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Sample records for 3d parallel high

  1. Parallel 3-D Electromagnetic Particle Code Using High Performance FORTRAN: Parallel TRISTAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, D.; Li, Y.; Nishikawa, K.-I.; et al.

    A three-dimensional full electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC ) code, TRISTAN (Tridimensional Stanford) code, has been parallelized using High Performance Fortran (HPF) as a RPM (Real Parallel Machine). In the parallelized HPF code, the simulation domain is decomposed in one-dimension, and both the particle and field data located in each domain that we call the sub-domain are distributed on each processor. Both the particle and field data on a sub-domain are needed by the neighbor sub-domains and thus communications between the sub-domains are inevitable. Our simulation results using HPF exhibit the promising applicability of the HPF communications to a large scale scientific computing such as solar wind-magnetosphere interactions.

  2. Performance analysis of high quality parallel preconditioners applied to 3D finite element structural analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kolotilina, L.; Nikishin, A.; Yeremin, A.

    1994-12-31

    The solution of large systems of linear equations is a crucial bottleneck when performing 3D finite element analysis of structures. Also, in many cases the reliability and robustness of iterative solution strategies, and their efficiency when exploiting hardware resources, fully determine the scope of industrial applications which can be solved on a particular computer platform. This is especially true for modern vector/parallel supercomputers with large vector length and for modern massively parallel supercomputers. Preconditioned iterative methods have been successfully applied to industrial class finite element analysis of structures. The construction and application of high quality preconditioners constitutes a high percentage of the total solution time. Parallel implementation of high quality preconditioners on such architectures is a formidable challenge. Two common types of existing preconditioners are the implicit preconditioners and the explicit preconditioners. The implicit preconditioners (e.g. incomplete factorizations of several types) are generally high quality but require solution of lower and upper triangular systems of equations per iteration which are difficult to parallelize without deteriorating the convergence rate. The explicit type of preconditionings (e.g. polynomial preconditioners or Jacobi-like preconditioners) require sparse matrix-vector multiplications and can be parallelized but their preconditioning qualities are less than desirable. The authors present results of numerical experiments with Factorized Sparse Approximate Inverses (FSAI) for symmetric positive definite linear systems. These are high quality preconditioners that possess a large resource of parallelism by construction without increasing the serial complexity.

  3. Three-dimensional parallel UNIPIC-3D code for simulations of high-power microwave devices

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jianguo; Chen Zaigao; Wang Yue; Zhang Dianhui; Qiao Hailiang; Fu Meiyan; Yuan Yuan; Liu Chunliang; Li Yongdong; Wang Hongguang

    2010-07-15

    This paper introduces a self-developed, three-dimensional parallel fully electromagnetic particle simulation code UNIPIC-3D. In this code, the electromagnetic fields are updated using the second-order, finite-difference time-domain method, and the particles are moved using the relativistic Newton-Lorentz force equation. The electromagnetic field and particles are coupled through the current term in Maxwell's equations. Two numerical examples are used to verify the algorithms adopted in this code, numerical results agree well with theoretical ones. This code can be used to simulate the high-power microwave (HPM) devices, such as the relativistic backward wave oscillator, coaxial vircator, and magnetically insulated line oscillator, etc. UNIPIC-3D is written in the object-oriented C++ language and can be run on a variety of platforms including WINDOWS, LINUX, and UNIX. Users can use the graphical user's interface to create the complex geometric structures of the simulated HPM devices, which can be automatically meshed by UNIPIC-3D code. This code has a powerful postprocessor which can display the electric field, magnetic field, current, voltage, power, spectrum, momentum of particles, etc. For the sake of comparison, the results computed by using the two-and-a-half-dimensional UNIPIC code are also provided for the same parameters of HPM devices, the numerical results computed from these two codes agree well with each other.

  4. A 3D Parallel Beam Dynamics Code for Modeling High Brightness Beams in Photoinjectors

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, Ji; Lidia, S.; Ryne, R.D.; Limborg, C.; /SLAC

    2006-02-13

    In this paper we report on IMPACT-T, a 3D beam dynamics code for modeling high brightness beams in photoinjectors and rf linacs. IMPACT-T is one of the few codes used in the photoinjector community that has a parallel implementation, making it very useful for high statistics simulations of beam halos and beam diagnostics. It has a comprehensive set of beamline elements, and furthermore allows arbitrary overlap of their fields. It is unique in its use of space-charge solvers based on an integrated Green function to efficiently and accurately treat beams with large aspect ratio, and a shifted Green function to efficiently treat image charge effects of a cathode. It is also unique in its inclusion of energy binning in the space-charge calculation to model beams with large energy spread. Together, all these features make IMPACT-T a powerful and versatile tool for modeling beams in photoinjectors and other systems. In this paper we describe the code features and present results of IMPACT-T simulations of the LCLS photoinjectors. We also include a comparison of IMPACT-T and PARMELA results.

  5. A 3d Parallel Beam Dynamics Code for Modeling High BrightnessBeams in Photoinjectors

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, J.; Lidia, S.; Ryne, R.; Limborg, C.

    2005-05-16

    In this paper we report on IMPACT-T, a 3D beam dynamics code for modeling high brightness beams in photoinjectors and rf linacs. IMPACT-T is one of the few codes used in the photoinjector community that has a parallel implementation, making it very useful for high statistics simulations of beam halos and beam diagnostics. It has a comprehensive set of beamline elements, and furthermore allows arbitrary overlap of their fields. It is unique in its use of space-charge solvers based on an integrated Green function to efficiently and accurately treat beams with large aspect ratio, and a shifted Green function to efficiently treat image charge effects of a cathode. It is also unique in its inclusion of energy binning in the space-charge calculation to model beams with large energy spread. Together, all these features make IMPACT-T a powerful and versatile tool for modeling beams in photoinjectors and other systems. In this paper we describe the code features and present results of IMPACT-T simulations of the LCLS photoinjectors. We also include a comparison of IMPACT-T and PARMELA results.

  6. 3-D readout-electronics packaging for high-bandwidth massively paralleled imager

    DOEpatents

    Kwiatkowski, Kris; Lyke, James

    2007-12-18

    Dense, massively parallel signal processing electronics are co-packaged behind associated sensor pixels. Microchips containing a linear or bilinear arrangement of photo-sensors, together with associated complex electronics, are integrated into a simple 3-D structure (a "mirror cube"). An array of photo-sensitive cells are disposed on a stacked CMOS chip's surface at a 45.degree. angle from light reflecting mirror surfaces formed on a neighboring CMOS chip surface. Image processing electronics are held within the stacked CMOS chip layers. Electrical connections couple each of said stacked CMOS chip layers and a distribution grid, the connections for distributing power and signals to components associated with each stacked CSMO chip layer.

  7. Large-scale Parallel Unstructured Mesh Computations for 3D High-lift Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Pirzadeh, S.

    1999-01-01

    A complete "geometry to drag-polar" analysis capability for the three-dimensional high-lift configurations is described. The approach is based on the use of unstructured meshes in order to enable rapid turnaround for complicated geometries that arise in high-lift configurations. Special attention is devoted to creating a capability for enabling analyses on highly resolved grids. Unstructured meshes of several million vertices are initially generated on a work-station, and subsequently refined on a supercomputer. The flow is solved on these refined meshes on large parallel computers using an unstructured agglomeration multigrid algorithm. Good prediction of lift and drag throughout the range of incidences is demonstrated on a transport take-off configuration using up to 24.7 million grid points. The feasibility of using this approach in a production environment on existing parallel machines is demonstrated, as well as the scalability of the solver on machines using up to 1450 processors.

  8. High-speed 3D imaging using two-wavelength parallel-phase-shift interferometry.

    PubMed

    Safrani, Avner; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim

    2015-10-15

    High-speed three dimensional imaging based on two-wavelength parallel-phase-shift interferometry is presented. The technique is demonstrated using a high-resolution polarization-based Linnik interferometer operating with three high-speed phase-masked CCD cameras and two quasi-monochromatic modulated light sources. The two light sources allow for phase unwrapping the single source wrapped phase so that relatively high step profiles having heights as large as 3.7 μm can be imaged in video rate with ±2  nm accuracy and repeatability. The technique is validated using a certified very large scale integration (VLSI) step standard followed by a demonstration from the semiconductor industry showing an integrated chip with 2.75 μm height copper micro pillars at different packing densities. PMID:26469586

  9. 3D interconnect architecture for high-bandwidth massively paralleled imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, K.; Lyke, J. C.; Wojnarowski, R. J.; Beche, J.-F.; Fillion, R.; Kapusta, C.; Millaud, J.; Saia, R.; Wilke, M. D.

    2003-08-01

    The proton radiography group at LANL is developing a fast (5×10 6 frames/s or 5 megaframe/s) multi-frame imager for use in dynamic radiographic experiments with high-energy protons. The mega-pixel imager will acquire and process a burst of 32 frames captured at inter-frame time ˜200 ns. Real time signal processing and storage requirements for entire frames, of rapidly acquired pixels impose severe demands on the space available for the electronics in a standard monolithic approach. As such, a 3D arrangement of detector and circuit elements is under development. In this scheme, the readout integrated circuits (ROICs) are stacked vertically (like playing cards) into a cube configuration. Another die, a fully depleted pixel photo-diode focal plane array (FPA), is bump bonded to one of the edge surfaces formed by the resulting ROIC cube. Recently, an assembly of the proof-of-principle test cube and sensor has been completed.

  10. Parallel CARLOS-3D code development

    SciTech Connect

    Putnam, J.M.; Kotulski, J.D.

    1996-02-01

    CARLOS-3D is a three-dimensional scattering code which was developed under the sponsorship of the Electromagnetic Code Consortium, and is currently used by over 80 aerospace companies and government agencies. The code has been extensively validated and runs on both serial workstations and parallel super computers such as the Intel Paragon. CARLOS-3D is a three-dimensional surface integral equation scattering code based on a Galerkin method of moments formulation employing Rao- Wilton-Glisson roof-top basis for triangular faceted surfaces. Fully arbitrary 3D geometries composed of multiple conducting and homogeneous bulk dielectric materials can be modeled. This presentation describes some of the extensions to the CARLOS-3D code, and how the operator structure of the code facilitated these improvements. Body of revolution (BOR) and two-dimensional geometries were incorporated by simply including new input routines, and the appropriate Galerkin matrix operator routines. Some additional modifications were required in the combined field integral equation matrix generation routine due to the symmetric nature of the BOR and 2D operators. Quadrilateral patched surfaces with linear roof-top basis functions were also implemented in the same manner. Quadrilateral facets and triangular facets can be used in combination to more efficiently model geometries with both large smooth surfaces and surfaces with fine detail such as gaps and cracks. Since the parallel implementation in CARLOS-3D is at high level, these changes were independent of the computer platform being used. This approach minimizes code maintenance, while providing capabilities with little additional effort. Results are presented showing the performance and accuracy of the code for some large scattering problems. Comparisons between triangular faceted and quadrilateral faceted geometry representations will be shown for some complex scatterers.

  11. Parallel phase-shifting digital holography and its application to high-speed 3D imaging of dynamic object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Xia, Peng; Wang, Yexin; Matoba, Osamu

    2016-03-01

    Digital holography is a technique of 3D measurement of object. The technique uses an image sensor to record the interference fringe image containing the complex amplitude of object, and numerically reconstructs the complex amplitude by computer. Parallel phase-shifting digital holography is capable of accurate 3D measurement of dynamic object. This is because this technique can reconstruct the complex amplitude of object, on which the undesired images are not superimposed, form a single hologram. The undesired images are the non-diffraction wave and the conjugate image which are associated with holography. In parallel phase-shifting digital holography, a hologram, whose phase of the reference wave is spatially and periodically shifted every other pixel, is recorded to obtain complex amplitude of object by single-shot exposure. The recorded hologram is decomposed into multiple holograms required for phase-shifting digital holography. The complex amplitude of the object is free from the undesired images is reconstructed from the multiple holograms. To validate parallel phase-shifting digital holography, a high-speed parallel phase-shifting digital holography system was constructed. The system consists of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, a continuous-wave laser, and a high-speed polarization imaging camera. Phase motion picture of dynamic air flow sprayed from a nozzle was recorded at 180,000 frames per second (FPS) have been recorded by the system. Also phase motion picture of dynamic air induced by discharge between two electrodes has been recorded at 1,000,000 FPS, when high voltage was applied between the electrodes.

  12. High-Performance Computation of Distributed-Memory Parallel 3D Voronoi and Delaunay Tessellation

    SciTech Connect

    Peterka, Tom; Morozov, Dmitriy; Phillips, Carolyn

    2014-11-14

    Computing a Voronoi or Delaunay tessellation from a set of points is a core part of the analysis of many simulated and measured datasets: N-body simulations, molecular dynamics codes, and LIDAR point clouds are just a few examples. Such computational geometry methods are common in data analysis and visualization; but as the scale of simulations and observations surpasses billions of particles, the existing serial and shared-memory algorithms no longer suffice. A distributed-memory scalable parallel algorithm is the only feasible approach. The primary contribution of this paper is a new parallel Delaunay and Voronoi tessellation algorithm that automatically determines which neighbor points need to be exchanged among the subdomains of a spatial decomposition. Other contributions include periodic and wall boundary conditions, comparison of our method using two popular serial libraries, and application to numerous science datasets.

  13. High-performance parallel solver for 3D time-dependent Schrodinger equation for large-scale nanosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainullin, I. K.; Sonkin, M. A.

    2015-03-01

    A parallelized three-dimensional (3D) time-dependent Schrodinger equation (TDSE) solver for one-electron systems is presented in this paper. The TDSE Solver is based on the finite-difference method (FDM) in Cartesian coordinates and uses a simple and explicit leap-frog numerical scheme. The simplicity of the numerical method provides very efficient parallelization and high performance of calculations using Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). For example, calculation of 106 time-steps on the 1000ṡ1000ṡ1000 numerical grid (109 points) takes only 16 hours on 16 Tesla M2090 GPUs. The TDSE Solver demonstrates scalability (parallel efficiency) close to 100% with some limitations on the problem size. The TDSE Solver is validated by calculation of energy eigenstates of the hydrogen atom (13.55 eV) and affinity level of H- ion (0.75 eV). The comparison with other TDSE solvers shows that a GPU-based TDSE Solver is 3 times faster for the problems of the same size and with the same cost of computational resources. The usage of a non-regular Cartesian grid or problem-specific non-Cartesian coordinates increases this benefit up to 10 times. The TDSE Solver was applied to the calculation of the resonant charge transfer (RCT) in nanosystems, including several related physical problems, such as electron capture during H+-H0 collision and electron tunneling between H- ion and thin metallic island film.

  14. Parallel Optimization of 3D Cardiac Electrophysiological Model Using GPU

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yong; Wang, Kuanquan; Zhang, Henggui

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale 3D virtual heart model simulations are highly demanding in computational resources. This imposes a big challenge to the traditional computation resources based on CPU environment, which already cannot meet the requirement of the whole computation demands or are not easily available due to expensive costs. GPU as a parallel computing environment therefore provides an alternative to solve the large-scale computational problems of whole heart modeling. In this study, using a 3D sheep atrial model as a test bed, we developed a GPU-based simulation algorithm to simulate the conduction of electrical excitation waves in the 3D atria. In the GPU algorithm, a multicellular tissue model was split into two components: one is the single cell model (ordinary differential equation) and the other is the diffusion term of the monodomain model (partial differential equation). Such a decoupling enabled realization of the GPU parallel algorithm. Furthermore, several optimization strategies were proposed based on the features of the virtual heart model, which enabled a 200-fold speedup as compared to a CPU implementation. In conclusion, an optimized GPU algorithm has been developed that provides an economic and powerful platform for 3D whole heart simulations. PMID:26581957

  15. Shared Memory Parallelism for 3D Cartesian Discrete Ordinates Solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustafa, Salli; Dutka-Malen, Ivan; Plagne, Laurent; Ponçot, Angélique; Ramet, Pierre

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the design and the performance of DOMINO, a 3D Cartesian SN solver that implements two nested levels of parallelism (multicore+SIMD) on shared memory computation nodes. DOMINO is written in C++, a multi-paradigm programming language that enables the use of powerful and generic parallel programming tools such as Intel TBB and Eigen. These two libraries allow us to combine multi-thread parallelism with vector operations in an efficient and yet portable way. As a result, DOMINO can exploit the full power of modern multi-core processors and is able to tackle very large simulations, that usually require large HPC clusters, using a single computing node. For example, DOMINO solves a 3D full core PWR eigenvalue problem involving 26 energy groups, 288 angular directions (S16), 46 × 106 spatial cells and 1 × 1012 DoFs within 11 hours on a single 32-core SMP node. This represents a sustained performance of 235 GFlops and 40:74% of the SMP node peak performance for the DOMINO sweep implementation. The very high Flops/Watt ratio of DOMINO makes it a very interesting building block for a future many-nodes nuclear simulation tool.

  16. A task-based parallelism and vectorized approach to 3D Method of Characteristics (MOC) reactor simulation for high performance computing architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramm, John R.; Gunow, Geoffrey; He, Tim; Smith, Kord S.; Forget, Benoit; Siegel, Andrew R.

    2016-05-01

    In this study we present and analyze a formulation of the 3D Method of Characteristics (MOC) technique applied to the simulation of full core nuclear reactors. Key features of the algorithm include a task-based parallelism model that allows independent MOC tracks to be assigned to threads dynamically, ensuring load balancing, and a wide vectorizable inner loop that takes advantage of modern SIMD computer architectures. The algorithm is implemented in a set of highly optimized proxy applications in order to investigate its performance characteristics on CPU, GPU, and Intel Xeon Phi architectures. Speed, power, and hardware cost efficiencies are compared. Additionally, performance bottlenecks are identified for each architecture in order to determine the prospects for continued scalability of the algorithm on next generation HPC architectures.

  17. Parallel 3D Mortar Element Method for Adaptive Nonconforming Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Huiyu; Mavriplis, Catherine; VanderWijngaart, Rob; Biswas, Rupak

    2004-01-01

    High order methods are frequently used in computational simulation for their high accuracy. An efficient way to avoid unnecessary computation in smooth regions of the solution is to use adaptive meshes which employ fine grids only in areas where they are needed. Nonconforming spectral elements allow the grid to be flexibly adjusted to satisfy the computational accuracy requirements. The method is suitable for computational simulations of unsteady problems with very disparate length scales or unsteady moving features, such as heat transfer, fluid dynamics or flame combustion. In this work, we select the Mark Element Method (MEM) to handle the non-conforming interfaces between elements. A new technique is introduced to efficiently implement MEM in 3-D nonconforming meshes. By introducing an "intermediate mortar", the proposed method decomposes the projection between 3-D elements and mortars into two steps. In each step, projection matrices derived in 2-D are used. The two-step method avoids explicitly forming/deriving large projection matrices for 3-D meshes, and also helps to simplify the implementation. This new technique can be used for both h- and p-type adaptation. This method is applied to an unsteady 3-D moving heat source problem. With our new MEM implementation, mesh adaptation is able to efficiently refine the grid near the heat source and coarsen the grid once the heat source passes. The savings in computational work resulting from the dynamic mesh adaptation is demonstrated by the reduction of the the number of elements used and CPU time spent. MEM and mesh adaptation, respectively, bring irregularity and dynamics to the computer memory access pattern. Hence, they provide a good way to gauge the performance of computer systems when running scientific applications whose memory access patterns are irregular and unpredictable. We select a 3-D moving heat source problem as the Unstructured Adaptive (UA) grid benchmark, a new component of the NAS Parallel

  18. Parallel 3-D method of characteristics in MPACT

    SciTech Connect

    Kochunas, B.; Dovvnar, T. J.; Liu, Z.

    2013-07-01

    A new parallel 3-D MOC kernel has been developed and implemented in MPACT which makes use of the modular ray tracing technique to reduce computational requirements and to facilitate parallel decomposition. The parallel model makes use of both distributed and shared memory parallelism which are implemented with the MPI and OpenMP standards, respectively. The kernel is capable of parallel decomposition of problems in space, angle, and by characteristic rays up to 0(104) processors. Initial verification of the parallel 3-D MOC kernel was performed using the Takeda 3-D transport benchmark problems. The eigenvalues computed by MPACT are within the statistical uncertainty of the benchmark reference and agree well with the averages of other participants. The MPACT k{sub eff} differs from the benchmark results for rodded and un-rodded cases by 11 and -40 pcm, respectively. The calculations were performed for various numbers of processors and parallel decompositions up to 15625 processors; all producing the same result at convergence. The parallel efficiency of the worst case was 60%, while very good efficiency (>95%) was observed for cases using 500 processors. The overall run time for the 500 processor case was 231 seconds and 19 seconds for the case with 15625 processors. Ongoing work is focused on developing theoretical performance models and the implementation of acceleration techniques to minimize the number of iterations to converge. (authors)

  19. Parallel algorithm for computing 3-D reachable workspaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alameldin, Tarek K.; Sobh, Tarek M.

    1992-03-01

    The problem of computing the 3-D workspace for redundant articulated chains has applications in a variety of fields such as robotics, computer aided design, and computer graphics. The computational complexity of the workspace problem is at least NP-hard. The recent advent of parallel computers has made practical solutions for the workspace problem possible. Parallel algorithms for computing the 3-D workspace for redundant articulated chains with joint limits are presented. The first phase of these algorithms computes workspace points in parallel. The second phase uses workspace points that are computed in the first phase and fits a 3-D surface around the volume that encompasses the workspace points. The second phase also maps the 3- D points into slices, uses region filling to detect the holes and voids in the workspace, extracts the workspace boundary points by testing the neighboring cells, and tiles the consecutive contours with triangles. The proposed algorithms are efficient for computing the 3-D reachable workspace for articulated linkages, not only those with redundant degrees of freedom but also those with joint limits.

  20. Parallelization of ARC3D with Computer-Aided Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Haoqiang; Hribar, Michelle; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A series of efforts have been devoted to investigating methods of porting and parallelizing applications quickly and efficiently for new architectures, such as the SCSI Origin 2000 and Cray T3E. This report presents the parallelization of a CFD application, ARC3D, using the computer-aided tools, Cesspools. Steps of parallelizing this code and requirements of achieving better performance are discussed. The generated parallel version has achieved reasonably well performance, for example, having a speedup of 30 for 36 Cray T3E processors. However, this performance could not be obtained without modification of the original serial code. It is suggested that in many cases improving serial code and performing necessary code transformations are important parts for the automated parallelization process although user intervention in many of these parts are still necessary. Nevertheless, development and improvement of useful software tools, such as Cesspools, can help trim down many tedious parallelization details and improve the processing efficiency.

  1. CALTRANS: A parallel, deterministic, 3D neutronics code

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, L.; Ferguson, J.; Rogers, J.

    1994-04-01

    Our efforts to parallelize the deterministic solution of the neutron transport equation has culminated in a new neutronics code CALTRANS, which has full 3D capability. In this article, we describe the layout and algorithms of CALTRANS and present performance measurements of the code on a variety of platforms. Explicit implementation of the parallel algorithms of CALTRANS using both the function calls of the Parallel Virtual Machine software package (PVM 3.2) and the Meiko CS-2 tagged message passing library (based on the Intel NX/2 interface) are provided in appendices.

  2. A parallel algorithm for solving the 3d Schroedinger equation

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, Michael; Yager-Elorriaga, David

    2010-08-20

    We describe a parallel algorithm for solving the time-independent 3d Schroedinger equation using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. We introduce an optimized parallelization scheme that reduces communication overhead between computational nodes. We demonstrate that the compute time, t, scales inversely with the number of computational nodes as t {proportional_to} (N{sub nodes}){sup -0.95} {sup {+-} 0.04}. This makes it possible to solve the 3d Schroedinger equation on extremely large spatial lattices using a small computing cluster. In addition, we present a new method for precisely determining the energy eigenvalues and wavefunctions of quantum states based on a symmetry constraint on the FDTD initial condition. Finally, we discuss the usage of multi-resolution techniques in order to speed up convergence on extremely large lattices.

  3. Parallel PAB3D: Experiences with a Prototype in MPI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerinoni, Fabio; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Pao, S. Paul

    1998-01-01

    PAB3D is a three-dimensional Navier Stokes solver that has gained acceptance in the research and industrial communities. It takes as computational domain, a set disjoint blocks covering the physical domain. This is the first report on the implementation of PAB3D using the Message Passing Interface (MPI), a standard for parallel processing. We discuss briefly the characteristics of tile code and define a prototype for testing. The principal data structure used for communication is derived from preprocessing "patching". We describe a simple interface (COMMSYS) for MPI communication, and some general techniques likely to be encountered when working on problems of this nature. Last, we identify levels of improvement from the current version and outline future work.

  4. 3D seismic imaging on massively parallel computers

    SciTech Connect

    Womble, D.E.; Ober, C.C.; Oldfield, R.

    1997-02-01

    The ability to image complex geologies such as salt domes in the Gulf of Mexico and thrusts in mountainous regions is a key to reducing the risk and cost associated with oil and gas exploration. Imaging these structures, however, is computationally expensive. Datasets can be terabytes in size, and the processing time required for the multiple iterations needed to produce a velocity model can take months, even with the massively parallel computers available today. Some algorithms, such as 3D, finite-difference, prestack, depth migration remain beyond the capacity of production seismic processing. Massively parallel processors (MPPs) and algorithms research are the tools that will enable this project to provide new seismic processing capabilities to the oil and gas industry. The goals of this work are to (1) develop finite-difference algorithms for 3D, prestack, depth migration; (2) develop efficient computational approaches for seismic imaging and for processing terabyte datasets on massively parallel computers; and (3) develop a modular, portable, seismic imaging code.

  5. Modeling the Backscatter and Transmitted Light of High Power Smoothed Beams with pF3D, a Massively Parallel Laser Plasma Interaction Code

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, R.L.; Divol, L.; Glenzer, S.; Hinkel, D.E.; Kirkwood, R.K.; Langdon, A.B.; Moody, J.D.; Still, C.H.; Suter, L.; Williams, E.A.; Young, P.E.

    2000-06-01

    Using the three-dimensional wave propagation code, F3D[Berger et al., Phys. Fluids B 5,2243 (1993), Berger et al., Phys. Plasmas 5,4337(1998)], and the massively parallel version pF3D, [Still et al. Phys. Plasmas 7 (2000)], we have computed the transmitted and reflected light for laser and plasma conditions in experiments that simulated ignition hohlraum conditions. The frequency spectrum and the wavenumber spectrum of the transmitted light are calculated and used to identify the relative contributions of stimulated forward Brillouin and self-focusing in hydrocarbon-filled balloons, commonly called gasbags. The effect of beam smoothing, smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) and polarization smoothing (PS), on the stimulated Brillouin backscatter (SBS) from Scale-1 NOVA hohlraums was simulated with the use nonlinear saturation models that limit the amplitude of the driven acoustic waves. Other experiments on CO{sub 2} gasbags simultaneously measure at a range of intensities the SBS reflectivity and the Thomson scatter from the SBS-driven acoustic waves that provide a more detailed test of the modeling. These calculations also predict that the backscattered light will be very nonuniform in the nearfield (the focusing system optics) which is important for specifying the backscatter intensities be tolerated by the National Ignition Facility laser system.

  6. A parallel algorithm for 3D dislocation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Ghoniem, Nasr; Swaminarayan, Sriram; LeSar, Richard

    2006-12-01

    Dislocation dynamics (DD), a discrete dynamic simulation method in which dislocations are the fundamental entities, is a powerful tool for investigation of plasticity, deformation and fracture of materials at the micron length scale. However, severe computational difficulties arising from complex, long-range interactions between these curvilinear line defects limit the application of DD in the study of large-scale plastic deformation. We present here the development of a parallel algorithm for accelerated computer simulations of DD. By representing dislocations as a 3D set of dislocation particles, we show here that the problem of an interacting ensemble of dislocations can be converted to a problem of a particle ensemble, interacting with a long-range force field. A grid using binary space partitioning is constructed to keep track of node connectivity across domains. We demonstrate the computational efficiency of the parallel micro-plasticity code and discuss how O(N) methods map naturally onto the parallel data structure. Finally, we present results from applications of the parallel code to deformation in single crystal fcc metals.

  7. MAP3D: a media processor approach for high-end 3D graphics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darsa, Lucia; Stadnicki, Steven; Basoglu, Chris

    1999-12-01

    Equator Technologies, Inc. has used a software-first approach to produce several programmable and advanced VLIW processor architectures that have the flexibility to run both traditional systems tasks and an array of media-rich applications. For example, Equator's MAP1000A is the world's fastest single-chip programmable signal and image processor targeted for digital consumer and office automation markets. The Equator MAP3D is a proposal for the architecture of the next generation of the Equator MAP family. The MAP3D is designed to achieve high-end 3D performance and a variety of customizable special effects by combining special graphics features with high performance floating-point and media processor architecture. As a programmable media processor, it offers the advantages of a completely configurable 3D pipeline--allowing developers to experiment with different algorithms and to tailor their pipeline to achieve the highest performance for a particular application. With the support of Equator's advanced C compiler and toolkit, MAP3D programs can be written in a high-level language. This allows the compiler to successfully find and exploit any parallelism in a programmer's code, thus decreasing the time to market of a given applications. The ability to run an operating system makes it possible to run concurrent applications in the MAP3D chip, such as video decoding while executing the 3D pipelines, so that integration of applications is easily achieved--using real-time decoded imagery for texturing 3D objects, for instance. This novel architecture enables an affordable, integrated solution for high performance 3D graphics.

  8. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models.

  9. Parallel ALLSPD-3D: Speeding Up Combustor Analysis Via Parallel Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricker, David M.

    1997-01-01

    The ALLSPD-3D Computational Fluid Dynamics code for reacting flow simulation was run on a set of benchmark test cases to determine its parallel efficiency. These test cases included non-reacting and reacting flow simulations with varying numbers of processors. Also, the tests explored the effects of scaling the simulation with the number of processors in addition to distributing a constant size problem over an increasing number of processors. The test cases were run on a cluster of IBM RS/6000 Model 590 workstations with ethernet and ATM networking plus a shared memory SGI Power Challenge L workstation. The results indicate that the network capabilities significantly influence the parallel efficiency, i.e., a shared memory machine is fastest and ATM networking provides acceptable performance. The limitations of ethernet greatly hamper the rapid calculation of flows using ALLSPD-3D.

  10. Design and verification of an ultra-precision 3D-coordinate measuring machine with parallel drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Edwin; Moers, Ton; van Riel, Martijn

    2015-08-01

    An ultra-precision 3D coordinate measuring machine (CMM), the TriNano N100, has been developed. In our design, the workpiece is mounted on a 3D stage, which is driven by three parallel drives that are mutually orthogonal. The linear drives support the 3D stage using vacuum preloaded (VPL) air bearings, whereby each drive determines the position of the 3D stage along one translation direction only. An exactly constrained design results in highly repeatable machine behavior. Furthermore, the machine complies with the Abbé principle over its full measurement range and the application of parallel drives allows for excellent dynamic behavior. The design allows a 3D measurement uncertainty of 100 nanometers in a measurement range of 200 cubic centimeters. Verification measurements using a Gannen XP 3D tactile probing system on a spherical artifact show a standard deviation in single point repeatability of around 2 nm in each direction.

  11. Parallel deterministic neutronics with AMR in 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Clouse, C.; Ferguson, J.; Hendrickson, C.

    1997-12-31

    AMTRAN, a three dimensional Sn neutronics code with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) has been parallelized over spatial domains and energy groups and runs on the Meiko CS-2 with MPI message passing. Block refined AMR is used with linear finite element representations for the fluxes, which allows for a straight forward interpretation of fluxes at block interfaces with zoning differences. The load balancing algorithm assumes 8 spatial domains, which minimizes idle time among processors.

  12. New 3D parallel SGILD modeling and inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, G.; Li, J.; Majer, E.

    1998-09-01

    In this paper, a new parallel modeling and inversion algorithm using a Stochastic Global Integral and Local Differential equation (SGILD) is presented. The authors derived new acoustic integral equations and differential equation for statistical moments of the parameters and field. The new statistical moments integral equation on the boundary and local differential equations in domain will be used together to obtain mean wave field and its moments in the modeling. The new moments global Jacobian volume integral equation and the local Jacobian differential equations in domain will be used together to update the mean parameters and their moments in the inversion. A new parallel multiple hierarchy substructure direct algorithm or direct-iteration hybrid algorithm will be used to solve the sparse matrices and one smaller full matrix from domain to the boundary, in parallel. The SGILD modeling and imaging algorithm has many advantages over the conventional imaging approaches. The SGILD algorithm can be used for the stochastic acoustic, electromagnetic, and flow modeling and inversion, and are important for the prediction of oil, gas, coal, and geothermal energy reservoirs in geophysical exploration.

  13. Macro-molecular data storage with petabyte/cm3 density, highly parallel read/write operations, and genuine 3D storage capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansuripur, Masud; Khulbe, Pramod K.

    2004-09-01

    Digital information can be encoded in the building-block sequence of macromolecules, such as RNA and single-stranded DNA. Methods of "writing" and "reading" macromolecular strands are currently available, but they are slow and expensive. In an ideal molecular data storage system, routine operations such as write, read, erase, store, and transfer must be done reliably and at high speed within an integrated chip. As a first step toward demonstrating the feasibility of this concept, we report preliminary results of DNA readout experiments conducted in miniaturized chambers that are scalable to even smaller dimensions. We show that translocation of a single-stranded DNA molecule (consisting of 50 adenosine bases followed by 100 cytosine bases) through an ion-channel yields a characteristic signal that is attributable to the 2-segment structure of the molecule. We also examine the dependence of the rate and speed of molecular translocation on the adjustable parameters of the experiment.

  14. High resolution 3D nonlinear integrated inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Wang, Xuben; Li, Zhirong; Li, Qiong; Li, Zhengwen

    2009-06-01

    The high resolution 3D nonlinear integrated inversion method is based on nonlinear theory. Under layer control, the log data from several wells (or all wells) in the study area and seismic trace data adjacent to the wells are input to a network with multiple inputs and outputs and are integratedly trained to obtain an adaptive weight function of the entire study area. Integrated nonlinear mapping relationships are built and updated by the lateral and vertical geologic variations of the reservoirs. Therefore, the inversion process and its inversion results can be constrained and controlled and a stable seismic inversion section with high resolution with velocity inversion, impedance inversion, and density inversion sections, can be gained. Good geologic effects have been obtained in model computation tests and real data processing, which verified that this method has high precision, good practicality, and can be used for quantitative reservoir analysis.

  15. Parallel contact detection algorithm for transient solid dynamics simulations using PRONTO3D

    SciTech Connect

    Attaway, S.W.; Hendrickson, B.A.; Plimpton, S.J.

    1996-09-01

    An efficient, scalable, parallel algorithm for treating material surface contacts in solid mechanics finite element programs has been implemented in a modular way for MIMD parallel computers. The serial contact detection algorithm that was developed previously for the transient dynamics finite element code PRONTO3D has been extended for use in parallel computation by devising a dynamic (adaptive) processor load balancing scheme.

  16. An efficient parallel algorithm: Poststack and prestack Kirchhoff 3D depth migration using flexi-depth iterations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, Richa; Srivastava, Abhishek; Khonde, Kiran; Sirasala, Kirannmayi M.; Londhe, Ashutosh; Chavhan, Hitesh

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an efficient parallel 3D Kirchhoff depth migration algorithm suitable for current class of multicore architecture. The fundamental Kirchhoff depth migration algorithm exhibits inherent parallelism however, when it comes to 3D data migration, as the data size increases the resource requirement of the algorithm also increases. This challenges its practical implementation even on current generation high performance computing systems. Therefore a smart parallelization approach is essential to handle 3D data for migration. The most compute intensive part of Kirchhoff depth migration algorithm is the calculation of traveltime tables due to its resource requirements such as memory/storage and I/O. In the current research work, we target this area and develop a competent parallel algorithm for post and prestack 3D Kirchhoff depth migration, using hybrid MPI+OpenMP programming techniques. We introduce a concept of flexi-depth iterations while depth migrating data in parallel imaging space, using optimized traveltime table computations. This concept provides flexibility to the algorithm by migrating data in a number of depth iterations, which depends upon the available node memory and the size of data to be migrated during runtime. Furthermore, it minimizes the requirements of storage, I/O and inter-node communication, thus making it advantageous over the conventional parallelization approaches. The developed parallel algorithm is demonstrated and analysed on Yuva II, a PARAM series of supercomputers. Optimization, performance and scalability experiment results along with the migration outcome show the effectiveness of the parallel algorithm.

