (MOF) with 1D hydrophilic and hydrophobic pores shows anisotropic thermal expansion with relatively large thermal expansion coefficient (α{sub a}=−21×10{sup −6} K{sup −1} and α{sub c}=79×10{sup −6} K{sup −1}) between 133 K and 383 K. Temperature change gives deformation of both pores, which expand in diameter and elongate in length on cooling and vice versa. The thermally induced structural change should be derived from a unique framework topology like “lattice fence”. Silica accommodation changes not only the nature of the MOF but also thermal responsiveness of the MOF. Since the hydrophobic pores in the material are selectively blocked by the silica, the MOF with the silica is considered as a hydrophilic microporous material. Furthermore, inclusion of silica resulted in a drastic pore contraction in diameter and anisotropically changed the thermal responsiveness of the MOF. - Graphical abstract: A 3D metal–organic framework with hydrophilic and hydrophobic pores shows anisotropic thermal expansion behavior. The influence of silica filler in the hydrophobic pore was investigated. - Highlights: • Thermally induced structural change of a 3D MOF with a lattice fence topology was investigated. • The structural change was analyzed by synchrotron X-ray diffraction patterns. • Temperature change induces anisotropic thermal expansion/contraction of the MOF. • Silica inclusion anisotropically changes the thermal responsiveness of the MOF.

  10. 3D Printing of CT Dataset: Validation of an Open Source and Consumer-Available Workflow.

    PubMed

    Bortolotto, Chandra; Eshja, Esmeralda; Peroni, Caterina; Orlandi, Matteo A; Bizzotto, Nicola; Poggi, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    The broad availability of cheap three-dimensional (3D) printing equipment has raised the need for a thorough analysis on its effects on clinical accuracy. Our aim is to determine whether the accuracy of 3D printing process is affected by the use of a low-budget workflow based on open source software and consumer's commercially available 3D printers. A group of test objects was scanned with a 64-slice computed tomography (CT) in order to build their 3D copies. CT datasets were elaborated using a software chain based on three free and open source software. Objects were printed out with a commercially available 3D printer. Both the 3D copies and the test objects were measured using a digital professional caliper. Overall, the objects' mean absolute difference between test objects and 3D copies is 0.23 mm and the mean relative difference amounts to 0.55 %. Our results demonstrate that the accuracy of 3D printing process remains high despite the use of a low-budget workflow. PMID:26175139

  11. 2D→3D polycatenated and 3D→3D interpenetrated metal–organic frameworks constructed from thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate and rigid bis(imidazole) ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Erer, Hakan; Yeşilel, Okan Zafer; Arıcı, Mürsel; Keskin, Seda; Büyükgüngör, Orhan

    2014-02-15

    Hydrothermal reactions of rigid 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)benzene (dib) and 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)-2,5-dimethylbenzene (dimb) with deprotonated thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}tdc) in the presence of Zn(II) and Cd(II) salts in H{sub 2}O produced three new metal–organic frameworks, namely, [Zn(µ-tdc)(H{sub 2}O)(µ-dib)]{sub n} (1), [Cd(µ-tdc)(H{sub 2}O)(µ-dib)]{sub n} (2), and ([Cd{sub 2}(µ{sub 3}-tdc){sub 2}(µ-dimb){sub 2}]·(H{sub 2}O)){sub n}(3). These MOFs were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, elemental, thermal (TG, DTA, DTG and DSC), and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Isomorphous complexes 1 and 2 reveal polycatenated 2D+2D→3D framework based on an undulated (4,4)-sql layer. Complex 3 exhibits a new 4-fold interpenetrating 3D framework with the point symbol of 6{sup 6}. Molecular simulations were used to assess the potentials of the complexes for H{sub 2} storage application. Moreover, these coordination polymers exhibit blue fluorescent emission bands in the solid state at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: In this study, hydrothermal reactions of rigid 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)benzene (dib) and 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)-2,5-dimethylbenzene (dimb) with deprotonated thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}tdc) in the presence of Zn(II) and Cd(II) salts in H{sub 2}O produced three new metal–organic frameworks. Isomorphous complexes 1 and 2 reveal polycatenated 2D+2D→3D framework based on an undulated (4,4)-sql layer. Complex 3 exhibits a new 4-fold interpenetrating 3D framework with the point symbol of 6{sup 6}. Molecular simulations were used to assess the potentials of the complexes for H{sub 2} storage application. These coordination polymers exhibit blue fluorescent emission bands in the solid state at room temperature. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Complexes 1 and 2 display polycatenated 2D+2D→3D framework. • Complex 3 exhibits a new 4-fold interpenetrating 3D framework. • Complex 1 adsorbs the highest amount of

  12. A hybrid metalloarsenate 3D framework-1D interrupted metal oxide.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Robert W; Gerrard, Lee A; Price, Daniel J; Weller, Mark T

    2003-06-30

    Complex metal arsenates of the stoichiometry M(1)(-)(x)()M'(6)(OH)(3)(AsO(4)H(2)(x)()(/3))(3)(HAsO(4)), M = M' = Co, Ni, have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The two compounds display a very similar structural topology to that of the mineral dumortierite, an uncommon complex oxyborosilicate of aluminum. The hybrid structures consist of well separated, vacancy interrupted chains of face sharing MO(6) octahedra, with short M.M distances near 2.5 A, embedded in a metalloarsenate 3D framework having the topology of the aluminosilicate cancrinite. The framework also contains a quadruply bridging hydroxide ion. Magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal a strong antiferromagnetic interaction and magnetic transition to low temperature spin canted phases below 51 K (Co) and 42 K (Ni). The material may be considered as a zeotype framework structure templated by an interrupted one-dimensional metal oxide. PMID:12817976

  13. Flexible simulation framework to couple processes in complex 3D models for subsurface utilization assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempka, Thomas; Nakaten, Benjamin; De Lucia, Marco; Nakaten, Natalie; Otto, Christopher; Pohl, Maik; Tillner, Elena; Kühn, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Utilization of the geological subsurface for production and storage of hydrocarbons, chemical energy and heat as well as for waste disposal requires the quantification and mitigation of environmental impacts as well as the improvement of georesources utilization in terms of efficiency and sustainability. The development of tools for coupled process simulations is essential to tackle these challenges, since reliable assessments are only feasible by integrative numerical computations. Coupled processes at reservoir to regional scale determine the behaviour of reservoirs, faults and caprocks, generally demanding for complex 3D geological models to be considered besides available monitoring and experimenting data in coupled numerical simulations. We have been developing a flexible numerical simulation framework that provides efficient workflows for integrating the required data and software packages to carry out coupled process simulations considering, e.g., multiphase fluid flow, geomechanics, geochemistry and heat. Simulation results are stored in structured data formats to allow for an integrated 3D visualization and result interpretation as well as data archiving and its provision to collaborators. The main benefits in using the flexible simulation framework are the integration of data geological and grid data from any third party software package as well as data export to generic 3D visualization tools and archiving formats. The coupling of the required process simulators in time and space is feasible, while different spatial dimensions in the coupled simulations can be integrated, e.g., 0D batch with 3D dynamic simulations. User interaction is established via high-level programming languages, while computational efficiency is achieved by using low-level programming languages. We present three case studies on the assessment of geological subsurface utilization based on different process coupling approaches and numerical simulations.

  14. Conductive open frameworks

    DOEpatents

    Yaghi, Omar M.; Wan, Shun; Doonan, Christian J.; Wang, Bo; Deng, Hexiang

    2016-02-23

    The disclosure relates generally to materials that comprise conductive covalent organic frameworks. The disclosure also relates to materials that are useful to store and separate gas molecules and sensors.

  15. A homochiral 3D covalent framework assembled from vertical chiral layers with achiral bridging ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinlong; Qin, Chao; Wang, Enbo; Xu, Lin

    2005-02-01

    A novel metal-organic coordination polymer, [Cd(HPT) 2(4,4'-bpy)] n (PT=phthalate), has been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TG and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Colorless crystals crystallized in the tetragonal system, space group I4 122, a=8.294(5), b=8.294(5), c=33.7535(17) Å, V=2321.8(18) Å 3, Z=4 and R=0.0207. The structure of the compound exhibiting a homochiral 3D covalent framework based on achiral bridging ligands has been constructed by an alternating assembly of vertical chiral layers consisting of homochiral helices.

  16. A Global Hypothesis Verification Framework for 3D Object Recognition in Clutter.

    PubMed

    Aldoma, Aitor; Tombari, Federico; Stefano, Luigi Di; Vincze, Markus

    2016-07-01

    Pipelines to recognize 3D objects despite clutter and occlusions usually end up with a final verification stage whereby recognition hypotheses are validated or dismissed based on how well they explain sensor measurements. Unlike previous work, we propose a Global Hypothesis Verification (GHV) approach which regards all hypotheses jointly so as to account for mutual interactions. GHV provides a principled framework to tackle the complexity of our visual world by leveraging on a plurality of recognition paradigms and cues. Accordingly, we present a 3D object recognition pipeline deploying both global and local 3D features as well as shape and color. Thereby, and facilitated by the robustness of the verification process, diverse object hypotheses can be gathered and weak hypotheses need not be suppressed too early to trade sensitivity for specificity. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposal, which significantly improves over the state-of-art and attains ideal performance (no false negatives, no false positives) on three out of the six most relevant and challenging benchmark datasets. PMID:26485476

  17. 3D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) prostate segmentation based on optimal feature learning framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Rossi, Peter J.; Jani, Ashesh B.; Mao, Hui; Curran, Walter J.; Liu, Tian

    2016-03-01

    We propose a 3D prostate segmentation method for transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images, which is based on patch-based feature learning framework. Patient-specific anatomical features are extracted from aligned training images and adopted as signatures for each voxel. The most robust and informative features are identified by the feature selection process to train the kernel support vector machine (KSVM). The well-trained SVM was used to localize the prostate of the new patient. Our segmentation technique was validated with a clinical study of 10 patients. The accuracy of our approach was assessed using the manual segmentations (gold standard). The mean volume Dice overlap coefficient was 89.7%. In this study, we have developed a new prostate segmentation approach based on the optimal feature learning framework, demonstrated its clinical feasibility, and validated its accuracy with manual segmentations.

  18. OpenMDAO Framework Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naiman, Cynthia Gutierrez

    2010-01-01

    Advancing and exploring the science of Multidisciplinary Analysis & Optimization (MDAO) capabilities are high-level goals in the Fundamental Aeronautics Program s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) project. The OpenMDAO team has made significant progress toward completing the Alpha OpenMDAO deliverable due in September 2010. Included in the presentation are: details of progress on developing the OpenMDAO framework, example usage of OpenMDAO, technology transfer plans, near term plans, progress toward establishing partnerships with external parties, and discussion of additional potential collaborations.

  19. Two Ce-containing 3D metal–organic frameworks: In situ formation of ligand (DDPD)

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Xinyu; Yu, Liqiong; Huang, Rudan

    2014-02-15

    Hydrothermal reactions of cerium nitrate and 5-hydroxyisophthalic acid (OH-H{sub 2}BDC) produce two new metal–organic frameworks (MOFs), ([Ce(DDPD){sub 1.5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2.5}]·4H{sub 2}O){sub n} (1) and ([Ce(OH-BDC)(OH-HBDC)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·2H{sub 2}O]{sub n} (2) (DDPD(II)=5,10-dioxo-5,10-dihydro-4,9-dioxapyrene-2,7-dicarboxylate(II)). These two complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TG, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. It was remarkable that the in situ reaction of OH-H{sub 2}BDC to DDPD(II) was found in complex 1. In 1, Ce(III) ions are bridged by DDPD ligands to form infinite 1D chain, which is further connected via DDPD ligands to form 3D structure. Complex 2 possesses a neutral noninterpenetrating 2D layer structure. Furthermore, the fluorescence properties and magnetic behavior of 1 and 2 have been investigated. - Graphical abstract: In complex 1, the in situ reaction of OH-H{sub 2}BDC to DDPD(II) was found. Complex 1 features a 3D network structure. Adjacent Ce(III) ions are bridged by two carboxylate groups to form a 1D infinite inorganic chain, and further linked by the DDPD(II) ligands. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Complexes 1 and 2 was synthesized via hydrothermal methods. • In situ reaction of OH-H{sub 2}BDC to DDPD(II) was found in complex 1. • Ce(III) ions are bridged by the DDPD(II) ligands to generate a 3D structure in complex 1. • Complex 2 possesses a neutral noninterpenetrating 2D layer structure. • Fluorescent properties and magnetic behavior of 1 and 2 have been studied.

  20. The Importance of Communicating Uncertainty to the 3D Geological Framework Model of Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacCormack, Kelsey

    2015-04-01

    The Alberta Geological Survey (AGS) has been tasked with developing a 3-dimensional (3D) geological framework for Alberta (660,000 km2). Our goal is to develop 'The Framework' as a sophisticated platform, capable of integrating a variety of data types from multiple sources enabling the development of multi-scale, interdisciplinary models with built-in feedback mechanisms, allowing the individual components of the model to adapt and evolve over time as our knowledge and understanding of the subsurface increases. The geoscience information within these models is often taken at face value and assumed that the attribute accuracy is equivalent to the digital accuracy recorded by the computer, which can lead to overconfidence in the model results. We need to make sure that decision makers understand that models are simply versions of reality and all contain a certain amount of error and uncertainty. More importantly, it is necessary to convey that error and uncertainty are not bad, and should be quantified and understood rather than ignored. This presentation will focus on how the AGS is quantifying and communicating uncertainty within the Geologic Framework to decision makers and the general public, as well as utilizing uncertainty results to strategically prioritize future work.

  1. First-Principles Study of Electronic Structure and Hydrogen Adsorption of 3d Transition Metal Exposed Paddle Wheel Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Bak, J. H.; Le, V. D.; Kang, J.; Wei, S. H.; Kim, Y. H.

    2012-04-05

    Open-site paddle wheels, comprised of two transition metals bridged with four carboxylate ions, have been widely used for constructing metal-organic frameworks with large surface area and high binding energy sites. Using first-principles density functional theory calculations, we have investigated atomic and electronic structures of various 3d transition metal paddle wheels before and after metal exposure and their hydrogen adsorption properties at open metal sites. Notably, the hydrogen adsorption is impeded by covalent metal-metal bonds in early transition metal paddle wheels from Sc to Cr and by the strong ferromagnetic coupling of diatomic Mn and Fe in the paddle wheel configurations. A significantly enhanced H{sub 2} adsorption is predicted in the nonmagnetic Co{sub 2} and Zn{sub 2} paddle wheel with the binding energy of {approx}0.2 eV per H{sub 2}. We also propose the use of two-dimensional Co{sub 2} and Zn{sub 2} paddle wheel frameworks that could have strongly adsorbed dihydrogen up to 1.35 wt % for noncryogenic hydrogen storage applications.

  2. A 3D Primary Vessel Reconstruction Framework with Serial Microscopy Images

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yanhui; Wang, Fusheng; Treanor, Darren; Magee, Derek; Teodoro, George; Zhu, Yangyang; Kong, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Three dimensional microscopy images present significant potential to enhance biomedical studies. This paper presents an automated method for quantitative analysis of 3D primary vessel structures with histology whole slide images. With registered microscopy images of liver tissue, we identify primary vessels with an improved variational level set framework at each 2D slide. We propose a Vessel Directed Fitting Energy (VDFE) to provide prior information on vessel wall probability in an energy minimization paradigm. We find the optimal vessel cross-section associations along the image sequence with a two-stage procedure. Vessel mappings are first found between each pair of adjacent slides with a similarity function for four association cases. These bi-slide vessel components are further linked by Bayesian Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) estimation where the posterior probability is modeled as a Markov chain. The efficacy of the proposed method is demonstrated with 54 whole slide microscopy images of sequential sections from a human liver. PMID:26478919

  3. A quantitative framework for the 3D characterization of the osteocyte lacunar system.

    PubMed

    Mader, Kevin Scott; Schneider, Philipp; Müller, Ralph; Stampanoni, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Assessing the role of osteocyte lacunae and the ways in which they communicate with one another is important for determining the function and viability of bone tissue. Osteocytes are able to play a significant role in bone development and remodeling because they can receive nourishment from, interact with, and communicate with other cells. In this sense the immediate environment of an osteocyte is crucial for understanding its function. Modern imaging techniques, ranging from synchrotron radiation-based computed tomography (SR CT) to confocal laser scanning microscopy, produce large volumes of high-quality imaging data of bone tissue on the micrometer scale in rapidly shortening times. These images often contain tens of thousands of osteocytes and their lacunae, void spaces which enclose the osteocytes. While theoretically possible, quantitative analysis of the osteocyte lacunar system is too time consuming to be practical without highly automated tools. Moreover, quantitative morphometry of the osteocyte lacunar system necessitates clearly defined, robust, and three-dimensional (3D) measures. Here, we introduce a framework for the quantitative characterization of millions of osteocyte lacunae and their spatial relationships in 3D. The metrics complement and expand previous works looking at shape and number density while providing novel measures for quantifying spatial distribution and alignment. We developed model, in silico systems to visualize and validate the metrics and provide a concrete example of the attribute being classified with each metric. We then illustrate the applicability to biological samples in a first study comparing two strains of mice and the effect of growth hormone. We found significant differences in shape and distribution between strains for alignment. The proposed quantitative framework can be used in future studies examining differences and treatment effects in bone microstructure at the cell scale. Furthermore, the proposed strategy for

  4. 3D Simulation of Velocity Profile of Turbulent Flow in Open Channel with Complex Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamel, Benoumessad; Ilhem, Kriba; Ali, Fourar; Abdelbaki, Djebaili

    Simulation of open channel flow or river flow presents unique challenge to numerical simulators, which is widely used in the applications of computational fluid dynamics. The prediction is extremely difficult because the flow in open channel is usually transient and turbulent, the geometry is irregular and curved, and the free-surface elevation is varying with time. The results from a 3D non-linear k- ɛ turbulence model are presented to investigate the flow structure, the velocity distribution and mass transport process in a meandering compound open channel and a straight open channel. The 3D numerical model for calculating flow is set up in cylinder coordinates in order to calculate the complex boundary channel. The finite volume method is used to disperse the governing equations and the SIMPLE algorithm is applied to acquire the coupling of velocity and pressure. The non-linear k- ɛ turbulent model has good useful value because of taking into account the anisotropy and not increasing the computational time. The main contributions of this study are developing a numerical method that can be applied to predict the flow in river bends with various bend curvatures and different width-depth ratios. This study demonstrates that the 3D non-linear k- ɛ turbulence model can be used for analyzing flow structures, the velocity distribution and pollutant transport in the complex boundary open channel, this model is applicable for real river and wetland problem.

  5. 3D Torus Routing Engine Module for OFA OpenSM v. 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    SCHUTT, JAMES

    2009-11-12

    This OpenFabrics Alliance (OFA) OpenSM routing engine module provides credit-loop-free routing while supporting two quality of service (QoS) levels for an InfiniBand fabric with a 3D torus topology. In addition it is able to route around multiple failed fabric links or a single failed fabric switch without introducing credit loops, and without changing path Service Level (SL) values granted before the failure.This OFA OpenSM routing engine module improves the operational characteristics of a parallel computer built using an InfiniBand fabric with a 3D torus topology. By providing two QoS levels, it allows system administrators to prevent application interprocess communication and file system communication from impacting each other. By providing the capability to route traffic around failed fabric components, it enables repair of failed components without impacting jobs running on the computer system.

  6. 3D Torus Routing Engine Module for OFA OpenSM v. 1.0

    2009-11-12

    This OpenFabrics Alliance (OFA) OpenSM routing engine module provides credit-loop-free routing while supporting two quality of service (QoS) levels for an InfiniBand fabric with a 3D torus topology. In addition it is able to route around multiple failed fabric links or a single failed fabric switch without introducing credit loops, and without changing path Service Level (SL) values granted before the failure.This OFA OpenSM routing engine module improves the operational characteristics of a parallel computermore » built using an InfiniBand fabric with a 3D torus topology. By providing two QoS levels, it allows system administrators to prevent application interprocess communication and file system communication from impacting each other. By providing the capability to route traffic around failed fabric components, it enables repair of failed components without impacting jobs running on the computer system.« less

  7. An open-source deconvolution software package for 3-D quantitative fluorescence microscopy imaging

    PubMed Central

    SUN, Y.; DAVIS, P.; KOSMACEK, E. A.; IANZINI, F.; MACKEY, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Deconvolution techniques have been widely used for restoring the 3-D quantitative information of an unknown specimen observed using a wide-field fluorescence microscope. Deconv, an open-source deconvolution software package, was developed for 3-D quantitative fluorescence microscopy imaging and was released under the GNU Public License. Deconv provides numerical routines for simulation of a 3-D point spread function and deconvolution routines implemented three constrained iterative deconvolution algorithms: one based on a Poisson noise model and two others based on a Gaussian noise model. These algorithms are presented and evaluated using synthetic images and experimentally obtained microscope images, and the use of the library is explained. Deconv allows users to assess the utility of these deconvolution algorithms and to determine which are suited for a particular imaging application. The design of Deconv makes it easy for deconvolution capabilities to be incorporated into existing imaging applications. PMID:19941558

  8. 3D visualization of biomedical CT images based on OpenGL and VRML techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Meng; Luo, Qingming; Xia, Fuhua

    2002-04-01

    Current high-performance computers and advanced image processing capabilities have made the application of three- dimensional visualization objects in biomedical computer tomographic (CT) images facilitate the researches on biomedical engineering greatly. Trying to cooperate with the update technology using Internet, where 3D data are typically stored and processed on powerful servers accessible by using TCP/IP, we should hold the results of the isosurface be applied in medical visualization generally. Furthermore, this project is a future part of PACS system our lab is working on. So in this system we use the 3D file format VRML2.0, which is used through the Web interface for manipulating 3D models. In this program we implemented to generate and modify triangular isosurface meshes by marching cubes algorithm. Then we used OpenGL and MFC techniques to render the isosurface and manipulating voxel data. This software is more adequate visualization of volumetric data. The drawbacks are that 3D image processing on personal computers is rather slow and the set of tools for 3D visualization is limited. However, these limitations have not affected the applicability of this platform for all the tasks needed in elementary experiments in laboratory or data preprocessed.

  9. 3D cluster members and near-infrared distance of open cluster NGC 6819

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin-Hua; Xu, Shou-Kun; Chen, Li

    2015-12-01

    In order to obtain clean members of the open cluster NGC 6819, the proper motions and radial velocities of 1691 stars are used to construct a three-dimensional (3D) velocity space. Based on the DBSCAN clustering algorithm, 537 3D cluster members are obtained. From the 537 3D cluster members, the average radial velocity and absolute proper motion of the cluster are Vr = +2.30 ± 0.04 km s-1 and (PMRA, PMDec) = (-2.5 ± 0.5, -4.3 ± 0.5) mas yr-1, respectively. The proper motions, radial velocities, spatial positions and color-magnitude diagram of the 537 3D members indicate that our membership determination is effective. Among the 537 3D cluster members, 15 red clump giants can be easily identified by eye and are used as reliable standard candles for the distance estimate of the cluster. The distance modulus of the cluster is determined to be (m - M)0 = 11.86 ± 0.05 mag (2355 ± 54 pc), which is quite consistent with published values. The uncertainty of our distance modulus is dominated by the intrinsic dispersion in the luminosities of red clump giants (˜ 0.04 mag).

  10. Magnetic reconnection in 3D magnetosphere models: magnetic separators and open flux production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glocer, A.; Dorelli, J.; Toth, G.; Komar, C. M.; Cassak, P.

    2014-12-01

    There are multiple competing definitions of magnetic reconnection in 3D (e.g., Hesse and Schindler [1988], Lau and Finn [1990], and Boozer [2002]). In this work we focus on separator reconnection. A magnetic separator can be understood as the 3D analogue of a 2D x line with a guide field, and is defined by the line corresponding to the intersection of the separatrix surfaces associated with the magnetic nulls. A separator in the magnetosphere represents the intersection of four distinct magnetic topologies: solar wind, closed, open connected to the northern hemisphere, and open connected to the southern hemisphere. The integral of the parallel electric field along the separator defines the rate of open flux production, and is one measure of the reconnection rate. We present three methods for locating magnetic separators and apply them to 3D resistive MHD simulations of the Earth's magnetosphere using the BATS-R-US code. The techniques for finding separators and determining the reconnection rate are insensitive to IMF clock angle and can in principle be applied to any magnetospheric model. The present work examines cases of high and low resistivity, for two clock angles. We also examine the separator during Flux Transfer Events (FTEs) and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability.

  11. A multi-objective optimization framework to model 3D river and landscape evolution processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzi, Simone; Castelletti, Andrea; Cominola, Andrea; Mason, Emanuele; Paik, Kyungrock

    2013-04-01

    Water and sediment interactions shape hillslopes, regulate soil erosion and sedimentation, and organize river networks. Landscape evolution and river organization occur at various spatial and temporal scale and the understanding and modelling of them is highly complex. The idea of a least action principle governing river networks evolution has been proposed many times as a simpler approach among the ones existing in the literature. These theories assume that river networks, as observed in nature, self-organize and act on soil transportation in order to satisfy a particular "optimality" criterion. Accordingly, river and landscape weathering can be simulated by solving an optimization problem, where the choice of the criterion to be optimized becomes the initial assumption. The comparison between natural river networks and optimized ones verifies the correctness of this initial assumption. Yet, various criteria have been proposed in literature and there is no consensus on which is better able to explain river network features observed in nature like network branching and river bed profile: each one is able to reproduce some river features through simplified modelling of the natural processes, but it fails to characterize the whole complexity (3D and its dynamic) of the natural processes. Some of the criteria formulated in the literature partly conflict: the reason is that their formulation rely on mathematical and theoretical simplifications of the natural system that are suitable for specific spatial and temporal scale but fails to represent the whole processes characterizing landscape evolution. In an attempt to address some of these scientific questions, we tested the suitability of using a multi-objective optimization framework to describe river and landscape evolution in a 3D spatial domain. A synthetic landscape is used to this purpose. Multiple, alternative river network evolutions, corresponding to as many tradeoffs between the different and partly

  12. OpenMP for 3D potential boundary value problems solved by PIES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KuŻelewski, Andrzej; Zieniuk, Eugeniusz

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of this paper is examination of an application of modern parallel computing technique OpenMP to speed up the calculation in the numerical solution of parametric integral equations systems (PIES). The authors noticed, that solving more complex boundary problems by PIES sometimes requires large computing time. This paper presents the use of OpenMP and fast C++ linear algebra library Armadillo for boundary value problems modelled by 3D Laplace's equation and solved using PIES. The testing example shows that the use of mentioned technologies significantly increases speed of calculations in PIES.

  13. An Integrated Multi-component Processing and Interpretation Framework for 3D Borehole Seismic Data

    SciTech Connect

    M. Karrenbach

    2004-10-15

    in normal processing. We improved functionality by adding multiple windowing options to each of the display items. The windows can be docked or un-docked, which is advantageous in a practical sense, since the display real estate can be spread across multiple display monitors. All windows transparently tie into the same item tree and views get updated dynamically and transparently. Each display item can be associated with a particular display widget as is the case for the multi-component hodogram display widget. All tasks were performed successfully, ensuring the continued progress of this project as outlined in the original proposal. Deliverables generated during this time period consist of reporting details and synthetically modeled seismic data for a 3D layered geological model. The numerically modeled SEGY data, as well as the model representation data, are ready to be sent out to DOE facilities for archiving. Based on the successful conclusion of work performed during this three month period we continue to occasionally generate synthetically modeled 3D borehole seismic data, according to Tasks 2 and 3. At the same time we proceed to design, implement and test according to the original plan the basic data classes and the basic framework outlined in Tasks 5 through 11, as well as 16.

  14. 3D Hollow Framework Silver Nanowire Electrodes for High-Performance Bottom-Contact Organic Transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiye; Lee, So Hee; Kim, Haekyoung; Kim, Se Hyun; Park, Chan Eon

    2015-07-01

    We successfully fabricated high performance bottom-contact organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) using silver nanowire (AgNW) network electrodes by spray deposition. The synthesized AgNWs have the dimensions of 40-80 nm in diameter and 30-80 μm in length and are randomly distributed and interconnected to form a 3D hollow framework. The AgNWs networks, deposited by spray coating, yield an average optical transmittance of up to 88% and a sheet resistance as low as 10 ohm/sq. For using AgNWs as source/drain electrodes of OFETs with a bottom-contact configuration, the large contact resistance at the AgNWs/organic channel remains a critical issue for charge injection. To enhance charge injection, we fabricate semiconductor crystals on the AgNW using an adsorbed residual poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) layer. The resulting bottom-contact OFETs exhibit high mobility up to 1.02 cm(2)/(V s) and are similar to that of the top-contact Au electrodes OFETs with low contact resistance. A morphological study shows that the pentacene crystals coalesced to form continuous morphology on the nanowires and are highly interconnected with those on the channel. These features contribute to efficient charge injection and encourage the improvement of the bottom-contact device performance. Furthermore, the large contact area of individual AgNWs spreading out to the channel at the edge of the electrode also improves device performance. PMID:26083099

  15. WebGL Visualisation of 3D Environmental Models Based on Finnish Open Geospatial Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krooks, A.; Kahkonen, J.; Lehto, L.; Latvala, P.; Karjalainen, M.; Honkavaara, E.

    2014-08-01

    Recent developments in spatial data infrastructures have enabled real time GIS analysis and visualization using open input data sources and service interfaces. In this study we present a new concept where metric point clouds derived from national open airborne laser scanning (ALS) and photogrammetric image data are processed, analyzed, finally visualised a through open service interfaces to produce user-driven analysis products from targeted areas. The concept is demonstrated in three environmental applications: assessment of forest storm damages, assessment of volumetric changes in open pit mine and 3D city model visualization. One of the main objectives was to study the usability and requirements of national level photogrammetric imagery in these applications. The results demonstrated that user driven 3D geospatial analyses were possible with the proposed approach and current technology, for instance, the landowner could assess the amount of fallen trees within his property borders after a storm easily using any web browser. On the other hand, our study indicated that there are still many uncertainties especially due to the insufficient standardization of photogrammetric products and processes and their quality indicators.

  16. Open source 3D visualization and interaction dedicated to hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Julien; Giangola-Murzyn, Agathe; Gires, Auguste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Climate change and surface urbanization strongly modify the hydrological cycle in urban areas, increasing the consequences of extreme events such as floods or draughts. These issues lead to the development of the Multi-Hydro model at the Ecole des Ponts ParisTech (A. Giangola-Murzyn et al., 2012). This fully distributed model allows to compute the hydrological response of urban and peri-urban areas. Unfortunately such models are seldom user friendly. Indeed generating the inputs before launching a new simulation is usually a tricky tasks, and understanding and interpreting the outputs remains specialist tasks not accessible to the wider public. The MH-AssimTool was developed to overcome these issues. To enable an easier and improved understanding of the model outputs, we decided to convert the raw output data (grids file in ascii format) to a 3D display. Some commercial paying models provide a 3D visualization. Because of the cost of their licenses, this kind of tools may not be accessible to the most concerned stakeholders. So, we are developing a new tool based on C++ for the computation, Qt for the graphic user interface, QGIS for the geographical side and OpenGL for the 3D display. All these languages and libraries are open source and multi-platform. We will discuss some preprocessing issues for the data conversion from 2.5D to 3D. Indeed, the GIS data, is considered as a 2.5D (e.i. 2D polygon + one height) and the its transform to 3D display implies a lot of algorithms. For example,to visualize in 3D one building, it is needed to have for each point the coordinates and the elevation according to the topography. Furthermore one have to create new points to represent the walls. Finally the interactions between the model and stakeholders through this new interface and how this helps converting a research tool into a an efficient operational decision tool will be discussed. This ongoing research on the improvement of the visualization methods is supported by the

  17. A novel 3D framework indium phosphite-oxalate based on a pcu-type topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Mengmeng; Zhou, Mingdong; Hu, Dianwen; Gao, Fan; Dong, Sijie; Huang, Liangliang

    2016-05-01

    A new inorganic-organic hybrid indium phosphite-oxalate, formulated as H[In5(HPO3)6(H2PO3)2(C2O4)2]·(C4N2H11)2·H2O 1 has been hydrothermally synthesized in the presence of piperazine acting as a structure directing agent (SDA). The single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that compound 1 shows three-dimensional open-framework with intersecting 12-ring channels along the [010] and [001] directions, which is constructed from strictly alternating double 6-ring units (D6Rs), [C2O4]2- groups and [H2PO3]- pseudo-pyramids. It is noted that the classical D6R SBU is firstly reported in main metal phosphite/phosphite-oxalate. By regarding D6R as the 6-connected nodes, the inorganic-organic hybrid framework is based on a pcu-type topology. The as-synthesized product was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), ICP-AES and elemental analyses.

  18. 3D Modeling of Landslide in Open-pit Mining on Basis of Ground-based LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, H.; Fernandez-Steeger, T. M.; Azzam, R.; Arnhardt, C.

    2009-04-01

    Slope stability is not only an important problem which is related to production and safety in open-pit mining, but also very complex task. There are three main reasons which affect the slope stability as follows: geotechnical factors: Geological structure, lithologic characteristics, water, cohesion, friction, etc.; climate factors: Rainfall and temperature; and external factors: Open-pit mining process, explosion vibration, dynamic load, etc.. The 3rd reason, as a specially one in open-pit mining, not only causes some dynamic problems but also induces the fast geometry changing which must be considered in the following research using numerical simulation and stability analysis. Recently, LIDAR technology has been applied in many fields and places in the world wide. Ground-based LIDAR technology with high accuracy up to 3mm increasingly accommodates to monitoring landslides and detecting changing. LIDAR data collection and preprocessing research have been carried out by Department of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology at RWTH Aachen University. LIDAR data, so-called a point-cloud of mass data in high density can be obtained in short time for the sensitive open-pit mining area by using ground-based LIDAR. To obtain a consistent surface model, it is necessary to set up multiple scans with the ground-based LIDAR. The framework of data preprocessing which can be implemented by Poly-Works is introduced as follows: gross error detection and elimination, integration of reference frame, model fusion of different scans (re-sampled in overlap region), data reduction without removing the useful information which is a challenge and research front in LIDAR data processing. After data preprocessing, 3D surface model can be directly generated in Poly-Works or generated in other software by building the triangular meshes. The 3D surface landslide model can be applied to further researches such as: real time landslide geometry monitoring due to the fast data collection and

  19. Nitrogen-doped 3D macroporous graphene frameworks as anode for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaowu; Wu, Ying; Yang, Zhenzhong; Pan, Fusen; Zhong, Xiongwu; Wang, Jiaqing; Gu, Lin; Yu, Yan

    2015-10-01

    Nitrogen-doped 3D graphene frameworks (N-3D GFs) were synthesized by a facile two-step method: Polystyrene (PS) encapsulated in graphene oxide (GO) composites (denoted as PS@GO) are first synthesized, followed by a post-thermal annealing in ammonia step to get N-doped 3D GFs. The resulting N-3D GFs inherit the advantages of graphene, which possesses high electrical conductivity and high specific surface area. Furthermore, the well-defined 3D interconnected structure can facilitate the access of the electrolyte to the electrode surface, thus shortening the diffusion length of both Li+/e-, keeping the overall electrode highly conductive and active in lithium storage. Simultaneously, the in-situ formation of pyridinic N and pyrrolic N in 3D GFs provide high electronic conductivity and structure stability for lithium storage. The designed N-3D GFs electrode delivers a high specific capacity of 1094 mAhg-1 after 100 cycles at 200 mAg-1 and superior rate capability (691 mAhg-1 after 500 cycles at 1000 mAg-1) when used as anode for LIBs. We believe that such an inherently inexpensive, scalable, facile method can significantly increase the feasibility of building high performance energy storage system.

  20. Imaging open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for 3D cloud profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rentz Dupuis, Julia; Mansur, David J.; Vaillancourt, Robert; Carlson, David; Evans, Thomas; Schundler, Elizabeth; Todd, Lori; Mottus, Kathleen

    2009-05-01

    OPTRA is developing an imaging open-path Fourier transform infrared (I-OP-FTIR) spectrometer for 3D profiling of chemical and biological agent simulant plumes released into test ranges and chambers. An array of I-OP-FTIR instruments positioned around the perimeter of the test site, in concert with advanced spectroscopic algorithms, enables real time tomographic reconstruction of the plume. The approach is intended as a referee measurement for test ranges and chambers. This Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) effort combines the instrumentation and spectroscopic capabilities of OPTRA, Inc. with the computed tomographic expertise of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

  1. Highly selective luminescence sensing of nitrite and benzaldehyde based on 3d-4f heterometallic metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Du, Pei-Yao; Gu, Wen; Liu, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Framework-isomeric three-dimensional (3D) Zn-Ln heterometallic metal-organic frameworks, {[Ln2Zn(abtc)2(H2O)4]·2H2O}∞ {Ln = Sm(1), Tb(2)}, were synthesized using a convenient solvothermal reaction. They can serve as excellent sensors for the specific identification of benzaldehyde and NO2(-) through a fluorescence quenching process. PMID:27117937

  2. Unravelling the Proton Conduction Mechanism from Room Temperature to 553 K in a 3D Inorganic Coordination Framework.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaxing; Tao, Zetian; Yin, Xuemiao; Shu, Jie; Chen, Lanhua; Sheng, Daopeng; Chai, Zhifang; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E; Wang, Shuao

    2015-10-19

    The preparation of proton-conducting materials that are functional and stable at intermediate temperatures (393-573 K) is a focal point of fuel cell development. The purely inorganic material, HNd(IO3)4, which possesses a dense 3D framework structure, can reach a maximum of 4.6 × 10(-4) S·cm(-1) at 353 K and 95% relative humidity and exhibit a high conductivity of 8.0 × 10(-5) S·cm(-1) from 373 to 553 K under the flow of wet N2. HNd(IO3)4 exhibits a variety of improvements including high thermal stability, low solubility in water, and resistance to reducing atmosphere. The proton conductivity in such a wide temperature range originates from the intrinsic liberated protons in the structure and the resulting 1D hydrogen-bonding network confirmed by bond valence sum calculation and solid-state NMR analysis. Moreover, two different activation energies are observed in different temperature regions (0.23 eV below 373 K and 0.026 eV from 373 to 553 K), indicating that two types of proton motion are responsible for proton diffusion, as further domenstrated by temperature-dependent open-circuit voltage hysteresis in a tested fuel cell assembly as well as variable-temperature and double quantum filtered solid-state NMR measurements. PMID:26444097

  3. A one-piece 3D printed flexure translation stage for open-source microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkey, James P.; Foo, Darryl C. W.; Kabla, Alexandre; Baumberg, Jeremy J.; Bowman, Richard W.

    2016-02-01

    Open source hardware has the potential to revolutionise the way we build scientific instruments; with the advent of readily available 3D printers, mechanical designs can now be shared, improved, and replicated faster and more easily than ever before. However, printed parts are typically plastic and often perform poorly compared to traditionally machined mechanisms. We have overcome many of the limitations of 3D printed mechanisms by exploiting the compliance of the plastic to produce a monolithic 3D printed flexure translation stage, capable of sub-micron-scale motion over a range of 8 × 8 × 4 mm. This requires minimal post-print clean-up and can be automated with readily available stepper motors. The resulting plastic composite structure is very stiff and exhibits remarkably low drift, moving less than 20 μm over the course of a week, without temperature stabilisation. This enables us to construct a miniature microscope with excellent mechanical stability, perfect for time-lapse measurements in situ in an incubator or fume hood. The ease of manufacture lends itself to use in containment facilities where disposability is advantageous and to experiments requiring many microscopes in parallel. High performance mechanisms based on printed flexures need not be limited to microscopy, and we anticipate their use in other devices both within the laboratory and beyond.

  4. A one-piece 3D printed flexure translation stage for open-source microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, James P; Foo, Darryl C W; Kabla, Alexandre; Baumberg, Jeremy J; Bowman, Richard W

    2016-02-01

    Open source hardware has the potential to revolutionise the way we build scientific instruments; with the advent of readily available 3D printers, mechanical designs can now be shared, improved, and replicated faster and more easily than ever before. However, printed parts are typically plastic and often perform poorly compared to traditionally machined mechanisms. We have overcome many of the limitations of 3D printed mechanisms by exploiting the compliance of the plastic to produce a monolithic 3D printed flexure translation stage, capable of sub-micron-scale motion over a range of 8 × 8 × 4 mm. This requires minimal post-print clean-up and can be automated with readily available stepper motors. The resulting plastic composite structure is very stiff and exhibits remarkably low drift, moving less than 20 μm over the course of a week, without temperature stabilisation. This enables us to construct a miniature microscope with excellent mechanical stability, perfect for time-lapse measurements in situ in an incubator or fume hood. The ease of manufacture lends itself to use in containment facilities where disposability is advantageous and to experiments requiring many microscopes in parallel. High performance mechanisms based on printed flexures need not be limited to microscopy, and we anticipate their use in other devices both within the laboratory and beyond. PMID:26931888

  5. An open source implementation of colon CAD in 3D slicer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haiyong; Gage, H. Donald; Santago, Pete

    2010-03-01

    Most colon CAD (computer aided detection) software products, especially commercial products, are designed for use by radiologists in a clinical environment. Therefore, those features that effectively assist radiologists in finding polyps are emphasized in those tools. However, colon CAD researchers, many of whom are engineers or computer scientists, are working with CT studies in which polyps have already been identified using CT Colonography (CTC) and/or optical colonoscopy (OC). Their goal is to utilize that data to design a computer system that will identify all true polyps with no false positive detections. Therefore, they are more concerned with how to reduce false positives and to understand the behavior of the system than how to find polyps. Thus, colon CAD researchers have different requirements for tools not found in current CAD software. We have implemented a module in 3D Slicer to assist these researchers. As with clinical colon CAD implementations, the ability to promptly locate a polyp candidate in a 2D slice image and on a 3D colon surface is essential for researchers. Our software provides this capability, and uniquely, for each polyp candidate, the prediction value from a classifier is shown next to the 3D view of the polyp candidate, as well as its CTC/OC finding. This capability makes it easier to study each false positive detection and identify its causes. We describe features in our colon CAD system that meets researchers' specific requirements. Our system uses an open source implementation of a 3D Slicer module, and the software is available to the pubic for use and for extension (http://www2.wfubmc.edu/ctc/download/).

  6. Hydrothermal synthesis and characteristics of 3-D hydrated bismuth oxalate coordination polymers with open-channel structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xinxiang; Cao, Yanning; Zhang, Hanhui; Chen, Yiping; Chen, Xuehuan; Chai, Xiaochuan

    2008-05-01

    Two new 3-D porous bismuth coordination polymers, (C 5NH 6) 2[Bi 2(H 2O) 2(C 2O 4) 4]·2H 2O 1 and (NH 4)[Bi(C 2O 4) 2]·3H 2O 2, have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic symmetry, P2 1/ c space group with a=10.378(2) Å, b=17.285(3) Å, c=16.563(5) Å, α=90°, β=119.66(2)°, γ=90°, V=2581.8(10) Å 3, Z=4, R1=0.0355 and w R2=0.0658 for unique 4713 reflections I >2 σ( I). Compound 2 crystallizes in the tetragonal symmetry, I4 1/ amd space group with a=11.7026(17) Å, b=11.7026(17) Å, c=9.2233(18) Å, α=90°, β=90°, γ=90°, V=1263.1(4) Å 3, Z=32, R1=0.0208 and w R2=0.0518 for unique 359 reflections I> 2 σ( I). Compounds 1 and 2 are 3-D open-framework structures with a 6 6 uniform net, which consist of honeycomb-like layers connected to each other by oxalate units. While different guest molecules fill in their cavities of honeycomb-like layers, study of ultrasonic treatment on 2 indicates the replacement of NH 4+ by K + on potassium ion exchange. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that the open-channel frameworks are thermally stable up to 200 °C, and other characterizations are also described by elemental analysis, IR and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectionintegral spectrum (UV-Vis DRIS).

  7. Aeroacoustic Simulation of a Nose Landing Gear in an Open Jet Facility Using FUN3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vatsa, Veer N.; Lockhard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Carlson, Jan-Renee

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations have been performed for a partially-dressed, cavity-closed nose landing gear configuration that was tested in NASA Langley s closed-wall Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel (BART) and in the University of Florida s open-jet acoustic facility known as UFAFF. The unstructured-grid flow solver, FUN3D, developed at NASA Langley Research center is used to compute the unsteady flow field for this configuration. A hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes/large eddy simulation (RANS/LES) turbulence model is used for these computations. Time-averaged and instantaneous solutions compare favorably with the measured data. Unsteady flowfield data obtained from the FUN3D code are used as input to a Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings noise propagation code to compute the sound pressure levels at microphones placed in the farfield. Significant improvement in predicted noise levels is obtained when the flowfield data from the open jet UFAFF simulations is used as compared to the case using flowfield data from the closed-wall BART configuration.

  8. The Open-Ended Approach Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munroe, Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a pedagogical framework that teachers can use to support students who are engaged in solving open-ended problems, by explaining how two Japanese expert teachers successfully apply open-ended problems in their mathematics class. The Open-Ended Approach (OPA) framework consists of two main sections: Understanding Mathematical…

  9. Imaging open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for 3D cloud profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rentz Dupuis, Julia; Mansur, David J.; Vaillancourt, Robert; Carlson, David; Evans, Thomas; Schundler, Elizabeth; Todd, Lori; Mottus, Kathleen

    2010-04-01

    OPTRA has developed an imaging open-path Fourier transform infrared (I-OP-FTIR) spectrometer for 3D profiling of chemical and biological agent simulant plumes released into test ranges and chambers. An array of I-OP-FTIR instruments positioned around the perimeter of the test site, in concert with advanced spectroscopic algorithms, enables real time tomographic reconstruction of the plume. The approach is intended as a referee measurement for test ranges and chambers. This Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) effort combines the instrumentation and spectroscopic capabilities of OPTRA, Inc. with the computed tomographic expertise of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. In this paper, we summarize the design and build and detail system characterization and test of a prototype I-OP-FTIR instrument. System characterization includes radiometric performance and spectral resolution. Results from a series of tomographic reconstructions of sulfur hexafluoride plumes in a laboratory setting are also presented.

  10. Imaging open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for 3D cloud profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rentz Dupuis, Julia; Mansur, David J.; Engel, James R.; Vaillancourt, Robert; Todd, Lori; Mottus, Kathleen

    2008-04-01

    OPTRA and University of North Carolina are developing an imaging open-path Fourier transform infrared (I-OP-FTIR) spectrometer for 3D profiling of chemical and biological agent simulant plumes released into test ranges and chambers. An array of I-OP-FTIR instruments positioned around the perimeter of the test site, in concert with advanced spectroscopic algorithms, enables real time tomographic reconstruction of the plume. The approach will be considered as a candidate referee measurement for test ranges and chambers. This Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) effort combines the instrumentation and spectroscopic capabilities of OPTRA, Inc. with the computed tomographic expertise of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. In this paper, we summarize progress to date and overall system performance projections based on the instrument, spectroscopy, and tomographic reconstruction accuracy. We then present a preliminary optical design of the I-OP-FTIR.

  11. A unified and efficient framework for court-net sports video analysis using 3D camera modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jungong; de With, Peter H. N.

    2007-01-01

    The extensive amount of video data stored on available media (hard and optical disks) necessitates video content analysis, which is a cornerstone for different user-friendly applications, such as, smart video retrieval and intelligent video summarization. This paper aims at finding a unified and efficient framework for court-net sports video analysis. We concentrate on techniques that are generally applicable for more than one sports type to come to a unified approach. To this end, our framework employs the concept of multi-level analysis, where a novel 3-D camera modeling is utilized to bridge the gap between the object-level and the scene-level analysis. The new 3-D camera modeling is based on collecting features points from two planes, which are perpendicular to each other, so that a true 3-D reference is obtained. Another important contribution is a new tracking algorithm for the objects (i.e. players). The algorithm can track up to four players simultaneously. The complete system contributes to summarization by various forms of information, of which the most important are the moving trajectory and real-speed of each player, as well as 3-D height information of objects and the semantic event segments in a game. We illustrate the performance of the proposed system by evaluating it for a variety of court-net sports videos containing badminton, tennis and volleyball, and we show that the feature detection performance is above 92% and events detection about 90%.

  12. An open source workflow for 3D printouts of scientific data volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loewe, P.; Klump, J. F.; Wickert, J.; Ludwig, M.; Frigeri, A.

    2013-12-01

    As the amount of scientific data continues to grow, researchers need new tools to help them visualize complex data. Immersive data-visualisations are helpful, yet fail to provide tactile feedback and sensory feedback on spatial orientation, as provided from tangible objects. The gap in sensory feedback from virtual objects leads to the development of tangible representations of geospatial information to solve real world problems. Examples are animated globes [1], interactive environments like tangible GIS [2], and on demand 3D prints. The production of a tangible representation of a scientific data set is one step in a line of scientific thinking, leading from the physical world into scientific reasoning and back: The process starts with a physical observation, or from a data stream generated by an environmental sensor. This data stream is turned into a geo-referenced data set. This data is turned into a volume representation which is converted into command sequences for the printing device, leading to the creation of a 3D printout. As a last, but crucial step, this new object has to be documented and linked to the associated metadata, and curated in long term repositories to preserve its scientific meaning and context. The workflow to produce tangible 3D data-prints from science data at the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) was implemented as a software based on the Free and Open Source Geoinformatics tools GRASS GIS and Paraview. The workflow was successfully validated in various application scenarios at GFZ using a RapMan printer to create 3D specimens of elevation models, geological underground models, ice penetrating radar soundings for planetology, and space time stacks for Tsunami model quality assessment. While these first pilot applications have demonstrated the feasibility of the overall approach [3], current research focuses on the provision of the workflow as Software as a Service (SAAS), thematic generalisation of information content and

  13. Open-Source Wax RepRap 3-D Printer for Rapid Prototyping Paper-Based Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Pearce, J M; Anzalone, N C; Heldt, C L

    2016-08-01

    The open-source release of self-replicating rapid prototypers (RepRaps) has created a rich opportunity for low-cost distributed digital fabrication of complex 3-D objects such as scientific equipment. For example, 3-D printable reactionware devices offer the opportunity to combine open hardware microfluidic handling with lab-on-a-chip reactionware to radically reduce costs and increase the number and complexity of microfluidic applications. To further drive down the cost while improving the performance of lab-on-a-chip paper-based microfluidic prototyping, this study reports on the development of a RepRap upgrade capable of converting a Prusa Mendel RepRap into a wax 3-D printer for paper-based microfluidic applications. An open-source hardware approach is used to demonstrate a 3-D printable upgrade for the 3-D printer, which combines a heated syringe pump with the RepRap/Arduino 3-D control. The bill of materials, designs, basic assembly, and use instructions are provided, along with a completely free and open-source software tool chain. The open-source hardware device described here accelerates the potential of the nascent field of electrochemical detection combined with paper-based microfluidics by dropping the marginal cost of prototyping to nearly zero while accelerating the turnover between paper-based microfluidic designs. PMID:26763294

  14. Parameterization of real-time 3D speckle tracking framework for cardiac strain assessment.

    PubMed

    Lorsakul, Auranuch; Duan, Qi; Po, Ming Jack; Angelini, Elsa; Homma, Shunichi; Laine, Andrew F

    2011-01-01

    Cross-correlation based 3D speckle tracking algorithm can be used to automatically track myocardial motion on three dimensional real-time (RT3D) echocardiography. The goal of this study was to experimentally investigate the effects of different parameters associated with such algorithm to ensure accurate cardiac strain measurements. The investigation was performed on 10 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease RT3DE cardiac ultrasound images. The following two parameters were investigated: 1) the gradient threshold of the anisotropic diffusion pre-filtering and 2) the window size of the cross correlation template matching in the speckle tracking. Results suggest that the optimal gradient threshold of the anisotropic filter depends on the average gradient of the background speckle noise, and that an optimal pair of template size and search window size can be identified determines the cross-correlation level and computational cost. PMID:22254887

  15. Homochiral 3D metal-organic frameworks from chiral 1D rods: 6-way helical packing.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sung Min; Moon, Dohyun; Jeong, Kyung Seok; Kim, Jaheon; Thallapally, Praveen K; Jeong, Nakcheol

    2011-09-01

    The chiral 3D MOFs resulted from the packing of chiral 1D SBBs were studied. It was demonstrated that the final packing pattern is sensitively dependent on the dimension of SBBs. In addition, we were able to identify a new plywood-like network from ligand 2H(2) exhibiting an unprecedented six-way chiral helical packing motif, which extends the list of invariant rod packings. PMID:21773637

  16. A Framework for 3D Model-Based Visual Tracking Using a GPU-Accelerated Particle Filter.

    PubMed

    Brown, J A; Capson, D W

    2012-01-01

    A novel framework for acceleration of particle filtering approaches to 3D model-based, markerless visual tracking in monocular video is described. Specifically, we present a methodology for partitioning and mapping the computationally expensive weight-update stage of a particle filter to a graphics processing unit (GPU) to achieve particle- and pixel-level parallelism. Nvidia CUDA and Direct3D are employed to harness the massively parallel computational power of modern GPUs for simulation (3D model rendering) and evaluation (segmentation, feature extraction, and weight calculation) of hundreds of particles at high speeds. The proposed framework addresses the computational intensity that is intrinsic to all particle filter approaches, including those that have been modified to minimize the number of particles required for a particular task. Performance and tracking quality results for rigid object and articulated hand tracking experiments demonstrate markerless, model-based visual tracking on consumer-grade graphics hardware with pixel-level accuracy up to 95 percent at 60+ frames per second. The framework accelerates particle evaluation up to 49 times over a comparable CPU-only implementation, providing an increased particle count while maintaining real-time frame rates. PMID:21301027

  17. Multi-sensor super-resolution for hybrid range imaging with application to 3-D endoscopy and open surgery.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Thomas; Haase, Sven; Bauer, Sebastian; Wasza, Jakob; Kilgus, Thomas; Maier-Hein, Lena; Stock, Christian; Hornegger, Joachim; Feußner, Hubertus

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a multi-sensor super-resolution framework for hybrid imaging to super-resolve data from one modality by taking advantage of additional guidance images of a complementary modality. This concept is applied to hybrid 3-D range imaging in image-guided surgery, where high-quality photometric data is exploited to enhance range images of low spatial resolution. We formulate super-resolution based on the maximum a-posteriori (MAP) principle and reconstruct high-resolution range data from multiple low-resolution frames and complementary photometric information. Robust motion estimation as required for super-resolution is performed on photometric data to derive displacement fields of subpixel accuracy for the associated range images. For improved reconstruction of depth discontinuities, a novel adaptive regularizer exploiting correlations between both modalities is embedded to MAP estimation. We evaluated our method on synthetic data as well as ex-vivo images in open surgery and endoscopy. The proposed multi-sensor framework improves the peak signal-to-noise ratio by 2 dB and structural similarity by 0.03 on average compared to conventional single-sensor approaches. In ex-vivo experiments on porcine organs, our method achieves substantial improvements in terms of depth discontinuity reconstruction. PMID:26201876

  18. 3D in the Fast Lane: Render as You Go with the Latest OpenGL Boards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauer, Jeff; Murphy, Sam

    1997-01-01

    NT OpenGL hardware allows modelers and animators to work at relatively inexpensive NT workstations in their own offices or homes previous to shared space and workstation time in expensive studios. Rates seven OpenGL boards and two QuickDraw 3D accelerator boards for Mac users on overall value, wireframe and texture rendering, 2D acceleration, and…

  19. A nanoporous 3D zinc(II) metal–organic framework for selective absorption of benzaldehyde and formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Moradpour, Tahereh; Abbasi, Alireza; Van Hecke, Kristof

    2015-08-15

    A new 3D nanoporous metal–organic framework (MOF), [[Zn{sub 4}O(C{sub 24}H{sub 15}N{sub 6}O{sub 6}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·6H{sub 2}O·DMF]{sub n} (1) based on 4,4′,4″-s-triazine-1,3,5-triyltri-p-aminobenzoate (TATAB) ligand was solvothermally synthesized and characterized by single–crystal X-ray diffraction, Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analyses. X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis reveals that 1 exhibits a 3D network with new kvh1 topology. Semi-empirical (AM1) calculations were carried out to obtain stable conformers for TATAB ligand. In addition, the absorption of two typical aldehydes (benzaldehyde and formaldehyde) in the presence of 1 was investigated and the effect of the aldehyde concentration, exposure time and temperature was studied. It was found that compound 1 has a potential for the absorption of aldehydes under mild conditions. - Graphical abstract: Absorption of two typical aldehydes (formaldehyde and benzaldehyde) by solvothermally synthesized of a 3D nano-porous MOF based on TATAB tricarboxylate ligand and Zn (NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O. - Highlights: • We present a 3D Zn(II)-MOF with TATAB linker by solvothermal method. • The framework possesses a new kvh1 topology. • The framework displays formaldehyde and benzaldehyde absorption property. • Conformational analysis was performed to determine the stable linker geometry.