  17. PARALLEL 3-D SPACE CHARGE CALCULATIONS IN THE UNIFIED ACCELERATOR LIBRARY.

    SciTech Connect

    D'IMPERIO, N.L.; LUCCIO, A.U.; MALITSKY, N.

    2006-06-26

    The paper presents the integration of the SIMBAD space charge module in the UAL framework. SIMBAD is a Particle-in-Cell (PIC) code. Its 3-D Parallel approach features an optimized load balancing scheme based on a genetic algorithm. The UAL framework enhances the SIMBAD standalone version with the interactive ROOT-based analysis environment and an open catalog of accelerator algorithms. The composite package addresses complex high intensity beam dynamics and has been developed as part of the FAIR SIS 100 project.

  18. 3D Printing: 3D Printing of Highly Stretchable and Tough Hydrogels into Complex, Cellularized Structures.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sungmin; Sycks, Dalton; Chan, Hon Fai; Lin, Shaoting; Lopez, Gabriel P; Guilak, Farshid; Leong, Kam W; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2015-07-15

    X. Zhao and co-workers develop on page 4035 a new biocompatible hydrogel system that is extremely tough and stretchable and can be 3D printed into complex structures, such as the multilayer mesh shown. Cells encapsulated in the tough and printable hydrogel maintain high viability. 3D-printed structures of the tough hydrogel can sustain high mechanical loads and deformations.

  19. Parallel OSEM Reconstruction Algorithm for Fully 3-D SPECT on a Beowulf Cluster.

    PubMed

    Rong, Zhou; Tianyu, Ma; Yongjie, Jin

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the computation speed of ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm for fully 3-D single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstruction, an experimental beowulf-type cluster was built and several parallel reconstruction schemes were described. We implemented a single-program-multiple-data (SPMD) parallel 3-D OSEM reconstruction algorithm based on message passing interface (MPI) and tested it with combinations of different number of calculating processors and different size of voxel grid in reconstruction (64×64×64 and 128×128×128). Performance of parallelization was evaluated in terms of the speedup factor and parallel efficiency. This parallel implementation methodology is expected to be helpful to make fully 3-D OSEM algorithms more feasible in clinical SPECT studies.

  20. Prediction of parallel NIKE3D performance on the KSR1 system

    SciTech Connect

    Su, P.S.; Zacharia, T.; Fulton, R.E.

    1995-05-01

    Finite element method is one of the bases for numerical solutions to engineering problems. Complex engineering problems using finite element analysis typically imply excessively large computational time. Parallel supercomputers have the potential for significantly increasing calculation speeds in order to meet these computational requirements. This paper predicts parallel NIKE3D performance on the Kendall Square Research (KSR1) system. The first part of the prediction is based on the implementation of parallel Cholesky (U{sup T}DU) matrix decomposition algorithm through actual computations on the KSRI multiprocessor system, with 64 processors, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The other predictions are based on actual computations for parallel element matrix generation, parallel global stiffness matrix assembly, and parallel forward/backward substitution on the BBN TC2000 multiprocessor system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The preliminary results indicate that parallel NIKE3D performance can be attractive under local/shared-memory multiprocessor system environments.

  1. Wave-CAIPI for Highly Accelerated 3D Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bilgic, Berkin; Gagoski, Borjan A.; Cauley, Stephen F.; Fan, Audrey P.; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Grant, P. Ellen; Wald, Lawrence L.; Setsompop, Kawin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To introduce the Wave-CAIPI (Controlled Aliasing in Parallel Imaging) acquisition and reconstruction technique for highly accelerated 3D imaging with negligible g-factor and artifact penalties. Methods The Wave-CAIPI 3D acquisition involves playing sinusoidal gy and gz gradients during the readout of each kx encoding line, while modifying the 3D phase encoding strategy to incur inter-slice shifts as in 2D-CAIPI acquisitions. The resulting acquisition spreads the aliasing evenly in all spatial directions, thereby taking full advantage of 3D coil sensitivity distribution. By expressing the voxel spreading effect as a convolution in image space, an efficient reconstruction scheme that does not require data gridding is proposed. Rapid acquisition and high quality image reconstruction with Wave-CAIPI is demonstrated for high-resolution magnitude and phase imaging and Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM). Results Wave-CAIPI enables full-brain gradient echo (GRE) acquisition at 1 mm isotropic voxel size and R=3×3 acceleration with maximum g-factors of 1.08 at 3T, and 1.05 at 7T. Relative to the other advanced Cartesian encoding strategies 2D-CAIPI and Bunched Phase Encoding, Wave-CAIPI yields up to 2-fold reduction in maximum g-factor for 9-fold acceleration at both field strengths. Conclusion Wave-CAIPI allows highly accelerated 3D acquisitions with low artifact and negligible g-factor penalties, and may facilitate clinical application of high-resolution volumetric imaging. PMID:24986223

  2. Parallel 3D Multi-Stage Simulation of a Turbofan Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Mark G.; Topp, David A.

    1998-01-01

    A 3D multistage simulation of each component of a modern GE Turbofan engine has been made. An axisymmetric view of this engine is presented in the document. This includes a fan, booster rig, high pressure compressor rig, high pressure turbine rig and a low pressure turbine rig. In the near future, all components will be run in a single calculation for a solution of 49 blade rows. The simulation exploits the use of parallel computations by using two levels of parallelism. Each blade row is run in parallel and each blade row grid is decomposed into several domains and run in parallel. 20 processors are used for the 4 blade row analysis. The average passage approach developed by John Adamczyk at NASA Lewis Research Center has been further developed and parallelized. This is APNASA Version A. It is a Navier-Stokes solver using a 4-stage explicit Runge-Kutta time marching scheme with variable time steps and residual smoothing for convergence acceleration. It has an implicit K-E turbulence model which uses an ADI solver to factor the matrix. Between 50 and 100 explicit time steps are solved before a blade row body force is calculated and exchanged with the other blade rows. This outer iteration has been coined a "flip." Efforts have been made to make the solver linearly scaleable with the number of blade rows. Enough flips are run (between 50 and 200) so the solution in the entire machine is not changing. The K-E equations are generally solved every other explicit time step. One of the key requirements in the development of the parallel code was to make the parallel solution exactly (bit for bit) match the serial solution. This has helped isolate many small parallel bugs and guarantee the parallelization was done correctly. The domain decomposition is done only in the axial direction since the number of points axially is much larger than the other two directions. This code uses MPI for message passing. The parallel speed up of the solver portion (no 1/0 or body force

  3. New 3D parallel GILD electromagnetic modeling and nonlinear inversion using global magnetic integral and local differential equation

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, G.; Li, J.; Majer, E.; Zuo, D.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes a new 3D parallel GILD electromagnetic (EM) modeling and nonlinear inversion algorithm. The algorithm consists of: (a) a new magnetic integral equation instead of the electric integral equation to solve the electromagnetic forward modeling and inverse problem; (b) a collocation finite element method for solving the magnetic integral and a Galerkin finite element method for the magnetic differential equations; (c) a nonlinear regularizing optimization method to make the inversion stable and of high resolution; and (d) a new parallel 3D modeling and inversion using a global integral and local differential domain decomposition technique (GILD). The new 3D nonlinear electromagnetic inversion has been tested with synthetic data and field data. The authors obtained very good imaging for the synthetic data and reasonable subsurface EM imaging for the field data. The parallel algorithm has high parallel efficiency over 90% and can be a parallel solver for elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic modeling and inversion. The parallel GILD algorithm can be extended to develop a high resolution and large scale seismic and hydrology modeling and inversion in the massively parallel computer.

  4. 3D Printing: 3D Printing of Highly Stretchable and Tough Hydrogels into Complex, Cellularized Structures.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sungmin; Sycks, Dalton; Chan, Hon Fai; Lin, Shaoting; Lopez, Gabriel P; Guilak, Farshid; Leong, Kam W; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2015-07-15

    X. Zhao and co-workers develop on page 4035 a new biocompatible hydrogel system that is extremely tough and stretchable and can be 3D printed into complex structures, such as the multilayer mesh shown. Cells encapsulated in the tough and printable hydrogel maintain high viability. 3D-printed structures of the tough hydrogel can sustain high mechanical loads and deformations. PMID:26172844

  5. Multifunctional, Highly Flexible, Free-Standing 3D Polypyrrole Foam.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunhui; Ding, Yujie; Yuan, Ye; Cao, Anyuan; He, Xiaodong; Peng, Qingyu; Li, Yibin

    2016-08-01

    Multifunctional, highly flexible 3D polypyrrole (PPy) foam is fabricated via a simple electrodeposition method by using nickel foam as the template. The 3D PPy foam has a unique interior structure and is robust enough to manipulate directly.

  6. Parallel 3D Simulation of Seismic Wave Propagation in the Structure of Nobi Plain, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotani, A.; Furumura, T.; Hirahara, K.

    2003-12-01

    We performed large-scale parallel simulations of the seismic wave propagation to understand the complex wave behavior in the 3D basin structure of the Nobi Plain, which is one of the high population cities in central Japan. In this area, many large earthquakes occurred in the past, such as the 1891 Nobi earthquake (M8.0), the 1944 Tonankai earthquake (M7.9) and the 1945 Mikawa earthquake (M6.8). In order to mitigate the potential disasters for future earthquakes, 3D subsurface structure of Nobi Plain has recently been investigated by local governments. We referred to this model together with bouguer anomaly data to construct a detail 3D basin structure model for Nobi plain, and conducted computer simulations of ground motions. We first evaluated the ground motions for two small earthquakes (M4~5); one occurred just beneath the basin edge at west, and the other occurred at south. The ground motions from these earthquakes were well recorded by the strong motion networks; K-net, Kik-net, and seismic intensity instruments operated by local governments. We compare the observed seismograms with simulations to validate the 3D model. For the 3D simulation we sliced the 3D model into a number of layers to assign to many processors for concurrent computing. The equation of motions are solved using a high order (32nd) staggered-grid FDM in horizontal directions, and a conventional (4th-order) FDM in vertical direction with the MPI inter-processor communications between neighbor region. The simulation model is 128km by 128km by 43km, which is discritized at variable grid size of 62.5-125m in horizontal directions and of 31.25-62.5m in vertical direction. We assigned a minimum shear wave velocity is Vs=0.4km/s, at the top of the sedimentary basin. The seismic sources for the small events are approximated by double-couple point source and we simulate the seismic wave propagation at maximum frequency of 2Hz. We used the Earth Simulator (JAMSTEC, Yokohama Inst) to conduct such

  7. Parallel Finite Element Solution of 3D Rayleigh-Benard-Marangoni Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carey, G. F.; McLay, R.; Bicken, G.; Barth, B.; Pehlivanov, A.

    1999-01-01

    A domain decomposition strategy and parallel gradient-type iterative solution scheme have been developed and implemented for computation of complex 3D viscous flow problems involving heat transfer and surface tension effects. Details of the implementation issues are described together with associated performance and scalability studies. Representative Rayleigh-Benard and microgravity Marangoni flow calculations and performance results on the Cray T3D and T3E are presented. The work is currently being extended to tightly-coupled parallel "Beowulf-type" PC clusters and we present some preliminary performance results on this platform. We also describe progress on related work on hierarchic data extraction for visualization.

  8. The novel high-performance 3-D MT inverse solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruglyakov, Mikhail; Geraskin, Alexey; Kuvshinov, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    We present novel, robust, scalable, and fast 3-D magnetotelluric (MT) inverse solver. The solver is written in multi-language paradigm to make it as efficient, readable and maintainable as possible. Separation of concerns and single responsibility concepts go through implementation of the solver. As a forward modelling engine a modern scalable solver extrEMe, based on contracting integral equation approach, is used. Iterative gradient-type (quasi-Newton) optimization scheme is invoked to search for (regularized) inverse problem solution, and adjoint source approach is used to calculate efficiently the gradient of the misfit. The inverse solver is able to deal with highly detailed and contrasting models, allows for working (separately or jointly) with any type of MT responses, and supports massive parallelization. Moreover, different parallelization strategies implemented in the code allow optimal usage of available computational resources for a given problem statement. To parameterize an inverse domain the so-called mask parameterization is implemented, which means that one can merge any subset of forward modelling cells in order to account for (usually) irregular distribution of observation sites. We report results of 3-D numerical experiments aimed at analysing the robustness, performance and scalability of the code. In particular, our computational experiments carried out at different platforms ranging from modern laptops to HPC Piz Daint (6th supercomputer in the world) demonstrate practically linear scalability of the code up to thousands of nodes.

  9. 3-D Printed High Power Microwave Magnetrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Nicholas; Greening, Geoffrey; Exelby, Steven; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Lau, Y. Y.; Hoff, Brad

    2015-11-01

    The size, weight, and power requirements of HPM systems are critical constraints on their viability, and can potentially be improved through the use of additive manufacturing techniques, which are rapidly increasing in capability and affordability. Recent experiments on the UM Recirculating Planar Magnetron (RPM), have explored the use of 3-D printed components in a HPM system. The system was driven by MELBA-C, a Marx-Abramyan system which delivers a -300 kV voltage pulse for 0.3-1.0 us, with a 0.15-0.3 T axial magnetic field applied by a pair of electromagnets. Anode blocks were printed from Water Shed XC 11122 photopolymer using a stereolithography process, and prepared with either a spray-coated or electroplated finish. Both manufacturing processes were compared against baseline data for a machined aluminum anode, noting any differences in power output, oscillation frequency, and mode stability. Evolution and durability of the 3-D printed structures were noted both visually and by tracking vacuum inventories via a residual gas analyzer. Research supported by AFOSR (grant #FA9550-15-1-0097) and AFRL.

  10. Implementation of parallel matrix decomposition for NIKE3D on the KSR1 system

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Philip S.; Fulton, R.E.; Zacharia, T.

    1995-06-01

    New massively parallel computer architecture has revolutionized the design of computer algorithms and promises to have significant influence on algorithms for engineering computations. Realistic engineering problems using finite element analysis typically imply excessively large computational requirements. Parallel supercomputers that have the potential for significantly increasing calculation speeds can meet these computational requirements. This report explores the potential for the parallel Cholesky (U{sup T}DU) matrix decomposition algorithm on NIKE3D through actual computations. The examples of two- and three-dimensional nonlinear dynamic finite element problems are presented on the Kendall Square Research (KSR1) multiprocessor system, with 64 processors, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The numerical results indicate that the parallel Cholesky (U{sup T}DU) matrix decomposition algorithm is attractive for NIKE3D under multi-processor system environments.

  11. (abstract) A High Throughput 3-D Inner Product Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daud, Tuan

    1996-01-01

    A particularily challenging image processing application is the real time scene acquisition and object discrimination. It requires spatio-temporal recognition of point and resolved objects at high speeds with parallel processing algorithms. Neural network paradigms provide fine grain parallism and, when implemented in hardware, offer orders of magnitude speed up. However, neural networks implemented on a VLSI chip are planer architectures capable of efficient processing of linear vector signals rather than 2-D images. Therefore, for processing of images, a 3-D stack of neural-net ICs receiving planar inputs and consuming minimal power are required. Details of the circuits with chip architectures will be described with need to develop ultralow-power electronics. Further, use of the architecture in a system for high-speed processing will be illustrated.

  12. Reconstruction for time-domain in vivo EPR 3D multigradient oximetric imaging--a parallel processing perspective.

    PubMed

    Dharmaraj, Christopher D; Thadikonda, Kishan; Fletcher, Anthony R; Doan, Phuc N; Devasahayam, Nallathamby; Matsumoto, Shingo; Johnson, Calvin A; Cook, John A; Mitchell, James B; Subramanian, Sankaran; Krishna, Murali C

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional Oximetric Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging using the Single Point Imaging modality generates unpaired spin density and oxygen images that can readily distinguish between normal and tumor tissues in small animals. It is also possible with fast imaging to track the changes in tissue oxygenation in response to the oxygen content in the breathing air. However, this involves dealing with gigabytes of data for each 3D oximetric imaging experiment involving digital band pass filtering and background noise subtraction, followed by 3D Fourier reconstruction. This process is rather slow in a conventional uniprocessor system. This paper presents a parallelization framework using OpenMP runtime support and parallel MATLAB to execute such computationally intensive programs. The Intel compiler is used to develop a parallel C++ code based on OpenMP. The code is executed on four Dual-Core AMD Opteron shared memory processors, to reduce the computational burden of the filtration task significantly. The results show that the parallel code for filtration has achieved a speed up factor of 46.66 as against the equivalent serial MATLAB code. In addition, a parallel MATLAB code has been developed to perform 3D Fourier reconstruction. Speedup factors of 4.57 and 4.25 have been achieved during the reconstruction process and oximetry computation, for a data set with 23 x 23 x 23 gradient steps. The execution time has been computed for both the serial and parallel implementations using different dimensions of the data and presented for comparison. The reported system has been designed to be easily accessible even from low-cost personal computers through local internet (NIHnet). The experimental results demonstrate that the parallel computing provides a source of high computational power to obtain biophysical parameters from 3D EPR oximetric imaging, almost in real-time.

  13. Parallel 3D computation of unsteady wake flows with complex geometries and fluid-structure interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osawa, Yasuo

    New powerful parallel computational tools are developed for 3D simulation of unsteady wake flows with complex geometries and fluid-structure interactions. The base method for flow simulation is a finite element formulation for the Navier-Stokes equations. The finite element formulation is based on the streamline-upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) and pressure-stabilizing/Petrov-Galerkin (PSPG) techniques. These stabilization techniques facilitate simulation of flows with high Reynolds numbers, and allow us to use equal-order interpolation functions for velocity and pressure without generating numerical oscillations. A multi-domain computational method is developed to simulate wake flow both in the near and far downstream. The formulations lead to coupled nonlinear equation systems which are solved, at every time step, with the Newton-Raphson method. The overall formulation and solution techniques are implemented on parallel platforms such as the CRAY T3E and SGI PowerChallenge. Two phases of vortex shedding for flow past a cylinder is simulated to verify the accuracy of this method. The Enhanced-Discretization Interface Capturing Technique (EDICT) is utilized to simulate wake flow accurately. Fluid-structure coupling solution method based on the Deforming-Spatial-Domain/Stabilized Space-Time (DSD/SST) formulation is applied to simulate a parachute behavior in the unsteady wake.

  14. In situ patterned micro 3D liver constructs for parallel toxicology testing in a fluidic device.

    PubMed

    Skardal, Aleksander; Devarasetty, Mahesh; Soker, Shay; Hall, Adam R

    2015-09-01

    3D tissue models are increasingly being implemented for drug and toxicology testing. However, the creation of tissue-engineered constructs for this purpose often relies on complex biofabrication techniques that are time consuming, expensive, and difficult to scale up. Here, we describe a strategy for realizing multiple tissue constructs in a parallel microfluidic platform using an approach that is simple and can be easily scaled for high-throughput formats. Liver cells mixed with a UV-crosslinkable hydrogel solution are introduced into parallel channels of a sealed microfluidic device and photopatterned to produce stable tissue constructs in situ. The remaining uncrosslinked material is washed away, leaving the structures in place. By using a hydrogel that specifically mimics the properties of the natural extracellular matrix, we closely emulate native tissue, resulting in constructs that remain stable and functional in the device during a 7-day culture time course under recirculating media flow. As proof of principle for toxicology analysis, we expose the constructs to ethyl alcohol (0-500 mM) and show that the cell viability and the secretion of urea and albumin decrease with increasing alcohol exposure, while markers for cell damage increase. PMID:26355538

  15. 3D Configuration of Anti-parallel and Component Reconnection: Reconstruction of Cluster Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, R.; Pu, Z.; Wang, X.; Xiao, C.; Xie, L.; Fu, S.; Zhong, J.

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection (MR) has been commonly studied in two dimensional geometry and usually classified into two categories: anti-parallel and component, the terminology widely used in magnetospheric physics. However, MR is three dimensional (3D) in nature. It is thus necessary to reveal the 3D configuration of anti-parallel and component reconnection in reality. In this presentation we study an event in the magnetotail by reconstructing the magnetic field structure in the MR region based on Cluster four spacecraft measurements. The details of the reconstruction approach can be found in He et al. (2008). It is found that in the event both anti-parallel and component reconnection processes can be detected. The reconstruction shows that in both processes two fan surfaces can be identified and intersect to form a separator. The MR process takes place just on the separator line. In the plane locally perpendicular to the separator, the magnetic field lines display the X-type topology. In the component MR process observed, a null-pair appears at the two ends of the separator. The magnetic field magnitude is found significant in the middle of the separator. On the other hand in the anti-parallel MR process observed, the magnetic field magnitude of the separator is however very weak everywhere. In short, this study shows that the 3D separator MR model can be applied for both processes, i.e., both component and anti-parallel MR processes require a null pair. Component and anti-parallel configurations are just the local manifestations of the 3D separator MR process.

  16. IM3D: A parallel Monte Carlo code for efficient simulations of primary radiation displacements and damage in 3D geometry

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong Gang; Yang, Yang; Short, Michael P.; Ding, Ze Jun; Zeng, Zhi; Li, Ju

    2015-01-01

    SRIM-like codes have limitations in describing general 3D geometries, for modeling radiation displacements and damage in nanostructured materials. A universal, computationally efficient and massively parallel 3D Monte Carlo code, IM3D, has been developed with excellent parallel scaling performance. IM3D is based on fast indexing of scattering integrals and the SRIM stopping power database, and allows the user a choice of Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) or Finite Element Triangle Mesh (FETM) method for constructing 3D shapes and microstructures. For 2D films and multilayers, IM3D perfectly reproduces SRIM results, and can be ∼102 times faster in serial execution and > 104 times faster using parallel computation. For 3D problems, it provides a fast approach for analyzing the spatial distributions of primary displacements and defect generation under ion irradiation. Herein we also provide a detailed discussion of our open-source collision cascade physics engine, revealing the true meaning and limitations of the “Quick Kinchin-Pease” and “Full Cascades” options. The issues of femtosecond to picosecond timescales in defining displacement versus damage, the limitation of the displacements per atom (DPA) unit in quantifying radiation damage (such as inadequacy in quantifying degree of chemical mixing), are discussed. PMID:26658477

  17. Study of improved ray tracing parallel algorithm for CGH of 3D objects on GPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Bin; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Yao, Jun; Zhao, Kai

    2014-11-01

    An improved parallel algorithm for holograms of three-dimensional objects was presented. According to the physical characteristics and mathematical properties of the original ray tracing algorithm for computer generated holograms (CGH), using transform approximation and numerical analysis methods, we extract parts of ray tracing algorithm which satisfy parallelization features and implement them on graphics processing unit (GPU). Meanwhile, through proper design of parallel numerical procedure, we did parallel programming to the two-dimensional slices of three-dimensional object with CUDA. According to the experiments, an effective method of dealing with occlusion problem in ray tracing is proposed, as well as generating the holograms of 3D objects with additive property. Our results indicate that the improved algorithm can effectively shorten the computing time. Due to the different sizes of spatial object points and hologram pixels, the speed has increased 20 to 70 times comparing with original ray tracing algorithm.

  18. Parallel I/O and computation for 3D post-stack depth migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, Charles C.; Joyner, Calvin L.

    1994-09-01

    Scalable parallel algorithms for seismic imaging remain a significant challenge for the oil and gas industry. Scalability must address both the computational and the input/output portions of the algorithm in question. These issues are addressed by the ARCO Seismic Benchmark Suite, a public domain software system that provides an environment for development and performance analysis of parallel seismic processing algorithm. We illustrate some of the issues in the design of scalable parallel imaging algorithms with an example process, 3D post-stack depth migration. The algorithm used is based on an implicit finite difference formulation described by Zhiming Li. Scalability is obtained by designing computation, communication between processors, and input/output as parallel operations. The resulting application runs efficiently on both distributed memory and shared memory hardware platforms with processor counts from 1 - 128 nodes.

  19. Gust Acoustics Computation with a Space-Time CE/SE Parallel 3D Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, X. Y.; Himansu, A.; Chang, S. C.; Jorgenson, P. C. E.; Reddy, D. R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The benchmark Problem 2 in Category 3 of the Third Computational Aero-Acoustics (CAA) Workshop is solved using the space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) method. This problem concerns the unsteady response of an isolated finite-span swept flat-plate airfoil bounded by two parallel walls to an incident gust. The acoustic field generated by the interaction of the gust with the flat-plate airfoil is computed by solving the 3D (three-dimensional) Euler equations in the time domain using a parallel version of a 3D CE/SE solver. The effect of the gust orientation on the far-field directivity is studied. Numerical solutions are presented and compared with analytical solutions, showing a reasonable agreement.

  20. An improved parallel SPH approach to solve 3D transient generalized Newtonian free surface flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jinlian; Jiang, Tao; Lu, Weigang; Li, Gang

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a corrected parallel smoothed particle hydrodynamics (C-SPH) method is proposed to simulate the 3D generalized Newtonian free surface flows with low Reynolds number, especially the 3D viscous jets buckling problems are investigated. The proposed C-SPH method is achieved by coupling an improved SPH method based on the incompressible condition with the traditional SPH (TSPH), that is, the improved SPH with diffusive term and first-order Kernel gradient correction scheme is used in the interior of the fluid domain, and the TSPH is used near the free surface. Thus the C-SPH method possesses the advantages of two methods. Meanwhile, an effective and convenient boundary treatment is presented to deal with 3D multiple-boundary problem, and the MPI parallelization technique with a dynamic cells neighbor particle searching method is considered to improve the computational efficiency. The validity and the merits of the C-SPH are first verified by solving several benchmarks and compared with other results. Then the viscous jet folding/coiling based on the Cross model is simulated by the C-SPH method and compared with other experimental or numerical results. Specially, the influences of macroscopic parameters on the flow are discussed. All the numerical results agree well with available data, and show that the C-SPH method has higher accuracy and better stability for solving 3D moving free surface flows over other particle methods.

  1. Multifunctional, Highly Flexible, Free-Standing 3D Polypyrrole Foam.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunhui; Ding, Yujie; Yuan, Ye; Cao, Anyuan; He, Xiaodong; Peng, Qingyu; Li, Yibin

    2016-08-01

    Multifunctional, highly flexible 3D polypyrrole (PPy) foam is fabricated via a simple electrodeposition method by using nickel foam as the template. The 3D PPy foam has a unique interior structure and is robust enough to manipulate directly. PMID:27357260

  2. A fast and low-loss 3-D magnetotelluric inversion method with parallel structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.

    2013-12-01

    The 2D assumption is valid in some cases of interpretation, the approximation does not work in most cases, especially in areas with complex geo-electrical structure. A number of 3D magentotelluric inversion methods has been proposed, including RRI, CG, QA, NLCG. Each of those methods has its own advantages and disadvantages. However, as the 3D dataset and mesh grid require greater computer memory and calculation time than 2D methods, the efficiency of the inversion scheme become a key concern of 3D inversions. We chose NLCG as the optimization method for inversion. A parameter matrix related with the current resisitivity model and data error is proposed to approximate the Hessian matrix. So four forward calculation can be avoided each iteration. In addition, OPENMP parallel API is utilized to establish an effecient parallel inversion structure based on frequency to reduce computation time. And both synthetic and field data are used to test the efficiency of the inversion and the preconditioning method. The model consists of four square prisms residing in a halfspace. The total computation time of invertion is 706s (use one PC). Fiugre 1 shows the inversion result. The abnormal bodies can be distinguished clearly. Field data from the NIHE dataset in China is used to verify the reliability and efficiency of the 3D inversion method. The total computation time is about 25 minutes after 60 iterations on one PC. Totally, four electrical layers can be corresponded to the four stratum in 3D AMT inversion model, and the faults can be seen clearly. In addition, we can get more information about fault and alteration interface from constrained inversion result. Finally, the inversion method is very fast and low-loss, so it can be used in modern PC (need only one PC) with few hardware constraints. (a): initial model; (b): inversion depth slices (1-4km); (c): fitting error (a): AMT 3D slice; (b): CSAMT 2D model; (c): TEM 1D model; (d): SIP 2D model; (e) AMT 3D constrained

  3. Highly compressible 3D periodic graphene aerogel microlattices

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Cheng; Han, T. Yong-Jin; Duoss, Eric B.; Golobic, Alexandra M.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Worsley, Marcus A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene is a two-dimensional material that offers a unique combination of low density, exceptional mechanical properties, large surface area and excellent electrical conductivity. Recent progress has produced bulk 3D assemblies of graphene, such as graphene aerogels, but they possess purely stochastic porous networks, which limit their performance compared with the potential of an engineered architecture. Here we report the fabrication of periodic graphene aerogel microlattices, possessing an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The 3D printed graphene aerogels are lightweight, highly conductive and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90% compressive strain). Moreover, the Young's moduli of the 3D printed graphene aerogels show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials with comparable geometric density and possess large surface areas. Adapting the 3D printing technique to graphene aerogels realizes the possibility of fabricating a myriad of complex aerogel architectures for a broad range of applications. PMID:25902277

  4. Highly compressible 3D periodic graphene aerogel microlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Cheng; Han, T. Yong-Jin; Duoss, Eric B.; Golobic, Alexandra M.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Worsley, Marcus A.

    2015-04-22

    Graphene is a two-dimensional material that offers a unique combination of low density, exceptional mechanical properties, large surface area and excellent electrical conductivity. Recent progress has produced bulk 3D assemblies of graphene, such as graphene aerogels, but they possess purely stochastic porous networks, which limit their performance compared with the potential of an engineered architecture. Here we report the fabrication of periodic graphene aerogel microlattices, possessing an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The 3D printed graphene aerogels are lightweight, highly conductive and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90% compressive strain). Moreover, the Young’s moduli of the 3D printed graphene aerogels show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials with comparable geometric density and possess large surface areas. Ultimately, adapting the 3D printing technique to graphene aerogels realizes the possibility of fabricating a myriad of complex aerogel architectures for a broad range of applications.

  5. Highly compressible 3D periodic graphene aerogel microlattices.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cheng; Han, T Yong-Jin; Duoss, Eric B; Golobic, Alexandra M; Kuntz, Joshua D; Spadaccini, Christopher M; Worsley, Marcus A

    2015-04-22

    Graphene is a two-dimensional material that offers a unique combination of low density, exceptional mechanical properties, large surface area and excellent electrical conductivity. Recent progress has produced bulk 3D assemblies of graphene, such as graphene aerogels, but they possess purely stochastic porous networks, which limit their performance compared with the potential of an engineered architecture. Here we report the fabrication of periodic graphene aerogel microlattices, possessing an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The 3D printed graphene aerogels are lightweight, highly conductive and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90% compressive strain). Moreover, the Young's moduli of the 3D printed graphene aerogels show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials with comparable geometric density and possess large surface areas. Adapting the 3D printing technique to graphene aerogels realizes the possibility of fabricating a myriad of complex aerogel architectures for a broad range of applications.

  6. Highly compressible 3D periodic graphene aerogel microlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Cheng; Han, T. Yong-Jin; Duoss, Eric B.; Golobic, Alexandra M.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Worsley, Marcus A.

    2015-04-01

    Graphene is a two-dimensional material that offers a unique combination of low density, exceptional mechanical properties, large surface area and excellent electrical conductivity. Recent progress has produced bulk 3D assemblies of graphene, such as graphene aerogels, but they possess purely stochastic porous networks, which limit their performance compared with the potential of an engineered architecture. Here we report the fabrication of periodic graphene aerogel microlattices, possessing an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The 3D printed graphene aerogels are lightweight, highly conductive and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90% compressive strain). Moreover, the Young's moduli of the 3D printed graphene aerogels show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials with comparable geometric density and possess large surface areas. Adapting the 3D printing technique to graphene aerogels realizes the possibility of fabricating a myriad of complex aerogel architectures for a broad range of applications.

  7. Advanced quadratures and periodic boundary conditions in parallel 3D S{sub n} transport

    SciTech Connect

    Manalo, K.; Yi, C.; Huang, M.; Sjoden, G.

    2013-07-01

    Significant updates in numerical quadratures have warranted investigation with 3D Sn discrete ordinates transport. We show new applications of quadrature departing from level symmetric (S{sub 2}o). investigating 3 recently developed quadratures: Even-Odd (EO), Linear-Discontinuous Finite Element - Surface Area (LDFE-SA), and the non-symmetric Icosahedral Quadrature (IC). We discuss implementation changes to 3D Sn codes (applied to Hybrid MOC-Sn TITAN and 3D parallel PENTRAN) that can be performed to accommodate Icosahedral Quadrature, as this quadrature is not 90-degree rotation invariant. In particular, as demonstrated using PENTRAN, the properties of Icosahedral Quadrature are suitable for trivial application using periodic BCs versus that of reflective BCs. In addition to implementing periodic BCs for 3D Sn PENTRAN, we implemented a technique termed 'angular re-sweep' which properly conditions periodic BCs for outer eigenvalue iterative loop convergence. As demonstrated by two simple transport problems (3-group fixed source and 3-group reflected/periodic eigenvalue pin cell), we remark that all of the quadratures we investigated are generally superior to level symmetric quadrature, with Icosahedral Quadrature performing the most efficiently for problems tested. (authors)

  8. Parallel Imaging of 3D Surface Profile with Space-Division Multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung Seok; Cho, Soon-Woo; Kim, Gyeong Hun; Jeong, Myung Yung; Won, Young Jae; Kim, Chang-Seok

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a modified optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) system that performs parallel imaging of three-dimensional (3D) surface profiles by using the space division multiplexing (SDM) method with dual-area swept sourced beams. We have also demonstrated that 3D surface information for two different areas could be well obtained in a same time with only one camera by our method. In this study, double field of views (FOVs) of 11.16 mm × 5.92 mm were achieved within 0.5 s. Height range for each FOV was 460 µm and axial and transverse resolutions were 3.6 and 5.52 µm, respectively.

  9. FUN3D and CFL3D Computations for the First High Lift Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Rumsey, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    Two Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes codes were used to compute flow over the NASA Trapezoidal Wing at high lift conditions for the 1st AIAA CFD High Lift Prediction Workshop, held in Chicago in June 2010. The unstructured-grid code FUN3D and the structured-grid code CFL3D were applied to several different grid systems. The effects of code, grid system, turbulence model, viscous term treatment, and brackets were studied. The SST model on this configuration predicted lower lift than the Spalart-Allmaras model at high angles of attack; the Spalart-Allmaras model agreed better with experiment. Neglecting viscous cross-derivative terms caused poorer prediction in the wing tip vortex region. Output-based grid adaptation was applied to the unstructured-grid solutions. The adapted grids better resolved wake structures and reduced flap flow separation, which was also observed in uniform grid refinement studies. Limitations of the adaptation method as well as areas for future improvement were identified.