  20. Coordinated assembly of a new 3D mesoporous Fe₃O₄@Cu₂O-graphene oxide framework as a highly efficient and reusable catalyst for the synthesis of quinoxalines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiyi; Hu, Guowen; Liu, Jian; Liu, Weisheng; Zhang, Haoli; Wang, Baodui

    2015-03-25

    A new three-dimensional (3D) mesoporous hybrid framework was synthesized by coordinated layer-by-layer assembly between nanosheets of reduced graphene oxide and Fe3O4@Cu2O. This 3D mesoporous framework shows an excellent catalytic performance with a remarkable activity, selectivity (>99%), and strong durability in the synthesis of quinoxalines. PMID:25712163

  1. A Two-Stage Framework for 3D Face Reconstruction from RGBD Images.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kangkan; Wang, Xianwang; Pan, Zhigeng; Liu, Kai

    2014-08-01

    This paper proposes a new approach for 3D face reconstruction with RGBD images from an inexpensive commodity sensor. The challenges we face are: 1) substantial random noise and corruption are present in low-resolution depth maps; and 2) there is high degree of variability in pose and face expression. We develop a novel two-stage algorithm that effectively maps low-quality depth maps to realistic face models. Each stage is targeted toward a certain type of noise. The first stage extracts sparse errors from depth patches through the data-driven local sparse coding, while the second stage smooths noise on the boundaries between patches and reconstructs the global shape by combining local shapes using our template-based surface refinement. Our approach does not require any markers or user interaction. We perform quantitative and qualitative evaluations on both synthetic and real test sets. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is able to produce high-resolution 3D face models with high accuracy, even if inputs are of low quality, and have large variations in viewpoint and face expression. PMID:26353333

  2. Sparse Bayesian framework applied to 3D super-resolution reconstruction in fetal brain MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra, Laura C.; Velasco Toledo, Nelson; Romero Castro, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Fetal Magnetic Resonance (FMR) is an imaging technique that is becoming increasingly important as allows assessing brain development and thus make an early diagnostic of congenital abnormalities, spatial resolution is limited by the short acquisition time and the unpredictable fetus movements, in consequence the resulting images are characterized by non-parallel projection planes composed by anisotropic voxels. The sparse Bayesian representation is a flexible strategy which is able to model complex relationships. The Super-resolution is approached as a regression problem, the main advantage is the capability to learn data relations from observations. Quantitative performance evaluation was carried out using synthetic images, the proposed method demonstrates a better reconstruction quality compared with standard interpolation approach. The presented method is a promising approach to improve the information quality related with the 3-D fetal brain structure. It is important because allows assessing brain development and thus make an early diagnostic of congenital abnormalities.

  3. Data Management Framework of Drone-Based 3d Model Reconstruction of Disaster Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, C.; Moon, H.; Lee, W.

    2016-06-01

    To rescue peoples in the disaster site in time, information acquisition of current feature of collapsed buildings and terrain is quite important for disaster site rescue manager. Based on information about disaster site, they can accurately plan the rescue process and remove collapsed buildings or other facilities. However, due to the harsh condition of disaster areas, rapid and accurate acquisition of disaster site information is not an easy task. There are possibilities of further damages in the collapse and there are also difficulties in acquiring information about current disaster situation due to large disaster site and limited rescue resources. To overcome these circumstances of disaster sites, an unmanned aerial vehicle, commonly known as a drone is used to rapidly and effectively acquire current image data of the large disaster areas. Then, the procedure of drone-based 3D model reconstruction visualization function of developed system is presented.

  4. 3D hybrid-porous carbon derived from carbonization of metal organic frameworks for high performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Weizhai; Mondal, Anjon Kumar; Xu, Jing; Wang, Chengyin; Su, Dawei; Wang, Guoxiu

    2016-09-01

    We report a rational design and synthesis of 3D hybrid-porous carbon with a hierarchical pore architecture for high performance supercapacitors. It contains micropores (<2 nm diameter) and mesopores (2-4 nm), derived from carbonization of unique porous metal organic frameworks (MOFs). Owning to the synergistic effect of micropores and mesopores, the hybrid-porous carbon has exceptionally high ion-accessible surface area and low ion diffusion resistance, which is desired for supercapacitor applications. When applied as electrode materials in supercapacitors, 3D hybrid-porous carbon demonstrates a specific capacitance of 332 F g-1 at a constant charge/discharge current of 500 mA g-1. The supercapacitors can endure more than 10,000 cycles without degradation of capacitance.

  5. A hybrid framework of multiple active appearance models and global registration for 3D prostate segmentation in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghose, Soumya; Oliver, Arnau; Martí, Robert; Lladó, Xavier; Freixenet, Jordi; Mitra, Jhimli; Vilanova, Joan C.; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2012-02-01

    Real-time fusion of Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Trans Rectal Ultra Sound (TRUS) images aid in the localization of malignant tissues in TRUS guided prostate biopsy. Registration performed on segmented contours of the prostate reduces computational complexity and improves the multimodal registration accuracy. However, accurate and computationally efficient 3D segmentation of the prostate in MR images could be a challenging task due to inter-patient shape and intensity variability of the prostate gland. In this work, we propose to use multiple statistical shape and appearance models to segment the prostate in 2D and a global registration framework to impose shape restriction in 3D. Multiple mean parametric models of the shape and appearance corresponding to the apex, central and base regions of the prostate gland are derived from principal component analysis (PCA) of prior shape and intensity information of the prostate from the training data. The estimated parameters are then modified with the prior knowledge of the optimization space to achieve segmentation in 2D. The 2D segmented slices are then rigidly registered with the average 3D model produced by affine registration of the ground truth of the training datasets to minimize pose variations and impose 3D shape restriction. The proposed method achieves a mean Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) value of 0.88+/-0.11, and mean Hausdorff distance (HD) of 3.38+/-2.81 mm when validated with 15 prostate volumes of a public dataset in leave-one-out validation framework. The results achieved are better compared to some of the works in the literature.

  6. An automated framework for 3D serous pigment epithelium detachment segmentation in SD-OCT images

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhuli; Chen, Haoyu; Shi, Fei; Wang, Lirong; Zhu, Weifang; Xiang, Dehui; Yan, Chenglin; Li, Liang; Chen, Xinjian

    2016-01-01

    Pigment epithelium detachment (PED) is an important clinical manifestation of multiple chorioretinal diseases, which can cause loss of central vision. In this paper, an automated framework is proposed to segment serous PED in SD-OCT images. The proposed framework consists of four main steps: first, a multi-scale graph search method is applied to segment abnormal retinal layers; second, an effective AdaBoost method is applied to refine the initial segmented regions based on 62 extracted features; third, a shape-constrained graph cut method is applied to segment serous PED, in which the foreground and background seeds are obtained automatically; finally, an adaptive structure elements based morphology method is applied to remove false positive segmented regions. The proposed framework was tested on 25 SD-OCT volumes from 25 patients diagnosed with serous PED. The average true positive volume fraction (TPVF), false positive volume fraction (FPVF), dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and positive predictive value (PPV) are 90.08%, 0.22%, 91.20% and 92.62%, respectively. The proposed framework can provide clinicians with accurate quantitative information, including shape, size and position of the PED region, which can assist clinical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26899236

  7. 3D imaging with a single-sided sensor: an open tomograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlo, J.; Casanova, F.; Blümich, B.

    2004-02-01

    An open tomograph to image volume regions near the surface of large objects is described. The central achievement in getting such a tomograph to work is the design of a fast two-dimensional pure phase encoding imaging method to produce a cross-sectional image in the presence of highly inhomogeneous fields. The method takes advantage of the multi-echo acquisition in a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG)-like sequence to significantly reduce the experimental time to obtain a 2D image or to spatially resolve relaxation times across the sensitive volume in a single imaging experiment. Depending on T2 the imaging time can be reduced by a factor of up to two orders of magnitude compared to the one needed by the single-echo imaging technique. The complete echo train decay has been also used to produce T2 contrast in the images and to spatially resolve the T2 distribution of an inhomogeneous object, showing that variations of structural properties like the cross-link density of rubber samples can be distinguished by this method. The sequence has been implemented on a single-sided sensor equipped with an optimized magnet geometry and a suitable gradient coil system that provides two perpendicular pulsed gradient fields. The static magnetic field defines flat planes of constant frequency parallel to the surface of the scanner that can be selected by retuning the probe frequency to achieve slice selection into the object. Combining the slice selection obtained under the presence of the static gradient of the open magnet with the two perpendicular pulsed gradient fields, 3D spatial resolution is obtained.

  8. 3D rendering of passive millimeter-wave scenes using modified open source software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakowski, Maciej; Wilson, John; Murakowski, Janusz; Schneider, Garrett; Schuetz, Christopher; Prather, Dennis

    2011-05-01

    As millimeter-wave imaging technology becomes more mature, several applications are emerging for which this technology may be useful. However, effectively predicting the nuances of millimeter-wave phenomenology on the usefulness for a given application remains a challenge. To this end, an accurate millimeter-wave scene simulator would have tremendous value in predicting imager requirements for a given application. Herein, we present a passive millimeter-wave scene simulator built on the open-source 3d modeling software Blender. We describe the changes made to the Blender rendering engine to make it suitable for this purpose, including physically accurate reflections at each material interface, volumetric absorption and scattering, and tracking of both s and p polarizations. In addition, we have incorporated a mmW material database and world model that emulates the effects of cold sky profiles for varying weather conditions and frequencies of operation. The images produced by this model have been validated against calibrated experimental imagery captured by a passive scanning millimeter-wave imager for maritime, desert, and standoff detection applications.

  9. A 3D numerical simulation of stress distribution and fracture process in a zirconia-based FPD framework.

    PubMed

    Kou, Wen; Li, Decong; Qiao, Jiyan; Chen, Li; Ding, Yansheng; Sjögren, Göran

    2011-02-01

    In this study, a numerical approach to the fracture behavior in a three-unit zirconia-based fixed partial denture (FPD) framework was made under mechanical loading using a newly developed three-dimensional (3D) numerical modeling code. All the materials studied were treated heterogeneously and Weibull distribution law was applied to describe the heterogeneity. The Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion with tensile strength cut-off was utilized to judge whether the material was in an elastic or failed state. For validation, the fracture pattern obtained from the numerical modeling was compared with a laboratory test; they largely correlated with each other. Similar fracture initiation sites were detected both in the numerical simulation and in an earlier fractographic analysis. The numerical simulation applied in this study clearly described the stress distribution and fracture process of zirconia-based FPD frameworks, information that could not be gained from the laboratory tests alone. Thus, the newly developed 3D numerical modeling code seems to be an efficient tool for prediction of the fracture process in ceramic FPD frameworks. PMID:21210519

  10. The potential of 3D-FISH and super-resolution structured illumination microscopy for studies of 3D nuclear architecture: 3D structured illumination microscopy of defined chromosomal structures visualized by 3D (immuno)-FISH opens new perspectives for studies of nuclear architecture.

    PubMed

    Markaki, Yolanda; Smeets, Daniel; Fiedler, Susanne; Schmid, Volker J; Schermelleh, Lothar; Cremer, Thomas; Cremer, Marion

    2012-05-01

    Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) has opened up new possibilities to study nuclear architecture at the ultrastructural level down to the ~100 nm range. We present first results and assess the potential using 3D-SIM in combination with 3D fluorescence in situ hybridization (3D-FISH) for the topographical analysis of defined nuclear targets. Our study also deals with the concern that artifacts produced by FISH may counteract the gain in resolution. We address the topography of DAPI-stained DNA in nuclei before and after 3D-FISH, nuclear pores and the lamina, chromosome territories, chromatin domains, and individual gene loci. We also look at the replication patterns of chromocenters and the topographical relationship of Xist-RNA within the inactive X-territory. These examples demonstrate that an appropriately adapted 3D-FISH/3D-SIM approach preserves key characteristics of the nuclear ultrastructure and that the gain in information obtained by 3D-SIM yields new insights into the functional nuclear organization. PMID:22508100

  11. 3D Porous Crystalline Polyimide Covalent Organic Frameworks for Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Fang, Qianrong; Wang, Junhua; Gu, Shuang; Kaspar, Robert B; Zhuang, Zhongbin; Zheng, Jie; Guo, Hongxia; Qiu, Shilun; Yan, Yushan

    2015-07-01

    Three-dimensional porous crystalline polyimide covalent organic frameworks (termed PI-COFs) have been synthesized. These PI-COFs feature non- or interpenetrated structures that can be obtained by choosing tetrahedral building units of different sizes. Both PI-COFs show high thermal stability (>450 °C) and surface area (up to 2403 m(2) g(-1)). They also show high loading and good release control for drug delivery applications. PMID:26099722

  12. A 3D MPI-Parallel GPU-accelerated framework for simulating ocean wave energy converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Ashish; Raessi, Mehdi

    2015-11-01

    We present an MPI-parallel GPU-accelerated computational framework for studying the interaction between ocean waves and wave energy converters (WECs). The computational framework captures the viscous effects, nonlinear fluid-structure interaction (FSI), and breaking of waves around the structure, which cannot be captured in many potential flow solvers commonly used for WEC simulations. The full Navier-Stokes equations are solved using the two-step projection method, which is accelerated by porting the pressure Poisson equation to GPUs. The FSI is captured using the numerically stable fictitious domain method. A novel three-phase interface reconstruction algorithm is used to resolve three phases in a VOF-PLIC context. A consistent mass and momentum transport approach enables simulations at high density ratios. The accuracy of the overall framework is demonstrated via an array of test cases. Numerical simulations of the interaction between ocean waves and WECs are presented. Funding from the National Science Foundation CBET-1236462 grant is gratefully acknowledged.

  13. Synthesis and structure of a 2D → 3D framework with coexistence of hydrogen bonds and polythreading character

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ming-Dao Zhuang, Qi-Fan; Xu, Jing; Cao, Hui

    2015-12-15

    The title complex, ([Co(BPPA)(5-OH-bdc)] · (H{sub 2}O)){sub n} was prepared under hydrothermal conditions based on two ligands, namely, bis(4-(pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)amine (BPPA) and 5-hydroxyisophthalic acid (5-OH-H{sub 2}bdc). 5-OH-bdc{sup 2–} anions coordinated to Co atoms to give layers in crystal. BPPA ligands coordinate to Co atoms and thread into the adjacent layers. There are hydrogen bonds between adjacent layers, giving rise to a 2D → 3D framework.

  14. DataViewer3D: An Open-Source, Cross-Platform Multi-Modal Neuroimaging Data Visualization Tool.

    PubMed

    Gouws, André; Woods, Will; Millman, Rebecca; Morland, Antony; Green, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Integration and display of results from multiple neuroimaging modalities [e.g. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetoencephalography, EEG] relies on display of a diverse range of data within a common, defined coordinate frame. DataViewer3D (DV3D) is a multi-modal imaging data visualization tool offering a cross-platform, open-source solution to simultaneous data overlay visualization requirements of imaging studies. While DV3D is primarily a visualization tool, the package allows an analysis approach where results from one imaging modality can guide comparative analysis of another modality in a single coordinate space. DV3D is built on Python, a dynamic object-oriented programming language with support for integration of modular toolkits, and development of cross-platform software for neuroimaging. DV3D harnesses the power of the Visualization Toolkit (VTK) for two-dimensional (2D) and 3D rendering, calling VTK's low level C++ functions from Python. Users interact with data via an intuitive interface that uses Python to bind wxWidgets, which in turn calls the user's operating system dialogs and graphical user interface tools. DV3D currently supports NIfTI-1, ANALYZE and DICOM formats for MRI data display (including statistical data overlay). Formats for other data types are supported. The modularity of DV3D and ease of use of Python allows rapid integration of additional format support and user development. DV3D has been tested on Mac OSX, RedHat Linux and Microsoft Windows XP. DV3D is offered for free download with an extensive set of tutorial resources and example data. PMID:19352444

  15. DataViewer3D: An Open-Source, Cross-Platform Multi-Modal Neuroimaging Data Visualization Tool

    PubMed Central

    Gouws, André; Woods, Will; Millman, Rebecca; Morland, Antony; Green, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Integration and display of results from multiple neuroimaging modalities [e.g. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetoencephalography, EEG] relies on display of a diverse range of data within a common, defined coordinate frame. DataViewer3D (DV3D) is a multi-modal imaging data visualization tool offering a cross-platform, open-source solution to simultaneous data overlay visualization requirements of imaging studies. While DV3D is primarily a visualization tool, the package allows an analysis approach where results from one imaging modality can guide comparative analysis of another modality in a single coordinate space. DV3D is built on Python, a dynamic object-oriented programming language with support for integration of modular toolkits, and development of cross-platform software for neuroimaging. DV3D harnesses the power of the Visualization Toolkit (VTK) for two-dimensional (2D) and 3D rendering, calling VTK's low level C++ functions from Python. Users interact with data via an intuitive interface that uses Python to bind wxWidgets, which in turn calls the user's operating system dialogs and graphical user interface tools. DV3D currently supports NIfTI-1, ANALYZE™ and DICOM formats for MRI data display (including statistical data overlay). Formats for other data types are supported. The modularity of DV3D and ease of use of Python allows rapid integration of additional format support and user development. DV3D has been tested on Mac OSX, RedHat Linux and Microsoft Windows XP. DV3D is offered for free download with an extensive set of tutorial resources and example data. PMID:19352444

  16. Construction of 3-D geologic framework and textural models for Cuyama Valley groundwater basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Hanson, Randall T.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater is the sole source of water supply in Cuyama Valley, a rural agricultural area in Santa Barbara County, California, in the southeasternmost part of the Coast Ranges of California. Continued groundwater withdrawals and associated water-resource management concerns have prompted an evaluation of the hydrogeology and water availability for the Cuyama Valley groundwater basin by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Water Agency Division of the Santa Barbara County Department of Public Works. As a part of the overall groundwater evaluation, this report documents the construction of a digital three-dimensional geologic framework model of the groundwater basin suitable for use within a numerical hydrologic-flow model. The report also includes an analysis of the spatial variability of lithology and grain size, which forms the geologic basis for estimating aquifer hydraulic properties. The geologic framework was constructed as a digital representation of the interpreted geometry and thickness of the principal stratigraphic units within the Cuyama Valley groundwater basin, which include younger alluvium, older alluvium, and the Morales Formation, and underlying consolidated bedrock. The framework model was constructed by creating gridded surfaces representing the altitude of the top of each stratigraphic unit from various input data, including lithologic and electric logs from oil and gas wells and water wells, cross sections, and geologic maps. Sediment grain-size data were analyzed in both two and three dimensions to help define textural variations in the Cuyama Valley groundwater basin and identify areas with similar geologic materials that potentially have fairly uniform hydraulic properties. Sediment grain size was used to construct three-dimensional textural models that employed simple interpolation between drill holes and two-dimensional textural models for each stratigraphic unit that incorporated spatial structure of the textural data.

  17. A framework for 3-D coherent diffraction imaging by focused beam x-ray Bragg ptychography.

    SciTech Connect

    Hruszkewycz, S. O.; Holt, M. V.; Tripathi, A.; Maser, J.; Fuoss, P. H.

    2011-06-15

    We present the framework for convergent beam Bragg ptychography, and, using simulations, we demonstrate that nanocrystals can be ptychographically reconstructed from highly convergent x-ray Bragg diffraction. The ptychographic iterative engine is extended to three dimensions and shown to successfully reconstruct a simulated nanocrystal using overlapping raster scans with a defocused curved beam, the diameter of which matches the crystal size. This object reconstruction strategy can serve as the basis for coherent diffraction imaging experiments at coherent scanning nanoprobe x-ray sources.

  18. 3D Printing in the Laboratory: Maximize Time and Funds with Customized and Open-Source Labware.

    PubMed

    Coakley, Meghan; Hurt, Darrell E

    2016-08-01

    3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, is the computer-guided process of fabricating physical objects by depositing successive layers of material. It has transformed manufacturing across virtually every industry, bringing about incredible advances in research and medicine. The rapidly growing consumer market now includes convenient and affordable "desktop" 3D printers. These are being used in the laboratory to create custom 3D-printed equipment, and a growing community of designers are contributing open-source, cost-effective innovations that can be used by both professionals and enthusiasts. User stories from investigators at the National Institutes of Health and the biomedical research community demonstrate the power of 3D printing to save valuable time and funding. While adoption of 3D printing has been slow in the biosciences to date, the potential is vast. The market predicts that within several years, 3D printers could be commonplace within the home; with so many practical uses for 3D printing, we anticipate that the technology will also play an increasingly important role in the laboratory. PMID:27197798

  19. A general framework for face reconstruction using single still image based on 2D-to-3D transformation kernel.

    PubMed

    Fooprateepsiri, Rerkchai; Kurutach, Werasak

    2014-03-01

    Face authentication is a biometric classification method that verifies the identity of a user based on image of their face. Accuracy of the authentication is reduced when the pose, illumination and expression of the training face images are different than the testing image. The methods in this paper are designed to improve the accuracy of a features-based face recognition system when the pose between the input images and training images are different. First, an efficient 2D-to-3D integrated face reconstruction approach is introduced to reconstruct a personalized 3D face model from a single frontal face image with neutral expression and normal illumination. Second, realistic virtual faces with different poses are synthesized based on the personalized 3D face to characterize the face subspace. Finally, face recognition is conducted based on these representative virtual faces. Compared with other related works, this framework has the following advantages: (1) only one single frontal face is required for face recognition, which avoids the burdensome enrollment work; and (2) the synthesized face samples provide the capability to conduct recognition under difficult conditions like complex pose, illumination and expression. From the experimental results, we conclude that the proposed method improves the accuracy of face recognition by varying the pose, illumination and expression. PMID:24529782

  20. A framework for retinal layer intensity analysis for retinal artery occlusion patient based on 3D OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Jianping; Chen, Haoyu; Zhou, Chunlei; Chen, Xinjian

    2014-03-01

    Occlusion of retinal artery leads to severe ischemia and dysfunction of retina. Quantitative analysis of the reflectivity in the retina is very needed to quantitative assessment of the severity of retinal ischemia. In this paper, we proposed a framework for retinal layer intensity analysis for retinal artery occlusion patient based on 3D OCT images. The proposed framework consists of five main steps. First, a pre-processing step is applied to the input OCT images. Second, the graph search method was applied to segment multiple surfaces in OCT images. Third, the RAO region was detected based on texture classification method. Fourth, the layer segmentation was refined using the detected RAO regions. Finally, the retinal layer intensity analysis was performed. The proposed method was tested on tested on 27 clinical Spectral domain OCT images. The preliminary results show the feasibility and efficacy of the proposed method.

  1. 3D porous metal-organic framework as an efficient electrocatalyst for nonenzymatic sensing application.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Daojun; Zhang, Jingchao; Zhang, Renchun; Shi, Huaizhong; Guo, Yuanyuan; Guo, Xiuli; Li, Sujuan; Yuan, Baiqing

    2015-11-01

    Novel electroactive materials with high surface area and stability have great potential for electrochemical sensor. Herein, we demonstrate the exploitation of a porous Cu-based metal-organic framework (Cu-MOF) with large pore size as nonenzymatic sensors for the electrochemical determination of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and glucose. The Cu-MOF shows high stability even in NaOH solution. The as-prepared Cu-MOF modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) presents a well-behaved redox event from electroactive metal centers in the MOF at the physiological pH which can be utilized to catalyze the electroreduction of H2O2. It also exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of glucose in alkaline solution. The results showed that the nonenzymatic sensors based on the Cu-MOF display excellent analytical performances, which make it a promising candidate in electrochemical sensor. PMID:26452944

  2. 3D Graphene Functionalized by Covalent Organic Framework Thin Film as Capacitive Electrode in Alkaline Media.

    PubMed

    Zha, Zeqi; Xu, Lirong; Wang, Zhikui; Li, Xiaoguang; Pan, Qinmin; Hu, Pingan; Lei, Shengbin

    2015-08-19

    To harness the electroactivity of anthraquinone as an electrode material, a great recent effort have been invested to composite anthraquinone with carbon materials to improve the conductivity. Here we report on a noncovalent way to modify three-dimensional graphene with anthraquinone moieties through on-surface synthesis of two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks. We incorporate 2,6-diamino-anthraquinone moieties into COF through Schiff-base reaction with benzene-1,3,5-tricarbaldehyde. The synthesized COF -graphene composite exhibits large specific capacitance of 31.7 mF/cm(2). Long-term galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling experiments revealed a decrease of capacitance, which was attributed to the loss of COF materials and electrostatic repulsion accumulated during charge-discharge circles which result in the poor electrical conductivity between 2D COF layers. PMID:26203782

  3. 3D model acquisition, design, planning, and manufacturing of orthopaedic devices: a framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidder, Justin R.; Mason, Emily; Nnaji, Bartholomew O.

    1996-12-01

    Design and manufacture of orthopedic devices using rapid prototyping technologies has been until recently a highly iterative process that involves multiple users, including doctors, design engineers and rapid prototyping experts. Existing systems for creation of orthopedic parts through rapid prototyping do not follow the principles of concurrent engineering and design for manufacture. This leads to excessive communication between parties and delays in product realization time. In this paper, we lay out the framework for a unified expert system that will enable a doctor to create quickly and easily fully functional prosthetics and orthopedic implants. Necessary components of the model acquisition process should include volumetric segmentation of objects from a CT or MRI dataset and NURBS surface fitting to the boundary points. Finite element analysis and surface model modification modules are also needed, but should be provided in an intuitive fashion for doctors who are not experienced in computer aided design. Preprocessing for rapid prototype building should be automatic, and should include optimal orientation, support structure generation and build simulation modules. Finally, the model should be passed to the rapid prototyping machine in a presliced format for speed and accuracy.

  4. Metal-organic frameworks from zinc sulfite clusters, chains, and sheets: 4-connected, (3,4)-connected 3-D frameworks and 2-D arrays of catenane-like interlocking rings.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dan-Tam; Chew, Emily; Zhang, Qichun; Choi, Alice; Bu, Xianhui

    2006-12-25

    Even though open-framework solids have been made in a variety of compositions such as silicates, phosphates, germanates, borates, and phosphites, few are known that are based on trigonal-pyramidal sulfite anions. We report here the first synthetic and structural studies of metal-organic framework materials in the zinc sulfite composition. It is demonstrated here that Zn2+ and SO32- can form various neutral inorganic subunits that can be 0-D clusters, 1-D chains, or 2-D sheets. These inorganic subunits of different dimensionality can subsequently be connected into extended frameworks of higher dimensionality through bifunctional ligands. In (ZnSO3)2en, infinite corrugated ZnSO3 layers are pillared by ethylenediamine (en) molecules into a 3-D network that can be classified as a (3,4)-connected net based on tetrahedral Zn nodes and trigonal-pyramidal S nodes. In (ZnSO3)pip, infinite ZnSO3 chains are cross-linked with piperazine molecules into a 3-D framework that can be classified as 4-connected net based on tetrahedral Zn nodes only. In (ZnSO3)2(TMDPy)2, (ZnSO3)2 dimers are doubly bridged by trimethylenedipyridine molecules into an infinite chain with a string of circles. Each circle along the chain is interlocked with another circle from a chain in the perpendicular direction, creating a 2-D pattern with an infinite-square array of catenane-like units. PMID:17173428

  5. 3D Magnetically Ordered Open Supramolecular Architectures Based on Ferrimagnetic Cu/Adenine/Hydroxide Heptameric Wheels.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Aguirre, Rubén; Beobide, Garikoitz; Castillo, Oscar; de Pedro, Imanol; Luque, Antonio; Pérez-Yáñez, Sonia; Rodríguez Fernández, Jesús; Román, Pascual

    2016-08-01

    The present work provides two new examples of supramolecular metal-organic frameworks consisting of three-dimensional extended noncovalent assemblies of wheel-shaped heptanuclear [Cu7(μ-H2O)6(μ3-OH)6(μ-adeninato-κN3:κN9)6](2+) entities. The heptanuclear entity consists of a central [Cu(OH)6](4-) core connected to six additional copper(II) metal centers in a radial and planar arrangement through the hydroxides. It generates a wheel-shaped entity in which water molecules and μ-κN3:κN9 adeninato ligands bridge the peripheral copper atoms. The magnetic characterization indicates the central copper(II) center is anti-ferromagnetically coupled to external copper(II) centers, which are ferromagnetically coupled among them leading to an S = 5/2 ground state. The packing of these entities is sustained by π-π stacking interactions between the adenine nucleobases and by hydrogen bonds established among the hydroxide ligands, sulfate anions, and adenine nucleobases. The sum of both types of supramolecular interactions creates a rigid synthon that in combination with the rigidity of the heptameric entity generates an open supramolecular structure (40-50% of available space) in which additional sulfate and triethylammonium ions are located altogether with solvent molecules. These compounds represent an interesting example of materials combining both porosity and magnetic relevant features. PMID:27409976

  6. Densely Packed Lanthanide Cubane Based 3D Metal-Organic Frameworks for Efficient Magnetic Refrigeration and Slow Magnetic Relaxation.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Soumava; Mondal, Amit Kumar; Konar, Sanjit

    2016-03-01

    Two isostructural densely packed squarato-bridged lanthanide-based 3D metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) [Ln5(μ3-OH)5(μ3-O)(CO3)2(HCO2)2(C4O4)(H2O)2] [Ln = Gd (1) and Dy (2)] show giant cryogenic magnetic refrigeration (for 1) and slow magnetic relaxation (for 2). The structural analyses reveal the presence of a self-assembled crown-shaped building unit with a cubane-based rectangular moiety that leads to a special array of metal centers in 3D space in the complexes. Magnetic investigations confirm that complex 1 exhibits one of the largest cryogenic magnetocaloric effects among the molecular magnetic refrigerant materials reported so far (-ΔSm = 64.0 J kg(-1) K(-1) for ΔH = 9 T at 3 K). The cryogenic cooling effect (of 1) is also quite comparable with that of the commercially used magnetic refrigerant gadolinium-gallium garnet, whereas for complex 2, slow relaxation of magnetization was observed below 10 K. PMID:26881286

  7. 3D metal-organic framework as highly efficient biosensing platform for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Lu, Xianbo; Wu, Lidong; Chen, Jiping

    2015-03-15

    As is well known, bisphenol A (BPA), usually exists in daily plastic products, is one of the most important endocrine disrupting chemicals. In this work, copper-centered metal-organic framework (Cu-MOF) was synthesized, which was characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, FTIR and electrochemical method. The resultant Cu-MOF was explored as a robust electrochemical biosensing platform by choosing tyrosinase (Tyr) as a model enzyme for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of BPA. The Cu-MOF provided a 3D structure with a large specific surface area, which was beneficial for enzyme and BPA absorption, and thus improved the sensitivity of the biosensor. Furthermore, Cu-MOF as a novel sorbent could increase the available BPA concentration to react with tyrosinase through π-π stacking interactions between BPA and Cu-MOF. The Tyr biosensor exhibited a high sensitivity of 0.2242A M(-1) for BPA, a wide linear range from 5.0×10(-8) to 3.0×10-6moll(-1), and a low detection limit of 13nmoll(-1). The response time for detection of BPA is less than 11s. The proposed method was successfully applied to rapid and selective detection of BPA in plastic products with satisfactory results. The recoveries are in the range of 94.0-101.6% for practical applications. With those remarkable advantages, MOFs-based 3D structures show great prospect as robust biosensing platform for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of BPA. PMID:25461172

  8. A nanoporous 3D zinc(II) metal-organic framework for selective absorption of benzaldehyde and formaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradpour, Tahereh; Abbasi, Alireza; Van Hecke, Kristof

    2015-08-01

    A new 3D nanoporous metal-organic framework (MOF), [[Zn4O(C24H15N6O6)2(H2O)2]·6H2O·DMF]n (1) based on 4,4‧,4″-s-triazine-1,3,5-triyltri-p-aminobenzoate (TATAB) ligand was solvothermally synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analyses. X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis reveals that 1 exhibits a 3D network with new kvh1 topology. Semi-empirical (AM1) calculations were carried out to obtain stable conformers for TATAB ligand. In addition, the absorption of two typical aldehydes (benzaldehyde and formaldehyde) in the presence of 1 was investigated and the effect of the aldehyde concentration, exposure time and temperature was studied. It was found that compound 1 has a potential for the absorption of aldehydes under mild conditions.

  9. Propagation of premixed laminar flames in 3D narrow open ducts using RBF-generated finite differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayona, Victor; Kindelan, Manuel

    2013-10-01

    Laminar flame propagation is an important problem in combustion modelling for which great advances have been achieved both in its theoretical understanding and in the numerical solution of the governing equations in 2D and 3D. Most of these numerical simulations use finite difference techniques on simple geometries (channels, ducts, ...) with equispaced nodes. The objective of this work is to explore the applicability of the radial basis function generated finite difference (RBF-FD) method to laminar flame propagation modelling. This method is specially well suited for the solution of problems with complex geometries and irregular boundaries. Another important advantage is that the method is independent of the dimension of the problem and, therefore, it is very easy to apply in 3D problems with complex geometries. In this work we use the RBF-FD method to compute 2D and 3D numerical results that simulate premixed laminar flames with different Lewis numbers propagating in open ducts.

  10. Dysprosium complexes with mono-/di-carboxylate ligands—From simple dimers to 2D and 3D frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yingjie; Bhadbhade, Mohan; Scales, Nicholas; Karatchevtseva, Inna; Price, Jason R.; Lu, Kim; Lumpkin, Gregory R.

    2014-11-15

    Four dysprosium (Dy) single carboxylates, a formate, a propionate, a butyrate and an oxalate have been synthesized and structurally characterized. The structure of Dy(HCO{sub 2}){sub 3} (1) contains nine-fold coordinated Dy polyhedra in perfect tricapped trigonal prisms. They are linked through trigonal O atoms forming 1D pillars which are further linked together through tricapped O atoms into a 3D pillared metal organic framework. The network structure is stable up to 360 °C. The structure of [Dy{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]·2.5H{sub 2}O (2) contains nine-fold coordinated Dy polyhedra linking together through μ{sub 2}-bridging oxalate anions into a 2D hexagonal layered structure. Both [Dy{sub 2}(Pr){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]·(HPr){sub 0.5} (3) [Pr=(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CO{sub 2}){sup −1}] and [Dy{sub 2}(Bu){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}] (4) [Bu=(C{sub 3}H{sub 7}CO{sub 2}){sup −1}] have similar di-nuclear structures. The Raman vibration modes of the complexes have been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Four dysprosium (Dy) complexes with formate, propionate, butyrate and oxalate ligands have been synthesized and characterized. The Dy formato complex has a 3D pillared metal organic framework and the structure is stable up to 360 °C whilst the complexes with longer alkyl chained mono-carboxylates possess similar di-nuclear structures. The Dy oxalato complex has a 2D hexagonal (honeycomb-type) structure. Their Raman vibration modes have been investigated. - Highlights: • New Dysprosium complexes with formate, propionate, butyrate and oxalate ligands. • Crystal structures range from dimers to two and three dimensional frameworks. • Vibrational modes have been investigated and correlated to the structures. • The complexes are thermal robust and stable to over 300 °C.

  11. FOSE: a framework for open science evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Alexander; van den Bosch, Jasper J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Pre-publication peer review of scientific literature in its present state suffers from a lack of evaluation validity and transparency to the community. Inspired by social networks, we propose a framework for the open exchange of post-publication evaluation to complement the current system. We first formulate a number of necessary conditions that should be met by any design dedicated to perform open scientific evaluation. To introduce our framework, we provide a basic data standard and communication protocol. We argue for the superiority of a provider-independent framework, over a few isolated implementations, which allows the collection and analysis of open evaluation content across a wide range of diverse providers like scientific journals, research institutions, social networks, publishers websites, and more. Furthermore, we describe how its technical implementation can be achieved by using existing web standards and technology. Finally, we illustrate this with a set of examples and discuss further potential. PMID:22754522

  12. An unusual mono-substituted Keggin anion-chain based 3D framework with 24-membered macrocycles as linker units

    SciTech Connect

    Pang Haijun; Ma Huiyuan; Yu Yan; Yang Ming; Xun Ye; Liu Bo

    2012-02-15

    A new compound, [Cu{sup I}(H{sub 2}O)(Hbpp){sub 2}] Subset-Of {l_brace}[Cu{sup I}(bpp)]{sub 2}[PW{sub 11}Cu{sup II}O{sub 39}]{r_brace} (1) (bpp=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane), has been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. In compound 1, the unusual -A-B-A-B- array mono-substituted Keggin anion-chains and 24-membered (Cubpp){sub 2} cation-macrocycles are linked together to form a (2, 4) connected 3D framework with channels of ca. 9.784 Multiplication-Sign 7.771 A{sup 2} along two directions, in which the [Cu(H{sub 2}O)(Hbpp){sub 2}] coordination fragments as guest components are trapped. The photocatalytic experiments of compound 1 were performed, which show a good catalytic activity of compound 1 for photodegradation of RhB. Furthermore, the IR, TGA and electrochemical properties of compound 1 were investigated. - Graphical abstract: An unusual example of mono-substituted Keggin anion-chain based hybrid compound that possesses a 3D structure has been synthesized, which offers a feasible route for synthesis of such compounds. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first example of -A-B-A-B- array mono-substituted Keggin chain is observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An unusual three dimensional structure based mono-substituted Keggin anion-chains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photocatalysis and electrochemical properties of the title compound were studied.

  13. An Open Source 3-D Printed Modular Micro-Drive System for Acute Neurophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Eskandar, Emad N.

    2014-01-01

    Current, commercial, electrode micro-drives that allow independent positioning of multiple electrodes are expensive. Custom designed solutions developed by individual laboratories require fabrication by experienced machinists working in well equipped machine shops and are therefore difficult to disseminate into widespread use. Here, we present an easy to assemble modular micro-drive system for acute primate neurophysiology (PriED) that utilizes rapid prototyping (3-d printing) and readily available off the shelf-parts. The use of 3-d printed parts drastically reduces the cost of the device, making it available to labs without the resources of sophisticated machine shops. The direct transfer of designs from electronic files to physical parts also gives researchers opportunities to easily modify and implement custom solutions to specific recording needs. We also demonstrate a novel model of data sharing for the scientific community: a publicly available repository of drive designs. Researchers can download the drive part designs from the repository, print, assemble and then use the drives. Importantly, users can upload their modified designs with annotations making them easily available for others to use. PMID:24736691

  14. An open source 3-d printed modular micro-drive system for acute neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shaun R; Ghose, Kaushik; Eskandar, Emad N

    2014-01-01

    Current, commercial, electrode micro-drives that allow independent positioning of multiple electrodes are expensive. Custom designed solutions developed by individual laboratories require fabrication by experienced machinists working in well equipped machine shops and are therefore difficult to disseminate into widespread use. Here, we present an easy to assemble modular micro-drive system for acute primate neurophysiology (PriED) that utilizes rapid prototyping (3-d printing) and readily available off the shelf-parts. The use of 3-d printed parts drastically reduces the cost of the device, making it available to labs without the resources of sophisticated machine shops. The direct transfer of designs from electronic files to physical parts also gives researchers opportunities to easily modify and implement custom solutions to specific recording needs. We also demonstrate a novel model of data sharing for the scientific community: a publicly available repository of drive designs. Researchers can download the drive part designs from the repository, print, assemble and then use the drives. Importantly, users can upload their modified designs with annotations making them easily available for others to use. PMID:24736691

  15. Positional isomerism-driven two 3D pillar-layered metal-organic frameworks: Syntheses, topological structures and photoluminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yayong; Zhao, Siwei; Ma, Haoran; Han, Yi; Liu, Kang; Wang, Lei

    2016-06-01

    Two novel three-dimensional (3D) pillar-layered metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), namely [Zn2(μ2-OH)(boaba)(1,4-bmimb)]n (1) and {[Zn5K2(μ2-H2O)2(boaba)4(1,2-bmimb)2(H2O)2]·H2O}n (2), were prepared by hydrothermal reactions (H3boaba=3,5-bis-oxyacetate-benzoic acid; 1,4-bmimb=1,4-bis((2-methyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl)benzene; 1,2-bmimb =1,2-bis((2-methyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl)benzene). Notably, 1 exhibits a (3,5)-connected binodal (63)(69·8)-gra net with binuclear [Zn2(μ2-OH)(COO)]2+ clusters, while 2 shows a novel (4,4,5,9)-connected 4-nodal net constructed from the unique Zn(II)-K(I) heterometal rod-like substructures. The results indicate that the disposition of the 2-methylimidazolyl groups of bis(imidazole) ligands have a significant effect on structural diversity. Moreover, the photoluminescence properties of 1 and 2 have been investigated.

  16. a Uav Based 3-D Positioning Framework for Detecting Locations of Buried Persons in Collapsed Disaster Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, H.; Kim, C.; Lee, W.

    2016-06-01

    Regarding spatial location positioning, indoor location positioning theories based on wireless communication techniques such as Wi-Fi, beacon, UWB and Bluetooth has widely been developing across the world. These techniques are mainly focusing on spatial location detection of customers using fixed wireless APs and unique Tags in the indoor environment. Besides, since existing detection equipment and techniques using ultrasound or sound etc. to detect buried persons and identify survival status for them cause 2nd damages on the collapsed debris for rescuers. In addition, it might take time to check the buried persons. However, the collapsed disaster sites should consider both outdoor and indoor environments because empty spaces under collapsed debris exists. In order to detect buried persons from the empty spaces, we should collect wireless signals with Wi-Fi from their mobile phone. Basically, the Wi-Fi signal measure 2-D location. However, since the buried persons have Z value with burial depth, we also should collect barometer sensor data from their mobile phones in order to measure Z values according to weather conditions. Specially, for quick accessibility to the disaster area, a drone (UAV; Unmanned Arial Vehicle) system, which is equipped with a wireless detection module, was introduced. Using these framework, this study aims to provide the rescuers with effective rescue information by calculating 3-D location for buried persons based on the wireless and barometer sensor fusion.

  17. Hacking for astronomy: can 3D printers and open-hardware enable low-cost sub-/millimeter instrumentation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl

    2014-07-01

    There have been several exciting developments in the technologies commonly used n in the hardware hacking community. Advances in low cost additive-manufacturing processes (i.e. 3D-printers) and the development of openhardware projects, which have produced inexpensive and easily programmable micro-controllers and micro-computers (i.e. Arduino and Raspberry Pi) have opened a new door for individuals seeking to make their own devices. Here we describe the potential for these technologies to reduce costs in construction and development of submillimeter/millimeter astronomical instrumentation. Specifically we have begun a program to measure the optical properties of the custom plastics used in 3D-printers as well as the printer accuracy and resolution to assess the feasibility of directly printing sub- /millimeter transmissive optics. We will also discuss low cost designs for cryogenic temperature measurement and control utilizing Arduino and Raspberry Pi.

  18. An open framework for hydrological data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, H.; Ridler, M. E.; Velzen, N. V.; Hummel, S.; Sandholt, I.; Falk, A. K.; Heemink, A.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate and reliable real-time hydrological forecasts are essential for protection against water-related hazards, operation of infrastructure, and water resources management. Recent advances in radar rainfall estimation and forecasting, numerical weather predictions, satellite and in-situ monitoring, and faster computing facilities are opening up new opportunities in real-time hydrological forecasting. More effective use of the different information sources via data assimilation will provide the basis for producing more accurate and more reliable forecasts. In this regard, development and implementation of robust and computationally efficient data assimilation algorithms that are feasible for real-time applications remains one of the key challenges. Thus far, many of the efforts on implementation of data assimilation in hydrological modeling have been model specific. This requires access to as well as an in-depth knowledge of the numerical core of the models. A means to deal with the interaction between model and data assimilation algorithm in a more generic way is the use of the Open Model Interface (OpenMI). This open source standard interface allows models to exchange data during runtime, thus transforming a complex numerical model to a plug and play like component. For data assimilation, the OpenDA data assimilation toolbox is an open interface standard that includes a set of tools, assimilation algorithms, and numerical techniques to quickly implement data assimilation in numerical models. This paper presents a new generic data assimilation framework that uses OpenMI to interface models within OpenDA. This enables the many OpenMI hydrological models already available access to a robust and flexible data assimilation library. A synthetic test case is presented that highlights the potential of this new framework. An ensemble based Kalman filter is demonstrated for assimilation of groundwater levels in the MIKE SHE distributed and integrated hydrological

  19. 3D Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Buoyant Flow and Heat Transport in a Curved Open Channel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-dimensional buoyancy-extended version of kappa-epsilon turbulence model was developed for simulating the turbulent flow and heat transport in a curved open channel. The density- induced buoyant force was included in the model, and the influence of temperature stratification on flow field was...

  20. A new approach of building 3D visualization framework for multimodal medical images display and computed assisted diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenwei; Sun, Jianyong; Zhang, Jianguo

    2012-02-01

    As more and more CT/MR studies are scanning with larger volume of data sets, more and more radiologists and clinician would like using PACS WS to display and manipulate these larger data sets of images with 3D rendering features. In this paper, we proposed a design method and implantation strategy to develop 3D image display component not only with normal 3D display functions but also with multi-modal medical image fusion as well as compute-assisted diagnosis of coronary heart diseases. The 3D component has been integrated into the PACS display workstation of Shanghai Huadong Hospital, and the clinical practice showed that it is easy for radiologists and physicians to use these 3D functions such as multi-modalities' (e.g. CT, MRI, PET, SPECT) visualization, registration and fusion, and the lesion quantitative measurements. The users were satisfying with the rendering speeds and quality of 3D reconstruction. The advantages of the component include low requirements for computer hardware, easy integration, reliable performance and comfortable application experience. With this system, the radiologists and the clinicians can manipulate with 3D images easily, and use the advanced visualization tools to facilitate their work with a PACS display workstation at any time.

  1. Laser scanner data processing and 3D modeling using a free and open source software

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriele, Fatuzzo; Michele, Mangiameli Giuseppe, Mussumeci; Salvatore, Zito

    2015-03-10

    The laser scanning is a technology that allows in a short time to run the relief geometric objects with a high level of detail and completeness, based on the signal emitted by the laser and the corresponding return signal. When the incident laser radiation hits the object to detect, then the radiation is reflected. The purpose is to build a three-dimensional digital model that allows to reconstruct the reality of the object and to conduct studies regarding the design, restoration and/or conservation. When the laser scanner is equipped with a digital camera, the result of the measurement process is a set of points in XYZ coordinates showing a high density and accuracy with radiometric and RGB tones. In this case, the set of measured points is called “point cloud” and allows the reconstruction of the Digital Surface Model. Even the post-processing is usually performed by closed source software, which is characterized by Copyright restricting the free use, free and open source software can increase the performance by far. Indeed, this latter can be freely used providing the possibility to display and even custom the source code. The experience started at the Faculty of Engineering in Catania is aimed at finding a valuable free and open source tool, MeshLab (Italian Software for data processing), to be compared with a reference closed source software for data processing, i.e. RapidForm. In this work, we compare the results obtained with MeshLab and Rapidform through the planning of the survey and the acquisition of the point cloud of a morphologically complex statue.

  2. The Development of WARP - A Framework for Continuous Energy Monte Carlo Neutron Transport in General 3D Geometries on GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Ryan

    Graphics processing units, or GPUs, have gradually increased in computational power from the small, job-specific boards of the early 1990s to the programmable powerhouses of today. Compared to more common central processing units, or CPUs, GPUs have a higher aggregate memory bandwidth, much higher floating-point operations per second (FLOPS), and lower energy consumption per FLOP. Because one of the main obstacles in exascale computing is power consumption, many new supercomputing platforms are gaining much of their computational capacity by incorporating GPUs into their compute nodes. Since CPU-optimized parallel algorithms are not directly portable to GPU architectures (or at least not without losing substantial performance), transport codes need to be rewritten to execute efficiently on GPUs. Unless this is done, reactor simulations cannot take full advantage of these new supercomputers. WARP, which can stand for ``Weaving All the Random Particles,'' is a three-dimensional (3D) continuous energy Monte Carlo neutron transport code developed in this work as to efficiently implement a continuous energy Monte Carlo neutron transport algorithm on a GPU. WARP accelerates Monte Carlo simulations while preserving the benefits of using the Monte Carlo Method, namely, very few physical and geometrical simplifications. WARP is able to calculate multiplication factors, flux tallies, and fission source distributions for time-independent problems, and can run in both criticality or fixed source modes. WARP can transport neutrons in unrestricted arrangements of parallelepipeds, hexagonal prisms, cylinders, and spheres. WARP uses an event-based algorithm, but with some important differences. Moving data is expensive, so WARP uses a remapping vector of pointer/index pairs to direct GPU threads to the data they need to access. The remapping vector is sorted by reaction type after every transport iteration using a high-efficiency parallel radix sort, which serves to keep the

  3. Lessons in modern digital field geology: Open source software, 3D techniques, and the new world of digital mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, Terry; Hurtado, Jose; Langford, Richard; Serpa, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Although many geologists refuse to admit it, it is time to put paper-based geologic mapping into the historical archives and move to the full potential of digital mapping techniques. For our group, flat map digital geologic mapping is now a routine operation in both research and instruction. Several software options are available, and basic proficiency with the software can be learned in a few hours of instruction and practice. The first practical field GIS software, ArcPad, remains a viable, stable option on Windows-based systems. However, the vendor seems to be moving away from ArcPad in favor of mobile software solutions that are difficult to implement without GIS specialists. Thus, we have pursued a second software option based on the open source program QGIS. Our QGIS system uses the same shapefile-centric data structure as our ArcPad system, including similar pop-up data entry forms and generic graphics for easy data management in the field. The advantage of QGIS is that the same software runs on virtually all common platforms except iOS, although the Android version remains unstable as of this writing. A third software option we are experimenting with for flat map-based field work is Fieldmove, a derivative of the 3D-capable program Move developed by Midland Valley. Our initial experiments with Fieldmove are positive, particularly with the new, inexpensive (<300Euros) Windows tablets. However, the lack of flexibility in data structure makes for cumbersome workflows when trying to interface our existing shapefile-centric data structures to Move. Nonetheless, in spring 2014 we will experiment with full-3D immersion in the field using the full Move software package in combination with ground based LiDAR and photogrammetry. One new workflow suggested by our initial experiments is that field geologists should consider using photogrammetry software to capture 3D visualizations of key outcrops. This process is now straightforward in several software packages, and

  4. Hydrothermal combination of trilacunary Dawson phosphotungstates and hexanickel clusters: from an isolated cluster to a 3D framework.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Xiong; Fang, Wei-Hui; Zhao, Jun-Wei; Yang, Guo-Yu

    2014-12-22

    Three novel hexa-Ni-substituted Dawson phosphortungstates [Ni6 (en)3 (H2O)6 (μ3-OH)3 (H3 P2 W15 O56 )]⋅14 H2O (1), [Ni(enMe)2 (H2O)][Ni6 (enMe)3 (μ3-OH)3 (H2O)6 (HP2 W15 O56)]⋅ 10 H2O (2), and [Ni(enMe)2 ]3 [Ni(enMe)2 (H2O)][Ni(enMe)(H2O)2][Ni6 (enMe)3 (μ3-OH)3 (Ac)2 (H2O)(P2 W15 O56)]2 ⋅6 H2O (3) (en=ethylenediamine, enMe=1, 2-diaminopropane, Ac=CH3 COO(-)) have been made under hydrothermal conditions and were characterized by IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The common structural features of compounds 1-3 contain the similar hexa-Ni-substituted Dawson polyoxometalate (POM) units that can be viewed as a [Ni6 (μ3-OH)3](9+) cluster capping on a [P2 W15 O56](12-) fragment. Compounds 1 and 2 are two isolated clusters, whereas compound 3 is the first 3D POM framework constructed from hexa-Ni-substituted Dawson POM units and Ni(enMe) complex bridges. The preparations of compounds 1-3 not only indicate that triangle coplanar Ni6 clusters are very stable fragments in both trivacant Keggin and trivacant Dawson POM systems, but also offer that the hydrothermal technique can act as an effective strategy for making novel Dawson-type high-nuclear transition-metal cluster substituted POMs by combination of lacunary Dawson precusors with transition-metal cations in the tunable role of organic ligands. In addition, magnetic measurements illustrate that there exist overall ferromagnetic interactions in compound 3. PMID:25376152

  5. A FIB-nanotomography method for accurate 3D reconstruction of open nanoporous structures.

    PubMed

    Mangipudi, K R; Radisch, V; Holzer, L; Volkert, C A

    2016-04-01

    We present an automated focused ion beam nanotomography method for nanoporous microstructures with open porosity, and apply it to reconstruct nanoporous gold (np-Au) structures with ligament sizes on the order of a few tens of nanometers. This method uses serial sectioning of a well-defined wedge-shaped geometry to determine the thickness of individual slices from the changes in the sample width in successive cross-sectional images. The pore space of a selected region of the np-Au is infiltrated with ion-beam-deposited Pt composite before serial sectioning. The cross-sectional images are binarized and stacked according to the individual slice thicknesses, and then processed using standard reconstruction methods. For the image conditions and sample geometry used here, we are able to determine the thickness of individual slices with an accuracy much smaller than a pixel. The accuracy of the new method based on actual slice thickness is assessed by comparing it with (i) a reconstruction using the same cross-sectional images but assuming a constant slice thickness, and (ii) a reconstruction using traditional FIB-tomography method employing constant slice thickness. The morphology and topology of the structures are characterized using ligament and pore size distributions, interface shape distribution functions, interface normal distributions, and genus. The results suggest that the morphology and topology of the final reconstructions are significantly influenced when a constant slice thickness is assumed. The study reveals grain-to-grain variations in the morphology and topology of np-Au. PMID:26906523

  6. 3D-Assisted Quantitative Assessment of Orbital Volume Using an Open-Source Software Platform in a Taiwanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Shyu, Victor Bong-Hang; Hsu, Chung-En; Chen, Chih-hao; Chen, Chien-Tzung

    2015-01-01

    Orbital volume evaluation is an important part of pre-operative assessments in orbital trauma and congenital deformity patients. The availability of the affordable, open-source software, OsiriX, as a tool for preoperative planning increased the popularity of radiological assessments by the surgeon. A volume calculation method based on 3D volume rendering-assisted region-of-interest computation was used to determine the normal orbital volume in Taiwanese patients after reorientation to the Frankfurt plane. Method one utilized 3D points for intuitive orbital rim outlining. The mean normal orbital volume for left and right orbits was 24.3±1.51 ml and 24.7±1.17 ml in male and 21.0±1.21 ml and 21.1±1.30 ml in female subjects. Another method (method two) based on the bilateral orbital lateral rim was also used to calculate orbital volume and compared with method one. The mean normal orbital volume for left and right orbits was 19.0±1.68 ml and 19.1±1.45 ml in male and 16.0±1.01 ml and 16.1±0.92 ml in female subjects. The inter-rater reliability and intra-rater measurement accuracy between users for both methods was found to be acceptable for orbital volume calculations. 3D-assisted quantification of orbital volume is a feasible technique for orbital volume assessment. The normal orbital volume can be used as controls in cases of unilateral orbital reconstruction with a mean size discrepancy of less than 3.1±2.03% in females and 2.7±1.32% in males. The OsiriX software can be used reliably by the individual surgeon as a comprehensive preoperative planning and imaging tool for orbital volume measurement and computed tomography reorientation. PMID:25774683

  7. 3D architecture constructed via the confined growth of MoS2 nanosheets in nanoporous carbon derived from metal-organic frameworks for efficient hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yun; Zhou, Xiaoli; Ding, Tao; Wang, Chunde; Yang, Qing

    2015-10-01

    The design and synthesis of robust, high-performance and low-cost three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structured materials for the electrochemical reduction of water to generate hydrogen is of great significance for practical water splitting applications. In this study, we develop an in situ space-confined method to synthesize an MoS2-based 3D hierarchical structure, in which the MoS2 nanosheets grow in the confined nanopores of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)-derived 3D carbons as electrocatalysts for efficient hydrogen production. Benefiting from its unique structure, which has more exposed active sites and enhanced conductivity, the as-prepared MoS2/3D nanoporous carbon (3D-NPC) composite exhibits remarkable electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) with a small onset overpotential of ~0.16 V, large cathodic currents, small Tafel slope of 51 mV per decade and good durability. We anticipate that this in situ confined growth provides new insights into the construction of high performance catalysts for energy storage and conversion.The design and synthesis of robust, high-performance and low-cost three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structured materials for the electrochemical reduction of water to generate hydrogen is of great significance for practical water splitting applications. In this study, we develop an in situ space-confined method to synthesize an MoS2-based 3D hierarchical structure, in which the MoS2 nanosheets grow in the confined nanopores of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)-derived 3D carbons as electrocatalysts for efficient hydrogen production. Benefiting from its unique structure, which has more exposed active sites and enhanced conductivity, the as-prepared MoS2/3D nanoporous carbon (3D-NPC) composite exhibits remarkable electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) with a small onset overpotential of ~0.16 V, large cathodic currents, small Tafel slope of 51 mV per decade and good durability. We

  8. Open source OCR framework using mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Steven Zhiying; Gilani, Syed Omer; Winkler, Stefan

    2008-02-01

    Mobile phones have evolved from passive one-to-one communication device to powerful handheld computing device. Today most new mobile phones are capable of capturing images, recording video, and browsing internet and do much more. Exciting new social applications are emerging on mobile landscape, like, business card readers, sing detectors and translators. These applications help people quickly gather the information in digital format and interpret them without the need of carrying laptops or tablet PCs. However with all these advancements we find very few open source software available for mobile phones. For instance currently there are many open source OCR engines for desktop platform but, to our knowledge, none are available on mobile platform. Keeping this in perspective we propose a complete text detection and recognition system with speech synthesis ability, using existing desktop technology. In this work we developed a complete OCR framework with subsystems from open source desktop community. This includes a popular open source OCR engine named Tesseract for text detection & recognition and Flite speech synthesis module, for adding text-to-speech ability.