  10. Parallel implementation of 3D FFT with volumetric decomposition schemes for efficient molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jaewoon; Kobayashi, Chigusa; Imamura, Toshiyuki; Sugita, Yuji

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (3D FFT) plays an important role in a wide variety of computer simulations and data analyses, including molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In this study, we develop hybrid (MPI+OpenMP) parallelization schemes of 3D FFT based on two new volumetric decompositions, mainly for the particle mesh Ewald (PME) calculation in MD simulations. In one scheme, (1d_Alltoall), five all-to-all communications in one dimension are carried out, and in the other, (2d_Alltoall), one two-dimensional all-to-all communication is combined with two all-to-all communications in one dimension. 2d_Alltoall is similar to the conventional volumetric decomposition scheme. We performed benchmark tests of 3D FFT for the systems with different grid sizes using a large number of processors on the K computer in RIKEN AICS. The two schemes show comparable performances, and are better than existing 3D FFTs. The performances of 1d_Alltoall and 2d_Alltoall depend on the supercomputer network system and number of processors in each dimension. There is enough leeway for users to optimize performance for their conditions. In the PME method, short-range real-space interactions as well as long-range reciprocal-space interactions are calculated. Our volumetric decomposition schemes are particularly useful when used in conjunction with the recently developed midpoint cell method for short-range interactions, due to the same decompositions of real and reciprocal spaces. The 1d_Alltoall scheme of 3D FFT takes 4.7 ms to simulate one MD cycle for a virus system containing more than 1 million atoms using 32,768 cores on the K computer.

  11. The development of a scalable parallel 3-D CFD algorithm for turbomachinery. M.S. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luke, Edward Allen

    1993-01-01

    Two algorithms capable of computing a transonic 3-D inviscid flow field about rotating machines are considered for parallel implementation. During the study of these algorithms, a significant new method of measuring the performance of parallel algorithms is developed. The theory that supports this new method creates an empirical definition of scalable parallel algorithms that is used to produce quantifiable evidence that a scalable parallel application was developed. The implementation of the parallel application and an automated domain decomposition tool are also discussed.

  12. Billion-atom synchronous parallel kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of critical 3D Ising systems

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, E.; Monasterio, P.R.; Marian, J.

    2011-02-20

    An extension of the synchronous parallel kinetic Monte Carlo (spkMC) algorithm developed by Martinez et al. [J. Comp. Phys. 227 (2008) 3804] to discrete lattices is presented. The method solves the master equation synchronously by recourse to null events that keep all processors' time clocks current in a global sense. Boundary conflicts are resolved by adopting a chessboard decomposition into non-interacting sublattices. We find that the bias introduced by the spatial correlations attendant to the sublattice decomposition is within the standard deviation of serial calculations, which confirms the statistical validity of our algorithm. We have analyzed the parallel efficiency of spkMC and find that it scales consistently with problem size and sublattice partition. We apply the method to the calculation of scale-dependent critical exponents in billion-atom 3D Ising systems, with very good agreement with state-of-the-art multispin simulations.

  13. Parallel 3D Finite Element Numerical Modelling of DC Electron Guns

    SciTech Connect

    Prudencio, E.; Candel, A.; Ge, L.; Kabel, A.; Ko, K.; Lee, L.; Li, Z.; Ng, C.; Schussman, G.; /SLAC

    2008-02-04

    In this paper we present Gun3P, a parallel 3D finite element application that the Advanced Computations Department at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is developing for the analysis of beam formation in DC guns and beam transport in klystrons. Gun3P is targeted specially to complex geometries that cannot be described by 2D models and cannot be easily handled by finite difference discretizations. Its parallel capability allows simulations with more accuracy and less processing time than packages currently available. We present simulation results for the L-band Sheet Beam Klystron DC gun, in which case Gun3P is able to reduce simulation time from days to some hours.

  14. Assessing the performance of a parallel MATLAB-based 3D convection code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, G. J.; Hasenclever, J.; Phipps Morgan, J.; Shi, C.

    2008-12-01

    We are currently building 2D and 3D MATLAB-based parallel finite element codes for mantle convection and melting. The codes use the MATLAB implementation of core MPI commands (eg. Send, Receive, Broadcast) for message passing between computational subdomains. We have found that code development and algorithm testing are much faster in MATLAB than in our previous work coding in C or FORTRAN, this code was built from scratch with only 12 man-months of effort. The one extra cost w.r.t. C coding on a Beowulf cluster is the cost of the parallel MATLAB license for a >4core cluster. Here we present some preliminary results on the efficiency of MPI messaging in MATLAB on a small 4 machine, 16core, 32Gb RAM Intel Q6600 processor-based cluster. Our code implements fully parallelized preconditioned conjugate gradients with a multigrid preconditioner. Our parallel viscous flow solver is currently 20% slower for a 1,000,000 DOF problem on a single core in 2D as the direct solve MILAMIN MATLAB viscous flow solver. We have tested both continuous and discontinuous pressure formulations. We test with various configurations of network hardware, CPU speeds, and memory using our own and MATLAB's built in cluster profiler. So far we have only explored relatively small (up to 1.6GB RAM) test problems. We find that with our current code and Intel memory controller bandwidth limitations we can only get ~2.3 times performance out of 4 cores than 1 core per machine. Even for these small problems the code runs faster with message passing between 4 machines with one core each than 1 machine with 4 cores and internal messaging (1.29x slower), or 1 core (2.15x slower). It surprised us that for 2D ~1GB-sized problems with only 3 multigrid levels, the direct- solve on the coarsest mesh consumes comparable time to the iterative solve on the finest mesh - a penalty that is greatly reduced either by using a 4th multigrid level or by using an iterative solve at the coarsest grid level. We plan to

  15. 3-D asteroids using parallel graphics on NCUBE: A testbed for evaluating controller algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, A.; Fox, G.; Snyder, S.; Chu, D.; Mylner, T.

    1989-04-18

    We have implemented on NCUBE a 3-D Asteroids video game system. The system functions as a testbed for evaluating intelligent controller algorithms within a simulated space battle framework. The Asteroids features battle of spacecrafts in a 3-D toroidal space with inert meteorites of various sizes. It supports multi-players and mixed communication protocols. The game can be played either in interactive or batch mode. In interactive mode a player can maneuver a spacecraft by keyboard or graphics tablet control like a regular pc-based video game. 3-D visual display of the game uses the NCUBE Real-Time Parallel Graphics Board which has 16 NCUBE processors and a Hitachi HD63484 drawing/video chip. In batch mode spacecrafts can be controlled by user-supplied software controllers. The modular structure of the game allows easy replacement of game objectives, game rules, and spacecraft controllers. The flexibility of module substitution allows fast prototyping of different controller strategies and algorithms which are constrained by various game rules. The system also allows algorithms that run on distinct subcubes of a hypercube to compete with one another. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  16. 3D-radiative transfer in terrestrial atmosphere: An efficient parallel numerical procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, L. P.; Germogenova, T. A.; Nikolaeva, O. V.; Kokhanovsky, A. A.; Kuznetsov, V. S.

    2003-04-01

    Light propagation and scattering in terrestrial atmosphere is usually studied in the framework of the 1D radiative transfer theory [1]. However, in reality particles (e.g., ice crystals, solid and liquid aerosols, cloud droplets) are randomly distributed in 3D space. In particular, their concentrations vary both in vertical and horizontal directions. Therefore, 3D effects influence modern cloud and aerosol retrieval procedures, which are currently based on the 1D radiative transfer theory. It should be pointed out that the standard radiative transfer equation allows to study these more complex situations as well [2]. In recent year the parallel version of the 2D and 3D RADUGA code has been developed. This version is successfully used in gammas and neutrons transport problems [3]. Applications of this code to radiative transfer in atmosphere problems are contained in [4]. Possibilities of code RADUGA are presented in [5]. The RADUGA code system is an universal solver of radiative transfer problems for complicated models, including 2D and 3D aerosol and cloud fields with arbitrary scattering anisotropy, light absorption, inhomogeneous underlying surface and topography. Both delta type and distributed light sources can be accounted for in the framework of the algorithm developed. The accurate numerical procedure is based on the new discrete ordinate SWDD scheme [6]. The algorithm is specifically designed for parallel supercomputers. The version RADUGA 5.1(P) can run on MBC1000M [7] (768 processors with 10 Gb of hard disc memory for each processor). The peak productivity is equal 1 Tfl. Corresponding scalar version RADUGA 5.1 is working on PC. As a first example of application of the algorithm developed, we have studied the shadowing effects of clouds on neighboring cloudless atmosphere, depending on the cloud optical thickness, surface albedo, and illumination conditions. This is of importance for modern satellite aerosol retrieval algorithms development. [1] Sobolev

  17. Waveform inversion for 3-D earth structure using the Direct Solution Method implemented on vector-parallel supercomputer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Tatsuhiko

    2004-08-01

    We implement the Direct Solution Method (DSM) on a vector-parallel supercomputer and show that it is possible to significantly improve its computational efficiency through parallel computing. We apply the parallel DSM calculation to waveform inversion of long period (250-500 s) surface wave data for three-dimensional (3-D) S-wave velocity structure in the upper and uppermost lower mantle. We use a spherical harmonic expansion to represent lateral variation with the maximum angular degree 16. We find significant low velocities under south Pacific hot spots in the transition zone. This is consistent with other seismological studies conducted in the Superplume project, which suggests deep roots of these hot spots. We also perform simultaneous waveform inversion for 3-D S-wave velocity and Q structure. Since resolution for Q is not good, we develop a new technique in which power spectra are used as data for inversion. We find good correlation between long wavelength patterns of Vs and Q in the transition zone such as high Vs and high Q under the western Pacific.

  18. Highly-stretchable 3D-architected Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yanhui; Wang, Qiming

    2016-09-01

    Soft materials featuring both 3D free-form architectures and high stretchability are highly desirable for a number of engineering applications ranging from cushion modulators, soft robots to stretchable electronics; however, both the manufacturing and fundamental mechanics are largely elusive. Here, we overcome the manufacturing difficulties and report a class of mechanical metamaterials that not only features 3D free-form lattice architectures but also poses ultrahigh reversible stretchability (strain > 414%), 4 times higher than that of the existing counterparts with the similar complexity of 3D architectures. The microarchitected metamaterials, made of highly stretchable elastomers, are realized through an additive manufacturing technique, projection microstereolithography, and its postprocessing. With the fabricated metamaterials, we reveal their exotic mechanical behaviors: Under large-strain tension, their moduli follow a linear scaling relationship with their densities regardless of architecture types, in sharp contrast to the architecture-dependent modulus power-law of the existing engineering materials; under large-strain compression, they present tunable negative-stiffness that enables ultrahigh energy absorption efficiencies. To harness their extraordinary stretchability and microstructures, we demonstrate that the metamaterials open a number of application avenues in lightweight and flexible structure connectors, ultraefficient dampers, 3D meshed rehabilitation structures and stretchable electronics with designed 3D anisotropic conductivity.

  19. Highly-stretchable 3D-architected Mechanical Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanhui; Wang, Qiming

    2016-01-01

    Soft materials featuring both 3D free-form architectures and high stretchability are highly desirable for a number of engineering applications ranging from cushion modulators, soft robots to stretchable electronics; however, both the manufacturing and fundamental mechanics are largely elusive. Here, we overcome the manufacturing difficulties and report a class of mechanical metamaterials that not only features 3D free-form lattice architectures but also poses ultrahigh reversible stretchability (strain > 414%), 4 times higher than that of the existing counterparts with the similar complexity of 3D architectures. The microarchitected metamaterials, made of highly stretchable elastomers, are realized through an additive manufacturing technique, projection microstereolithography, and its postprocessing. With the fabricated metamaterials, we reveal their exotic mechanical behaviors: Under large-strain tension, their moduli follow a linear scaling relationship with their densities regardless of architecture types, in sharp contrast to the architecture-dependent modulus power-law of the existing engineering materials; under large-strain compression, they present tunable negative-stiffness that enables ultrahigh energy absorption efficiencies. To harness their extraordinary stretchability and microstructures, we demonstrate that the metamaterials open a number of application avenues in lightweight and flexible structure connectors, ultraefficient dampers, 3D meshed rehabilitation structures and stretchable electronics with designed 3D anisotropic conductivity. PMID:27667638

  20. Parallel microfluidic synthesis of size-tunable polymeric nanoparticles using 3D flow focusing towards in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jong-Min; Bertrand, Nicolas; Valencia, Pedro M.; Rhee, Minsoung; Langer, Robert; Jon, Sangyong; Farokhzad, Omid C.; Karnik, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) can enhance the controllability and reproducibility in physicochemical properties of NPs compared to bulk synthesis methods. However, applications of microfluidic synthesis are typically limited to in vitro studies due to low production rates. Herein, we report the parallelization of NP synthesis by 3D hydrodynamic flow focusing (HFF) using a multilayer microfluidic system to enhance the production rate without losing the advantages of reproducibility, controllability, and robustness. Using parallel 3D HFF, polymeric poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-b-polyethyleneglycol (PLGA-PEG) NPs with sizes tunable in the range of 13–150 nm could be synthesized reproducibly with high production rate. As a proof of concept, we used this system to perform in vivo pharmacokinetic and biodistribution study of small (20 nm diameter) PLGA-PEG NPs that are otherwise difficult to synthesize. Microfluidic parallelization thus enables synthesis of NPs with tunable properties with production rates suitable for both in vitro and in vivo studies. PMID:23969105

  1. High Performance Programming Using Explicit Shared Memory Model on Cray T3D1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Horst D.; Saini, Subhash; Grassi, Charles

    1994-01-01

    The Cray T3D system is the first-phase system in Cray Research, Inc.'s (CRI) three-phase massively parallel processing (MPP) program. This system features a heterogeneous architecture that closely couples DEC's Alpha microprocessors and CRI's parallel-vector technology, i.e., the Cray Y-MP and Cray C90. An overview of the Cray T3D hardware and available programming models is presented. Under Cray Research adaptive Fortran (CRAFT) model four programming methods (data parallel, work sharing, message-passing using PVM, and explicit shared memory model) are available to the users. However, at this time data parallel and work sharing programming models are not available to the user community. The differences between standard PVM and CRI's PVM are highlighted with performance measurements such as latencies and communication bandwidths. We have found that the performance of neither standard PVM nor CRI s PVM exploits the hardware capabilities of the T3D. The reasons for the bad performance of PVM as a native message-passing library are presented. This is illustrated by the performance of NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) programmed in explicit shared memory model on Cray T3D. In general, the performance of standard PVM is about 4 to 5 times less than obtained by using explicit shared memory model. This degradation in performance is also seen on CM-5 where the performance of applications using native message-passing library CMMD on CM-5 is also about 4 to 5 times less than using data parallel methods. The issues involved (such as barriers, synchronization, invalidating data cache, aligning data cache etc.) while programming in explicit shared memory model are discussed. Comparative performance of NPB using explicit shared memory programming model on the Cray T3D and other highly parallel systems such as the TMC CM-5, Intel Paragon, Cray C90, IBM-SP1, etc. is presented.

  2. 3D-High Resolution Manometry of the Esophagogastric Junction

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatek, Monika A.; Pandolfino, John E.; Kahrilas, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The esophagogastric junction (EGJ) is a complex structure that challenges accurate manometric recording. This study aimed to define EGJ pressure morphology relative to the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) during respiration with 3D high-resolution manometry (3D-HRM). METHODS A 7.5 cm long 3D-HRM array with 96 independent solid-state pressure sensors (axial spacing 0.75 cm, radial spacing 45°) was used to record EGJ pressure in 15 normal subjects. Concurrent videofluoroscopy was used to localize the SCJ marked with an endoclip. Ex-vivo experiments were done on the effect of bending the probe to match that seen fluoroscopically. RESULTS 3D-HRM EGJ pressure recordings were dominated by an asymmetric pressure peak superimposed on the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) attributable to the crural diaphragm (CD). Median peak CD pressure at expiration and inspiration (51 and 119 mmHg respectively) was much greater in 3D-HRM than evident in HRM with circumferential pressure averaging. EGJ length, defined as the zone of circumferential pressure exceeding that of adjacent esophagus or stomach was also substantially shorter (2.4 cm) than evident in conventional HRM. No consistent circumferential EGJ pressure was evident distal to the SCJ in 3D-HRM recordings and ex-vivo experiments suggested that the intrgastric pressure peak seen contralateral to the CD related to bending the assembly rather than the sphincter per se. CONCLUSION 3D-HRM demonstrated a profoundly asymmetric and vigorous CD component to EGJ pressure superimposed on the LES. EGJ length was shorter than evident with conventional HRM and the distal margin of the EGJ sphincteric zone closely correlated with the SCJ. PMID:21595803

  3. Fast parallel interferometric 3D tracking of numerous optically trapped particles and their hydrodynamic interaction.

    PubMed

    Ruh, Dominic; Tränkle, Benjamin; Rohrbach, Alexander

    2011-10-24

    Multi-dimensional, correlated particle tracking is a key technology to reveal dynamic processes in living and synthetic soft matter systems. In this paper we present a new method for tracking micron-sized beads in parallel and in all three dimensions - faster and more precise than existing techniques. Using an acousto-optic deflector and two quadrant-photo-diodes, we can track numerous optically trapped beads at up to tens of kHz with a precision of a few nanometers by back-focal plane interferometry. By time-multiplexing the laser focus, we can calibrate individually all traps and all tracking signals in a few seconds and in 3D. We show 3D histograms and calibration constants for nine beads in a quadratic arrangement, although trapping and tracking is easily possible for more beads also in arbitrary 2D arrangements. As an application, we investigate the hydrodynamic coupling and diffusion anomalies of spheres trapped in a 3 × 3 arrangement. PMID:22109012

  4. Highly compressible 3D periodic graphene aerogel microlattices

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Cheng; Han, T. Yong-Jin; Duoss, Eric B.; Golobic, Alexandra M.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Worsley, Marcus A.

    2015-04-22

    Graphene is a two-dimensional material that offers a unique combination of low density, exceptional mechanical properties, large surface area and excellent electrical conductivity. Recent progress has produced bulk 3D assemblies of graphene, such as graphene aerogels, but they possess purely stochastic porous networks, which limit their performance compared with the potential of an engineered architecture. Here we report the fabrication of periodic graphene aerogel microlattices, possessing an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The 3D printed graphene aerogels are lightweight, highly conductive and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90% compressive strain). Moreover, the Young’s modulimore » of the 3D printed graphene aerogels show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials with comparable geometric density and possess large surface areas. Ultimately, adapting the 3D printing technique to graphene aerogels realizes the possibility of fabricating a myriad of complex aerogel architectures for a broad range of applications.« less

  5. High density 3D printed microfluidic valves, pumps, and multiplexers.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hua; Woolley, Adam T; Nordin, Gregory P

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that 3D printing with a digital light processor stereolithographic (DLP-SLA) 3D printer can be used to create high density microfluidic devices with active components such as valves and pumps. Leveraging our previous work on optical formulation of inexpensive resins (RSC Adv., 2015, 5, 106621), we demonstrate valves with only 10% of the volume of our original 3D printed valves (Biomicrofluidics, 2015, 9, 016501), which were already the smallest that have been reported. Moreover, we show that incorporation of a thermal initiator in the resin formulation along with a post-print bake can dramatically improve the durability of 3D printed valves up to 1 million actuations. Using two valves and a valve-like displacement chamber (DC), we also create compact 3D printed pumps. With 5-phase actuation and a 15 ms phase interval, we obtain pump flow rates as high as 40 μL min(-1). We also characterize maximum pump back pressure (i.e., maximum pressure the pump can work against), maximum flow rate (flow rate when there is zero back pressure), and flow rate as a function of the height of the pump outlet. We further demonstrate combining 5 valves and one DC to create a 3-to-2 multiplexer with integrated pump. In addition to serial multiplexing, we also show that the device can operate as a mixer. Importantly, we illustrate the rapid fabrication and test cycles that 3D printing makes possible by implementing a new multiplexer design to improve mixing, and fabricate and test it within one day.

  6. High density 3D printed microfluidic valves, pumps, and multiplexers.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hua; Woolley, Adam T; Nordin, Gregory P

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that 3D printing with a digital light processor stereolithographic (DLP-SLA) 3D printer can be used to create high density microfluidic devices with active components such as valves and pumps. Leveraging our previous work on optical formulation of inexpensive resins (RSC Adv., 2015, 5, 106621), we demonstrate valves with only 10% of the volume of our original 3D printed valves (Biomicrofluidics, 2015, 9, 016501), which were already the smallest that have been reported. Moreover, we show that incorporation of a thermal initiator in the resin formulation along with a post-print bake can dramatically improve the durability of 3D printed valves up to 1 million actuations. Using two valves and a valve-like displacement chamber (DC), we also create compact 3D printed pumps. With 5-phase actuation and a 15 ms phase interval, we obtain pump flow rates as high as 40 μL min(-1). We also characterize maximum pump back pressure (i.e., maximum pressure the pump can work against), maximum flow rate (flow rate when there is zero back pressure), and flow rate as a function of the height of the pump outlet. We further demonstrate combining 5 valves and one DC to create a 3-to-2 multiplexer with integrated pump. In addition to serial multiplexing, we also show that the device can operate as a mixer. Importantly, we illustrate the rapid fabrication and test cycles that 3D printing makes possible by implementing a new multiplexer design to improve mixing, and fabricate and test it within one day. PMID:27242064

  7. Analysis of scalability of high-performance 3D image processing platform for virtual colonoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Wu, Yin; Cai, Wenli

    2014-03-01

    One of the key challenges in three-dimensional (3D) medical imaging is to enable the fast turn-around time, which is often required for interactive or real-time response. This inevitably requires not only high computational power but also high memory bandwidth due to the massive amount of data that need to be processed. For this purpose, we previously developed a software platform for high-performance 3D medical image processing, called HPC 3D-MIP platform, which employs increasingly available and affordable commodity computing systems such as the multicore, cluster, and cloud computing systems. To achieve scalable high-performance computing, the platform employed size-adaptive, distributable block volumes as a core data structure for efficient parallelization of a wide range of 3D-MIP algorithms, supported task scheduling for efficient load distribution and balancing, and consisted of a layered parallel software libraries that allow image processing applications to share the common functionalities. We evaluated the performance of the HPC 3D-MIP platform by applying it to computationally intensive processes in virtual colonoscopy. Experimental results showed a 12-fold performance improvement on a workstation with 12-core CPUs over the original sequential implementation of the processes, indicating the efficiency of the platform. Analysis of performance scalability based on the Amdahl's law for symmetric multicore chips showed the potential of a high performance scalability of the HPC 3DMIP platform when a larger number of cores is available.

  8. Master-slave interferometry for parallel spectral domain interferometry sensing and versatile 3D optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Podoleanu, Adrian Gh; Bradu, Adrian

    2013-08-12

    Conventional spectral domain interferometry (SDI) methods suffer from the need of data linearization. When applied to optical coherence tomography (OCT), conventional SDI methods are limited in their 3D capability, as they cannot deliver direct en-face cuts. Here we introduce a novel SDI method, which eliminates these disadvantages. We denote this method as Master - Slave Interferometry (MSI), because a signal is acquired by a slave interferometer for an optical path difference (OPD) value determined by a master interferometer. The MSI method radically changes the main building block of an SDI sensor and of a spectral domain OCT set-up. The serially provided signal in conventional technology is replaced by multiple signals, a signal for each OPD point in the object investigated. This opens novel avenues in parallel sensing and in parallelization of signal processing in 3D-OCT, with applications in high- resolution medical imaging and microscopy investigation of biosamples. Eliminating the need of linearization leads to lower cost OCT systems and opens potential avenues in increasing the speed of production of en-face OCT images in comparison with conventional SDI.

  9. A Highly-Ordered 3D Covalent Fullerene Framework**

    PubMed Central

    Minar, Norma K; Hou, Kun; Westermeier, Christian; Döblinger, Markus; Schuster, Jörg; Hanusch, Fabian C; Nickel, Bert; Ozin, Geoffrey A; Bein, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A highly-ordered 3D covalent fullerene framework is presented with a structure based on octahedrally functionalized fullerene building blocks in which every fullerene is separated from the next by six functional groups and whose mesoporosity is controlled by cooperative self-assembly with a liquid-crystalline block copolymer. The new fullerene-framework material was obtained in the form of supported films by spin coating the synthesis solution directly on glass or silicon substrates, followed by a heat treatment. The fullerene building blocks coassemble with a liquid-crystalline block copolymer to produce a highly ordered covalent fullerene framework with orthorhombic Fmmm symmetry, accessible 7.5 nm pores, and high surface area, as revealed by gas adsorption, NMR spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and TEM. We also note that the 3D covalent fullerene framework exhibits a dielectric constant significantly lower than that of the nonporous precursor material. PMID:25958846

  10. Comparison of 3-D synthetic aperture phased-array ultrasound imaging and parallel beamforming.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2014-10-01

    This paper demonstrates that synthetic aperture imaging (SAI) can be used to achieve real-time 3-D ultrasound phased-array imaging. It investigates whether SAI increases the image quality compared with the parallel beamforming (PB) technique for real-time 3-D imaging. Data are obtained using both simulations and measurements with an ultrasound research scanner and a commercially available 3.5- MHz 1024-element 2-D transducer array. To limit the probe cable thickness, 256 active elements are used in transmit and receive for both techniques. The two imaging techniques were designed for cardiac imaging, which requires sequences designed for imaging down to 15 cm of depth and a frame rate of at least 20 Hz. The imaging quality of the two techniques is investigated through simulations as a function of depth and angle. SAI improved the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) at low steering angles by 35%, and the 20-dB cystic resolution by up to 62%. The FWHM of the measured line spread function (LSF) at 80 mm depth showed a difference of 20% in favor of SAI. SAI reduced the cyst radius at 60 mm depth by 39% in measurements. SAI improved the contrast-to-noise ratio measured on anechoic cysts embedded in a tissue-mimicking material by 29% at 70 mm depth. The estimated penetration depth on the same tissue-mimicking phantom shows that SAI increased the penetration by 24% compared with PB. Neither SAI nor PB achieved the design goal of 15 cm penetration depth. This is likely due to the limited transducer surface area and a low SNR of the experimental scanner used.

  11. Characterization of a parallel beam CCD optical-CT apparatus for 3D radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krstajić, Nikola; Doran, Simon J.

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the initial steps we have taken in establishing CCD based optical-CT as a viable alternative for 3-D radiation dosimetry. First, we compare the optical density (OD) measurements from a high quality test target and variable neutral density filter (VNDF). A modulation transfer function (MTF) of individual projections is derived for three positions of the sinusoidal test target within the scanning tank. Our CCD is then characterized in terms of its signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Finally, a sample reconstruction of a scan of a PRESAGETM (registered trademark of Heuris Pharma, NJ, Skillman, USA.) dosimeter is given, demonstrating the capabilities of the apparatus.

  12. Simulations of implosions with a 3D, parallel, unstructured-grid, radiation-hydrodynamics code

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, T B; Milovich, J L; Prasad, M K; Rathkopf, J; Shestakov, A I

    1998-12-28

    An unstructured-grid, radiation-hydrodynamics code is used to simulate implosions. Although most of the problems are spherically symmetric, they are run on 3D, unstructured grids in order to test the code's ability to maintain spherical symmetry of the converging waves. Three problems, of increasing complexity, are presented. In the first, a cold, spherical, ideal gas bubble is imploded by an enclosing high pressure source. For the second, we add non-linear heat conduction and drive the implosion with twelve laser beams centered on the vertices of an icosahedron. In the third problem, a NIF capsule is driven with a Planckian radiation source.

  13. High-speed 3D imaging by DMD technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefling, Roland

    2004-05-01

    The paper presents an advanced solution for capturing the height of an object in addition to the 2D image as it is frequently desired in machine vision applications. Based upon the active fringe projection methodology, the system takes advantage of a series of patterns projected onto the object surface and observed by a camera to provide reliable, accurate and highly resolved 3D data from any scattering object surface. The paper shows how the recording of a projected image series can be significantly accelerated and improved in quality to overcome current limitations. The key is ALP - a metrology dedicated hardware design using the Discovery 1100 platform for the DMD micromirror device of Texas Instruments Inc. The paper describes how this DMD technology has been combined with latest LED illumination, high-performance optics, and recent digital camera solutions. The ALP based DMD projection can be exactly synchronized with one or multiple cameras so that gray value intensities generated by pulse-width modulation (PWM) are recorded with high linearity. Based upon these components, a novel 3D measuring system with outstanding properties is described. The "z-Snapper" represents a new class of 3D imaging devices, it is fast enough for time demanding in-line testing, and it can be built completely mobile: laptop based, hand-held, and battery powered. The turnkey system provides a "3D image" as simple as an usual b/w picture is grabbed. It can be instantly implemented into future machine vision applications that will benefit from the step into the third dimension.

  14. 3D magnetospheric parallel hybrid multi-grid method applied to planet-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclercq, L.; Modolo, R.; Leblanc, F.; Hess, S.; Mancini, M.

    2016-03-01

    We present a new method to exploit multiple refinement levels within a 3D parallel hybrid model, developed to study planet-plasma interactions. This model is based on the hybrid formalism: ions are kinetically treated whereas electrons are considered as a inertia-less fluid. Generally, ions are represented by numerical particles whose size equals the volume of the cells. Particles that leave a coarse grid subsequently entering a refined region are split into particles whose volume corresponds to the volume of the refined cells. The number of refined particles created from a coarse particle depends on the grid refinement rate. In order to conserve velocity distribution functions and to avoid calculations of average velocities, particles are not coalesced. Moreover, to ensure the constancy of particles' shape function sizes, the hybrid method is adapted to allow refined particles to move within a coarse region. Another innovation of this approach is the method developed to compute grid moments at interfaces between two refinement levels. Indeed, the hybrid method is adapted to accurately account for the special grid structure at the interfaces, avoiding any overlapping grid considerations. Some fundamental test runs were performed to validate our approach (e.g. quiet plasma flow, Alfven wave propagation). Lastly, we also show a planetary application of the model, simulating the interaction between Jupiter's moon Ganymede and the Jovian plasma.

  15. Parallel computing simulation of electrical excitation and conduction in the 3D human heart.

    PubMed

    Di Yu; Dongping Du; Hui Yang; Yicheng Tu

    2014-01-01

    A correctly beating heart is important to ensure adequate circulation of blood throughout the body. Normal heart rhythm is produced by the orchestrated conduction of electrical signals throughout the heart. Cardiac electrical activity is the resulted function of a series of complex biochemical-mechanical reactions, which involves transportation and bio-distribution of ionic flows through a variety of biological ion channels. Cardiac arrhythmias are caused by the direct alteration of ion channel activity that results in changes in the AP waveform. In this work, we developed a whole-heart simulation model with the use of massive parallel computing with GPGPU and OpenGL. The simulation algorithm was implemented under several different versions for the purpose of comparisons, including one conventional CPU version and two GPU versions based on Nvidia CUDA platform. OpenGL was utilized for the visualization / interaction platform because it is open source, light weight and universally supported by various operating systems. The experimental results show that the GPU-based simulation outperforms the conventional CPU-based approach and significantly improves the speed of simulation. By adopting modern computer architecture, this present investigation enables real-time simulation and visualization of electrical excitation and conduction in the large and complicated 3D geometry of a real-world human heart.

  16. Magnetism In 3d Transition Metals at High Pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Iota, V

    2006-02-09

    This research project examined the changes in electronic and magnetic properties of transition metals and oxides under applied pressures, focusing on complex relationship between magnetism and phase stability in these correlated electron systems. As part of this LDRD project, we developed new measurement techniques and adapted synchrotron-based electronic and magnetic measurements for use in the diamond anvil cell. We have performed state-of-the-art X-ray spectroscopy experiments at the dedicated high-pressure beamline HP-CAT (Sector 16 Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory), maintained in collaboration with of University of Nevada, Las Vegas and Geophysical Laboratory of The Carnegie Institution of Washington. Using these advanced measurements, we determined the evolution of the magnetic order in the ferromagnetic 3d transition metals (Fe, Co and Ni) under pressure, and found that at high densities, 3d band broadening results in diminished long range magnetic coupling. Our experiments have allowed us to paint a unified picture of the effects of pressure on the evolution of magnetic spin in 3d electron systems. The technical and scientific advances made during this LDRD project have been reported at a number of scientific meetings and conferences, and have been submitted for publication in technical journals. Both the technical advances and the physical understanding of correlated systems derived from this LDRD are being applied to research on the 4f and 5f electron systems under pressure.

  17. A miniature high resolution 3-D imaging sonar.

    PubMed

    Josserand, Tim; Wolley, Jason

    2011-04-01

    This paper discusses the design and development of a miniature, high resolution 3-D imaging sonar. The design utilizes frequency steered phased arrays (FSPA) technology. FSPAs present a small, low-power solution to the problem of underwater imaging sonars. The technology provides a method to build sonars with a large number of beams without the proportional power, circuitry and processing complexity. The design differs from previous methods in that the array elements are manufactured from a monolithic material. With this technique the arrays are flat and considerably smaller element dimensions are achievable which allows for higher frequency ranges and smaller array sizes. In the current frequency range, the demonstrated array has ultra high image resolution (1″ range×1° azimuth×1° elevation) and small size (<3″×3″). The design of the FSPA utilizes the phasing-induced frequency-dependent directionality of a linear phased array to produce multiple beams in a forward sector. The FSPA requires only two hardware channels per array and can be arranged in single and multiple array configurations that deliver wide sector 2-D images. 3-D images can be obtained by scanning the array in a direction perpendicular to the 2-D image field and applying suitable image processing to the multiple scanned 2-D images. This paper introduces the 3-D FSPA concept, theory and design methodology. Finally, results from a prototype array are presented and discussed.

  18. 3-D MAPPING TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Marzolf, A.; Folsom, M.

    2010-08-31

    time-of-flight data (3D image) collected with a single laser pulse, high frame rates, direct calculation of range, blur-free images without motion distortion, no need for precision scanning mechanisms, ability to combine 3D flash LIDAR with 2D cameras for 2D texture over 3D depth, and no moving parts. The major disadvantage of the 3D flash LIDAR camera is the cost of approximately $150,000, not including the software development time and repackaging of the camera for deployment in the waste tanks.

  19. Focusing optics of a parallel beam CCD optical tomography apparatus for 3D radiation gel dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Krstajić, Nikola; Doran, Simon J

    2006-04-21

    Optical tomography of gel dosimeters is a promising and cost-effective avenue for quality control of radiotherapy treatments such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Systems based on a laser coupled to a photodiode have so far shown the best results within the context of optical scanning of radiosensitive gels, but are very slow ( approximately 9 min per slice) and poorly suited to measurements that require many slices. Here, we describe a fast, three-dimensional (3D) optical computed tomography (optical-CT) apparatus, based on a broad, collimated beam, obtained from a high power LED and detected by a charged coupled detector (CCD). The main advantages of such a system are (i) an acquisition speed approximately two orders of magnitude higher than a laser-based system when 3D data are required, and (ii) a greater simplicity of design. This paper advances our previous work by introducing a new design of focusing optics, which take information from a suitably positioned focal plane and project an image onto the CCD. An analysis of the ray optics is presented, which explains the roles of telecentricity, focusing, acceptance angle and depth-of-field (DOF) in the formation of projections. A discussion of the approximation involved in measuring the line integrals required for filtered backprojection reconstruction is given. Experimental results demonstrate (i) the effect on projections of changing the position of the focal plane of the apparatus, (ii) how to measure the acceptance angle of the optics, and (iii) the ability of the new scanner to image both absorbing and scattering gel phantoms. The quality of reconstructed images is very promising and suggests that the new apparatus may be useful in a clinical setting for fast and accurate 3D dosimetry. PMID:16585845

  20. Focusing optics of a parallel beam CCD optical tomography apparatus for 3D radiation gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krstajic, Nikola; Doran, Simon J.

    2006-04-01

    Optical tomography of gel dosimeters is a promising and cost-effective avenue for quality control of radiotherapy treatments such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Systems based on a laser coupled to a photodiode have so far shown the best results within the context of optical scanning of radiosensitive gels, but are very slow (~9 min per slice) and poorly suited to measurements that require many slices. Here, we describe a fast, three-dimensional (3D) optical computed tomography (optical-CT) apparatus, based on a broad, collimated beam, obtained from a high power LED and detected by a charged coupled detector (CCD). The main advantages of such a system are (i) an acquisition speed approximately two orders of magnitude higher than a laser-based system when 3D data are required, and (ii) a greater simplicity of design. This paper advances our previous work by introducing a new design of focusing optics, which take information from a suitably positioned focal plane and project an image onto the CCD. An analysis of the ray optics is presented, which explains the roles of telecentricity, focusing, acceptance angle and depth-of-field (DOF) in the formation of projections. A discussion of the approximation involved in measuring the line integrals required for filtered backprojection reconstruction is given. Experimental results demonstrate (i) the effect on projections of changing the position of the focal plane of the apparatus, (ii) how to measure the acceptance angle of the optics, and (iii) the ability of the new scanner to image both absorbing and scattering gel phantoms. The quality of reconstructed images is very promising and suggests that the new apparatus may be useful in a clinical setting for fast and accurate 3D dosimetry.

  1. Continuous parallel ESI-MS analysis of reactions carried out in a bespoke 3D printed device

    PubMed Central

    Mathieson, Jennifer S; Rosnes, Mali H; Sans, Victor; Kitson, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Summary Herein, we present an approach for the rapid, straightforward and economical preparation of a tailored reactor device using three-dimensional (3D) printing, which can be directly linked to a high-resolution electrospray ionisation mass spectrometer (ESI-MS) for real-time, in-line observations. To highlight the potential of the setup, supramolecular coordination chemistry was carried out in the device, with the product of the reactions being recorded continuously and in parallel by ESI-MS. Utilising in-house-programmed computer control, the reactant flow rates and order were carefully controlled and varied, with the changes in the pump inlets being mirrored by the recorded ESI-MS spectra. PMID:23766951

  2. Continuous parallel ESI-MS analysis of reactions carried out in a bespoke 3D printed device.

    PubMed

    Mathieson, Jennifer S; Rosnes, Mali H; Sans, Victor; Kitson, Philip J; Cronin, Leroy

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we present an approach for the rapid, straightforward and economical preparation of a tailored reactor device using three-dimensional (3D) printing, which can be directly linked to a high-resolution electrospray ionisation mass spectrometer (ESI-MS) for real-time, in-line observations. To highlight the potential of the setup, supramolecular coordination chemistry was carried out in the device, with the product of the reactions being recorded continuously and in parallel by ESI-MS. Utilising in-house-programmed computer control, the reactant flow rates and order were carefully controlled and varied, with the changes in the pump inlets being mirrored by the recorded ESI-MS spectra. PMID:23766951

  3. Parallel 2D and 3D Prestack Depth Migration Using Recursive Kirchhoff Wavefield Extrapolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, H. D.; Margrave, G. F.; Liu, K.

    2004-05-01

    Recursive Kirchhoff wavefield extrapolation in the space-frequency domain can be thought of as a simple convolutional filter that calculates a single output point at depth z+dz using a weighted summation of all input points within the extrapolator aperture at depth z. The desired velocity values for the extrapolator are the ones that provide the best approximation of the true phase (propagation time) of the seismic wavefield between the input points and the output point. Recursive Kirchhoff extrapolators can be designed to handle lateral variations in velocity in a number of ways: a PSPI-type (phase shift plus interpolation) extrapolator uses only the velocity at the output point, a NSPS-type (nonstationary phase shift) extrapolator uses the velocities at the input points; a SNPS-type (symmetric nonstationary phase shift) extrapolator incorporates two extrapolation steps of dz/2 where the first step uses the velocities at the input points (NSPS-type) and the second step uses the velocity at the output point (PSPI-type); while the Weyl-type extrapolator uses an average of the velocities between each input point and the output point. Here, we introduce the PAVG-type (slowness averaged) extrapolator, which uses velocity values calculated by an average of slowness along straight raypaths between each input point and the output point. Parallel 2D and 3D prestack depth migration algorithms have been coded in both MATLAB and C and tested on a small Linux cluster. A simple synthetic with a lateral step in velocity shows that the PAVG Kirchhoff extrapolator is very close to the exact desired response. Tests using the 2D Marmousi synthetic data set suggest that the extrapolator behaviour is only one of many considerations that must be addressed for accurate depth imaging. Other important considerations include preprocessing, aperture size, taper width, extrapolator stability, and imaging condition.

  4. High performance parallel architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.E. )

    1989-09-01

    In this paper the author describes current high performance parallel computer architectures. A taxonomy is presented to show computer architecture from the user programmer's point-of-view. The effects of the taxonomy upon the programming model are described. Some current architectures are described with respect to the taxonomy. Finally, some predictions about future systems are presented. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  5. An innovative hybrid 3D analytic-numerical model for air breathing parallel channel counter-flow PEM fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Tavčar, Gregor; Katrašnik, Tomaž

    2014-01-01

    The parallel straight channel PEM fuel cell model presented in this paper extends the innovative hybrid 3D analytic-numerical (HAN) approach previously published by the authors with capabilities to address ternary diffusion systems and counter-flow configurations. The model's core principle is modelling species transport by obtaining a 2D analytic solution for species concentration distribution in the plane perpendicular to the cannel gas-flow and coupling consecutive 2D solutions by means of a 1D numerical pipe-flow model. Electrochemical and other nonlinear phenomena are coupled to the species transport by a routine that uses derivative approximation with prediction-iteration. The latter is also the core of the counter-flow computation algorithm. A HAN model of a laboratory test fuel cell is presented and evaluated against a professional 3D CFD simulation tool showing very good agreement between results of the presented model and those of the CFD simulation. Furthermore, high accuracy results are achieved at moderate computational times, which is owed to the semi-analytic nature and to the efficient computational coupling of electrochemical kinetics and species transport.

  6. An innovative hybrid 3D analytic-numerical model for air breathing parallel channel counter-flow PEM fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Tavčar, Gregor; Katrašnik, Tomaž

    2014-01-01

    The parallel straight channel PEM fuel cell model presented in this paper extends the innovative hybrid 3D analytic-numerical (HAN) approach previously published by the authors with capabilities to address ternary diffusion systems and counter-flow configurations. The model's core principle is modelling species transport by obtaining a 2D analytic solution for species concentration distribution in the plane perpendicular to the cannel gas-flow and coupling consecutive 2D solutions by means of a 1D numerical pipe-flow model. Electrochemical and other nonlinear phenomena are coupled to the species transport by a routine that uses derivative approximation with prediction-iteration. The latter is also the core of the counter-flow computation algorithm. A HAN model of a laboratory test fuel cell is presented and evaluated against a professional 3D CFD simulation tool showing very good agreement between results of the presented model and those of the CFD simulation. Furthermore, high accuracy results are achieved at moderate computational times, which is owed to the semi-analytic nature and to the efficient computational coupling of electrochemical kinetics and species transport. PMID:25125112

  7. Emulsion Inks for 3D Printing of High Porosity Materials.

    PubMed

    Sears, Nicholas A; Dhavalikar, Prachi S; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth M

    2016-08-01

    Photocurable emulsion inks for use with solid freeform fabrication (SFF) to generate constructs with hierarchical porosity are presented. A high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) templating technique was utilized to prepare water-in-oil emulsions from a hydrophobic photopolymer, surfactant, and water. These HIPEs displayed strong shear thinning behavior that permitted layer-by-layer deposition into complex shapes and adequately high viscosity at low shear for shape retention after extrusion. Each layer was actively polymerized with an ultraviolet cure-on-dispense (CoD) technique and compositions with sufficient viscosity were able to produce tall, complex scaffolds with an internal lattice structure and microscale porosity. Evaluation of the rheological and cure properties indicated that the viscosity and cure rate both played an important role in print fidelity. These 3D printed polyHIPE constructs benefit from the tunable pore structure of emulsion templated material and the designed architecture of 3D printing. As such, these emulsion inks can be used to create ultra high porosity constructs with complex geometries and internal lattice structures not possible with traditional manufacturing techniques.

  8. Emulsion Inks for 3D Printing of High Porosity Materials.

    PubMed

    Sears, Nicholas A; Dhavalikar, Prachi S; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth M

    2016-08-01

    Photocurable emulsion inks for use with solid freeform fabrication (SFF) to generate constructs with hierarchical porosity are presented. A high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) templating technique was utilized to prepare water-in-oil emulsions from a hydrophobic photopolymer, surfactant, and water. These HIPEs displayed strong shear thinning behavior that permitted layer-by-layer deposition into complex shapes and adequately high viscosity at low shear for shape retention after extrusion. Each layer was actively polymerized with an ultraviolet cure-on-dispense (CoD) technique and compositions with sufficient viscosity were able to produce tall, complex scaffolds with an internal lattice structure and microscale porosity. Evaluation of the rheological and cure properties indicated that the viscosity and cure rate both played an important role in print fidelity. These 3D printed polyHIPE constructs benefit from the tunable pore structure of emulsion templated material and the designed architecture of 3D printing. As such, these emulsion inks can be used to create ultra high porosity constructs with complex geometries and internal lattice structures not possible with traditional manufacturing techniques. PMID:27305061

  9. TOMO3D: 3-D joint refraction and reflection traveltime tomography parallel code for active-source seismic data—synthetic test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meléndez, A.; Korenaga, J.; Sallarès, V.; Miniussi, A.; Ranero, C. R.

    2015-10-01

    We present a new 3-D traveltime tomography code (TOMO3D) for the modelling of active-source seismic data that uses the arrival times of both refracted and reflected seismic phases to derive the velocity distribution and the geometry of reflecting boundaries in the subsurface. This code is based on its popular 2-D version TOMO2D from which it inherited the methods to solve the forward and inverse problems. The traveltime calculations are done using a hybrid ray-tracing technique combining the graph and bending methods. The LSQR algorithm is used to perform the iterative regularized inversion to improve the initial velocity and depth models. In order to cope with an increased computational demand due to the incorporation of the third dimension, the forward problem solver, which takes most of the run time (˜90 per cent in the test presented here), has been parallelized with a combination of multi-processing and message passing interface standards. This parallelization distributes the ray-tracing and traveltime calculations among available computational resources. The code's performance is illustrated with a realistic synthetic example, including a checkerboard anomaly and two reflectors, which simulates the geometry of a subduction zone. The code is designed to invert for a single reflector at a time. A data-driven layer-stripping strategy is proposed for cases involving multiple reflectors, and it is tested for the successive inversion of the two reflectors. Layers are bound by consecutive reflectors, and an initial velocity model for each inversion step incorporates the results from previous steps. This strategy poses simpler inversion problems at each step, allowing the recovery of strong velocity discontinuities that would otherwise be smoothened.

  10. 3-D parallel program for numerical calculation of gas dynamics problems with heat conductivity on distributed memory computational systems (CS)

    SciTech Connect

    Sofronov, I.D.; Voronin, B.L.; Butnev, O.I.

    1997-12-31

    The aim of the work performed is to develop a 3D parallel program for numerical calculation of gas dynamics problem with heat conductivity on distributed memory computational systems (CS), satisfying the condition of numerical result independence from the number of processors involved. Two basically different approaches to the structure of massive parallel computations have been developed. The first approach uses the 3D data matrix decomposition reconstructed at temporal cycle and is a development of parallelization algorithms for multiprocessor CS with shareable memory. The second approach is based on using a 3D data matrix decomposition not reconstructed during a temporal cycle. The program was developed on 8-processor CS MP-3 made in VNIIEF and was adapted to a massive parallel CS Meiko-2 in LLNL by joint efforts of VNIIEF and LLNL staffs. A large number of numerical experiments has been carried out with different number of processors up to 256 and the efficiency of parallelization has been evaluated in dependence on processor number and their parameters.

  11. AUTOMATED, HIGHLY ACCURATE VERIFICATION OF RELAP5-3D

    SciTech Connect

    George L Mesina; David Aumiller; Francis Buschman

    2014-07-01

    Computer programs that analyze light water reactor safety solve complex systems of governing, closure and special process equations to model the underlying physics. In addition, these programs incorporate many other features and are quite large. RELAP5-3D[1] has over 300,000 lines of coding for physics, input, output, data management, user-interaction, and post-processing. For software quality assurance, the code must be verified and validated before being released to users. Verification ensures that a program is built right by checking that it meets its design specifications. Recently, there has been an increased importance on the development of automated verification processes that compare coding against its documented algorithms and equations and compares its calculations against analytical solutions and the method of manufactured solutions[2]. For the first time, the ability exists to ensure that the data transfer operations associated with timestep advancement/repeating and writing/reading a solution to a file have no unintended consequences. To ensure that the code performs as intended over its extensive list of applications, an automated and highly accurate verification method has been modified and applied to RELAP5-3D. Furthermore, mathematical analysis of the adequacy of the checks used in the comparisons is provided.

  12. ASIC for High Rate 3D Position Sensitive Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, E.; De Geronimo, G.; Ackley, K.; Fried, J.; He, Z.; Herman, C.; Zhang, F.

    2010-06-16

    We report on the development of an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for 3D position sensitive detectors (3D PSD). The ASIC is designed to operate with pixelated wide bandgap sensors like Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT), Mercuric Iodide (Hgl2) and Thallium Bromide (TIBr). It measures the amplitudes and timings associated with an ionizing event on 128 anodes, the anode grid, and the cathode. Each channel provides low-noise charge amplification, high-order shaping with peaking time adjustable from 250 ns to 12 {micro}s, gain adjustable to 20 mV/fC or 120 mV/fC (for a dynamic range of 3.2 MeV and 530 keV in CZT), amplitude discrimination with 5-bit trimming, and positive and negative peak and timing detections. The readout can be full or sparse, based on a flag and single- or multi-cycle token passing. All channels, triggered channels only, or triggered with neighbors can be read out thus increasing the rate capability of the system to more than 10 kcps. The ASIC dissipates 330 mW which corresponds to about 2.5 mW per channel.

  13. High aspect ratio 3D nanopatterning using Proton Beam Writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Kan, Jeroen A.

    2009-03-01

    Proton beam writing (PBW) is a new direct write lithography using MeV protons, and is unique because of its ability to fabricate 3D structures of high aspect ratio structures directly in resist material like PMMA, SU-8 and HSQ. The introduction by CIBA, Singapore of a dedicated PBW facility, capable of writing at the micro- and nano- scale has facilitated high aspect ratio nanostructuring. PBW has demontrated high aspect ratio walls in HSQ down to the 20nm level. In recent experiments details down to sub 20 nm have been achieved in PMMA. Monte-Carlo calculations have shown that structuring down to the nanometer level is feasible. All this is possible because of the virtual absence of proximity effects (unwanted resist exposure by stray secondary electrons). The design and performance of this unique nanoprobe facility will be discussed. Two potential fields of application (eg nanofluidics and nanowire integration) of PBW will be discussed. Currently nanofluidics devices have typically only one critical dimension below 100 nm. Here we will introduce PBW as a powerful technique to fabricate molds for replication of PDMS nanofluidic circuits down to the sub 100 nm level in two dimensions. Initial chips with dimension down to 150 nm have successfully been used to study DNA folding in quasi-1d nanochannels in tandem with fluorescence imaging. Since the size of these PDMS nanochannels is not limited by the PDMS or PBW further miniaturization down to the sub 100 nm level is a realistic goal and initial results will be discussed. Nanowires are a potential building block for nano-electronic devices, and one critical problem is the integration of nanowires to form contacts. Porous alumina templates and high energy ion-tracks have been used for the production of nanowire templates in a random orientation. Since PBW is the only true 3D direct write nanolithographic technique it can be used to fabricate nanowire templates in a controlled manner.

  14. 3D printing technology using high viscous materials - Synthesis of functional materials and fabrication of 3D metal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seongik

    In the 3D printing technology, the research for using various materials has been performing. In this research work, 3D printable high viscous materials are suggested as one of the solutions for problems in the traditional 3D printing technology. First, Cu-Ag coreshell was synthesized as a functional material. In terms of the reaction rate, reaction rate limiting step was defined as a fundamental research, and then prepared Cu-Ag coreshell was printed and analyzed. Second, the high viscous Cu paste was prepared and then metal 3D printed structure was fabricated by using new printing method. In the synthesis of Cu-Ag coreshell, different sizes of Cu particle, 2μm and 100nm were used, and when 2μm Cu was applied, the reaction rate was limited by film diffusion control. However, when 100nm Cu was applied, reaction rate was controlled by CuO film and the rate of the reaction, which includes removing CuO film in the solution, is limited by chemical reaction control. The shape of Cu-Ag particle is spherical in the 2μm Cu condition and dendrite shape in the 100nm Cu condition respectively. The conductivity of Cu-Ag coreshell paste increased as increasing content of coreshell particle in the paste and sintering temperature. In order to print high viscous metal paste, the high viscous Cu paste was printed by using screw extruder, and the viscosity of Cu paste was measured as a fundamental research. As increasing wt.% of Cu in the paste, the viscosity also increased. In addition, the shrinkage factor was reduced by increasing wt.% of Cu in the paste. An optimized printing condition for the high viscous material was obtained, and by using this condition, 3D metal structure was fabricated. The final product was heat treated and polished. Through these processes, a fine quality of metal 3D structure was printed.

  15. 3-D prestack Kirchhoff depth migration: From prototype to production in a massively parallel processor environment

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.; Solano, M.; VanDyke, J.P.; McMechan, G.A.; Epili, D.

    1998-03-01

    Portable, production-scale 3-D prestack Kirchhoff depth migration software capable of full-volume imaging has been successfully implemented and applied to a six-million trace (46.9 Gbyte) marine data set from a salt/subsalt play in the Gulf of Mexico. Velocity model building and updates use an image-driven strategy and were performed in a Sun Sparc environment. Images obtained by 3-D prestack migration after three velocity iterations are substantially better focused and reveal drilling targets that were not visible in images obtained from conventional 3-D poststack time migration. Amplitudes are well preserved, so anomalies associated with known reservoirs conform to the petrophysical predictions. Prototype development was on an 8-node Intel iPSC860 computer; the production version was run on an 1824-node Intel Paragon computer. The code has been successfully ported to CRAY (T3D) and Unix workstation (PVM) environments.

  16. Development of a stereo vision measurement system for a 3D three-axial pneumatic parallel mechanism robot arm.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Mao-Hsiung; Lin, Hao-Ting; Hou, Chien-Lun

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a stereo vision 3D position measurement system for a three-axial pneumatic parallel mechanism robot arm is presented. The stereo vision 3D position measurement system aims to measure the 3D trajectories of the end-effector of the robot arm. To track the end-effector of the robot arm, the circle detection algorithm is used to detect the desired target and the SAD algorithm is used to track the moving target and to search the corresponding target location along the conjugate epipolar line in the stereo pair. After camera calibration, both intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the stereo rig can be obtained, so images can be rectified according to the camera parameters. Thus, through the epipolar rectification, the stereo matching process is reduced to a horizontal search along the conjugate epipolar line. Finally, 3D trajectories of the end-effector are computed by stereo triangulation. The experimental results show that the stereo vision 3D position measurement system proposed in this paper can successfully track and measure the fifth-order polynomial trajectory and sinusoidal trajectory of the end-effector of the three- axial pneumatic parallel mechanism robot arm.

  17. A 3D-printed high power nuclear spin polarizer.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Panayiotis; Coffey, Aaron M; Walkup, Laura L; Gust, Brogan M; LaPierre, Cristen D; Koehnemann, Edward; Barlow, Michael J; Rosen, Matthew S; Goodson, Boyd M; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2014-01-29

    Three-dimensional printing with high-temperature plastic is used to enable spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP) and hyperpolarization of xenon-129 gas. The use of 3D printed structures increases the simplicity of integration of the following key components with a variable temperature SEOP probe: (i) in situ NMR circuit operating at 84 kHz (Larmor frequencies of (129)Xe and (1)H nuclear spins), (ii) <0.3 nm narrowed 200 W laser source, (iii) in situ high-resolution near-IR spectroscopy, (iv) thermoelectric temperature control, (v) retroreflection optics, and (vi) optomechanical alignment system. The rapid prototyping endowed by 3D printing dramatically reduces production time and expenses while allowing reproducibility and integration of "off-the-shelf" components and enables the concept of printing on demand. The utility of this SEOP setup is demonstrated here to obtain near-unity (129)Xe polarization values in a 0.5 L optical pumping cell, including ∼74 ± 7% at 1000 Torr xenon partial pressure, a record value at such high Xe density. Values for the (129)Xe polarization exponential build-up rate [(3.63 ± 0.15) × 10(-2) min(-1)] and in-cell (129)Xe spin-lattice relaxation time (T1 = 2.19 ± 0.06 h) for 1000 Torr Xe were in excellent agreement with the ratio of the gas-phase polarizations for (129)Xe and Rb (PRb ∼ 96%). Hyperpolarization-enhanced (129)Xe gas imaging was demonstrated with a spherical phantom following automated gas transfer from the polarizer. Taken together, these results support the development of a wide range of chemical, biochemical, material science, and biomedical applications.

  18. High resolution micro ultrasonic machining for trimming 3D microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanath, Anupam; Li, Tao; Gianchandani, Yogesh

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports on the evaluation of a high resolution micro ultrasonic machining (HR-µUSM) process suitable for post fabrication trimming of complex 3D microstructures made from fused silica. Unlike conventional USM, the HR-µUSM process aims for low machining rates, providing high resolution and high surface quality. The machining rate is reduced by keeping the micro-tool tip at a fixed distance from the workpiece and vibrating it at a small amplitude. The surface roughness is improved by an appropriate selection of abrasive particles. Fluidic modeling is performed to study interaction among the vibrating micro-tool tip, workpiece, and the slurry. Using 304 stainless steel (SS304) tool tips of 50 µm diameter, the machining performance of the HR-µUSM process is characterized on flat fused silica substrates. The depths and surface finish of machined features are evaluated as functions of slurry concentrations, separation between the micro-tool and workpiece, and machining time. Under the selected conditions, the HR-µUSM process achieves machining rates as low as 10 nm s-1 averaged over the first minute of machining of a flat virgin sample. This corresponds to a mass removal rate of ≈20 ng min-1. The average surface roughness, Sa, achieved is as low as 30 nm. Analytical and numerical modeling are used to explain the typical profile of the machined features as well as machining rates. The process is used to demonstrate trimming of hemispherical 3D shells made of fused silica.

  19. A 3D-Printed High Power Nuclear Spin Polarizer

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaou, Panayiotis; Coffey, Aaron M.; Walkup, Laura L.; Gust, Brogan M.; LaPierre, Cristen D.; Koehnemann, Edward; Barlow, Michael J.; Rosen, Matthew S.; Goodson, Boyd M.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional printing with high-temperature plastic is used to enable spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP) and hyperpolarization of xenon-129 gas. The use of 3D printed structures increases the simplicity of integration of the following key components with a variable temperature SEOP probe: (i) in situ NMR circuit operating at 84 kHz (Larmor frequencies of 129Xe and 1H nuclear spins), (ii) <0.3 nm narrowed 200 W laser source, (iii) in situ high-resolution near-IR spectroscopy, (iv) thermoelectric temperature control, (v) retroreflection optics, and (vi) optomechanical alignment system. The rapid prototyping endowed by 3D printing dramatically reduces production time and expenses while allowing reproducibility and integration of “off-the-shelf” components and enables the concept of printing on demand. The utility of this SEOP setup is demonstrated here to obtain near-unity 129Xe polarization values in a 0.5 L optical pumping cell, including ~74 ± 7% at 1000 Torr xenon partial pressure, a record value at such high Xe density. Values for the 129Xe polarization exponential build-up rate [(3.63 ± 0.15) × 10−2 min−1] and in-cell 129Xe spin−lattice relaxation time (T1 = 2.19 ± 0.06 h) for 1000 Torr Xe were in excellent agreement with the ratio of the gas-phase polarizations for 129Xe and Rb (PRb ~ 96%). Hyperpolarization-enhanced 129Xe gas imaging was demonstrated with a spherical phantom following automated gas transfer from the polarizer. Taken together, these results support the development of a wide range of chemical, biochemical, material science, and biomedical applications. PMID:24400919

  20. Reactor Dosimetry Applications Using RAPTOR-M3G:. a New Parallel 3-D Radiation Transport Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longoni, Gianluca; Anderson, Stanwood L.

    2009-08-01

    The numerical solution of the Linearized Boltzmann Equation (LBE) via the Discrete Ordinates method (SN) requires extensive computational resources for large 3-D neutron and gamma transport applications due to the concurrent discretization of the angular, spatial, and energy domains. This paper will discuss the development RAPTOR-M3G (RApid Parallel Transport Of Radiation - Multiple 3D Geometries), a new 3-D parallel radiation transport code, and its application to the calculation of ex-vessel neutron dosimetry responses in the cavity of a commercial 2-loop Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). RAPTOR-M3G is based domain decomposition algorithms, where the spatial and angular domains are allocated and processed on multi-processor computer architectures. As compared to traditional single-processor applications, this approach reduces the computational load as well as the memory requirement per processor, yielding an efficient solution methodology for large 3-D problems. Measured neutron dosimetry responses in the reactor cavity air gap will be compared to the RAPTOR-M3G predictions. This paper is organized as follows: Section 1 discusses the RAPTOR-M3G methodology; Section 2 describes the 2-loop PWR model and the numerical results obtained. Section 3 addresses the parallel performance of the code, and Section 4 concludes this paper with final remarks and future work.

  1. 3D parallel-detection microwave tomography for clinical breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, N. R.; Meaney, P. M.; Paulsen, K. D.

    2014-12-01

    A biomedical microwave tomography system with 3D-imaging capabilities has been constructed and translated to the clinic. Updates to the hardware and reconfiguration of the electronic-network layouts in a more compartmentalized construct have streamlined system packaging. Upgrades to the data acquisition and microwave components have increased data-acquisition speeds and improved system performance. By incorporating analog-to-digital boards that accommodate the linear amplification and dynamic-range coverage our system requires, a complete set of data (for a fixed array position at a single frequency) is now acquired in 5.8 s. Replacement of key components (e.g., switches and power dividers) by devices with improved operational bandwidths has enhanced system response over a wider frequency range. High-integrity, low-power signals are routinely measured down to -130 dBm for frequencies ranging from 500 to 2300 MHz. Adequate inter-channel isolation has been maintained, and a dynamic range >110 dB has been achieved for the full operating frequency range (500-2900 MHz). For our primary band of interest, the associated measurement deviations are less than 0.33% and 0.5° for signal amplitude and phase values, respectively. A modified monopole antenna array (composed of two interwoven eight-element sub-arrays), in conjunction with an updated motion-control system capable of independently moving the sub-arrays to various in-plane and cross-plane positions within the illumination chamber, has been configured in the new design for full volumetric data acquisition. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) are more than adequate for all transmit/receive antenna pairs over the full frequency range and for the variety of in-plane and cross-plane configurations. For proximal receivers, in-plane SNRs greater than 80 dB are observed up to 2900 MHz, while cross-plane SNRs greater than 80 dB are seen for 6 cm sub-array spacing (for frequencies up to 1500 MHz). We demonstrate accurate recovery

  2. 3D parallel-detection microwave tomography for clinical breast imaging

    PubMed Central

    Meaney, P. M.; Paulsen, K. D.

    2014-01-01

    A biomedical microwave tomography system with 3D-imaging capabilities has been constructed and translated to the clinic. Updates to the hardware and reconfiguration of the electronic-network layouts in a more compartmentalized construct have streamlined system packaging. Upgrades to the data acquisition and microwave components have increased data-acquisition speeds and improved system performance. By incorporating analog-to-digital boards that accommodate the linear amplification and dynamic-range coverage our system requires, a complete set of data (for a fixed array position at a single frequency) is now acquired in 5.8 s. Replacement of key components (e.g., switches and power dividers) by devices with improved operational bandwidths has enhanced system response over a wider frequency range. High-integrity, low-power signals are routinely measured down to −130 dBm for frequencies ranging from 500 to 2300 MHz. Adequate inter-channel isolation has been maintained, and a dynamic range >110 dB has been achieved for the full operating frequency range (500–2900 MHz). For our primary band of interest, the associated measurement deviations are less than 0.33% and 0.5° for signal amplitude and phase values, respectively. A modified monopole antenna array (composed of two interwoven eight-element sub-arrays), in conjunction with an updated motion-control system capable of independently moving the sub-arrays to various in-plane and cross-plane positions within the illumination chamber, has been configured in the new design for full volumetric data acquisition. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) are more than adequate for all transmit/receive antenna pairs over the full frequency range and for the variety of in-plane and cross-plane configurations. For proximal receivers, in-plane SNRs greater than 80 dB are observed up to 2900 MHz, while cross-plane SNRs greater than 80 dB are seen for 6 cm sub-array spacing (for frequencies up to 1500 MHz). We demonstrate accurate

  3. 3D parallel-detection microwave tomography for clinical breast imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, N. R.; Meaney, P. M.; Paulsen, K. D.

    2014-12-15

    A biomedical microwave tomography system with 3D-imaging capabilities has been constructed and translated to the clinic. Updates to the hardware and reconfiguration of the electronic-network layouts in a more compartmentalized construct have streamlined system packaging. Upgrades to the data acquisition and microwave components have increased data-acquisition speeds and improved system performance. By incorporating analog-to-digital boards that accommodate the linear amplification and dynamic-range coverage our system requires, a complete set of data (for a fixed array position at a single frequency) is now acquired in 5.8 s. Replacement of key components (e.g., switches and power dividers) by devices with improved operational bandwidths has enhanced system response over a wider frequency range. High-integrity, low-power signals are routinely measured down to −130 dBm for frequencies ranging from 500 to 2300 MHz. Adequate inter-channel isolation has been maintained, and a dynamic range >110 dB has been achieved for the full operating frequency range (500–2900 MHz). For our primary band of interest, the associated measurement deviations are less than 0.33% and 0.5° for signal amplitude and phase values, respectively. A modified monopole antenna array (composed of two interwoven eight-element sub-arrays), in conjunction with an updated motion-control system capable of independently moving the sub-arrays to various in-plane and cross-plane positions within the illumination chamber, has been configured in the new design for full volumetric data acquisition. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) are more than adequate for all transmit/receive antenna pairs over the full frequency range and for the variety of in-plane and cross-plane configurations. For proximal receivers, in-plane SNRs greater than 80 dB are observed up to 2900 MHz, while cross-plane SNRs greater than 80 dB are seen for 6 cm sub-array spacing (for frequencies up to 1500 MHz). We demonstrate accurate

  4. High Resolution 3d Numerical Modelling of Rockfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliardi, F.; Crosta, G. B.

    Accurate modelling of rockfall dynamics is a major issue for engineering geologists and land planners in rockfall prone areas, both for hazard assessment and the design of countermeasures. Numerical modelling of rockfalls has been generally performed in two dimensions. Thus, this is subjected to the crucial "a priori" choice of the rock- fall path and affected by a significant error due to the lateral dispersion of rockfall trajectories. In this study, an original 3D rockfall simulation program, first developed for regional scale distributed analysis, has been tested at a local scale with a very high spatial resolution, in order to show its performance in modelling site-specific prob- lems (runout definition, hazard assessment, design and verification of barriers). The code is based on a "lumped mass" kinematic algorithm allowing to simulate the free fall, impact-rebound and rolling motion of boulders on a three-dimensional topogra- phy described by a DTM. The code allows to run very detailed 3D simulations with almost no limitations in the number of modeled rockfall sources, slope elements and topographic points, using spatially distributed input data. Two case studies from the Mt. S.Martino area (Lecco, Larian Prealps) and the Gembrasca area (Valfurva, Central Alps), both from the mountainous area of the Lombardia Region (Northern Italy) are presented. Both the two examples are particularly intriguing because of the occurrence of well-known historical events (one of which causing fatalities) and the presence of valuable elements at risk (urban areas, transportation corridors) and defensive mea- sures (elasto-plastic barriers and catch walls). The Mt. S.Martino model is based on a DTM with cell size of 5 m, obtained from a 1:5.000 scale contour map, while the Gembrasca one uses an extremely detailed LIDAR-ALTM laser topography with a cell size of 1 m. The location of rockfall sources and the data used to develop and calibrate the two models have been collected

  5. Parallel Implementation of an Adaptive Scheme for 3D Unstructured Grids on the SP2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak; Strawn, Roger C.

    1996-01-01

    Dynamic mesh adaption on unstructured grids is a powerful tool for computing unsteady flows that require local grid modifications to efficiently resolve solution features. For this work, we consider an edge-based adaption scheme that has shown good single-processor performance on the C90. We report on our experience parallelizing this code for the SP2. Results show a 47.OX speedup on 64 processors when 10% of the mesh is randomly refined. Performance deteriorates to 7.7X when the same number of edges are refined in a highly-localized region. This is because almost all mesh adaption is confined to a single processor. However, this problem can be remedied by repartitioning the mesh immediately after targeting edges for refinement but before the actual adaption takes place. With this change, the speedup improves dramatically to 43.6X.

  6. Parallel implementation of an adaptive scheme for 3D unstructured grids on the SP2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawn, Roger C.; Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak

    1996-01-01

    Dynamic mesh adaption on unstructured grids is a powerful tool for computing unsteady flows that require local grid modifications to efficiently resolve solution features. For this work, we consider an edge-based adaption scheme that has shown good single-processor performance on the C90. We report on our experience parallelizing this code for the SP2. Results show a 47.0X speedup on 64 processors when 10 percent of the mesh is randomly refined. Performance deteriorates to 7.7X when the same number of edges are refined in a highly-localized region. This is because almost all the mesh adaption is confined to a single processor. However, this problem can be remedied by repartitioning the mesh immediately after targeting edges for refinement but before the actual adaption takes place. With this change, the speedup improves dramatically to 43.6X.

  7. High Resolution 3D Radar Imaging of Comet Interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphaug, E. I.; Gim, Y.; Belton, M.; Brophy, J.; Weissman, P. R.; Heggy, E.

    2012-12-01

    Knowing the interiors of comets and other primitive bodies is fundamental to our understanding of how planets formed. We have developed a Discovery-class mission formulation, Comet Radar Explorer (CORE), based on the use of previously flown planetary radar sounding techniques, with the goal of obtaining high resolution 3D images of the interior of a small primitive body. We focus on the Jupiter-Family Comets (JFCs) as these are among the most primitive bodies reachable by spacecraft. Scattered in from far beyond Neptune, they are ultimate targets of a cryogenic sample return mission according to the Decadal Survey. Other suitable targets include primitive NEOs, Main Belt Comets, and Jupiter Trojans. The approach is optimal for small icy bodies ~3-20 km diameter with spin periods faster than about 12 hours, since (a) navigation is relatively easy, (b) radar penetration is global for decameter wavelengths, and (c) repeated overlapping ground tracks are obtained. The science mission can be as short as ~1 month for a fast-rotating JFC. Bodies smaller than ~1 km can be globally imaged, but the navigation solutions are less accurate and the relative resolution is coarse. Larger comets are more interesting, but radar signal is unlikely to be reflected from depths greater than ~10 km. So, JFCs are excellent targets for a variety of reasons. We furthermore focus on the use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) to rendezvous shortly after the comet's perihelion. This approach leaves us with ample power for science operations under dormant conditions beyond ~2-3 AU. This leads to a natural mission approach of distant observation, followed by closer inspection, terminated by a dedicated radar mapping orbit. Radar reflections are obtained from a polar orbit about the icy nucleus, which spins underneath. Echoes are obtained from a sounder operating at dual frequencies 5 and 15 MHz, with 1 and 10 MHz bandwidths respectively. The dense network of echoes is used to obtain global 3D

  8. On solving the 3-D phase field equations by employing a parallel-adaptive mesh refinement (Para-AMR) algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Z.; Xiong, S. M.

    2015-05-01

    An algorithm comprising adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) and parallel (Para-) computing capabilities was developed to efficiently solve the coupled phase field equations in 3-D. The AMR was achieved based on a gradient criterion and the point clustering algorithm introduced by Berger (1991). To reduce the time for mesh generation, a dynamic regridding approach was developed based on the magnitude of the maximum phase advancing velocity. Local data at each computing process was then constructed and parallel computation was realized based on the hierarchical grid structure created during the AMR. Numerical tests and simulations on single and multi-dendrite growth were performed and results show that the proposed algorithm could shorten the computing time for 3-D phase field simulation for about two orders of magnitude and enable one to gain much more insight in understanding the underlying physics during dendrite growth in solidification.