  9. An open-source, automated platform for visualizing subdural electrodes using 3D CT-MRI coregistration

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Allison; Krish, Veena T.; Wagenaar, Joost; Chen, Weixuan; Zheng, Yuanjie; Wang, Hongzhi; Lucas, Timothy H.; Gee, James C.; Litt, Brian; Davis, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Visualizing implanted subdural electrodes in 3D space can greatly aid planning, executing, and validating resection in epilepsy surgery. Coregistration software is available, but cost, complexity, insufficient accuracy or validation limit adoption. We present a fully automated open-source application, based upon a novel method using post-implant CT and post-implant MR images, for accurately visualizing intracranial electrodes in 3D space. Methods CT-MR rigid brain coregistration, MR non-rigid registration, and prior-based segmentation were carried out on 7 subjects. Post-implant CT, post-implant MR, and an external labeled atlas were then aligned in the same space. The coregistration algorithm was validated by manually marking identical anatomical landmarks on the post-implant CT and post-implant MR images. Following coregistration, distances between the center of the landmark masks on the post-implant MR and the coregistered CT images were calculated for all subjects. Algorithms were implemented in open-source software and translated into a “drag and drop” desktop application for Apple Mac OS X. Results Despite post-operative brain deformation, the method was able to automatically align intra-subject multi-modal images and segment cortical subregions so that all electrodes could be visualized on the parcellated brain. Manual marking of anatomical landmarks validated the coregistration algorithm with a mean misalignment distance of 2.87 ± 0.58 mm between the landmarks. Software was easily used by operators without prior image processing experience. Significance We demonstrate an easy to use, novel platform for accurately visualizing subdural electrodes in 3D space on a parcellated brain. We rigorously validated this method using quantitative measures. The method is unique because it involves no pre-processing, is fully automated, and freely available worldwide. A desktop application, as well as the source code, are both available for download on the

  10. 3D mapping of geological contacts by coupling Aerial Laser Scanning, Gigapixel photography and open access pictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Liliane; Guerin, Antoine; Abellán, Antonio; Carrea, Dario; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Multiple sources of geological data exist nowadays, most of them are in 2D (e.g. geological maps, geological panoramic sketch), and only a few are in 3D (e.g. block diagram). One of the current challenges in geological mapping consists not only in providing a more consistent 3D data, but also in pursuing a gathering and a harmonisation of the geological information in order to obtain a more consistent interpretations of the 3D geological models. New remote sensing techniques have significantly improved the representation of three-dimensional surfaces during the last decade, especially for steep and inaccessible rockcliffs. Therefore, we present an exploratory study aiming to find a reliable method for carrying out a three-dimensional mapping of geological contacts using a High Resolution Digital Elevation Model (HRDEM) with a 1 meter cell size. To this end, we selected the "Scex Rouge Mountain" as pilot study area. This outcrop, which is located in the Diablerets Massif (Vaud, Swiss Alps), has the particularity to present very distinguishable folded geological boundaries on its Southern face. The Southern slope belongs to the Wildhorn nappe, which is mainly composed of sedimentary rocks. The top-layer is composed of siliceous limestones, the well-visible fold layer is the "Pygurus layer" and consist of sandy limestone. Finally the bottom-layer includes marly schist and clayey limestones. At first, different sources of information has been draped on the HRDEM of the Scex Rouge Mountain, including not only classical geological maps (1:25 000) but also different sources of imagery (e.g. gigapixel panoramas, open access images, etc.). In a second step, several three-dimensional polylines have been drawn following the geological limit on each drapped HRDEM. Then we investigated the accuracy of 2D classical geological maps by comparing these geological limits with the drawn 3D polylines. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the accuracy of the method, a ground truth needs

  11. The Development of WARP - A Framework for Continuous Energy Monte Carlo Neutron Transport in General 3D Geometries on GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Ryan

    Graphics processing units, or GPUs, have gradually increased in computational power from the small, job-specific boards of the early 1990s to the programmable powerhouses of today. Compared to more common central processing units, or CPUs, GPUs have a higher aggregate memory bandwidth, much higher floating-point operations per second (FLOPS), and lower energy consumption per FLOP. Because one of the main obstacles in exascale computing is power consumption, many new supercomputing platforms are gaining much of their computational capacity by incorporating GPUs into their compute nodes. Since CPU-optimized parallel algorithms are not directly portable to GPU architectures (or at least not without losing substantial performance), transport codes need to be rewritten to execute efficiently on GPUs. Unless this is done, reactor simulations cannot take full advantage of these new supercomputers. WARP, which can stand for ``Weaving All the Random Particles,'' is a three-dimensional (3D) continuous energy Monte Carlo neutron transport code developed in this work as to efficiently implement a continuous energy Monte Carlo neutron transport algorithm on a GPU. WARP accelerates Monte Carlo simulations while preserving the benefits of using the Monte Carlo Method, namely, very few physical and geometrical simplifications. WARP is able to calculate multiplication factors, flux tallies, and fission source distributions for time-independent problems, and can run in both criticality or fixed source modes. WARP can transport neutrons in unrestricted arrangements of parallelepipeds, hexagonal prisms, cylinders, and spheres. WARP uses an event-based algorithm, but with some important differences. Moving data is expensive, so WARP uses a remapping vector of pointer/index pairs to direct GPU threads to the data they need to access. The remapping vector is sorted by reaction type after every transport iteration using a high-efficiency parallel radix sort, which serves to keep the

  12. An open medical imaging workstation architecture for platform-independent 3-D medical image processing and visualization.

    PubMed

    Cosić, D

    1997-12-01

    A need for an entirely new medical workstation design was identified to increase the deployment of 3-D medical imaging and multimedia communication. Recent wide acceptance of the Word Wide Web (WWW) as a general communication service within the global network has shown how big the impact of standards and open systems can be. Information is shared among heterogeneous systems and diverse applications on various hardware platforms only by agreeing on a common format for information distribution. For medical image communications, the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) standard is possibly anticipating such a role. Logically, the next step is open software: platform-independent tools, which can as easily be transferred and used on multiple platforms. Application of the platform-independent programming language Java enables creation of plug-in tools, which can easily extend the basic system. Performance problems inherent to all interpreter systems can be circumvented by using a hybrid approach. Computationally intensive functions like image processing functions can be integrated into a natively implemented optimized image processing kernel. Plug-in tools implemented in Java can utilize the kernel functions via a Java-wrapper library. This approach is comparable to the implementation of computationally intensive operations in hardware. PMID:11020831

  13. Web-based 3D digital pathology framework for large-mapping data scanned by FF-OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, ChiaKai; Tsai, Chien-Chung; Chien, Meng-Ting; Li, Yu-I.; Shun, Chia-Tung; Huang, Sheng-Lung

    2015-03-01

    Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography (FF-OCT) is a high resolution instrument in 3 dimensional (3D) space, including lateral and longitudinal direction. With FF-OCT, we can perform 3D scanning for excised biopsy or cell culture sample to obtain cellular information. In this work, we have set up a high resolution FF-OCT scanning instrument that can perform cellular resolution tomography scanning of skin tissue for histopathology study. In a scan range of 1cm(x), 1cm(y), 106μm(z), for example, digital data occupies 253 GB capacity. Copying these materials is time consuming, not to mention efficient browsing and analyzing of these data. To solve the problem of information delivery, we have established a network service to browse and analyze the huge volume data.

  14. Surveying and mapping a cave using 3d laser scanner: the open challenge with free and open source software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosso, T.; Ferrando, I.; Orlando, A.

    2014-06-01

    The present work is part of a series of activities involving different skills, in order to explore and document in detail one of the most visited caves in Liguria Region. In this context, in addition to speleologists, geologists, videographers, the geomatic expertise has also been involved to carry out a laser scanner survey, in order to produce a three-dimensional model of the two more easily accessible rooms of the cave. The survey was carried out using Z+F IMAGER® 5010 instrument and the post processing operations related to registration of point clouds have been made with Z+F LaserControl®. Subsequently, two different free and open source software were used: MeshLab, to merge the point clouds and to obtain the final mesh, and CloudCompare, to make filtering on the previous results and to extract sections.

  15. FIRE: an open-software suite for real-time 2D/3D image registration for image guided radiotherapy research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furtado, H.; Gendrin, C.; Spoerk, J.; Steiner, E.; Underwood, T.; Kuenzler, T.; Georg, D.; Birkfellner, W.

    2016-03-01

    Radiotherapy treatments have changed at a tremendously rapid pace. Dose delivered to the tumor has escalated while organs at risk (OARs) are better spared. The impact of moving tumors during dose delivery has become higher due to very steep dose gradients. Intra-fractional tumor motion has to be managed adequately to reduce errors in dose delivery. For tumors with large motion such as tumors in the lung, tracking is an approach that can reduce position uncertainty. Tumor tracking approaches range from purely image intensity based techniques to motion estimation based on surrogate tracking. Research efforts are often based on custom designed software platforms which take too much time and effort to develop. To address this challenge we have developed an open software platform especially focusing on tumor motion management. FLIRT is a freely available open-source software platform. The core method for tumor tracking is purely intensity based 2D/3D registration. The platform is written in C++ using the Qt framework for the user interface. The performance critical methods are implemented on the graphics processor using the CUDA extension. One registration can be as fast as 90ms (11Hz). This is suitable to track tumors moving due to respiration (~0.3Hz) or heartbeat (~1Hz). Apart from focusing on high performance, the platform is designed to be flexible and easy to use. Current use cases range from tracking feasibility studies, patient positioning and method validation. Such a framework has the potential of enabling the research community to rapidly perform patient studies or try new methods.

  16. A new 3D Co(II)–organic framework with acylamide-containing tetracarboxylate ligand: Solvothermal synthesis, crystal structure, gas adsorption and magnetic property

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qingfu Zhang, Haina; Geng, Aijing; Wang, Suna; Zhang, Chong

    2014-04-01

    A new cobalt(II)–organic framework, [Co{sub 2}(L)(py){sub 2}(DMSO)]{sub n}• 0.5nDMF• 2nDMSO (1) [H{sub 4}L=5,5'-((naphthalene-2,6-dicarbonyl)bis(azanediyl))diisophthalic acid, py=pyridine, DMSO=dimethyl sulfoxide, DMF=N,N-dimethylformamide], has been solvothermally synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TGA, PXRD and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The structural analysis reveals that complex 1 is a 3D framework built from nanosized acylamide-containing tetracarboxylate ligands (L{sup 4−}) and dinuclear [Co{sub 2}(CO{sub 2}){sub 4}] secondary building units (SBUs), exhibiting a uninodal (4,4)-connected crb topology with the Schläfli symbol of (4• 6{sup 5}). The desolvated complex (1a) displays higher adsorption capability for CO{sub 2} than N{sub 2}, which may be due to the relatively strong binding affinity between the CO{sub 2} molecules and acylamide groups in the framework. The magnetic investigation shows that the dominant antiferromagnetic interaction is observed in complex 1. - Graphical abstract: A new 3D Co(II)–organic framework with nanosized acylamide-containing tetracarboxylate ligand was solvothermally synthesized and structurally characterized, its thermal stability, gas adsorption and magnetic property were studied. - Highlights: • A new 3D Co(II)–organic framework with nanosized acylamide-containing tetracarboxylate ligand has been solvothermally synthesized and characterized. • Complex 1 exhibits a uninodal (4,4)-connected crb topology. • The thermal stability, gas adsorption and magnetic property were studied.

  17. Three-dimensional (3-D) metal-organic frameworks with 3-pyridin-4-yl-benzoate defining new (3,6)-connected net topologies

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Xiujuan; Du Miao; Sun Yan; Guo, Jian-Hua; Li, Jin-Shan

    2009-11-15

    Reactions of different metal salts with 3-pyridin-4-yl-benzoic acid (3,4-Hpybz) under ambient condition afford a series of 3-D metal-organic frameworks with two new types of (3,6)-connected net topologies. In the isomorphic complexes [M{sub 2}(mu-H{sub 2}O)(3,4-pybz){sub 4}]{sub n} (M{sup II}=Mn{sup II} for 1, Zn{sup II} for 2, or Cd{sup II} for 3), the octahedral metal nodes are extended by the 3-connected pybz tectons to constitute 3-D arrays with the Schlaefli symbol of (3.4.5)(3{sup 2}.4{sup 4}.5{sup 5}.6{sup 2}.7{sup 2}), whereas [Pb(3,4-pybz){sub 2}]{sub n} (4) shows a completely different 3-D (4{sup 2}.6){sub 2}(4{sup 4}.6{sup 2}.8{sup 9}) framework, which represents a subnet of the (4,8)-connected fluorite lattice. - Graphical abstract: This work presents a series of 3-D metal-organic frameworks with 3-pyridin-4-yl-benzoate, which display new (3,6)-connected net topologies of (3.4.5)(3{sup 2}.4{sup 4}.5{sup 5}.6{sup 2}.7{sup 2}) for Mn{sup II}/Zn{sup II}/Cd{sup II} and (4{sup 2}.6){sub 2}(4{sup 4}.6{sup 2}.8{sup 9}) for Pb{sup II} species.

  18. A porous open-framework titanium oxophenylphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Krishanu; Laha, Subhash Chandra; Mal, Nawal Kishor; Bhaumik, Asim

    2008-08-15

    Highly porous titanium oxophenylphosphate (TPP-1) has been synthesized hydrothermally at 448 K using phenylphosphonic acid (PPA) as the organophosphorus source without the aid of any template or structure-directing agent (SDA). Powder XRD, TEM, SEM-EDS, N{sub 2} sorption, ICP-AES chemical analysis, {sup 13}C and {sup 31}P MAS NMR, UV-Vis, XPS spectroscopic tools, TG-DTA and NH{sub 3}-TPD were used to characterize this material. XRD, N{sub 2} sorption and TEM image analysis suggested the disordered layered framework structure and the presence of large-size micropores along with mesopores in this material. Spectroscopic data suggested the presence of phenyl group, O, Ti and P in this open-framework material, where Ti centers can adopt both tetrahedral and octahedral geometry. TPP-1 showed fairly good H{sub 2} adsorption capacity under normal pressure to high pressure at 77 K. Physisorption data on hydrogen has suggested the potential application of this porous material in H{sub 2} storage. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted.

  19. OpenHVSR: imaging the subsurface 2D/3D elastic properties through multiple HVSR modeling and inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bignardi, S.; Mantovani, A.; Abu Zeid, N.

    2016-08-01

    OpenHVSR is a computer program developed in the Matlab environment, designed for the simultaneous modeling and inversion of large Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR or H/V) datasets in order to construct 2D/3D subsurface models (topography included). The program is designed to provide a high level of interactive experience to the user and still to be of intuitive use. It implements several effective and established tools already present in the code ModelHVSR by Herak (2008), and many novel features such as: -confidence evaluation on lateral heterogeneity -evaluation of frequency dependent single parameter impact on the misfit function -relaxation of Vp/Vs bounds to allow for water table inclusion -a new cost function formulation which include a slope dependent term for fast matching of peaks, which greatly enhances convergence in case of low quality HVSR curves inversion -capability for the user of editing the subsurface model at any time during the inversion and capability to test the changes before acceptance. In what follows, we shall present many features of the program and we shall show its capabilities on both simulated and real data. We aim to supply a powerful tool to the scientific and professional community capable of handling large sets of HSVR curves, to retrieve the most from their microtremor data within a reduced amount of time and allowing the experienced scientist the necessary flexibility to integrate into the model their own geological knowledge of the sites under investigation. This is especially desirable now that microtremor testing has become routinely used. After testing the code over different datasets, both simulated and real, we finally decided to make it available in an open source format. The program is available by contacting the authors.

  20. Electrospun carbon nanofibers reinforced 3D porous carbon polyhedra network derived from metal-organic frameworks for capacitive deionization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Ma, Jiaqi; Lu, Ting; Pan, Likun

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers reinforced 3D porous carbon polyhedra network (e-CNF-PCP) was prepared through electrospinning and subsequent thermal treatment. The morphology, structure and electrochemical performance of the e-CNF-PCP were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and their electrosorption performance in NaCl solution was studied. The results show that the e-CNF-PCP exhibits a high electrosorption capacity of 16.98 mg g−1 at 1.2 V in 500 mg l−1 NaCl solution, which shows great improvement compared with those of electrospun carbon nanofibers and porous carbon polyhedra. The e-CNF-PCP should be a very promising candidate as electrode material for CDI applications. PMID:27608826

  1. Electrospun carbon nanofibers reinforced 3D porous carbon polyhedra network derived from metal-organic frameworks for capacitive deionization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Ma, Jiaqi; Lu, Ting; Pan, Likun

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers reinforced 3D porous carbon polyhedra network (e-CNF-PCP) was prepared through electrospinning and subsequent thermal treatment. The morphology, structure and electrochemical performance of the e-CNF-PCP were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and their electrosorption performance in NaCl solution was studied. The results show that the e-CNF-PCP exhibits a high electrosorption capacity of 16.98 mg g(-1) at 1.2 V in 500 mg l(-1) NaCl solution, which shows great improvement compared with those of electrospun carbon nanofibers and porous carbon polyhedra. The e-CNF-PCP should be a very promising candidate as electrode material for CDI applications. PMID:27608826

  2. A New Approach to Sap Flow Measurement Using 3D Printed Gauges and Open-source Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, J. M.; Miner, G. L.; Kluitenberg, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    A new type of sap flow gauge was developed to measure transpiration from herbaceous plants using a modified heat pulse technique. Gauges were fabricated using 3D-printing technology and low-cost electronics to keep the materials cost under $20 (U.S.) per sensor. Each gauge consisted of small-diameter needle probes fastened to a 3D-printed frame. One needle contained a resistance heater to provide a 6 to 8 second heat pulse while the other probes measured the resultant temperature increase at two distances from the heat source. The data acquisition system for the gauges was built from a low-cost Arduino microcontroller. The system read the gauges every 10 minutes and stored the results on a SD card. Different numerical techniques were evaluated for estimating sap velocity from the heat pulse data - including analytical solutions and parameter estimation approaches . Prototype gauges were tested in the greenhouse on containerized corn and sunflower. Sap velocities measured by the gauges were compared to independent gravimetric measurements of whole plant transpiration. Results showed the system could measure daily transpiration to within 3% of the gravimetric measurements. Excellent agreement was observed when two gauges were attached the same stem. Accuracy was not affected by rapidly changing transpiration rates observed under partly cloudy conditions. The gauge-based estimates of stem thermal properties suggested the system may also detect the onset of water stress. A field study showed the gauges could run for 1 to 2 weeks on a small battery pack. Sap flow measurements on multiple corn stems were scaled up by population to estimate field-scale transpiration. During full canopy cover, excellent agreement was observed between the scaled-up sap flow measurements and reference crop evapotranspiration calculated from weather data. Data also showed promise as a way to estimate real-time canopy resistance required for model verification and development. Given the low

  3. A Distributed GPU-Based Framework for Real-Time 3D Volume Rendering of Large Astronomical Data Cubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, A. H.; Fluke, C. J.; Barnes, D. G.

    2012-05-01

    We present a framework to volume-render three-dimensional data cubes interactively using distributed ray-casting and volume-bricking over a cluster of workstations powered by one or more graphics processing units (GPUs) and a multi-core central processing unit (CPU). The main design target for this framework is to provide an in-core visualization solution able to provide three-dimensional interactive views of terabyte-sized data cubes. We tested the presented framework using a computing cluster comprising 64 nodes with a total of 128GPUs. The framework proved to be scalable to render a 204GB data cube with an average of 30 frames per second. Our performance analyses also compare the use of NVIDIA Tesla 1060 and 2050GPU architectures and the effect of increasing the visualization output resolution on the rendering performance. Although our initial focus, as shown in the examples presented in this work, is volume rendering of spectral data cubes from radio astronomy, we contend that our approach has applicability to other disciplines where close to real-time volume rendering of terabyte-order three-dimensional data sets is a requirement.

  4. A GPU-based framework for modeling real-time 3D lung tumor conformal dosimetry with subject-specific lung tumor motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Yugang; Santhanam, Anand; Neelakkantan, Harini; Ruddy, Bari H.; Meeks, Sanford L.; Kupelian, Patrick A.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, we present a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based simulation framework to calculate the delivered dose to a 3D moving lung tumor and its surrounding normal tissues, which are undergoing subject-specific lung deformations. The GPU-based simulation framework models the motion of the 3D volumetric lung tumor and its surrounding tissues, simulates the dose delivery using the dose extracted from a treatment plan using Pinnacle Treatment Planning System, Phillips, for one of the 3DCTs of the 4DCT and predicts the amount and location of radiation doses deposited inside the lung. The 4DCT lung datasets were registered with each other using a modified optical flow algorithm. The motion of the tumor and the motion of the surrounding tissues were simulated by measuring the changes in lung volume during the radiotherapy treatment using spirometry. The real-time dose delivered to the tumor for each beam is generated by summing the dose delivered to the target volume at each increase in lung volume during the beam delivery time period. The simulation results showed the real-time capability of the framework at 20 discrete tumor motion steps per breath, which is higher than the number of 4DCT steps (approximately 12) reconstructed during multiple breathing cycles.

  5. Positional isomeric tunable two Co(II) 6-connected 3-D frameworks with pentanuclear to binuclear units: structures, ion-exchange and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Han, Min-Le; Duan, Ya-Ping; Li, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Hai-Bin; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Yao-Yu

    2014-11-01

    Two new Co(II) based metal-organic frameworks, namely {[Co5(μ3-OH)2(m-pda)3(bix)4]·2ClO4}n (1) and {[Co2(p-pda)2(bix)2(H2O)]·H2O}n (2), were prepared by hydrothermal reactions of Co(II) salt with two isomeric dicarboxyl tectons 1,3-phenylenediacetic acid (m-pda) and 1,4-phenylenediacetic acid (p-pda), along with 1,3-bis(imidazol-L-ylmethyl)benzene (bix). Both complexes 1 and 2 have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). 1 shows a 6-connected 3-D pcu cationic framework with pentanuclear [Co5(μ3-OH)2(COO)6(bix)2](2+) units, while 2 exhibits a 6-connected 3-D msw net based on [Co2(μ2-H2O)(COO)2](2+) clusters. The results indicate that the different dispositions of the carboxylic groups of dicarboxylates have an important effect on the overall coordination frameworks. Perchlorate anions in 1 can be partly exchanged by thiocyanate and azide anions, however they are unavailable to nitrate anions. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that both 1 and 2 show weak antiferromagnetic interactions between the adjacent Co(II) ions. PMID:25190003

  6. A robust framework for soft tissue simulations with application to modeling brain tumor mass effect in 3D MR images.

    PubMed

    Hogea, Cosmina; Biros, George; Abraham, Feby; Davatzikos, Christos

    2007-12-01

    We present a framework for black-box and flexible simulation of soft tissue deformation for medical imaging and surgical planning applications. Our main motivation in the present work is to develop robust algorithms that allow batch processing for registration of brains with tumors to statistical atlases of normal brains and construction of brain tumor atlases. We describe a fully Eulerian formulation able to handle large deformations effortlessly, with a level-set-based approach for evolving fronts. We use a regular grid-fictitious domain method approach, in which we approximate coefficient discontinuities, distributed forces and boundary conditions. This approach circumvents the need for unstructured mesh generation, which is often a bottleneck in the modeling and simulation pipeline. Our framework employs penalty approaches to impose boundary conditions and uses a matrix-free implementation coupled with a multigrid-accelerated Krylov solver. The overall scheme results in a scalable method with minimal storage requirements and optimal algorithmic complexity. We illustrate the potential of our framework to simulate realistic brain tumor mass effects at reduced computational cost, for aiding the registration process towards the construction of brain tumor atlases. PMID:18029982

  7. A robust framework for soft tissue simulations with application to modeling brain tumor mass effect in 3D MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogea, Cosmina; Biros, George; Abraham, Feby; Davatzikos, Christos

    2007-12-01

    We present a framework for black-box and flexible simulation of soft tissue deformation for medical imaging and surgical planning applications. Our main motivation in the present work is to develop robust algorithms that allow batch processing for registration of brains with tumors to statistical atlases of normal brains and construction of brain tumor atlases. We describe a fully Eulerian formulation able to handle large deformations effortlessly, with a level-set-based approach for evolving fronts. We use a regular grid—fictitious domain method approach, in which we approximate coefficient discontinuities, distributed forces and boundary conditions. This approach circumvents the need for unstructured mesh generation, which is often a bottleneck in the modeling and simulation pipeline. Our framework employs penalty approaches to impose boundary conditions and uses a matrix-free implementation coupled with a multigrid-accelerated Krylov solver. The overall scheme results in a scalable method with minimal storage requirements and optimal algorithmic complexity. We illustrate the potential of our framework to simulate realistic brain tumor mass effects at reduced computational cost, for aiding the registration process towards the construction of brain tumor atlases.

  8. 3D reconstruction based on compressed-sensing (CS)-based framework by using a dental panoramic detector.

    PubMed

    Je, U K; Cho, H M; Hong, D K; Cho, H S; Park, Y O; Park, C K; Kim, K S; Lim, H W; Kim, G A; Park, S Y; Woo, T H; Cho, S I

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we propose a practical method that can combine the two functionalities of dental panoramic and cone-beam CT (CBCT) features in one by using a single panoramic detector. We implemented a CS-based reconstruction algorithm for the proposed method and performed a systematic simulation to demonstrate its viability for 3D dental X-ray imaging. We successfully reconstructed volumetric images of considerably high accuracy by using a panoramic detector having an active area of 198.4 mm × 6.4 mm and evaluated the reconstruction quality as a function of the pitch (p) and the angle step (Δθ). Our simulation results indicate that the CS-based reconstruction almost completely recovered the phantom structures, as in CBCT, for p≤2.0 and θ≤6°, indicating that it seems very promising for accurate image reconstruction even for large-pitch and few-view data. We expect the proposed method to be applicable to developing a cost-effective, volumetric dental X-ray imaging system. PMID:26494155

  9. Model Simulations of the Diurnal and Seasonal Variations of the Global Electric Circuit Using a Consistent 3D Model Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, G.; Bayona, V.; Flyer, N.; Baumgaertner, A. J. G.; Thayer, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    We introduce a new numeric solver for the partial differential equations of the Global Electric Circuit (GEC). The model is applied to derive the ionospheric potential with respect to the Earth, as well as the current distribution and electric fields throughout the atmosphere. We will discuss its advantages to previously published approaches, and introduce the model's application within a larger model framework that consistently describes the thunderstorm/electrified cloud current source distribution and conductivity. The new source and conductivity distributions will be utilized in the new numeric GEC solver to demonstrate the effect that temporal and spatial variability of these inputs have on electric fields and currents throughout the domain.

  10. Solvothermal synthesis and structure of 3D frameworks of Nd(III) and Y(III) with thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate and N,N‧-diethylformamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Swati; Yawer, Mohd; Kariem, Mukaddus; Sheikh, Haq Nawaz

    2016-08-01

    Two new 3D MOFs [Nd2(TDA)3(DEF)2(H2O)]n (1) and [Y4(TDA)6(DEF)4]n (2) [Thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (H2TDA) and N,N‧-diethylformamide (DEF)] were synthesized by solvothermal method. They were characterized by elemental analyses, infrared spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The two MOFs (1) and (2) belong to the monoclinic system with space group P21/n and C 2 respectively. Structural characterizations by single-crystal X-ray crystallography reveal that 1 and 2 adopt three-dimensional frameworks constructed by cross-linking of rod shaped infinite chain secondary building unit (SBU) by thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylates as linker. These frameworks feature rhomboidal channels, inside which coordinated DEF/H2O solvent molecules are located. DEF plays pivotal role in reaction and design of MOFs. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that both MOFs are thermally robust.

  11. Syntheses, structures and properties of 3D inorganic-organic hybrid frameworks constructed from lanthanide polymer and Keggin-type tungstosilicate

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Yuanzhe; Xu Yanqing; Han Zhangang; Li Chunhong; Cui, Fengyun; Chi Yingnan; Hu Changwen

    2010-05-15

    Inorganic-organic hybrid frameworks, namely [Ce(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}(pdc)]{sub 4}[SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40}].6H{sub 2}O 1, [M(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}(pdc)]{sub 4}[SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40}].2H{sub 2}O (M=Ce for 2a, La for 2b, Nd for 2c; H{sub 2}pdc=pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid) were assembled through incorporation of Keggin-type heteropolyanion [SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 4-} within the voids of lanthanides-pdc network as pillars or guests under hydrothermal condition. Single-crystal X-ray analyses of these crystals reveal that compound 1 presents 3D pillar-layered framework with the [SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 4-} anions located on the square voids of the two-dimensional Ce-pdc bilayer. Compounds 2a-c are isostructural and constructed from 3D Ln-pdc-based metal-organic framework (MOF) incorporating noncoordinating guests Keggin structure [SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 4-}. Solid-state properties of compounds 1 and 2a-c such as thermal stability and photoluminescence have been further investigated. - Graphical abstract: Two types of new inorganic-organic hybrid frameworks through incorporation of Keggin-type heteropolyanion [SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 4-} within the voids of lanthanides-pdc network as pillars or guests under hydrothermal condition were successfully assembled. Solid-state properties of compounds 1 and 2a such as thermal stability and photoluminescence have been further investigated.

  12. Pillared and open-framework uranyl diphosphonates

    SciTech Connect

    Adelani, Pius O.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2011-09-15

    The hydrothermal reactions of uranium trioxide, uranyl acetate, or uranyl nitrate with 1,4-benzenebisphosphonic acid in the presence of very small amount of HF at 200 deg. C results in the formation of three different uranyl diphosphonate compounds, [H{sub 3}O]{sub 2}{l_brace}(UO{sub 2}){sub 6}[C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 2}OH)]{sub 2}[C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(PO{sub 2}OH){sub 2}]{sub 2}[C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{r_brace}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (Ubbp-1), [H{sub 3}O]{sub 4}{l_brace}(UO{sub 2}){sub 4}[C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}F{sub 4}{r_brace}.H{sub 2}O (Ubbp-2), and {l_brace}(UO{sub 2})[C{sub 6}H{sub 2}F{sub 2}(PO{sub 2}OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){r_brace}{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O (Ubbp-3). The crystal structures of these compounds were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction experiments. Ubbp-1 consists of UO{sub 7} pentagonal bipyramids that are bridged by the phosphonate moieties to form a three-dimensional pillared structure. Ubbp-2 is composed of UO{sub 5}F{sub 2} pentagonal bipyramids that are bridged through the phosphonate oxygen atoms into one-dimensional chains that are cross-linked by the phenyl spacers into a pillared structure. The structure of Ubbp-3 is a three-dimensional open-framework with large channels containing water molecules with internal dimensions of approximately 10.9x10.9 A. Ubbp-1 and Ubbp-2 fluoresce at room temperature. - Graphical Abstract: Illustration of the three-dimensional open-framework structure of {l_brace}(UO{sub 2})[C{sub 6}H{sub 2}F{sub 2}(PO{sub 2}OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){r_brace}{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O viewed along the c-axis. The structure is constructed from UO{sub 7} units, pentagonal bipyramids=green, oxygen=red, phosphorus=magenta, carbon=black, hydrogen=white. Highlights: > The influence of the uranyl salt anions and pH were critically examined in relation to structural variation. > The acetate and nitrate counter ions of uranyl may be acting as structure directing agents. > The use of rigid phenyl spacer yield

  13. Transformation from a 2D stacked layer to 3D interpenetrated framework by changing the spacer functionality: synthesis, structure, adsorption, and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Maji, Tapas Kumar; Ohba, Masaaki; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2005-12-12

    Two novel coordination polymers of Cu(II), viz. [Cu(bipy)(1,4-napdc)(H2O)2]n and {[Cu(bpe)1.5(1,4-napdc)](H2O)}n (bipy=4,4'-bipyridine; bpe=1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane; 1,4-napdc2-=1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylate), have been synthesized and structurally characterized by changing only the pillar motifs. Both the compounds crystallize by slow evaporation from the ammoniacal solution of the as-synthesized solid. Framework 1 crystallizes in monoclinic crystal system, space group P2/n (No. 13), with a=11.028(19) A, b=11.16(3) A, c=7.678(13) A, beta=103.30(5) degrees, and Z=2. Framework 2 crystallizes in triclinic system, space group, P (No. 2), a=10.613(4) A, b=10.828(10) A, c=13.333(9) A, alpha=85.25(9) degrees, beta=82.59(6) degrees, gamma=60.37(5) degrees, and Z=2. The structure determination reveals that has a 2D network based on rectangular grids, where each Cu(II) is in 4+2 coordination mode. The 2D networks stacked in a staggered manner through the pi-pi interaction to form a 3D supramolecular network. In the case of, a {Cu(bpe)1.5}n ladder connected by 1,4-napdc2- results a 2D cuboidal bilayer network and each bilayer network is interlocked by two adjacent identical network (upper and lower) forming 3-fold interpenetrated 3D framework with small channel along the c-axis, which accommodates two water molecules. The TGA and XRPD measurements reveal that both the frameworks are stable after dehydration. Adsorption measurements (N2, CO2, and different solvents, like H2O, MeOH, etc.) were carried out for both frameworks. Framework shows type-II sorption profile with N2 in contrast to H2O and MeOH, which are chemisorbed in the framework. In case of, only H2O molecules can diffuse into the micropore, whereas N2, CO2, and MeOH cannot be adsorbed, as corroborated by the smaller channel aperture. The low-temperature (300-2 K) magnetic measurement of and reveals that both are weakly antiferromagnetically coupled (J=-1.85 cm-1, g=2.02; J=-0.153 cm-1, g=2.07), which is correlated

  14. Gas Accretion by Giant Planets: 3D Simulations of Gap Opening and Dynamics of the Circumplanetary Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morbidelli, Alessandro; Szulagyi, J.; Crida, A.; Tanigawa, T.; Lega, E.; Masset, F.; Bitsch, B.

    2013-10-01

    What sets the terminal mass of a giant planet once the latter enters into a runaway gas-accretion phase? The formation of a gap around the planet's orbit may be an answer, provided that the gap is wide and deep enough. A wide-spread idea is that this happens if the viscosity in the circumstellar disk is small, i.e. if planets form in the "dead zone". With 3D hydrodynamical simulations we study the formation of a gap in details. We find an interesting 4-step meridional loop in the gas dynamics: (1) the gas flows into the gap at the top layer of the disk; (2) then it falls towards the disk's midplane; (3) the planet keeps the gap open by pushing this infalling gas back into the disk; (4) the gas rises back to the disk's surface, which closes the loop. The gas flow in this loop is governed by the viscous timescale at the surface of the disk. It is generally accepted that the surface layer of the disk is MRI-active and viscous, even if a dead zone is present near the midplane. Thus, there should always be enough gas flowing into the gap for a Jupiter-mass planet to accrete at a fast rate, in absence of other regulation mechanisms. However, only a very small portion of the gas flowing into the gap is directly accreted by the planet. Most of the gas falling towards the planet forms a circumplanetary disk (CPD), due to angular momentum conservation. If the CPD is MRI-inactive, as suggested by Turner et al. (2010) and Fujii et al. (2011), it can act as a bottle-neck for planet accretion. We find that the main mechanism that allows the CPD to lose angular momentum is the torque exerted by the star via a spiral density wave. We compute that this promotes the accretion of 0.025% of the mass of the CPD per year, for a Jupiter mass planet at 5.2 AU, independent of viscosity. By balancing the pressure of the vertical inflow with that internal to the CPD, we estimate that the CPD should contain less than 1% of the planet's mass. This leads to a mass-doubling timescale for Jupiter

  15. Synthesis, structure and electrochemical behavior of a 3D crystalline copper(II) metal-organic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Hong-Ye; Fan, Wei-Qiang; Liu, Chun-Bo; Shi, Wei-Dong; Yan, Yong-Sheng

    2014-05-01

    Using an flexible amide-type tripodal ligand N,N‧,N″-tris(3-pyridyl)-1,3,5-benzenetricarboxamide (L) and 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (H2bdc), a three-dimensional copper(II) metal-organic framework (MOF) formulated as [Cu(bdc)(L)]n has been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by IR, elemental, X-ray single-crystal diffraction and thermal analysis. The complex crystallizes in the triclinic, space group P - 1, a = 8.891(2) Å, b = 11.760(2) Å, c = 15.348(3) Å, α = 96.73(3)°, β = 105.96(3)°, γ = 106.47(3)°, V = 1446.2(5) Å3, Mr = 666.10, Dc = 1.530 g/cm3, Z = 2, F(000) = 682, GOOF = 1.0560, μ(MoKα) = 0.817 mm-1, R = 0.0366 and wR = 0.0885. The structural analyses reveal that the title compound consists of one Cu(II) atom, two halves of bdc, and one L ligand. Each Cu(II) atom is linked by two bdc ligands and three L ligands to form a three-dimensional network. In addition, the electrochemical behavior of title compound has been studied. CCDC No. 990526.

  16. A computerized framework for monitoring four-dimensional dose distributions during stereotactic body radiation therapy using a portal dose image-based 2D/3D registration approach.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Takahiro; Arimura, Hidetaka; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Mizoguchi, Asumi; Hirose, Taka-Aki; Honda, Hiroshi; Umezu, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Hirata, Hideki

    2015-03-01

    A computerized framework for monitoring four-dimensional (4D) dose distributions during stereotactic body radiation therapy based on a portal dose image (PDI)-based 2D/3D registration approach has been proposed in this study. Using the PDI-based registration approach, simulated 4D "treatment" CT images were derived from the deformation of 3D planning CT images so that a 2D planning PDI could be similar to a 2D dynamic clinical PDI at a breathing phase. The planning PDI was calculated by applying a dose calculation algorithm (a pencil beam convolution algorithm) to the geometry of the planning CT image and a virtual water equivalent phantom. The dynamic clinical PDIs were estimated from electronic portal imaging device (EPID) dynamic images including breathing phase data obtained during a treatment. The parameters of the affine transformation matrix were optimized based on an objective function and a gamma pass rate using a Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm. The proposed framework was applied to the EPID dynamic images of ten lung cancer patients, which included 183 frames (mean: 18.3 per patient). The 4D dose distributions during the treatment time were successfully obtained by applying the dose calculation algorithm to the simulated 4D "treatment" CT images. The mean±standard deviation (SD) of the percentage errors between the prescribed dose and the estimated dose at an isocenter for all cases was 3.25±4.43%. The maximum error for the ten cases was 14.67% (prescribed dose: 1.50Gy, estimated dose: 1.72Gy), and the minimum error was 0.00%. The proposed framework could be feasible for monitoring the 4D dose distribution and dose errors within a patient's body during treatment. PMID:25592290

  17. 3D Rare earth porous coordination frameworks with formamide generated in situ syntheses: Crystal structure and down- and up-conversion luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Xue; Tian, Jing; Yang, Hong-Y.; Zhao, Kai; Li, Xia

    2013-05-01

    The reaction of RE(NO)₃·6H₂O and formamide yielded the coordination polymers, [RE(HCOO)₄]⁻[NH₂CHNH₂]⁺ (RE=Y 1, Eu 2, Gd 3, Tb 4, Dy 5, Er 6, and Yb 7). They possess 3D porous frameworks with the 1D rhombic channels occupied by [NH₂CHNH₂]⁺ cations. Complexes 2 and 4 display the characteristic down-conversion emissions corresponding to ⁵D₀→⁷FJ (J=1–4) transitions of Eu(III) ion and ⁵D₄→⁷FJ (J=6–3) transitions of Tb(III) ion, respectively. Longer lifetime values of 2.128±0.002 ms (⁵D₀) for 2 and 2.132±0.002 ms (⁵D₄) for 4 have been observed. The up-conversion spectra of the Y:Yb,Er and Gd:Yb,Er codoped complexes exhibit three emission bands around 410 (⁴H9/2→⁴I15/2, blue), 518–570 (⁴S3/2, ²H11/2→⁴I15/2, green), and 655 nm (⁴F9/2→⁴I15/2, red). - Graphical Abstract: The complexes [RE(HCOO)₄]⁻[NH₂CHNH₂]⁺ possess 3D porous frameworks. Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes show characteristic emission of Ln(III) ions. The up-conversion emission of the Y:Yb,Er and Gd:Yb,Er codoped complexes was observed. Highlights: •The reaction of RE(NO)₃·6H₂O and formamide produced complexes [RE(HCOO)₄]⁻[NH₂CHNH₂]⁺. • The complexes possess 3D frameworks with the 1D channels occupied by [NH₂CHNH₂]+ cations. • Eu(III)/Tb(III) complexes display the characteristic down-conversion emission of Ln(III) ions. • The Y:Yb,Er and Gd:Yb,Er doped complexes exhibit the up-conversion emission.

  18. Multi-Stencil Streamline Fast Marching: A General 3-D Framework to Determine Myocardial Thickness and Transmurality in Late Enhancement Images.

    PubMed

    Merino-Caviedes, Susana; Cordero-Grande, Lucilio; Revilla-Orodea, Ana; Sevilla-Ruiz, Teresa; Pérez, M Teresa; Martín-Fernández, Marcos; Alberola-López, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    We propose a fully 3-D methodology for the computation of myocardial nonviable tissue transmurality in contrast enhanced magnetic resonance images. The outcome is a continuous map defined within the myocardium where not only current state-of-the-art measures of transmurality can be calculated, but also information on the location of nonviable tissue is preserved. The computation is done by means of a partial differential equation framework we have called multi-stencil streamline fast marching. Using it, the myocardial and scarred tissue thickness is simultaneously computed. Experimental results show that the proposed 3-D method allows for the computation of transmurality in myocardial regions where current 2-D methods are not able to as conceived, and it also provides more robust and accurate results in situations where the assumptions on which current 2-D methods are based-i.e., there is a visible endocardial contour and its corresponding epicardial points lie on the same slice-, are not met. PMID:24235299

  19. Solvothermal synthesis of uranium(VI) phases with aromatic carboxylate ligands: A dinuclear complex with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and a 3D framework with terephthalic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Karatchevtseva, Inna; Bhadbhade, Mohan; Tran, Toan Trong; Aharonovich, Igor; Fanna, Daniel J.; Shepherd, Nicholas D.; Lu, Kim; Li, Feng; Lumpkin, Gregory R.

    2016-02-01

    With the coordination of dimethylformamide (DMF), two new uranium(VI) complexes with either 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (H2phb) or terephthalic acid (H2tph) have been synthesized under solvothermal conditions and structurally characterized. [(UO2)2(Hphb)2(phb)(DMF)(H2O)3]·4H2O (1) has a dinuclear structure constructed with both pentagonal and hexagonal bipyramidal uranium polyhedra linked through a μ2-bridging ligand via both chelating carboxylate arm and alcohol oxygen bonding, first observation of such a coordination mode of 4-hydroxybenzoate for 5 f ions. [(UO2)(tph)(DMF)] (2) has a three-dimensional (3D) framework built with pentagonal bipyramidal uranium polyhedra linked with μ4-terephthalate ligands. The 3D channeled structure is facilitated by the unique carboxylate bonding with nearly linear C-O-U angles and the coordination of DMF molecules. The presence of phb ligands in different coordination modes, uranyl ions in diverse environments and DMF in complex 1, and tph ligand, DMF and uranyl ion in complex 2 has been confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. In addition, their thermal stability and photoluminescence properties have been investigated.

  20. A Framework for Open Textbooks Analytics System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasad, Deepak; Totaram, Rajneel; Usagawa, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, open textbook development has picked up dramatically due both to the expense of commercially published textbooks and the increasing availability of high-quality OER alternatives. While this offers a tremendous benefit in terms of lowering student textbook costs, the question remains, to what extent (if any) do open textbooks…

  1. A super-resolution framework for 3-D high-resolution and high-contrast imaging using 2-D multislice MRI.

    PubMed

    Shilling, Richard Z; Robbie, Trevor Q; Bailloeul, Timothée; Mewes, Klaus; Mersereau, Russell M; Brummer, Marijn E

    2009-05-01

    A novel super-resolution reconstruction (SRR) framework in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is proposed. Its purpose is to produce images of both high resolution and high contrast desirable for image-guided minimally invasive brain surgery. The input data are multiple 2-D multislice inversion recovery MRI scans acquired at orientations with regular angular spacing rotated around a common frequency encoding axis. The output is a 3-D volume of isotropic high resolution. The inversion process resembles a localized projection reconstruction problem. Iterative algorithms for reconstruction are based on the projection onto convex sets (POCS) formalism. Results demonstrate resolution enhancement in simulated phantom studies, and ex vivo and in vivo human brain scans, carried out on clinical scanners. A comparison with previously published SRR methods shows favorable characteristics in the proposed approach. PMID:19272995

  2. Organic carboxylate ligands tuned structural variations of two new Cd(II) coordination polymers: From 2D layer to 3D framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Chang-Wei; Li, Jing; Liu, Yan-Wu; Li, Xia; Yuan, Zhi

    2015-11-01

    Two new Cd(II) coordination polymers, namely [Cd(4,4‧-sdb) (biimpy)]n·1.5n(H2O) (1) and [Cd2(Htci)2(biimpy)2]n (2) (4,4‧-H2sdb = 4,4‧-sulfonyldibenzoate, H3tci = tri(2-carboxyethyl)isocyanurate and biimpy = 2,6-bis(1-imdazoly)pyridine), have been synthesized by the hydrothermal reactions of Cd(NO3)2 and the mixed ligands of 4,4‧-H2sdb and biimpy or H3tci and biimpy. Single crystal X-ray structural analyses reveal that compound 1 features a 2D layered structure with 3-connected topology, and compound 2 features a 3D framework with 6-connected 6T8 topology. In addition, the thermal stabilities and luminescent properties of compounds 1 and 2 were also investigated.

  3. Potassium 4,4'-Bis(dinitromethyl)-3,3'-azofurazanate: A Highly Energetic 3D Metal-Organic Framework as a Promising Primary Explosive.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yongxing; He, Chunlin; Mitchell, Lauren A; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2016-04-25

    Environmentally acceptable alternatives to toxic lead-based primary explosives are becoming increasingly important for energetic materials. In this study, potassium 4,4'-bis(dinitromethyl)-3,3'-azofurazanate, comprising two dinitromethyl groups and an azofurazan moiety, was synthesized and isolated as a new energetic 3D metal-organic framework (MOF). Several attractive properties, including a density of 2.039 g cm(-3) , a decomposition temperature of 229 °C, a detonation velocity of 8138 m s(-1) , a detonation pressure of 30.1 GPa, an impact sensitivity of 2 J, and friction sensitivity of 20 N make 4 a good candidate as a green primary explosive. PMID:27008350

  4. A structurally stable 3D supramolecular framework with 4.0% guest-accessible void spaces that are reversibly occupied by guest water molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Feng; Che, Yun-Xia; Zheng, Ji-min

    2008-02-01

    A new Cd(II)-Cu(II)-containing coordination compound, namely Cu(bpy)Cd(ip) 2(μ-OH 2) · (H 2O) 2 ( 1, bpy = 2,2 '-bipyridine, H 2ip = m-phthalic acid), has been synthesized hydrothermally by the reaction of CdCl 2, CuCl 2, bpy, and H 2ip. In 1, Cd(II) and Cu(II) ions are in turn connected by ip 2- ligands to generate the 2D (4, 4) nets. Further, these 2D sheets are linked together via π-π, C-H…O, and O-H…O contacts, thus resulting in the 3D supramolecular frameworks with the irregular 1D channels occupied by water molecules. Remarkably, the investigation by using IR, TG, and PXRD (powder X-ray diffraction) shows that the uptake and release of guest water molecules will not influence the structural integrity.

  5. OpenMM: A Hardware Independent Framework for Molecular Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Eastman, Peter; Pande, Vijay S.

    2015-01-01

    The wide diversity of computer architectures today requires a new approach to software development. OpenMM is a framework for molecular mechanics simulations, allowing a single program to run efficiently on a variety of hardware platforms. PMID:26146490

  6. Two metal chalcogenides, Hg{sub 2}Te{sub 2} X {sub 2} (X =Br, I): 3-D framework constructed from novel left-handed helices

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Wentong; Wang Mingsheng; Zhang Zhangjing; Xu Gang; Guo Guocong . E-mail: gcguo@ms.fjirsm.ac.cn; Huang Jinshun

    2006-11-15

    Two isostructural metal chalcogenides, Hg{sub 2}Te{sub 2}Br{sub 2} (1) and Hg{sub 2}Te{sub 2}I{sub 2} (2), were obtained by solid-state reactions and structurally characterized. Compounds 1 and 2 crystallize in the acentric space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 of the tetragonal system with eight formula units in a cell: a=10.2388(9), c=14.480(2) A, V=1518.0(3) A{sup 3}, R {sub 1}/wR {sub 2}=0.0670/0.1328 for 1 and a=10.711(3), c=15.025(8) A, V=1724(1) A{sup 3}, R {sub 1}/wR {sub 2}=0.0637/0.1233 for 2. Both compounds are characterized by a three-dimensional (3-D) framework structure, which is composed by interconnected left-handed helices formed by both tetrahedral and trigonal Hg atoms. Optical absorption spectra of 1 and 2 reveal the presence of sharp optical gaps of 2.06 and 1.85 eV, respectively, suggesting that both materials are semiconductors. TG-DTA measurements show that both compounds are thermally stable up to 200 deg. C. The composition of both compounds is well confirmed by the semiquantitative microscope analyses. - Graphical abstract: A new family of IIB {sub 2} Q {sub 2} X {sub 2} system, possessing an acentric nature that allows them to be a potential NLO material, has been synthesized via solid-state reactions. The crystal structures are characterized by a 3-D framework structure, comprising of interconnected left-handed helices. Optical absorption spectra show that both compounds are excellent candidate for potential photoelectric materials.

  7. A Framework for Open, Flexible and Distributed Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Badrul H.

    Designing open, flexible distance learning systems on the World Wide Web requires thoughtful analysis and investigation combined with an understanding of both the Web's attributes and resources and the ways instructional design principles can be applied to tap the Web's potential. A framework for open, flexible, and distributed learning has been…

  8. Extra high speed modified Lundell alternator parameters and open/short-circuit characteristics from global 3D-FE magnetic field solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, R.; Demerdash, N. A.

    1992-01-01

    The combined magnetic vector potential - magnetic scalar potential method of computation of 3D magnetic fields by finite elements, introduced in a companion paper, is used for global 3D field analysis and machine performance computations under open-circuit and short-circuit conditions for an example 14.3 kVA modified Lundell alternator, whose magnetic field is of intrinsic 3D nature. The computed voltages and currents under these machine test conditions were verified and found to be in very good agreement with corresponding test data. Results of use of this modelling and computation method in the study of a design alteration example, in which the stator stack length of the example alternator is stretched in order to increase voltage and volt-ampere rating, are given here. These results demonstrate the inadequacy of conventional 2D-based design concepts and the imperative of use of this type of 3D magnetic field modelling in the design and investigation of such machines.

  9. The Palladiolibrary Geo-Models AN Open 3d Archive to Manage and Visualize Information-Communication Resources about Palladio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonio, F. I.; Baldissini, S.; Clini, P.; Gaiani, M.; Palestini, C.; Trevisan, C.

    2013-07-01

    The paper describes objectives, methods, procedures and outcomes of the development of the digital archive of Palladio works and documentation: the PALLADIOLibrary of Centro Internazionale di Studi di Architettura Andrea Palladio di Vicenza (CISAAP). The core of the application consists of fifty-one reality-based 3D models usable and navigable within a system grounded on GoogleEarth. This information system, a collaboration of four universities bearers of specific skills returns a comprehensive, structured and coherent semantic interpretation of Palladian landscape through shapes realistically reconstructed from historical sources and surveys and treated for GE with Ambient Occlusion techniques, overcoming the traditional display mode.

  10. Open Standards and Technologies in the S2S Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffei, A. R.; Rozell, E. A.; West, P.; Zednik, S.; Fox, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    The S2S Search Interface Framework provides tools and services to build customized user interfaces. It also serves as a focal point for repository managers to develop science data services and reusable components for search interfaces. The framework has been used to design a faceted browsing platform for web services, including OpenSearch and SAWSDL. This exemplar faceted browsing platform has been applied in our development of search interfaces for 1) an international open government dataset catalog and 2) a metadata catalog for biological and chemical oceanography. S2S was designed from the ground up using open standards and technologies. The framework was initially created to develop "data dashboard" interfaces on top of OpenSearch services, but has been generalized to support web services and standards with semantic annotation capabilities. We apply OWL, a W3C standard for ontologies on the Web, to create a vocabulary for the description of framework metadata. Our faceted browsing platform is heavily focused on the use of jQuery; we have created reusable user interface "widgets" that leverage OpenLayers and MapServer technology in geospatial selection and visualization, which can be used in this and future platforms. The use of open standards and technologies has enabled rapid iterations over software development lifecycles, and has kept the framework agile as new use cases and ideas have emerged.

  11. Characteristic of the Nanoparticles Formed on the Carbon Steel Surface Contacting with 3d-Metal Water Salt Solutions in the Open-Air System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrynenko, O. M.; Pavlenko, O. Yu; Shchukin, Yu S.

    2016-02-01

    The contact of a steel electrode with water dispersion medium in an open-air system leads to the development of various polymorphic iron oxides and oxyhydroxides on the steel surface. Whereas the usage of distilled water causes the obtaining of Fe(II)-Fe(III) layered double hydroxides (green rust) as a primary mineral phase, but in the presence of inorganic 3d-metal water salt solutions, mixed layered double hydroxides (LDHs) together with non-stoichiometric spinel ferrite nanoparticles are formed on the steel surface. Mixed LDHs keep stability against further oxidation and complicate the obtaining of spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Thermal treatment of mixed LDHs among other mineral phases formed via the rotation-corrosion dispergation process at certain temperatures permits to obtain homogenous nanoparticles of spinel ferrites as well as maghemite or hematite doped by 3d-metal cations.

  12. Characteristic of the Nanoparticles Formed on the Carbon Steel Surface Contacting with 3d-Metal Water Salt Solutions in the Open-Air System.

    PubMed

    Lavrynenko, O M; Pavlenko, O Yu; Shchukin, Yu S

    2016-12-01

    The contact of a steel electrode with water dispersion medium in an open-air system leads to the development of various polymorphic iron oxides and oxyhydroxides on the steel surface. Whereas the usage of distilled water causes the obtaining of Fe(II)-Fe(III) layered double hydroxides (green rust) as a primary mineral phase, but in the presence of inorganic 3d-metal water salt solutions, mixed layered double hydroxides (LDHs) together with non-stoichiometric spinel ferrite nanoparticles are formed on the steel surface. Mixed LDHs keep stability against further oxidation and complicate the obtaining of spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Thermal treatment of mixed LDHs among other mineral phases formed via the rotation-corrosion dispergation process at certain temperatures permits to obtain homogenous nanoparticles of spinel ferrites as well as maghemite or hematite doped by 3d-metal cations. PMID:26847693

  13. How muscle relaxation and laterotrusion resolve open locks of the temporomandibular joint. Forward dynamic 3D-modeling of the human masticatory system.

    PubMed

    Tuijt, M; Koolstra, J H; Lobbezoo, F; Naeije, M

    2016-01-25

    Patients with symptomatic hypermobility of the temporomandibular joint report problems with the closing movement of their jaw. Some are even unable to close their mouth opening wide (open lock). Clinical experience suggests that relaxing the jaw muscles or performing a jaw movement to one side (laterotrusion) might be a solution. The aim of our study was to assess the potential of these strategies for resolving an open lock and we hypothesised that both strategies work equally well in resolving open locks. We assessed the interplay of muscle forces, joint reaction forces and their moments during closing of mouth, following maximal mouth opening. We used a 3D biomechanical model of the masticatory system with a joint shape and muscle orientation that predispose for an open lock. In a forward dynamics approach, the effect of relaxation and laterotrusion strategies was assessed. Performing a laterotrusion movement was predicted to release an open lock for a steeper anterior slope of the articular eminence than relaxing the jaw-closing muscles, herewith we rejected our hypothesis. Both strategies could provide a net jaw closing moment, but only the laterotrusion strategy was able to provide a net posterior force for steeper anterior slope angles. For both strategies, the temporalis muscle appeared pivotal to retrieve the mandibular condyles to the glenoid fossa, due to its' more dorsally oriented working lines. PMID:26726782

  14. Cation-Exchange Porosity Tuning in a Dynamic 4d-4f-3d Framework for Ni(II) Ion-Selective Luminescent Probe.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Xiu-Guang; Yuan, Bin; Shao, Cheng-Yuan; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Zhou, Bing-Bing; Li, Ming-Shu; An, Xiao-Mai; Cheng, Peng; Zhao, Xiao-Jun

    2015-05-01

    A heterometallic complex {[Yb2(L)6Cd2][Cd(H2O)6]·6H2O}n (Yb-Cd) (H2L = oxidiacetic acid) was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. In Yb-Cd, each L chelates to one Yb(3+) center and bonds to two Cd(2+) ions in an anti-anti configuration. Yb and Cd atoms are arrayed alternatively and connected by O-C-O bridges to form a cubic octahedral cage as the secondary building unit. Consequently, topological NaCl nets with high symmetry in the cubic space group Fd-3c have been constructed. The [Cd(H2O)6](2+) moieties lying in the porosity of anionic metal-organic framework (MOF) act as the thermodynamically stable species, required to balance the two negative charges of [Yb2(L)6Cd2](2-) in Yb-Cd. Interestingly, when Yb-Cd was employed as a precursor and emerged in the aqueous solution of Mn(ClO4)2·6H2O or Zn(ClO4)2·6H2O, a reversible single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation process driven by [Cd(H2O)6](2+) cations has been exhibited to generate the heterotrimetallic coordination polymer {[Yb2(L)6Cd2][Mn(H2O)6]·6H2O}n (Yb-Cd-Mn) or {[Yb2(L)6Cd2][Zn(H2O)6]·6H2O}n (Yb-Cd-Zn). To the best of out knowledge, Yb-Cd-Mn and Yb-Cd-Zn are the first examples representing 4d-4f-3d polymers based on multicarboxylic acid. Luminescent studies reveal that Yb-Cd-Zn may serve as a good candidate of Ni(2+) a luminescent probe. To our knowledge, Yb-Cd-Zn represent the fist example of the 4d-4f-3d framework to exhibit luminescent selectivity for Ni(2+). PMID:25885253

  15. Biomechanical ToolKit: Open-source framework to visualize and process biomechanical data.

    PubMed

    Barre, Arnaud; Armand, Stéphane

    2014-04-01

    C3D file format is widely used in the biomechanical field by companies and laboratories to store motion capture systems data. However, few software packages can visualize and modify the integrality of the data in the C3D file. Our objective was to develop an open-source and multi-platform framework to read, write, modify and visualize data from any motion analysis systems using standard (C3D) and proprietary file formats (used by many companies producing motion capture systems). The Biomechanical ToolKit (BTK) was developed to provide cost-effective and efficient tools for the biomechanical community to easily deal with motion analysis data. A large panel of operations is available to read, modify and process data through C++ API, bindings for high-level languages (Matlab, Octave, and Python), and standalone application (Mokka). All these tools are open-source and cross-platform and run on all major operating systems (Windows, Linux, MacOS X). PMID:24548899

  16. OpenARC: Extensible OpenACC Compiler Framework for Directive-Based Accelerator Programming Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seyong; Vetter, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Directive-based, accelerator programming models such as OpenACC have arisen as an alternative solution to program emerging Scalable Heterogeneous Computing (SHC) platforms. However, the increased complexity in the SHC systems incurs several challenges in terms of portability and productivity. This paper presents an open-sourced OpenACC compiler, called OpenARC, which serves as an extensible research framework to address those issues in the directive-based accelerator programming. This paper explains important design strategies and key compiler transformation techniques needed to implement the reference OpenACC compiler. Moreover, this paper demonstrates the efficacy of OpenARC as a research framework for directive-based programming study, by proposing and implementing OpenACC extensions in the OpenARC framework to 1) support hybrid programming of the unified memory and separate memory and 2) exploit architecture-specific features in an abstract manner. Porting thirteen standard OpenACC programs and three extended OpenACC programs to CUDA GPUs shows that OpenARC performs similarly to a commercial OpenACC compiler, while it serves as a high-level research framework.

  17. 3D model-based still image object categorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petre, Raluca-Diana; Zaharia, Titus

    2011-09-01

    This paper proposes a novel recognition scheme algorithm for semantic labeling of 2D object present in still images. The principle consists of matching unknown 2D objects with categorized 3D models in order to infer the semantics of the 3D object to the image. We tested our new recognition framework by using the MPEG-7 and Princeton 3D model databases in order to label unknown images randomly selected from the web. Results obtained show promising performances, with recognition rate up to 84%, which opens interesting perspectives in terms of semantic metadata extraction from still images/videos.

  18. An open framework for risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, R.; Vandewart, R.; Wyss, G.; Funkhouser, D.

    1998-08-01

    Risk assessment methodologies are ready to enter their third generation. In this next generation, assessment will be based on a whole system understanding of the system to be assessed. To realize this vision of risk management, the authors have begun development of an extensible software tool kit. This tool kit breaks with the traditional approach to assessment by having the analyst spend the majority of the assessment time building an explicit model that documents in a single framework the various facets of the system, such as the system`s behavior, structure, and history. Given this explicit model of the system, a computer is able to automatically produce a standard assessment products, such as fault trees and event trees. This brings with it a number of advantages relative to current risk management tools. Among these are a greater sense of completeness and correctness in assessment results and the ability to preserve and later employ lessons learned.

  19. A 3D chiral metal-organic framework based on left-handed helices containing 3-amino-1 H-1,2,4-triazole ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bing; Yang, Tian-Yi; Feng, Hui-Jun; Zhang, Zong-Hui; Xu, Ling

    2015-10-15

    A chiral metal-organic framework, [Cu(atr)(OH)]·0.5H{sub 2}O·0.5en (1) (Hatr=3-amino-1 H-1,2,4-triazole, en=ethylenediamine), was constructed via diffusion reaction of the achiral Hatr ligand and CuSO{sub 4} as starting materials. Compound 1 crystallizes in the chiral space group P3{sub 2}21 and features a porous metal-organic framework with 44.1% solvent-accessible volume fabricated by left-handed helices with a pitch height of l{sub p}=10.442 Å. Six helices gather around in a cycle forming a large honeycomb channel with a 6.58 Å inner diameter. Cu(II) center and atr{sup ‒} ligand regarded as 3-connected nodes, compound 1 can be simplified to a 3-c uninodal (4.12{sup 2}) (qtz-h) topological network. A gradual decreasing in the magnetic moment depending on temperature decreasing indicates an antiferromagnetic interaction in 1. The powder XRD confirms the bulk sample is a single crystal pure phase, and the thermogravimetric analysis shows the thermal stability of 1 is up to ca. 240 °C. - Highlights: • The present 3D chiral MOF is built from achiral Hatr ligand. • Six left-handed helices gather into a honeycomb channel in chiral sp P3{sub 2}21. • Compound 1 shows a 3-c uninodal (4.12{sup 2}) or qtz-h topological network. • Compound 1 indicates an antiferromagnetic interaction.

  20. Implant Restoration of Edentulous Jaws with 3D Software Planning, Guided Surgery, Immediate Loading, and CAD-CAM Full Arch Frameworks

    PubMed Central

    De Riu, Giacomo; Pisano, Milena; Campus, Guglielmo; Tullio, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical and radiographic outcomes of 23 edentulous jaws treated with 3D software planning, guided surgery, and immediate loading and restored with CAD-CAM full arch frameworks. Materials and Methods. This work was designed as a prospective case series clinical study. Twenty patients have been consecutively rehabilitated with an immediately loaded implant supported fixed full prosthesis. A total of 120 fixtures supporting 23 bridges were placed. 117 out of 120 implants were immediately loaded. Outcome measures were implants survival, radiographic marginal bone levels and remodeling, soft tissue parameters, and complications. Results. 114 of 117 implants reached a 30 months follow-up, and no patients dropped out from the study. The cumulative survival rate was 97.7%; after 30 months, mean marginal bone level was 1.25 ± 0.31 mm, mean marginal bone remodeling value was 1.08 ± 0.34, mean PPD value was 2.84 ± 0.55 mm, and mean BOP value was 4% ± 2.8%. Only minor prosthetic complications were recorded. Conclusion. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that computer-guided surgery and immediate loading seem to represent a viable option for the immediate rehabilitations of completely edentulous jaws with fixed implant supported restorations. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01866696. PMID:23983690

  1. Five 3D supramolecular frameworks assembled from classical directional hydrogen-bonds and Csbnd H⋯O associations between carboxylic acids and bis-imidazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shouwen; Guo, Ming; Wang, Daqi; Wei, Shuaishuai; Zhou, Yong; Zhou, Yingping; Cao, Xinchao; Yu, Zeyun

    2012-08-01

    Five crystalline organic acid-base adducts derived from bis(N-imidazolyl) and carboxylic acid (p-nitrobenzoic acid, m-nitrobenzoic acid, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, sebacic acid, and fumaric acid) were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. Of the five compounds three are organic salts (1, 3, and 5) and the other two (2, and 4) are cocrystals. In salts 1, and 5, the L1 are diprotonated, while in 3 the L1 is only monoprotonated. All supramolecular architectures of the adducts 1-5 involve extensive intermolecular Nsbnd H⋯O, Osbnd H⋯O, and Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds as well as other noncovalent interactions. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is ascertained. All the complexes displayed 3D framework structure for the synergistic effect of the various noncovalent interactions. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the N+sbnd H⋯O-, Osbnd H⋯O, and Osbnd H⋯N hydrogen bonds between carboxylic acids and ditopic imidazoles are sufficient to bring about the formation of binary cocrystals or organic salts.

  2. Conversion of uniform graphene oxide/polypyrrole composites into functionalized 3D carbon nanosheet frameworks with superior supercapacitive and sodium-ion storage properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huanwen; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Wenping; Tan, Hui Teng; Franklin, Joseph B.; Guo, Yuanyuan; Fan, Haosen; Ulaganathan, Mani; Wu, Xing-Long; Luo, Zhong-Zhen; Madhavi, Srinivasan; Yan, Qingyu

    2016-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) graphene oxide/polypyrrole (GO/PPy) hybrid materials derived from in-situ polymerization are used as precursors for constructing functionalized three-dimensional (3D) porous nitrogen-doped carbon nanosheet frameworks (FT-PNCNFs) through a one-step activation strategy. In the formation process of FT-PNCNFs, PPY is directly converted into hierarchical porous nitrogen-doped carbon layers, while GO is simultaneously reduced to become electrically conductive. The complementary functions of individual components endow the FT-PNCNFs with excellent properties for both supercapacitors (SCs) and sodium ion batteries (SIBs) applications. When tested in symmetrical SC, the FT-PNCNFs demonstrate superior energy storage behaviour. At an extremely high scan rate of 3000 mV s-1, the cyclic voltammetry (CV) curve retains an inspiring quasi-rectangle shape in KOH solution. Meanwhile, high capacitances (∼247 F g-1 at 10 mV s-1; ∼146 F g-1 at 3000 mV s-1) and good cycling stability (∼95% retention after 8000 cycles) are achieved. In addition, an attractive SIB anode performance could be achieved. The FT-PNCNFs electrode delivers a reversible capacity of 187 mAh g-1 during 160th cycle at 100 mA g-1. Its reversible capacity retains 144 mAh g-1 after extending the number of cycles to 500 at 500 mA g-1.

  3. Five novel transition metal coordination polymers with 2D/3D framework structure based on flexible H{sub 2}tzda and ancillary ligand bpe

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yuting; Xu Yan; Fan Yaoting; Hou Hongwei

    2009-10-15

    Five new transition metal coordination polymers based on H{sub 2}tzda and co-ligand bpe, {l_brace}[M(tzda)(bpe)].H{sub 2}O{r_brace}{sub n} [M=Zn(1), Cd(2), Mn(3), Co(4)] and [Ni{sub 2}(tzda){sub 2}(bpe){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (5) [H{sub 2}tzda=(1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-diyldithio)diacetic acid, bpe=1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane], have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Compounds 1-4 feature a 2D-layered architecture generated from [M(tzda)]{sub n} moiety with double-chain structure cross-linking bpe spacers. However, the conformations bpe adopts in 3 and 4 are different from those in 1 and 2 due to the rotation of C-C single bond in bpe. Polymer 5 exhibits an interesting 3D porous framework with 2-fold interpenetration, in which intriguing 1D double helix chains are observed. The photoluminescence properties of 1 and 2 in the solid-state at room temperature are investigated. In addition, variable-temperature magnetic data show weak antiferromagnetic behavior in 3-5. - Graphical abstract: Five new transition metal coordination polymers based on flexible H{sub 2}tzda and bpe have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, luminescent emission spectra and low-temperature magnetic measurements, respectively.

  4. A 2D driven 3D vessel segmentation algorithm for 3D digital subtraction angiography data.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, M; Redel, T; Struffert, T; Hornegger, J; Doerfler, A

    2011-10-01

    Cerebrovascular disease is among the leading causes of death in western industrial nations. 3D rotational angiography delivers indispensable information on vessel morphology and pathology. Physicians make use of this to analyze vessel geometry in detail, i.e. vessel diameters, location and size of aneurysms, to come up with a clinical decision. 3D segmentation is a crucial step in this pipeline. Although a lot of different methods are available nowadays, all of them lack a method to validate the results for the individual patient. Therefore, we propose a novel 2D digital subtraction angiography (DSA)-driven 3D vessel segmentation and validation framework. 2D DSA projections are clinically considered as gold standard when it comes to measurements of vessel diameter or the neck size of aneurysms. An ellipsoid vessel model is applied to deliver the initial 3D segmentation. To assess the accuracy of the 3D vessel segmentation, its forward projections are iteratively overlaid with the corresponding 2D DSA projections. Local vessel discrepancies are modeled by a global 2D/3D optimization function to adjust the 3D vessel segmentation toward the 2D vessel contours. Our framework has been evaluated on phantom data as well as on ten patient datasets. Three 2D DSA projections from varying viewing angles have been used for each dataset. The novel 2D driven 3D vessel segmentation approach shows superior results against state-of-the-art segmentations like region growing, i.e. an improvement of 7.2% points in precision and 5.8% points for the Dice coefficient. This method opens up future clinical applications requiring the greatest vessel accuracy, e.g. computational fluid dynamic modeling. PMID:21908904

  5. A 2D driven 3D vessel segmentation algorithm for 3D digital subtraction angiography data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegel, M.; Redel, T.; Struffert, T.; Hornegger, J.; Doerfler, A.

    2011-10-01

    Cerebrovascular disease is among the leading causes of death in western industrial nations. 3D rotational angiography delivers indispensable information on vessel morphology and pathology. Physicians make use of this to analyze vessel geometry in detail, i.e. vessel diameters, location and size of aneurysms, to come up with a clinical decision. 3D segmentation is a crucial step in this pipeline. Although a lot of different methods are available nowadays, all of them lack a method to validate the results for the individual patient. Therefore, we propose a novel 2D digital subtraction angiography (DSA)-driven 3D vessel segmentation and validation framework. 2D DSA projections are clinically considered as gold standard when it comes to measurements of vessel diameter or the neck size of aneurysms. An ellipsoid vessel model is applied to deliver the initial 3D segmentation. To assess the accuracy of the 3D vessel segmentation, its forward projections are iteratively overlaid with the corresponding 2D DSA projections. Local vessel discrepancies are modeled by a global 2D/3D optimization function to adjust the 3D vessel segmentation toward the 2D vessel contours. Our framework has been evaluated on phantom data as well as on ten patient datasets. Three 2D DSA projections from varying viewing angles have been used for each dataset. The novel 2D driven 3D vessel segmentation approach shows superior results against state-of-the-art segmentations like region growing, i.e. an improvement of 7.2% points in precision and 5.8% points for the Dice coefficient. This method opens up future clinical applications requiring the greatest vessel accuracy, e.g. computational fluid dynamic modeling.

  6. Deterministic Design Optimization of Structures in OpenMDAO Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coroneos, Rula M.; Pai, Shantaram S.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear programming algorithms play an important role in structural design optimization. Several such algorithms have been implemented in OpenMDAO framework developed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). OpenMDAO is an open source engineering analysis framework, written in Python, for analyzing and solving Multi-Disciplinary Analysis and Optimization (MDAO) problems. It provides a number of solvers and optimizers, referred to as components and drivers, which users can leverage to build new tools and processes quickly and efficiently. Users may download, use, modify, and distribute the OpenMDAO software at no cost. This paper summarizes the process involved in analyzing and optimizing structural components by utilizing the framework s structural solvers and several gradient based optimizers along with a multi-objective genetic algorithm. For comparison purposes, the same structural components were analyzed and optimized using CometBoards, a NASA GRC developed code. The reliability and efficiency of the OpenMDAO framework was compared and reported in this report.

  7. Open source data assimilation framework for hydrological modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridler, Marc; Hummel, Stef; van Velzen, Nils; Katrine Falk, Anne; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-04-01

    An open-source data assimilation framework is proposed for hydrological modeling. Data assimilation (DA) in hydrodynamic and hydrological forecasting systems has great potential to improve predictions and improve model result. The basic principle is to incorporate measurement information into a model with the aim to improve model results by error minimization. Great strides have been made to assimilate traditional in-situ measurements such as discharge, soil moisture, hydraulic head and snowpack into hydrologic models. More recently, remotely sensed data retrievals of soil moisture, snow water equivalent or snow cover area, surface water elevation, terrestrial water storage and land surface temperature have been successfully assimilated in hydrological models. The assimilation algorithms have become increasingly sophisticated to manage measurement and model bias, non-linear systems, data sparsity (time & space) and undetermined system uncertainty. It is therefore useful to use a pre-existing DA toolbox such as OpenDA. OpenDA is an open interface standard for (and free implementation of) a set of tools to quickly implement DA and calibration for arbitrary numerical models. The basic design philosophy of OpenDA is to breakdown DA into a set of building blocks programmed in object oriented languages. To implement DA, a model must interact with OpenDA to create model instances, propagate the model, get/set variables (or parameters) and free the model once DA is completed. An open-source interface for hydrological models exists capable of all these tasks: OpenMI. OpenMI is an open source standard interface already adopted by key hydrological model providers. It defines a universal approach to interact with hydrological models during simulation to exchange data during runtime, thus facilitating the interactions between models and data sources. The interface is flexible enough so that models can interact even if the model is coded in a different language, represent

  8. Increasing the impact of medical image computing using community-based open-access hackathons: The NA-MIC and 3D Slicer experience.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Tina; Pieper, Steve; Fedorov, Andriy; Fillion-Robin, J-C; Halle, Michael; O'Donnell, Lauren; Lasso, Andras; Ungi, Tamas; Pinter, Csaba; Finet, Julien; Pujol, Sonia; Jagadeesan, Jayender; Tokuda, Junichi; Norton, Isaiah; Estepar, Raul San Jose; Gering, David; Aerts, Hugo J W L; Jakab, Marianna; Hata, Nobuhiko; Ibanez, Luiz; Blezek, Daniel; Miller, Jim; Aylward, Stephen; Grimson, W Eric L; Fichtinger, Gabor; Wells, William M; Lorensen, William E; Schroeder, Will; Kikinis, Ron

    2016-10-01

    The National Alliance for Medical Image Computing (NA-MIC) was launched in 2004 with the goal of investigating and developing an open source software infrastructure for the extraction of information and knowledge from medical images using computational methods. Several leading research and engineering groups participated in this effort that was funded by the US National Institutes of Health through a variety of infrastructure grants. This effort transformed 3D Slicer from an internal, Boston-based, academic research software application into a professionally maintained, robust, open source platform with an international leadership and developer and user communities. Critical improvements to the widely used underlying open source libraries and tools-VTK, ITK, CMake, CDash, DCMTK-were an additional consequence of this effort. This project has contributed to close to a thousand peer-reviewed publications and a growing portfolio of US and international funded efforts expanding the use of these tools in new medical computing applications every year. In this editorial, we discuss what we believe are gaps in the way medical image computing is pursued today; how a well-executed research platform can enable discovery, innovation and reproducible science ("Open Science"); and how our quest to build such a software platform has evolved into a productive and rewarding social engineering exercise in building an open-access community with a shared vision. PMID:27498015

  9. A New Framework for Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenack, Lindsie

    2013-01-01

    The challenges that massive open online courses (MOOCs) bring to the learning arena spur adult educators to improve delivery. A framework for a new type of MOOC is presented to address some of the challenges presented by earlier models. This new MOOC, called a mesoMOOC, can bridge several challenges that hinder current effective delivery of MOOCs…

  10. Accreditation of Open and Distance Learning: A Framework for Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocdar, Serpil; Aydin, Cengiz Hakan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a framework for the accreditation of higher open and distance learning (ODL) programs in Turkey. The study was designed as a sequential monomethod multistrand mixed model including two strands which were both qualitative (QUAL[arrow right]QUAL). In the first strand, both quantitative and qualitative data…

  11. Metal-organic frameworks: A thin film opening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumby, Christopher J.

    2016-04-01

    The properties of metal-organic frameworks -- promising for a myriad of applications -- can be commonly tuned by judicious choice of the building blocks used to prepare the material. Now, simply downsizing a rigid, non-porous MOF to a thin film has been shown to endow it with dynamic, gate-opening-type guest uptake behaviour.

  12. Magnetism in a number of Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) with 1D and 3D characteristics: An experimental and analytical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamida, Youcef

    Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) exhibit many excellent physical properties including magnetic properties for potential applications in devices. More importantly for the subject of this thesis, MOFs are ideal for the realization of low dimensional magnetism because of the large selection of ligands connecting magnetic centers in making the framework. The materials studied in this thesis include ten magnetic MOFs of the form M(L1)(L2) [M = Cu, Ni, Co, Fe, Mn; L1 = NDC, bpdc, BDC, BODC, N3; L2 = DMF, H2O, TED, bpy]. Polycrystalline powder samples as well as single crystal samples were synthesized. Their crystal structures were determined, and their magnetic and thermodynamic properties were measured and analyzed. Eight of these materials were characterized as 1D magnets and two as 3D magnets. In the 1D case it is found that above Tm [the temperature at which the magnetic susceptibility chi(T) has a peak] the magnetic behavior of MOFs (S ≥ 1) can be well described with the Classical Fisher Model (CFM). Near and below TC the spins take a more definite orientation than allowed for in the CFM and hence the Ising Model (IM) was used for fitting. Both CFM and IM yield fairly consistent intrachain couplings ( J) when applied in their appropriate temperature region. To estimate the interchain exchange (J'), the susceptibility for a magnetic chain in the mean field of neighboring chains is used. In all cases, as expected, the ratio of J to J' was less than 10%. The special case of Cu(N3)2bpy ( S = ½) was analyzed with the spin ½ IM. Although the specific heat data (Ctotal) for most of the 1D MOFs showed no clear phase transition, a low temperature fit to the electron-phonon specific heats yielded apparent heavy fermion-like gamma values on the order of several hundred mJ/mol K2. The lattice specific heat (Clattice) was estimated using a Debye-Einstein hybrid model. Subtracting Clattice from Ctotal, magnetic specific heat ( CM) with a broad peak characteristic of low

  13. A framework for inverse planning of beam-on times for 3D small animal radiotherapy using interactive multi-objective optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balvert, Marleen; van Hoof, Stefan J.; Granton, Patrick V.; Trani, Daniela; den Hertog, Dick; Hoffmann, Aswin L.; Verhaegen, Frank

    2015-07-01

    Advances in precision small animal radiotherapy hardware enable the delivery of increasingly complicated dose distributions on the millimeter scale. Manual creation and evaluation of treatment plans becomes difficult or even infeasible with an increasing number of degrees of freedom for dose delivery and available image data. The goal of this work is to develop an optimisation model that determines beam-on times for a given beam configuration, and to assess the feasibility and benefits of an automated treatment planning system for small animal radiotherapy. The developed model determines a Pareto optimal solution using operator-defined weights for a multiple-objective treatment planning problem. An interactive approach allows the planner to navigate towards, and to select the Pareto optimal treatment plan that yields the most preferred trade-off of the conflicting objectives. This model was evaluated using four small animal cases based on cone-beam computed tomography images. Resulting treatment plan quality was compared to the quality of manually optimised treatment plans using dose-volume histograms and metrics. Results show that the developed framework is well capable of optimising beam-on times for 3D dose distributions and offers several advantages over manual treatment plan optimisation. For all cases but the simple flank tumour case, a similar amount of time was needed for manual and automated beam-on time optimisation. In this time frame, manual optimisation generates a single treatment plan, while the inverse planning system yields a set of Pareto optimal solutions which provides quantitative insight on the sensitivity of conflicting objectives. Treatment planning automation decreases the dependence on operator experience and allows for the use of class solutions for similar treatment scenarios. This can shorten the time required for treatment planning and therefore increase animal throughput. In addition, this can improve treatment standardisation and

  14. A framework for inverse planning of beam-on times for 3D small animal radiotherapy using interactive multi-objective optimisation.

    PubMed

    Balvert, Marleen; van Hoof, Stefan J; Granton, Patrick V; Trani, Daniela; den Hertog, Dick; Hoffmann, Aswin L; Verhaegen, Frank

    2015-07-21

    Advances in precision small animal radiotherapy hardware enable the delivery of increasingly complicated dose distributions on the millimeter scale. Manual creation and evaluation of treatment plans becomes difficult or even infeasible with an increasing number of degrees of freedom for dose delivery and available image data. The goal of this work is to develop an optimisation model that determines beam-on times for a given beam configuration, and to assess the feasibility and benefits of an automated treatment planning system for small animal radiotherapy. The developed model determines a Pareto optimal solution using operator-defined weights for a multiple-objective treatment planning problem. An interactive approach allows the planner to navigate towards, and to select the Pareto optimal treatment plan that yields the most preferred trade-off of the conflicting objectives. This model was evaluated using four small animal cases based on cone-beam computed tomography images. Resulting treatment plan quality was compared to the quality of manually optimised treatment plans using dose-volume histograms and metrics. Results show that the developed framework is well capable of optimising beam-on times for 3D dose distributions and offers several advantages over manual treatment plan optimisation. For all cases but the simple flank tumour case, a similar amount of time was needed for manual and automated beam-on time optimisation. In this time frame, manual optimisation generates a single treatment plan, while the inverse planning system yields a set of Pareto optimal solutions which provides quantitative insight on the sensitivity of conflicting objectives. Treatment planning automation decreases the dependence on operator experience and allows for the use of class solutions for similar treatment scenarios. This can shorten the time required for treatment planning and therefore increase animal throughput. In addition, this can improve treatment standardisation and

  15. 3d-4f Metal-Organic Framework with Dual Luminescent Centers That Efficiently Discriminates the Isomer and Homologues of Small Organic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guang; Xing, Shanghua; Wang, Xiuru; Yang, Yulin; Ma, Dingxuan; Liang, Hongwei; Gao, Lu; Hua, Jia; Li, Guanghua; Shi, Zhan; Feng, Shouhua

    2016-02-01

    A 3d-4f luminescent metal-organic framework (MOF), [Tb2(Cu8I8)(C12H8NO2)6(H2O)4]·5C4H8O2 (4), and three analogues {[La2(Cu8I8)(C12H8NO2)6(C4H8O2)2(H2O)2]·3C4H8O2·2H2O (1), [Ce2(Cu8I8)(C12H8NO2)6(H2O)4]·5C4H8O2 (2), and [Eu2(Cu8I8)(C12H8NO2)6(H2O)4]·5C4H8O2 (3)}, were self-assembled from copper(I) halide clusters and lanthanide metal ions with an organic linker [3-(pyridin-4-yl)benzoic acid] under solvothermal conditions. Compound 4 with high quantum yield (Φ = 68%) exhibits reversible luminescence behavior, accompanying the removal and recovery of guest molecules (1,4-dioxane). Because of the unique porous structure and dual luminescent centers of compound 4, it can efficiently differentiate benzene series with different sizes and provide readouts in corresponding optical signals. Furthermore, it also can unambiguously discriminate the isomers, homologues, and other small molecules with similar structural motifs from one another. The luminescent color of the MOF sensor in different guest solvents has obvious changes that can be clearly distinguished by the naked eye. This multicolor luminescence originates from emissions of the dual luminescent centers, and the emissions have shifted, enhanced, weakened, or quenched to different degrees. PMID:26756250

  16. A new family of 1D, 2D and 3D frameworks aggregated from Ni5, Ni4 and Ni7 building units: synthesis, structure, and magnetism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-Hui; Lu, Li-Ping; Zhu, Miao-Li; Feng, Si-Si; Su, Feng

    2016-05-31

    Three new Ni(ii)-clusters based on a Y-shaped ligand (biphenyl-3,4',5-tricarboxylate, H3BPT), [Ni5(HBPT)4(OH)2(H2O)12]n (), [Ni4(BPT)2(OH)2(H2O)6]n·4nH2O (), and [Ni7(BPT)2(1,4-bib)2(OH)6(HCO2)2]n·3nH2O () (1,4-bib = 1,4-bi(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzene), have been synthesized under solvothermal conditions. They were studied by infrared spectroscopy (IR), single crystal X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and magnetochemistry. The complexes contain low nuclear Ni-clusters as building units (BUs). Structurally, in , the cluster BUs of [Ni5(μ3-OH)2](8+) can be viewed as two reverse triangles sharing a common vertex, which are connected by the partially deprotonated μ2-η(1):η(1)-HBPT(2-) forming 1D chains. The BUs of [Ni4(μ3-OH)2](6+) clusters in can be considered as two reverse triangles sharing a common edge and extended by deprotonated μ6-η(1):η(1):η(1):η(1):η(2)-BPT(3-) constructing a 2D framework. The 3D framework of complex consists of a [Ni7(μ3-OH)4(R-COO)7(HCO2)3] cluster BUs with fully deprotonated μ5-η(1):η(1):η(1):η(1):η(1):η(1)-BPT(3-) and 1,4-bib ligands. In addition, TGA reveals that the complexes are stable in the range of 293-548 K. Magnetostructural analyses indicate ferromagnetic coupling of J1 = 1.85(3) and J2 = 2.25(4) cm(-1) in and J = 5.76(6) cm(-1) in , whereas magnetic parameters J1 = -2.64(3), J2 = -23.22(19) and J3 = 12.02(5) cm(-1) indicate an alternating magnetic chain (AF/F) in . PMID:27180871

  17. Development of a new 3D OpenFOAM¯ solver to model the cooling stage in profile extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, C.; Habla, F.; Carneiro, O. S.; Hinrichsen, O.; Nóbrega, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    In this work a new solver is developed in OpenFOAM® computational library, to model the cooling state in profile extrusion. The solver is able to calculate the temperature distribution in a two domain system, comprising the profile and calibrator, considering the temperature discontinuity at the interface. The derivation of the model is based on the local instantaneous energy conservation equation, in conjunction with the conditional volume averaging technique, which yields a single governing equation valid in both domains. Aiming the solution of automatic optimization/parameterization problems, the developed solver was coupled with the DAKOTA toolkit. The application of the novel calculation system is illustrated in a study of a complex geometry extruded profile cooling stage.

  18. Heterometallic modular metal-organic 3D frameworks assembled via new tris-β-diketonate metalloligands: nanoporous materials for anion exchange and scaffolding of selected anionic guests.

    PubMed

    Carlucci, Lucia; Ciani, Gianfranco; Maggini, Simona; Proserpio, Davide M; Visconti, Marco

    2010-11-01

    The modular engineering of heterometallic nanoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) based on novel tris-chelate metalloligands, prepared using the functionalised β-diketone 1,3-bis(4'-cyanophenyl)-1,3-propanedione (HL), is described. The complexes [M(III)L(3)] (M=Fe(3+), Co(3+)) and [M(II)L(3)](NEt(4)) (M=Mn(2+), Co(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+)) have been synthesised and characterised, all of which exhibit a distorted octahedral chiral structure. The presence of six exo-oriented cyano donor groups on each complex makes it a suitable building block for networking through interactions with external metal ions. We have prepared two families of MOFs by reacting the metalloligands [M(III)L(3)] and [M(II)L(3)](-) with many silver salts AgX (X=NO(3)(-), BF(4)(-), PF(6)(-), AsF(6)(-), SbF(6)(-), CF(3)SO(3)(-), tosylate), specifically the [M(III)L(3)Ag(3)]X(3)·Solv and [M(II)L(3)Ag(3)]X(2)·Solv network species. Very interestingly, all of these network species exhibit the same type of 3D structure and crystallise in the same trigonal space group with similar cell parameters, in spite of the different metal ions, ionic charges and X(-) counteranions of the silver salts. We have also succeeded in synthesising trimetallic species such as [Zn(x)Fe(y)L(3)Ag(3)](ClO(4))((2x+3y))·Solv and [Zn(x)Cd(y)L(3)Ag(3)](ClO(4))(2)·Solv (with x+y=1). All of the frameworks can be described as sixfold interpenetrated pcu nets, considering the Ag(+) ions as simple digonal spacers. Each individual net is homochiral, containing only Δ or Λ nodes; the whole array contains three nets of type Δ and three nets of type Λ. Otherwise, taking into account the presence of weak Ag-C σ bonds involving the central carbon atoms of the β-diketonate ligands of adjacent nets, the six interpenetrating pcu networks are joined into a unique non-interpenetrated six-connected frame with the rare acs topology. The networks contain large parallel channels of approximate hexagonal-shaped sections that represent 37

  19. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435

  20. Normal-mode function representation of global 3-D data sets: open-access software for the atmospheric research community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žagar, N.; Kasahara, A.; Terasaki, K.; Tribbia, J.; Tanaka, H.

    2015-04-01

    This article presents new software for the analysis of global dynamical fields in (re)analyses, weather forecasts and climate models. A new diagnostic tool, developed within the MODES project, allows one to diagnose properties of balanced and inertio-gravity (IG) circulations across many scales. In particular, the IG spectrum, which has only recently become observable, can be studied simultaneously in the mass and wind fields while considering the whole model depth in contrast to the majority of studies. The paper includes the theory of normal-mode function (NMF) expansion, technical details of the Fortran 90 code, examples of namelists which control the software execution and outputs of the software application on the ERA Interim reanalysis data set. The applied libraries and default compiler are from the open-source domain. A limited understanding of Fortran suffices for the successful implementation of the software. The presented application of the software to the ERA Interim data set reveals several aspects of the large-scale circulation after it has been partitioned into the linearly balanced and IG components. The global energy distribution is dominated by the balanced energy while the IG modes contribute around 10% of the total wave energy. However, on sub-synoptic scales, IG energy dominates and it is associated with the main features of tropical variability on all scales. The presented energy distribution and features of the zonally averaged and equatorial circulation provide a reference for the validation of climate models.

  1. Normal-mode function representation of global 3-D datasets: an open-access software for atmospheric research community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žagar, N.; Kasahara, A.; Terasaki, K.; Tribbia, J.; Tanaka, H.

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents new software for the analysis of global dynamical fields in (re)analyses, weather forecasts and climate models. A new diagnostic tool, developed within the MODES project, allows one to diagnose properties of balanced and inertio-gravity (IG) circulation across many scales. In particular, the IG spectrum, which has only recently become observable, can be studied simultaneously in the mass field and wind field and considering the whole model depth in contrary to majority of studies. The paper presentation includes the theory of normal-mode function expansion, technical details of the Fortran 90 code, examples of namelists which control the software execution and outputs of the software application on the reanalysis dataset ERA Interim. The applied libraries and default compiler are from the open-source domain. A limited understanding of Fortran suffices for the successful implementation of the software. The presented application of the software to the ERA Interim dataset show some features of the large-scale circulation after it has been split into the balanced and IG components. The global energy distribution is dominated by the balanced energy with IG modes making less than 10% of the total wave energy. However, on subsynoptic scales IG energy dominates and it is associated with the main features of tropical variability on all scales. The presented energy distribution and features of the zonally-averaged and equatorial circulation provide a reference for the validation of climate models.

  2. Getting Beneath the Surface with the OpenEarth Framework (OEF) Virtual Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, D. R.; Moreland, J. L.; Baru, C.; Crosby, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    Virtual globes like Google Earth and NASA WorldWind show layers of data overlaid atop the Earth’s terrain. But leading Earth science research efforts, such as EarthScope, are focused on 3D and 4D questions about the structure and evolution of the North American continent and processes controlling earthquakes and volcanoes. These research questions are fundamentally about phenomena beneath the surface, for which the terrain overlays offered by today’s virtual globes are not sufficient. Complex 3D structures revealed by geophysical techniques such as body wave tomography, shear wave splitting, earthquake locations, and subsurface drilling, need to be presented in a 3D context while also integrated with surficial data such as terrain, remotely sensed imagery and geologic mapping. GEON is developing the OpenEarth Framework (OEF) viewer to get beneath the surface of a virtual globe. The OEF viewer is a component of the open architecture of java software libraries and tools for manipulating Earth science data and presenting it visually. The OEF’s 3D visualization abilities are based on NASA WorldWind, extended to display 3D layers below the surface as well as atop it. The OEF displays 3D volumetric data such as seismic tomography as an isosurface that skins the volume by finding 3D boundaries between high and low values. The resulting isosurface is drawn beneath WorldWind’s terrain. The OEF also supports specialized layers to display subsurface structures, from earthquake hypocenters to the structure of the Moho. Multiple overlapping data sets can be combined into the same 3D visualization to build a composite view or to compare alternative versions of the same data. Visual comparison of the data below the surface with terrain, imagery and map data makes it possible to correlate subsurface structures with surface features. The OEF user interface allows isosurface boundary values and color ramps to be adjusted interactively. Multiple isosurfaces can be shown that

  3. X-ray Crystallography in Open-Framework Materials.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Witold M; Champness, Neil R; Doonan, Christian J

    2015-10-26

    Open-framework materials, such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and coordination polymers have been widely investigated for their gas adsorption and separation properties. However, recent studies have demonstrated that their highly crystalline structures can be used to periodically organize guest molecules and non-structural metal compounds either within their pore voids or by anchoring to their framework architecture. Accordingly, the open framework can act as a matrix for isolating and elucidating the structures of these moieties by X-ray diffraction. This concept has broad scope for development as an analytical tool where obtaining single crystals of a target molecule presents a significant challenge and it additionally offers potential for obtaining insights into chemically reactive species that can be stabilized within the pore network. However, the technique does have limitations and as yet a general experimental method has not been realized. Herein we focus on recent examples in which framework materials have been utilized as a scaffold for ordering molecules for analysis by diffraction methods and canvass areas for future exploration. PMID:26373458

  4. Governance Structures for Open Innovation: A Preliminary Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feller, Joseph; Finnegan, Patrick; Hayes, Jeremy; O'Reilly, Philip

    This research-in-progress paper presents a preliminary framework of four open innovation governance structures. The study seeks to describe four distinct ways in which firms utilize hierarchical relationships, organizational intermediaries, and the market system to supply and acquire intellectual property and/or innovation capabilities from sources external to the firm. This paper reports on phase one of the study, which involved an analysis of six open innovation exemplars based on public data. This phase of the study reveals that governance structures for open innovation can be categorized based on whether they (1) are mediated or direct or (2) seek to acquire intellectual property or innovation capability. We analyze the differences in four governance structures along seven dimensions, and reveal the importance of knowledge dispersion and uncertainty to the use of open innovation hierarchies, brokerages, and markets. The paper concludes by examining the implications of the findings and outlining the next phase of the study.

  5. 3D web visualization of huge CityGML models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prandi, F.; Devigili, F.; Soave, M.; Di Staso, U.; De Amicis, R.

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, rapid technological development into acquiring geo-spatial information; joined to the capabilities to process these data in a relative short period of time, allows the generation of detailed 3D textured city models that will become an essential part of the modern city information infrastructure (Spatial Data Infrastructure) and, can be used to integrate various data from different sources for public accessible visualisation and many other applications. One of the main bottlenecks, which at the moment limit the use of these datasets to few experts, is a lack on efficient visualization systems through the web and interoperable frameworks that allow standardising the access to the city models. The work presented in this paper tries to satisfy these two requirements developing a 3D web-based visualization system based on OGC standards and effective visualization concepts. The architectural framework, based on Services Oriented Architecture (SOA) concepts, provides the 3D city data to a web client designed to support the view process in a very effective way. The first part of the work is to design a framework compliant to the 3D Portrayal Service drafted by the of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) 3D standardization working group. The latter is related to the development of an effective web client able to render in an efficient way the 3D city models.

  6. A 3-D Generalization of the Budyko Framework Captures the Mutual Interdependence Between Long-Term Mean Annual Precipitation, Actual and Potential Evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, A. M.; Poveda, G.

    2012-12-01

    We study the behavior of the 3-D parameter space defined by Φ =PET/P (so-called Aridity Index), Ψ =AET/P, and Ω =AET/PET, where P denotes mean annual precipitation, and PET and AET denote mean annual potential and actual evapotranspiration, respectively. Using information from the CLIMWAT 2.0 database (www.fao.org/nr/water/infores_databases_climwat.html) for P and PET, we estimate AET using both Budyko's and Turc's equations. Our results indicate that the well-known Budyko function that relates Φ vs.Ψ corresponds to a particular bi-dimensional cross-section of a broader coupling existing between Φ, Ψ and Ω (Figure 1a), and in turn of the mutual interdependence between P, PET and AET. The behavior of the three bi-dimensional projections are clearly parameterized by the remaining ortogonal parameter, such that: (i) the relation Φ vs. Ψ is defined by physically consistent varying values of Ω (Figure 1b); (ii) the relation Ω vs. Ψ is defined by physically consistent varying values of the Aridity Index,Φ (Figure 1c), and (iii) the relation Ω vs. Φ is defined by physically consistent varying values of Ψ (Figure 1d). Interestingly, we show that Φ and Ω are related by a power law, Φ~Ω-θ, with scaling exponent θ=1.15 (R2=0.91, n=3420) for the whole world (Figure 1d). Mathematical functions that model the three bi-dimensional projections and the surface defining the interdependence between Φ, Ψ and Ω will be presented. Our results provide a new framework to understand the coupling between the long-term mean annual water and energy balances in river basins, and the hydrological effects brought about by climate change, while taking into account the mutual interdependence between the three non-dimensional parameters Φ, Ψ and Ω, and in turn between P, PET and AET. Figure 1. (a) Three-dimensional rendering of sample values of Φ =PET/P (so-called Aridity Index), Ψ =AET/P, and Ω=AET/PET. Bi-dimensional projections of: (b) relation Φ vs.

  7. a Framework for AN Open Source Geospatial Certification Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, T. U. R.; Davis, P.; Behr, F.-J.

    2016-06-01

    The geospatial industry is forecasted to have an enormous growth in the forthcoming years and an extended need for well-educated workforce. Hence ongoing education and training play an important role in the professional life. Parallel, in the geospatial and IT arena as well in the political discussion and legislation Open Source solutions, open data proliferation, and the use of open standards have an increasing significance. Based on the Memorandum of Understanding between International Cartographic Association, OSGeo Foundation, and ISPRS this development led to the implementation of the ICA-OSGeo-Lab imitative with its mission "Making geospatial education and opportunities accessible to all". Discussions in this initiative and the growth and maturity of geospatial Open Source software initiated the idea to develop a framework for a worldwide applicable Open Source certification approach. Generic and geospatial certification approaches are already offered by numerous organisations, i.e., GIS Certification Institute, GeoAcademy, ASPRS, and software vendors, i. e., Esri, Oracle, and RedHat. They focus different fields of expertise and have different levels and ways of examination which are offered for a wide range of fees. The development of the certification framework presented here is based on the analysis of diverse bodies of knowledge concepts, i.e., NCGIA Core Curriculum, URISA Body Of Knowledge, USGIF Essential Body Of Knowledge, the "Geographic Information: Need to Know", currently under development, and the Geospatial Technology Competency Model (GTCM). The latter provides a US American oriented list of the knowledge, skills, and abilities required of workers in the geospatial technology industry and influenced essentially the framework of certification. In addition to the theoretical analysis of existing resources the geospatial community was integrated twofold. An online survey about the relevance of Open Source was performed and evaluated with 105

  8. The effect of spatial micro-CT image resolution and surface complexity on the morphological 3D analysis of open porous structures

    SciTech Connect

    Pyka, Grzegorz; Kerckhofs, Greet

    2014-01-15

    In material science microfocus X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) is one of the most popular non-destructive techniques to visualise and quantify the internal structure of materials in 3D. Despite constant system improvements, state-of-the-art micro-CT images can still hold several artefacts typical for X-ray CT imaging that hinder further image-based processing, structural and quantitative analysis. For example spatial resolution is crucial for an appropriate characterisation as the voxel size essentially influences the partial volume effect. However, defining the adequate image resolution is not a trivial aspect and understanding the correlation between scan parameters like voxel size and the structural properties is crucial for comprehensive material characterisation using micro-CT. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the spatial image resolution on the micro-CT based morphological analysis of three-dimensional (3D) open porous structures with a high surface complexity. In particular the correlation between the local surface properties and the accuracy of the micro-CT-based macro-morphology of 3D open porous Ti6Al4V structures produced by selective laser melting (SLM) was targeted and revealed for rough surfaces a strong dependence of the resulting structure characteristics on the scan resolution. Reducing the surface complexity by chemical etching decreased the sensitivity of the overall morphological analysis to the spatial image resolution and increased the detection limit. This study showed that scan settings and image processing parameters need to be customized to the material properties, morphological parameters under investigation and the desired final characteristics (in relation to the intended functional use). Customization of the scan resolution can increase the reliability of the micro-CT based analysis and at the same time reduce its operating costs. - Highlights: • We examine influence of the image resolution

  9. Integrated Biogeomorphological Modeling Using Delft3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Q.; Jagers, B.

    2011-12-01

    The skill of numerical morphological models has improved significantly from the early 2D uniform, total load sediment models (with steady state or infrequent wave updates) to recent 3D hydrodynamic models with multiple suspended and bed load sediment fractions and bed stratigraphy (online coupled with waves). Although there remain many open questions within this combined field of hydro- and morphodynamics, we observe an increasing need to include biological processes in the overall dynamics. In riverine and inter-tidal environments, there is often an important influence by riparian vegetation and macrobenthos. Over the past decade more and more researchers have started to extend the simulation environment with wrapper scripts and other quick code hacks to estimate their influence on morphological development in coastal, estuarine and riverine environments. Although one can in this way quickly analyze different approaches, these research tools have generally not been designed with reuse, performance and portability in mind. We have now implemented a reusable, flexible, and efficient two-way link between the Delft3D open source framework for hydrodynamics, waves and morphology, and the water quality and ecology modules. The same link will be used for 1D, 2D and 3D modeling on networks and both structured and unstructured grids. We will describe the concepts of the overall system, and illustrate it with some first results.

  10. OpenDA-NEMO framework for ocean data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Velzen, Nils; Altaf, Muhammad Umer; Verlaan, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Data assimilation methods provide a means to handle the modeling errors and uncertainties in sophisticated ocean models. In this study, we have created an OpenDA-NEMO framework unlocking the data assimilation tools available in OpenDA for use with NEMO models. This includes data assimilation methods, automatic parallelization, and a recently implemented automatic localization algorithm that removes spurious correlations in the model based on uncertainties in the computed Kalman gain matrix. We have set up a twin experiment where we assimilate sea surface height (SSH) satellite measurements. From the experiments, we can conclude that the OpenDA-NEMO framework performs as expected and that the automatic localization significantly improves the performance of the data assimilation algorithm by successfully removing spurious correlations. Based on these results, it looks promising to extend the framework with new kinds of observations and work on improving the computational speed of the automatic localization technique such that it becomes feasible to include large number of observations.

  11. OpenDA-NEMO framework for ocean data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Velzen, Nils; Altaf, Muhammad Umer; Verlaan, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Data assimilation methods provide a means to handle the modeling errors and uncertainties in sophisticated ocean models. In this study, we have created an OpenDA-NEMO framework unlocking the data assimilation tools available in OpenDA for use with NEMO models. This includes data assimilation methods, automatic parallelization, and a recently implemented automatic localization algorithm that removes spurious correlations in the model based on uncertainties in the computed Kalman gain matrix. We have set up a twin experiment where we assimilate sea surface height (SSH) satellite measurements. From the experiments, we can conclude that the OpenDA-NEMO framework performs as expected and that the automatic localization significantly improves the performance of the data assimilation algorithm by successfully removing spurious correlations. Based on these results, it looks promising to extend the framework with new kinds of observations and work on improving the computational speed of the automatic localization technique such that it becomes feasible to include large number of observations.

  12. Building an Open Source Framework for Integrated Catchment Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagers, B.; Meijers, E.; Villars, M.

    2015-12-01

    In order to develop effective strategies and associated policies for environmental management, we need to understand the dynamics of the natural system as a whole and the human role therein. This understanding is gained by comparing our mental model of the world with observations from the field. However, to properly understand the system we should look at dynamics of water, sediments, water quality, and ecology throughout the whole system from catchment to coast both at the surface and in the subsurface. Numerical models are indispensable in helping us understand the interactions of the overall system, but we need to be able to update and adjust them to improve our understanding and test our hypotheses. To support researchers around the world with this challenging task we started a few years ago with the development of a new open source modeling environment DeltaShell that integrates distributed hydrological models with 1D, 2D, and 3D hydraulic models including generic components for the tracking of sediment, water quality, and ecological quantities throughout the hydrological cycle composed of the aforementioned components. The open source approach combined with a modular approach based on open standards, which allow for easy adjustment and expansion as demands and knowledge grow, provides an ideal starting point for addressing challenging integrated environmental questions.

  13. MARVIN: a medical research application framework based on open source software.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Tobias; Puls, Marc; Anderegg, Christoph; Ebert, Lars; Broehan, Martina; Rudin, Adrian; Kowal, Jens

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes the open source framework MARVIN for rapid application development in the field of biomedical and clinical research. MARVIN applications consist of modules that can be plugged together in order to provide the functionality required for a specific experimental scenario. Application modules work on a common patient database that is used to store and organize medical data as well as derived data. MARVIN provides a flexible input/output system with support for many file formats including DICOM, various 2D image formats and surface mesh data. Furthermore, it implements an advanced visualization system and interfaces to a wide range of 3D tracking hardware. Since it uses only highly portable libraries, MARVIN applications run on Unix/Linux, Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows. PMID:18541330

  14. Data Fusion and Visualization with the OpenEarth Framework (OEF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, D. R.; Baru, C.; Fouch, M. J.; Crosby, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    Data fusion is an increasingly important problem to solve as we strive to integrate data from multiple sources and build better models of the complex processes operating at the Earth’s surface and its interior. These data are often large, multi-dimensional, and subject to differing conventions for file formats, data structures, coordinate spaces, units of measure, and metadata organization. When visualized, these data require differing, and often conflicting, conventions for visual representations, dimensionality, icons, color schemes, labeling, and interaction. These issues make the visualization of fused Earth science data particularly difficult. The OpenEarth Framework (OEF) is an open-source data fusion and visualization suite of software being developed at the Supercomputer Center at the University of California, San Diego. Funded by the NSF, the project is leveraging virtual globe technology from NASA’s WorldWind to create interactive 3D visualization tools that combine layered data from a variety of sources to create a holistic view of features at, above, and beneath the Earth’s surface. The OEF architecture is cross-platform, multi-threaded, modular, and based upon Java. The OEF’s modular approach yields a collection of compatible mix-and-match components for assembling custom applications. Available modules support file format handling, web service communications, data management, data filtering, user interaction, and 3D visualization. File parsers handle a variety of formal and de facto standard file formats. Each one imports data into a general-purpose data representation that supports multidimensional grids, topography, points, lines, polygons, images, and more. From there these data then may be manipulated, merged, filtered, reprojected, and visualized. Visualization features support conventional and new visualization techniques for looking at topography, tomography, maps, and feature geometry. 3D grid data such as seismic tomography may be

  15. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  16. The role of sequence stratigraphy in 3-D characterization of carbonate reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Tinker, S.W.; Brondos, M.D.; Brinton, L. )

    1996-01-01

    The product of 3-D reservoir characterization is a 3-D reservoir model. The integrity of the 3-D reservoir model is largely a function of the stratigraphic framework. Interpreting the correct stratigraphic framework for a subsurface reservoir is the most difficult and creative part of the 3-D modeling process. Sequence- and seismic-stratigraphic interpretation provide the best stratigraphic framework for 3-D reservoir modeling. Depositional sequences are comprised of many petrophysically-distinct lithofacies regions. If each lithofacies region was uniform and homogeneous, it would be reasonable to use a lithofacies ([open quote]layer-cake[close quote]) framework interpretation to distribute data in a 3-D model. However, lithofacies are typically time- transgressive, and often internally heterogeneous because geologic processes such as siliciclastic sediment deposition, sediment bypass, hardground formation, variable diagenesis, and facies shifts occur along depositional time surfaces on carbonate platforms. Therefore, a sequence stratigraphic framework interpretation, in which stratal geometries are honored, is better for controlling the distribution of petrophysical data in 3-D. The role that sequence stratigraphy plays in the 3-D characterization of carbonate reservoirs will be presented using two outcrop and four subsurface studies from the Paleozoic. The outcrop examples illustrate the important distinction between lithostratigraphic and sequence stratigraphic correlation, and the subsurface examples illustrate the process of quantification, integration, reduction, and analysis of geological, petrophysical, seismic, and engineering data. The concepts and techniques can be applied to carbonate reservoirs of any age.