  9. Highly parallel computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.; Tichy, Walter F.

    1990-01-01

    Highly parallel computing architectures are the only means to achieve the computation rates demanded by advanced scientific problems. A decade of research has demonstrated the feasibility of such machines and current research focuses on which architectures designated as multiple instruction multiple datastream (MIMD) and single instruction multiple datastream (SIMD) have produced the best results to date; neither shows a decisive advantage for most near-homogeneous scientific problems. For scientific problems with many dissimilar parts, more speculative architectures such as neural networks or data flow may be needed.

  10. High resolution 3D fluorescence tomography using ballistic photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jie; Nouizi, Farouk; Cho, Jaedu; Kwong, Jessica; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2015-03-01

    We are developing a ballistic-photon based approach for improving the spatial resolution of fluorescence tomography using time-domain measurements. This approach uses early photon information contained in measured time-of-fight distributions originating from fluorescence emission. The time point spread functions (TPSF) from both excitation light and emission light are acquired with gated single photon Avalanche detector (SPAD) and time-correlated single photon counting after a short laser pulse. To determine the ballistic photons for reconstruction, the lifetime of the fluorophore and the time gate from the excitation profiles will be used for calibration, and then the time gate of the fluorescence profile can be defined by a simple time convolution. By mimicking first generation CT data acquisition, the sourcedetector pair will translate across and also rotate around the subject. The measurement from each source-detector position will be reshaped into a histogram that can be used by a simple back-projection algorithm in order to reconstruct high resolution fluorescence images. Finally, from these 2D sectioning slides, a 3D inclusion can be reconstructed accurately. To validate the approach, simulation of light transport is performed for biological tissue-like media with embedded fluorescent inclusion by solving the diffusion equation with Finite Element Method using COMSOL Multiphysics simulation. The reconstruction results from simulation studies have confirmed that this approach drastically improves the spatial resolution of fluorescence tomography. Moreover, all the results have shown the feasibility of this technique for high resolution small animal imaging up to several centimeters.

  11. High pressure behavior of 3d transition metal carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farfan, G. A.; Wang, S.; Boulard, E.; Mao, W. L.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the behavior of carbon-rich phases in Earth's lower mantle is critical for modeling the global carbon cycle since the lower mantle may be the major repository for carbon in our planet. We were interested in the behavior of carbonates containing 3d transition metals, which can exhibit unusual properties at extreme conditions. Thus, we studied siderite (FeCO3) and rhodochrosite (MnCO3) at high pressure using a diamond anvil cell coupled with Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray emission spectroscopy. In siderite we observed a high to low spin transition and associated volume collapse at approximately 46 GPa which is consistent with previous reports. Our Raman data show that the C-O bonds soften when the Fe2+ volume collapses (Farfan et al, 2012). In contrast, our XES results indicate that the Mn2+ in rhodochrosite does not undergo a spin transition like siderite up to 50 GPa. We observed a new Raman peak emerging above 48 GPa, which is a similar pressure at which a new structure was found in a previous XRD study.

  12. Inspection of 3D parts using high accuracy range data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Flavio; Lepage, Richard; Boulanger, Pierre; Redarce, Tanneguy

    2000-03-01

    The use of a laser range sensor in the 3D part digitalization process for inspection tasks allows very significant improvement in acquisition speed and in 3D measurement points density but does not equal the accuracy obtained with a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Inspection consists in verifying the accuracy of a part related to a given set of tolerances. It is thus necessary that the 3D measurements be accurate. In the 3D capture of a part, several sources of error can alter the measured values. So, we have to find and model the most influent parameters affecting the accuracy of the range sensor in the digitalization process. This model is used to produce a sensing plan to acquire completely and accurately the geometry of a part. The sensing plan is composed of the set of viewpoints which defines the exact position and orientation of the camera relative to the part. The 3D cloud obtained from the sensing plan is registered with the CAD model of the part and then segmented according to the different surfaces. Segmentation results are used to check tolerances of the part. By using the noise model, we introduce a dispersion value for each 3D point acquired according to the sensing plan. This value of dispersion is shown as a weight factor in the inspection results.

  13. A 3D MPI-Parallel GPU-accelerated framework for simulating ocean wave energy converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Ashish; Raessi, Mehdi

    2015-11-01

    We present an MPI-parallel GPU-accelerated computational framework for studying the interaction between ocean waves and wave energy converters (WECs). The computational framework captures the viscous effects, nonlinear fluid-structure interaction (FSI), and breaking of waves around the structure, which cannot be captured in many potential flow solvers commonly used for WEC simulations. The full Navier-Stokes equations are solved using the two-step projection method, which is accelerated by porting the pressure Poisson equation to GPUs. The FSI is captured using the numerically stable fictitious domain method. A novel three-phase interface reconstruction algorithm is used to resolve three phases in a VOF-PLIC context. A consistent mass and momentum transport approach enables simulations at high density ratios. The accuracy of the overall framework is demonstrated via an array of test cases. Numerical simulations of the interaction between ocean waves and WECs are presented. Funding from the National Science Foundation CBET-1236462 grant is gratefully acknowledged.

  14. Parallel Adaptive Computation of Blood Flow in a 3D ``Whole'' Body Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, M.; Figueroa, C. A.; Taylor, C. A.; Sahni, O.; Jansen, K. E.

    2008-11-01

    Accurate numerical simulations of vascular trauma require the consideration of a larger portion of the vasculature than previously considered, due to the systemic nature of the human body's response. A patient-specific 3D model composed of 78 connected arterial branches extending from the neck to the lower legs is constructed to effectively represent the entire body. Recently developed outflow boundary conditions that appropriately represent the downstream vasculature bed which is not included in the 3D computational domain are applied at 78 outlets. In this work, the pulsatile blood flow simulations are started on a fairly uniform, unstructured mesh that is subsequently adapted using a solution-based approach to efficiently resolve the flow features. The adapted mesh contains non-uniform, anisotropic elements resulting in resolution that conforms with the physical length scales present in the problem. The effects of the mesh resolution on the flow field are studied, specifically on relevant quantities of pressure, velocity and wall shear stress.

  15. High resolution 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliardi, Frank M.; Cornelius, Iwan; Blencowe, Anton; Franich, Rick D.; Geso, Moshi

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) techniques are under investigation at synchrotrons worldwide. Favourable outcomes from animal and cell culture studies have proven the efficacy of MRT. The aim of MRT researchers currently is to progress to human clinical trials in the near future. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the high resolution and 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams in PRESAGE® dosimeters using laser fluorescence confocal microscopy. Methods: Water equivalent PRESAGE® dosimeters were fabricated and irradiated with microbeams on the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Microbeam arrays comprised of microbeams 25–50 μm wide with 200 or 400 μm peak-to-peak spacing were delivered as single, cross-fire, multidirectional, and interspersed arrays. Imaging of the dosimeters was performed using a NIKON A1 laser fluorescence confocal microscope. Results: The spatial fractionation of the MRT beams was clearly visible in 2D and up to 9 mm in depth. Individual microbeams were easily resolved with the full width at half maximum of microbeams measured on images with resolutions of as low as 0.09 μm/pixel. Profiles obtained demonstrated the change of the peak-to-valley dose ratio for interspersed MRT microbeam arrays and subtle variations in the sample positioning by the sample stage goniometer were measured. Conclusions: Laser fluorescence confocal microscopy of MRT irradiated PRESAGE® dosimeters has been validated in this study as a high resolution imaging tool for the independent spatial and geometrical verification of MRT beam delivery.

  16. Implementation of a 3D mixing layer code on parallel computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roe, K.; Thakur, R.; Dang, T.; Bogucz, E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes our progress and experience in the development of a Computational-Fluid-Dynamics code on parallel computers to simulate three-dimensional spatially-developing mixing layers. In this initial study, the three-dimensional time-dependent Euler equations are solved using a finite-volume explicit time-marching algorithm. The code was first programmed in Fortran 77 for sequential computers. The code was then converted for use on parallel computers using the conventional message-passing technique, while we have not been able to compile the code with the present version of HPF compilers.

  17. A new method to combine 3D reconstruction volumes for multiple parallel circular cone beam orbits

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jongduk; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This article presents a new reconstruction method for 3D imaging using a multiple 360° circular orbit cone beam CT system, specifically a way to combine 3D volumes reconstructed with each orbit. The main goal is to improve the noise performance in the combined image while avoiding cone beam artifacts. Methods: The cone beam projection data of each orbit are reconstructed using the FDK algorithm. When at least a portion of the total volume can be reconstructed by more than one source, the proposed combination method combines these overlap regions using weighted averaging in frequency space. The local exactness and the noise performance of the combination method were tested with computer simulations of a Defrise phantom, a FORBILD head phantom, and uniform noise in the raw data. Results: A noiseless simulation showed that the local exactness of the reconstructed volume from the source with the smallest tilt angle was preserved in the combined image. A noise simulation demonstrated that the combination method improved the noise performance compared to a single orbit reconstruction. Conclusions: In CT systems which have overlap volumes that can be reconstructed with data from more than one orbit and in which the spatial frequency content of each reconstruction can be calculated, the proposed method offers improved noise performance while keeping the local exactness of data from the source with the smallest tilt angle. PMID:21089770

  18. Simulation of the 3D viscoelastic free surface flow by a parallel corrected particle scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin-Lian, Ren; Tao, Jiang

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the behavior of the three-dimensional (3D) jet coiling based on the viscoelastic Oldroyd-B model is investigated by a corrected particle scheme, which is named the smoothed particle hydrodynamics with corrected symmetric kernel gradient and shifting particle technique (SPH_CS_SP) method. The accuracy and stability of SPH_CS_SP method is first tested by solving Poiseuille flow and Taylor-Green flow. Then the capacity for the SPH_CS_SP method to solve the viscoelastic fluid is verified by the polymer flow through a periodic array of cylinders. Moreover, the convergence of the SPH_CS_SP method is also investigated. Finally, the proposed method is further applied to the 3D viscoelastic jet coiling problem, and the influences of macroscopic parameters on the jet coiling are discussed. The numerical results show that the SPH_CS_SP method has higher accuracy and better stability than the traditional SPH method and other corrected SPH method, and can improve the tensile instability. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant Nos. BK20130436 and BK20150436) and the Natural Science Foundation of the Higher Education Institutions of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. 15KJB110025).

  19. High-Resolution Variable-Density 3D Cones Coronary MRA

    PubMed Central

    Addy, Nii Okai; Ingle, R. Reeve; Wu, Holden H.; Hu, Bob S.; Nishimura, Dwight G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To improve the spatial/temporal resolution of whole-heart coronary MR angiography (CMRA) by developing a variable-density (VD) 3D cones acquisition suitable for image reconstruction with parallel imaging and compressed sensing techniques. Methods A VD 3D cones trajectory design incorporates both radial and spiral trajectory undersampling techniques to achieve higher resolution. This design is used to generate a VD cones trajectory with 0.8 mm/66 ms isotropic spatial/temporal resolution, using a similar number of readouts as our previous fully sampled cones trajectory (1.2 mm/100 ms). Scans of volunteers and patients are performed to evaluate the performance of the VD trajectory, using non-Cartesian L1-ESPIRiT for high-resolution image reconstruction. Results With gridding reconstruction, the high-resolution scans experience an expected drop in signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios, but with L1-ESPIRiT, the apparent noise is substantially reduced. Compared to 1.2 mm images, in each volunteer, the L1-ESPIRiT 0.8 mm images exhibit higher vessel sharpness values in the right and left anterior descending arteries. Conclusion CMRA with isotropic sub-millimeter spatial resolution and high temporal resolution can be performed with VD 3D cones to improve the depiction of coronary arteries. PMID:26172829

  20. Inversion of the 3D exponential parallel-beam transform and the Radon transform with angle-dependent attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunyansky, Leonid A.

    2004-10-01

    The inversion problem for the 3D parallel-beam exponential ray transform is solved through inversion of a set of the 2D exponential Radon transforms with complex-valued angle-dependent attenuation. An inversion formula for the latter 2D transform is derived; it generalizes the known Kuchment-Shneiberg formula valid for real angle-dependent attenuation. We derive an explicit theoretically exact solution of the 3D problem which is valid for arbitrary closed trajectory that does not intersect itself. A simple reconstruction algorithm is described, applicable for certain sets of trajectories satisfying Orlov's condition. In the latter case, our inversion technique is as stable as the Tretiak-Metz inversion formula. Possibilities of further reduction of noise sensitivity are briefly discussed in the paper. The work of our algorithm is illustrated by an example of image reconstruction from two circular orbits.

  1. A parallel dynamic load balancing algorithm for 3-D adaptive unstructured grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidwans, A.; Kallinderis, Y.; Venkatakrishnan, V.

    1993-01-01

    Adaptive local grid refinement and coarsening results in unequal distribution of workload among the processors of a parallel system. A novel method for balancing the load in cases of dynamically changing tetrahedral grids is developed. The approach employs local exchange of cells among processors in order to redistribute the load equally. An important part of the load balancing algorithm is the method employed by a processor to determine which cells within its subdomain are to be exchanged. Two such methods are presented and compared. The strategy for load balancing is based on the Divide-and-Conquer approach which leads to an efficient parallel algorithm. This method is implemented on a distributed-memory MIMD system.

  2. High Performance Parallel Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Ghazawi, Tarek; Kaewpijit, Sinthop

    1998-01-01

    Traditional remote sensing instruments are multispectral, where observations are collected at a few different spectral bands. Recently, many hyperspectral instruments, that can collect observations at hundreds of bands, have been operational. Furthermore, there have been ongoing research efforts on ultraspectral instruments that can produce observations at thousands of spectral bands. While these remote sensing technology developments hold great promise for new findings in the area of Earth and space science, they present many challenges. These include the need for faster processing of such increased data volumes, and methods for data reduction. Dimension Reduction is a spectral transformation, aimed at concentrating the vital information and discarding redundant data. One such transformation, which is widely used in remote sensing, is the Principal Components Analysis (PCA). This report summarizes our progress on the development of a parallel PCA and its implementation on two Beowulf cluster configuration; one with fast Ethernet switch and the other with a Myrinet interconnection. Details of the implementation and performance results, for typical sets of multispectral and hyperspectral NASA remote sensing data, are presented and analyzed based on the algorithm requirements and the underlying machine configuration. It will be shown that the PCA application is quite challenging and hard to scale on Ethernet-based clusters. However, the measurements also show that a high- performance interconnection network, such as Myrinet, better matches the high communication demand of PCA and can lead to a more efficient PCA execution.

  3. Task-parallel implementation of 3D shortest path raytracing for geophysical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giroux, Bernard; Larouche, Benoît

    2013-04-01

    This paper discusses two variants of the shortest path method and their parallel implementation on a shared-memory system. One variant is designed to perform raytracing in models with stepwise distributions of interval velocity while the other is better suited for continuous velocity models. Both rely on a discretization scheme where primary nodes are located at the corners of cuboid cells and where secondary nodes are found on the edges and sides of the cells. The parallel implementations allow raytracing concurrently for different sources, providing an attractive framework for ray-based tomography. The accuracy and performance of the implementations were measured by comparison with the analytic solution for a layered model and for a vertical gradient model. Mean relative error less than 0.2% was obtained with 5 secondary nodes for the layered model and 9 secondary nodes for the gradient model. Parallel performance depends on the level of discretization refinement, on the number of threads, and on the problem size, with the most determinant variable being the level of discretization refinement (number of secondary nodes). The results indicate that a good trade-off between speed and accuracy is achieved with the number of secondary nodes equal to 5. The programs are written in C++ and rely on the Standard Template Library and OpenMP.

  4. Comparison of parallel and spiral tagged MRI geometries in estimation of 3-D myocardial strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tustison, Nicholas J.; Amini, Amir A.

    2005-04-01

    Research involving the quantification of left ventricular myocardial strain from cardiac tagged magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is extensive. Two different imaging geometries are commonly employed by these methodologies to extract longitudinal deformation. We refer to these imaging geometries as either parallel or spiral. In the spiral configuration, four long-axis tagged image slices which intersect along the long-axis of the left ventricle are collected and in the parallel configuration, contiguous tagged long-axis images spanning the width of the left ventricle between the lateral wall and the septum are collected. Despite the number of methodologies using either or both imaging configurations, to date, no comparison has been made to determine which geometry results in more accurate estimation of strains. Using previously published work in which left ventricular myocardial strain is calculated from 4-D anatomical NURBS models, we compare the strain calculated from these two imaging geometries in both simulated tagged MR images for which ground truth strain is available as well as in in vivo data. It is shown that strains calculated using the parallel imaging protocol are more accurate than that calculated using spiral protocol.

  5. High Accuracy 3D Processing of Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruen, A.; Zhang, L.; Kocaman, S.

    2007-01-01

    Automatic DSM/DTM generation reproduces not only general features, but also detailed features of the terrain relief. Height accuracy of around 1 pixel in cooperative terrain. RMSE values of 1.3-1.5 m (1.0-2.0 pixels) for IKONOS and RMSE values of 2.9-4.6 m (0.5-1.0 pixels) for SPOT5 HRS. For 3D city modeling, the manual and semi-automatic feature extraction capability of SAT-PP provides a good basis. The tools of SAT-PP allowed the stereo-measurements of points on the roofs in order to generate a 3D city model with CCM The results show that building models with main roof structures can be successfully extracted by HRSI. As expected, with Quickbird more details are visible.

  6. 3-D Experimental Fracture Analysis at High Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Jackson; Albert S. Kobayashi

    2001-09-14

    T*e, which is an elastic-plastic fracture parameter based on incremental theory of plasticity, was determined numerically and experimentally. The T*e integral of a tunneling crack in 2024-T3 aluminum, three point bend specimen was obtained through a hybrid analysis of moire interferometry and 3-D elastic-plastic finite element analysis. The results were verified by the good agreement between the experimentally and numerically determined T*e on the specimen surface.

  7. Massively Parallel Linear Stability Analysis with P_ARPACK for 3D Fluid Flow Modeled with MPSalsa

    SciTech Connect

    Lehoucq, R.B.; Salinger, A.G.

    1998-10-13

    We are interested in the stability of three-dimensional fluid flows to small dkturbances. One computational approach is to solve a sequence of large sparse generalized eigenvalue problems for the leading modes that arise from discretizating the differential equations modeling the flow. The modes of interest are the eigenvalues of largest real part and their associated eigenvectors. We discuss our work to develop an effi- cient and reliable eigensolver for use by the massively parallel simulation code MPSalsa. MPSalsa allows simulation of complex 3D fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer with detailed bulk fluid and surface chemical reaction kinetics.

  8. The DANTE Boltzmann transport solver: An unstructured mesh, 3-D, spherical harmonics algorithm compatible with parallel computer architectures

    SciTech Connect

    McGhee, J.M.; Roberts, R.M.; Morel, J.E.

    1997-06-01

    A spherical harmonics research code (DANTE) has been developed which is compatible with parallel computer architectures. DANTE provides 3-D, multi-material, deterministic, transport capabilities using an arbitrary finite element mesh. The linearized Boltzmann transport equation is solved in a second order self-adjoint form utilizing a Galerkin finite element spatial differencing scheme. The core solver utilizes a preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm. Other distinguishing features of the code include options for discrete-ordinates and simplified spherical harmonics angular differencing, an exact Marshak boundary treatment for arbitrarily oriented boundary faces, in-line matrix construction techniques to minimize memory consumption, and an effective diffusion based preconditioner for scattering dominated problems. Algorithm efficiency is demonstrated for a massively parallel SIMD architecture (CM-5), and compatibility with MPP multiprocessor platforms or workstation clusters is anticipated.

  9. Parallel tree code for large N-body simulation: Dynamic load balance and data distribution on a CRAY T3D system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becciani, U.; Ansaloni, R.; Antonuccio-Delogu, V.; Erbacci, G.; Gambera, M.; Pagliaro, A.

    1997-10-01

    N-body algorithms for long-range unscreened interactions like gravity belong to a class of highly irregular problems whose optimal solution is a challenging task for present-day massively parallel computers. In this paper we describe a strategy for optimal memory and work distribution which we have applied to our parallel implementation of the Barnes & Hut (1986) recursive tree scheme on a Cray T3D using the CRAFT programming environment. We have performed a series of tests to find an optimal data distribution in the T3D memory, and to identify a strategy for the Dynamic Load Balance in order to obtain good performances when running large simulations (more than 10 million particles). The results of tests show that the step duration depends on two main factors: the data locality and the T3D network contention. Increasing data locality we are able to minimize the step duration if the closest bodies (direct interaction) tend to be located in the same PE local memory (contiguous block subdivision, high granularity), whereas the tree properties have a fine grain distribution. In a very large simulation, due to network contention, an unbalanced load arises. To remedy this we have devised an automatic work redistribution mechanism which provided a good Dynamic Load Balance at the price of an insignificant overhead.

  10. High-Performance 3D Articulated Robot Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Mittman, David S.; Kurien, James A.; Abramyan, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    In the domain of telerobotic operations, the primary challenge facing the operator is to understand the state of the robotic platform. One key aspect of understanding the state is to visualize the physical location and configuration of the platform. As there is a wide variety of mobile robots, the requirements for visualizing their configurations vary diversely across different platforms. There can also be diversity in the mechanical mobility, such as wheeled, tracked, or legged mobility over surfaces. Adaptable 3D articulated robot visualization software can accommodate a wide variety of robotic platforms and environments. The visualization has been used for surface, aerial, space, and water robotic vehicle visualization during field testing. It has been used to enable operations of wheeled and legged surface vehicles, and can be readily adapted to facilitate other mechanical mobility solutions. The 3D visualization can render an articulated 3D model of a robotic platform for any environment. Given the model, the software receives real-time telemetry from the avionics system onboard the vehicle and animates the robot visualization to reflect the telemetered physical state. This is used to track the position and attitude in real time to monitor the progress of the vehicle as it traverses its environment. It is also used to monitor the state of any or all articulated elements of the vehicle, such as arms, legs, or control surfaces. The visualization can also render other sorts of telemetered states visually, such as stress or strains that are measured by the avionics. Such data can be used to color or annotate the virtual vehicle to indicate nominal or off-nominal states during operation. The visualization is also able to render the simulated environment where the vehicle is operating. For surface and aerial vehicles, it can render the terrain under the vehicle as the avionics sends it location information (GPS, odometry, or star tracking), and locate the vehicle

  11. A parallel overset-curvilinear-immersed boundary framework for simulating complex 3D incompressible flows.

    PubMed

    Borazjani, Iman; Ge, Liang; Le, Trung; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2013-04-01

    We develop an overset-curvilinear immersed boundary (overset-CURVIB) method in a general non-inertial frame of reference to simulate a wide range of challenging biological flow problems. The method incorporates overset-curvilinear grids to efficiently handle multi-connected geometries and increase the resolution locally near immersed boundaries. Complex bodies undergoing arbitrarily large deformations may be embedded within the overset-curvilinear background grid and treated as sharp interfaces using the curvilinear immersed boundary (CURVIB) method (Ge and Sotiropoulos, Journal of Computational Physics, 2007). The incompressible flow equations are formulated in a general non-inertial frame of reference to enhance the overall versatility and efficiency of the numerical approach. Efficient search algorithms to identify areas requiring blanking, donor cells, and interpolation coefficients for constructing the boundary conditions at grid interfaces of the overset grid are developed and implemented using efficient parallel computing communication strategies to transfer information among sub-domains. The governing equations are discretized using a second-order accurate finite-volume approach and integrated in time via an efficient fractional-step method. Various strategies for ensuring globally conservative interpolation at grid interfaces suitable for incompressible flow fractional step methods are implemented and evaluated. The method is verified and validated against experimental data, and its capabilities are demonstrated by simulating the flow past multiple aquatic swimmers and the systolic flow in an anatomic left ventricle with a mechanical heart valve implanted in the aortic position.

  12. A parallel overset-curvilinear-immersed boundary framework for simulating complex 3D incompressible flows

    PubMed Central

    Borazjani, Iman; Ge, Liang; Le, Trung; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2013-01-01

    We develop an overset-curvilinear immersed boundary (overset-CURVIB) method in a general non-inertial frame of reference to simulate a wide range of challenging biological flow problems. The method incorporates overset-curvilinear grids to efficiently handle multi-connected geometries and increase the resolution locally near immersed boundaries. Complex bodies undergoing arbitrarily large deformations may be embedded within the overset-curvilinear background grid and treated as sharp interfaces using the curvilinear immersed boundary (CURVIB) method (Ge and Sotiropoulos, Journal of Computational Physics, 2007). The incompressible flow equations are formulated in a general non-inertial frame of reference to enhance the overall versatility and efficiency of the numerical approach. Efficient search algorithms to identify areas requiring blanking, donor cells, and interpolation coefficients for constructing the boundary conditions at grid interfaces of the overset grid are developed and implemented using efficient parallel computing communication strategies to transfer information among sub-domains. The governing equations are discretized using a second-order accurate finite-volume approach and integrated in time via an efficient fractional-step method. Various strategies for ensuring globally conservative interpolation at grid interfaces suitable for incompressible flow fractional step methods are implemented and evaluated. The method is verified and validated against experimental data, and its capabilities are demonstrated by simulating the flow past multiple aquatic swimmers and the systolic flow in an anatomic left ventricle with a mechanical heart valve implanted in the aortic position. PMID:23833331

  13. Radiation hardness tests of highly irradiated full-3D sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haughton, Iain; DaVia, Cinzia; Watts, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Several full-3D silicon sensors (with column electrodes going fully through the bulk) were irradiated up to a fluence of (2.14±0.18)×1016 neq cm-2. An infra-red laser was used to induce a homogeneous signal within each sensor's bulk. The signal degradation, measured as a signal efficiency (signal after irradiation normalised to its value before irradiation) was determined for each fluence. The experimental set-up allowed for monitoring of the beam spot diameter, position and reflection intensity on the sensor's surface. Corrections, dependent on the measured reflection intensity, were made when calculating the signal efficiency. The sensor irradiated to the highest fluence showed a signal efficiency of (50 ± 5) %.

  14. Algebraic multigrid preconditioning within parallel finite-element solvers for 3-D electromagnetic modelling problems in geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koldan, Jelena; Puzyrev, Vladimir; de la Puente, Josep; Houzeaux, Guillaume; Cela, José María

    2014-06-01

    We present an elaborate preconditioning scheme for Krylov subspace methods which has been developed to improve the performance and reduce the execution time of parallel node-based finite-element (FE) solvers for 3-D electromagnetic (EM) numerical modelling in exploration geophysics. This new preconditioner is based on algebraic multigrid (AMG) that uses different basic relaxation methods, such as Jacobi, symmetric successive over-relaxation (SSOR) and Gauss-Seidel, as smoothers and the wave front algorithm to create groups, which are used for a coarse-level generation. We have implemented and tested this new preconditioner within our parallel nodal FE solver for 3-D forward problems in EM induction geophysics. We have performed series of experiments for several models with different conductivity structures and characteristics to test the performance of our AMG preconditioning technique when combined with biconjugate gradient stabilized method. The results have shown that, the more challenging the problem is in terms of conductivity contrasts, ratio between the sizes of grid elements and/or frequency, the more benefit is obtained by using this preconditioner. Compared to other preconditioning schemes, such as diagonal, SSOR and truncated approximate inverse, the AMG preconditioner greatly improves the convergence of the iterative solver for all tested models. Also, when it comes to cases in which other preconditioners succeed to converge to a desired precision, AMG is able to considerably reduce the total execution time of the forward-problem code-up to an order of magnitude. Furthermore, the tests have confirmed that our AMG scheme ensures grid-independent rate of convergence, as well as improvement in convergence regardless of how big local mesh refinements are. In addition, AMG is designed to be a black-box preconditioner, which makes it easy to use and combine with different iterative methods. Finally, it has proved to be very practical and efficient in the

  15. Improved Algorithms and Methods for Solving Strongly Variable-Viscosity 3D Stokes flow and Strongly Variable Permeability 3D D’Arcy flow on a Parallel Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, J. P.; Hasenclever, J.; Shi, C.

    2009-12-01

    Computational studies of mantle convection face large challenges to obtain fast and accurate solutions for variable viscosity 3d flow. Recently we have been using parallel (MPI-based) MATLAB to more thoroughly explore possible pitfalls and algorithmic improvements to current ‘best-practice’ variable viscosity Stokes and D’Arcy flow solvers. Here we focus on study of finite-element solvers based on a decomposition of the equations for incompressible Stokes flow: Ku + Gp = f and G’u = 0 (K-velocity stiffness matrix, G-discretized gradient operator, G’=transpose(G)-discretized divergence operator) into a single equation for pressure Sp==G’K^-1Gp =G’K^-1f, in which the velocity is also updated as part of each pressure iteration. The outer pressure iteration is solved with preconditioned conjugate gradients (CG) (Maday and Patera, 1989), with a multigrid-preconditioned CG solver for the z=K^-1 (Gq) step of each pressure iteration. One fairly well-known pitfall (Fortin, 1985) is that constant-pressure elements can generate a spurious non-zero flow under a constant body force within non-rectangular geometries. We found a new pitfall when using an iterative method to solve the Kz=y operation in evaluating each G’K^-1Gq product -- even if the residual of the outer pressure equation converges to zero, the discrete divergence of this equation does not correspondingly converge; the error in the incompressibility depends on roughly the square of the tolerance used to solve each Kz=y velocity-like subproblem. Our current best recipe is: (1) Use flexible CG (cf. Notay, 2001) to solve the outer pressure problem. This is analogous to GMRES for a symmetric positive definite problem. It allows use of numerically unsymmetric and/or inexact preconditioners with CG. (2) In this outer-iteration, use an ‘alpha-bar’ technique to find the appropriate magnitude alpha to change the solution in each search direction. This improvement allows a similar iterative tolerance of

  16. Massively parallel patterning of complex 2D and 3D functional polymer brushes by polymer pen lithography.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhuang; Chen, Chaojian; Zhou, Xuechang; Gao, Tingting; Liu, Danqing; Miao, Qian; Zheng, Zijian

    2014-08-13

    We report the first demonstration of centimeter-area serial patterning of complex 2D and 3D functional polymer brushes by high-throughput polymer pen lithography. Arbitrary 2D and 3D structures of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) brushes are fabricated over areas as large as 2 cm × 1 cm, with a remarkable throughput being 3 orders of magnitudes higher than the state-of-the-arts. Patterned PGMA brushes are further employed as resist for fabricating Au micro/nanostructures and hard molds for the subsequent replica molding of soft stamps. On the other hand, these 2D and 3D PGMA brushes are also utilized as robust and versatile platforms for the immobilization of bioactive molecules to form 2D and 3D patterned DNA oligonucleotide and protein chips. Therefore, this low-cost, yet high-throughput "bench-top" serial fabrication method can be readily applied to a wide range of fields including micro/nanofabrication, optics and electronics, smart surfaces, and biorelated studies.

  17. Development of a 3D parallel mechanism robot arm with three vertical-axial pneumatic actuators combined with a stereo vision system.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Mao-Hsiung; Lin, Hao-Ting

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a novel 3D parallel mechanism robot driven by three vertical-axial pneumatic actuators with a stereo vision system for path tracking control. The mechanical system and the control system are the primary novel parts for developing a 3D parallel mechanism robot. In the mechanical system, a 3D parallel mechanism robot contains three serial chains, a fixed base, a movable platform and a pneumatic servo system. The parallel mechanism are designed and analyzed first for realizing a 3D motion in the X-Y-Z coordinate system of the robot's end-effector. The inverse kinematics and the forward kinematics of the parallel mechanism robot are investigated by using the Denavit-Hartenberg notation (D-H notation) coordinate system. The pneumatic actuators in the three vertical motion axes are modeled. In the control system, the Fourier series-based adaptive sliding-mode controller with H(∞) tracking performance is used to design the path tracking controllers of the three vertical servo pneumatic actuators for realizing 3D path tracking control of the end-effector. Three optical linear scales are used to measure the position of the three pneumatic actuators. The 3D position of the end-effector is then calculated from the measuring position of the three pneumatic actuators by means of the kinematics. However, the calculated 3D position of the end-effector cannot consider the manufacturing and assembly tolerance of the joints and the parallel mechanism so that errors between the actual position and the calculated 3D position of the end-effector exist. In order to improve this situation, sensor collaboration is developed in this paper. A stereo vision system is used to collaborate with the three position sensors of the pneumatic actuators. The stereo vision system combining two CCD serves to measure the actual 3D position of the end-effector and calibrate the error between the actual and the calculated 3D position of the end-effector. Furthermore, to

  18. High performance computing approaches for 3D reconstruction of complex biological specimens.

    PubMed

    da Silva, M Laura; Roca-Piera, Javier; Fernández, José-Jesús

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the structure of specimens is crucial to determine the role that they play in cellular and molecular biology. To yield the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction by means of tomographic reconstruction algorithms, we need the use of large projection images and high processing time. Therefore, we propose the use of the high performance computing (HPC) to cope with the huge computational demands of this problem. We have implemented a HPC strategy where the distribution of tasks follows the master-slave paradigm. The master processor distributes a slab of slices, a piece of the final 3D structure to reconstruct, among the slave processors and receives reconstructed slices of the volume. We have evaluated the performance of our HPC approach using different sizes of the slab. We have observed that it is possible to find out an optimal size of the slab for the number of processor used that minimize communications time while maintaining a reasonable grain of parallelism to be exploited by the set of processors.

  19. High performance computing approaches for 3D reconstruction of complex biological specimens.

    PubMed

    da Silva, M Laura; Roca-Piera, Javier; Fernández, José-Jesús

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the structure of specimens is crucial to determine the role that they play in cellular and molecular biology. To yield the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction by means of tomographic reconstruction algorithms, we need the use of large projection images and high processing time. Therefore, we propose the use of the high performance computing (HPC) to cope with the huge computational demands of this problem. We have implemented a HPC strategy where the distribution of tasks follows the master-slave paradigm. The master processor distributes a slab of slices, a piece of the final 3D structure to reconstruct, among the slave processors and receives reconstructed slices of the volume. We have evaluated the performance of our HPC approach using different sizes of the slab. We have observed that it is possible to find out an optimal size of the slab for the number of processor used that minimize communications time while maintaining a reasonable grain of parallelism to be exploited by the set of processors. PMID:20865517

  20. Dense 3D Reconstruction from High Frame-Rate Video Using a Static Grid Pattern.

    PubMed

    Sagawa, Ryusuke; Furukawa, Ryo; Kawasaki, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    Dense 3D reconstruction of fast moving objects could contribute to various applications such as body structure analysis, accident avoidance, and so on. In this paper, we propose a technique based on a one-shot scanning method, which reconstructs 3D shapes for each frame of a high frame-rate video capturing the scenes projected by a static pattern. To avoid instability of image processing, we restrict the number of colors used in the pattern to less than two. The proposed technique comprises (1) an efficient algorithm to eliminate ambiguity of projected parallel-line patterns by using intersection points, (2) a batch reconstruction algorithm of multiple frames by using spatio-temporal constraints, and (3) an efficient detection method of color-encoded grid pattern based on de Bruijn sequence. In the experiments, the line detection algorithm worked effectively and the dense reconstruction algorithm produces accurate and robust results. We also show the improved results by using temporal constraints. Finally, the dense reconstructions of fast moving objects in a high frame-rate video are presented. PMID:26352228

  1. Comparison of 3D-OP-OSEM and 3D-FBP reconstruction algorithms for High-Resolution Research Tomograph studies: effects of randoms estimation methods.