  17. The role of sequence stratigraphy in 3-D characterization of carbonate reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Tinker, S.W.; Brondos, M.D.; Brinton, L.

    1996-12-31

    The product of 3-D reservoir characterization is a 3-D reservoir model. The integrity of the 3-D reservoir model is largely a function of the stratigraphic framework. Interpreting the correct stratigraphic framework for a subsurface reservoir is the most difficult and creative part of the 3-D modeling process. Sequence- and seismic-stratigraphic interpretation provide the best stratigraphic framework for 3-D reservoir modeling. Depositional sequences are comprised of many petrophysically-distinct lithofacies regions. If each lithofacies region was uniform and homogeneous, it would be reasonable to use a lithofacies ({open_quote}layer-cake{close_quote}) framework interpretation to distribute data in a 3-D model. However, lithofacies are typically time- transgressive, and often internally heterogeneous because geologic processes such as siliciclastic sediment deposition, sediment bypass, hardground formation, variable diagenesis, and facies shifts occur along depositional time surfaces on carbonate platforms. Therefore, a sequence stratigraphic framework interpretation, in which stratal geometries are honored, is better for controlling the distribution of petrophysical data in 3-D. The role that sequence stratigraphy plays in the 3-D characterization of carbonate reservoirs will be presented using two outcrop and four subsurface studies from the Paleozoic. The outcrop examples illustrate the important distinction between lithostratigraphic and sequence stratigraphic correlation, and the subsurface examples illustrate the process of quantification, integration, reduction, and analysis of geological, petrophysical, seismic, and engineering data. The concepts and techniques can be applied to carbonate reservoirs of any age.

  18. 3-D architecture modeling using high-resolution seismic data and sparse well control: Example from the Mars {open_quotes}Pink{close_quotes} reservoir, Mississippi Canyon Area, Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Chapin, M.A.; Tiller, G.M.; Mahaffie, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    Economic considerations of the deep-water turbidite play, in the Gulf of Mexico and elsewhere, require large reservoir volumes to be drained by relatively few, very expensive wells. Deep-water development projects to date have been planned on the basis of high-quality 3-D seismic data and sparse well control. The link between 3-D seismic, well control, and the 3-D geological and reservoir architecture model are demonstrated here for Pliocene turbidite sands of the {open_quotes}Pink{close_quotes} reservoir, Prospect Mars, Mississippi Canyon Areas 763 and 807, Gulf of Mexico. This information was used to better understand potential reservoir compartments for development well planning.

  19. A novel open-framework copper borophosphate containing 1-D borophosphate anion with 10-MR windows and 12-MR channels.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuquan; Li, Min; Fan, Huitao; Huang, Qunzeng; Qiu, Dongfang; Shi, Hengzhen

    2015-01-21

    A novel open-framework copper borophosphate, Na5KCu3[B9P6O33(OH)3]·H2O (), has been synthesised by a boric acid flux method. Its structure can be viewed as a 3-D open framework constructed by the connection of Cu(II)O6 octahedra and 1-D (4,4)-connected borophosphate anionic structures composed of trigonal-planar BO2(OH) groups, tetrahedral BO4 and PO4 groups. The compound not only features a novel borophosphate anionic partial structure containing 1-D 12-MR channels, but also exhibits ferromagnetic interactions and high catalytic activity for the oxidative degradation of chitosan. PMID:25437261

  20. Na8[Cr4B12P8O44(OH)4][P2O7].nH2O: a 3D borophosphate framework with spherical cages.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Sun, Junliang; Li, Guobao; Eriksson, Lars; Zou, Xiaodong; Liao, Fuhui; Lin, Jianhua

    2008-01-01

    A chromium borophosphate-phosphate (Na(8)[Cr(4)B(12)P(8)O(44)(OH)(4)][P(2)O(7)]nH(2)O, 1), which has an unusual 3D framework structure, was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The framework consists of spherical cages composed of CrO(6), PO(4), BO(4), and BO(3) polyhedra. The cages are located at the vertices and the body center of the cubic cell and are interconnected through 12-membered-ring windows along the {111} direction. The actual framework structure is very complex, but the description can be simplified by using the 5-connected fundamental building cluster [CrP(5)B(3)O(24)](11-). In addition, 1 represents the first borate-rich borophosphate that contains a 3D borophosphate partial framework (3(over)infinity[B(3)P(2)O(11)(OH)]) in which the fundamental building unit is an oB dreier single ring (Delta4 square:square square). The cavities of the framework are filled with disengaged water molecules and Na(+) counterions. The former can be reversibly desorbed and reabsorbed and the latter can be exchanged by Li(+) ions, which results in significant shrinkages of the cell volume. PMID:18624289

  1. Efficient Sample Tracking With OpenLabFramework

    PubMed Central

    List, Markus; Schmidt, Steffen; Trojnar, Jakub; Thomas, Jochen; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A.; Tan, Qihua; Baumbach, Jan; Mollenhauer, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The advance of new technologies in biomedical research has led to a dramatic growth in experimental throughput. Projects therefore steadily grow in size and involve a larger number of researchers. Spreadsheets traditionally used are thus no longer suitable for keeping track of the vast amounts of samples created and need to be replaced with state-of-the-art laboratory information management systems. Such systems have been developed in large numbers, but they are often limited to specific research domains and types of data. One domain so far neglected is the management of libraries of vector clones and genetically engineered cell lines. OpenLabFramework is a newly developed web-application for sample tracking, particularly laid out to fill this gap, but with an open architecture allowing it to be extended for other biological materials and functional data. Its sample tracking mechanism is fully customizable and aids productivity further through support for mobile devices and barcoded labels. PMID:24589879

  2. The first organically templated open-framework metal-sulfites with layered and three-dimensional diamondoid structures.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ranjay K; Kumar, Jitendra; Behera, J N

    2016-01-21

    The crystallographic signatures and characterization data of two novel organically templated open-framework zinc-sulfites (NH3CH2CH2NH3)[Zn3(SO3)4], 1, and (CN3H6)2[Zn(SO3)2], 2, are reported for the first time, synthesized under hydrothermal conditions using different amines, namely, ethylenediamine and guanidine, to generate 2D (for 1) and 3D (for 2) assemblies with 4-, 6-, 8- and 12-membered rings. PMID:26615884

  3. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  4. Full open-framework batteries for stationary energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D.; Liu, Nian; Nelson, Johanna; McDowell, Matthew T.; Huggins, Robert A.; Toney, Michael F.; Cui, Yi

    2014-01-01

    New types of energy storage are needed in conjunction with the deployment of renewable energy sources and their integration with the electrical grid. We have recently introduced a family of cathodes involving the reversible insertion of cations into materials with the Prussian Blue open-framework crystal structure. Here we report a newly developed manganese hexacyanomanganate open-framework anode that has the same crystal structure. By combining it with the previously reported copper hexacyanoferrate cathode we demonstrate a safe, fast, inexpensive, long-cycle life aqueous electrolyte battery, which involves the insertion of sodium ions. This high rate, high efficiency cell shows a 96.7% round trip energy efficiency when cycled at a 5C rate and an 84.2% energy efficiency at a 50C rate. There is no measurable capacity loss after 1,000 deep-discharge cycles. Bulk quantities of the electrode materials can be produced by a room temperature chemical synthesis from earth-abundant precursors.

  5. Size effects in spin-crossover nanoparticles in framework of 2D and 3D Ising-like breathing crystal field model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudyma, Iu.; Maksymov, A.; Spinu, L.

    2015-10-01

    The spin-crossover nanoparticles of different sizes and stochastic perturbations in external field taking into account the influence of the dimensionality of the lattice was studied. The analytical tools used for the investigation of spin-crossover system are based on an Ising-like model described using of the breathing crystal field concept. The changes of transition temperatures characterizing the systems' bistable properties for 2D and 3D lattices, and their dependence on its size and fluctuations strength were obtained. The state diagrams with hysteretic and non-hysteretic behavior regions have also been determined.

  6. Nektar++: An open-source spectral/ hp element framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantwell, C. D.; Moxey, D.; Comerford, A.; Bolis, A.; Rocco, G.; Mengaldo, G.; De Grazia, D.; Yakovlev, S.; Lombard, J.-E.; Ekelschot, D.; Jordi, B.; Xu, H.; Mohamied, Y.; Eskilsson, C.; Nelson, B.; Vos, P.; Biotto, C.; Kirby, R. M.; Sherwin, S. J.

    2015-07-01

    Nektar++ is an open-source software framework designed to support the development of high-performance scalable solvers for partial differential equations using the spectral/ hp element method. High-order methods are gaining prominence in several engineering and biomedical applications due to their improved accuracy over low-order techniques at reduced computational cost for a given number of degrees of freedom. However, their proliferation is often limited by their complexity, which makes these methods challenging to implement and use. Nektar++ is an initiative to overcome this limitation by encapsulating the mathematical complexities of the underlying method within an efficient C++ framework, making the techniques more accessible to the broader scientific and industrial communities. The software supports a variety of discretisation techniques and implementation strategies, supporting methods research as well as application-focused computation, and the multi-layered structure of the framework allows the user to embrace as much or as little of the complexity as they need. The libraries capture the mathematical constructs of spectral/ hp element methods, while the associated collection of pre-written PDE solvers provides out-of-the-box application-level functionality and a template for users who wish to develop solutions for addressing questions in their own scientific domains.

  7. A new 3D Cd-triazolate framework obtained from in situ decarboxylication of 5-amino-3-carboxyl-1,2,4-triazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bing; Feng, Hui-Jun; Zhang, Zong-Hui; Xu, Ling; Jiao, Huan

    2015-10-01

    A new 3D Cd-triazolate MOF compound [Cd(Hatrz) (SO4)] (1) (Hatrz = 3-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazole) was obtained from in situ decarboxylication of 5-amino-3-carboxyl-1,2,4-triazole (H2atrc) under the hydrothermal reaction of CdSO4 with H2atrc. Compound 1 features itself a Hatrz-supporting 3D architecture based on the connection of inorganic [CdSO4] layers with Hatrz spacers. Cd(II) atom, SO4 2 - and Hatrz dummied as 6-, 4- and 2-connected nodes respectively, compound 1 can be simplified to a (2,4,6)-connected {44.62.88.12}{44.62}{8} topological network. The thermal stability of 1 is up to ca. 402 °C, and the fluorescence of 1 shows an emission at 366 nm, originating from SO4 2 - → Cd transfer. PXRD of compound 1 confirms the phase purity of the bulk sample. FT-IR spectrum of 1 is in accord with the structure analysis.

  8. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  9. OpenDrift - an open source framework for ocean trajectory modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagestad, Knut-Frode; Breivik, Øyvind; Ådlandsvik, Bjørn

    2016-04-01

    We will present a new, open source tool for modeling the trajectories and fate of particles or substances (Lagrangian Elements) drifting in the ocean, or even in the atmosphere. The software is named OpenDrift, and has been developed at Norwegian Meteorological Institute in cooperation with Institute of Marine Research. OpenDrift is a generic framework written in Python, and is openly available at https://github.com/knutfrode/opendrift/. The framework is modular with respect to three aspects: (1) obtaining input data, (2) the transport/morphological processes, and (3) exporting of results to file. Modularity is achieved through well defined interfaces between components, and use of a consistent vocabulary (CF conventions) for naming of variables. Modular input implies that it is not necessary to preprocess input data (e.g. currents, wind and waves from Eulerian models) to a particular file format. Instead "reader modules" can be written/used to obtain data directly from any original source, including files or through web based protocols (e.g. OPeNDAP/Thredds). Modularity of processes implies that a model developer may focus on the geophysical processes relevant for the application of interest, without needing to consider technical tasks such as reading, reprojecting, and colocating input data, rotation and scaling of vectors and model output. We will show a few example applications of using OpenDrift for predicting drifters, oil spills, and search and rescue objects.

  10. Deducing the subsurface geological conditions and structural framework of the NE Gulf of Suez area, using 2-D and 3-D seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahra, Hesham Shaker; Nakhla, Adel Mokhles

    2015-06-01

    An interpretation of the seismic data of Ras Budran and Abu Zenima oil fields, northern central Gulf of Suez, is carried out to evaluate its subsurface tectonic setting. The structural configuration, as well as the tectonic features of the concerned area is criticized through the study of 2D and 3D seismic data interpretation with the available geological data, in which the geo-seismic depth maps for the main interesting levels (Kareem, Nukhul, Matulla, Raha and Nubia Formations) are depicted. Such maps reflect that, the Miocene structure of Ras Budran area is a nearly NE-SW trending anticlinal feature, which broken into several panels by a set of NWSE and NE-SW trending faults. The Pre-Miocene structure of the studied area is very complex, where Ras Budran area consists of step faults down stepping to the south and southwest, which have been subjected to cross faults of NE-SW trend with lateral and vertical displacements.

  11. Quantitative Evaluation of 3D Mouse Behaviors and Motor Function in the Open-Field after Spinal Cord Injury Using Markerless Motion Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Sheets, Alison L.; Lai, Po-Lun; Fisher, Lesley C.; Basso, D. Michele

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of scientists strive to identify cellular mechanisms that could lead to breakthroughs in developing ameliorative treatments for debilitating neural and muscular conditions such as spinal cord injury (SCI). Most studies use rodent models to test hypotheses, and these are all limited by the methods available to evaluate animal motor function. This study’s goal was to develop a behavioral and locomotor assessment system in a murine model of SCI that enables quantitative kinematic measurements to be made automatically in the open-field by applying markerless motion tracking approaches. Three-dimensional movements of eight naïve, five mild, five moderate, and four severe SCI mice were recorded using 10 cameras (100 Hz). Background subtraction was used in each video frame to identify the animal’s silhouette, and the 3D shape at each time was reconstructed using shape-from-silhouette. The reconstructed volume was divided into front and back halves using k-means clustering. The animal’s front Center of Volume (CoV) height and whole-body CoV speed were calculated and used to automatically classify animal behaviors including directed locomotion, exploratory locomotion, meandering, standing, and rearing. More detailed analyses of CoV height, speed, and lateral deviation during directed locomotion revealed behavioral differences and functional impairments in animals with mild, moderate, and severe SCI when compared with naïve animals. Naïve animals displayed the widest variety of behaviors including rearing and crossing the center of the open-field, the fastest speeds, and tallest rear CoV heights. SCI reduced the range of behaviors, and decreased speed (r = .70 p<.005) and rear CoV height (r = .65 p<.01) were significantly correlated with greater lesion size. This markerless tracking approach is a first step toward fundamentally changing how rodent movement studies are conducted. By providing scientists with sensitive, quantitative measurement

  12. A New Open Data Open Modeling Framework for the Geosciences Community (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X.; Salas, D.; Navarro, M.; Liang, Y.; Teng, W. L.; Hooper, R. P.; Restrepo, P. J.; Bales, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    A prototype Open Hydrospheric Modeling Framework (OHMF), also called Open Data Open Modeling framework, has been developed to address two key modeling challenges faced by the broad research community: (1) accessing external data from diverse sources and (2) execution, coupling, and evaluation/intercomparison of various and complex models. The former is achieved via the Open Data architecture, while the latter is achieved via the Open Modeling architecture. The Open Data architecture adopts a common internal data model and representation, to facilitate the integration of various external data sources into OHMF, using Data Agents that handle remote data access protocols (e.g., OPeNDAP, Web services), metadata standards, and source-specific implementations. These Data Agents hide the heterogeneity of the external data sources and provide a common interface to the OHMF system core. The Open Modeling architecture allows different models or modules to be easily integrated into OHMF. The OHMF architectural design offers a general many-to-many connectivity between individual models and external data sources, instead of one-to-one connectivity from data access to model simulation results. OHMF adopts a graphical scientific workflow, offers tools to re-scale in space and time, and provides multi-scale data fusion and assimilation functionality. Notably, the OHMF system employs a strategy that does not require re-compiling or adding interface codes for a user's model to be integrated. Thus, a corresponding model agent can be easily developed by a user. Once an agent is available for a model, it can be shared and used by others. An example will be presented to illustrate the prototype OHMF system and the automatic flow from accessing data to model simulation results in a user-friendly workflow-controlled environment.

  13. Identifying the origin of differences between 3D numerical simulations of ground motion in sedimentary basins: lessons from stringent canonical test models in the E2VP framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaljub, Emmanuel; Maufroy, Emeline; Moczo, Peter; Kristek, Jozef; Priolo, Enrico; Klin, Peter; De Martin, Florent; Zhang, Zenghuo; Hollender, Fabrice; Bard, Pierre-Yves

    2013-04-01

    Numerical simulation is playing a role of increasing importance in the field of seismic hazard by providing quantitative estimates of earthquake ground motion, its variability, and its sensitivity to geometrical and mechanical properties of the medium. Continuous efforts to develop accurate and computationally efficient numerical methods, combined with increasing computational power have made it technically feasible to calculate seismograms in 3D realistic configurations and for frequencies of interest in seismic design applications. Now, in order to foster the use of numerical simulations in practical prediction of earthquake ground motion, it is important to evaluate the accuracy of current numerical methods when applied to realistic 3D sites. This process of verification is a necessary prerequisite to confrontation of numerical predictions and observations. Through the ongoing Euroseistest Verification and Validation Project (E2VP), which focuses on the Mygdonian basin (northern Greece), we investigated the capability of numerical methods to predict earthquake ground motion for frequencies up to 4 Hz. Numerical predictions obtained by several teams using a wide variety of methods were compared using quantitative goodness-of-fit criteria. In order to better understand the cause of misfits between different simulations, initially performed for the realistic geometry of the Mygdonian basin, we defined five stringent canonical configurations. The canonical models allow for identifying sources of misfits and quantify their importance. Detailed quantitative comparison of simulations in relation to dominant features of the models shows that even relatively simple heterogeneous models must be treated with maximum care in order to achieve sufficient level of accuracy. One important conclusion is that the numerical representation of models with strong variations (e.g. discontinuities) may considerably vary from one method to the other, and may become a dominant source of

  14. A two-fold interpenetrating 3D metal-organic framework material constructed from helical chains linked via 4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Yiming; Zhao Zhenguo; Wu Xiaoyuan; Zhang Qisheng; Chen Lijuan; Wang Fei; Chen Shanci; Lu Canzhong

    2008-12-15

    A 3-connected dia-f-type metal-organic framework compound {l_brace}[Ag(L){sub 3/2}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}]{r_brace}{sub n} (1) has been synthesized by self-assembly of 4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz (L=4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz=3,3',5,5'-tetramethyl-4,4'-bipyrazole) and Ag{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} under hydrothermal conditions. It crystallizes in the tetragonal space group I4{sub 1}/acd with a=21.406(4) A, b=21.406(4) A, c=36.298(8) A, Z=32. X-ray single-crystal diffraction reveals that 1 has a three-dimensional framework with an unprecedented alternate left- and right-handed helices structure, featuring a non-uniform two-fold interpenetrated (4.14{sup 2}) net. Photoluminescent investigation reveals that the title compound displays interesting emissions in a wide region, which shows that the title compound may be a good potential candidate as a photoelectric material. - Graphical abstract: A 3-connected dia-f-type metal-organic framework compound [Ag(4,4'-bpz){sub 3/2}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}] shows unprecedented alternating left- and right-handed helices structure, featuring a non-uniform two-fold interpenetrated (4.14{sup 2}) net.

  15. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  16. OpenLabNotes--An Electronic Laboratory Notebook Extension for OpenLabFramework.

    PubMed

    List, Markus; Franz, Michael; Tan, Qihua; Mollenhauer, Jan; Baumbach, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Electronic laboratory notebooks (ELNs) are more accessible and reliable than their paper based alternatives and thus find widespread adoption. While a large number of commercial products is available, small- to mid-sized laboratories can often not afford the costs or are concerned about the longevity of the providers. Turning towards free alternatives, however, raises questions about data protection, which are not sufficiently addressed by available solutions. To serve as legal documents, ELNs must prevent scientific fraud through technical means such as digital signatures. It would also be advantageous if an ELN was integrated with a laboratory information management system to allow for a comprehensive documentation of experimental work including the location of samples that were used in a particular experiment. Here, we present OpenLabNotes, which adds state-of-the-art ELN capabilities to OpenLabFramework, a powerful and flexible laboratory information management system. In contrast to comparable solutions, it allows to protect the intellectual property of its users by offering data protection with digital signatures. OpenLabNotes effectively closes the gap between research documentation and sample management, thus making Open-LabFramework more attractive for laboratories that seek to increase productivity through electronic data management. PMID:26673790

  17. Towards a virtual C. elegans: a framework for simulation and visualization of the neuromuscular system in a 3D physical environment.

    PubMed

    Palyanov, Andrey; Khayrulin, Sergey; Larson, Stephen D; Dibert, Alexander

    The nematode C. elegans is the only animal with a known neuronal wiring diagram, or "connectome". During the last three decades, extensive studies of the C. elegans have provided wide-ranging data about it, but few systematic ways of integrating these data into a dynamic model have been put forward. Here we present a detailed demonstration of a virtual C. elegans aimed at integrating these data in the form of a 3D dynamic model operating in a simulated physical environment. Our current demonstration includes a realistic flexible worm body model, muscular system and a partially implemented ventral neural cord. Our virtual C. elegans demonstrates successful forward and backward locomotion when sending sinusoidal patterns of neuronal activity to groups of motor neurons. To account for the relatively slow propagation velocity and the attenuation of neuronal signals, we introduced "pseudo neurons" into our model to simulate simplified neuronal dynamics. The pseudo neurons also provide a good way of visualizing the nervous system's structure and activity dynamics. PMID:22935967

  18. Evaluation of the scale dependent dynamic SGS model in the open source code caffa3d.MBRi in wall-bounded flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Martin; Usera, Gabriel

    2015-04-01

    The Scale Dependent Dynamic Model (SDDM) has been widely validated in large-eddy simulations using pseudo-spectral codes [1][2][3]. The scale dependency, particularly the potential law, has been proved also in a priori studies [4][5]. To the authors' knowledge there have been only few attempts to use the SDDM in finite difference (FD) and finite volume (FV) codes [6][7], finding some improvements with the dynamic procedures (scale independent or scale dependent approach), but not showing the behavior of the scale-dependence parameter when using the SDDM. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the SDDM in the open source code caffa3d.MBRi, an updated version of the code presented in [8]. caffa3d.MBRi is a FV code, second-order accurate, parallelized with MPI, in which the domain is divided in unstructured blocks of structured grids. To accomplish this, 2 cases are considered: flow between flat plates and flow over a rough surface with the presence of a model wind turbine, taking for this case the experimental data presented in [9]. In both cases the standard Smagorinsky Model (SM), the Scale Independent Dynamic Model (SIDM) and the SDDM are tested. As presented in [6][7] slight improvements are obtained with the SDDM. Nevertheless, the behavior of the scale-dependence parameter supports the generalization of the dynamic procedure proposed in the SDDM, particularly taking into account that no explicit filter is used (the implicit filter is unknown). [1] F. Porté-Agel, C. Meneveau, M.B. Parlange. "A scale-dependent dynamic model for large-eddy simulation: application to a neutral atmospheric boundary layer". Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2000, 415, 261-284. [2] E. Bou-Zeid, C. Meneveau, M. Parlante. "A scale-dependent Lagrangian dynamic model for large eddy simulation of complex turbulent flows". Physics of Fluids, 2005, 17, 025105 (18p). [3] R. Stoll, F. Porté-Agel. "Dynamic subgrid-scale models for momentum and scalar fluxes in large-eddy simulations of

  19. Biomechanical comparison of implant retained fixed partial dentures with fiber reinforced composite versus conventional metal frameworks: a 3D FEA study.

    PubMed

    Erkmen, Erkan; Meriç, Gökçe; Kurt, Ahmet; Tunç, Yahya; Eser, Atılım

    2011-01-01

    Fiber reinforced composite (FRC) materials have been successfully used in a variety of commercial applications. These materials have also been widely used in dentistry. The use of fiber composite technology in implant prostheses has been previously presented, since they may solve many problems associated with metal alloy frameworks such as corrosion, complexity of fabrication and high cost. The hypothesis of this study was that an FRC framework with lower flexural modulus provides more even stress distribution throughout the implant retained fixed partial dentures (FPDs) than a metal framework does. A 3-dimensional finite element analysis was conducted to evaluate the stress distribution in bone, implant-abutment complex and prosthetic structures. Hence, two distinctly different models of implant retained 3-unit fixed partial dentures, composed of Cr-Co and porcelain (M-FPD model) or FRC and particulate composite (FRC-FPD model) were utilized. In separate load cases, 300 N vertical, 150 N oblique and 60 N horizontal forces were simulated. When the FRC-FPD and M-FPD models were compared, it was found that all investigated stress values in the M-FPD model were higher than the values in the FRC-FPD model except for the stress values in the implant-abutment complex. It can be concluded that the implant supported FRC-FPD could eliminate the excessive stresses in the bone-implant interface and maintain normal physiological loading of the surrounding bone, therefore minimizing the risk of peri-implant bone loss due to stress-shielding. PMID:21094484

  20. A 3D chiral metal-organic framework based on left-handed helices containing 3-amino-1 H-1,2,4-triazole ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bing; Yang, Tian-Yi; Feng, Hui-Jun; Zhang, Zong-Hui; Xu, Ling

    2015-10-01

    A chiral metal-organic framework, [Cu(atr)(OH)]·0.5H2O·0.5en (1) (Hatr=3-amino-1 H-1,2,4-triazole, en=ethylenediamine), was constructed via diffusion reaction of the achiral Hatr ligand and CuSO4 as starting materials. Compound 1 crystallizes in the chiral space group P3221 and features a porous metal-organic framework with 44.1% solvent-accessible volume fabricated by left-handed helices with a pitch height of lp=10.442 Å. Six helices gather around in a cycle forming a large honeycomb channel with a 6.58 Å inner diameter. Cu(II) center and atr‒ ligand regarded as 3-connected nodes, compound 1 can be simplified to a 3-c uninodal {4.122} (qtz-h) topological network. A gradual decreasing in the magnetic moment depending on temperature decreasing indicates an antiferromagnetic interaction in 1. The powder XRD confirms the bulk sample is a single crystal pure phase, and the thermogravimetric analysis shows the thermal stability of 1 is up to ca. 240 °C.

  1. SNL3dFace

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmore » of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.« less

  2. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  3. Performance assessment of HIFU lesion detection by Harmonic Motion Imaging for Focused Ultrasound (HMIFU): A 3D finite-element-based framework with experimental validation

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Gary Y.; Luo, Jianwen; Marquet, Fabrice; Maleke, Caroline; Vappou, Jonathan; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2014-01-01

    Harmonic Motion Imaging for Focused Ultrasound (HMIFU) is a novel high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy monitoring method with feasibilities demonstrated in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. Its principle is based on Amplitude-modulated (AM) - Harmonic Motion Imaging (HMI), an oscillatory radiation force used for imaging the tissue mechanical response during thermal ablation. In this study, a theoretical framework of HMIFU is presented, comprising a customized nonlinear wave propagation model, a finite-element (FE) analysis module, and an image-formation model. The objective of this study is to develop such a framework in order to 1) assess the fundamental performance of HMIFU in detecting HIFU lesions based on the change in tissue apparent elasticity, i.e., the increasing Young's modulus, and the HIFU lesion size with respect to the HIFU exposure time and 2) validate the simulation findings ex vivo. The same HMI and HMIFU parameters as in the experimental studies were used, i.e., 4.5-MHz HIFU frequency and 25 Hz AM frequency. For a lesion-to-background Young's modulus ratio of 3, 6, and 9, the FE and estimated HMI displacement ratios were equal to 1.83, 3.69, 5.39 and 1.65, 3.19, 4.59, respectively. In experiments, the HMI displacement followed a similar increasing trend of 1.19, 1.28, and 1.78 at 10-s, 20-s, and 30-s HIFU exposure, respectively. In addition, moderate agreement in lesion size growth was also found in both simulations (16.2, 73.1 and 334.7 mm2) and experiments (26.2, 94.2 and 206.2 mm2). Therefore, the feasibility of HMIFU for HIFU lesion detection based on the underlying tissue elasticity changes was verified through the developed theoretical framework, i.e., validation of the fundamental performance of the HMIFU system for lesion detection, localization and quantification, was demonstrated both theoretically and ex vivo. PMID:22036637

  4. NASA VERVE: Interactive 3D Visualization Within Eclipse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Tamar; Allan, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    At NASA, we develop myriad Eclipse RCP applications to provide situational awareness for remote systems. The Intelligent Robotics Group at NASA Ames Research Center has developed VERVE - a high-performance, robot user interface that provides scientists, robot operators, and mission planners with powerful, interactive 3D displays of remote environments.VERVE includes a 3D Eclipse view with an embedded Java Ardor3D scenario, including SWT and mouse controls which interact with the Ardor3D camera and objects in the scene. VERVE also includes Eclipse views for exploring and editing objects in the Ardor3D scene graph, and a HUD (Heads Up Display) framework allows Growl-style notifications and other textual information to be overlayed onto the 3D scene. We use VERVE to listen to telemetry from robots and display the robots and associated scientific data along the terrain they are exploring; VERVE can be used for any interactive 3D display of data.VERVE is now open source. VERVE derives from the prior Viz system, which was developed for Mars Polar Lander (2001) and used for the Mars Exploration Rover (2003) and the Phoenix Lander (2008). It has been used for ongoing research with IRG's K10 and KRex rovers in various locations. VERVE was used on the International Space Station during two experiments in 2013 - Surface Telerobotics, in which astronauts controlled robots on Earth from the ISS, and SPHERES, where astronauts control a free flying robot on board the ISS.We will show in detail how to code with VERVE, how to interact between SWT controls to the Ardor3D scenario, and share example code.

  5. Interpenetration of a 3D Icosahedral M@Ni12 (M=Al, Ga) Framework with Porphyrin-Reminiscent Boron Layers in MNi9 B8.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qiang; Wagner, Frank R; Ormeci, Alim; Prots, Yurii; Burkhardt, Ulrich; Schmidt, Marcus; Schnelle, Walter; Grin, Yuri; Leithe-Jasper, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Two ternary borides MNi9 B8 (M=Al, Ga) were synthesized by thermal treatment of mixtures of the elements. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction data reveal AlNi9 B8 and GaNi9 B8 crystallizing in a new type of structure within the space group Cmcm and the lattice parameters a=7.0896(3) Å, b=8.1181(3) Å, c=10.6497(4) Å and a=7.0897(5) Å, b=8.1579(4) Å, c=10.6648(7) Å, respectively. The boron atoms build up two-dimensional layers, which consist of puckered [B16 ] rings with two tailing B atoms, whereas the M atoms reside in distorted vertices-condensed [Ni12 ] icosahedra, which form a three-dimensional framework interpenetrated by boron porphyrin-reminiscent layers. An unusual local arrangement resembling a giant metallo-porphyrin entity is formed by the [B16 ] rings, which, due to their large annular size of approximately 8 Å, chelate four of the twelve icosahedral Ni atoms. An analysis of the chemical bonding by means of the electron localizability approach reveals strong covalent B-B interactions and weak Ni-Ni interactions. Multi-center dative B-Ni interaction occurs between the Al-Ni framework and the boron layers. In agreement with the chemical bonding analysis and band structure calculations, AlNi9 B8 is a Pauli-paramagnetic metal. PMID:26418894

  6. Stress distribution on a three-unit implant-supported zirconia framework. A 3D finite element analysis and fatigue test

    PubMed Central

    SANNINO, G.; POZZI, A.; SCHIAVETTI, R.; BARLATTANI, A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate, by finite element analysis (FEA) and fatigue analysis, the influence of different loading conditions on the stress distribution in a 3-unit implant-supported Y-TZP fixed partial denture (FPD). Material and methods A three-dimensional FEM model was developed. The materials used in this study were assumed to be linearly elastic, homogeneous and isotropic. 100 N and 300 N loads over a 0,5 mm2 areas with different angles (0°, 15° and 35°) and locations were applied on the prosthesis and the distribution of equivalent von Mises stress was investigated. A fatigue analysis was carried out too. Results Maximum stresses were found at the connector region of the framework when the intermediate element is loaded (100 N load pattern: 32,9 MPa, 33 MPa and 51,8 MPa; 300 N load pattern: 98,6 MPa, 102,8 MPa and 155,7 MPa, respectively with 0°, 15° and 35° of inclination). Results confirmed the vulnerability of both connector areas even if just one pillar was loaded with an increase in stress when angle of load inclination is larger. The cyclic fatigue evaluation indicates a strong propensity for fatigue behavior, presenting a considerable range of loading conditions. No fracture fatigue occurred with a 100 N force. A 300 N force applied to the pontic produces no fatigue problems because the load is equally shared by whole system. A 300 N force applied to one of the two pillars, or to both implants generates fatigue problems. Conclusion F.E.M. analysis of a 3-unit implant-supported Y-TZPFPD, give accurate information about loading conditions for clinical success over time. Fatigue analysis results show structural reliability of the Y-TZP as framework material for 3-unit posterior FPDs. PMID:23285401

  7. TRACE 3-D documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, K.R.

    1987-08-01

    TRACE 3-D is an interactive beam-dynamics program that calculates the envelopes of a bunched beam, including linear space-charge forces, through a user-defined transport system. TRACE 3-D provides an immediate graphics display of the envelopes and the phase-space ellipses and allows nine types of beam-matching options. This report describes the beam-dynamics calculations and gives detailed instruction for using the code. Several examples are described in detail.

  8. Synthesis, structure and characterization of two new open-framework gallium phosphite-oxalates of varying dimensionality

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Caixia; Huang, Liangliang; Zhou, Mingdong; Xia, Jing; Ma, Hongwei; Zang, Shuliang; Wang, Li

    2013-12-15

    Using N, N-dimethyl-piperazine as structure directing agent, two new gallium phosphite-oxalates [Ga{sub 2}(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}PO{sub 3}){sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4})](C{sub 6}N{sub 2}H{sub 16}) (I) and [Ga{sub 2}(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}PO{sub 3})(C{sub 2}O{sub 4})](C{sub 6}N{sub 2}H{sub 16}){sub 0.5} (II) have been synthesized under solvothermal and hydrothermal conditions, respectively and further characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, TGA, ICP-AES and elemental analyses. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the striking feature of I and II is that they possess the same second building unit (SBU) Ga{sub 2}P{sub 2} constructed from two GaO{sub 6} octahedra and two [HPO{sub 3}{sup 2−}] pseudo-pyramids sharing oxygen atoms. However, due to the different connecting fashions of SBUs, [C{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2−}] groups and [H{sub 2}PO{sub 3}{sup −}] pseudo-pyramids, the final frameworks of them are distinctly different. Compound I shows 2D layered structures with 8-membered ring (8-MR) windows in the ab plane while compound II presents a 3D open-framework with 8-MR channels along the b axis. - Graphical abstract: Using N, N-dimethyl-piperazine as structure directing agent, two new gallium phosphite-oxalates I showing 2D layered structure and II presenting 3D open-framework have been synthesized under solvothermal and hydrothermal conditions, respectively. - Highlights: • Using N, N-dimethyl-piperazine as structure directing agent, two new gallium phosphite-oxalates have been synthesized under solvothermal and hydrothermal conditions, respectively. • The same second building unit (SBU) is displayed in both compounds. • Compound I shows 2D layered structure with 8-MR windows while compound II presents 3D open-framework with 8-MR channels. • The solvent plays an important role on the formation of microporous compounds.

  9. EUMIS - an open portal framework for interoperable marine environmental services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamre, T.; Sandven, S.; Leadbetter, A.; Gouriou, V.; Dunne, D.; Grant, M.; Treguer, M.; Torget, Ø.

    2012-04-01

    NETMAR (Open service network for marine environmental data) is an FP7 project that aims to develop a pilot European Marine Information System (EUMIS) for searching, downloading and integrating satellite, in situ and model data from ocean and coastal areas. EUMIS will use a semantic framework coupled with ontologies for identifying and accessing distributed data, such as near-real time, forecast and historical data. Four pilots have been defined to clarify the needs for satellite, in situ and model based products and services in selected user communities. The pilots are: · Pilot 1: Arctic Sea Ice Monitoring and Forecasting · Pilot 2: Oil spill drift forecast and shoreline cleanup assessment services in France · Pilot 3: Ocean colour - Marine Ecosystem, Research and Monitoring · Pilot 4: International Coastal Atlas Network (ICAN) for coastal zone management NETMAR is developing a set of data delivery services for the targeted user communities by means of standard web-GIS and OPeNDAP protocols. Processing services and adaptive service chaining services will also be developed, to enable users to generate new products suited to their needs. Both data retrieved from online repositories as well as the products generated dynamically can be accessed and visualised in the EUMIS portal. For this purpose, a GIS Viewer, a Service Chaining Editor and a Ontology Browser/Discovery Client have been developed and integrated in EUMIS. The EUMIS portal is developed using a portal framework that is compliant with the JSR-168 (Java Portlet Specification 1.0) and JSR-286 (Java Portlet Specification, 2.0) standards. These standards defines the interface (contract) and lifecycle management for a portal system component, a portlet, which can be implemented in a number of programming languages, not only Java. The GIS Viewer is developed using a combination of Java, JavaScript and JSF (e.g. MapFaces). The Service chaining editor is implemented in JavaScript (using different libraries like

  10. JULIDE: a software tool for 3D reconstruction and statistical analysis of autoradiographic mouse brain sections.

    PubMed

    Ribes, Delphine; Parafita, Julia; Charrier, Rémi; Magara, Fulvio; Magistretti, Pierre J; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

    2010-01-01

    In this article we introduce JULIDE, a software toolkit developed to perform the 3D reconstruction, intensity normalization, volume standardization by 3D image registration and voxel-wise statistical analysis of autoradiographs of mouse brain sections. This software tool has been developed in the open-source ITK software framework and is freely available under a GPL license. The article presents the complete image processing chain from raw data acquisition to 3D statistical group analysis. Results of the group comparison in the context of a study on spatial learning are shown as an illustration of the data that can be obtained with this tool. PMID:21124830

  11. K2Pb3(CO3)3F2 and KCdCO3F: Novel Fluoride Carbonates with Layered and 3D Framework Structures.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan; Hu, Chun-Li; Mao, Jiang-Gao

    2015-11-01

    Two new mixed metal fluoride carbonates, KCdCO3F and K2Pb3(CO3)3F2, have been synthesized by solvothermal and solid-state techniques. KCdCO3F crystallizes in the acentric nonpolar space group P6̅m2, and its structure features a three-dimensional anionic framework in which the CdCO3 layers are further interconnected by bridging F(-) anions with the negative charge balanced by K(+) cations. K2Pb3(CO3)3F2 crystallizes in the centrosymmetric space group P63/mmc, and its structure exhibits a layered anionic skeleton featuring corner-shared PbO6F and PbO6F2 polyhedra. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy studies show that the short-wavelength absorption edges of KCdCO3F and K2Pb3(CO3)3F2 are 227 and 287 nm, respectively. The second harmonic generation (SHG) measurement reveals that KCdCO3F is a phase-matchable material for generation of doubled-frequency light at both 532 and 266 nm, with a large SHG response of approximately 5.2 times that of KH2PO4 (KDP) at 532 nm and a moderate SHG response of approximately 0.75 times that of β-BaB2O4 (BBO) at 266 nm. Therefore, it is a promising UV material for fourth harmonic generation on a 1064 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. PMID:26488674

  12. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  13. An Open Source Framework for Coupled Hydro-Hydrogeo-Chemical Systems in Catchment Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delfs, J.; Sachse, A.; Gayler, S.; Grathwohl, P.; He, W.; Jang, E.; Kalbacher, T.; Klein, C.; Kolditz, O.; Maier, U.; Priesack, E.; Rink, K.; Selle, B.; Shao, H.; Singh, A. K.; Streck, T.; Sun, Y.; Wang, W.; Walther, M.

    2013-12-01

    This poster presents an open-source framework designed to assist water scientists in the study of catchment hydraulic functions with associated chemical processes, e.g. contaminant degradation, plant nutrient turnover. The model successfully calculates the feedbacks between surface water, subsurface water and air in standard benchmarks. In specific model applications to heterogeneous catchments, subsurface water is driven by density variations and runs through double porous media. Software codes of water science are tightly coupled by iteration, namely the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) for urban runoff, Expert-N for simulating water fluxes and nutrient turnover in agricultural and forested soils, and OpenGeoSys (OGS) for groundwater. The coupled model calculates flow of hydrostatic shallow water over the land surface with finite volume and difference methods. The flow equations for water in the porous subsurface are discretized in space with finite elements. Chemical components are transferred through 1D, 2D or 3D watershed representations with advection-dispersion solvers or, as an alternative, random walk particle tracking. A transport solver can be in sequence with a chemical solver, e.g. PHREEQ-C, BRNS, additionally. Besides coupled partial differential equations, the concept of hydrological response units is employed in simulations at regional scale with scarce data availability. In this case, a conceptual hydrological model, specifically the Jena Adaptable Modeling System (JAMS), passes groundwater recharge through a software interface into OGS, which solves the partial differential equations of groundwater flow. Most components of the modeling framework are open source and can be modified for individual purposes. Applications range from temperate climate regions in Germany (Ammer catchment and Hessian Ried) to arid regions in the Middle East (Oman and Dead See). Some of the presented examples originate from intensively monitored research sites of the

  14. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-01

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions < ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C T . We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N . We also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  15. Thermally-induced single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformations from a 2D two-fold interpenetrating square lattice layer to a 3D four-fold interpenetrating diamond framework and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Fan, Rui Qing; Wang, Xin Ming; Wei, Li Guo; Song, Yang; Du, Xi; Xing, Kai; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yu Lin

    2016-07-28

    In this work, a rare 2D → 3D single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation (SCSC) is observed in metal-organic coordination complexes, which is triggered by thermal treatment. The 2D two-fold interpenetrating square lattice layer [Cd(IBA)2]n (1) is irreversibly converted into a 3D four-fold interpenetrating diamond framework {[Cd(IBA)2(H2O)]·2.5H2O}n (2) (HIBA = 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzoic acid). Consideration is given to these two complexes with different interpenetrating structures and dimensionality, and their influence on photovoltaic properties are studied. Encouraged by the UV-visible absorption and HOMO-LUMO energy states matched for sensitizing TiO2, the two complexes are employed in combination with N719 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to compensate absorption in the ultraviolet and blue-violet region, offset competitive visible light absorption of I3(-) and reducing charge the recombination of injected electrons. After co-sensitization with 1 and 2, the device co-sensitized by 1/N719 and 2/N719 to yield overall efficiencies of 7.82% and 8.39%, which are 19.94% and 28.68% higher than that of the device sensitized only by N719 (6.52%). Consequently, high dimensional interpenetrating complexes could serve as excellent co-sensitizers and have application in DSSCs. PMID:27356177

  16. Temperature dependent structural variation from 2D supramolecular network to 3D interpenetrated metal–organic framework: In situ cleavage of S–S and C–S bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Ugale, Bharat; Singh, Divyendu; Nagaraja, C.M.

    2015-03-15

    Two new Zn(II)–organic compounds, [Zn(muco)(dbds){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] (1) and [Zn(muco)(dbs)] (2) (where, muco=trans, trans-muconate dianion, dbds=4,4′-dipyridyldisulfide and dbs=4,4′-dipyridylsulfide) have been synthesized from same precursors but at two different temperatures. Both the compounds have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis and photoluminescence studies. Compound 1 prepared at room temperature possesses a molecular structure extended to 2D supramolecular network through (H–O…H) hydrogen-bonding interactions. Compound 2, obtained at high temperature (100 °C) shows a 3-fold interpenetrating 3D framework constituted by an in situ generated dbs linker by the cleavage of S–S and C–S bonds of dbds linker. Thus, the influence of reaction temperature on the formation of two structural phases has been demonstrated. Both 1 and 2 exhibit ligand based luminescence emission owing to n→π⁎ and π→π⁎ transitions and also high thermal stabilities. - Graphical abstract: The influence of temperature on the formation of two structural phases, a 2D supramolecular network and a 3D 3-fold interpenetrating framework has been demonstrated and their luminescence emission is measured. - Highlights: • Two new Zn(II)–organic compounds were synthesized by tuning reaction temperatures. • Temperature induced in situ generation of dbs linker has been observed. • The compounds exhibit high thermal stability and luminescence emission properties. • The effect of temperature on structure, dimension and topology has been presented.

  17. New coordination polymers from 1D chain, 2D layer to 3D framework constructed from 1,2-phenylenediacetic acid and 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane flexible ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Xin Lingyun; Liu Guangzhen; Wang Liya

    2011-06-15

    The hydrothermal reactions of Cd, Zn, or Cu(II) acetate salts with H{sub 2}PHDA and BPP flexible ligands afford three new coordination polymers, including [Cd(PHDA)(BPP)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}(1), [Zn(PHDA)(BPP)]{sub n}(2), and [Cu{sub 2}(PHDA){sub 2}(BPP)]{sub n}(3) (H{sub 2}PHDA=1,2-phenylenediacetic acid, BPP=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane). The single-crystal X-ray diffractions reveal that all three complexes feature various metal carboxylate subunits extended further by the BPP ligands to form a diverse range of structures, displaying a remarked structural sensitivity to metal(II) cation. Complex 1 containing PHDA-bridged binuclear cadmium generates 1D double-stranded chain, complex 2 results in 2D{yields}2D interpenetrated (4,4) grids, and complex 3 displays a 3D self-penetrated framework with 4{sup 8}6{sup 6}8 rob topology. In addition, fluorescent analyses show that both 1 and 2 exhibit intense blue-violet photoluminescence in the solid state. - Graphical Abstract: We show diverse supramolecular frameworks based on the same ligands (PHDA and BPP) and different metal acetate salts including 1D double-stranded chain, 2D {yields} 2D twofold interpenetrated layer, and 3D self-penetration networks. Highlights: > Three metal(II = 2 /* ROMAN ) coordination polymers were synthesized using H{sub 2}PHDA and BPP. > The diversity of structures show a remarked sensitivity to metal(II) center. > Complexes show the enhancement of fluorescence compared to that of free ligand.

  18. Yb{sub 5}Ni{sub 4}Sn{sub 10} and Yb{sub 7}Ni{sub 4}Sn{sub 13}: New polar intermetallics with 3D framework structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lei Xiaowu; Sun Zhongming; Li Longhua; Zhong Guohua; Hu Chunli; Mao Jianggao

    2010-04-15

    The title compounds have been obtained by solid state reactions of the corresponding pure elements at high temperature, and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Yb{sub 5}Ni{sub 4}Sn{sub 10} adopts the Sc{sub 5}Co{sub 4}Si{sub 10} structure type and crystallizes in the tetragonal space group P4/mbm (No. 127) with cell parameters of a=13.785(4) A, c=4.492 (2) A, V=853.7(5) A{sup 3}, and Z=2. Yb{sub 7}Ni{sub 4}Sn{sub 13} is isostructural with Yb{sub 7}Co{sub 4}InGe{sub 12} and crystallizes in the tetragonal space group P4/m (No. 83) with cell parameters of a=11.1429(6) A, c=4.5318(4) A, V=562.69(7) A{sup 3}, and Z=1. Both structures feature three-dimensional (3D) frameworks based on three different types of one-dimensional (1D) channels, which are occupied by the Yb atoms. Electronic structure calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) indicate that both compounds are metallic. These results are in agreement with those from temperature-dependent resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements. - Graphical abstract: Two new ytterbium nickel stannides, namely, Yb{sub 5}Ni{sub 4}Sn{sub 10} and Yb{sub 7}Ni{sub 4}Sn{sub 13}, have been synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Both their structures feature three-dimensional (3D) frameworks based on three different types of one-dimensional (1D) channels, which are situated by all the Yb atoms. Electronic structure calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) indicate that both compounds are metallic, which are in accordance with the results from temperature-dependent resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements.

  19. 3D [Ag-Mg] polyanionic frameworks in the La{sub 4}Ag{sub 10}Mg{sub 3} and La{sub 4}Ag{sub 10.3}Mg{sub 12} new ternary compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Solokha, Pavlo; De Negri, Serena; Pavlyuk, Volodymyr; Saccone, Adriana

    2010-12-15

    The crystal structures of two new ternary phases, La{sub 4}Ag{sub 10}Mg{sub 3} and La{sub 4}Ag{sub 10.3}Mg{sub 12}, were refined from X-ray single crystal diffraction data. La{sub 4}Ag{sub 10}Mg{sub 3} crystallizes in the Ca{sub 4}Au{sub 10}In{sub 3} structure type, an ordered variant of the binary Zr{sub 7}Ni{sub 10} compound: orthorhombic, Cmce, oS68, a=14.173(5), b=10.266(3), c=10.354(3) A, Z=4, wR{sub 2}=0.0826, 676 F{sup 2} values, 50 variables. La{sub 4}Ag{sub 10.3}Mg{sub 12} represents a new structure type: orthorhombic, Cmmm, oS116-10.32, a=9.6130(3), b=24.9663(8), c=9.6333(2) A, Z=4, wR{sub 2}=0.0403, 1185 F{sup 2} values, 101 variables. The structural analysis of both compounds, highlighting a significant contraction of the Ag-Mg distances, suggests the existence of three-dimensional [Ag-Mg] networks hosting La atoms. LMTO calculations applied to La{sub 4}Ag{sub 10}Mg{sub 3} indicate that the strongest bonds occur for Ag-Ag and Ag-Mg interactions, and confirm the presence of a 3D{sub {infinity}}[Ag{sub 10}Mg{sub 3}]{sup {delta}}{sup -} polyanionic framework balanced by positively charged La atoms. -- Graphical abstract: An independent fragment of the 3D [Ag-Mg] framework in La{sub 4}Ag{sub 10}Mg{sub 3} together with an ELF section (1/2 0 0 basal plane). Display Omitted

  20. Assembly of 1D, 2D and 3D lanthanum(iii) coordination polymers with perchlorinated benzenedicarboxylates: positional isomeric effect, structural transformation and ring-opening polymerisation of glycolide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng-Chun; Dai, An-Qi; Huang, Kun-Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Cui, Ai-Jun; He, Ming-Yang; Chen, Qun

    2016-02-28

    Utilizing a series of positional isomers of tetrachlorinated benzenedicarboxylic acid ligands, seven La(iii)-based coordination polymers were solvothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Their structural dimensionalities varying from 1D double chains, to the 2D 3,4,5-connected network, to 3D 6-connected pcu topological nets are only governed by the positions of carboxyl groups on the tetrachlorinated benzene ring. A comprehensive analysis and comparison reveals that the size of the carbonyl solvent molecules (DMF, DEF, DMA, and NMP) can affect the coordination geometries around the La(iii) ions, the coordination modes of carboxylate groups, the packing arrangements, and the void volumes of the overall crystal lattices. One as-synthesized framework further shows an unprecedented structural transformation from a 3D 6-connected network to a 3D 4,5-connected net through the dissolution and reformation pathway in water, suggesting that these easily hydrolyzed lanthanide complexes may serve as precursors to produce new high-dimensional frameworks. The bulk solvent-free melt polymerisation of glycolide utilizing these La(iii) complexes as initiators has been reported herein for the first time. All complexes were found to promote the polymerization of glycolide over a temperature range of 200 to 220 °C, producing poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) with a molecular weight up to 93,280. Under the same experimental conditions, the different catalytic activities for these complexes may result from their structural discrepancy. PMID:26811117

  1. 3D microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-02-01

    In order to circumvent the fact that only one observer can view the image from a stereoscopic microscope, an attachment was devised for displaying the 3D microscopic image on a large LCD monitor for viewing by multiple observers in real time. The principle of operation, design, fabrication, and performance are presented, along with tolerance measurements relating to the properties of the cellophane half-wave plate used in the design.

  2. Benchmarking framework for myocardial tracking and deformation algorithms: an open access database.

    PubMed

    Tobon-Gomez, C; De Craene, M; McLeod, K; Tautz, L; Shi, W; Hennemuth, A; Prakosa, A; Wang, H; Carr-White, G; Kapetanakis, S; Lutz, A; Rasche, V; Schaeffter, T; Butakoff, C; Friman, O; Mansi, T; Sermesant, M; Zhuang, X; Ourselin, S; Peitgen, H-O; Pennec, X; Razavi, R; Rueckert, D; Frangi, A F; Rhode, K S

    2013-08-01

    In this paper we present a benchmarking framework for the validation of cardiac motion analysis algorithms. The reported methods are the response to an open challenge that was issued to the medical imaging community through a MICCAI workshop. The database included magnetic resonance (MR) and 3D ultrasound (3DUS) datasets from a dynamic phantom and 15 healthy volunteers. Participants processed 3D tagged MR datasets (3DTAG), cine steady state free precession MR datasets (SSFP) and 3DUS datasets, amounting to 1158 image volumes. Ground-truth for motion tracking was based on 12 landmarks (4 walls at 3 ventricular levels). They were manually tracked by two observers in the 3DTAG data over the whole cardiac cycle, using an in-house application with 4D visualization capabilities. The median of the inter-observer variability was computed for the phantom dataset (0.77 mm) and for the volunteer datasets (0.84 mm). The ground-truth was registered to 3DUS coordinates using a point based similarity transform. Four institutions responded to the challenge by providing motion estimates for the data: Fraunhofer MEVIS (MEVIS), Bremen, Germany; Imperial College London - University College London (IUCL), UK; Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, Spain; Inria-Asclepios project (INRIA), France. Details on the implementation and evaluation of the four methodologies are presented in this manuscript. The manually tracked landmarks were used to evaluate tracking accuracy of all methodologies. For 3DTAG, median values were computed over all time frames for the phantom dataset (MEVIS=1.20mm, IUCL=0.73 mm, UPF=1.10mm, INRIA=1.09 mm) and for the volunteer datasets (MEVIS=1.33 mm, IUCL=1.52 mm, UPF=1.09 mm, INRIA=1.32 mm). For 3DUS, median values were computed at end diastole and end systole for the phantom dataset (MEVIS=4.40 mm, UPF=3.48 mm, INRIA=4.78 mm) and for the volunteer datasets (MEVIS=3.51 mm, UPF=3.71 mm, INRIA=4.07 mm). For SSFP, median values were computed at end diastole and

  3. A Framework for Developing Competencies in Open and Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arinto, Patricia B.

    2013-01-01

    Many open universities and distance education institutions have shifted from a predominantly print-based mode of delivery to an online mode characterised by the use of virtual learning environments and various web technologies. This paper describes the impact of the shift to open and distance e-learning (ODeL), as this trend might be called, on…

  4. Recording stereoscopic 3D neurosurgery with a head-mounted 3D camera system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Brian; Chen, Brian R; Chen, Beverly B; Lu, James Y; Giannotta, Steven L

    2015-06-01

    Stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) imaging can present more information to the viewer and further enhance the learning experience over traditional two-dimensional (2D) video. Most 3D surgical videos are recorded from the operating microscope and only feature the crux, or the most important part of the surgery, leaving out other crucial parts of surgery including the opening, approach, and closing of the surgical site. In addition, many other surgeries including complex spine, trauma, and intensive care unit procedures are also rarely recorded. We describe and share our experience with a commercially available head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to obtain stereoscopic 3D recordings of these seldom recorded aspects of neurosurgery. The strengths and limitations of using the GoPro(®) 3D system as a head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system in the operating room are reviewed in detail. Over the past several years, we have recorded in stereoscopic 3D over 50 cranial and spinal surgeries and created a library for education purposes. We have found the head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to be a valuable asset to supplement 3D footage from a 3D microscope. We expect that these comprehensive 3D surgical videos will become an important facet of resident education and ultimately lead to improved patient care. PMID:25620087

  5. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  6. Using optically scanned 3D data in the restoration of Michelangelo's David

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scopigno, Roberto; Cignoni, Paolo; Callieri, Marco; Ganovelli, Fabio; Impoco, G.; Pingi, P.; Ponchio, F.

    2003-10-01

    Modern 3D scanning technologies allow to reconstruct 3D digital representations of Cultural Heritage artifacts in a semi-automatic way, characterized by very high accuracy and wealth of details. The availability of an accurate digital representation opens several possibilities of utilization to experts (restorers, archivists, museum curators), or to ordinary people (students, museum visitors). 3D scanned data are commonly used for the production of animations, interactive visualizations, or virtual reality applications. A much more exciting opportunity is to use these data in the restoration of Cultural Heritage artworks. The integration between 3D graphic and restoration represents an open research field where many new supporting tools are required; the David restoration project has given several starting points and guidelines to the definition and development of innovative solutions. Digital 3D models can be used in two different but not subsidiary modes: as an instrument for the execution of specific investigations and as a supporting media for the archival and integration of all the restoration-related information, gathered with the different studies and analysis performed on the artwork. In this paper we present some recent work done in the framework of the Michelangelo's David restoration project. A 3D model of the David was reconstructed by the Digital Michelangelo Project, using laser-based 3D scanning technology. We have developed some tools to make those data accessible and useful in the restoration. Preliminary results are reported here together with some directions for further research.

  7. A Model for Managing 3D Printing Services in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Sahib, Josh

    2013-01-01

    The appearance of 3D printers in university libraries opens many opportunities for advancing outreach, teaching, and research programs. The University of Alabama (UA) Libraries recently adopted 3D printing technology and maintains an open access 3D Printing Studio. The Studio consists of a 3D printer, multiple 3D design workstations, and other…

  8. Multiviewer 3D monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Aye, Tin M.; Kim, Dai Hyun; Esterkin, Vladimir; Savant, Gajendra D.

    1998-09-01

    Physical Optics Corporation has developed an advanced 3-D virtual reality system for use with simulation tools for training technical and military personnel. This system avoids such drawbacks of other virtual reality (VR) systems as eye fatigue, headaches, and alignment for each viewer, all of which are due to the need to wear special VR goggles. The new system is based on direct viewing of an interactive environment. This innovative holographic multiplexed screen technology makes it unnecessary for the viewer to wear special goggles.

  9. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  10. Biodegradable 3D-Porous Collagen Matrix (Ologen) Compared with Mitomycin C for Treatment of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: Results at 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Fei; Li, Lei; Chen, Xiuping; Yan, Xiang; Wang, Liyang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the Ologen as an aid for trabeculectomy performed for primary open-angle glaucoma compared with mitomycin C. Methods. In this prospective, randomized, parallel assignment, comparative study, 31 eyes of 21 primary open-angle glaucoma patients were allocated for trabeculectomy with the Ologen implant; another 32 eyes of 23 patients were treated with trabeculectomy augmented with mitomycin C. The patients were followed up for 5 years and evaluated for intraocular pressure, rate of success, status of the bleb, and adverse events. Result. The mean postoperative intraocular pressure was statistically different at 3 m, 6 m, 1 y, 3 y, and 5 y follow-up. The rates of both complete success (P = 0.017) and overall success (P = 0.031) in the Ologen group were significantly higher than those in the mitomycin C group. The difference of the bleb extent and vascularity was statistically significant in both groups. There was no significant difference in postoperative complication. Conclusions. Ologen provides higher rates of surgical success compared with mitomycin C for patients with primary open-angle glaucoma undergoing trabeculectomy. It may be a new, safe, simple, and effective therapeutic approach for treating primary open-angle glaucoma. PMID:26078875

  11. Open Source Software and Design-Based Research Symbiosis in Developing 3D Virtual Learning Environments: Examples from the iSocial Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Matthew; Galyen, Krista; Laffey, James; Babiuch, Ryan; Schmidt, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Design-based research (DBR) and open source software are both acknowledged as potentially productive ways for advancing learning technologies. These approaches have practical benefits for the design and development process and for building and leveraging community to augment and sustain design and development. This report presents a case study of…

  12. Makahiki: An Open Source Serious Game Framework for Sustainability Education and Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yongwen; Johnson, Philip M.; Lee, George E.; Moore, Carleton A.; Brewer, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability education and conservation have become an international imperative due to the rising cost of energy, increasing scarcity of natural resource and irresponsible environmental practices. This paper presents Makahiki, an open source serious game framework for sustainability, which implements an extensible framework for different…

  13. 3D Surgical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  14. OpenMx: An Open Source Extended Structural Equation Modeling Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boker, Steven; Neale, Michael; Maes, Hermine; Wilde, Michael; Spiegel, Michael; Brick, Timothy; Spies, Jeffrey; Estabrook, Ryne; Kenny, Sarah; Bates, Timothy; Mehta, Paras; Fox, John

    2011-01-01

    OpenMx is free, full-featured, open source, structural equation modeling (SEM) software. OpenMx runs within the "R" statistical programming environment on Windows, Mac OS-X, and Linux computers. The rationale for developing OpenMx is discussed along with the philosophy behind the user interface. The OpenMx data structures are introduced--these…

  15. Permanent microporosity and enantioselective sorption in a chiral open framework.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Darren; Prior, Timothy J; Cussen, Edmund J; Claridge, John B; Rosseinsky, Matthew J

    2004-05-19

    A homochiral microporous material is presented. The phase has 47% permanently porous void volume and is shown to have >1 nm diameter pores with three-dimensional channels using probe molecule sorption. Enantioselective guest sorption is strongly dependent on guest size. The homochiral microporous phase was identified by reactive selection from a first-generation chiral but nonporous framework. Chiral permanent porosity is established by directional noncovalent interactions between framework-forming and nonframework forming components of the stable second-generation material, which become stronger upon loss of the guests from the pore system. PMID:15137776

  16. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Norman A.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  17. Real-Time Motion Capture Toolbox (RTMocap): an open-source code for recording 3-D motion kinematics to study action-effect anticipations during motor and social interactions.

    PubMed

    Lewkowicz, Daniel; Delevoye-Turrell, Yvonne

    2016-03-01

    We present here a toolbox for the real-time motion capture of biological movements that runs in the cross-platform MATLAB environment (The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, MA). It provides instantaneous processing of the 3-D movement coordinates of up to 20 markers at a single instant. Available functions include (1) the setting of reference positions, areas, and trajectories of interest; (2) recording of the 3-D coordinates for each marker over the trial duration; and (3) the detection of events to use as triggers for external reinforcers (e.g., lights, sounds, or odors). Through fast online communication between the hardware controller and RTMocap, automatic trial selection is possible by means of either a preset or an adaptive criterion. Rapid preprocessing of signals is also provided, which includes artifact rejection, filtering, spline interpolation, and averaging. A key example is detailed, and three typical variations are developed (1) to provide a clear understanding of the importance of real-time control for 3-D motion in cognitive sciences and (2) to present users with simple lines of code that can be used as starting points for customizing experiments using the simple MATLAB syntax. RTMocap is freely available ( http://sites.google.com/site/RTMocap/ ) under the GNU public license for noncommercial use and open-source development, together with sample data and extensive documentation. PMID:25805426

  18. Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks: Readiness for Openness in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia Region Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Belinda; James, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports in brief the pilot study, Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks, undertaken by the International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE) in 2010-2012 and the implications for openness for higher education in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia region nations. The project developed a methodological approach to…

  19. 1D-3D mixed-ligand frameworks with an unusual dmp topology tuned by intersection angles of isomeric benzenedicarboxylates: magnetic properties, gas-dependent calcination-thermolysis and energy storage performances.

    PubMed

    Li, Zuo-Xi; Ye, Gan; Han, Juan; Yang, Ying; Zou, Kang-Yu; Wang, Xin; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Gou, Xiao-Feng

    2015-05-21

    In this work, three isomeric benzenedicarboxylates, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (o-H2bdc), 1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid (m-H2bdc), and 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (p-H2bdc) have been utilized as the ancillary ligands to perform a systematic study on the structural diversity of mixed-ligand frameworks. The solvothermal reactions of Co(NO3)2 with these aromatic acids and the primary ligand 4,4'-bis(imidazolyl)biphenyl (bibp) afford three novel coordination polymers, {[Co6(bibp)3(o-bdc)6(H2O)](CH3CN)1.5}∞ (1), [Co(bibp)(m-bdc)]∞ (2), and [Co(bibp)(p-bdc)]∞ (3). Owing to the different orientations of the carboxylate groups, the benzenedicarboxylates adopt various bridging modes to connect the Co(II) ions into a series of 1D carboxylate∩cobalt architectures based on the 1D chain, binuclear and single-ion magnetic units, respectively. These 1D architectures are further decorated by the bibp ligand to afford a 1D belt for , 2D double-bridging (4,4) sheet for 2, and an unusual 3D dmp framework for 3. Significantly in 3, three equivalent frameworks are interlocked with each other to represent an unprecedented three-fold interpenetrating dmp network. The structural diversity indicates that the benzenedicarboxylate plays an essential role in the assembly of mixed-ligand frameworks, and the orientation of the carboxylate group exerts an important influence on the nucleation, dimensionality and also interpenetration. Furthermore, the magnetic properties of 1 and 2 have been studied by fitting the experimental data as possible, and the magneto-structural correlation of 2 has also been well discussed. Importantly, CoO and Co3O4 were obtained from the controllable thermolysis of crystals of 1 via simple calcination treatment under different gas environments. The as-synthesized cobalt oxides display good crystallinity and appear as micro- or nanoparticles, which can be applied as supercapacitor electrodes as demonstrated by their energy storage performance in 2 M KOH

  20. OpenACC to FPGA: A Framework for Directive-based High-Performance Reconfigurable Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seyong; Vetter, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a directive-based, high-level programming framework for high-performance reconfigurable computing. It takes a standard, portable OpenACC C program as input and generates a hardware configuration file for execution on FPGAs. We implemented this prototype system using our open-source OpenARC compiler; it performs source-to-source translation and optimization of the input OpenACC program into an OpenCL code, which is further compiled into a FPGA program by the backend Altera Offline OpenCL compiler. Internally, the design of OpenARC uses a high- level intermediate representation that separates concerns of program representation from underlying architectures, which facilitates portability of OpenARC. In fact, this design allowed us to create the OpenACC-to-FPGA translation framework with minimal extensions to our existing system. In addition, we show that our proposed FPGA-specific compiler optimizations and novel OpenACC pragma extensions assist the compiler in generating more efficient FPGA hardware configuration files. Our empirical evaluation on an Altera Stratix V FPGA with eight OpenACC benchmarks demonstrate the benefits of our strategy. To demonstrate the portability of OpenARC, we show results for the same benchmarks executing on other heterogeneous platforms, including NVIDIA GPUs, AMD GPUs, and Intel Xeon Phis. This initial evidence helps support the goal of using a directive-based, high-level programming strategy for performance portability across heterogeneous HPC architectures.

  1. Employing a new 12-connected topological open-framework copper borovanadate as an effective heterogeneous catalyst for oxidation of benzyl-alkanes.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuquan; Ding, Chenghua; Fan, Huitao; Zhong, Zhiguo; Qiu, Dongfang; Shi, Hengzhen

    2015-11-21

    A new 12-connected topological open-framework copper borovanadate with a unique B/V ratio (20/12) and a -B3O7(OH)-Na(μ-OH)[B(OH)2]-B3O7(OH)- connection mode has been hydrothermally obtained and characterized. It not only features the first 3-D copper(II) borovanadate which possesses the largest ratio of TM(2+) and borovanadate anion, but also displays highly catalytic activities for the oxidation of benzyl-alkanes. PMID:26478559

  2. EarthServer - 3D Visualization on the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Sebastian; Herzig, Pasquale; Bockholt, Ulrich; Jung, Yvonne; Behr, Johannes

    2013-04-01

    EarthServer (www.earthserver.eu), funded by the European Commission under its Seventh Framework Program, is a project to enable the management, access and exploration of massive, multi-dimensional datasets using Open GeoSpatial Consortium (OGC) query and processing language standards like WCS 2.0 and WCPS. To this end, a server/client architecture designed to handle Petabyte/Exabyte volumes of multi-dimensional data is being developed and deployed. As an important part of the EarthServer project, six Lighthouse Applications, major scientific data exploitation initiatives, are being established to make cross-domain, Earth Sciences related data repositories available in an open and unified manner, as service endpoints based on solutions and infrastructure developed within the project. Clients technology developed and deployed in EarthServer ranges from mobile and web clients to immersive virtual reality systems, all designed to interact with a physically and logically distributed server infrastructure using exclusively OGC standards. In this contribution, we would like to present our work on a web-based 3D visualization and interaction client for Earth Sciences data using only technology found in standard web browsers without requiring the user to install plugins or addons. Additionally, we are able to run the earth data visualization client on a wide range of different platforms with very different soft- and hardware requirements such as smart phones (e.g. iOS, Android), different desktop systems etc. High-quality, hardware-accelerated visualization of 3D and 4D content in standard web browsers can be realized now and we believe it will become more and more common to use this fast, lightweight and ubiquitous platform to provide insights into big datasets without requiring the user to set up a specialized client first. With that in mind, we will also point out some of the limitations we encountered using current web technologies. Underlying the EarthServer web client

  3. A Framework for the Systematic Collection of Open Source Intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Pouchard, Line Catherine; Trien, Joseph P; Dobson, Jonathan D

    2009-01-01

    Following legislative directions, the Intelligence Community has been mandated to make greater use of Open Source Intelligence (OSINT). Efforts are underway to increase the use of OSINT but there are many obstacles. One of these obstacles is the lack of tools helping to manage the volume of available data and ascertain its credibility. We propose a unique system for selecting, collecting and storing Open Source data from the Web and the Open Source Center. Some data management tasks are automated, document source is retained, and metadata containing geographical coordinates are added to the documents. Analysts are thus empowered to search, view, store, and analyze Web data within a single tool. We present ORCAT I and ORCAT II, two implementations of the system.

  4. 3D polarimetric purity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, José J.; San José, Ignacio

    2010-11-01

    From our previous definition of the indices of polarimetric purity for 3D light beams [J.J. Gil, J.M. Correas, P.A. Melero and C. Ferreira, Monogr. Semin. Mat. G. de Galdeano 31, 161 (2004)], an analysis of their geometric and physical interpretation is presented. It is found that, in agreement with previous results, the first parameter is a measure of the degree of polarization, whereas the second parameter (called the degree of directionality) is a measure of the mean angular aperture of the direction of propagation of the corresponding light beam. This pair of invariant, non-dimensional, indices of polarimetric purity contains complete information about the polarimetric purity of a light beam. The overall degree of polarimetric purity is obtained as a weighted quadratic average of the degree of polarization and the degree of directionality.

  5. 3D field harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1991-03-30

    We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the 3D field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.

  6. 'Bonneville' in 3-D!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this 3-D navigation camera mosaic of the crater called 'Bonneville' after driving approximately 13 meters (42.7 feet) to get a better vantage point. Spirit's current position is close enough to the edge to see the interior of the crater, but high enough and far enough back to get a view of all of the walls. Because scientists and rover controllers are so pleased with this location, they will stay here for at least two more martian days, or sols, to take high resolution panoramic camera images of 'Bonneville' in its entirety. Just above the far crater rim, on the left side, is the rover's heatshield, which is visible as a tiny reflective speck.

  7. Contrasting low-dimensional magnetism in the 3D metal-organic frameworks [Cu(VF6)(pyz)2]4H2O and [Cu(HF2)(pyz)2]SbF6 (pyz = pyrazine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manson, Jamie; Schlueter, John; Goddard, Paul; Singleton, John; McDonald, Ross; Ayala-Valenzuela, Oscar; Lancaster, Tom; Blundell, Stephen

    2012-02-01

    [Cu(VF6)(pyz)2]4H2O (1) and [Cu(HF2)(pyz)2]SbF6 (2) form tetragonal frameworks that consist of 2D [Cu(pyz)2]^2+ square lattices that are linked in 3D by bridging VF6^2- (1) or HF2^- (2) anions. Magnetic susceptibility data shows apparent paramagnetism, although not simple Curie-Weiss behavior, in 1. For 2, a broad maximum in χ(T) at 12.5 K and a sharp kink at 4.3 K indicate short- (SRO) and long-range (LRO) magnetic ordering, respectively. Additional experimental data for 1 (e.g., heat capacity and μ^+SR) however, indicate that a LRO state occurs below 3.6 K whereas pulsed-field magnetization data suggest a superposition of AFM Cu^2+ layers and fluctuating V^4+ moments. The structural and magnetic behavior of 1 and 2 will be described as well as possible new directions.

  8. New coordination polymers from 1D chain, 2D layer to 3D framework constructed from 1,2-phenylenediacetic acid and 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane flexible ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Ling-Yun; Liu, Guang-Zhen; Wang, Li-Ya

    2011-06-01

    The hydrothermal reactions of Cd, Zn, or Cu(II) acetate salts with H 2PHDA and BPP flexible ligands afford three new coordination polymers, including [Cd(PHDA)(BPP)(H 2O)] n(1), [Zn(PHDA)(BPP)] n(2), and [Cu 2(PHDA) 2(BPP)] n(3) (H 2PHDA=1,2-phenylenediacetic acid, BPP=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane). The single-crystal X-ray diffractions reveal that all three complexes feature various metal carboxylate subunits extended further by the BPP ligands to form a diverse range of structures, displaying a remarked structural sensitivity to metal(II) cation. Complex 1 containing PHDA-bridged binuclear cadmium generates 1D double-stranded chain, complex 2 results in 2D→2D interpenetrated (4,4) grids, and complex 3 displays a 3D self-penetrated framework with 4 86 68 rob topology. In addition, fluorescent analyses show that both 1 and 2 exhibit intense blue-violet photoluminescence in the solid state.

  9. Zephyr: Open-source Parallel Seismic Waveform Inversion in an Integrated Python-based Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithyman, B. R.; Pratt, R. G.; Hadden, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic Full-Waveform Inversion (FWI) is an advanced method to reconstruct wave properties of materials in the Earth from a series of seismic measurements. These methods have been developed by researchers since the late 1980s, and now see significant interest from the seismic exploration industry. As researchers move towards implementing advanced numerical modelling (e.g., 3D, multi-component, anisotropic and visco-elastic physics), it is desirable to make use of a modular approach, minimizing the effort developing a new set of tools for each new numerical problem. SimPEG (http://simpeg.xyz) is an open source project aimed at constructing a general framework to enable geophysical inversion in various domains. In this abstract we describe Zephyr (https://github.com/bsmithyman/zephyr), which is a coupled research project focused on parallel FWI in the seismic context. The software is built on top of Python, Numpy and IPython, which enables very flexible testing and implementation of new features. Zephyr is an open source project, and is released freely to enable reproducible research. We currently implement a parallel, distributed seismic forward modelling approach that solves the 2.5D (two-and-one-half dimensional) viscoacoustic Helmholtz equation at a range modelling frequencies, generating forward solutions for a given source behaviour, and gradient solutions for a given set of observed data. Solutions are computed in a distributed manner on a set of heterogeneous workers. The researcher's frontend computer may be separated from the worker cluster by a network link to enable full support for computation on remote clusters from individual workstations or laptops. The present codebase introduces a numerical discretization equivalent to that used by FULLWV, a well-known seismic FWI research codebase. This makes it straightforward to compare results from Zephyr directly with FULLWV. The flexibility introduced by the use of a Python programming environment makes

  10. Reservoir geology using 3D modelling tools

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrule, O.; Samson, P.; Segonds, D.

    1996-12-31

    The last decade has seen tremendous developments in the area of quantitative geological modelling. These developments have a significant impact on the current practice of constructing reservoir models. A structural model can first be constructed on the basis of depth-converted structural interpretations produced on a seismic interpretation workstation. Surfaces and faults can be represented as geological objects, and interactively modified. Once the tectonic framework has been obtained, intermediate stratigraphic surfaces can be constructed between the main structural surfaces. Within each layer, reservoir attributes can be represented using various techniques. Examples show how the distribution of different facies (i.e. from fine to coarse grain) can be represented, or how various depositional units (for instance channels, crevasses and lobes in a turbidite setting) can be modelled as geological {open_quotes}objects{close_quotes} with complex geometries. Elf Aquitaine, in close co-operation with the GOCAD project in Nancy (France) is investigating how geological models can be made more realistic by developing interactive functionalities. Examples show that, contrary to standard deterministic or geostatistical modelling techniques (which tend to be difficult to control) the use of new 3D tools allows the geologist to interactively modify geological surfaces (including faults) or volumetric properties. Thus, the sensitivity of various economic parameters (oil in place, connected volumes, reserves) to major geological uncertainties can be evaluated. It is argued that future breakthroughs in geological modelling techniques are likely to happen in the development of interactive approaches rather than in the research of new mathematical algorithms.

  11. Reservoir geology using 3D modelling tools

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrule, O. ); Samson, P. ); Segonds, D. )

    1996-01-01

    The last decade has seen tremendous developments in the area of quantitative geological modelling. These developments have a significant impact on the current practice of constructing reservoir models. A structural model can first be constructed on the basis of depth-converted structural interpretations produced on a seismic interpretation workstation. Surfaces and faults can be represented as geological objects, and interactively modified. Once the tectonic framework has been obtained, intermediate stratigraphic surfaces can be constructed between the main structural surfaces. Within each layer, reservoir attributes can be represented using various techniques. Examples show how the distribution of different facies (i.e. from fine to coarse grain) can be represented, or how various depositional units (for instance channels, crevasses and lobes in a turbidite setting) can be modelled as geological [open quotes]objects[close quotes] with complex geometries. Elf Aquitaine, in close co-operation with the GOCAD project in Nancy (France) is investigating how geological models can be made more realistic by developing interactive functionalities. Examples show that, contrary to standard deterministic or geostatistical modelling techniques (which tend to be difficult to control) the use of new 3D tools allows the geologist to interactively modify geological surfaces (including faults) or volumetric properties. Thus, the sensitivity of various economic parameters (oil in place, connected volumes, reserves) to major geological uncertainties can be evaluated. It is argued that future breakthroughs in geological modelling techniques are likely to happen in the development of interactive approaches rather than in the research of new mathematical algorithms.

  12. The Four "R"s of Openness and ALMS Analysis: Frameworks for Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, John, III; Wiley, David; Stein, Jared; Johnson, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    A significant movement in education concerns the use of open educational resources. By "open" it is generally meant that the resource is available at no cost to others for adaptation and reuse in different contexts. However, "open" is not a simple dichotomy; rather, there is a continuum of openness. We discuss four separate aspects of reuse and…

  13. An OpenEarth Framework (OEF) for Integrating and Visualizing Earth Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreland, J. L.; Nadeau, D. R.; Baru, C.; Crosby, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    The integration of data is essential to make transformative progress in understanding the complex processes operating at the Earth’s surface and within its interior. While our current ability to collect massive amounts of data, develop structural models, and generate high-resolution dynamics models is well developed, our ability to quantitatively integrate these data and models into holistic interpretations of Earth systems is poorly developed. We lack the basic tools to realize a first-order goal in Earth science of developing integrated 4D models of Earth structure and processes using a complete range of available constraints, at a time when the research agenda of major efforts such as EarthScope demand such a capability. Among the challenges to 3D data integration are data that may be in different coordinate spaces, units, value ranges, file formats, and data structures. While several file format standards exist, they are infrequently or incorrectly used. Metadata is often missing, misleading, or relegated to README text files along side the data. This leaves much of the work to integrate data bogged down by simple data management tasks. The OpenEarth Framework (OEF) being developed by GEON addresses these data management difficulties. The software incorporates file format parsers, data interpretation heuristics, user interfaces to prompt for missing information, and visualization techniques to merge data into a common visual model. The OEF’s data access libraries parse formal and de facto standard file formats and map their data into a common data model. The software handles file format quirks, storage details, caching, local and remote file access, and web service protocol handling. Heuristics are used to determine coordinate spaces, units, and other key data features. Where multiple data structure, naming, and file organization conventions exist, those heuristics check for each convention’s use to find a high confidence interpretation of the data. When

  14. OpenTox predictive toxicology framework: toxicological ontology and semantic media wiki-based OpenToxipedia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The OpenTox Framework, developed by the partners in the OpenTox project (http://www.opentox.org), aims at providing a unified access to toxicity data, predictive models and validation procedures. Interoperability of resources is achieved using a common information model, based on the OpenTox ontologies, describing predictive algorithms, models and toxicity data. As toxicological data may come from different, heterogeneous sources, a deployed ontology, unifying the terminology and the resources, is critical for the rational and reliable organization of the data, and its automatic processing. Results The following related ontologies have been developed for OpenTox: a) Toxicological ontology – listing the toxicological endpoints; b) Organs system and Effects ontology – addressing organs, targets/examinations and effects observed in in vivo studies; c) ToxML ontology – representing semi-automatic conversion of the ToxML schema; d) OpenTox ontology– representation of OpenTox framework components: chemical compounds, datasets, types of algorithms, models and validation web services; e) ToxLink–ToxCast assays ontology and f) OpenToxipedia community knowledge resource on toxicology terminology. OpenTox components are made available through standardized REST web services, where every compound, data set, and predictive method has a unique resolvable address (URI), used to retrieve its Resource Description Framework (RDF) representation, or to initiate the associated calculations and generate new RDF-based resources. The services support the integration of toxicity and chemical data from various sources, the generation and validation of computer models for toxic effects, seamless integration of new algorithms and scientifically sound validation routines and provide a flexible framework, which allows building arbitrary number of applications, tailored to solving different problems by end users (e.g. toxicologists). Availability The OpenTox toxicological

  15. The Pixhawk Open-Source Computer Vision Framework for Mavs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, L.; Tanskanen, P.; Fraundorfer, F.; Pollefeys, M.

    2011-09-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and micro air vehicles (MAV) are already intensively used in geodetic applications. State of the art autonomous systems are however geared towards the application area in safe and obstacle-free altitudes greater than 30 meters. Applications at lower altitudes still require a human pilot. A new application field will be the reconstruction of structures and buildings, including the facades and roofs, with semi-autonomous MAVs. Ongoing research in the MAV robotics field is focusing on enabling this system class to operate at lower altitudes in proximity to nearby obstacles and humans. PIXHAWK is an open source and open hardware toolkit for this purpose. The quadrotor design is optimized for onboard computer vision and can connect up to four cameras to its onboard computer. The validity of the system design is shown with a fully autonomous capture flight along a building.

  16. Cu-PDC-bpa solid coordination frameworks (PDC=2,5-pyrindinedicarboxylate; bpa=1,2-DI(4-pyridil)ethane)): 2D and 3D structural flexibility producing a 3-c herringbone array next to ideal

    SciTech Connect

    Llano-Tomé, Francisco; Bazán, Begoña; Urtiaga, Miren-Karmele; Barandika, Gotzone; Antonia Señarís-Rodríguez, M.; and others

    2015-10-15

    Combination of polycarboxylate anions and dipyridyl ligands is an effective strategy to produce solid coordination frameworks (SCF) which are crystalline materials based on connections between metal ions through organic ligands. In this context, this work is focused on two novel Cu{sup II}-based SCFs exhibiting PDC (2,5-pyridinedicarboxylate) and bpa (1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethane), being the first structures reported in literature containing both ligands. Chemical formula are [Cu{sub 2}[(PDC){sub 2}(bpa)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·3H{sub 2}O·DMF (1), and [Cu{sub 2}(PDC){sub 2}(bpa)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·7H{sub 2}O (2), where DMF is dimethylformamide. Compounds 1 and 2 have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, differential thermal analysis (DTA) and dielectric measurements. The crystallographic analysis revealed that compounds 1 and 2 can be described as herringbone-type layers formed by helicoidal Cu-PDC-Cu chains connected through bpa ligands. Solvent molecules are crystallized between the layers, providing the inter-layer connections through hydrogen bonds. Differences between both compounds are attributable to the flexibility of bpa (in 2D) as well as to the 3D packing of the layers which is solvent dependent. This fact results in the fact that compound 2 is the most regular 3-c herringbone array reported so far. The structural dynamism of these networks is responsible for the crystalline to-amorphous to-crystalline (CAC) transformation from compound 1 to compound 2. Crystallochemical features for both compounds have also been studied and compared to similar 3-connected herringbone-arrays. - Graphical abstract: Cu-PDC-bpa 3-c herringbone arrays. - Highlights: • The most ideal herringbone array reported so far is a Cu-PDC-bpa SCF. • Conformational freedom of bpa results in 2D and 3D flexibility of the SCFs. • The flexibility of the SCFs is related to a phase transformation. • Dielectric

  17. Photochemistry in a 3D metal-organic framework (MOF): monitoring intermediates and reactivity of the fac-to-mer photoisomerization of Re(diimine)(CO)3Cl incorporated in a MOF.

    PubMed

    Easun, Timothy L; Jia, Junhua; Calladine, James A; Blackmore, Danielle L; Stapleton, Christopher S; Vuong, Khuong Q; Champness, Neil R; George, Michael W

    2014-03-01

    The mechanism and intermediates in the UV-light-initiated ligand rearrangement of fac-Re(diimine)(CO)3Cl to form the mer isomer, when incorporated into a 3D metal-organic framework (MOF), have been investigated. The structure hosting the rhenium diimine complex is a 3D network with the formula {Mn(DMF)2[LRe(CO)3Cl]}∞ (ReMn; DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide), where the diimine ligand L, 2,2'-bipyridine-5,5'-dicarboxylate, acts as a strut of the MOF. The incorporation of ReMn into a KBr disk allows spatial distribution of the mer-isomer photoproduct in the disk to be mapped and spectroscopically characterized by both Fourier transform infrared and Raman microscopy. Photoisomerization has been monitored by IR spectroscopy and proceeds via dissociation of a CO to form more than one dicarbonyl intermediate. The dicarbonyl species are stable in the solid state at 200 K. The photodissociated CO ligand appears to be trapped within the crystal lattice and, upon warming above 200 K, readily recombines with the dicarbonyl intermediates to form both the fac-Re(diimine)(CO)3Cl starting material and the mer-Re(diimine)(CO)3Cl photoproduct. Experiments over a range of temperatures (265-285 K) allow estimates of the activation enthalpy of recombination for each process of ca. 16 (±6) kJ mol(-1) (mer formation) and 23 (±4) kJ mol(-1) (fac formation) within the MOF. We have compared the photochemistry of the ReMn MOF with a related alkane-soluble Re(dnb)(CO)3Cl complex (dnb = 4,4'-dinonyl-2,2'-bipyridine). Time-resolved IR measurements clearly show that, in an alkane solution, the photoinduced dicarbonyl species again recombines with CO to both re-form the fac-isomer starting material and form the mer-isomer photoproduct. Density functional theory calculations of the possible dicarbonyl species aids the assignment of the experimental data in that the ν(CO) IR bands of the CO loss intermediate are, as expected, shifted to lower energy when the metal is bound to DMF rather than to an

  18. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  19. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  20. Synthesis, structure and characterization of two new open-framework gallium phosphite-oxalates of varying dimensionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Caixia; Huang, Liangliang; Zhou, Mingdong; Xia, Jing; Ma, Hongwei; Zang, Shuliang; Wang, Li

    2013-12-01

    Using N, N-dimethyl-piperazine as structure directing agent, two new gallium phosphite-oxalates [Ga2(HPO3)2(H2PO3)2(C2O4)](C6N2H16) (I) and [Ga2(HPO3)2(H2PO3)(C2O4)](C6N2H16)0.5 (II) have been synthesized under solvothermal and hydrothermal conditions, respectively and further characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, TGA, ICP-AES and elemental analyses. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the striking feature of I and II is that they possess the same second building unit (SBU) Ga2P2 constructed from two GaO6 octahedra and two [HPO32-] pseudo-pyramids sharing oxygen atoms. However, due to the different connecting fashions of SBUs, [C2O42-] groups and [H2PO3-] pseudo-pyramids, the final frameworks of them are distinctly different. Compound I shows 2D layered structures with 8-membered ring (8-MR) windows in the ab plane while compound II presents a 3D open-framework with 8-MR channels along the b axis.

  1. An open-water electrical geophysical tool for mapping sub-seafloor heavy placer minerals in 3D and migrating hydrocarbon plumes in 4D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, Jefferey C.; Urquhart, Scott; Williamson, Mike; Fleming, John B.

    2011-01-01

    A towed-streamer technology has been developed for mapping placer heavy minerals and dispersed hydrocarbon plumes in the open ocean. The approach uses induced polarization (IP), an electrical measurement that encompasses several different surface-reactive capacitive and electrochemical phenomena, and thus is ideally suited for mapping dispersed or disseminated targets. The application is operated at sea by towing active electrical geophysical streamers behind a ship; a wide area can be covered in three dimensions by folding tow-paths over each other in lawn-mower fashion. This technology has already been proven in laboratory and ocean settings to detect IP-reactive titanium- and rare-earth (REE) minerals such as ilmenite and monazite. By extension, minerals that weather and accumulate/concentrate by a similar mechanism, including gold, platinum, and diamonds, may be rapidly detected and mapped indirectly- even when dispersed and covered with thick, inert sediment. IP is also highly reactive to metal structures such as pipelines and cables. Currently, the only means for mapping an oil-spill plume is to park a large ship in the ocean and drop a sampling string over the side, requiring hours of time per sampling point. The samples must then be chemically analyzed, adding additional time and expense. We believe that an extension of the marine IP technology could also apply to rapidly mapping both seafloor- blanket and disseminated hydrocarbon plumes in the open ocean, as hydrocarbon droplets in conductive seawater are topologically equivalent to a metal-plates-and-dielectric capacitor. Because the effective capacitance would be frequency-dependent on droplet size, the approach we advocate holds the potential to not only map, but also to characterize the evolution and degradation of such a plume over time. In areas where offshore oil field development has been practiced for extended periods, making IP measurements from a towed streamer may be useful for locating buried

  2. Electric dipole transitions for 3d64s-3d64p in Mn I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabakçı, Selda; Özdemir, Leyla; Usta, Betül Karaçoban

    2015-10-01

    We have calculated the logarithmic weighted oscillator strengths and transition probabilities (or rates) for 3d64s-3d64p electric dipole transitions in neutral manganese (Mn I, Z=25) by using two configuration interaction methods (the multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock (MCHF) method within the framework of Breit-Pauli relativistic corrections developed by Fischer and Cowan's relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) method). Results obtained have been compared with other calculations and experiments.

  3. An open-water electrical geophysical tool for mapping sub-seafloor heavy placer minerals in 3D and migrating hydrocarbon plumes in 4D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, J.; Williamson, M.; Urquhart, S.; Fleming, J.

    2011-01-01

    A towed-streamer technology has been developed for mapping placer heavy minerals and dispersed hydrocarbon plumes in the open ocean. The approach uses induced polarization (IP), an electrical measurement that encompasses several different surface-reactive capacitive and electrochemical phenomena, and thus is ideally suited for mapping dispersed or disseminated targets. The application is operated at sea by towing active electrical geophysical streamers behind a ship; a wide area can be covered in three dimensions by folding tow-paths over each other in lawn-mower fashion. This technology has already been proven in laboratory and ocean settings to detect IP-reactive titanium-and rare-earth (REE) minerals such as ilmenite and monazite. By extension, minerals that weather and accumulate/concentrate by a similar mechanism, including gold, platinum, and diamonds, may be rapidly detected and mapped indirectly even when dispersed and covered with thick, inert sediment. IP is also highly reactive to metal structures such as pipelines and cables. ?? 2011 MTS.

  4. Using the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) Framework to Explore Teachers' Perceptions of the Role of Technology in the Implementation of mCLASSRTM: Reading 3D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Melody Tyler

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study considers the perceptions of teachers from one rural county in North Carolina who implemented the program implementation of mCLASSRTM: Reading 3D. Reading 3D is an electronic early literacy assessment that is designed to assist teachers in planning appropriate literacy instruction based on student needs by offering immediate…

  5. 3D Elastic Wavefield Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guasch, L.; Warner, M.; Stekl, I.; Umpleby, A.; Shah, N.

    2010-12-01

    Wavefield tomography, or waveform inversion, aims to extract the maximum information from seismic data by matching trace by trace the response of the solid earth to seismic waves using numerical modelling tools. Its first formulation dates from the early 80's, when Albert Tarantola developed a solid theoretical basis that is still used today with little change. Due to computational limitations, the application of the method to 3D problems has been unaffordable until a few years ago, and then only under the acoustic approximation. Although acoustic wavefield tomography is widely used, a complete solution of the seismic inversion problem requires that we account properly for the physics of wave propagation, and so must include elastic effects. We have developed a 3D tomographic wavefield inversion code that incorporates the full elastic wave equation. The bottle neck of the different implementations is the forward modelling algorithm that generates the synthetic data to be compared with the field seismograms as well as the backpropagation of the residuals needed to form the direction update of the model parameters. Furthermore, one or two extra modelling runs are needed in order to calculate the step-length. Our approach uses a FD scheme explicit time-stepping by finite differences that are 4th order in space and 2nd order in time, which is a 3D version of the one developed by Jean Virieux in 1986. We chose the time domain because an explicit time scheme is much less demanding in terms of memory than its frequency domain analogue, although the discussion of wich domain is more efficient still remains open. We calculate the parameter gradients for Vp and Vs by correlating the normal and shear stress wavefields respectively. A straightforward application would lead to the storage of the wavefield at all grid points at each time-step. We tackled this problem using two different approaches. The first one makes better use of resources for small models of dimension equal

  6. Investigation of the formation process of zeolite-like 3D frameworks constructed with ε-Keggin-type polyoxovanadomolybdates with binding bismuth ions and preparation of a nano-crystal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenxin; Sadakane, Masahiro; Murayama, Toru; Ueda, Wataru

    2014-09-28

    Reaction conditions for the synthesis of an ε-Keggin-type polyoxometalate-based 3D framework, (NH4)2.8H0.9[ε-VMo9.4V2.6O40Bi2]·7.2H2O (denoted as Mo-V-Bi oxide), are studied. It is found that the reaction time, temperature, pH of the solution, and starting compounds affect the production of Mo-V-Bi oxide. The crystal size of Mo-V-Bi oxide is controllable by changing bismuth compounds. Nanometer-sized Mo-V-Bi oxide is produced using a water-soluble bismuth compound, Bi(NO3)3·5H2O, whereas micrometer to submicrometer-sized Mo-V-Bi oxide is produced using Bi(OH)3, which is less soluble in water. The particle size of the material affects the properties of the material, such as surface area and catalysis. The investigation of the formation process of the material is carried out with Raman spectroscopy, which indicates that mixing (NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O, VOSO4·5H2O, and bismuth ions in water produces the ε-Keggin polyoxovanadomolybdate together with a ball-shaped polyoxovanadomolybdate, [Mo72V30O282(H2O)56(SO4)12](36-) (denoted as {Mo72V30}). By heating the reaction mixture, the ε-Keggin polyoxovanadomolybdate assembles with bismuth ions to form Mo-V-Bi oxide, whereas {Mo72V30} assembles with other vanadium and molybdenum ions to form orthorhombic Mo-V oxide. PMID:25096969

  7. Cu-PDC-bpa solid coordination frameworks (PDC=2,5-pyrindinedicarboxylate; bpa=1,2-DI(4-pyridil)ethane)): 2D and 3D structural flexibility producing a 3-c herringbone array next to ideal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llano-Tomé, Francisco; Bazán, Begoña; Urtiaga, Miren-Karmele; Barandika, Gotzone; Antonia Señarís-Rodríguez, M.; Sánchez-Andújar, Manuel; Arriortua, María-Isabel

    2015-10-01

    Combination of polycarboxylate anions and dipyridyl ligands is an effective strategy to produce solid coordination frameworks (SCF) which are crystalline materials based on connections between metal ions through organic ligands. In this context, this work is focused on two novel CuII-based SCFs exhibiting PDC (2,5-pyridinedicarboxylate) and bpa (1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethane), being the first structures reported in literature containing both ligands. Chemical formula are [Cu2[(PDC)2(bpa)(H2O)2]·3H2O·DMF (1), and [Cu2(PDC)2(bpa)(H2O)2]·7H2O (2), where DMF is dimethylformamide. Compounds 1 and 2 have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, differential thermal analysis (DTA) and dielectric measurements. The crystallographic analysis revealed that compounds 1 and 2 can be described as herringbone-type layers formed by helicoidal Cu-PDC-Cu chains connected through bpa ligands. Solvent molecules are crystallized between the layers, providing the inter-layer connections through hydrogen bonds. Differences between both compounds are attributable to the flexibility of bpa (in 2D) as well as to the 3D packing of the layers which is solvent dependent. This fact results in the fact that compound 2 is the most regular 3-c herringbone array reported so far. The structural dynamism of these networks is responsible for the crystalline to-amorphous to-crystalline (CAC) transformation from compound 1 to compound 2. Crystallochemical features for both compounds have also been studied and compared to similar 3-connected herringbone-arrays.

  8. The rendering context for stereoscopic 3D web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qinshui; Wang, Wenmin; Wang, Ronggang

    2014-03-01

    3D technologies on the Web has been studied for many years, but they are basically monoscopic 3D. With the stereoscopic technology gradually maturing, we are researching to integrate the binocular 3D technology into the Web, creating a stereoscopic 3D browser that will provide users with a brand new experience of human-computer interaction. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to apply stereoscopy technologies to the CSS3 3D Transforms. Under our model, each element can create or participate in a stereoscopic 3D rendering context, in which 3D Transforms such as scaling, translation and rotation, can be applied and be perceived in a truly 3D space. We first discuss the underlying principles of stereoscopy. After that we discuss how these principles can be applied to the Web. A stereoscopic 3D browser with backward compatibility is also created for demonstration purposes. We take advantage of the open-source WebKit project, integrating the 3D display ability into the rendering engine of the web browser. For each 3D web page, our 3D browser will create two slightly different images, each representing the left-eye view and right-eye view, both to be combined on the 3D display to generate the illusion of depth. And as the result turns out, elements can be manipulated in a truly 3D space.

  9. Open frameworks based on mono-lanthanide-substituted polyoxometaloaluminate building units: Syntheses, structures and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xin-Xiong; Cheng, Lin; Yang, Guo-Yu

    2013-07-15

    Metal-substituted polyoxometalates are one of the most important research branch in polyoxometalate chemistry and have attached an increasing attention due to not only their intriguing structural diversity but also their special properties applicable to material science. In this paper, A series of novel lanthanide-substituted polyoxometaloaluminates (LSPs), K{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}Ln(H{sub 2}O){sub 7}[Ln(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}HAlW{sub 11}O{sub 39}]·nH{sub 2}O (Ln=Pr 1, Nd 2, Sm 3, Eu 4, Gd 5, Tb 6; for 1, n=8; for 2,4,5,6, n=7; for 3, n=9), have been hydrothermally made and characterized by infrared (IR) spectra, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction, respectively. The experimental results indicate these compounds exhibit 3-D frameworks with Gra-type topology constructed by lanthanide cations, mono- lanthanide-substituted [Gd(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}HAlW{sub 11}O{sub 39}]{sup 5−} cluster units and K{sup +} cations. The photoluminescence measurements show that Compounds 2, 4, 6 exhibit the characteristic emission for Nd{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} cations, respectively. In addition, this series of LSPs show weak second harmonic generation effects and ferroelectric properties. The success in making 1−6 not only provides innovative examples in search of new POM species, but also may open up possibilities for the design of LSP-based materials with related functions. - Graphical abstract: A series of lanthanide-substituted polyoxometaloaluminates have been hydrothermally made and their photoluminescence, non-linear optical and ferroelectricity properties have also been investigated, respectively. - Highlights: • Six lanthanide-substituted Al-based polyoxometalates have first been made. • Eu/Nd/Tb-based compounds display photoluminescence property. • The nonlinear optical and ferroelectricity properties have been investigated.

  10. Integrating visible light 3D scanning into the everyday world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    Visible light 3D scanning offers the potential to non-invasively and nearly non-perceptibly incorporate 3D imaging into the everyday world. This paper considers the various possible uses of visible light 3D scanning technology. It discusses multiple possible usage scenarios including in hospitals, security perimeter settings and retail environments. The paper presents a framework for assessing the efficacy of visible light 3D scanning for a given application (and compares this to other scanning approaches such as those using blue light or lasers). It also discusses ethical and legal considerations relevant to real-world use and concludes by presenting a decision making framework.

  11. Crystal transformation synthesis of a highly stable fluorescent 3D indium-tetranuclear {In4(μ2-OH)3} building block based metal organic framework through a dinuclear complex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Ming; Fan, Rui-Qing; Qiang, Liang-Sheng; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yu-Lin; Wang, Yu-Lei

    2014-11-21

    A rare 3D tetranuclear {In4(μ2-OH)3} building block based MOF {[In4/3(μ2-OH)(2,6-pydc)(1,4-bda)0.5(H2O)]·2H2O}n (2) was obtained through a crystal transformation from a dimeric complex In3(2,6-pydc)3(1,4-bda)1.5(H2O)6 (1). With a 2D + 3D3D compact structure, 2 retains crystallinity in boiling water and organic solvents, exhibiting exceptional fluorescence quenching behaviour for the DMSO molecule. PMID:25135576

  12. 3D Technology Selection for a Virtual Learning Environment by Blending ISO 9126 Standard and AHP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Aydin; Guler, Inan

    2011-01-01

    Web3D presents many opportunities for learners in a virtual world or virtual environment over the web. This is a great opportunity for open-distance education institutions to benefit from web3d technologies to create courses with interactive 3d materials. There are many open source and commercial products offering 3d technologies over the web…

  13. NoSQL Based 3D City Model Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, B.; Harrie, L.; Cao, J.; Wu, Z.; Shen, J.

    2014-04-01

    To manage increasingly complicated 3D city models, a framework based on NoSQL database is proposed in this paper. The framework supports import and export of 3D city model according to international standards such as CityGML, KML/COLLADA and X3D. We also suggest and implement 3D model analysis and visualization in the framework. For city model analysis, 3D geometry data and semantic information (such as name, height, area, price and so on) are stored and processed separately. We use a Map-Reduce method to deal with the 3D geometry data since it is more complex, while the semantic analysis is mainly based on database query operation. For visualization, a multiple 3D city representation structure CityTree is implemented within the framework to support dynamic LODs based on user viewpoint. Also, the proposed framework is easily extensible and supports geoindexes to speed up the querying. Our experimental results show that the proposed 3D city management system can efficiently fulfil the analysis and visualization requirements.

  14. Interior Reconstruction Using the 3d Hough Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitru, R.-C.; Borrmann, D.; Nüchter, A.

    2013-02-01

    Laser scanners are often used to create accurate 3D models of buildings for civil engineering purposes, but the process of manually vectorizing a 3D point cloud is time consuming and error-prone (Adan and Huber, 2011). Therefore, the need to characterize and quantify complex environments in an automatic fashion arises, posing challenges for data analysis. This paper presents a system for 3D modeling by detecting planes in 3D point clouds, based on which the scene is reconstructed at a high architectural level through removing automatically clutter and foreground data. The implemented software detects openings, such as windows and doors and completes the 3D model by inpainting.

  15. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  16. Decoder for 3-D color codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Kung-Chuan; Brun, Todd

    Transversal circuits are important components of fault-tolerant quantum computation. Several classes of quantum error-correcting codes are known to have transversal implementations of any logical Clifford operation. However, to achieve universal quantum computation, it would be helpful to have high-performance error-correcting codes that have a transversal implementation of some logical non-Clifford operation. The 3-D color codes are a class of topological codes that permit transversal implementation of the logical π / 8 -gate. The decoding problem of a 3-D color code can be understood as a graph-matching problem on a three-dimensional lattice. Whether this class of codes will be useful in terms of performance is still an open question. We investigate the decoding problem of 3-D color codes and analyze the performance of some possible decoders.

  17. 3D EIT image reconstruction with GREIT.

    PubMed

    Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Müller, Beat; Adler, Andy

    2016-06-01

    Most applications of thoracic EIT use a single plane of electrodes on the chest from which a transverse image 'slice' is calculated. However, interpretation of EIT images is made difficult by the large region above and below the electrode plane to which EIT is sensitive. Volumetric EIT images using two (or more) electrode planes should help compensate, but are little used currently. The Graz consensus reconstruction algorithm for EIT (GREIT) has become popular in lung EIT. One shortcoming of the original formulation of GREIT is its restriction to reconstruction onto a 2D planar image. We present an extension of the GREIT algorithm to 3D and develop open-source tools to evaluate its performance as a function of the choice of stimulation and measurement pattern. Results show 3D GREIT using two electrode layers has significantly more uniform sensitivity profiles through the chest region. Overall, the advantages of 3D EIT are compelling. PMID:27203184

  18. 3D dynamic roadmapping for abdominal catheterizations.

    PubMed

    Bender, Frederik; Groher, Martin; Khamene, Ali; Wein, Wolfgang; Heibel, Tim Hauke; Navab, Nassir

    2008-01-01

    Despite rapid advances in interventional imaging, the navigation of a guide wire through abdominal vasculature remains, not only for novice radiologists, a difficult task. Since this navigation is mostly based on 2D fluoroscopic image sequences from one view, the process is slowed down significantly due to missing depth information and patient motion. We propose a novel approach for 3D dynamic roadmapping in deformable regions by predicting the location of the guide wire tip in a 3D vessel model from the tip's 2D location, respiratory motion analysis, and view geometry. In a first step, the method compensates for the apparent respiratory motion in 2D space before backprojecting the 2D guide wire tip into three dimensional space, using a given projection matrix. To countervail the error connected to the projection parameters and the motion compensation, as well as the ambiguity caused by vessel deformation, we establish a statistical framework, which computes a reliable estimate of the guide wire tip location within the 3D vessel model. With this 2D-to-3D transfer, the navigation can be performed from arbitrary viewing angles, disconnected from the static perspective view of the fluoroscopic sequence. Tests on a realistic breathing phantom and on synthetic data with a known ground truth clearly reveal the superiority of our approach compared to naive methods for 3D roadmapping. The concepts and information presented in this paper are based on research and are not commercially available. PMID:18982662

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis of the first organically templated open-framework uranium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Danis, J A; Runde, W H; Scott, B; Fettinger, J; Eichhorn, B

    2001-11-21

    [(C2H5)2NH2]2[(UO2)5(PO4)4] was prepared from U3O8, HONEt2 and phosphoric acid under hydrothermal conditions (180 degrees C, 5 days) and represents the first three-dimensional open-framework uranium phosphate prepared to date. PMID:12240084

  20. Steps to Opening Scientific Inquiry: Pre-Service Teachers' Practicum Experiences with a New Support Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Carol; Pardo, Richard; Parker, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative multiple-comparative case study investigates (1) The reported experiences and impressions of four pre-service teachers (PTs) on practicum placement in four different classrooms (grades 1-9) where a new Steps to Inquiry (SI) framework was being utilized to support students conducting open inquiry; (2) The relative dispositions of…

  1. Open Source Software (OSS) Adoption Framework for Local Environment and its Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laila, U.; Bukhari, S. F. A.

    According to Business Software Alliance (BSA) Pakistan is ranked in the top 10 countries having highest piracy rate [1]. To overcome the problem of piracy local Information Technology (IT) companies are willing to migrate towards Open Source Software (OSS). Due to this reason need for framework/model for OSS adoption has become more pronounced.

  2. Steps to Opening Scientific Inquiry: Pre-Service Teachers' Practicum Experiences with a New Support Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, Carol; Pardo, Richard; Parker, Jennifer

    2013-04-01

    This qualitative multiple-comparative case study investigates (1) The reported experiences and impressions of four pre-service teachers (PTs) on practicum placement in four different classrooms (grades 1-9) where a new Steps to Inquiry (SI) framework was being utilized to support students conducting open inquiry; (2) The relative dispositions of the PTs toward conducting open inquiry, as indicated by their core conceptions regarding science, the purpose of education, effective teaching, and the capacity of students. Findings indicate that (1) although there were differences in the experiences of the four PTs, all four had an opportunity to observe and/or facilitate students conducting open inquiry with the SI framework, and after the practicum, all of them reported that they would like to include open inquiry in their own classrooms in the future; (2) one PT already possessed core conceptions indicative of a favorable disposition toward open inquiry before the placement; another altered her core conceptions substantially toward a favorable disposition during the placement; a third altered her conceptions regarding the capacity of students; and one PT maintained core conceptions indicative of a disposition that was not favorable to open inquiry despite the pronouncements that she would like to conduct open inquiry with students in their own future classroom. Possible reasons for the differences in the responses of the four pre-services teachers to the practicum placement are discussed.

  3. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  4. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  5. 3D scene reconstruction from multi-aperture images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Miao; Qin, Kaihuai

    2014-04-01

    With the development of virtual reality, there is a growing demand for 3D modeling of real scenes. This paper proposes a novel 3D scene reconstruction framework based on multi-aperture images. Our framework consists of four parts. Firstly, images with different apertures are captured via programmable aperture. Secondly, we use SIFT method for feature point matching. Then we exploit binocular stereo vision to calculate camera parameters and 3D positions of matching points, forming a sparse 3D scene model. Finally, we apply patch-based multi-view stereo to obtain a dense 3D scene model. Experimental results show that our method is practical and effective to reconstruct dense 3D scene.

  6. 3D face recognition under expressions, occlusions, and pose variations.

    PubMed

    Drira, Hassen; Ben Amor, Boulbaba; Srivastava, Anuj; Daoudi, Mohamed; Slama, Rim

    2013-09-01

    We propose a novel geometric framework for analyzing 3D faces, with the specific goals of comparing, matching, and averaging their shapes. Here we represent facial surfaces by radial curves emanating from the nose tips and use elastic shape analysis of these curves to develop a Riemannian framework for analyzing shapes of full facial surfaces. This representation, along with the elastic Riemannian metric, seems natural for measuring facial deformations and is robust to challenges such as large facial expressions (especially those with open mouths), large pose variations, missing parts, and partial occlusions due to glasses, hair, and so on. This framework is shown to be promising from both--empirical and theoretical--perspectives. In terms of the empirical evaluation, our results match or improve upon the state-of-the-art methods on three prominent databases: FRGCv2, GavabDB, and Bosphorus, each posing a different type of challenge. From a theoretical perspective, this framework allows for formal statistical inferences, such as the estimation of missing facial parts using PCA on tangent spaces and computing average shapes. PMID:23868784

  7. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  8. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universalmore » 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.« less

  9. Revisiting the Concept of Level of Detail in 3d City Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biljecki, F.; Zhao, J.; Stoter, J.; Ledoux, H.

    2013-09-01

    This review paper discusses the concept of level of detail in 3D city modelling, and is a first step towards a foundation for a standardised definition. As an introduction, a few level of detail specifications, outlooks and approaches are given from the industry. The paper analyses the general uncertainties and shortcomings around the concept of level of detail in 3D city modelling such as ordinality and inconsistencies, and identifies factors that constitute a specific level of detail. The paper proposes a framework for a new consistent LoD definition which would consolidate present and future LoD paradigms, gives an example of an LoD specification, discusses open questions such as the contexts for which 3D city models are used in practice, and gives prospects for a future quantification and sorting of levels of detail.

  10. PARALLEL 3-D SPACE CHARGE CALCULATIONS IN THE UNIFIED ACCELERATOR LIBRARY.

    SciTech Connect

    D'IMPERIO, N.L.; LUCCIO, A.U.; MALITSKY, N.