    PubMed

    van Velden, Floris H P; Kloet, Reina W; van Berckel, Bart N M; Wolfensberger, Saskia P A; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Boellaard, Ronald

    2008-06-21

    The High-Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT) is a dedicated human brain positron emission tomography (PET) scanner. Recently, a 3D filtered backprojection (3D-FBP) reconstruction method has been implemented to reduce bias in short duration frames, currently observed in 3D ordinary Poisson OSEM (3D-OP-OSEM) reconstructions. Further improvements might be expected using a new method of variance reduction on randoms (VRR) based on coincidence histograms instead of using the delayed window technique (DW) to estimate randoms. The goal of this study was to evaluate VRR in combination with 3D-OP-OSEM and 3D-FBP reconstruction techniques. To this end, several phantom studies and a human brain study were performed. For most phantom studies, 3D-OP-OSEM showed higher accuracy of observed activity concentrations with VRR than with DW. However, both positive and negative deviations in reconstructed activity concentrations and large biases of grey to white matter contrast ratio (up to 88%) were still observed as a function of scan statistics. Moreover 3D-OP-OSEM+VRR also showed bias up to 64% in clinical data, i.e. in some pharmacokinetic parameters as compared with those obtained with 3D-FBP+VRR. In the case of 3D-FBP, VRR showed similar results as DW for both phantom and clinical data, except that VRR showed a better standard deviation of 6-10%. Therefore, VRR should be used to correct for randoms in HRRT PET studies.

  2. Comparison of 3D-OP-OSEM and 3D-FBP reconstruction algorithms for High-Resolution Research Tomograph studies: effects of randoms estimation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Velden, Floris H. P.; Kloet, Reina W.; van Berckel, Bart N. M.; Wolfensberger, Saskia P. A.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Boellaard, Ronald

    2008-06-01

    The High-Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT) is a dedicated human brain positron emission tomography (PET) scanner. Recently, a 3D filtered backprojection (3D-FBP) reconstruction method has been implemented to reduce bias in short duration frames, currently observed in 3D ordinary Poisson OSEM (3D-OP-OSEM) reconstructions. Further improvements might be expected using a new method of variance reduction on randoms (VRR) based on coincidence histograms instead of using the delayed window technique (DW) to estimate randoms. The goal of this study was to evaluate VRR in combination with 3D-OP-OSEM and 3D-FBP reconstruction techniques. To this end, several phantom studies and a human brain study were performed. For most phantom studies, 3D-OP-OSEM showed higher accuracy of observed activity concentrations with VRR than with DW. However, both positive and negative deviations in reconstructed activity concentrations and large biases of grey to white matter contrast ratio (up to 88%) were still observed as a function of scan statistics. Moreover 3D-OP-OSEM+VRR also showed bias up to 64% in clinical data, i.e. in some pharmacokinetic parameters as compared with those obtained with 3D-FBP+VRR. In the case of 3D-FBP, VRR showed similar results as DW for both phantom and clinical data, except that VRR showed a better standard deviation of 6-10%. Therefore, VRR should be used to correct for randoms in HRRT PET studies.

  3. Morphologic Interpretation of Rock Failure Mechanisms Under Uniaxial Compression Based on 3D Multiscale High-resolution Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gen; Liang, Zheng-Zhao; Tang, Chun-An

    2015-11-01

    Multiscale continuous lab oratory observation of the progressive failure process has become a powerful means to reveal the complex failure mechanism of rock. Correspondingly, the representative volume element (RVE)-based models, which are capable of micro/meso- to macro-scale simulations, have been proposed, for instance, the rock failure process analysis (RFPA) program. Limited by the computational bottleneck due to the RVE size, multiscale high-resolution modeling of rock failure process can hardly be implemented, especially for three-dimensional (3D) problems. In this paper, the self-developed parallel RFPA3D code is employed to investigate the failure mechanisms and various fracture morphology of laboratory-scale rectangular prism rock specimens under unconfined uniaxial compression. The specimens consist of either heterogeneous rock with low strength or relatively homogeneous rock with high strength. The numerical simulations, such as the macroscopic fracture pattern and stress-strain responses, can reproduce the well-known phenomena of physical experiments. In particular, the 3D multiscale continuum modeling is carried out to gain new insight into the morphologic interpretation of brittle failure mechanisms, which is calibrated and validated by comparing the actual laboratory experiments and field evidence. The advantages of 3D multiscale high-resolution modeling are demonstrated by comparing the failure modes against 2D numerical predictions by other models. The parallel RVE-based modeling tool in this paper can provide an alternative way to investigate the complicated failure mechanisms of rock.

  4. SPADAS: a high-speed 3D single-photon camera for advanced driver assistance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronzi, D.; Zou, Y.; Bellisai, S.; Villa, F.; Tisa, S.; Tosi, A.; Zappa, F.

    2015-02-01

    Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are the most advanced technologies to fight road accidents. Within ADAS, an important role is played by radar- and lidar-based sensors, which are mostly employed for collision avoidance and adaptive cruise control. Nonetheless, they have a narrow field-of-view and a limited ability to detect and differentiate objects. Standard camera-based technologies (e.g. stereovision) could balance these weaknesses, but they are currently not able to fulfill all automotive requirements (distance range, accuracy, acquisition speed, and frame-rate). To this purpose, we developed an automotive-oriented CMOS single-photon camera for optical 3D ranging based on indirect time-of-flight (iTOF) measurements. Imagers based on Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays offer higher sensitivity with respect to CCD/CMOS rangefinders, have inherent better time resolution, higher accuracy and better linearity. Moreover, iTOF requires neither high bandwidth electronics nor short-pulsed lasers, hence allowing the development of cost-effective systems. The CMOS SPAD sensor is based on 64 × 32 pixels, each able to process both 2D intensity-data and 3D depth-ranging information, with background suppression. Pixel-level memories allow fully parallel imaging and prevents motion artefacts (skew, wobble, motion blur) and partial exposure effects, which otherwise would hinder the detection of fast moving objects. The camera is housed in an aluminum case supporting a 12 mm F/1.4 C-mount imaging lens, with a 40°×20° field-of-view. The whole system is very rugged and compact and a perfect solution for vehicle's cockpit, with dimensions of 80 mm × 45 mm × 70 mm, and less that 1 W consumption. To provide the required optical power (1.5 W, eye safe) and to allow fast (up to 25 MHz) modulation of the active illumination, we developed a modular laser source, based on five laser driver cards, with three 808 nm lasers each. We present the full characterization of

  5. High expression of small GTPase Rab3D promotes cancer progression and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Liu, Wei; Lu, Xin'an; Fu, Yan; Li, Lin; Luo, Yongzhang

    2015-01-01

    Rab GTPases control exocytic and endocytic membrane trafficking such as exosomes release. As a secretory small GTPase, Rab3D is a vital regulator for protein secretion. However, the role of Rab3D in cancer was never systematically studied. The aim of this study is to examine its function and mechanism in cancer, especially metastasis. We detected protein levels of Rab3D in nine cancer cell lines and twelve types of clinical cancer specimens. Subsequently, we established in vitro migration and in vivo orthotopic metastatic mouse models to study the role of Rab3D in tumor metastasis. Here, we reported that the expression levels of Rab3D were dysregulated in cancer cells and highly correlated with tumor malignancies in the clinical samples. Increased expressions of Rab3D led to tumor invasion in vitro and lung metastasis in vivo, whereas Rab3D knockdown suppressed the tumor cell motility. Mechanistic studies revealed that Rab3D activated intracellular the AKT/GSK3β signaling to induce the EMT process. In addition, it also regulated the extracellular secretion of Hsp90α to promote tumor cell migration and invasion. These results prove that Rab3D is a key molecule to regulate tumor metastasis, suggesting that blocking the Rab3D function can be a potential therapeutic approach for cancer metastasis. PMID:25823663

  6. A high-throughput 3-D composite dielectrophoretic separator.

    PubMed

    Fatoyinbo, Henry O; Kamchis, David; Whattingham, Reginald; Ogin, Stephen L; Hughes, Michael P

    2005-07-01

    Dielectrophoresis has great potential to offer a range of diverse fields from bioprocessing to clinical medicine, but is hampered by low throughput rates to the micrometer scale of the electrodes required to generate highly nonuniform fields. Here we describe a novel approach to electrode construction, using a drilled laminated structure to form channels bearing electrodes 30 microm across and 150 microm apart. Since these electrodes appear along all sides of the drilled bore, the trapping efficiency is improved over conventional devices. We have developed and demonstrated a separator capable of sorting a 50:50 mixture of viable and nonviable yeast cells into an 86:14 mixture at 25 mLhr(-1).

  7. High resolution 3D gas-jet characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Landgraf, Bjoern; Kaluza, Malte C.; Spielmann, Christian; Schnell, Michael; Saevert, Alexander

    2011-08-15

    We present a tomographic characterization of gas jets employed for high-intensity laser-plasma interaction experiments where the shape can be non-symmetrically. With a Mach-Zehnder interferometer we measured the phase shift for different directions through the neutral density distribution of the gas jet. From the recorded interferograms it is possible to retrieve 3-dimensional neutral density distributions by tomographic reconstruction based on the filtered back projections. We report on criteria for the smallest number of recorded interferograms as well as a comparison with the widely used phase retrieval based on an Abel inversion. As an example for the performance of our approach, we present the characterization of nozzles with rectangular openings or gas jets with shock waves. With our setup we obtained a spatial resolution of less than 60 {mu}m for an Argon density as low as 2 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}.

  8. The SALSA Project - High-End Aerial 3d Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüther-Kindel, W.; Brauchle, J.

    2013-08-01

    The ATISS measurement drone, developed at the University of Applied Sciences Wildau, is an electrical powered motor glider with a maximum take-off weight of 25 kg including a payload capacity of 10 kg. Two 2.5 kW engines enable ultra short take-off procedures and the motor glider design results in a 1 h endurance. The concept of ATISS is based on the idea to strictly separate between aircraft and payload functions, which makes ATISS a very flexible research platform for miscellaneous payloads. ATISS is equipped with an autopilot for autonomous flight patterns but under permanent pilot control from the ground. On the basis of ATISS the project SALSA was undertaken. The aim was to integrate a system for digital terrain modelling. Instead of a laser scanner a new design concept was chosen based on two synchronized high resolution digital cameras, one in a fixed nadir orientation and the other in a oblique orientation. Thus from every object on the ground images from different view angles are taken. This new measurement camera system MACS-TumbleCam was developed at the German Aerospace Center DLR Berlin-Adlershof especially for the ATISS payload concept. Special advantage in comparison to laser scanning is the fact, that instead of a cloud of points a surface including texture is generated and a high-end inertial orientation system can be omitted. The first test flights show a ground resolution of 2 cm and height resolution of 3 cm, which underline the extraordinary capabilities of ATISS and the MACS measurement camera system.

  9. On the feasibility of comprehensive high-resolution 3D remote dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Juang, Titania; Grant, Ryan; Adamovics, John; Ibbott, Geoffrey; Oldham, Mark

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: This study investigates the feasibility of remote high-resolution 3D dosimetry with the PRESAGE®/Optical-CT system. In remote dosimetry, dosimeters are shipped out from a central base institution to a remote institution for irradiation, then shipped back to the base institution for subsequent readout and analysis. Methods: Two nominally identical optical-CT scanners for 3D dosimetry were constructed and placed at the base (Duke University) and remote (Radiological Physics Center) institutions. Two formulations of PRESAGE® (SS1, SS2) radiochromic dosimeters were investigated. Higher sensitivity was expected in SS1, which had higher initiator content (0.25% bromotrichloromethane), while greater temporal stability was expected in SS2. Four unirradiated PRESAGE® dosimeters (two per formulation, cylindrical dimensions 11 cm diameter, 8.5–9.5 cm length) were imaged at the base institution, then shipped to the remote institution for planning and irradiation. Each dosimeter was irradiated with the same simple treatment plan: an isocentric 3-field “cross” arrangement of 4 × 4 cm open 6 MV beams configured as parallel opposed laterals with an anterior beam. This simple plan was amenable to accurate and repeatable setup, as well as accurate dose modeling by a commissioned treatment planning system (Pinnacle). After irradiation and subsequent (within 1 h) optical-CT readout at the remote institution, the dosimeters were shipped back to the base institution for remote dosimetry readout 3 days postirradiation. Measured on-site and remote relative 3D dose distributions were registered to the Pinnacle dose calculation, which served as the reference distribution for 3D gamma calculations with passing criteria of 5%/2 mm, 3%/3 mm, and 3%/2 mm with a 10% dose threshold. Gamma passing rates, dose profiles, and color-maps were all used to assess and compare the performance of both PRESAGE® formulations for remote dosimetry. Results: The best agreements between the

  10. High resolution 3D insider detection and tracking.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Cynthia Lee

    2003-09-01

    Vulnerability analysis studies show that one of the worst threats against a facility is that of an active insider during an emergency evacuation. When a criticality or other emergency alarm occurs, employees immediately proceed along evacuation routes to designated areas. Procedures are then implemented to account for all material, classified parts, etc. The 3-Dimensional Video Motion Detection (3DVMD) technology could be used to detect and track possible insider activities during alarm situations, as just described, as well as during normal operating conditions. The 3DVMD technology uses multiple cameras to create 3-dimensional detection volumes or zones. Movement throughout detection zones is tracked and high-level information, such as the number of people and their direction of motion, is extracted. In the described alarm scenario, deviances of evacuation procedures taken by an individual could be immediately detected and relayed to a central alarm station. The insider could be tracked and any protected items removed from the area could be flagged. The 3DVMD technology could also be used to monitor such items as machines that are used to build classified parts. During an alarm, detections could be made if items were removed from the machine. Overall, the use of 3DVMD technology during emergency evacuations would help to prevent the loss of classified items and would speed recovery from emergency situations. Further security could also be added by analyzing tracked behavior (motion) as it corresponds to predicted behavior, e.g., behavior corresponding with the execution of required procedures. This information would be valuable for detecting a possible insider not only during emergency situations, but also during times of normal operation.

  11. Creating Realistic 3D Graphics with Excel at High School--Vector Algebra in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benacka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of an experiment in which Excel applications that depict rotatable and sizable orthographic projection of simple 3D figures with face overlapping were developed with thirty gymnasium (high school) students of age 17-19 as an introduction to 3D computer graphics. A questionnaire survey was conducted to find out…

  12. Development of the 3D Parallel Particle-In-Cell Code IMPACT to Simulate the Ion Beam Transport System of VENUS (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, J.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D. S.; Ryne, R. D.

    2005-03-01

    The superconducting ECR ion source VENUS serves as the prototype injector ion source for the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac. The RIA driver linac requires a great variety of high charge state ion beams with up to an order of magnitude higher intensity than currently achievable with conventional ECR ion sources. In order to design the beam line optics of the low energy beam line for the RIA front end for the wide parameter range required for the RIA driver accelerator, reliable simulations of the ion beam extraction from the ECR ion source through the ion mass analyzing system are essential. The RIA low energy beam transport line must be able to transport intense beams (up to 10 mA) of light and heavy ions at 30 keV. For this purpose, LBNL is developing the parallel 3D particle-in-cell code IMPACT to simulate the ion beam transport from the ECR extraction aperture through the analyzing section of the low energy transport system. IMPACT, a parallel, particle-in-cell code, is currently used to model the superconducting RF linac section of RIA and is being modified in order to simulate DC beams from the ECR ion source extraction. By using the high performance of parallel supercomputing we will be able to account consistently for the changing space charge in the extraction region and the analyzing section. A progress report and early results in the modeling of the VENUS source will be presented.

  13. Development of the 3D Parallel Particle-In-Cell Code IMPACT to Simulate the Ion Beam Transport System of VENUS (Abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, J.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D.S.; Ryne, R.D.

    2005-03-15

    The superconducting ECR ion source VENUS serves as the prototype injector ion source for the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac. The RIA driver linac requires a great variety of high charge state ion beams with up to an order of magnitude higher intensity than currently achievable with conventional ECR ion sources. In order to design the beam line optics of the low energy beam line for the RIA front end for the wide parameter range required for the RIA driver accelerator, reliable simulations of the ion beam extraction from the ECR ion source through the ion mass analyzing system are essential. The RIA low energy beam transport line must be able to transport intense beams (up to 10 mA) of light and heavy ions at 30 keV.For this purpose, LBNL is developing the parallel 3D particle-in-cell code IMPACT to simulate the ion beam transport from the ECR extraction aperture through the analyzing section of the low energy transport system. IMPACT, a parallel, particle-in-cell code, is currently used to model the superconducting RF linac section of RIA and is being modified in order to simulate DC beams from the ECR ion source extraction. By using the high performance of parallel supercomputing we will be able to account consistently for the changing space charge in the extraction region and the analyzing section. A progress report and early results in the modeling of the VENUS source will be presented.

  14. Volume Attenuation and High Frequency Loss as Auditory Depth Cues in Stereoscopic 3D Cinema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manolas, Christos; Pauletto, Sandra

    2014-09-01

    Assisted by the technological advances of the past decades, stereoscopic 3D (S3D) cinema is currently in the process of being established as a mainstream form of entertainment. The main focus of this collaborative effort is placed on the creation of immersive S3D visuals. However, with few exceptions, little attention has been given so far to the potential effect of the soundtrack on such environments. The potential of sound both as a means to enhance the impact of the S3D visual information and to expand the S3D cinematic world beyond the boundaries of the visuals is large. This article reports on our research into the possibilities of using auditory depth cues within the soundtrack as a means of affecting the perception of depth within cinematic S3D scenes. We study two main distance-related auditory cues: high-end frequency loss and overall volume attenuation. A series of experiments explored the effectiveness of these auditory cues. Results, although not conclusive, indicate that the studied auditory cues can influence the audience judgement of depth in cinematic 3D scenes, sometimes in unexpected ways. We conclude that 3D filmmaking can benefit from further studies on the effectiveness of specific sound design techniques to enhance S3D cinema.

  15. High nitrogen-containing cotton derived 3D porous carbon frameworks for high-performance supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Li-Zhen; Chen, Tian-Tian; Song, Wei-Li; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Shichao

    2015-01-01

    Supercapacitors fabricated by 3D porous carbon frameworks, such as graphene- and carbon nanotube (CNT)-based aerogels, have been highly attractive due to their various advantages. However, their high cost along with insufficient yield has inhibited their large-scale applications. Here we have demonstrated a facile and easily scalable approach for large-scale preparing novel 3D nitrogen-containing porous carbon frameworks using ultralow-cost commercial cotton. Electrochemical performance suggests that the optimal nitrogen-containing cotton-derived carbon frameworks with a high nitrogen content (12.1 mol%) along with low surface area 285 m2 g−1 present high specific capacities of the 308 and 200 F g−1 in KOH electrolyte at current densities of 0.1 and 10 A g−1, respectively, with very limited capacitance loss upon 10,000 cycles in both aqueous and gel electrolytes. Moreover, the electrode exhibits the highest capacitance up to 220 F g−1 at 0.1 A g−1 and excellent flexibility (with negligible capacitance loss under different bending angles) in the polyvinyl alcohol/KOH gel electrolyte. The observed excellent performance competes well with that found in the electrodes of similar 3D frameworks formed by graphene or CNTs. Therefore, the ultralow-cost and simply strategy here demonstrates great potential for scalable producing high-performance carbon-based supercapacitors in the industry. PMID:26472144

  16. High nitrogen-containing cotton derived 3D porous carbon frameworks for high-performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Li-Zhen; Chen, Tian-Tian; Song, Wei-Li; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Shichao

    2015-10-01

    Supercapacitors fabricated by 3D porous carbon frameworks, such as graphene- and carbon nanotube (CNT)-based aerogels, have been highly attractive due to their various advantages. However, their high cost along with insufficient yield has inhibited their large-scale applications. Here we have demonstrated a facile and easily scalable approach for large-scale preparing novel 3D nitrogen-containing porous carbon frameworks using ultralow-cost commercial cotton. Electrochemical performance suggests that the optimal nitrogen-containing cotton-derived carbon frameworks with a high nitrogen content (12.1 mol%) along with low surface area 285 m2 g-1 present high specific capacities of the 308 and 200 F g-1 in KOH electrolyte at current densities of 0.1 and 10 A g-1, respectively, with very limited capacitance loss upon 10,000 cycles in both aqueous and gel electrolytes. Moreover, the electrode exhibits the highest capacitance up to 220 F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 and excellent flexibility (with negligible capacitance loss under different bending angles) in the polyvinyl alcohol/KOH gel electrolyte. The observed excellent performance competes well with that found in the electrodes of similar 3D frameworks formed by graphene or CNTs. Therefore, the ultralow-cost and simply strategy here demonstrates great potential for scalable producing high-performance carbon-based supercapacitors in the industry.

  17. 3D Printing of Highly Stretchable and Tough Hydrogels into Complex, Cellularized Structures.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sungmin; Sycks, Dalton; Chan, Hon Fai; Lin, Shaoting; Lopez, Gabriel P; Guilak, Farshid; Leong, Kam W; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2015-07-15

    A 3D printable and highly stretchable tough hydrogel is developed by combining poly(ethylene glycol) and sodium alginate, which synergize to form a hydrogel tougher than natural cartilage. Encapsulated cells maintain high viability over a 7 d culture period and are highly deformed together with the hydrogel. By adding biocompatible nanoclay, the tough hydrogel is 3D printed in various shapes without requiring support material. PMID:26033288

  18. 3D Printing of Highly Stretchable and Tough Hydrogels into Complex, Cellularized Structures.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sungmin; Sycks, Dalton; Chan, Hon Fai; Lin, Shaoting; Lopez, Gabriel P; Guilak, Farshid; Leong, Kam W; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2015-07-15

    A 3D printable and highly stretchable tough hydrogel is developed by combining poly(ethylene glycol) and sodium alginate, which synergize to form a hydrogel tougher than natural cartilage. Encapsulated cells maintain high viability over a 7 d culture period and are highly deformed together with the hydrogel. By adding biocompatible nanoclay, the tough hydrogel is 3D printed in various shapes without requiring support material.

  19. Robust Adaptive 3-D Segmentation of Vessel Laminae From Fluorescence Confocal Microscope Images and Parallel GPU Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Narayanaswamy, Arunachalam; Dwarakapuram, Saritha; Bjornsson, Christopher S.; Cutler, Barbara M.; Shain, William

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents robust 3-D algorithms to segment vasculature that is imaged by labeling laminae, rather than the lumenal volume. The signal is weak, sparse, noisy, nonuniform, low-contrast, and exhibits gaps and spectral artifacts, so adaptive thresholding and Hessian filtering based methods are not effective. The structure deviates from a tubular geometry, so tracing algorithms are not effective. We propose a four step approach. The first step detects candidate voxels using a robust hypothesis test based on a model that assumes Poisson noise and locally planar geometry. The second step performs an adaptive region growth to extract weakly labeled and fine vessels while rejecting spectral artifacts. To enable interactive visualization and estimation of features such as statistical confidence, local curvature, local thickness, and local normal, we perform the third step. In the third step, we construct an accurate mesh representation using marching tetrahedra, volume-preserving smoothing, and adaptive decimation algorithms. To enable topological analysis and efficient validation, we describe a method to estimate vessel centerlines using a ray casting and vote accumulation algorithm which forms the final step of our algorithm. Our algorithm lends itself to parallel processing, and yielded an 8× speedup on a graphics processor (GPU). On synthetic data, our meshes had average error per face (EPF) values of (0.1–1.6) voxels per mesh face for peak signal-to-noise ratios from (110–28 dB). Separately, the error from decimating the mesh to less than 1% of its original size, the EPF was less than 1 voxel/face. When validated on real datasets, the average recall and precision values were found to be 94.66% and 94.84%, respectively. PMID:20199906

  20. Rapid 3-D delineation of cell nuclei for high-content screening platforms.

    PubMed

    Gertych, Arkadiusz; Ma, Zhaoxuan; Tajbakhsh, Jian; Velásquez-Vacca, Adriana; Knudsen, Beatrice S

    2016-02-01

    High-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) microscopy combined with multiplexing of fluorescent labels allows high-content analysis of large numbers of cell nuclei. The full automation of 3-D screening platforms necessitates image processing algorithms that can accurately and robustly delineate nuclei in images with little to no human intervention. Imaging-based high-content screening was originally developed as a powerful tool for drug discovery. However, cell confluency, complexity of nuclear staining as well as poor contrast between nuclei and background result in slow and unreliable 3-D image processing and therefore negatively affect the performance of studying a drug response. Here, we propose a new method, 3D-RSD, to delineate nuclei by means of 3-D radial symmetries and test it on high-resolution image data of human cancer cells treated by drugs. The nuclei detection performance was evaluated by means of manually generated ground truth from 2351 nuclei (27 confocal stacks). When compared to three other nuclei segmentation methods, 3D-RSD possessed a better true positive rate of 83.3% and F-score of 0.895±0.045 (p-value=0.047). Altogether, 3D-RSD is a method with a very good overall segmentation performance. Furthermore, implementation of radial symmetries offers good processing speed, and makes 3D-RSD less sensitive to staining patterns. In particular, the 3D-RSD method performs well in cell lines, which are often used in imaging-based HCS platforms and are afflicted by nuclear crowding and overlaps that hinder feature extraction.

  1. A Parallel 3D Spectral Difference Method for Solutions of Compressible Navier Stokes Equations on Deforming Grids and Simulations of Vortex Induced Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeJong, Andrew

    Numerical models of fluid-structure interaction have grown in importance due to increasing interest in environmental energy harvesting, airfoil-gust interactions, and bio-inspired formation flying. Powered by increasingly powerful parallel computers, such models seek to explain the fundamental physics behind the complex, unsteady fluid-structure phenomena. To this end, a high-fidelity computational model based on the high-order spectral difference method on 3D unstructured, dynamic meshes has been developed. The spectral difference method constructs continuous solution fields within each element with a Riemann solver to compute the inviscid fluxes at the element interfaces and an averaging mechanism to compute the viscous fluxes. This method has shown promise in the past as a highly accurate, yet sufficiently fast method for solving unsteady viscous compressible flows. The solver is monolithically coupled to the equations of motion of an elastically mounted 3-degree of freedom rigid bluff body undergoing flow-induced lift, drag, and torque. The mesh is deformed using 4 methods: an analytic function, Laplace equation, biharmonic equation, and a bi-elliptic equation with variable diffusivity. This single system of equations -- fluid and structure -- is advanced through time using a 5-stage, 4th-order Runge-Kutta scheme. Message Passing Interface is used to run the coupled system in parallel on up to 240 processors. The solver is validated against previously published numerical and experimental data for an elastically mounted cylinder. The effect of adding an upstream body and inducing wake galloping is observed.

  2. BioSig3D: High Content Screening of Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Models

    PubMed Central

    Bilgin, Cemal Cagatay; Fontenay, Gerald; Cheng, Qingsu; Chang, Hang; Han, Ju; Parvin, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    BioSig3D is a computational platform for high-content screening of three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models that are imaged in full 3D volume. It provides an end-to-end solution for designing high content screening assays, based on colony organization that is derived from segmentation of nuclei in each colony. BioSig3D also enables visualization of raw and processed 3D volumetric data for quality control, and integrates advanced bioinformatics analysis. The system consists of multiple computational and annotation modules that are coupled together with a strong use of controlled vocabularies to reduce ambiguities between different users. It is a web-based system that allows users to: design an experiment by defining experimental variables, upload a large set of volumetric images into the system, analyze and visualize the dataset, and either display computed indices as a heatmap, or phenotypic subtypes for heterogeneity analysis, or download computed indices for statistical analysis or integrative biology. BioSig3D has been used to profile baseline colony formations with two experiments: (i) morphogenesis of a panel of human mammary epithelial cell lines (HMEC), and (ii) heterogeneity in colony formation using an immortalized non-transformed cell line. These experiments reveal intrinsic growth properties of well-characterized cell lines that are routinely used for biological studies. BioSig3D is being released with seed datasets and video-based documentation. PMID:26978075

  3. BioSig3D: High Content Screening of Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Models.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Cemal Cagatay; Fontenay, Gerald; Cheng, Qingsu; Chang, Hang; Han, Ju; Parvin, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    BioSig3D is a computational platform for high-content screening of three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models that are imaged in full 3D volume. It provides an end-to-end solution for designing high content screening assays, based on colony organization that is derived from segmentation of nuclei in each colony. BioSig3D also enables visualization of raw and processed 3D volumetric data for quality control, and integrates advanced bioinformatics analysis. The system consists of multiple computational and annotation modules that are coupled together with a strong use of controlled vocabularies to reduce ambiguities between different users. It is a web-based system that allows users to: design an experiment by defining experimental variables, upload a large set of volumetric images into the system, analyze and visualize the dataset, and either display computed indices as a heatmap, or phenotypic subtypes for heterogeneity analysis, or download computed indices for statistical analysis or integrative biology. BioSig3D has been used to profile baseline colony formations with two experiments: (i) morphogenesis of a panel of human mammary epithelial cell lines (HMEC), and (ii) heterogeneity in colony formation using an immortalized non-transformed cell line. These experiments reveal intrinsic growth properties of well-characterized cell lines that are routinely used for biological studies. BioSig3D is being released with seed datasets and video-based documentation.

  4. A Fast Parallel Simulation Code for Interaction between Proto-Planetary Disk and Embedded Proto-Planets: Implementation for 3D Code

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shengtai; Li, Hui

    2012-06-14

    the position of the planet, we adopt the corotating frame that allows the planet moving only in radial direction if only one planet is present. This code has been extensively tested on a number of problems. For the earthmass planet with constant aspect ratio h = 0.05, the torque calculated using our code matches quite well with the the 3D linear theory results by Tanaka et al. (2002). The code is fully parallelized via message-passing interface (MPI) and has very high parallel efficiency. Several numerical examples for both fixed planet and moving planet are provided to demonstrate the efficacy of the numerical method and code.

  5. Label free cell tracking in 3D tissue engineering constructs with high resolution imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, W. A.; Lam, K.-P.; Dempsey, K. P.; Mazzocchi-Jones, D.; Richardson, J. B.; Yang, Y.

    2014-02-01

    Within the field of tissue engineering there is an emphasis on studying 3-D live tissue structures. Consequently, to investigate and identify cellular activities and phenotypes in a 3-D environment for all in vitro experiments, including shape, migration/proliferation and axon projection, it is necessary to adopt an optical imaging system that enables monitoring 3-D cellular activities and morphology through the thickness of the construct for an extended culture period without cell labeling. This paper describes a new 3-D tracking algorithm developed for Cell-IQ®, an automated cell imaging platform, which has been equipped with an environmental chamber optimized to enable capturing time-lapse sequences of live cell images over a long-term period without cell labeling. As an integral part of the algorithm, a novel auto-focusing procedure was developed for phase contrast microscopy equipped with 20x and 40x objectives, to provide a more accurate estimation of cell growth/trajectories by allowing 3-D voxels to be computed at high spatiotemporal resolution and cell density. A pilot study was carried out in a phantom system consisting of horizontally aligned nanofiber layers (with precise spacing between them), to mimic features well exemplified in cellular activities of neuronal growth in a 3-D environment. This was followed by detailed investigations concerning axonal projections and dendritic circuitry formation in a 3-D tissue engineering construct. Preliminary work on primary animal neuronal cells in response to chemoattractant and topographic cue within the scaffolds has produced encouraging results.

  6. 3D Modeling Activity for Novel High Power Electron Guns at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-07-29

    The next generation of powerful electronic devices requires new approaches to overcome the known limitations of existing tube technology. Multi-beam and sheet beam approaches are novel concepts for the high power microwave devices. Direct and indirect modeling methods are being developed at SLAC to meet the new requirements in the 3D modeling. The direct method of solving of Poisson's equations for the multi-beam and sheet beam guns is employed in the TOPAZ 3D tool. The combination of TOPAZ 2D and EGUN (in the beginning) with MAFIA 3D and MAGIC 3D (at the end) is used in an indirect method to model the high power electron guns. Both methods complement each other to get reliable representation of the beam trajectories. Several gun ideas are under consideration at the present time. The collected results of these simulations are discussed.

  7. 3D nanochannel electroporation for high-throughput cell transfection with high uniformity and dosage control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Lingqian; Bertani, Paul; Gallego-Perez, Daniel; Yang, Zhaogang; Chen, Feng; Chiang, Chiling; Malkoc, Veysi; Kuang, Tairong; Gao, Keliang; Lee, L. James; Lu, Wu

    2015-12-01

    Of great interest to modern medicine and biomedical research is the ability to inject individual target cells with the desired genes or drug molecules. Some advances in cell electroporation allow for high throughput, high cell viability, or excellent dosage control, yet no platform is available for the combination of all three. In an effort to solve this problem, here we show a ``3D nano-channel electroporation (NEP) chip'' on a silicon platform designed to meet these three criteria. This NEP chip can simultaneously deliver the desired molecules into 40 000 cells per cm2 on the top surface of the device. Each 650 nm pore aligns to a cell and can be used to deliver extremely small biological elements to very large plasmids (>10 kbp). When compared to conventional bulk electroporation (BEP), the NEP chip shows a 20 fold improvement in dosage control and uniformity, while still maintaining high cell viability (>90%) even in cells such as cardiac cells which are characteristically difficult to transfect. This high-throughput 3D NEP system provides an innovative and medically valuable platform with uniform and reliable cellular transfection, allowing for a steady supply of healthy, engineered cells.Of great interest to modern medicine and biomedical research is the ability to inject individual target cells with the desired genes or drug molecules. Some advances in cell electroporation allow for high throughput, high cell viability, or excellent dosage control, yet no platform is available for the combination of all three. In an effort to solve this problem, here we show a ``3D nano-channel electroporation (NEP) chip'' on a silicon platform designed to meet these three criteria. This NEP chip can simultaneously deliver the desired molecules into 40 000 cells per cm2 on the top surface of the device. Each 650 nm pore aligns to a cell and can be used to deliver extremely small biological elements to very large plasmids (>10 kbp). When compared to conventional bulk

  8. The Transient 3-D Transport Coupled Code TORT-TD/ATTICA3D for High-Fidelity Pebble-Bed HTGR Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seubert, Armin; Sureda, Antonio; Lapins, Janis; Bader, Johannes; Laurien, Eckart

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the 3D discrete ordinates-based coupled code system TORT-TD/ATTICA3D that aims at steady state and transient analyses of pebble-bed high-temperature gas cooled reactors. In view of increasing computing power, the application of time-dependent neutron transport methods becomes feasible for best estimate evaluations of safety margins. The calculation capabilities of TORT-TD/ATTICA3D are presented along with the coupling approach, with focus on the time-dependent neutron transport features of TORT-TD. Results obtained for the OECD/NEA/NSC PBMR-400 benchmark demonstrate the transient capabilities of TORT-TD/ATTICA3D.

  9. Synthesis of highly interconnected 3D scaffold from Arothron stellatus skin collagen for tissue engineering application.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Giriprasath; Singaravelu, Sivakumar; Raja, M D; Sivagnanam, Uma Tiruchirapalli

    2015-11-01

    The substrate which is avidly used for tissue engineering applications should have good mechanical and biocompatible properties, and all these parameters are often considered as essential for dermal reformation. Highly interconnected three dimensional (3D) wound dressing material with enhanced structural integrity was synthesized from Arothron stellatus fish skin (AsFS) collagen for tissue engineering applications. The synthesized 3D collagen sponge (COL-SPG) was further characterized by different physicochemical methods. The scanning electron microscopy analysis of the material demonstrated that well interconnected pores with homogeneous microstructure on the surface aids higher swelling index and that the material also possessed good mechanical properties with a Young's modulus of 0.89±0.2 MPa. Biocompatibility of the 3D COL-SPG showed 92% growth for both NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Overall, the study revealed that synthesized 3D COL-SPG from fish skin will act as a promising wound dressing in skin tissue engineering.