    2006-06-26

    The paper presents the integration of the SIMBAD space charge module in the UAL framework. SIMBAD is a Particle-in-Cell (PIC) code. Its 3-D Parallel approach features an optimized load balancing scheme based on a genetic algorithm. The UAL framework enhances the SIMBAD standalone version with the interactive ROOT-based analysis environment and an open catalog of accelerator algorithms. The composite package addresses complex high intensity beam dynamics and has been developed as part of the FAIR SIS 100 project.

  11. Using outcrop observations, 3D discrete feature network (DFN) fluid-flow simulations, and subsurface data to constrain the impact of normal faults and opening mode fractures on fluid flow in an active asphalt mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C. E.; Aydin, A.; Durlofsky, L.; Karimi-Fard, M.; Brownlow, D. T.

    2008-12-01

    An active quarry near Uvalde, TX which mines asphaltic limestone from the Anacacho Formation offers an ideal setting to study fluid-flow in fractured and faulted carbonate rocks. Semi-3D exposures of normal faults and fractures in addition to visual evidence of asphalt concentrations in the quarry help constrain relationships between geologic structures and the flow and transport of hydrocarbons. Furthermore, a subsurface dataset which includes thin sections and measured asphalt concentration from the surrounding region provides a basis to estimate asphalt concentrations and constrain the depositional architecture of both the previously mined portions of the quarry and the un-mined surrounding rock volume. We characterized a series of normal faults and opening mode fractures at the quarry and documented a correlation between the intensity and distribution of these structures with increased concentrations of asphalt. The three-dimensional depositional architecture of the Anacacho Formation was characterized using the subsurface thin sections. Then outcrop exposures of faults, fractured beds, and stratigraphic contacts were mapped and their three-dimensional positions were recorded with differential gps devices. These two datasets were assimilated and a quarry-scale, geologically realistic, three-dimensional Discrete Feature Network (DFN) which represents the geometries and material properties of the matrix, normal faults, and fractures within the quarry was constructed. We then performed two-point flux, control-volume finite- difference fluid-flow simulations with the DFN to investigate the 3D flow and transport of fluids. The results were compared and contrasted with available asphalt concentration estimates from the mine and the aforementioned data from the surrounding drill cores.

  12. Modular 3-D Transport model

    EPA Science Inventory

    MT3D was first developed by Chunmiao Zheng in 1990 at S.S. Papadopulos & Associates, Inc. with partial support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Starting in 1990, MT3D was released as a pubic domain code from the USEPA. Commercial versions with enhanced capab...

  13. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  14. LLNL-Earth3D

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  15. [3-D ultrasound in gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Zoller, W G; Liess, H

    1994-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a 3D effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate 3D presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of 3D images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of 3D images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal 3D presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the 3D imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. 3D ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible. PMID:7919882

  16. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  17. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-02-26

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  18. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  19. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  20. Visualization of 3D Geological Data using COLLADA and KML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yosoon; Um, Jeong-Gi; Park, Myong-Ho

    2013-04-01

    This study presents a method to visualize 3D geological data using COLLAborative Design Activity(COLLADA, an open standard XML schema for establishing interactive 3D applications) and Keyhole Markup Language(KML, the XML-based scripting language of Google Earth).We used COLLADA files to represent different 3D geological data such as borehole, fence section, surface-based 3D volume and 3D grid by triangle meshes(a set of triangles connected by their common edges or corners). The COLLADA files were imported into the 3D render window of Google Earth using KML codes. An application to the Grosmont formation in Alberta, Canada showed that the combination of COLLADA and KML enables Google Earth to visualize 3D geological structures and properties.

  1. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  2. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  3. Integrating Diverse Geophysical and Geological Data to Construct Multi-Dimensional Earth Models: The Open Earth Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baru, C.; Keller, R.; Wallet, B.; Crosby, C.; Moreland, J.; Nadeau, D.

    2008-12-01

    Currently, many large geoscientific efforts (e.g., EarthScope, Continental Dynamics, and GeoSwath) have emphasized that a crucial need in advancing our understanding of the structure and evolution of the continents is high-resolution, 3-D models of lithospheric structure. In addition, the geoscience community recognizes that our ultimate goal is the addition of the dimension of time to make the problem 4-D. Adding the dimension of time is a complex problem that is strongly dependent on the integration of a variety of geological data into our analyses (e.g., geochronology, paleontology, stratigraphy, pressure-time histories, structural geology, paleogeography, etc.). The geoscience community also recognizes that solutions to the scientific and societal questions that they seek to answer require innovative integration of many types of data so that many physical properties (x, y, z, P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, density, electrical conductivity, etc.) are measured and included in 3-D models. The problem is, therefore, truly multidimensional in nature. We are developing an Open Earth Framework (OEF) as an open data model for integration of such multidimensional Earth Sciences data. In our work and interactions with the community on building and visualizing complex earth models, several issues have emerged on which there is consensus. First of all, integration efforts should work from the surface down because we have the most data there (e.g., geologic maps, remote sensing data such as LIDAR and ASTER, digital elevation models, gravity and magnetic measurements, etc.) and because the complex conditions near surface always have a potential to mask deeper features. Secondly since we cannot expect uniform coverage of a variety of high-resolution data in anything but special circumstances, a data integration effort should first establish a regional context using lower resolution (and usually wide coverage) data and then proceed to modeling the data sets with the highest

  4. Inferential modeling of 3D chromatin structure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Siyu; Xu, Jinbo; Zeng, Jianyang

    2015-01-01

    For eukaryotic cells, the biological processes involving regulatory DNA elements play an important role in cell cycle. Understanding 3D spatial arrangements of chromosomes and revealing long-range chromatin interactions are critical to decipher these biological processes. In recent years, chromosome conformation capture (3C) related techniques have been developed to measure the interaction frequencies between long-range genome loci, which have provided a great opportunity to decode the 3D organization of the genome. In this paper, we develop a new Bayesian framework to derive the 3D architecture of a chromosome from 3C-based data. By modeling each chromosome as a polymer chain, we define the conformational energy based on our current knowledge on polymer physics and use it as prior information in the Bayesian framework. We also propose an expectation-maximization (EM) based algorithm to estimate the unknown parameters of the Bayesian model and infer an ensemble of chromatin structures based on interaction frequency data. We have validated our Bayesian inference approach through cross-validation and verified the computed chromatin conformations using the geometric constraints derived from fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments. We have further confirmed the inferred chromatin structures using the known genetic interactions derived from other studies in the literature. Our test results have indicated that our Bayesian framework can compute an accurate ensemble of 3D chromatin conformations that best interpret the distance constraints derived from 3C-based data and also agree with other sources of geometric constraints derived from experimental evidence in the previous studies. The source code of our approach can be found in https://github.com/wangsy11/InfMod3DGen. PMID:25690896

  5. Ionothermal synthesis of open-framework metal phosphates with a Kagome lattice network exhibiting canted anti-ferromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Guangmei; Valldor, Martin; Mallick, Bert; Mudring, Anja-Verena

    2014-01-01

    Four open-framework transition-metal phosphates; (NH4)2Co3(HPO4)2F4 (1), (NH4)Co3(HPO4)2(H2PO4)F2 (2), KCo3(HPO4)2(H2PO4)F2 (3), and KFe3(HPO4)2(H2PO4)F2 (4); are prepared by ionothermal synthesis using pyridinium hexafluorophosphate as the ionic liquid. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that the four compounds contain cobalt/iron–oxygen/fluoride layers with Kagomé topology composed of interlinked face-sharing MO3F3/MO4F2 octahedra. PO3OH pseudo-tetrahedral groups augment the [M3O6F4] (1)/[M3O8F2] layers on both sides to give M3(HPO4)2F4 (1) and M3(HPO4)2F2 (2–4) layers. These layers are stacked along the a axis in a sequence AA…, resulting in the formation of a layer structure for (NH4)2Co3(HPO4)2F4(1). In NH4Co3(HPO4)2(H2PO4)F2 and KM3(HPO4)2(H2PO4)F2, the M3(HPO4)2F2 layers are stacked along the a axis in a sequence AAi… and are connected by [PO3(OH)] tetrahedra, giving rise to a 3-D open framework structure with 10-ring channels along the [001] direction. The negative charges of the inorganic framework are balanced by K+/NH4+ ions located within the channels. The magnetic transition metal cations themselves form layers with stair-case Kagomé topology. Magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements reveal that all four compounds exhibit a canted anti-ferromagnetic ground state (Tc = 10 or 13 K for Co and Tc = 27 K for Fe) with different canting angles. The full orbital moment is observed for both Co2+ and Fe2+.

  6. OpenElectrophy: An Electrophysiological Data- and Analysis-Sharing Framework

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Samuel; Fourcaud-Trocmé, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Progress in experimental tools and design is allowing the acquisition of increasingly large datasets. Storage, manipulation and efficient analyses of such large amounts of data is now a primary issue. We present OpenElectrophy, an electrophysiological data- and analysis-sharing framework developed to fill this niche. It stores all experiment data and meta-data in a single central MySQL database, and provides a graphic user interface to visualize and explore the data, and a library of functions for user analysis scripting in Python. It implements multiple spike-sorting methods, and oscillation detection based on the ridge extraction methods due to Roux et al. (2007). OpenElectrophy is open source and is freely available for download at http://neuralensemble.org/trac/OpenElectrophy. PMID:19521545

  7. IMPACC: A Tightly Integrated MPI+OpenACC Framework Exploiting Shared Memory Parallelism

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seyong; Vetter, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    We propose IMPACC, an MPI+OpenACC framework for heterogeneous accelerator clusters. IMPACC tightly integrates MPI and OpenACC, while exploiting the shared memory parallelism in the target system. IMPACC dynamically adapts the input MPI+OpenACC applications on the target heterogeneous accelerator clusters to fully exploit target system-specific features. IMPACC provides the programmers with the unified virtual address space, automatic NUMA-friendly task-device mapping, efficient integrated communication routines, seamless streamlining of asynchronous executions, and transparent memory sharing. We have implemented IMPACC and evaluated its performance using three heterogeneous accelerator systems, including Titan supercomputer. Results show that IMPACC can achieve easier programming, higher performance, and better scalability than the current MPI+OpenACC model.

  8. OpenMDAO: Framework for Flexible Multidisciplinary Design, Analysis and Optimization Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, Christopher M.; Gray, Justin S.

    2012-01-01

    The OpenMDAO project is underway at NASA to develop a framework which simplifies the implementation of state-of-the-art tools and methods for multidisciplinary design, analysis and optimization. Foremost, OpenMDAO has been designed to handle variable problem formulations, encourage reconfigurability, and promote model reuse. This work demonstrates the concept of iteration hierarchies in OpenMDAO to achieve a flexible environment for supporting advanced optimization methods which include adaptive sampling and surrogate modeling techniques. In this effort, two efficient global optimization methods were applied to solve a constrained, single-objective and constrained, multiobjective version of a joint aircraft/engine sizing problem. The aircraft model, NASA's nextgeneration advanced single-aisle civil transport, is being studied as part of the Subsonic Fixed Wing project to help meet simultaneous program goals for reduced fuel burn, emissions, and noise. This analysis serves as a realistic test problem to demonstrate the flexibility and reconfigurability offered by OpenMDAO.

  9. Bioprinting of 3D hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, M M; Samitier, J; Sánchez, S

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has recently emerged as an extension of 3D material printing, by using biocompatible or cellular components to build structures in an additive, layer-by-layer methodology for encapsulation and culture of cells. These 3D systems allow for cell culture in a suspension for formation of highly organized tissue or controlled spatial orientation of cell environments. The in vitro 3D cellular environments simulate the complexity of an in vivo environment and natural extracellular matrices (ECM). This paper will focus on bioprinting utilizing hydrogels as 3D scaffolds. Hydrogels are advantageous for cell culture as they are highly permeable to cell culture media, nutrients, and waste products generated during metabolic cell processes. They have the ability to be fabricated in customized shapes with various material properties with dimensions at the micron scale. 3D hydrogels are a reliable method for biocompatible 3D printing and have applications in tissue engineering, drug screening, and organ on a chip models. PMID:26066320

  10. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  11. Arena3D: visualization of biological networks in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Pavlopoulos, Georgios A; O'Donoghue, Seán I; Satagopam, Venkata P; Soldatos, Theodoros G; Pafilis, Evangelos; Schneider, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    Background Complexity is a key problem when visualizing biological networks; as the number of entities increases, most graphical views become incomprehensible. Our goal is to enable many thousands of entities to be visualized meaningfully and with high performance. Results We present a new visualization tool, Arena3D, which introduces a new concept of staggered layers in 3D space. Related data – such as proteins, chemicals, or pathways – can be grouped onto separate layers and arranged via layout algorithms, such as Fruchterman-Reingold, distance geometry, and a novel hierarchical layout. Data on a layer can be clustered via k-means, affinity propagation, Markov clustering, neighbor joining, tree clustering, or UPGMA ('unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean'). A simple input format defines the name and URL for each node, and defines connections or similarity scores between pairs of nodes. The use of Arena3D is illustrated with datasets related to Huntington's disease. Conclusion Arena3D is a user friendly visualization tool that is able to visualize biological or any other network in 3D space. It is free for academic use and runs on any platform. It can be downloaded or lunched directly from . Java3D library and Java 1.5 need to be pre-installed for the software to run. PMID:19040715

  12. Fdf in US3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otis, Collin; Ferrero, Pietro; Candler, Graham; Givi, Peyman

    2013-11-01

    The scalar filtered mass density function (SFMDF) methodology is implemented into the computer code US3D. This is an unstructured Eulerian finite volume hydrodynamic solver and has proven very effective for simulation of compressible turbulent flows. The resulting SFMDF-US3D code is employed for large eddy simulation (LES) on unstructured meshes. Simulations are conducted of subsonic and supersonic flows under non-reacting and reacting conditions. The consistency and the accuracy of the simulated results are assessed along with appraisal of the overall performance of the methodology. The SFMDF-US3D is now capable of simulating high speed flows in complex configurations.

  13. Automatic 2D-to-3D image conversion using 3D examples from the internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konrad, J.; Brown, G.; Wang, M.; Ishwar, P.; Wu, C.; Mukherjee, D.

    2012-03-01

    repository. While far from perfect, the presented results demonstrate that on-line repositories of 3D content can be used for effective 2D-to-3D image conversion. With the continuously increasing amount of 3D data on-line and with the rapidly growing computing power in the cloud, the proposed framework seems a promising alternative to operator-assisted 2D-to-3D conversion.

  14. 3D Viewer Platform of Cloud Clustering Management System: Google Map 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sung-Ja; Lee, Gang-Soo

    The new management system of framework for cloud envrionemnt is needed by the platfrom of convergence according to computing environments of changes. A ISV and small business model is hard to adapt management system of platform which is offered from super business. This article suggest the clustering management system of cloud computing envirionments for ISV and a man of enterprise in small business model. It applies the 3D viewer adapt from map3D & earth of google. It is called 3DV_CCMS as expand the CCMS[1].

  15. Wavefront construction in 3-D

    SciTech Connect

    Chilcoat, S.R. Hildebrand, S.T.

    1995-12-31

    Travel time computation in inhomogeneous media is essential for pre-stack Kirchhoff imaging in areas such as the sub-salt province in the Gulf of Mexico. The 2D algorithm published by Vinje, et al, has been extended to 3D to compute wavefronts in complicated inhomogeneous media. The 3D wavefront construction algorithm provides many advantages over conventional ray tracing and other methods of computing travel times in 3D. The algorithm dynamically maintains a reasonably consistent ray density without making a priori guesses at the number of rays to shoot. The determination of caustics in 3D is a straight forward geometric procedure. The wavefront algorithm also enables the computation of multi-valued travel time surfaces.

  16. Heterodyne 3D ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Chenghua; Xu, Lu; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Conventional three dimensional (3D) ghost imaging measures range of target based on pulse fight time measurement method. Due to the limit of data acquisition system sampling rate, range resolution of the conventional 3D ghost imaging is usually low. In order to take off the effect of sampling rate to range resolution of 3D ghost imaging, a heterodyne 3D ghost imaging (HGI) system is presented in this study. The source of HGI is a continuous wave laser instead of pulse laser. Temporal correlation and spatial correlation of light are both utilized to obtain the range image of target. Through theory analysis and numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that HGI can obtain high range resolution image with low sampling rate.

  17. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  18. Streamlined, Inexpensive 3D Printing of the Brain and Skull.

    PubMed

    Naftulin, Jason S; Kimchi, Eyal Y; Cash, Sydney S

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) collect three-dimensional data (3D) that is typically viewed on two-dimensional (2D) screens. Actual 3D models, however, allow interaction with real objects such as implantable electrode grids, potentially improving patient specific neurosurgical planning and personalized clinical education. Desktop 3D printers can now produce relatively inexpensive, good quality prints. We describe our process for reliably generating life-sized 3D brain prints from MRIs and 3D skull prints from CTs. We have integrated a standardized, primarily open-source process for 3D printing brains and skulls. We describe how to convert clinical neuroimaging Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images to stereolithography (STL) files, a common 3D object file format that can be sent to 3D printing services. We additionally share how to convert these STL files to machine instruction gcode files, for reliable in-house printing on desktop, open-source 3D printers. We have successfully printed over 19 patient brain hemispheres from 7 patients on two different open-source desktop 3D printers. Each brain hemisphere costs approximately $3-4 in consumable plastic filament as described, and the total process takes 14-17 hours, almost all of which is unsupervised (preprocessing = 4-6 hr; printing = 9-11 hr, post-processing = <30 min). Printing a matching portion of a skull costs $1-5 in consumable plastic filament and takes less than 14 hr, in total. We have developed a streamlined, cost-effective process for 3D printing brain and skull models. We surveyed healthcare providers and patients who confirmed that rapid-prototype patient specific 3D models may help interdisciplinary surgical planning and patient education. The methods we describe can be applied for other clinical, research, and educational purposes. PMID:26295459

  19. Streamlined, Inexpensive 3D Printing of the Brain and Skull

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Sydney S.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) collect three-dimensional data (3D) that is typically viewed on two-dimensional (2D) screens. Actual 3D models, however, allow interaction with real objects such as implantable electrode grids, potentially improving patient specific neurosurgical planning and personalized clinical education. Desktop 3D printers can now produce relatively inexpensive, good quality prints. We describe our process for reliably generating life-sized 3D brain prints from MRIs and 3D skull prints from CTs. We have integrated a standardized, primarily open-source process for 3D printing brains and skulls. We describe how to convert clinical neuroimaging Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images to stereolithography (STL) files, a common 3D object file format that can be sent to 3D printing services. We additionally share how to convert these STL files to machine instruction gcode files, for reliable in-house printing on desktop, open-source 3D printers. We have successfully printed over 19 patient brain hemispheres from 7 patients on two different open-source desktop 3D printers. Each brain hemisphere costs approximately $3–4 in consumable plastic filament as described, and the total process takes 14–17 hours, almost all of which is unsupervised (preprocessing = 4–6 hr; printing = 9–11 hr, post-processing = <30 min). Printing a matching portion of a skull costs $1–5 in consumable plastic filament and takes less than 14 hr, in total. We have developed a streamlined, cost-effective process for 3D printing brain and skull models. We surveyed healthcare providers and patients who confirmed that rapid-prototype patient specific 3D models may help interdisciplinary surgical planning and patient education. The methods we describe can be applied for other clinical, research, and educational purposes. PMID:26295459

  20. An open-source framework for testing tracking devices using Lego Mindstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jomier, Julien; Ibanez, Luis; Enquobahrie, Andinet; Pace, Danielle; Cleary, Kevin

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we present an open-source framework for testing tracking devices in surgical navigation applications. At the core of image-guided intervention systems is the tracking interface that handles communication with the tracking device and gathers tracking information. Given that the correctness of tracking information is critical for protecting patient safety and for ensuring the successful execution of an intervention, the tracking software component needs to be thoroughly tested on a regular basis. Furthermore, with widespread use of extreme programming methodology that emphasizes continuous and incremental testing of application components, testing design becomes critical. While it is easy to automate most of the testing process, it is often more difficult to test components that require manual intervention such as tracking device. Our framework consists of a robotic arm built from a set of Lego Mindstorms and an open-source toolkit written in C++ to control the robot movements and assess the accuracy of the tracking devices. The application program interface (API) is cross-platform and runs on Windows, Linux and MacOS. We applied this framework for the continuous testing of the Image-Guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK), an open-source toolkit for image-guided surgery and shown that regression testing on tracking devices can be performed at low cost and improve significantly the quality of the software.

  1. SIMPEG: An open source framework for simulation and gradient based parameter estimation in geophysical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockett, Rowan; Kang, Seogi; Heagy, Lindsey J.; Pidlisecky, Adam; Oldenburg, Douglas W.

    2015-12-01

    Inverse modeling is a powerful tool for extracting information about the subsurface from geophysical data. Geophysical inverse problems are inherently multidisciplinary, requiring elements from the relevant physics, numerical simulation, and optimization, as well as knowledge of the geologic setting, and a comprehension of the interplay between all of these elements. The development and advancement of inversion methodologies can be enabled by a framework that supports experimentation, is flexible and extensible, and allows the knowledge generated to be captured and shared. The goal of this paper is to propose a framework that supports many different types of geophysical forward simulations and deterministic inverse problems. Additionally, we provide an open source implementation of this framework in Python called SIMPEG (Simulation and Parameter Estimation in Geophysics,

  2. openBIS: a flexible framework for managing and analyzing complex data in biology research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Modern data generation techniques used in distributed systems biology research projects often create datasets of enormous size and diversity. We argue that in order to overcome the challenge of managing those large quantitative datasets and maximise the biological information extracted from them, a sound information system is required. Ease of integration with data analysis pipelines and other computational tools is a key requirement for it. Results We have developed openBIS, an open source software framework for constructing user-friendly, scalable and powerful information systems for data and metadata acquired in biological experiments. openBIS enables users to collect, integrate, share, publish data and to connect to data processing pipelines. This framework can be extended and has been customized for different data types acquired by a range of technologies. Conclusions openBIS is currently being used by several SystemsX.ch and EU projects applying mass spectrometric measurements of metabolites and proteins, High Content Screening, or Next Generation Sequencing technologies. The attributes that make it interesting to a large research community involved in systems biology projects include versatility, simplicity in deployment, scalability to very large data, flexibility to handle any biological data type and extensibility to the needs of any research domain. PMID:22151573

  3. Construct Polyoxometalate Frameworks through Covalent Bonds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Zhao, Huishuang; Yu, Zheng-Bao; Wang, Lei; Sun, Licheng; Sun, Junliang

    2015-09-01

    An emerging strategy for exploring the application of polyoxometalates (POMs) is to assemble POM clusters into open-framework materials, especially inorganic-organic hybrid three-dimensional (3D) open-framework materials, via the introduction of different organic linkers between the POM clusters. This strategy has yielded a few 3D crystalline POMs of which a typical class is the group of polyoxometalate metal-organic frameworks (POMMOFs). However, for reported POMMOFs, only coordination bonds are involved between the linkers and POM clusters, and it has not yet produced any covalently bonded polyoxometalate frameworks. Here, the concept of "covalently bonded POMs (CPOMs)" is developed. By using vanadoborates as an example, we showed that the 3D CPOMs can be obtained by a condensation reaction through the oxolation mechanism of polymer chemistry. In particular, suitable single crystals were harvested and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. This work forges a link among polymer science, POM chemistry, and open-framework materials by demonstrating that it is possible to use covalent bonds according to polymer chemistry principles to construct crystalline 3D open-framework POM materials. PMID:26286321

  4. A framework for integration of scientific applications into the OpenTopography workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandigam, V.; Crosby, C.; Baru, C.

    2012-12-01

    The NSF-funded OpenTopography facility provides online access to Earth science-oriented high-resolution LIDAR topography data, online processing tools, and derivative products. The underlying cyberinfrastructure employs a multi-tier service oriented architecture that is comprised of an infrastructure tier, a processing services tier, and an application tier. The infrastructure tier consists of storage, compute resources as well as supporting databases. The services tier consists of the set of processing routines each deployed as a Web service. The applications tier provides client interfaces to the system. (e.g. Portal). We propose a "pluggable" infrastructure design that will allow new scientific algorithms and processing routines developed and maintained by the community to be integrated into the OpenTopography system so that the wider earth science community can benefit from its availability. All core components in OpenTopography are available as Web services using a customized open-source Opal toolkit. The Opal toolkit provides mechanisms to manage and track job submissions, with the help of a back-end database. It allows monitoring of job and system status by providing charting tools. All core components in OpenTopography have been developed, maintained and wrapped as Web services using Opal by OpenTopography developers. However, as the scientific community develops new processing and analysis approaches this integration approach is not scalable efficiently. Most of the new scientific applications will have their own active development teams performing regular updates, maintenance and other improvements. It would be optimal to have the application co-located where its developers can continue to actively work on it while still making it accessible within the OpenTopography workflow for processing capabilities. We will utilize a software framework for remote integration of these scientific applications into the OpenTopography system. This will be accomplished by

  5. OpenNCP: a novel framework to foster cross-border e-Health services.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Marcelo; Karkaletsis, Kostas; Cruz, Isabel A; Berler, Alexander; Oliveira, Ilídio C

    2015-01-01

    The continuity of cross-border health care in the European Union depends on the ability to set up shared practices with respect to patient data exchange across Member States. This flow of data must comply with demanding security, legal and interoperability requirements, as defined by the epSOS project specifications. In this paper, we describe the OpenNCP framework that offers a comprehensive set of interoperability services to enable national and regional e-Health platforms to set up cross-border health information networks compliant with epSOS, with minimal adaptation of the existing infrastructure. The OpenNCP, available as open source software, has been adopted in 10 Member States, allowing them to securely interconnect their eHealth infrastructures. PMID:25991222

  6. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  7. Building the 3-D jugsaw puzzle: Applications of sequence stratigraphy to 3-D reservoir characterization, Permian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tinker, S.W.

    1996-04-01

    Reservoir characterization involves the quantification, integration, reduction, and analysis of geological, petrophysical, seismic, and engineering data. This is no small task. A principal goal of reservoir characterization is to derive a spatial understanding of interwell heterogeneity. Traditionally, geologic attempts to characterize interwell heterogeneity have been done using hand-drawn or computer-generated two-dimensional (2-D) maps and cross sections. Results can be improved dramatically using three-dimensional (3-D) interpretation and analysis techniques. Three-dimensional reservoir characterization requires the same input data used in 2-D approaches, and the cost is equal to, and commonly lower than, traditional 2-D methods. The product of 3-D reservoir characterization is a 3-D reservoir model. The language used to communicate the results of a 3-D reservoir model is visualization; i.e., visual images of numerical data. All of the available log and core data in a model area are incorporated in a 3-D model, but the data are depicted as colored cells rather than as log traces. The integrity of the 3-D reservoir model is largely a function of the stratigraphic framework. Interpreting the correct stratigraphic framework for a subsurface reservoir is the most difficult and creative part of the 3-D modeling process. Sequence and seismic stratigraphic interpretation provide the best stratigraphic framework for 3-D reservoir modeling. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the pro- cess of 3-D deterministic reservoir modeling and to illustrate the advantages of using a sequence stratigraphic framework in 3-D modeling. Mixed carbonate and siliciclastic sediment outcrop and subsurface examples from the Permian basin of west Texas and New Mexico will be used as examples, but the concepts and techniques can be applied to reservoirs of any age.

  8. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  9. Feature-Based Quality Evaluation of 3d Point Clouds - Study of the Performance of 3d Registration Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridene, T.; Goulette, F.; Chendeb, S.

    2013-08-01

    The production of realistic 3D map databases is continuously growing. We studied an approach of 3D mapping database producing based on the fusion of heterogeneous 3D data. In this term, a rigid registration process was performed. Before starting the modeling process, we need to validate the quality of the registration results, and this is one of the most difficult and open research problems. In this paper, we suggest a new method of evaluation of 3D point clouds based on feature extraction and comparison with a 2D reference model. This method is based on tow metrics: binary and fuzzy.

  10. OpenSpace: An Open-Source Framework for Data Visualization and Contextualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, A.; Pembroke, A. D.; Mays, M. L.; Emmart, C. B.; Ynnerman, A.

    2015-12-01

    We present an open-source software development effort called OpenSpace that is tailored for the dissemination of space-related data visualization. In the current stages of the project, we have focussed on the public dissemination of space missions (Rosetta and New Horizons) as well as the support of space weather forecasting. The presented work will focus on the latter of these foci and elaborate on the efforts that have gone into developing a system that allows the user to assess the accuracy and validity of ENLIL ensemble simulations. It becomes possible to compare the results of ENLIL CME simulations with STEREO and SOHO images using an optical flow algorithm. This allows the user to compare velocities in the volumetric rendering of ENLIL data with the movement of CMEs through the field-of-views of various instruments onboard the space craft. By allowing the user access to these comparisons, new information about the time evolution of CMEs through the interplanetary medium is possible. Additionally, contextualizing this information in three-dimensional rendering scene, allows the analyst and the public to disseminate this data. This dissemination is further improved by the ability to connect multiple instances of the software and, thus, reach a broader audience. In a second step, we plan to combine the two foci of the project to enable the visualization of the SWAP instrument onboard New Horizons in context with a far-reaching ENLIL simulation, thus providing additional information about the solar wind dynamics of the outer solar system. The initial work regarding this plan will be presented.

  11. Remote 3D Medical Consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

    Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

  12. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  13. Visualization of 3D Geological Models on Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Um, J.; Park, M.

    2013-05-01

    Google Earth combines satellite imagery, aerial photography, thematic maps and various data sets to make a three-dimensional (3D) interactive image of the world. Currently, Google Earth is a popular visualization tool in a variety of fields and plays an increasingly important role not only for private users in daily life, but also for scientists, practitioners, policymakers and stakeholders in research and application. In this study, a method to visualize 3D geological models on Google Earth is presented. COLLAborative Design Activity (COLLADA, an open standard XML schema for establishing interactive 3D applications) was used to represent different 3D geological models such as borehole, fence section, surface-based 3D volume and 3D grid by triangle meshes (a set of triangles connected by their common edges or corners). In addition, we designed Keyhole Markup Language (KML, the XML-based scripting language of Google Earth) codes to import the COLLADA files into the 3D render window of Google Earth. The method was applied to the Grosmont formation in Alberta, Canada. The application showed that the combination of COLLADA and KML enables Google Earth to effectively visualize 3D geological structures and properties.; Visualization of the (a) boreholes, (b) fence sections, (c) 3D volume model and (d) 3D grid model of Grossmont formation on Google Earth

  14. OpenSMOKE++: An object-oriented framework for the numerical modeling of reactive systems with detailed kinetic mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuoci, A.; Frassoldati, A.; Faravelli, T.; Ranzi, E.

    2015-07-01

    OpenSMOKE++ is a general framework for numerical simulations of reacting systems with detailed kinetic mechanisms, including thousands of chemical species and reactions. The framework is entirely written in object-oriented C++ and can be easily extended and customized by the user for specific systems, without having to modify the core functionality of the program. The OpenSMOKE++ framework can handle simulations of ideal chemical reactors (plug-flow, batch, and jet stirred reactors), shock-tubes, rapid compression machines, and can be easily incorporated into multi-dimensional CFD codes for the modeling of reacting flows. OpenSMOKE++ provides useful numerical tools such as the sensitivity and rate of production analyses, needed to recognize the main chemical paths and to interpret the numerical results from a kinetic point of view. Since simulations involving large kinetic mechanisms are very time consuming, OpenSMOKE++ adopts advanced numerical techniques able to reduce the computational cost, without sacrificing the accuracy and the robustness of the calculations. In the present paper we give a detailed description of the framework features, the numerical models available, and the implementation of the code. The possibility of coupling the OpenSMOKE++ functionality with existing numerical codes is discussed. The computational performances of the framework are presented, and the capabilities of OpenSMOKE++ in terms of integration of stiff ODE systems are discussed and analyzed with special emphasis. Some examples demonstrating the ability of the OpenSMOKE++ framework to successfully manage large kinetic mechanisms are eventually presented.

  15. 3-D Human Action Recognition by Shape Analysis of Motion Trajectories on Riemannian Manifold.

    PubMed

    Devanne, Maxime; Wannous, Hazem; Berretti, Stefano; Pala, Pietro; Daoudi, Mohamed; Del Bimbo, Alberto

    2015-07-01

    Recognizing human actions in 3-D video sequences is an important open problem that is currently at the heart of many research domains including surveillance, natural interfaces and rehabilitation. However, the design and development of models for action recognition that are both accurate and efficient is a challenging task due to the variability of the human pose, clothing and appearance. In this paper, we propose a new framework to extract a compact representation of a human action captured through a depth sensor, and enable accurate action recognition. The proposed solution develops on fitting a human skeleton model to acquired data so as to represent the 3-D coordinates of the joints and their change over time as a trajectory in a suitable action space. Thanks to such a 3-D joint-based framework, the proposed solution is capable to capture both the shape and the dynamics of the human body, simultaneously. The action recognition problem is then formulated as the problem of computing the similarity between the shape of trajectories in a Riemannian manifold. Classification using k-nearest neighbors is finally performed on this manifold taking advantage of Riemannian geometry in the open curve shape space. Experiments are carried out on four representative benchmarks to demonstrate the potential of the proposed solution in terms of accuracy/latency for a low-latency action recognition. Comparative results with state-of-the-art methods are reported. PMID:25216492

  16. 3D-Printed Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony K; Huynh, Wilson; Horowitz, Lisa F; Folch, Albert

    2016-03-14

    The advent of soft lithography allowed for an unprecedented expansion in the field of microfluidics. However, the vast majority of PDMS microfluidic devices are still made with extensive manual labor, are tethered to bulky control systems, and have cumbersome user interfaces, which all render commercialization difficult. On the other hand, 3D printing has begun to embrace the range of sizes and materials that appeal to the developers of microfluidic devices. Prior to fabrication, a design is digitally built as a detailed 3D CAD file. The design can be assembled in modules by remotely collaborating teams, and its mechanical and fluidic behavior can be simulated using finite-element modeling. As structures are created by adding materials without the need for etching or dissolution, processing is environmentally friendly and economically efficient. We predict that in the next few years, 3D printing will replace most PDMS and plastic molding techniques in academia. PMID:26854878

  17. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  18. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2003-05-12

    This project is in its first full year after the combining of two previously funded projects: ''3D Code Development'' and ''Dynamic Material Properties''. The motivation behind this move was to emphasize and strengthen the ties between the experimental work and the computational model development in the materials area. The next year's activities will indicate the merging of the two efforts. The current activity is structured in two tasks. Task A, ''Simulations and Measurements'', combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. Task B, ''ALE3D Development'', is a continuation of the non-materials related activities from the previous project.

  19. A Distributed OpenCL Framework using Redundant Computation and Data Replication

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Junghyun; Gangwon, Jo; Jaehoon, Jung; Lee, Jaejin

    2016-01-01

    Applications written solely in OpenCL or CUDA cannot execute on a cluster as a whole. Most previous approaches that extend these programming models to clusters are based on a common idea: designating a centralized host node and coordinating the other nodes with the host for computation. However, the centralized host node is a serious performance bottleneck when the number of nodes is large. In this paper, we propose a scalable and distributed OpenCL framework called SnuCL-D for large-scale clusters. SnuCL-D's remote device virtualization provides an OpenCL application with an illusion that all compute devices in a cluster are confined in a single node. To reduce the amount of control-message and data communication between nodes, SnuCL-D replicates the OpenCL host program execution and data in each node. We also propose a new OpenCL host API function and a queueing optimization technique that significantly reduce the overhead incurred by the previous centralized approaches. To show the effectiveness of SnuCL-D, we evaluate SnuCL-D with a microbenchmark and eleven benchmark applications on a large-scale CPU cluster and a medium-scale GPU cluster.

  20. Origin of the structure-directing effect resulting in identical topological open-framework materials

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Liang; Sun, Huai; Xu, Ruren; Yan, Wenfu

    2015-01-01

    In the synthesis of zeolites and related crystalline materials with open-frameworks, a single structure is obtained in the presence of many different templates, known as the “one-structure/multiple-templates” phenomenon. However, the reasons behind this phenomenon have yet to be elucidated. By analyzing the possible starting point of crystallization in several “one-structure/multiple-templates” systems and applying the molecular dynamics simulation to such systems, we found that the template-framework binding free energy level or charge transfer (exchange) degree was the key to the structure-directing effect of a template. This discovery explains why the structure-directing effect of a template can be affected by many variables, such as the nature of the source materials, molar composition of the initial reaction mixture (recipe), mineralizers, type of solvent, and heating temperature. In the synthesis of zeolites and related crystalline materials with open-frameworks, the template or organic additive played a topological structure-directing role instead of a structure-directing role. PMID:26447528

  1. Origin of the structure-directing effect resulting in identical topological open-framework materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Liang; Sun, Huai; Xu, Ruren; Yan, Wenfu

    2015-10-01

    In the synthesis of zeolites and related crystalline materials with open-frameworks, a single structure is obtained in the presence of many different templates, known as the “one-structure/multiple-templates” phenomenon. However, the reasons behind this phenomenon have yet to be elucidated. By analyzing the possible starting point of crystallization in several “one-structure/multiple-templates” systems and applying the molecular dynamics simulation to such systems, we found that the template-framework binding free energy level or charge transfer (exchange) degree was the key to the structure-directing effect of a template. This discovery explains why the structure-directing effect of a template can be affected by many variables, such as the nature of the source materials, molar composition of the initial reaction mixture (recipe), mineralizers, type of solvent, and heating temperature. In the synthesis of zeolites and related crystalline materials with open-frameworks, the template or organic additive played a topological structure-directing role instead of a structure-directing role.

  2. Integrating Data Clustering and Visualization for the Analysis of 3D Gene Expression Data

    SciTech Connect

    Data Analysis and Visualization and the Department of Computer Science, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis CA 95616, USA,; nternational Research Training Group ``Visualization of Large and Unstructured Data Sets,'' University of Kaiserslautern, Germany; Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Genomics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley CA 94720, USA; Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley CA 94720, USA,; Computer Science Division,University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA,; Computer Science Department, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA,; All authors are with the Berkeley Drosophila Transcription Network Project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,; Rubel, Oliver; Weber, Gunther H.; Huang, Min-Yu; Bethel, E. Wes; Biggin, Mark D.; Fowlkes, Charless C.; Hendriks, Cris L. Luengo; Keranen, Soile V. E.; Eisen, Michael B.; Knowles, David W.; Malik, Jitendra; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd

    2008-05-12

    The recent development of methods for extracting precise measurements of spatial gene expression patterns from three-dimensional (3D) image data opens the way for new analyses of the complex gene regulatory networks controlling animal development. We present an integrated visualization and analysis framework that supports user-guided data clustering to aid exploration of these new complex datasets. The interplay of data visualization and clustering-based data classification leads to improved visualization and enables a more detailed analysis than previously possible. We discuss (i) integration of data clustering and visualization into one framework; (ii) application of data clustering to 3D gene expression data; (iii) evaluation of the number of clusters k in the context of 3D gene expression clustering; and (iv) improvement of overall analysis quality via dedicated post-processing of clustering results based on visualization. We discuss the use of this framework to objectively define spatial pattern boundaries and temporal profiles of genes and to analyze how mRNA patterns are controlled by their regulatory transcription factors.

  3. Participatory Gis: Experimentations for a 3d Social Virtual Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovelli, M. A.; Minghini, M.; Zamboni, G.

    2013-08-01

    The dawn of GeoWeb 2.0, the geographic extension of Web 2.0, has opened new possibilities in terms of online dissemination and sharing of geospatial contents, thus laying the foundations for a fruitful development of Participatory GIS (PGIS). The purpose of the study is to investigate the extension of PGIS applications, which are quite mature in the traditional bi-dimensional framework, up to the third dimension. More in detail, the system should couple a powerful 3D visualization with an increase of public participation by means of a tool allowing data collecting from mobile devices (e.g. smartphones and tablets). The PGIS application, built using the open source NASA World Wind virtual globe, is focussed on the cultural and tourism heritage of Como city, located in Northern Italy. An authentication mechanism was implemented, which allows users to create and manage customized projects through cartographic mash-ups of Web Map Service (WMS) layers. Saved projects populate a catalogue which is available to the entire community. Together with historical maps and the current cartography of the city, the system is also able to manage geo-tagged multimedia data, which come from user field-surveys performed through mobile devices and report POIs (Points Of Interest). Each logged user can then contribute to POIs characterization by adding textual and multimedia information (e.g. images, audios and videos) directly on the globe. All in all, the resulting application allows users to create and share contributions as it usually happens on social platforms, additionally providing a realistic 3D representation enhancing the expressive power of data.

  4. Improving 3d Spatial Queries Search: Newfangled Technique of Space Filling Curves in 3d City Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uznir, U.; Anton, F.; Suhaibah, A.; Rahman, A. A.; Mioc, D.

    2013-09-01

    The advantages of three dimensional (3D) city models can be seen in various applications including photogrammetry, urban and regional planning, computer games, etc.. They expand the visualization and analysis capabilities of Geographic Information Systems on cities, and they can be developed using web standards. However, these 3D city models consume much more storage compared to two dimensional (2D) spatial data. They involve extra geometrical and topological information together with semantic data. Without a proper spatial data clustering method and its corresponding spatial data access method, retrieving portions of and especially searching these 3D city models, will not be done optimally. Even though current developments are based on an open data model allotted by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) called CityGML, its XML-based structure makes it challenging to cluster the 3D urban objects. In this research, we propose an opponent data constellation technique of space-filling curves (3D Hilbert curves) for 3D city model data representation. Unlike previous methods, that try to project 3D or n-dimensional data down to 2D or 3D using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) or Hilbert mappings, in this research, we extend the Hilbert space-filling curve to one higher dimension for 3D city model data implementations. The query performance was tested using a CityGML dataset of 1,000 building blocks and the results are presented in this paper. The advantages of implementing space-filling curves in 3D city modeling will improve data retrieval time by means of optimized 3D adjacency, nearest neighbor information and 3D indexing. The Hilbert mapping, which maps a subinterval of the [0, 1] interval to the corresponding portion of the d-dimensional Hilbert's curve, preserves the Lebesgue measure and is Lipschitz continuous. Depending on the applications, several alternatives are possible in order to cluster spatial data together in the third dimension compared to its

  5. Enhancing H[subscript 2] Uptake by 'Close-Packing' Alignment of Open Copper Sites in Metal-Organic Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xi-Sen; Ma, Shengqian; Forster, Paul M.; Yuan, Daqiang; Eckert, Juergen; López, Joseph J.; Murphy, Brandon J.; Parise, John B.; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2010-10-15

    Inspired by close-packing of spheres, to strengthen the framework-H{sub 2} interaction in MOFs (metal-organic frameworks), a strategy is devised to increase the number of nearest neighboring open metal sites ofe ach H{sub 2}-hosting cage, and to align the open metal sites toward the H{sub 2} molecules. Two MOF polymorphs were made, one exhibiting a record high hydrogen uptake of 3.0 wt% at 1 bar and 77 k.

  6. An open framework crystal structure and physical properties of RbCuAl(PO4)2.

    PubMed

    Yakubovich, Olga V; Kiriukhina, Galina V; Dimitrova, Olga V; Zvereva, Elena A; Shvanskaya, Larisa V; Volkova, Olga S; Vasiliev, Alexander N

    2016-02-14

    The novel phosphate RbCuAl(PO4)2 was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis at 553 K. Its crystal structure was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data and refined against F(2) to R = 0.026. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c, with unit-cell parameters a = 5.0723(8) Å, b = 14.070(2) Å, c = 9.352(1) Å, β = 100.41(1), V = 656.4(2) Å(3), and Z = 4. The crystal structure is based on an open 3D aluminophosphate framework built by AlO5 bipyramids and PO4 tetrahedra sharing oxygen vertices. Channels in the [100] and [001] directions accommodate Rb(+) cations and chains of Cu-centered octahedra alternatively sharing cis- and trans-edges. The new phase is characterized by the structure type established for isotypic iron phosphates KMFe(PO4)2, where M = Fe/Ni, Ni, Mg or Co. It also shows topological relationships with Pb2Ni(PO4)2 and Fe(3+)Fe(2+)0.5(H2O)2(HPO4)2 structures. The RbCuAl(PO4)2 exhibits rather peculiar physical properties evidenced in specific heat and magnetization measurements. It releases a significant part of magnetic entropy well above the Neel temperature TN = 10.5 K and possesses a spontaneous magnetic moment at lower temperatures. The origin of the spontaneous moment is ascribed to the canting of a pristine antiferromagnetic structure due to the interchain Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya exchange interaction. PMID:26732062

  7. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  8. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  9. Coalescent: an open-science framework for importance sampling in coalescent theory

    PubMed Central

    Spouge, John L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. In coalescent theory, computer programs often use importance sampling to calculate likelihoods and other statistical quantities. An importance sampling scheme can exploit human intuition to improve statistical efficiency of computations, but unfortunately, in the absence of general computer frameworks on importance sampling, researchers often struggle to translate new sampling schemes computationally or benchmark against different schemes, in a manner that is reliable and maintainable. Moreover, most studies use computer programs lacking a convenient user interface or the flexibility to meet the current demands of open science. In particular, current computer frameworks can only evaluate the efficiency of a single importance sampling scheme or compare the efficiencies of different schemes in an ad hoc manner. Results. We have designed a general framework (http://coalescent.sourceforge.net; language: Java; License: GPLv3) for importance sampling that computes likelihoods under the standard neutral coalescent model of a single, well-mixed population of constant size over time following infinite sites model of mutation. The framework models the necessary core concepts, comes integrated with several data sets of varying size, implements the standard competing proposals, and integrates tightly with our previous framework for calculating exact probabilities. For a given dataset, it computes the likelihood and provides the maximum likelihood estimate of the mutation parameter. Well-known benchmarks in the coalescent literature validate the accuracy of the framework. The framework provides an intuitive user interface with minimal clutter. For performance, the framework switches automatically to modern multicore hardware, if available. It runs on three major platforms (Windows, Mac and Linux). Extensive tests and coverage make the framework reliable and maintainable. Conclusions. In coalescent theory, many studies of computational efficiency consider only

  10. Open-source framework for documentation of scientific software written on MATLAB-compatible programming languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konnik, Mikhail V.; Welsh, James

    2012-09-01

    Numerical simulators for adaptive optics systems have become an essential tool for the research and development of the future advanced astronomical instruments. However, growing software code of the numerical simulator makes it difficult to continue to support the code itself. The problem of adequate documentation of the astronomical software for adaptive optics simulators may complicate the development since the documentation must contain up-to-date schemes and mathematical descriptions implemented in the software code. Although most modern programming environments like MATLAB or Octave have in-built documentation abilities, they are often insufficient for the description of a typical adaptive optics simulator code. This paper describes a general cross-platform framework for the documentation of scientific software using open-source tools such as LATEX, mercurial, Doxygen, and Perl. Using the Perl script that translates M-files MATLAB comments into C-like, one can use Doxygen to generate and update the documentation for the scientific source code. The documentation generated by this framework contains the current code description with mathematical formulas, images, and bibliographical references. A detailed description of the framework components is presented as well as the guidelines for the framework deployment. Examples of the code documentation for the scripts and functions of a MATLAB-based adaptive optics simulator are provided.

  11. Collective Framework and Performance Optimizations to Open MPI for Cray XT Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Ladd, Joshua S; Gorentla Venkata, Manjunath; Shamis, Pavel; Graham, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    The performance and scalability of collective operations plays a key role in the performance and scalability of many scientific applications. Within the Open MPI code base we have developed a general purpose hierarchical collective operations framework called Cheetah, and applied it at large scale on the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility's Jaguar (OLCF) platform, obtaining better performance and scalability than the native MPI implementation. This paper discuss Cheetah's design and implementation, and optimizations to the framework for Cray XT 5 platforms. Our results show that the Cheetah's Broadcast and Barrier perform better than the native MPI implementation. For medium data, the Cheetah's Broadcast outperforms the native MPI implementation by 93% for 49,152 processes problem size. For small and large data, it out performs the native MPI implementation by 10% and 9%, respectively, at 24,576 processes problem size. The Cheetah's Barrier performs 10% better than the native MPI implementation for 12,288 processes problem size.

  12. An Open Data Platform in the framework of the EGI-LifeWatch Competence Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar Gómez, Fernando; de Lucas, Jesús Marco; Yaiza Rodríguez Marrero, Ana

    2016-04-01

    The working pilot of an Open Data Platform supporting the full data cycle in research is presented. It aims to preserve knowledge explicitly, starting with the description of the Case Studies, and integrating data and software management and preservation on equal basis. The uninterrupted support in the chain starts at the data acquisition level and covers up to the support for reuse and publication in an open framework, providing integrity and provenance controls. The Lifewatch Open Science Framework is a pilot web portal developed in collaboration with different commercial companies that tries to enrich and integrate different data lifecycle-related tools in order to address the management of the different steps: data planning, gathering, storing, curation, preservation, sharing, discovering, etc. To achieve this goal, the platform includes the following features: -Data Management Planning. Tool to set up an structure of the data, including what data will be generated, how it will be exploited, re-used, curated, preserved, etc. It has a semantic approach: includes reference to ontologies in order to express what data will be gathered. -Close to instrumentation. The portal includes a distributed storage system that can be used both for storing data from instruments and output data from analysis. All that data can be shared -Analysis. Resources from EGI Federated Cloud are accessible within the portal, so that users can exploit computing resources to perform analysis and other processes, including workflows. -Preservation. Data can be preserved in different systems and DOIs can be minted not only for datasets but also for software, DMPs, etc. The presentation will show the different components of the framework as well as how it can be extrapolated to other communities.

  13. Two Eyes, 3D: Stereoscopic Design Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Aaron; Subbarao, M.; Wyatt, R.

    2013-01-01

    Two Eyes, 3D is a NSF-funded research project about how people perceive highly spatial objects when shown with 2D or stereoscopic ("3D") representations. As part of the project, we produced a short film about SN 2011fe. The high definition film has been rendered in both 2D and stereoscopic formats. It was developed according to a set of stereoscopic design principles we derived from the literature and past experience producing and studying stereoscopic films. Study participants take a pre- and post-test that involves a spatial cognition assessment and scientific knowledge questions about Type-1a supernovae. For the evaluation, participants use iPads in order to record spatial manipulation of the device and look for elements of embodied cognition. We will present early results and also describe the stereoscopic design principles and the rationale behind them. All of our content and software is available under open source licenses. More information is at www.twoeyes3d.org.

  14. SimPEG: An open-source framework for geophysical simulations and inverse problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockett, R.; Kang, S.; Heagy, L.

    2014-12-01

    Geophysical surveys are powerful tools for obtaining information about the subsurface. Inverse modelling provides a mathematical framework for constructing a model of physical property distributions that are consistent with the data collected by these surveys. The geosciences are increasingly moving towards the integration of geological, geophysical, and hydrological information to better characterize the subsurface. This integration must span disciplines and is not only challenging scientifically, but the inconsistencies between conventions often makes implementations complicated, non-reproducible, or inefficient. We have developed an open source software package for Simulation and Parameter Estimation in Geophysics (SimPEG), which provides a generalized framework for solving geophysical forward and inverse problems. SimPEG is written entirely in Python with minimal dependencies in the hopes that it can be used both as a research tool and for education. SimPEG includes finite volume discretizations on structured and unstructured meshes, interfaces to standard numerical solver packages, convex optimization algorithms, model parameterizations, and tailored visualization routines. The framework is modular and object-oriented, which promotes real time experimentation and combination of geophysical problems and inversion methodologies. In this presentation, we will highlight a few geophysical examples, including direct-current resistivity and electromagnetics, and discuss some of the challenges and successes we encountered in developing a flexible and extensible framework. Throughout development of SimPEG we have focused on simplicity, usability, documentation, and extensive testing. By embracing a fully open source development paradigm, we hope to encourage reproducible research, cooperation, and communication to help tackle some of the inherently multidisciplinary problems that face integrated geophysical methods.

  15. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  16. Advanced Data Visualization in Astrophysics: The X3D Pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Owen, Chris I.; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes; Borthakur, Sanchayeeta

    2016-02-01

    Most modern astrophysical data sets are multi-dimensional; a characteristic that can nowadays generally be conserved and exploited scientifically during the data reduction/simulation and analysis cascades. However, the same multi-dimensional data sets are systematically cropped, sliced, and/or projected to printable two-dimensional diagrams at the publication stage. In this article, we introduce the concept of the “X3D pathway” as a mean of simplifying and easing the access to data visualization and publication via three-dimensional (3D) diagrams. The X3D pathway exploits the facts that (1) the X3D 3D file format lies at the center of a product tree that includes interactive HTML documents, 3D printing, and high-end animations, and (2) all high-impact-factor and peer-reviewed journals in astrophysics are now published (some exclusively) online. We argue that the X3D standard is an ideal vector for sharing multi-dimensional data sets because it provides direct access to a range of different data visualization techniques, is fully open source, and is a well-defined standard from the International Organization for Standardization. Unlike other earlier propositions to publish multi-dimensional data sets via 3D diagrams, the X3D pathway is not tied to specific software (prone to rapid and unexpected evolution), but instead is compatible with a range of open-source software already in use by our community. The interactive HTML branch of the X3D pathway is also actively supported by leading peer-reviewed journals in the field of astrophysics. Finally, this article provides interested readers with a detailed set of practical astrophysical examples designed to act as a stepping stone toward the implementation of the X3D pathway for any other data set.

  17. Ionothermal synthesis of chiral metal phosphite open frameworks with in situ generated organic templates.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Ming; Cheng, Kai; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Jian

    2013-05-20

    Two novel three-dimensional chiral metal phosphite open frameworks with 4-connected quartz topology, [Me2-DABCO][M2(HPO3)3] [M = Co (1), Zn (2); Me2-DABCO = N,N'-dimethyl-1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane], have been ionothermally synthesized in deep eutectic solvents (choline chloride/1,3-dimethylurea). It is interesting that the organic template, Me2-DABCO, is in situ generated from the alkylation reaction of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane and dimethyl phosphites. PMID:23621695

  18. Open framework metal chalcogenides as efficient photocatalysts for reduction of CO2 into renewable hydrocarbon fuel.

    PubMed

    Sasan, Koroush; Lin, Qipu; Mao, Chengyu; Feng, Pingyun

    2016-06-01

    Open framework metal chalcogenides are a family of porous semiconducting materials with diverse chemical compositions. Here we show that these materials containing covalent three-dimensional superlattices of nanosized supertetrahedral clusters can function as efficient photocatalysts for the reduction of CO2 to CH4. Unlike dense semiconductors, metal cations are successfully incorporated into the channels of the porous semiconducting materials to further tune the physical properties of the materials such as electrical conductivity and band gaps. In terms of the photocatalytic properties, the metal-incorporated porous chalcogenides demonstrated enhanced solar energy absorption and higher electrical conductivity and improved photocatalytic activity. PMID:27186825

  19. High rate, long cycle life battery electrode materials with an open framework structure

    DOEpatents

    Wessells, Colin; Huggins, Robert; Cui, Yi; Pasta, Mauro

    2015-02-10

    A battery includes a cathode, an anode, and an aqueous electrolyte disposed between the cathode and the anode and including a cation A. At least one of the cathode and the anode includes an electrode material having an open framework crystal structure into which the cation A is reversibly inserted during operation of the battery. The battery has a reference specific capacity when cycled at a reference rate, and at least 75% of the reference specific capacity is retained when the battery is cycled at 10 times the reference rate.

  20. Photoelectric covalent organic frameworks: converting open lattices into ordered donor-acceptor heterojunctions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Furukawa, Ko; Gao, Jia; Nagai, Atsushi; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Dong, Yuping; Jiang, Donglin

    2014-07-16

    Ordered one-dimensional open channels represent the typical porous structure of two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks (COFs). Here we report a general synthetic strategy for converting these open lattice structures into ordered donor-acceptor heterojunctions. A three-component topological design scheme was explored to prepare electron-donating intermediate COFs, which upon click reaction were transformed to photoelectric COFs with segregated donor-acceptor alignments, whereas electron-accepting buckyballs were spatially confined within the nanochannels via covalent anchoring on the channel walls. The donor-acceptor heterojunctions trigger photoinduced electron transfer and allow charge separation with radical species delocalized in the π-arrays, whereas the charge separation efficiency was dependent on the buckyball content. This new donor-acceptor strategy explores both skeletons and pores of COFs for charge separation and photoenergy conversion. PMID:24963896

  1. Synthesis, structure and photoluminescence properties of amine-templated open-framework bismuth sulfates

    SciTech Connect

    Marri, Subba R.; Behera, J.N.

    2014-02-15

    Two organically-templated bismuth sulfates of the compositions, [C{sub 6}N{sub 2}H{sub 14}] [Bi(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(NO{sub 3})], (1) and [C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 12}]{sub 4}[Bi{sub 4}(SO{sub 4}){sub 10}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}], (2), with open architecture have been synthesized and their structures determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. 1 has a corrugated layered structure with 8-membered aperture wherein the SO{sub 4} tetrahedra and the BiO{sub 8} polyhedra join together to form (4, 4) net sheets of the metal centers while 2 has a three-dimensional structure possessing 8- and 12-membered channels. Both the compounds show good fluorescence properties exhibiting blue luminescence. Time-resolved fluorescence behavior of 1 and 2 shows mean fluorescence life time of 0.9 and 1.0 ns, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Two open-framework bismuth sulfates with the layered and three-dimensional structures have been synthesized and characterized. Both the compounds show good fluorescence properties exhibiting blue luminescence. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Two organically-templated bismuth sulfates with open architecture have been synthesized and characterized. • One has a corrugated layered structure while the other one has a three-dimensional structure possessing channels. • They are novel in that open-framework three-dimensional main group metal sulfates are first to be reported. • They show good fluorescence properties exhibiting blue luminescence.

  2. A framework for air quality monitoring based on free public data and open source tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolov, Hristo; Borisova, Denitsa

    2014-10-01

    In the recent years more and more widely accepted by the Space agencies (e.g. NASA, ESA) is the policy toward provision of Earth observation (EO) data and end products concerning air quality especially in large urban areas without cost to researchers and SMEs. Those EO data are complemented by increasing amount of in-situ data also provided at no cost either from national authorities or having crowdsourced origin. This accessibility together with the increased processing capabilities of the free and open source software is a prerequisite for creation of solid framework for air modeling in support of decision making at medium and large scale. Essential part of this framework is web-based GIS mapping tool responsible for dissemination of the output generated. In this research an attempt is made to establish a running framework based solely on openly accessible data on air quality and on set of freely available software tools for processing and modeling taking into account the present status quo in Bulgaria. Among the primary sources of data, especially for bigger urban areas, for different types of gases and dust particles, noted should be the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology of Bulgaria (NIMH) and National System for Environmental Monitoring managed by Bulgarian Executive Environmental Agency (ExEA). Both authorities provide data for concentration of several gases just to mention CO, CO2, NO2, SO2, and fine suspended dust (PM10, PM2.5) on monthly (for some data on daily) basis. In the framework proposed these data will complement the data from satellite-based sensors such as OMI instrument aboard EOS-Aura satellite and from TROPOMI instrument payload for future ESA Sentinel-5P mission. Integral part of the framework is the modern map for the land use/land cover which is provided from EEA by initiative GIO Land CORINE. This map is also a product from EO data distributed at European level. First and above all, our effort is focused on provision to the

  3. Quality Improvement, Quality Assurance, and Benchmarking: Comparing Two Frameworks for Managing Quality Processes in Open and Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, Alistair

    2005-01-01

    Managing quality processes become critically important for higher education institutions generally, but especially for institutions involved in open and distance learning. In Australia, managers of centers responsible for open and distance learning have identified two frameworks that potentially offer ways of conceiving of the application of…

  4. SMILI?: A Framework for Interfaces to Learning Data in Open Learner Models, Learning Analytics and Related Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Susan; Kay, Judy

    2016-01-01

    The SMILI? (Student Models that Invite the Learner In) Open Learner Model Framework was created to provide a coherent picture of the many and diverse forms of Open Learner Models (OLMs). The aim was for SMILI? to provide researchers with a systematic way to describe, compare and critique OLMs. We expected it to highlight those areas where there…

  5. Interactive 3d Landscapes on Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanini, B.; Calori, L.; Ferdani, D.; Pescarin, S.

    2011-09-01

    The paper describes challenges identified while developing browser embedded 3D landscape rendering applications, our current approach and work-flow and how recent development in browser technologies could affect. All the data, even if processed by optimization and decimation tools, result in very huge databases that require paging, streaming and Level-of-Detail techniques to be implemented to allow remote web based real time fruition. Our approach has been to select an open source scene-graph based visual simulation library with sufficient performance and flexibility and adapt it to the web by providing a browser plug-in. Within the current Montegrotto VR Project, content produced with new pipelines has been integrated. The whole Montegrotto Town has been generated procedurally by CityEngine. We used this procedural approach, based on algorithms and procedures because it is particularly functional to create extensive and credible urban reconstructions. To create the archaeological sites we used optimized mesh acquired with laser scanning and photogrammetry techniques whereas to realize the 3D reconstructions of the main historical buildings we adopted computer-graphic software like blender and 3ds Max. At the final stage, semi-automatic tools have been developed and used up to prepare and clusterise 3D models and scene graph routes for web publishing. Vegetation generators have also been used with the goal of populating the virtual scene to enhance the user perceived realism during the navigation experience. After the description of 3D modelling and optimization techniques, the paper will focus and discuss its results and expectations.

  6. Registration of 3D spectral OCT volumes using 3D SIFT feature point matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemeijer, Meindert; Garvin, Mona K.; Lee, Kyungmoo; van Ginneken, Bram; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Sonka, Milan

    2009-02-01

    The recent introduction of next generation spectral OCT scanners has enabled routine acquisition of high resolution, 3D cross-sectional volumetric images of the retina. 3D OCT is used in the detection and management of serious eye diseases such as glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration. For follow-up studies, image registration is a vital tool to enable more precise, quantitative comparison of disease states. This work presents a registration method based on a recently introduced extension of the 2D Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) framework1 to 3D.2 The SIFT feature extractor locates minima and maxima in the difference of Gaussian scale space to find salient feature points. It then uses histograms of the local gradient directions around each found extremum in 3D to characterize them in a 4096 element feature vector. Matching points are found by comparing the distance between feature vectors. We apply this method to the rigid registration of optic nerve head- (ONH) and macula-centered 3D OCT scans of the same patient that have only limited overlap. Three OCT data set pairs with known deformation were used for quantitative assessment of the method's robustness and accuracy when deformations of rotation and scaling were considered. Three-dimensional registration accuracy of 2.0+/-3.3 voxels was observed. The accuracy was assessed as average voxel distance error in N=1572 matched locations. The registration method was applied to 12 3D OCT scans (200 x 200 x 1024 voxels) of 6 normal eyes imaged in vivo to demonstrate the clinical utility and robustness of the method in a real-world environment.

  7. Time domain topology optimization of 3D nanophotonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elesin, Y.; Lazarov, B. S.; Jensen, J. S.; Sigmund, O.

    2014-02-01

    We present an efficient parallel topology optimization framework for design of large scale 3D nanophotonic devices. The code shows excellent scalability and is demonstrated for optimization of broadband frequency splitter, waveguide intersection, photonic crystal-based waveguide and nanowire-based waveguide. The obtained results are compared to simplified 2D studies and we demonstrate that 3D topology optimization may lead to significant performance improvements.

  8. Optoplasmonics: hybridization in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, L.; Gervinskas, G.; Žukauskas, A.; Malinauskas, M.; Brasselet, E.; Juodkazis, S.

    2013-12-01

    Femtosecond laser fabrication has been used to make hybrid refractive and di ractive micro-optical elements in photo-polymer SZ2080. For applications in micro- uidics, axicon lenses were fabricated (both single and arrays), for generation of light intensity patterns extending through the entire depth of a typically tens-of-micrometers deep channel. Further hybridisation of an axicon with a plasmonic slot is fabricated and demonstrated nu- merically. Spiralling chiral grooves were inscribed into a 100-nm-thick gold coating sputtered over polymerized micro-axicon lenses, using a focused ion beam. This demonstrates possibility of hybridisation between optical and plasmonic 3D micro-optical elements. Numerical modelling of optical performance by 3D-FDTD method is presented.

  9. 3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W = 4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure.

  10. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  11. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  12. 360-degree 3D profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yuanhe; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Wenyi; Tan, Yushan

    1997-12-01

    A new method of 360 degree turning 3D shape measurement in which light sectioning and phase shifting techniques are both used is presented in this paper. A sine light field is applied in the projected light stripe, meanwhile phase shifting technique is used to calculate phases of the light slit. Thereafter wrapped phase distribution of the slit is formed and the unwrapping process is made by means of the height information based on the light sectioning method. Therefore phase measuring results with better precision can be obtained. At last the target 3D shape data can be produced according to geometric relationships between phases and the object heights. The principles of this method are discussed in detail and experimental results are shown in this paper.

  13. 3D Printable Graphene Composite.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  14. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  15. 3D light scanning macrography.

    PubMed

    Huber, D; Keller, M; Robert, D

    2001-08-01

    The technique of 3D light scanning macrography permits the non-invasive surface scanning of small specimens at magnifications up to 200x. Obviating both the problem of limited depth of field inherent to conventional close-up macrophotography and the metallic coating required by scanning electron microscopy, 3D light scanning macrography provides three-dimensional digital images of intact specimens without the loss of colour, texture and transparency information. This newly developed technique offers a versatile, portable and cost-efficient method for the non-invasive digital and photographic documentation of small objects. Computer controlled device operation and digital image acquisition facilitate fast and accurate quantitative morphometric investigations, and the technique offers a broad field of research and educational applications in biological, medical and materials sciences. PMID:11489078

  16. 3D-graphite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Belenkov, E. A. Ali-Pasha, V. A.

    2011-01-15

    The structure of clusters of some new carbon 3D-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that 3D-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.

  17. Glnemo2: Interactive Visualization 3D Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Jean-Charles

    2011-10-01

    Glnemo2 is an interactive 3D visualization program developed in C++ using the OpenGL library and Nokia QT 4.X API. It displays in 3D the particles positions of the different components of an nbody snapshot. It quickly gives a lot of information about the data (shape, density area, formation of structures such as spirals, bars, or peanuts). It allows for in/out zooms, rotations, changes of scale, translations, selection of different groups of particles and plots in different blending colors. It can color particles according to their density or temperature, play with the density threshold, trace orbits, display different time steps, take automatic screenshots to make movies, select particles using the mouse, and fly over a simulation using a given camera path. All these features are accessible from a very intuitive graphic user interface. Glnemo2 supports a wide range of input file formats (Nemo, Gadget 1 and 2, phiGrape, Ramses, list of files, realtime gyrfalcON simulation) which are automatically detected at loading time without user intervention. Glnemo2 uses a plugin mechanism to load the data, so that it is easy to add a new file reader. It's powered by a 3D engine which uses the latest OpenGL technology, such as shaders (glsl), vertex buffer object, frame buffer object, and takes in account the power of the graphic card used in order to accelerate the rendering. With a fast GPU, millions of particles can be rendered in real time. Glnemo2 runs on Linux, Windows (using minGW compiler), and MaxOSX, thanks to the QT4API.

  18. [Real time 3D echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Bauer, F; Shiota, T; Thomas, J D

    2001-07-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:11494630

  19. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  20. 3D-Pathology: a real-time system for quantitative diagnostic pathology and visualisation in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottrup, Christian; Beckett, Mark G.; Hager, Henrik; Locht, Peter

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents the results of the 3D-Pathology project conducted under the European EC Framework 5. The aim of the project was, through the application of 3D image reconstruction and visualization techniques, to improve the diagnostic and prognostic capabilities of medical personnel when analyzing pathological specimens using transmitted light microscopy. A fully automated, computer-controlled microscope system has been developed to capture 3D images of specimen content. 3D image reconstruction algorithms have been implemented and applied to the acquired volume data in order to facilitate the subsequent 3D visualization of the specimen. Three potential application fields, immunohistology, cromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and cytology, have been tested using the prototype system. For both immunohistology and CISH, use of the system furnished significant additional information to the pathologist.

  1. 3-D visualization of ensemble weather forecasts - Part 1: The visualization tool Met.3D (version 1.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenhaus, M.; Kern, M.; Schäfler, A.; Westermann, R.

    2015-02-01

    We present Met.3D, a new open-source tool for the interactive 3-D visualization of numerical ensemble weather predictions. The tool has been developed to support weather forecasting during aircraft-based atmospheric field campaigns, however, is applicable to further forecasting, research and teaching activities. Our work approaches challenging topics related to the visual analysis of numerical atmospheric model output - 3-D visualization, ensemble visualization, and how both can be used in a meaningful way suited to weather forecasting. Met.3D builds a bridge from proven 2-D visualization methods commonly used in meteorology to 3-D visualization by combining both visualization types in a 3-D context. We address the issue of spatial perception in the 3-D view and present approaches to using the ensemble to allow the user to assess forecast uncertainty. Interactivity is key to our approach. Met.3D uses modern graphics technology to achieve interactive visualization on standard consumer hardware. The tool supports forecast data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts and can operate directly on ECMWF hybrid sigma-pressure level grids. We describe the employed visualization algorithms, and analyse the impact of the ECMWF grid topology on computing 3-D ensemble statistical quantitites. Our techniques are demonstrated with examples from the T-NAWDEX-Falcon 2012 campaign.

  2. Sodium 3D COncentration MApping (COMA 3D) using 23Na and proton MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Milton L.; Harrington, Michael G.; Schepkin, Victor D.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.

    2014-10-01

    Functional changes of sodium 3D MRI signals were converted into millimolar concentration changes using an open-source fully automated MATLAB toolbox. These concentration changes are visualized via 3D sodium concentration maps, and they are overlaid over conventional 3D proton images to provide high-resolution co-registration for easy correlation of functional changes to anatomical regions. Nearly 5000/h concentration maps were generated on a personal computer (ca. 2012) using 21.1 T 3D sodium MRI brain images of live rats with spatial resolution of 0.8 × 0.8 × 0.8 mm3 and imaging matrices of 60 × 60 × 60. The produced concentration maps allowed for non-invasive quantitative measurement of in vivo sodium concentration in the normal rat brain as a functional response to migraine-like conditions. The presented work can also be applied to sodium-associated changes in migraine, cancer, and other metabolic abnormalities that can be sensed by molecular imaging. The MATLAB toolbox allows for automated image analysis of the 3D images acquired on the Bruker platform and can be extended to other imaging platforms. The resulting images are presented in a form of series of 2D slices in all three dimensions in native MATLAB and PDF formats. The following is provided: (a) MATLAB source code for image processing, (b) the detailed processing procedures, (c) description of the code and all sub-routines, (d) example data sets of initial and processed data. The toolbox can be downloaded at: http://www.vuiis.vanderbilt.edu/~truongm/COMA3D/.

  3. Sodium 3D COncentration MApping (COMA 3D) using (23)Na and proton MRI.

    PubMed

    Truong, Milton L; Harrington, Michael G; Schepkin, Victor D; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2014-10-01

    Functional changes of sodium 3D MRI signals were converted into millimolar concentration changes using an open-source fully automated MATLAB toolbox. These concentration changes are visualized via 3D sodium concentration maps, and they are overlaid over conventional 3D proton images to provide high-resolution co-registration for easy correlation of functional changes to anatomical regions. Nearly 5000/h concentration maps were generated on a personal computer (ca. 2012) using 21.1T 3D sodium MRI brain images of live rats with spatial resolution of 0.8×0.8×0.8 mm(3) and imaging matrices of 60×60×60. The produced concentration maps allowed for non-invasive quantitative measurement of in vivo sodium concentration in the normal rat brain as a functional response to migraine-like conditions. The presented work can also be applied to sodium-associated changes in migraine, cancer, and other metabolic abnormalities that can be sensed by molecular imaging. The MATLAB toolbox allows for automated image analysis of the 3D images acquired on the Bruker platform and can be extended to other imaging platforms. The resulting images are presented in a form of series of 2D slices in all three dimensions in native MATLAB and PDF formats. The following is provided: (a) MATLAB source code for image processing, (b) the detailed processing procedures, (c) description of the code and all sub-routines, (d) example data sets of initial and processed data. The toolbox can be downloaded at: http://www.vuiis.vanderbilt.edu/~truongm/COMA3D/. PMID:25261742

  4. Sodium 3D COncentration MApping (COMA 3D) Using 23Na and Proton MRI

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Milton L.; Harrington, Michael G.; Schepkin, Victor D.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.

    2014-01-01

    Functional changes of sodium 3D MRI signals were converted into millimolar concentration changes using an open-source fully automated MATLAB toolbox. These concentration changes are visualized via 3D sodium concentration maps, and they are overlaid over conventional 3D proton images to provide high-resolution co-registration for easy correlation of functional changes to anatomical regions. Nearly 5000/hour concentration maps were generated on a personal computer (ca. 2012) using 21.1 T 3D sodium MRI brain images of live rats with spatial resolution of 0.8×0.8×0.8 mm3 and imaging matrices of 60×60×60. The produced concentration maps allowed for non-invasive quantitative measurement of in vivo sodium concentration in the normal rat brain as a functional response to migraine-like conditions. The presented work can also be applied to sodium-associated changes in migraine, cancer, and other metabolic abnormalities that can be sensed by molecular imaging. The MATLAB toolbox allows for automated image analysis of the 3D images acquired on the Bruker platform and can be extended to other imaging platforms. The resulting images are presented in a form of series of 2D slices in all three dimensions in native MATLAB and PDF formats. The following is provided: (a) MATLAB source code for image processing, (b) the detailed processing procedures, (c) description of the code and all sub-routines, (d) example data sets of initial and processed data. The toolbox can be downloaded at: http://www.vuiis.vanderbilt.edu/~truongm/COMA3D/ PMID:25261742

  5. Open framework metal chalcogenides as efficient photocatalysts for reduction of CO2 into renewable hydrocarbon fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasan, Koroush; Lin, Qipu; Mao, Chengyu; Feng, Pingyun

    2016-05-01

    Open framework metal chalcogenides are a family of porous semiconducting materials with diverse chemical compositions. Here we show that these materials containing covalent three-dimensional superlattices of nanosized supertetrahedral clusters can function as efficient photocatalysts for the reduction of CO2 to CH4. Unlike dense semiconductors, metal cations are successfully incorporated into the channels of the porous semiconducting materials to further tune the physical properties of the materials such as electrical conductivity and band gaps. In terms of the photocatalytic properties, the metal-incorporated porous chalcogenides demonstrated enhanced solar energy absorption and higher electrical conductivity and improved photocatalytic activity.Open framework metal chalcogenides are a family of porous semiconducting materials with diverse chemical compositions. Here we show that these materials containing covalent three-dimensional superlattices of nanosized supertetrahedral clusters can function as efficient photocatalysts for the reduction of CO2 to CH4. Unlike dense semiconductors, metal cations are successfully incorporated into the channels of the porous semiconducting materials to further tune the physical properties of the materials such as electrical conductivity and band gaps. In terms of the photocatalytic properties, the metal-incorporated porous chalcogenides demonstrated enhanced solar energy absorption and higher electrical conductivity and improved photocatalytic activity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The synthetic procedure, facilities information, EDX patterns and UV-Vis data. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02525k

  6. jClustering, an open framework for the development of 4D clustering algorithms.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Pérez, José María; García-Villalba, Carmen; Pascau, Javier; Desco, Manuel; Vaquero, Juan J

    2013-01-01

    We present jClustering, an open framework for the design of clustering algorithms in dynamic medical imaging. We developed this tool because of the difficulty involved in manually segmenting dynamic PET images and the lack of availability of source code for published segmentation algorithms. Providing an easily extensible open tool encourages publication of source code to facilitate the process of comparing algorithms and provide interested third parties with the opportunity to review code. The internal structure of the framework allows an external developer to implement new algorithms easily and quickly, focusing only on the particulars of the method being implemented and not on image data handling and preprocessing. This tool has been coded in Java and is presented as an ImageJ plugin in order to take advantage of all the functionalities offered by this imaging analysis platform. Both binary packages and source code have been published, the latter under a free software license (GNU General Public License) to allow modification if necessary. PMID:23990913

  7. Generation of 3D characterization databases in vector format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkosz, Aaron; Williams, Bryan L.; Motz, Steve

    2001-09-01

    We discuss the methodology and techniques employed in transforming our 3D characterization databases and 3D target models from our internal 3D format to a more universal 3D format. Currently our 3D characterization databases and target models are encoded in an internal custom file format that targets specific simulators set up to receive out data. In order to make our databases available to a wider audience within the modeling and simulation community, we have developed techniques to transform our databases into the more common Open Flight file format. We outline the steps taken to accomplish this. We discuss the methodology and show examples of backgrounds, object discretes, and target models. The developed characterization databases are used in digital simulations by various customers within the US Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM). These databases are used in closed loop dynamic simulations to evaluate the performance of various missile systems.

  8. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer themore » second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.« less

  9. Comparison between all-on-four and all-on-six treatment concepts and framework material on stress distribution in atrophic maxilla: A prototyping guided 3D-FEA study.

    PubMed

    Bhering, Cláudia Lopes Brilhante; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz; Kemmoku, Daniel Takanori; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated two treatment concepts for the rehabilitation of moderate atrophic maxilla with dental implants (all-on-four and all-on-six) and the effect of framework material on the stress distribution of implant-support system. A three-dimensional finite element model based on a prototype was built to simulate an entirely edentulous maxilla with moderate sinus pneumatization that was rehabilitated with a full-arch fixed dental prosthesis. Four standard implants were positioned according to the all-on-four concept and four standard implants and two short implants were placed according to the all-on-six concept. Three framework materials were evaluated: cobalt-chrome (CoCr), titanium (Ti) and zirconia (Zr), totalizing six groups. A unilateral oblique force of 150N was applied to the posterior teeth. The von Mises (σVM), maximum (σmax) and minimum (σmin) principal stress and displacements were obtained. All-on-six showed smaller σmin, σVM and σmax values on the cortical bone, implants and trabecular bone, respectively. All-on-four exhibited higher displacement levels. Ti presented the highest stress values on the cortical bone, implants, abutments, prosthetic screws and displacement levels. In conclusion, the all-on-six approach and framework stiffer materials showed the most favorable biomechanical behavior. However, the stress values did not exceed the bone resistance limits for both treatment concepts. PMID:27612765

  10. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  11. Design, implementation and validation of a novel open framework for agile development of mobile health applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The delivery of healthcare services has experienced tremendous changes during the last years. Mobile health or mHealth is a key engine of advance in the forefront of this revolution. Although there exists a growing development of mobile health applications, there is a lack of tools specifically devised for their implementation. This work presents mHealthDroid, an open source Android implementation of a mHealth Framework designed to facilitate the rapid and easy development of mHealth and biomedical apps. The framework is particularly planned to leverage the potential of mobile devices such as smartphones or tablets, wearable sensors and portable biomedical systems. These devices are increasingly used for the monitoring and delivery of personal health care and wellbeing. The framework implements several functionalities to support resource and communication abstraction, biomedical data acquisition, health knowledge extraction, persistent data storage, adaptive visualization, system management and value-added services such as intelligent alerts, recommendations and guidelines. An exemplary application is also presented along this work to demonstrate the potential of mHealthDroid. This app is used to investigate on the analysis of human behavior, which is considered to be one of the most prominent areas in mHealth. An accurate activity recognition model is developed and successfully validated in both offline and online conditions. PMID:26329639

  12. Design, implementation and validation of a novel open framework for agile development of mobile health applications.

    PubMed

    Banos, Oresti; Villalonga, Claudia; Garcia, Rafael; Saez, Alejandro; Damas, Miguel; Holgado-Terriza, Juan A; Lee, Sungyong; Pomares, Hector; Rojas, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The delivery of healthcare services has experienced tremendous changes during the last years. Mobile health or mHealth is a key engine of advance in the forefront of this revolution. Although there exists a growing development of mobile health applications, there is a lack of tools specifically devised for their implementation. This work presents mHealthDroid, an open source Android implementation of a mHealth Framework designed to facilitate the rapid and easy development of mHealth and biomedical apps. The framework is particularly planned to leverage the potential of mobile devices such as smartphones or tablets, wearable sensors and portable biomedical systems. These devices are increasingly used for the monitoring and delivery of personal health care and wellbeing. The framework implements several functionalities to support resource and communication abstraction, biomedical data acquisition, health knowledge extraction, persistent data storage, adaptive visualization, system management and value-added services such as intelligent alerts, recommendations and guidelines. An exemplary application is also presented along this work to demonstrate the potential of mHealthDroid. This app is used to investigate on the analysis of human behavior, which is considered to be one of the most prominent areas in mHealth. An accurate activity recognition model is developed and successfully validated in both offline and online conditions. PMID:26329639

  13. Mixed-Mode Fracture and Fatigue Analysis of Cracked 3D Complex Structures using a 3D SGBEM-FEM Alternating Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhavanam, Sharada

    The aim of this thesis is to numerically evaluate the mixed-mode Stress Intensity Factors (SIFs) of complex 3D structural geometries with arbitrary 3D cracks using the Symmetric Galerkin Boundary Element Method-Finite Element Method (SGBEM-FEM) Alternating Method. Various structural geometries with different loading scenarios and crack configurations were examined in this thesis to understand the behavior and trends of the mixed-mode SIFs as well as the fatigue life for these complex structural geometries. Although some 3D structures have empirical and numerical solutions that are readily available in the open literature, some do not; therefore this thesis presents the results of fracture and fatigue analyses of these 3D complex structures using the SGBEM-FEM Alternating Method to serve as reference for future studies. Furthermore, there are advantages of using the SGBEM-FEM Alternating Method compared to traditional FEM methods. For example, the fatigue-crack-growth and fatigue life can be better estimated for a structure because different fatigue models (i.e. Walker, Paris, and NASGRO) can be used within the same framework of the SGBEM-FEM Alternating Method. The FEM (un-cracked structure)/BEM(crack model) meshes are modeled independently, which speeds up the computation process and reduces the cost of human labor. A simple coarse mesh can be used for all fracture and fatigue analyses of complex structures. In this thesis, simple coarse meshes were used for 3D complex structures, which were below 5000 elements as compared to traditional FEM, which require meshes where the elements range on the order of ˜250,000 to ˜106 and sometimes even more than that.

  14. Design, Implementation and Applications of 3d Web-Services in DB4GEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunig, M.; Kuper, P. V.; Dittrich, A.; Wild, P.; Butwilowski, E.; Al-Doori, M.

    2013-09-01

    The object-oriented database architecture DB4GeO was originally designed to support sub-surface applications in the geo-sciences. This is reflected in DB4GeO's geometric data model as well as in its import and export functions. Initially, these functions were designed for communication with 3D geological modeling and visualization tools such as GOCAD or MeshLab. However, it soon became clear that DB4GeO was suitable for a much wider range of applications. Therefore it is natural to move away from a standalone solution and to open the access to DB4GeO data by standardized OGC web-services. Though REST and OGC services seem incompatible at first sight, the implementation in DB4GeO shows that OGC-based implementation of web-services may use parts of the DB4GeO-REST implementation. Starting with initial solutions in the history of DB4GeO, this paper will introduce the design, adaptation (i.e. model transformation), and first steps in the implementation of OGC Web Feature (WFS) and Web Processing Services (WPS), as new interfaces to DB4GeO data and operations. Among its capabilities, DB4GeO can provide data in different data formats like GML, GOCAD, or DB3D XML through a WFS, as well as its ability to run operations like a 3D-to-2D service, or mesh-simplification (Progressive Meshes) through a WPS. We then demonstrate, an Android-based mobile 3D augmented reality viewer for DB4GeO that uses the Web Feature Service to visualize 3D geo-database query results. Finally, we explore future research work considering DB4GeO in the framework of the research group "Computer-Aided Collaborative Subway Track Planning in Multi-Scale 3D City and Building Models".

  15. The PRISM3D paleoenvironmental reconstruction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowsett, H.; Robinson, M.; Haywood, A.M.; Salzmann, U.; Hill, Daniel; Sohl, L.E.; Chandler, M.; Williams, Mark; Foley, K.; Stoll, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    The Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) paleoenvironmental reconstruction is an internally consistent and comprehensive global synthesis of a past interval of relatively warm and stable climate. It is regularly used in model studies that aim to better understand Pliocene climate, to improve model performance in future climate scenarios, and to distinguish model-dependent climate effects. The PRISM reconstruction is constantly evolving in order to incorporate additional geographic sites and environmental parameters, and is continuously refined by independent research findings. The new PRISM three dimensional (3D) reconstruction differs from previous PRISM reconstructions in that it includes a subsurface ocean temperature reconstruction, integrates geochemical sea surface temperature proxies to supplement the faunal-based temperature estimates, and uses numerical models for the first time to augment fossil data. Here we describe the components of PRISM3D and describe new findings specific to the new reconstruction. Highlights of the new PRISM3D reconstruction include removal of Hudson Bay and the Great Lakes and creation of open waterways in locations where the current bedrock elevation is less than 25m above modern sea level, due to the removal of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the reduction of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. The mid-Piacenzian oceans were characterized by a reduced east-west temperature gradient in the equatorial Pacific, but PRISM3D data do not imply permanent El Niño conditions. The reduced equator-to-pole temperature gradient that characterized previous PRISM reconstructions is supported by significant displacement of vegetation belts toward the poles, is extended into the Arctic Ocean, and is confirmed by multiple proxies in PRISM3D. Arctic warmth coupled with increased dryness suggests the formation of warm and salty paleo North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and a more vigorous thermohaline circulation system that may

  16. Solid-state synthesis, structure and properties of a novel open-framework cadmium selenite bromide: [Cd{sub 10}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 8}Br{sub 4}]·HBr·H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wen-Tong; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Wang, Guan-E; Chen, Hui-Fen; Guo, Guo-Cong

    2013-08-15

    A novel open-framework cadmium selenite bromide, [Cd{sub 10}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 8}Br{sub 4}]·HBr·H{sub 2}O (1), has been obtained by a solid-state reaction at 450 °C, and the structure has been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound 1 crystallizes in Pbcm of the orthorhombic system: a=10.882(3), b=16.275(5), c=18.728(6) Å, V=3317(2) Å{sup 3}, R1/wR2=0.0411/0.0659. Compound 1 is characteristic of a novel 3-D open-framework structure, composing {sub ∞}{sup 2}[CdSeO{sub 3}] layers and the pillars of edge-shared CdO{sub 3}Br{sub 2} square pyramids. The lattice water molecules and the HBr molecules locate in the voids of the framework. Optical absorption spectrum of 1 reveals the presence of an optical gap of 1.65 eV. Solid-state photoluminescent study indicates that compound 1 exhibits strong violet emission. TG–DSC measurement shows that compound 1 is thermally stable up to 200 °C. - Graphical abstract: A metal selenite halide has been synthesized and features a 3-D open-framework structure, composing edge-shared CdO{sub 8} decahedra and pillars of edge-sharing pentahedra. UV–vis, TG–DSC and luminescent measurements are also reported. Highlights: • This paper reports a novel cadmium selenite bromide obtained by an intermediate-temperature solid-state reaction. • The title compound is characteristic of a novel 3-D open-framework structure, composing {sub ∞}{sup 2}[CdSeO{sub 3}] layers and the pillars of edge-shared CdO{sub 3}Br{sub 2} square pyramids. • The title compound is thermally stable up to 200 °C. • The title compound has an optical gap of 1.65 eV and exhibits strong violet emission.

  17. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  18. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  19. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  20. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  1. Vacant Lander in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D image captured by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's rear hazard-identification camera shows the now-empty lander that carried the rover 283 million miles to Meridiani Planum, Mars. Engineers received confirmation that Opportunity's six wheels successfully rolled off the lander and onto martian soil at 3:01 a.m. PST, January 31, 2004, on the seventh martian day, or sol, of the mission. The rover is approximately 1 meter (3 feet) in front of the lander, facing north.

  2. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  3. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  4. 3D acoustic atmospheric tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.

  5. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  6. 3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikaw, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W=4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure. We also simulate jets with the more realistic initial conditions for injecting jets for helical mangetic field, perturbed density, velocity, and internal energy, which are supposed to be caused in the process of jet generation. Three possible explanations for the observed variability are (i) tidal disruption of a star falling into the black hole, (ii) instabilities in the relativistic accretion disk, and (iii) jet-related PRocesses. New results will be reported at the meeting.

  7. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  8. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  9. 3D medical thermography device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Peyman

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.

  10. 3D Ion Temperature Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Hiroshi; You, Setthivoine; Balandin, Alexander; Inomoto, Michiaki; Ono, Yasushi

    2009-11-01

    The TS-4 experiment at the University of Tokyo collides two spheromaks to form a single high-beta compact toroid. Magnetic reconnection during the merging process heats and accelerates the plasma in toroidal and poloidal directions. The reconnection region has a complex 3D topology determined by the pitch of the spheromak magnetic fields at the merging plane. A pair of multichord passive spectroscopic diagnostics have been established to measure the ion temperature and velocity in the reconnection volume. One setup measures spectral lines across a poloidal plane, retrieving velocity and temperature from Abel inversion. The other, novel setup records spectral lines across another section of the plasma and reconstructs velocity and temperature from 3D vector and 2D scalar tomography techniques. The magnetic field linking both measurement planes is determined from in situ magnetic probe arrays. The ion temperature is then estimated within the volume between the two measurement planes and at the reconnection region. The measurement is followed over several repeatable discharges to follow the heating and acceleration process during the merging reconnection.

  11. 3D structure and nuclear targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupré, Raphaël; Scopetta, Sergio

    2016-06-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical ideas are laying the ground for a new era in the knowledge of the parton structure of nuclei. We report on two promising directions beyond inclusive deep inelastic scattering experiments, aimed at, among other goals, unveiling the three-dimensional structure of the bound nucleon. The 3D structure in coordinate space can be accessed through deep exclusive processes, whose non-perturbative content is parametrized in terms of generalized parton distributions. In this way the distribution of partons in the transverse plane will be obtained, providing a pictorial view of the realization of the European Muon Collaboration effect. In particular, we show how, through the generalized parton distribution framework, non-nucleonic degrees of freedom in nuclei can be unveiled. Analogously, the momentum space 3D structure can be accessed by studying transverse-momentum-dependent parton distributions in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering processes. The status of measurements is also summarized, in particular novel coincidence measurements at high-luminosity facilities, such as Jefferson Laboratory. Finally the prospects for the next years at future facilities, such as the 12GeV Jefferson Laboratory and the Electron Ion Collider, are presented.

  12. Virtual VMASC: A 3D Game Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manepalli, Suchitra; Shen, Yuzhong; Garcia, Hector M.; Lawsure, Kaleen

    2010-01-01

    The advantages of creating interactive 3D simulations that allow viewing, exploring, and interacting with land improvements, such as buildings, in digital form are manifold and range from allowing individuals from anywhere in the world to explore those virtual land improvements online, to training military personnel in dealing with war-time environments, and to making those land improvements available in virtual worlds such as Second Life. While we haven't fully explored the true potential of such simulations, we have identified a requirement within our organization to use simulations like those to replace our front-desk personnel and allow visitors to query, naVigate, and communicate virtually with various entities within the building. We implemented the Virtual VMASC 3D simulation of the Virginia Modeling Analysis and Simulation Center (VMASC) office building to not only meet our front-desk requirement but also to evaluate the effort required in designing such a simulation and, thereby, leverage the experience we gained in future projects of this kind. This paper describes the goals we set for our implementation, the software approach taken, the modeling contribution made, and the technologies used such as XNA Game Studio, .NET framework, Autodesk software packages, and, finally, the applicability of our implementation on a variety of architectures including Xbox 360 and PC. This paper also summarizes the result of our evaluation and the lessons learned from our effort.

  13. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

    2004-09-01

    The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data

  14. DasPy – Open Source Multivariate Land Data Assimilation Framework with High Performance Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xujun; Li, Xin; Montzka, Carsten; Kollet, Stefan; Vereecken, Harry; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan

    2015-04-01

    Data assimilation has become a popular method to integrate observations from multiple sources with land surface models to improve predictions of the water and energy cycles of the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. In recent years, several land data assimilation systems have been developed in different research agencies. Because of the software availability or adaptability, these systems are not easy to apply for the purpose of multivariate land data assimilation research. Multivariate data assimilation refers to the simultaneous assimilation of observation data for multiple model state variables into a simulation model. Our main motivation was to develop an open source multivariate land data assimilation framework (DasPy) which is implemented using the Python script language mixed with C++ and Fortran language. This system has been evaluated in several soil moisture, L-band brightness temperature and land surface temperature assimilation studies. The implementation allows also parameter estimation (soil properties and/or leaf area index) on the basis of the joint state and parameter estimation approach. LETKF (Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter) is implemented as the main data assimilation algorithm, and uncertainties in the data assimilation can be represented by perturbed atmospheric forcings, perturbed soil and vegetation properties and model initial conditions. The CLM4.5 (Community Land Model) was integrated as the model operator. The CMEM (Community Microwave Emission Modelling Platform), COSMIC (COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Interaction Code) and the two source formulation were integrated as observation operators for assimilation of L-band passive microwave, cosmic-ray soil moisture probe and land surface temperature measurements, respectively. DasPy is parallelized using the hybrid MPI (Message Passing Interface) and OpenMP (Open Multi-Processing) techniques. All the input and output data flow is organized efficiently using the commonly used NetCDF file

  15. Use of 3D DCE-MRI for the estimation of renal perfusion and glomerular filtration rate: an intrasubject comparison of FLASH and KWIC with a comprehensive framework for evaluation.

    PubMed

    Eikefjord, Eli; Andersen, Erling; Hodneland, Erlend; Zöllner, Frank; Lundervold, Arvid; Svarstad, Einar; Rørvik, Jarle

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to compare two 3D dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI measurement techniques for MR renography, a radial k-space weighted image contrast (KWIC) sequence and a cartesian FLASH sequence, in terms of intrasubject differences in estimates of renal functional parameters and image quality characteristics. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Ten healthy volunteers underwent repeated breath-hold KWIC and FLASH sequence examinations with temporal resolutions of 2.5 and 2.8 seconds, respectively. A two-compartment model was used to estimate MRI-derived perfusion parameters and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The latter was compared with the iohexol GFR and the estimated GFR. Image quality was assessed using a visual grading characteristic analysis of relevant image quality criteria and signal-to-noise ratio calculations. RESULTS. Perfusion estimates from FLASH were closer to literature reference values than were the KWIC sequences. In relation to the iohexol GFR (mean [± SD], 103 ± 11 mL/min/1.73 m(2)), KWIC produced significant underestimations and larger bias in GFR values (mean, 70 ± 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2); bias = -33.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) compared with the FLASH GFR (110 ± 29 mL/min/1.73 m(2); bias = 6.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). KWIC was statistically significantly (p < 0.005) more impaired by artifacts than was FLASH (AUC = 0.18). The average signal-enhancement ratio (delta ratio) in the cortex was significantly lower for KWIC (delta ratio = 0.99) than for FLASH (delta ratio = 1.40). Other visually graded image quality characteristics and signal-to-noise ratio measurements were not statistically significantly different. CONCLUSION. Using the same postprocessing scheme and pharmacokinetic model, FLASH produced more accurate perfusion and filtration parameters than did KWIC compared with clinical reference methods. Our data suggest an apparent relationship between image quality characteristics and the degree of stability in the numeric model

  16. 3D-Printing for Analytical Ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Desai, Abhiksha; Krynitsky, Jonathan; Pohida, Thomas J; Zhao, Huaying; Schuck, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) is a classical technique of physical biochemistry providing information on size, shape, and interactions of macromolecules from the analysis of their migration in centrifugal fields while free in solution. A key mechanical element in AUC is the centerpiece, a component of the sample cell assembly that is mounted between the optical windows to allow imaging and to seal the sample solution column against high vacuum while exposed to gravitational forces in excess of 300,000 g. For sedimentation velocity it needs to be precisely sector-shaped to allow unimpeded radial macromolecular migration. During the history of AUC a great variety of centerpiece designs have been developed for different types of experiments. Here, we report that centerpieces can now be readily fabricated by 3D printing at low cost, from a variety of materials, and with customized designs. The new centerpieces can exhibit sufficient mechanical stability to withstand the gravitational forces at the highest rotor speeds and be sufficiently precise for sedimentation equilibrium and sedimentation velocity experiments. Sedimentation velocity experiments with bovine serum albumin as a reference molecule in 3D printed centerpieces with standard double-sector design result in sedimentation boundaries virtually indistinguishable from those in commercial double-sector epoxy centerpieces, with sedimentation coefficients well within the range of published values. The statistical error of the measurement is slightly above that obtained with commercial epoxy, but still below 1%. Facilitated by modern open-source design and fabrication paradigms, we believe 3D printed centerpieces and AUC accessories can spawn a variety of improvements in AUC experimental design, efficiency and resource allocation. PMID:27525659

  17. 3D-Printing for Analytical Ultracentrifugation

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Abhiksha; Krynitsky, Jonathan; Pohida, Thomas J.; Zhao, Huaying

    2016-01-01

    Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) is a classical technique of physical biochemistry providing information on size, shape, and interactions of macromolecules from the analysis of their migration in centrifugal fields while free in solution. A key mechanical element in AUC is the centerpiece, a component of the sample cell assembly that is mounted between the optical windows to allow imaging and to seal the sample solution column against high vacuum while exposed to gravitational forces in excess of 300,000 g. For sedimentation velocity it needs to be precisely sector-shaped to allow unimpeded radial macromolecular migration. During the history of AUC a great variety of centerpiece designs have been developed for different types of experiments. Here, we report that centerpieces can now be readily fabricated by 3D printing at low cost, from a variety of materials, and with customized designs. The new centerpieces can exhibit sufficient mechanical stability to withstand the gravitational forces at the highest rotor speeds and be sufficiently precise for sedimentation equilibrium and sedimentation velocity experiments. Sedimentation velocity experiments with bovine serum albumin as a reference molecule in 3D printed centerpieces with standard double-sector design result in sedimentation boundaries virtually indistinguishable from those in commercial double-sector epoxy centerpieces, with sedimentation coefficients well within the range of published values. The statistical error of the measurement is slightly above that obtained with commercial epoxy, but still below 1%. Facilitated by modern open-source design and fabrication paradigms, we believe 3D printed centerpieces and AUC accessories can spawn a variety of improvements in AUC experimental design, efficiency and resource allocation. PMID:27525659

  18. Crystal structure and characterization of a novel luminescent 2D metal-organic framework, poly[aquaitaconatocalcium(II)] possessing an open framework structure with hydrophobic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Remya M.; Sudarsanakumar, M. R.; Suma, S.; Prathapachandra Kurup, M. R.

    2016-02-01

    A novel 2D metal-organic framework poly[aquaitaconatocalcium(II)] with an open framework structure has been successfully grown by single gel diffusion technique. Sodium metasilicate was used for gel preparation. The structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compound crystallizes in monoclinic space group P21/c with hydrophobic 1D channels. The obtained crystals were further characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR and UV-Visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry. The luminescent property of the complex was also discussed.

  19. Creating 3D realistic head: from two orthogonal photos to multiview face contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuan; Lin, Qian; Tang, Feng; Tang, Liang; Lim, Sukhwan; Wang, Shengjin

    2011-03-01

    3D Head models have many applications, such as virtual conference, 3D web game, and so on. The existing several web-based face modeling solutions that can create a 3D face model from one or two user uploaded face images, are limited to generating the 3D model of only face region. The accuracy of such reconstruction is very limited for side views, as well as hair regions. The goal of our research is to develop a framework for reconstructing the realistic 3D human head based on two approximate orthogonal views. Our framework takes two images, and goes through segmentation, feature points detection, 3D bald head reconstruction, 3D hair reconstruction and texture mapping to create a 3D head model. The main contribution of the paper is that the processing steps are applies to both the face region as well as the hair region.

  20. Casimir force for absorbing media in an open quantum system framework: Scalar model

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, Fernando C.; Rubio Lopez, Adrian E.; Mazzitelli, Francisco D.

    2011-11-15

    In this article we compute the Casimir force between two finite-width mirrors at finite temperature, working in a simplified model in 1+1 dimensions. The mirrors, considered as dissipative media, are modeled by a continuous set of harmonic oscillators which in turn are coupled to an external environment at thermal equilibrium. The calculation of the Casimir force is performed in the framework of the theory of open quantum systems. It is shown that the Casimir interaction has two different contributions: the usual radiation pressure from the vacuum, which is obtained for ideal mirrors without dissipation or losses, and a Langevin force associated with the noise induced by the interaction between dielectric atoms in the slabs and the thermal bath. Both contributions to the Casimir force are needed in order to reproduce the analogous Lifshitz formula in 1+1 dimensions. We also discuss the relationship between the electromagnetic properties of the mirrors and the spectral density of the environment.

  1. Tatool: a Java-based open-source programming framework for psychological studies.

    PubMed

    von Bastian, Claudia C; Locher, André; Ruflin, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Tatool (Training and Testing Tool) was developed to assist researchers with programming training software, experiments, and questionnaires. Tatool is Java-based, and thus is a platform-independent and object-oriented framework. The architecture was designed to meet the requirements of experimental designs and provides a large number of predefined functions that are useful in psychological studies. Tatool comprises features crucial for training studies (e.g., configurable training schedules, adaptive training algorithms, and individual training statistics) and allows for running studies online via Java Web Start. The accompanying "Tatool Online" platform provides the possibility to manage studies and participants' data easily with a Web-based interface. Tatool is published open source under the GNU Lesser General Public License, and is available at www.tatool.ch. PMID:22723043

  2. pyNS: an open-source framework for 0D haemodynamic modelling.

    PubMed

    Manini, Simone; Antiga, Luca; Botti, Lorenzo; Remuzzi, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    A number of computational approaches have been proposed for the simulation of haemodynamics and vascular wall dynamics in complex vascular networks. Among them, 0D pulse wave propagation methods allow to efficiently model flow and pressure distributions and wall displacements throughout vascular networks at low computational costs. Although several techniques are documented in literature, the availability of open-source computational tools is still limited. We here present python Network Solver, a modular solver framework for 0D problems released under a BSD license as part of the archToolkit ( http://archtk.github.com ). As an application, we describe patient-specific models of the systemic circulation and detailed upper extremity for use in the prediction of maturation after surgical creation of vascular access for haemodialysis. PMID:25549775

  3. A Novel Open-Framework Cerium Phosphate Fluoride: (NH 4)[Ce IVF 2(PO 4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ranbo; Wang, Dan; Takei, Takahiro; Koizumi, Hitoshi; Kumada, Nobuhiro; Kinomura, Nobukazu

    2001-02-01

    A novel open-framework cerium phosphate fluoride, (NH4)[CeIVF2(PO4)], has been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction, ion chromatography analysis, and thermal analysis. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/m(No. 11), with a=6.660(2), b=5.875(2), c=7.177(3) Å, β=114.31(2)°, and V=255.9(2) Å3 (R=0.039 and Rw=0.045). In this compound, the cerium-centered CeO4F4 polyhedra link via Ce2F2 rings to form corrugated chains along the b axis of the structure. These are tetrahedrally connected via PO4 groups to create the three-dimensional network with a one-dimensional channel. NH+4 cations are accommodated at the intersection of the channels.

  4. Series of open-framework aluminoborates containing [B5O10] clusters.

    PubMed

    Wei, Li; Wang, Guo-Ming; He, Huan; Yang, Bai-Feng; Yang, Guo-Yu

    2015-01-21

    Three new open-framework aluminoborates (ABOs), Rb2AlB5O10·4H2O (), [C5N2H16]AlB5O10 (, C5N2H16 = N-ethyl-1,3-diaminopropane) and [H2dap][(CH3)2NH]AlB5O10 (, dap = 1,2-diaminopropane) have been made under solvothermal conditions and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TGA, UV-vis, powder XRD, single-crystal XRD, fluorescence spectra and NLO determination, respectively. These three ABOs display two structural types: and are isostructural and crystallize in acentric space groups C2221 and P212121 respectively, showing intersecting helical channels and good NLO properties; while, crystallizes in the centrosymmetric space group Pbca and has CrB4 topology, exhibiting intersecting 8-, 11- and 14-ring channels. UV-vis spectral investigation indicates that they are wide-band-gap semiconductors. PMID:25427276

  5. Long-term Science Data Curation Using a Digital Object Model and Open-Source Frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, J.; Lenhardt, W.; Wilson, B. E.; Palanisamy, G.; Cook, R. B.

    2010-12-01

    Scientific digital content, including Earth Science observations and model output, has become more heterogeneous in format and more distributed across the Internet. In addition, data and metadata are becoming necessarily linked internally and externally on the Web. As a result, such content has become more difficult for providers to manage and preserve and for users to locate, understand, and consume. Specifically, it is increasingly harder to deliver relevant metadata and data processing lineage information along with the actual content consistently. Readme files, data quality information, production provenance, and other descriptive metadata are often separated in the storage level as well as in the data search and retrieval interfaces available to a user. Critical archival metadata, such as auditing trails and integrity checks, are often even more difficult for users to access, if they exist at all. We investigate the use of several open-source software frameworks to address these challenges. We use Fedora Commons Framework and its digital object abstraction as the repository, Drupal CMS as the user-interface, and the Islandora module as the connector from Drupal to Fedora Repository. With the digital object model, metadata of data description and data provenance can be associated with data content in a formal manner, so are external references and other arbitrary auxiliary information. Changes are formally audited on an object, and digital contents are versioned and have checksums automatically computed. Further, relationships among objects are formally expressed with RDF triples. Data replication, recovery, metadata export are supported with standard protocols, such as OAI-PMH. We provide a tentative comparative analysis of the chosen software stack with the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) reference model, along with our initial results with the existing terrestrial ecology data collections at NASA’s ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center for

  6. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction. PMID:26861680

  7. Educational opportunities based on the university-industry synergies in an open innovation framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucia, Óscar; Burdio, José M.; Acero, Jesús; Barragán, Luis A.; Garcia, José R.

    2012-03-01

    Collaboration between Industry and University is becoming more important in order to improve the competitiveness of the research and development activities. Moreover, establishing synergies to bridge the gap between the academic and industrial spheres has demonstrated to be advantageous for both of them. Nowadays, Industry is moving towards an open innovation structure, in which external agents as universities play a key role. Besides, University is also seeking a more active learning methodology to improve the education of students for the real world. Considering this framework, a special effort should be done to take advantage of the collaborative work between Industry and University. The aim of this paper is to present the collaborative framework and the benefits obtained of the educational activities as a consequence of the long-term collaboration established between the University of Zaragoza and the Bosh and Siemens Home Appliances Group. The key stones of the collaboration are presented, and the positive outcomes for the students are highlighted. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the proposed program are also discussed.

  8. JBioWH: an open-source Java framework for bioinformatics data integration.

    PubMed

    Vera, Roberto; Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Perez, Sonia; Ligeti, Balázs; Kertész-Farkas, Attila; Pongor, Sándor

    2013-01-01

    The Java BioWareHouse (JBioWH) project is an open-source platform-independent programming framework that allows a user to build his/her own integrated database from the most popular data sources. JBioWH can be used for intensive querying of multiple data sources and the creation of streamlined task-specific data sets on local PCs. JBioWH is based on a MySQL relational database scheme and includes JAVA API parser functions for retrieving data from 20 public databases (e.g. NCBI, KEGG, etc.). It also includes a client desktop application for (non-programmer) users to query data. In addition, JBioWH can be tailored for use in specific circumstances, including the handling of massive queries for high-throughput analyses or CPU intensive calculations. The framework is provided with complete documentation and application examples and it can be downloaded from the Project Web site at http://code.google.com/p/jbiowh. A MySQL server is available for demonstration purposes at hydrax.icgeb.trieste.it:3307. Database URL: http://code.google.com/p/jbiowh. PMID:23846595

  9. JBioWH: an open-source Java framework for bioinformatics data integration

    PubMed Central

    Vera, Roberto; Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Perez, Sonia; Ligeti, Balázs; Kertész-Farkas, Attila; Pongor, Sándor

    2013-01-01

    The Java BioWareHouse (JBioWH) project is an open-source platform-independent programming framework that allows a user to build his/her own integrated database from the most popular data sources. JBioWH can be used for intensive querying of multiple data sources and the creation of streamlined task-specific data sets on local PCs. JBioWH is based on a MySQL relational database scheme and includes JAVA API parser functions for retrieving data from 20 public databases (e.g. NCBI, KEGG, etc.). It also includes a client desktop application for (non-programmer) users to query data. In addition, JBioWH can be tailored for use in specific circumstances, including the handling of massive queries for high-throughput analyses or CPU intensive calculations. The framework is provided with complete documentation and application examples and it can be downloaded from the Project Web site at http://code.google.com/p/jbiowh. A MySQL server is available for demonstration purposes at hydrax.icgeb.trieste.it:3307. Database URL: http://code.google.com/p/jbiowh PMID:23846595

  10. Open source libraries and frameworks for biological data visualisation: a guide for developers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Hermjakob, Henning; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput experimental techniques have led to an exponential increase in both the size and the complexity of the data sets commonly studied in biology. Data visualisation is increasingly used as the key to unlock this data, going from hypothesis generation to model evaluation and tool implementation. It is becoming more and more the heart of bioinformatics workflows, enabling scientists to reason and communicate more effectively. In parallel, there has been a corresponding trend towards the development of related software, which has triggered the maturation of different visualisation libraries and frameworks. For bioinformaticians, scientific programmers and software developers, the main challenge is to pick out the most fitting one(s) to create clear, meaningful and integrated data visualisation for their particular use cases. In this review, we introduce a collection of open source or free to use libraries and frameworks for creating data visualisation, covering the generation of a wide variety of charts and graphs. We will focus on software written in Java, JavaScript or Python. We truly believe this software offers the potential to turn tedious data into exciting visual stories. PMID:25475079

  11. Open source libraries and frameworks for biological data visualisation: A guide for developers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Hermjakob, Henning; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput experimental techniques have led to an exponential increase in both the size and the complexity of the data sets commonly studied in biology. Data visualisation is increasingly used as the key to unlock this data, going from hypothesis generation to model evaluation and tool implementation. It is becoming more and more the heart of bioinformatics workflows, enabling scientists to reason and communicate more effectively. In parallel, there has been a corresponding trend towards the development of related software, which has triggered the maturation of different visualisation libraries and frameworks. For bioinformaticians, scientific programmers and software developers, the main challenge is to pick out the most fitting one(s) to create clear, meaningful and integrated data visualisation for their particular use cases. In this review, we introduce a collection of open source or free to use libraries and frameworks for creating data visualisation, covering the generation of a wide variety of charts and graphs. We will focus on software written in Java, JavaScript or Python. We truly believe this software offers the potential to turn tedious data into exciting visual stories. PMID:25475079

  12. Automated 3D vascular segmentation in CT hepatic venography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetita, Catalin; Lucidarme, Olivier; Preteux, Francoise

    2005-08-01

    In the framework of preoperative evaluation of the hepatic venous anatomy in living-donor liver transplantation or oncologic rejections, this paper proposes an automated approach for the 3D segmentation of the liver vascular structure from 3D CT hepatic venography data. The developed segmentation approach takes into account the specificities of anatomical structures in terms of spatial location, connectivity and morphometric properties. It implements basic and advanced morphological operators (closing, geodesic dilation, gray-level reconstruction, sup-constrained connection cost) in mono- and multi-resolution filtering schemes in order to achieve an automated 3D reconstruction of the opacified hepatic vessels. A thorough investigation of the venous anatomy including morphometric parameter estimation is then possible via computer-vision 3D rendering, interaction and navigation capabilities.