  10. High-throughput 3D tracking of bacteria on a standard phase contrast microscope

    PubMed Central

    Taute, K.M.; Gude, S.; Tans, S.J.; Shimizu, T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria employ diverse motility patterns in traversing complex three-dimensional (3D) natural habitats. 2D microscopy misses crucial features of 3D behaviour, but the applicability of existing 3D tracking techniques is constrained by their performance or ease of use. Here we present a simple, broadly applicable, high-throughput 3D bacterial tracking method for use in standard phase contrast microscopy. Bacteria are localized at micron-scale resolution over a range of 350 × 300 × 200 μm by maximizing image cross-correlations between their observed diffraction patterns and a reference library. We demonstrate the applicability of our technique to a range of bacterial species and exploit its high throughput to expose hidden contributions of bacterial individuality to population-level variability in motile behaviour. The simplicity of this powerful new tool for bacterial motility research renders 3D tracking accessible to a wider community and paves the way for investigations of bacterial motility in complex 3D environments. PMID:26522289

  11. 3D nanochannel electroporation for high-throughput cell transfection with high uniformity and dosage control.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lingqian; Bertani, Paul; Gallego-Perez, Daniel; Yang, Zhaogang; Chen, Feng; Chiang, Chiling; Malkoc, Veysi; Kuang, Tairong; Gao, Keliang; Lee, L James; Lu, Wu

    2016-01-01

    Of great interest to modern medicine and biomedical research is the ability to inject individual target cells with the desired genes or drug molecules. Some advances in cell electroporation allow for high throughput, high cell viability, or excellent dosage control, yet no platform is available for the combination of all three. In an effort to solve this problem, here we show a "3D nano-channel electroporation (NEP) chip" on a silicon platform designed to meet these three criteria. This NEP chip can simultaneously deliver the desired molecules into 40,000 cells per cm(2) on the top surface of the device. Each 650 nm pore aligns to a cell and can be used to deliver extremely small biological elements to very large plasmids (>10 kbp). When compared to conventional bulk electroporation (BEP), the NEP chip shows a 20 fold improvement in dosage control and uniformity, while still maintaining high cell viability (>90%) even in cells such as cardiac cells which are characteristically difficult to transfect. This high-throughput 3D NEP system provides an innovative and medically valuable platform with uniform and reliable cellular transfection, allowing for a steady supply of healthy, engineered cells.

  12. 3D nanochannel electroporation for high-throughput cell transfection with high uniformity and dosage control.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lingqian; Bertani, Paul; Gallego-Perez, Daniel; Yang, Zhaogang; Chen, Feng; Chiang, Chiling; Malkoc, Veysi; Kuang, Tairong; Gao, Keliang; Lee, L James; Lu, Wu

    2016-01-01

    Of great interest to modern medicine and biomedical research is the ability to inject individual target cells with the desired genes or drug molecules. Some advances in cell electroporation allow for high throughput, high cell viability, or excellent dosage control, yet no platform is available for the combination of all three. In an effort to solve this problem, here we show a "3D nano-channel electroporation (NEP) chip" on a silicon platform designed to meet these three criteria. This NEP chip can simultaneously deliver the desired molecules into 40,000 cells per cm(2) on the top surface of the device. Each 650 nm pore aligns to a cell and can be used to deliver extremely small biological elements to very large plasmids (>10 kbp). When compared to conventional bulk electroporation (BEP), the NEP chip shows a 20 fold improvement in dosage control and uniformity, while still maintaining high cell viability (>90%) even in cells such as cardiac cells which are characteristically difficult to transfect. This high-throughput 3D NEP system provides an innovative and medically valuable platform with uniform and reliable cellular transfection, allowing for a steady supply of healthy, engineered cells. PMID:26309218

  13. High Efficiency, Low Distortion 3D Diffusion Tensor Imaging with Variable Density Spiral Fast Spin Echoes (3D DW VDS RARE)

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Lawrence R.; Jung, Youngkyoo; Inati, Souheil; Tyszka, J. Michael; Wong, Eric C.

    2009-01-01

    We present an acquisition and reconstruction method designed to acquire high resolution 3D fast spin echo diffusion tensor images while mitigating the major sources of artifacts in DTI - field distortions, eddy currents and motion. The resulting images, being 3D, are of high SNR, and being fast spin echoes, exhibit greatly reduced field distortions. This sequence utilizes variable density spiral acquisition gradients, which allow for the implementation of a self-navigation scheme by which both eddy current and motion artifacts are removed. The result is that high resolution 3D DTI images are produced without the need for eddy current compensating gradients or B0 field correction. In addition, a novel method for fast and accurate reconstruction of the non-Cartesian data is employed. Results are demonstrated in the brains of normal human volunteers. PMID:19778618

  14. High-purity 3D nano-objects grown by focused-electron-beam induced deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdoba, Rosa; Sharma, Nidhi; Kölling, Sebastian; Koenraad, Paul M.; Koopmans, Bert

    2016-09-01

    To increase the efficiency of current electronics, a specific challenge for the next generation of memory, sensing and logic devices is to find suitable strategies to move from two- to three-dimensional (3D) architectures. However, the creation of real 3D nano-objects is not trivial. Emerging non-conventional nanofabrication tools are required for this purpose. One attractive method is focused-electron-beam induced deposition (FEBID), a direct-write process of 3D nano-objects. Here, we grow 3D iron and cobalt nanopillars by FEBID using diiron nonacarbonyl Fe2(CO)9, and dicobalt octacarbonyl Co2(CO)8, respectively, as starting materials. In addition, we systematically study the composition of these nanopillars at the sub-nanometer scale by atom probe tomography, explicitly mapping the homogeneity of the radial and longitudinal composition distributions. We show a way of fabricating high-purity 3D vertical nanostructures of ∼50 nm in diameter and a few micrometers in length. Our results suggest that the purity of such 3D nanoelements (above 90 at% Fe and above 95 at% Co) is directly linked to their growth regime, in which the selected deposition conditions are crucial for the final quality of the nanostructure. Moreover, we demonstrate that FEBID and the proposed characterization technique not only allow for growth and chemical analysis of single-element structures, but also offers a new way to directly study 3D core–shell architectures. This straightforward concept could establish a promising route to the design of 3D elements for future nano-electronic devices.

  15. High-purity 3D nano-objects grown by focused-electron-beam induced deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdoba, Rosa; Sharma, Nidhi; Kölling, Sebastian; Koenraad, Paul M.; Koopmans, Bert

    2016-09-01

    To increase the efficiency of current electronics, a specific challenge for the next generation of memory, sensing and logic devices is to find suitable strategies to move from two- to three-dimensional (3D) architectures. However, the creation of real 3D nano-objects is not trivial. Emerging non-conventional nanofabrication tools are required for this purpose. One attractive method is focused-electron-beam induced deposition (FEBID), a direct-write process of 3D nano-objects. Here, we grow 3D iron and cobalt nanopillars by FEBID using diiron nonacarbonyl Fe2(CO)9, and dicobalt octacarbonyl Co2(CO)8, respectively, as starting materials. In addition, we systematically study the composition of these nanopillars at the sub-nanometer scale by atom probe tomography, explicitly mapping the homogeneity of the radial and longitudinal composition distributions. We show a way of fabricating high-purity 3D vertical nanostructures of ˜50 nm in diameter and a few micrometers in length. Our results suggest that the purity of such 3D nanoelements (above 90 at% Fe and above 95 at% Co) is directly linked to their growth regime, in which the selected deposition conditions are crucial for the final quality of the nanostructure. Moreover, we demonstrate that FEBID and the proposed characterization technique not only allow for growth and chemical analysis of single-element structures, but also offers a new way to directly study 3D core-shell architectures. This straightforward concept could establish a promising route to the design of 3D elements for future nano-electronic devices.

  16. Efficient and high speed depth-based 2D to 3D video conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somaiya, Amisha Himanshu; Kulkarni, Ramesh K.

    2013-09-01

    Stereoscopic video is the new era in video viewing and has wide applications such as medicine, satellite imaging and 3D Television. Such stereo content can be generated directly using S3D cameras. However, this approach requires expensive setup and hence converting monoscopic content to S3D becomes a viable approach. This paper proposes a depth-based algorithm for monoscopic to stereoscopic video conversion by using the y axis co-ordinates of the bottom-most pixels of foreground objects. This code can be used for arbitrary videos without prior database training. It does not face the limitations of single monocular depth cues nor does it combine depth cues, thus consuming less processing time without affecting the efficiency of the 3D video output. The algorithm, though not comparable to real-time, is faster than the other available 2D to 3D video conversion techniques in the average ratio of 1:8 to 1:20, essentially qualifying as high-speed. It is an automatic conversion scheme, hence directly gives the 3D video output without human intervention and with the above mentioned features becomes an ideal choice for efficient monoscopic to stereoscopic video conversion. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. 3D pulsed laser-triggered high-speed microfluidic fluorescence-activated cell sorter.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Kung, Yu-Chun; Teitell, Michael A; Chiou, Pei-Yu

    2013-11-12

    We report a 3D microfluidic pulsed laser-triggered fluorescence-activated cell sorter capable of sorting at a throughput of 23 000 cells per s with 90% purity in high-purity mode and at a throughput of 45 000 cells per s with 45% purity in enrichment mode in one stage and in a single channel. This performance is realized by exciting laser-induced cavitation bubbles in a 3D PDMS microfluidic channel to generate high-speed liquid jets that deflect detected fluorescent cells and particles focused by 3D sheath flows. The ultrafast switching mechanism (20 μs complete on-off cycle), small liquid jet perturbation volume, and three-dimensional sheath flow focusing for accurate timing control of fast (1.5 m s(-1)) passing cells and particles are three critical factors enabling high-purity sorting at high-throughput in this sorter. PMID:23844418

  18. 3D high-density localization microscopy using hybrid astigmatic/ biplane imaging and sparse image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Min, Junhong; Holden, Seamus J; Carlini, Lina; Unser, Michael; Manley, Suliana; Ye, Jong Chul

    2014-11-01

    Localization microscopy achieves nanoscale spatial resolution by iterative localization of sparsely activated molecules, which generally leads to a long acquisition time. By implementing advanced algorithms to treat overlapping point spread functions (PSFs), imaging of densely activated molecules can improve the limited temporal resolution, as has been well demonstrated in two-dimensional imaging. However, three-dimensional (3D) localization of high-density data remains challenging since PSFs are far more similar along the axial dimension than the lateral dimensions. Here, we present a new, high-density 3D imaging system and algorithm. The hybrid system is implemented by combining astigmatic and biplane imaging. The proposed 3D reconstruction algorithm is extended from our state-of-the art 2D high-density localization algorithm. Using mutual coherence analysis of model PSFs, we validated that the hybrid system is more suitable than astigmatic or biplane imaging alone for 3D localization of high-density data. The efficacy of the proposed method was confirmed via simulation and real data of microtubules. Furthermore, we also successfully demonstrated fluorescent-protein-based live cell 3D localization microscopy with a temporal resolution of just 3 seconds, capturing fast dynamics of the endoplasmic recticulum.

  19. Development of Three-Dimensional Integration Technology for Highly Parallel Image-Processing Chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kang Wook; Nakamura, Tomonori; Sakuma, Katsuyuki; Park, Ki Tae; Shimazutsu, Hiroaki; Miyakawa, Nobuaki; Kim, Ki Yoon; Kurino, Hiroyuki; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa

    2000-04-01

    A new three-dimensional (3D) integration technology for realizing a highly parallel image-processing chip has been developed. Several LSI wafers are vertically stacked and glued to each other after thinning them using this new technology. This technology can be considered as both 3D LSI technology and wafer-scale 3D chip-on-chip packaging technology. The effective packaging density can be significantly increased by stacking the chips in a vertical direction. Several key techniques for this 3D integration have been developed. In this paper, we demonstrate the highly parallel image sensor chip with a 3D structure. The 3D image sensor test chip was fabricated using this new 3D integration technology and its basic performance was evaluated.

  20. Highly accurate video coordinate generation for automatic 3-D trajectory calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macleod, A.; Morris, Julian R. W.; Lyster, M.

    1990-08-01

    Most TV-based motion analysis systems, including the original version of 1/ICON, produce 3D coordinates by combining pre-tracked 2D trajectories from each camera. The latest version of the system, VICON-VX, uses totally automatic 3D trajectory calculation using the Geometric Self Identification (GSI) technique. This is achieved by matching unsorted 2D image coordinates from all cameras, looking for intersecting marker 'rays', and matching intersections into 3D trajectories. Effective GSI, with low false-positive intersection rates is only possible with highly accurate 2D data, produced by stable, high-resolution coordinate generators, and incorporating appropriate compensation for lens distortions. Data capture software and hardware have been completely redesigned to achieve this accuracy, together with higher throughput rates and better resistance to errors. In addition, a new ADC facility has been incorporated to allow very high speed analog data acquisition, synchronised with video measurements.

  1. An optical system for detecting 3D high-speed oscillation of a single ultrasound microbubble

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Yuan, Baohong

    2013-01-01

    As contrast agents, microbubbles have been playing significant roles in ultrasound imaging. Investigation of microbubble oscillation is crucial for microbubble characterization and detection. Unfortunately, 3-dimensional (3D) observation of microbubble oscillation is challenging and costly because of the bubble size—a few microns in diameter—and the high-speed dynamics under MHz ultrasound pressure waves. In this study, a cost-efficient optical confocal microscopic system combined with a gated and intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera were developed to detect 3D microbubble oscillation. The capability of imaging microbubble high-speed oscillation with much lower costs than with an ultra-fast framing or streak camera system was demonstrated. In addition, microbubble oscillations along both lateral (x and y) and axial (z) directions were demonstrated. Accordingly, this system is an excellent alternative for 3D investigation of microbubble high-speed oscillation, especially when budgets are limited. PMID:24049677

  2. An optical system for detecting 3D high-speed oscillation of a single ultrasound microbubble.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Yuan, Baohong

    2013-01-01

    As contrast agents, microbubbles have been playing significant roles in ultrasound imaging. Investigation of microbubble oscillation is crucial for microbubble characterization and detection. Unfortunately, 3-dimensional (3D) observation of microbubble oscillation is challenging and costly because of the bubble size-a few microns in diameter-and the high-speed dynamics under MHz ultrasound pressure waves. In this study, a cost-efficient optical confocal microscopic system combined with a gated and intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera were developed to detect 3D microbubble oscillation. The capability of imaging microbubble high-speed oscillation with much lower costs than with an ultra-fast framing or streak camera system was demonstrated. In addition, microbubble oscillations along both lateral (x and y) and axial (z) directions were demonstrated. Accordingly, this system is an excellent alternative for 3D investigation of microbubble high-speed oscillation, especially when budgets are limited. PMID:24049677

  3. High efficient methods of content-based 3D model retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuanhao; Tian, Ling; Li, Chenggang

    2013-03-01

    Content-based 3D model retrieval is of great help to facilitate the reuse of existing designs and to inspire designers during conceptual design. However, there is still a gap to apply it in industry due to the low time efficiency. This paper presents two new methods with high efficiency to build a Content-based 3D model retrieval system. First, an improvement is made on the "Shape Distribution (D2)" algorithm, and a new algorithm named "Quick D2" is proposed. Four sample 3D mechanical models are used in an experiment to compare the time cost of the two algorithms. The result indicates that the time cost of Quick D2 is much lower than that of D2, while the descriptors extracted by the two algorithms are almost the same. Second, an expandable 3D model repository index method with high performance, namely, RBK index, is presented. On the basis of RBK index, the search space is pruned effectively during the search process, leading to a speed up of the whole system. The factors that influence the values of the key parameters of RBK index are discussed and an experimental method to find the optimal values of the key parameters is given. Finally, "3D Searcher", a content-based 3D model retrieval system is developed. By using the methods proposed, the time cost for the system to respond one query online is reduced by 75% on average. The system has been implemented in a manufacturing enterprise, and practical query examples during a case of the automobile rear axle design are also shown. The research method presented shows a new research perspective and can effectively improve the content-based 3D model retrieval efficiency.

  4. User-Appropriate Viewer for High Resolution Interactive Engagement with 3d Digital Cultural Artefacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, D.; La Pensée, A.; Cooper, M.

    2013-07-01

    Three dimensional (3D) laser scanning is an important documentation technique for cultural heritage. This technology has been adopted from the engineering and aeronautical industry and is an invaluable tool for the documentation of objects within museum collections (La Pensée, 2008). The datasets created via close range laser scanning are extremely accurate and the created 3D dataset allows for a more detailed analysis in comparison to other documentation technologies such as photography. The dataset can be used for a range of different applications including: documentation; archiving; surface monitoring; replication; gallery interactives; educational sessions; conservation and visualization. However, the novel nature of a 3D dataset is presenting a rather unique challenge with respect to its sharing and dissemination. This is in part due to the need for specialised 3D software and a supported graphics card to display high resolution 3D models. This can be detrimental to one of the main goals of cultural institutions, which is to share knowledge and enable activities such as research, education and entertainment. This has limited the presentation of 3D models of cultural heritage objects to mainly either images or videos. Yet with recent developments in computer graphics, increased internet speed and emerging technologies such as Adobe's Stage 3D (Adobe, 2013) and WebGL (Khronos, 2013), it is now possible to share a dataset directly within a webpage. This allows website visitors to interact with the 3D dataset allowing them to explore every angle of the object, gaining an insight into its shape and nature. This can be very important considering that it is difficult to offer the same level of understanding of the object through the use of traditional mediums such as photographs and videos. Yet this presents a range of problems: this is a very novel experience and very few people have engaged with 3D objects outside of 3D software packages or games. This paper

  5. 3D highly oriented nanoparticulate and microparticulate array ofmetal oxide materials

    SciTech Connect

    Vayssieres, Lionel; Guo, Jinghua; Nordgren, Joseph

    2006-09-15

    Advanced nano and micro particulate thin films of 3d transition and post-transition metal oxides consisting of nanorods and microrods with parallel and perpendicular orientation with respect to the substrate normal, have been successfully grown onto various substrates by heteronucleation, without template and/or surfactant, from the aqueous condensation of solution of metal salts or metal complexes (aqueous chemical growth). Three-dimensional arrays of iron oxide nanorods and zinc oxide nanorods with parallel and perpendicular orientation are presented as well as the oxygen K-edge polarization dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) study of anisotropic perpendicularly oriented microrod array of ZnO performed at synchrotron radiation source facility.

  6. High Performance Parallel Computational Nanotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saini, Subhash; Craw, James M. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    At a recent press conference, NASA Administrator Dan Goldin encouraged NASA Ames Research Center to take a lead role in promoting research and development of advanced, high-performance computer technology, including nanotechnology. Manufacturers of leading-edge microprocessors currently perform large-scale simulations in the design and verification of semiconductor devices and microprocessors. Recently, the need for this intensive simulation and modeling analysis has greatly increased, due in part to the ever-increasing complexity of these devices, as well as the lessons of experiences such as the Pentium fiasco. Simulation, modeling, testing, and validation will be even more important for designing molecular computers because of the complex specification of millions of atoms, thousands of assembly steps, as well as the simulation and modeling needed to ensure reliable, robust and efficient fabrication of the molecular devices. The software for this capacity does not exist today, but it can be extrapolated from the software currently used in molecular modeling for other applications: semi-empirical methods, ab initio methods, self-consistent field methods, Hartree-Fock methods, molecular mechanics; and simulation methods for diamondoid structures. In as much as it seems clear that the application of such methods in nanotechnology will require powerful, highly powerful systems, this talk will discuss techniques and issues for performing these types of computations on parallel systems. We will describe system design issues (memory, I/O, mass storage, operating system requirements, special user interface issues, interconnects, bandwidths, and programming languages) involved in parallel methods for scalable classical, semiclassical, quantum, molecular mechanics, and continuum models; molecular nanotechnology computer-aided designs (NanoCAD) techniques; visualization using virtual reality techniques of structural models and assembly sequences; software required to

  7. The pulsed all fiber laser application in the high-resolution 3D imaging LIDAR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Cunxiao; Zhu, Shaolan; Niu, Linquan; Feng, Li; He, Haodong; Cao, Zongying

    2014-05-01

    An all fiber laser with master-oscillator-power-amplifier (MOPA) configuration at 1064nm/1550nm for the high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) imaging light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system was reported. The pulsewidth and the repetition frequency could be arbitrarily tuned 1ns~10ns and 10KHz~1MHz, and the peak power exceeded 100kW could be obtained with the laser. Using this all fiber laser in the high-resolution 3D imaging LIDAR system, the image resolution of 1024x1024 and the distance precision of +/-1.5 cm was obtained at the imaging distance of 1km.

  8. High-performance 3D printing of hydrogels by water-dispersible photoinitiator nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Amol A; Saada, Gabriel; Cooperstein, Ido; Larush, Liraz; Jackman, Joshua A; Tabaei, Seyed R; Cho, Nam-Joon; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2016-04-01

    In the absence of water-soluble photoinitiators with high absorbance in the ultraviolet (UV)-visible range, rapid three-dimensional (3D) printing of hydrogels for tissue engineering is challenging. A new approach enabling rapid 3D printing of hydrogels in aqueous solutions is presented on the basis of UV-curable inks containing nanoparticles of highly efficient but water-insoluble photoinitiators. The extinction coefficient of the new water-dispersible nanoparticles of 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl-diphenylphosphine oxide (TPO) is more than 300 times larger than the best and most used commercially available water-soluble photoinitiator. The TPO nanoparticles absorb significantly in the range from 385 to 420 nm, making them suitable for use in commercially available, low-cost, light-emitting diode-based 3D printers using digital light processing. The polymerization rate at this range is very fast and enables 3D printing that otherwise is impossible to perform without adding solvents. The TPO nanoparticles were prepared by rapid conversion of volatile microemulsions into water-dispersible powder, a process that can be used for a variety of photoinitiators. Such water-dispersible photoinitiator nanoparticles open many opportunities to enable rapid 3D printing of structures prepared in aqueous solutions while bringing environmental advantages by using low-energy curing systems and avoiding the need for solvents.

  9. High-performance 3D printing of hydrogels by water-dispersible photoinitiator nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Amol A; Saada, Gabriel; Cooperstein, Ido; Larush, Liraz; Jackman, Joshua A; Tabaei, Seyed R; Cho, Nam-Joon; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2016-04-01

    In the absence of water-soluble photoinitiators with high absorbance in the ultraviolet (UV)-visible range, rapid three-dimensional (3D) printing of hydrogels for tissue engineering is challenging. A new approach enabling rapid 3D printing of hydrogels in aqueous solutions is presented on the basis of UV-curable inks containing nanoparticles of highly efficient but water-insoluble photoinitiators. The extinction coefficient of the new water-dispersible nanoparticles of 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl-diphenylphosphine oxide (TPO) is more than 300 times larger than the best and most used commercially available water-soluble photoinitiator. The TPO nanoparticles absorb significantly in the range from 385 to 420 nm, making them suitable for use in commercially available, low-cost, light-emitting diode-based 3D printers using digital light processing. The polymerization rate at this range is very fast and enables 3D printing that otherwise is impossible to perform without adding solvents. The TPO nanoparticles were prepared by rapid conversion of volatile microemulsions into water-dispersible powder, a process that can be used for a variety of photoinitiators. Such water-dispersible photoinitiator nanoparticles open many opportunities to enable rapid 3D printing of structures prepared in aqueous solutions while bringing environmental advantages by using low-energy curing systems and avoiding the need for solvents. PMID:27051877

  10. Color-managed 3D printing with highly translucent printing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikan, Can Ates; Brunton, Alan; Tanksale, Tejas Madan; Urban, Philipp

    2015-03-01

    Many 3D printing applications require the reproduction of an object's color in addition to its shape. One 3D printing technology, called multi-jetting (or poly-jetting), allows full color 3D reproductions by arranging multiple colored materials (UV curing photo-polymers) on a droplet level in a single object. One property of such printing materials is their high translucency posing new challenges for characterizing such 3D printers to create ICC profiles. In this paper, we will first describe the whole color-managed 3D printing workflow and will then focus on measuring the colors of highly translucent printing materials. We will show that measurements made by spectrophotometers used in the graphic arts industry are systematically biased towards lower reflection. We will then propose a trichromatic camera-based approach for measuring such colors. Error rates obtained in comparison with spectroradiometric measurements for the same viewing conditions are within the interinstrument-variability of hand-held spectrophotometers used in graphic arts.

  11. Engineering a High-Throughput 3-D In Vitro Glioblastoma Model

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yantao; Avci, Naze G.; Nguyen, Duong T.; Dragomir, Andrei; Xu, Feng; Akay, Metin

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor in adults because of its highly invasive behavior. The existing treatment for GBM, which involves a combination of resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, has a very limited success rate with a median survival rate of <1 year. This is mainly because of the failure of early detection and effective treatment. We designed a novel 3-D GBM cell culture model based on microwells that could mimic in vitro environment and help to bypass the lack of suitable animal models for preclinical toxicity tests. Microwells were fabricated from simple and inexpensive polyethylene glycol material for the control of in vitro 3-D culture. We applied the 3-D micropatterning system to GBM (U-87) cells using the photolithography technique to control the cell spheroids’ shape, size, and thickness. Our preliminary results suggested that uniform GBM spheroids can be formed in 3-D, and the size of these GBM spheroids depends on the size of microwells. The viability of the spheroids generated in this manner was quantitatively evaluated using live/dead assay and shown to improve over 21 days. We believe that in vitro 3-D cell culture model could help to reduce the time of the preclinical brain tumor growth studies. The proposed novel platform could be useful and cost-effective for high-throughput screening of cancer drugs and assessment of treatment responses. PMID:27170911

  12. High-performance 3D printing of hydrogels by water-dispersible photoinitiator nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Amol A.; Saada, Gabriel; Cooperstein, Ido; Larush, Liraz; Jackman, Joshua A.; Tabaei, Seyed R.; Cho, Nam-Joon; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2016-01-01

    In the absence of water-soluble photoinitiators with high absorbance in the ultraviolet (UV)–visible range, rapid three-dimensional (3D) printing of hydrogels for tissue engineering is challenging. A new approach enabling rapid 3D printing of hydrogels in aqueous solutions is presented on the basis of UV-curable inks containing nanoparticles of highly efficient but water-insoluble photoinitiators. The extinction coefficient of the new water-dispersible nanoparticles of 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl-diphenylphosphine oxide (TPO) is more than 300 times larger than the best and most used commercially available water-soluble photoinitiator. The TPO nanoparticles absorb significantly in the range from 385 to 420 nm, making them suitable for use in commercially available, low-cost, light-emitting diode–based 3D printers using digital light processing. The polymerization rate at this range is very fast and enables 3D printing that otherwise is impossible to perform without adding solvents. The TPO nanoparticles were prepared by rapid conversion of volatile microemulsions into water-dispersible powder, a process that can be used for a variety of photoinitiators. Such water-dispersible photoinitiator nanoparticles open many opportunities to enable rapid 3D printing of structures prepared in aqueous solutions while bringing environmental advantages by using low-energy curing systems and avoiding the need for solvents. PMID:27051877

  13. Laser jetting of femto-liter metal droplets for high resolution 3D printed structures

    PubMed Central

    Zenou, M.; Sa’ar, A.; Kotler, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) is employed in a special, high accuracy jetting regime, by adequately matching the sub-nanosecond pulse duration to the metal donor layer thickness. Under such conditions, an effective solid nozzle is formed, providing stability and directionality to the femto-liter droplets which are printed from a large gap in excess of 400 μm. We illustrate the wide applicability of this method by printing several 3D metal objects. First, very high aspect ratio (A/R > 20), micron scale, copper pillars in various configuration, upright and arbitrarily bent, then a micron scale 3D object composed of gold and copper. Such a digital printing method could serve the generation of complex, multi-material, micron-scale, 3D materials and novel structures. PMID:26602432

  14. Laser jetting of femto-liter metal droplets for high resolution 3D printed structures.

    PubMed

    Zenou, M; Sa'ar, A; Kotler, Z

    2015-11-25

    Laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) is employed in a special, high accuracy jetting regime, by adequately matching the sub-nanosecond pulse duration to the metal donor layer thickness. Under such conditions, an effective solid nozzle is formed, providing stability and directionality to the femto-liter droplets which are printed from a large gap in excess of 400 μm. We illustrate the wide applicability of this method by printing several 3D metal objects. First, very high aspect ratio (A/R > 20), micron scale, copper pillars in various configuration, upright and arbitrarily bent, then a micron scale 3D object composed of gold and copper. Such a digital printing method could serve the generation of complex, multi-material, micron-scale, 3D materials and novel structures.

  15. Laser jetting of femto-liter metal droplets for high resolution 3D printed structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenou, M.; Sa'Ar, A.; Kotler, Z.

    2015-11-01

    Laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) is employed in a special, high accuracy jetting regime, by adequately matching the sub-nanosecond pulse duration to the metal donor layer thickness. Under such conditions, an effective solid nozzle is formed, providing stability and directionality to the femto-liter droplets which are printed from a large gap in excess of 400 μm. We illustrate the wide applicability of this method by printing several 3D metal objects. First, very high aspect ratio (A/R > 20), micron scale, copper pillars in various configuration, upright and arbitrarily bent, then a micron scale 3D object composed of gold and copper. Such a digital printing method could serve the generation of complex, multi-material, micron-scale, 3D materials and novel structures.

  16. Laser jetting of femto-liter metal droplets for high resolution 3D printed structures.

    PubMed

    Zenou, M; Sa'ar, A; Kotler, Z

    2015-01-01

    Laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) is employed in a special, high accuracy jetting regime, by adequately matching the sub-nanosecond pulse duration to the metal donor layer thickness. Under such conditions, an effective solid nozzle is formed, providing stability and directionality to the femto-liter droplets which are printed from a large gap in excess of 400 μm. We illustrate the wide applicability of this method by printing several 3D metal objects. First, very high aspect ratio (A/R > 20), micron scale, copper pillars in various configuration, upright and arbitrarily bent, then a micron scale 3D object composed of gold and copper. Such a digital printing method could serve the generation of complex, multi-material, micron-scale, 3D materials and novel structures. PMID:26602432

  17. Computational study of 3-D hot-spot initiation in shocked insensitive high-explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najjar, F. M.; Howard, W. M.; Fried, L. E.; Manaa, M. R.; Nichols, A., III; Levesque, G.

    2012-03-01

    High-explosive (HE) material consists of large-sized grains with micron-sized embedded impurities and pores. Under various mechanical/thermal insults, these pores collapse generating hightemperature regions leading to ignition. A hydrodynamic study has been performed to investigate the mechanisms of pore collapse and hot spot initiation in TATB crystals, employing a multiphysics code, ALE3D, coupled to the chemistry module, Cheetah. This computational study includes reactive dynamics. Two-dimensional high-resolution large-scale meso-scale simulations have been performed. The parameter space is systematically studied by considering various shock strengths, pore diameters and multiple pore configurations. Preliminary 3-D simulations are undertaken to quantify the 3-D dynamics.

  18. Development of a High Resolution 3D Infant Stomach Model for Surgical Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudry, Qaiser; Raza, S. Hussain; Lee, Jeonggyu; Xu, Yan; Wulkan, Mark; Wang, May D.

    Medical surgical procedures have not changed much during the past century due to the lack of accurate low-cost workbench for testing any new improvement. The increasingly cheaper and powerful computer technologies have made computer-based surgery planning and training feasible. In our work, we have developed an accurate 3D stomach model, which aims to improve the surgical procedure that treats the infant pediatric and neonatal gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). We generate the 3-D infant stomach model based on in vivo computer tomography (CT) scans of an infant. CT is a widely used clinical imaging modality that is cheap, but with low spatial resolution. To improve the model accuracy, we use the high resolution Visible Human Project (VHP) in model building. Next, we add soft muscle material properties to make the 3D model deformable. Then we use virtual reality techniques such as haptic devices to make the 3D stomach model deform upon touching force. This accurate 3D stomach model provides a workbench for testing new GERD treatment surgical procedures. It has the potential to reduce or eliminate the extensive cost associated with animal testing when improving any surgical procedure, and ultimately, to reduce the risk associated with infant GERD surgery.

  19. High sensitivity and high resolution element 3D analysis by a combined SIMS-SPM instrument.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Yves; Wirtz, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Using the recently developed SIMS-SPM prototype, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) data was combined with topographical data from the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) module for five test structures in order to obtain accurate chemical 3D maps: a polystyrene/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PS/PVP) polymer blend, a nickel-based super-alloy, a titanium carbonitride-based cermet, a reticle test structure and Mg(OH)2 nanoclusters incorporated inside a polymer matrix. The examples illustrate the potential of this combined approach to track and eliminate artefacts related to inhomogeneities of the sputter rates (caused by samples containing various materials, different phases or having a non-flat surface) and inhomogeneities of the secondary ion extraction efficiencies due to local field distortions (caused by topography with high aspect ratios). In this respect, this paper presents the measured relative sputter rates between PVP and PS as well as in between the different phases of the TiCN cermet. PMID:26171285

  20. High sensitivity and high resolution element 3D analysis by a combined SIMS-SPM instrument.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Yves; Wirtz, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Using the recently developed SIMS-SPM prototype, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) data was combined with topographical data from the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) module for five test structures in order to obtain accurate chemical 3D maps: a polystyrene/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PS/PVP) polymer blend, a nickel-based super-alloy, a titanium carbonitride-based cermet, a reticle test structure and Mg(OH)2 nanoclusters incorporated inside a polymer matrix. The examples illustrate the potential of this combined approach to track and eliminate artefacts related to inhomogeneities of the sputter rates (caused by samples containing various materials, different phases or having a non-flat surface) and inhomogeneities of the secondary ion extraction efficiencies due to local field distortions (caused by topography with high aspect ratios). In this respect, this paper presents the measured relative sputter rates between PVP and PS as well as in between the different phases of the TiCN cermet.

  1. Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery Using a 3D High-Definition Endoscopic System.

    PubMed

    Ruttkay, Tamas; Götte, Julia; Walle, Ulrike; Doll, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We describe a minimally invasive heart surgery application of the EinsteinVision 2.0 3D high-definition endoscopic system (Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany) in an 81-year-old man with severe tricuspid valve insufficiency. Fourteen years ago, he underwent a Ross procedure followed by a DDD pacemaker implantation 4 years later for tachy-brady-syndrome. His biventricular function was normal. We recommended minimally invasive tricuspid valve repair. The application of the aformentioned endoscopic system was simple, and the impressive 3D depth view offered an easy and precise manipulation through a minimal thoracotomy incision, avoiding the need for a rib spreading retractor.

  2. 3D printed high-throughput hydrothermal reactionware for discovery, optimization, and scale-up.

    PubMed

    Kitson, Philip J; Marshall, Ross J; Long, Deliang; Forgan, Ross S; Cronin, Leroy

    2014-11-17

    3D printing techniques allow the laboratory-scale design and production of reactionware tailored to specific experimental requirements. To increase the range and versatility of reactionware devices, sealed, monolithic reactors suitable for use in hydrothermal synthesis have been digitally designed and realized. The fabrication process allows the introduction of reaction mixtures directly into the reactors during the production, and also enables the manufacture of devices of varying scales and geometries unavailable in traditional equipment. The utility of these devices is shown by the use of 3D printed, high-throughput array reactors to discover two new coordination polymers, optimize the synthesis of one of these, and scale-up its synthesis using larger reactors produced on the same 3D printer. Reactors were also used to produce phase-pure samples of coordination polymers MIL-96 and HKUST-1, in yields comparable to synthesis in traditional apparatus. PMID:25079230

  3. 24-th Order high temperature expansion for the 3-d Ising model

    SciTech Connect

    Glaessner, U.; Schilling, K.; Bhanot, G.; Creutz, M.

    1994-12-01

    The authors present the series for the free energy and their estimate for the critical exponent {alpha}, as computed by a recursive bookkeeping algorithm on the CM5. They begin with a discussion of the algorithm to compute the High-Temperature expansion on finite 3-D Ising lattices.

  4. Subnuclear foci quantification using high-throughput 3D image cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadduwage, Dushan N.; Parrish, Marcus; Choi, Heejin; Engelward, Bevin P.; Matsudaira, Paul; So, Peter T. C.

    2015-07-01

    Ionising radiation causes various types of DNA damages including double strand breaks (DSBs). DSBs are often recognized by DNA repair protein ATM which forms gamma-H2AX foci at the site of the DSBs that can be visualized using immunohistochemistry. However most of such experiments are of low throughput in terms of imaging and image analysis techniques. Most of the studies still use manual counting or classification. Hence they are limited to counting a low number of foci per cell (5 foci per nucleus) as the quantification process is extremely labour intensive. Therefore we have developed a high throughput instrumentation and computational pipeline specialized for gamma-H2AX foci quantification. A population of cells with highly clustered foci inside nuclei were imaged, in 3D with submicron resolution, using an in-house developed high throughput image cytometer. Imaging speeds as high as 800 cells/second in 3D were achieved by using HiLo wide-field depth resolved imaging and a remote z-scanning technique. Then the number of foci per cell nucleus were quantified using a 3D extended maxima transform based algorithm. Our results suggests that while most of the other 2D imaging and manual quantification studies can count only up to about 5 foci per nucleus our method is capable of counting more than 100. Moreover we show that 3D analysis is significantly superior compared to the 2D techniques.

  5. Analyzing 3D xylem networks in Vitis vinifera using High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent developments in High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) have made it possible to visualize three dimensional (3D) xylem networks without time consuming, labor intensive physical sectioning. Here we describe a new method to visualize complex vessel networks in plants and produce a quantitat...

  6. An efficient way of high-contrast, quasi-3D cellular imaging: off-axis illumination.

    PubMed

    Hostounský, Zdenĕk; Pelc, Radek

    2006-07-31

    An imaging system enabling a convenient visualisation of cells and other small objects is presented. It represents an adaptation of the optical microscope condenser, accommodating a built-in edge (relief) diaphragm brought close to the condenser iris diaphragm and enabling high-contrast pseudo-relief (quasi-3D) imaging. The device broadens the family of available apparatus based on the off-axis (or anaxial, asymmetric, inclined, oblique, schlieren-type, sideband) illumination. The simplicity of the design makes the condenser a user-friendly, dedicated device delivering high-contrast quasi-3D images of phase objects. Those are nearly invisible under the ordinary (axial) illumination. The phase contrast microscopy commonly used in visualisation of phase objects does not deliver the quasi-3D effect and introduces a disturbing 'halo' effect around the edges. The performance of the device presented here is demonstrated on living cells and tissue replicas. High-contrast quasi-3D images of cell-free preparations of biological origin (paper fibres and microcrystals) are shown as well. PMID:16678908

  7. Organic MEMS/NEMS-based high-efficiency 3D ITO-less flexible photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassegne, Sam; Moon, Kee; Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Majzoub, Mohammad; Őzturk, Gunay; Desai, Krishna; Parikh, Mihir; Nguyen, Bao; Khosla, Ajit; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro

    2012-11-01

    A novel approach based on three-dimensional (3D) architecture for polymeric photovoltaic cells made up of an array of sub-micron and nano-pillars which not only increase the area of the light absorbing surface, but also improve the carrier collection efficiency of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells is presented. The approach also introduces coating of 3D anodes with a new solution-processable highly conductive transparent polymer (Orgacon™) that replaces expensive vacuum-deposited ITO (indium tin oxide) as well as the additional hole-collecting layer of conventional PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate)). In addition, the described procedure is well suited to roll-to-roll high-throughput manufacturing. The high aspect-ratio 3D pillars which form the basis for this new architecture are patterned through micro-electromechanical-system- and nano-electromechanical-system-based processes. For the particular case of P3HT (poly(3-hexylthiophene)) and PCBM (phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) active material, efficiencies in excess of 6% have been achieved for these photovoltaic cells of 3D architecture using ITO-less flexible PET (polyethylene terephthalate) substrates. This increase in efficiency turns out to be more than twice higher than those achieved for their 2D counterparts.

  8. High sensitivity plasmonic biosensor based on nanoimprinted quasi 3D nanosquares for cell detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shuyan; Li, Hualin; Yang, Mengsu; Pang, Stella W.

    2016-07-01

    Quasi three-dimensional (3D) plasmonic nanostructures consisting of Au nanosquares on top of SU-8 nanopillars and Au nanoholes on the bottom were developed and fabricated using nanoimprint lithography with simultaneous thermal and UV exposure. These 3D plasmonic nanostructures were used to detect cell concentration of lung cancer A549 cells, retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, and breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Nanoimprint technology has the advantage of producing high uniformity plasmonic nanostructures for such biosensors. Multiple resonance modes were observed in these quasi 3D plasmonic nanostructures. The hybrid coupling of localized surface plasmon resonances and Fabry–Perot cavity modes in the quasi 3D nanostructures resulted in high sensitivity of 496 nm/refractive index unit. The plasmonic resonance peak wavelength and sensitivity could be tuned by varying the Au thickness. Resonance peak shifts for different cells at the same concentration were distinct due to their different cell area and confluency. The cell concentration detection limit covered a large range of 5 × 102 to 1 × 107 cells ml‑1 with these new plasmonic nanostructures. They also provide a large resonance peak shift of 51 nm for as little as 0.08 cells mm‑2 of RPE cells for high sensitivity cell detection.

  9. IGUANA: a high-performance 2D and 3D visualisation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alverson, G.; Eulisse, G.; Muzaffar, S.; Osborne, I.; Taylor, L.; Tuura, L. A.

    2004-11-01

    The IGUANA project has developed visualisation tools for multiple high-energy experiments. At the core of IGUANA is a generic, high-performance visualisation system based on OpenInventor and OpenGL. This paper describes the back-end and a feature-rich 3D visualisation system built on it, as well as a new 2D visualisation system that can automatically generate 2D views from 3D data, for example to produce R/Z or X/Y detector displays from existing 3D display with little effort. IGUANA has collaborated with the open-source gl2ps project to create a high-quality vector postscript output that can produce true vector graphics output from any OpenGL 2D or 3D display, complete with surface shading and culling of invisible surfaces. We describe how it works. We also describe how one can measure the memory and performance costs of various OpenInventor constructs and how to test scene graphs. We present good patterns to follow and bad patterns to avoid. We have added more advanced tools such as per-object clipping, slicing, lighting or animation, as well as multiple linked views with OpenInventor, and describe them in this paper. We give details on how to edit object appearance efficiently and easily, and even dynamically as a function of object properties, with instant visual feedback to the user.

  10. GIS Data Based Automatic High-Fidelity 3D Road Network Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-01-01

    3D road models are widely used in many computer applications such as racing games and driving simulations_ However, almost all high-fidelity 3D road models were generated manually by professional artists at the expense of intensive labor. There are very few existing methods for automatically generating 3D high-fidelity road networks, especially those existing in the real world. This paper presents a novel approach thai can automatically produce 3D high-fidelity road network models from real 2D road GIS data that mainly contain road. centerline in formation. The proposed method first builds parametric representations of the road centerlines through segmentation and fitting . A basic set of civil engineering rules (e.g., cross slope, superelevation, grade) for road design are then selected in order to generate realistic road surfaces in compliance with these rules. While the proposed method applies to any types of roads, this paper mainly addresses automatic generation of complex traffic interchanges and intersections which are the most sophisticated elements in the road networks

  11. A high efficiency all-PMOS charge pump for 3D NAND flash memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liyin, Fu; Yu, Wang; Qi, Wang; Zongliang, Huo

    2016-07-01

    For 3D vertical NAND flash memory, the charge pump output load is much larger than that of the planar NAND, resulting in the performance degradation of the conventional Dickson charge pump. Therefore, a novel all PMOS charge pump with high voltage boosting efficiency, large driving capability and high power efficiency for 3D V-NAND has been proposed. In this circuit, the Pelliconi structure is used to enhance the driving capability, two auxiliary substrate bias PMOS transistors are added to mitigate the body effect, and the degradation of the output voltage and boost efficiency caused by the threshold voltage drop is eliminated by dynamic gate control structure. Simulated results show that the proposed charge pump circuit can achieve the maximum boost efficiency of 86% and power efficiency of 50%. The output voltage of the proposed 9 stages charge pump can exceed 2 V under 2 MHz clock frequency in 2X nm 3D V-NAND technology. Our results provide guidance for the peripheral circuit design of high density 3D V-NAND integration.

  12. High sensitivity plasmonic biosensor based on nanoimprinted quasi 3D nanosquares for cell detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shuyan; Li, Hualin; Yang, Mengsu; Pang, Stella W.

    2016-07-01

    Quasi three-dimensional (3D) plasmonic nanostructures consisting of Au nanosquares on top of SU-8 nanopillars and Au nanoholes on the bottom were developed and fabricated using nanoimprint lithography with simultaneous thermal and UV exposure. These 3D plasmonic nanostructures were used to detect cell concentration of lung cancer A549 cells, retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, and breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Nanoimprint technology has the advantage of producing high uniformity plasmonic nanostructures for such biosensors. Multiple resonance modes were observed in these quasi 3D plasmonic nanostructures. The hybrid coupling of localized surface plasmon resonances and Fabry-Perot cavity modes in the quasi 3D nanostructures resulted in high sensitivity of 496 nm/refractive index unit. The plasmonic resonance peak wavelength and sensitivity could be tuned by varying the Au thickness. Resonance peak shifts for different cells at the same concentration were distinct due to their different cell area and confluency. The cell concentration detection limit covered a large range of 5 × 102 to 1 × 107 cells ml-1 with these new plasmonic nanostructures. They also provide a large resonance peak shift of 51 nm for as little as 0.08 cells mm-2 of RPE cells for high sensitivity cell detection.

  13. 3-D magnetotelluric inversion including topography using deformed hexahedral edge finite elements and direct solvers parallelized on SMP computers - Part I: forward problem and parameter Jacobians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordy, M.; Wannamaker, P.; Maris, V.; Cherkaev, E.; Hill, G.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed an algorithm, which we call HexMT, for 3-D simulation and inversion of magnetotelluric (MT) responses using deformable hexahedral finite elements that permit incorporation of topography. Direct solvers parallelized on symmetric multiprocessor (SMP), single-chassis workstations with large RAM are used throughout, including the forward solution, parameter Jacobians and model parameter update. In Part I, the forward simulator and Jacobian calculations are presented. We use first-order edge elements to represent the secondary electric field (E), yielding accuracy O(h) for E and its curl (magnetic field). For very low frequencies or small material admittivities, the E-field requires divergence correction. With the help of Hodge decomposition, the correction may be applied in one step after the forward solution is calculated. This allows accurate E-field solutions in dielectric air. The system matrix factorization and source vector solutions are computed using the MKL PARDISO library, which shows good scalability through 24 processor cores. The factorized matrix is used to calculate the forward response as well as the Jacobians of electromagnetic (EM) field and MT responses using the reciprocity theorem. Comparison with other codes demonstrates accuracy of our forward calculations. We consider a popular conductive/resistive double brick structure, several synthetic topographic models and the natural topography of Mount Erebus in Antarctica. In particular, the ability of finite elements to represent smooth topographic slopes permits accurate simulation of refraction of EM waves normal to the slopes at high frequencies. Run-time tests of the parallelized algorithm indicate that for meshes as large as 176 × 176 × 70 elements, MT forward responses and Jacobians can be calculated in ˜1.5 hr per frequency. Together with an efficient inversion parameter step described in Part II, MT inversion problems of 200-300 stations are computable with total run times

  14. Dubai 3d Textuerd Mesh Using High Quality Resolution Vertical/oblique Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayeb Madani, Adib; Ziad Ahmad, Abdullateef; Christoph, Lueken; Hammadi, Zamzam; Manal Abdullah Sabeal, Manal Abdullah x.

    2016-06-01

    Providing high quality 3D data with reasonable quality and cost were always essential, affording the core data and foundation for developing an information-based decision-making tool of urban environments with the capability of providing decision makers, stakeholders, professionals, and public users with 3D views and 3D analysis tools of spatial information that enables real-world views. Helps and assist in improving users' orientation and also increase their efficiency in performing their tasks related to city planning, Inspection, infrastructures, roads, and cadastre management. In this paper, the capability of multi-view Vexcel UltraCam Osprey camera images is examined to provide a 3D model of building façades using an efficient image-based modeling workflow adopted by commercial software's. The main steps of this work include: Specification, point cloud generation, and 3D modeling. After improving the initial values of interior and exterior parameters at first step, an efficient image matching technique such as Semi Global Matching (SGM) is applied on the images to generate point cloud. Then, a mesh model of points is calculated using and refined to obtain an accurate model of buildings. Finally, a texture is assigned to mesh in order to create a realistic 3D model. The resulting model has provided enough LoD2 details of the building based on visual assessment. The objective of this paper is neither comparing nor promoting a specific technique over the other and does not mean to promote a sensor-based system over another systems or mechanism presented in existing or previous paper. The idea is to share experience.

  15. High-speed 3D face measurement based on color speckle projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Junpeng; Su, Xianyu; Zhang, Qican

    2015-03-01

    Nowadays, 3D face recognition has become a subject of considerable interest in the security field due to its unique advantages in domestic and international. However, acquiring color-textured 3D faces data in a fast and accurate manner is still highly challenging. In this paper, a new approach based on color speckle projection for 3D face data dynamic acquisition is proposed. Firstly, the projector-camera color crosstalk matrix that indicates how much each projector channel influences each camera channel is measured. Secondly, the reference-speckle-sets images are acquired with CCD, and then three gray sets are separated from the color sets using the crosstalk matrix and are saved. Finally, the color speckle image which is modulated by face is captured, and it is split three gray channels. We measure the 3D face using multi-sets of speckle correlation methods with color speckle image in high-speed similar as one-shot, which greatly improves the measurement accuracy and stability. The suggested approach has been implemented and the results are supported by experiments.

  16. Fabrication of 3D high aspect ratio PDMS microfluidic networks with a hybrid stamp.

    PubMed

    Kung, Yu-Chun; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Fan, Yu-Jui; Chiou, Pei-Yu

    2015-04-21

    We report a novel methodology for fabricating large-area, multilayer, thin-film, high aspect ratio, 3D microfluidic structures with through-layer vias and open channels that can be bonded between hard substrates. It is realized by utilizing a hybrid stamp with a thin plastic sheet embedded underneath a PDMS surface. This hybrid stamp solves an important edge protrusion issue during PDMS molding while maintaining necessary stamp elasticity to ensure the removal of PDMS residues at through-layer regions. Removing edge protrusion is a significant progress toward fabricating 3D structures since high aspect ratio PDMS structures with flat interfaces can be realized to facilitate multilayer stacking and bonding to hard substrates. Our method also allows for the fabrication of 3D deformable channels, which can lead to profound applications in electrokinetics, optofluidics, inertial microfluidics, and other fields where the shape of the channel cross section plays a key role in device physics. To demonstrate, as an example, we have fabricated a microfluidic channel by sandwiching two 20 μm wide, 80 μm tall PDMS membranes between two featureless ITO glass substrates. By applying electrical bias to the two ITO substrates and pressure to deform the thin membrane sidewalls, strong electric field enhancement can be generated in the center of a channel to enable 3D sheathless dielectrophoretic focusing of biological objects including mammalian cells and bacteria at a flow speed up to 14 cm s(-1).

  17. High Content Imaging (HCI) on Miniaturized Three-Dimensional (3D) Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Pranav; Lee, Moo-Yeal

    2015-01-01

    High content imaging (HCI) is a multiplexed cell staining assay developed for better understanding of complex biological functions and mechanisms of drug action, and it has become an important tool for toxicity and efficacy screening of drug candidates. Conventional HCI assays have been carried out on two-dimensional (2D) cell monolayer cultures, which in turn limit predictability of drug toxicity/efficacy in vivo; thus, there has been an urgent need to perform HCI assays on three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures. Although 3D cell cultures better mimic in vivo microenvironments of human tissues and provide an in-depth understanding of the morphological and functional features of tissues, they are also limited by having relatively low throughput and thus are not amenable to high-throughput screening (HTS). One attempt of making 3D cell culture amenable for HTS is to utilize miniaturized cell culture platforms. This review aims to highlight miniaturized 3D cell culture platforms compatible with current HCI technology. PMID:26694477

  18. A Two Colorable Fourth Order Compact Difference Scheme and Parallel Iterative Solution of the 3D Convection Diffusion Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Jun; Ge, Lixin; Kouatchou, Jules

    2000-01-01

    A new fourth order compact difference scheme for the three dimensional convection diffusion equation with variable coefficients is presented. The novelty of this new difference scheme is that it Only requires 15 grid points and that it can be decoupled with two colors. The entire computational grid can be updated in two parallel subsweeps with the Gauss-Seidel type iterative method. This is compared with the known 19 point fourth order compact differenCe scheme which requires four colors to decouple the computational grid. Numerical results, with multigrid methods implemented on a shared memory parallel computer, are presented to compare the 15 point and the 19 point fourth order compact schemes.

  19. 3D insight into fault geometries, deformation, and fluid-migration within the Hosgri Fault Zone offshore central California: Results from high-resolution 3D seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluesner, J.; Brothers, D. S.; Johnson, S. Y.; Watt, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution 3D seismic P-Cable data and advanced seismic attribute analyses were used to detect and interpret complex strike-slip fault geometries, deformation patterns, and fluid-pathways across a portion of the Hosgri Fault Zone (HFZ) offshore central California. Combination of the fault attribute results with structural analysis provides 3D insight into the geometry and internal structure of restraining and releasing bends, step-over zones, fault convergence zones, and apparent paired fault bends. The 3D seismic volume covers a 13.7 km2 region along the HFZ offshore of Point Sal and was collected in 2012 as part of the PG&E Central California Seismic Imaging Project (PG&E, 2014). Application of the fault attribute workflow isolated and delineated fault strands within the 3D volume. These results revealed that the northern and southern edges of the survey region are characterized by single fault strands that exhibit an approximate 6° change in strike across the 3D volume. Between these single faults strands is a complex network of fault splays, bends, stepovers, and convergence zones. Structural analysis reveals that the southern portion of the HFZ in the region is characterized by transtensional deformation, whereas transpressional-related folding dominates the central and northern portions of the HFZ. In the central region, convergence of the Lions Head Fault from the southeast results in an apparent impinging block, leading to development of a "paired fault bend" to the west. Combination of the fault and "chimney" attribute results indicates a strong connection between faults and fluid-migration pathways. Fluid-pathways are concentrated along discrete faults in the transtensional zones, but appear to be more broadly distributed amongst fault bounded anticlines and structurally controlled traps in the transpressional zones.

  20. Parallel Processing at the High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheary, Kathryn Anne

    This study investigated the ability of high school students to cognitively understand and implement parallel processing. Data indicates that most parallel processing is being taught at the university level. Instructional modules on C, Linux, and the parallel processing language, P4, were designed to show that high school students are highly…

  1. True 3D High Resolution imagery of a Buried Shipwreck: the Invincible (1758)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dix, J. K.; Bull, J. M.; Henstock, T.; Gutowski, M.; Hogarth, P.; Leighton, T. G.; White, P. R.

    2005-12-01

    This paper will present the first true 3D high resolution acoustic imagery of a wreck site buried in the marine environment. Using a 3D Chirp system developed at the University of Southampton, a marine seismic survey of the mid-eighteenth century wreck site has been undertaken. The Invincible was a 74 gun warship built by the French in 1744, captured by the British in 1747 and subsequently lost off Portsmouth, UK in February 1758. The wreck was re-discovered by divers in 1979, partially buried on the margins of a mobile sandbank in approximately 8 metres of water. In 2004 the system was surveyed using a 60 channel, rigid framed 3D Chirp (1.5-13 kHz source sweep) system with integral RTK GPS and attitude systems. An area of 160 m x 160 m, centered over the wreck site, was surveyed with a total of 150 Gb data being acquired. The data was processed, using 3D Promax, to produce 25 cm bins with typical 3-6 fold coverage. The stacked traces have been visualized and interpreted using Kingdom Suite software. The final imagery shows at unprecedented resolution the full three-dimensional buried form of the wreck and it's relationship to the surrounding sedimentary sequences, enabling the full evolution of the site to be discussed. Further, the data is compared to previously acquired swath bathymetry and 2D seismic data in order to illustrate the impact of such a device for underwater cultural heritage management.

  2. Ultra-Wideband Time-Difference-of-Arrival High Resolution 3D Proximity Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Dekome, Kent; Dusl, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a research and development effort for a prototype ultra-wideband (UWB) tracking system that is currently under development at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The system is being studied for use in tracking of lunar./Mars rovers and astronauts during early exploration missions when satellite navigation systems are not available. U IATB impulse radio (UWB-IR) technology is exploited in the design and implementation of the prototype location and tracking system. A three-dimensional (3D) proximity tracking prototype design using commercially available UWB products is proposed to implement the Time-Difference- Of-Arrival (TDOA) tracking methodology in this research effort. The TDOA tracking algorithm is utilized for location estimation in the prototype system, not only to exploit the precise time resolution possible with UWB signals, but also to eliminate the need for synchronization between the transmitter and the receiver. Simulations show that the TDOA algorithm can achieve the fine tracking resolution with low noise TDOA estimates for close-in tracking. Field tests demonstrated that this prototype UWB TDOA High Resolution 3D Proximity Tracking System is feasible for providing positioning-awareness information in a 3D space to a robotic control system. This 3D tracking system is developed for a robotic control system in a facility called "Moonyard" at Honeywell Defense & System in Arizona under a Space Act Agreement.

  3. Grid-Adapted FUN3D Computations for the Second High Lift Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee-Rausch, E. M.; Rumsey, C. L.; Park, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Contributions of the unstructured Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code FUN3D to the 2nd AIAA CFD High Lift Prediction Workshop are described, and detailed comparisons are made with experimental data. Using workshop-supplied grids, results for the clean wing configuration are compared with results from the structured code CFL3D Using the same turbulence model, both codes compare reasonably well in terms of total forces and moments, and the maximum lift is similarly over-predicted for both codes compared to experiment. By including more representative geometry features such as slat and flap brackets and slat pressure tube bundles, FUN3D captures the general effects of the Reynolds number variation, but under-predicts maximum lift on workshop-supplied grids in comparison with the experimental data, due to excessive separation. However, when output-based, off-body grid adaptation in FUN3D is employed, results improve considerably. In particular, when the geometry includes both brackets and the pressure tube bundles, grid adaptation results in a more accurate prediction of lift near stall in comparison with the wind-tunnel data. Furthermore, a rotation-corrected turbulence model shows improved pressure predictions on the outboard span when using adapted grids.

  4. High fidelity digital inline holographic method for 3D flow measurements.

    PubMed

    Toloui, Mostafa; Hong, Jiarong

    2015-10-19

    Among all the 3D optical flow diagnostic techniques, digital inline holographic particle tracking velocimetry (DIH-PTV) provides the highest spatial resolution with low cost, simple and compact optical setups. Despite these advantages, DIH-PTV suffers from major limitations including poor longitudinal resolution, human intervention (i.e. requirement for manually determined tuning parameters during tracer field reconstruction and extraction), limited tracer concentration, and expensive computations. These limitations prevent this technique from being widely used for high resolution 3D flow measurements. In this study, we present a novel holographic particle extraction method with the goal of overcoming all the major limitations of DIH-PTV. The proposed method consists of multiple steps involving 3D deconvolution, automatic signal-to-noise ratio enhancement and thresholding, and inverse iterative particle extraction. The entire method is implemented using GPU-based algorithm to increase the computational speed significantly. Validated with synthetic particle holograms, the proposed method can achieve particle extraction rate above 95% with fake particles less than 3% and maximum position error below 1.6 particle diameter for holograms with particle concentration above 3000 particles/mm3. The applicability of the proposed method for DIH-PTV has been further validated using the experiment of laminar flow in a microchannel and the synthetic tracer flow fields generated using a DNS turbulent channel flow database. Such improvements will substantially enhance the implementation of DIH-PTV for 3D flow measurements and enable the potential commercialization of this technique. PMID:26480377

  5. High-resolution 3D imaging laser radar flight test experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Richard M.; Davis, W. R.; Rich, G. C.; McLaughlin, J. L.; Lee, E. I.; Stanley, B. M.; Burnside, J. W.; Rowe, G. S.; Hatch, R. E.; Square, T. E.; Skelly, L. J.; O'Brien, M.; Vasile, A.; Heinrichs, R. M.

    2005-05-01

    Situation awareness and accurate Target Identification (TID) are critical requirements for successful battle management. Ground vehicles can be detected, tracked, and in some cases imaged using airborne or space-borne microwave radar. Obscurants such as camouflage net and/or tree canopy foliage can degrade the performance of such radars. Foliage can be penetrated with long wavelength microwave radar, but generally at the expense of imaging resolution. The goals of the DARPA Jigsaw program include the development and demonstration of high-resolution 3-D imaging laser radar (ladar) ensor technology and systems that can be used from airborne platforms to image and identify military ground vehicles that may be hiding under camouflage or foliage such as tree canopy. With DARPA support, MIT Lincoln Laboratory has developed a rugged and compact 3-D imaging ladar system that has successfully demonstrated the feasibility and utility of this application. The sensor system has been integrated into a UH-1 helicopter for winter and summer flight campaigns. The sensor operates day or night and produces high-resolution 3-D spatial images using short laser pulses and a focal plane array of Geiger-mode avalanche photo-diode (APD) detectors with independent digital time-of-flight counting circuits at each pixel. The sensor technology includes Lincoln Laboratory developments of the microchip laser and novel focal plane arrays. The microchip laser is a passively Q-switched solid-state frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser transmitting short laser pulses (300 ps FWHM) at 16 kilohertz pulse rate and at 532 nm wavelength. The single photon detection efficiency has been measured to be > 20 % using these 32x32 Silicon Geiger-mode APDs at room temperature. The APD saturates while providing a gain of typically > 106. The pulse out of the detector is used to stop a 500 MHz digital clock register integrated within the focal-plane array at each pixel. Using the detector in this binary response mode

  6. High-resolution 3D micro-CT imaging of breast microcalcifications: a preliminary analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Detection of microcalcifications on mammograms indicates the presence of breast lesion, and the shapes of the microcalcifications as seen by conventional mammography correlates with the probability of malignancy. This preliminary study evaluated the 3D shape of breast microcalcifications using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and compared the findings with those obtained using anatomopathological analysis. Methods The study analyzed breast biopsy samples from 11 women with findings of suspicious microcalcifications on routine mammograms. The samples were imaged using a micro-CT (SkyScan 1076) at a resolution of 35 μm. Images were reconstructed using filtered back-projection and analyzed in 3D using surface rendering. The samples were subsequently analyzed by the pathology service. Reconstructed 3D images were compared with the corresponding histological slices. Results Anatomopathological analysis showed that 5 of 11 patients had ductal breast carcinoma in situ. One patient was diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma. Individual object analysis was performed on 597 microcalcifications. Malignant microcalcifications tended to be thinner and to have a smaller volume and surface area, while their surface area-to-volume ratio was greater than that of benign microcalcifications. The structure model index values were the same for malignant and benign microcalcifications. Conclusions This is the first study to use micro-CT for quantitative 3D analysis of microcalcifications. This high-resolution imaging technique will be valuable for gaining a greater understanding of the morphologic characteristics of malignant and benign microcalcifications. The presence of many small microcalcifications can be an indication of malignancy. For the larger microcalcifications, 3D parameters confirmed the more irregular shape of malignant microcalcifications. PMID:24393444

  7. High sensitivity and high resolution element 3D analysis by a combined SIMS–SPM instrument

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Summary Using the recently developed SIMS–SPM prototype, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) data was combined with topographical data from the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) module for five test structures in order to obtain accurate chemical 3D maps: a polystyrene/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PS/PVP) polymer blend, a nickel-based super-alloy, a titanium carbonitride-based cermet, a reticle test structure and Mg(OH)2 nanoclusters incorporated inside a polymer matrix. The examples illustrate the potential of this combined approach to track and eliminate artefacts related to inhomogeneities of the sputter rates (caused by samples containing various materials, different phases or having a non-flat surface) and inhomogeneities of the secondary ion extraction efficiencies due to local field distortions (caused by topography with high aspect ratios). In this respect, this paper presents the measured relative sputter rates between PVP and PS as well as in between the different phases of the TiCN cermet. PMID:26171285

  8. Identifying High Potential Well Targets with 3D Seismic and Mineralogy

    SciTech Connect

    Mellors, R. J.

    2015-10-30

    Seismic reflection the primary tool used in petroleum exploration and production, but use in geothermal exploration is less standard, in part due to cost but also due to the challenges in identifying the highly-permeable zones essential for economic hydrothermal systems [e.g. Louie et al., 2011; Majer, 2003]. Newer technology, such as wireless sensors and low-cost high performance computing, has helped reduce the cost and effort needed to conduct 3D surveys. The second difficulty, identifying permeable zones, has been less tractable so far. Here we report on the use of seismic attributes from a 3D seismic survey to identify and map permeable zones in a hydrothermal area.

  9. A high-throughput in vitro ring assay for vasoactivity using magnetic 3D bioprinting.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hubert; Gage, Jacob A; Haisler, William L; Neeley, Shane K; Shen, Tsaiwei; Hebel, Chris; Barthlow, Herbert G; Wagoner, Matthew; Souza, Glauco R

    2016-01-01

    Vasoactive liabilities are typically assayed using wire myography, which is limited by its high cost and low throughput. To meet the demand for higher throughput in vitro alternatives, this study introduces a magnetic 3D bioprinting-based vasoactivity assay. The principle behind this assay is the magnetic printing of vascular smooth muscle cells into 3D rings that functionally represent blood vessel segments, whose contraction can be altered by vasodilators and vasoconstrictors. A cost-effective imaging modality employing a mobile device is used to capture contraction with high throughput. The goal of this study was to validate ring contraction as a measure of vasoactivity, using a small panel of known vasoactive drugs. In vitro responses of the rings matched outcomes predicted by in vivo pharmacology, and were supported by immunohistochemistry. Altogether, this ring assay robustly models vasoactivity, which could meet the need for higher throughput in vitro alternatives. PMID:27477945

  10. A high-throughput in vitro ring assay for vasoactivity using magnetic 3D bioprinting

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Hubert; Gage, Jacob A.; Haisler, William L.; Neeley, Shane K.; Shen, Tsaiwei; Hebel, Chris; Barthlow, Herbert G.; Wagoner, Matthew; Souza, Glauco R.

    2016-01-01

    Vasoactive liabilities are typically assayed using wire myography, which is limited by its high cost and low throughput. To meet the demand for higher throughput in vitro alternatives, this study introduces a magnetic 3D bioprinting-based vasoactivity assay. The principle behind this assay is the magnetic printing of vascular smooth muscle cells into 3D rings that functionally represent blood vessel segments, whose contraction can be altered by vasodilators and vasoconstrictors. A cost-effective imaging modality employing a mobile device is used to capture contraction with high throughput. The goal of this study was to validate ring contraction as a measure of vasoactivity, using a small panel of known vasoactive drugs. In vitro responses of the rings matched outcomes predicted by in vivo pharmacology, and were supported by immunohistochemistry. Altogether, this ring assay robustly models vasoactivity, which could meet the need for higher throughput in vitro alternatives. PMID:27477945

  11. 3D silicon sensors with variable electrode depth for radiation hard high resolution particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Vià, C.; Borri, M.; Dalla Betta, G.; Haughton, I.; Hasi, J.; Kenney, C.; Povoli, M.; Mendicino, R.

    2015-04-01

    3D sensors, with electrodes micro-processed inside the silicon bulk using Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technology, were industrialized in 2012 and were installed in the first detector upgrade at the LHC, the ATLAS IBL in 2014. They are the radiation hardest sensors ever made. A new idea is now being explored to enhance the three-dimensional nature of 3D sensors by processing collecting electrodes at different depths inside the silicon bulk. This technique uses the electric field strength to suppress the charge collection effectiveness of the regions outside the p-n electrodes' overlap. Evidence of this property is supported by test beam data of irradiated and non-irradiated devices bump-bonded with pixel readout electronics and simulations. Applications include High-Luminosity Tracking in the high multiplicity LHC forward regions. This paper will describe the technical advantages of this idea and the tracking application rationale.

  12. P-Cable: New High-Resolution 3D Seismic Acquisition Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planke, Sverre; Berndt, Christian; Mienert, Jürgen; Bünz, Stefan; Eriksen, Frode N.; Eriksen, Ola K.

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a new cost-efficient technology for acquisition of high-resolution 3D seismic data: the P-Cable system. This technology is very well suited for deep water exploration, site surveys, and studies of shallow gas and fluid migration associated with gas hydrates or leaking reservoirs. It delivers unparalleled 3D seismic images of subsurface sediment architectures. The P-Cable system consists of a seismic cable towed perpendicular to a vessel's steaming direction. This configuration allows us to image an up to 150 m wide swath of the sub-surface for each sail line. Conventional 3D seismic technology relies on several very long streamers (up to 10 km long streamers are common), large sources, and costly operations. In contrast, the P-Cable system is light-weight and fast to deploy from small vessels. Only a small source is required as the system is made for relatively shallow imaging, typically above the first water-bottom multiple. The P-Cable system is particularly useful for acquisition of small 3D cubes, 10-50 km2, in focus areas, rather than extensive mapping of large regions. The rapid deployment and recovery of the system makes it possible to acquire several small cubes (10 to 30 km2) with high-resolution (50-250 Hz) seismic data in during one cruise. The first development of the P-Cable system was a cooperative project achieved by Volcanic Basin Petroleum Research (VBPR), University of Tromsø, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, and industry partners. Field trials using a 12-streamer system were conducted on sites with active fluid-leakage systems on the Norwegian-Barents-Svalbard margin, the Gulf of Cadiz, and the Mediterranean. The second phase of the development introduced digital streamers. The new P-Cable2 system also includes integrated tow and cross cables for power and data transmission and improved doors to spread the larger cross cable. This digital system has been successfully used during six cruises by the University of Troms

  13. Automatic 3D high-fidelity traffic interchange modeling using 2D road GIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-03-01

    3D road models are widely used in many computer applications such as racing games and driving simulations. However, almost all high-fidelity 3D road models were generated manually by professional artists at the expense of intensive labor. There are very few existing methods for automatically generating 3D high-fidelity road networks, especially for those existing in the real world. Real road network contains various elements such as road segments, road intersections and traffic interchanges. Among them, traffic interchanges present the most challenges to model due to their complexity and the lack of height information (vertical position) of traffic interchanges in existing road GIS data. This paper proposes a novel approach that can automatically produce 3D high-fidelity road network models, including traffic interchange models, from real 2D road GIS data that mainly contain road centerline information. The proposed method consists of several steps. The raw road GIS data are first preprocessed to extract road network topology, merge redundant links, and classify road types. Then overlapped points in the interchanges are detected and their elevations are determined based on a set of level estimation rules. Parametric representations of the road centerlines are then generated through link segmentation and fitting, and they have the advantages of arbitrary levels of detail with reduced memory usage. Finally a set of civil engineering rules for road design (e.g., cross slope, superelevation) are selected and used to generate realistic road surfaces. In addition to traffic interchange modeling, the proposed method also applies to other more general road elements. Preliminary results show that the proposed method is highly effective and useful in many applications.

  14. Joint synchronization and high capacity data hiding for 3D meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itier, Vincent; Puech, William; Gesquière, Gilles; Pedeboy, Jean-Pierre

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) meshes are already profusely used in lot of domains. In this paper, we propose a new high capacity data hiding scheme for vertex cloud. Our approach is based on very small displacements of vertices, that produce very low distortion of the mesh. Moreover this method can embed three bits per vertex relying only on the geometry of the mesh. As an application, we show how we embed a large binary logo for copyright purpose.

  15. Progress in the Simulation of Steady and Time-Dependent Flows with 3D Parallel Unstructured Cartesian Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aftosmis, M. J.; Berger, M. J.; Murman, S. M.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The proposed paper will present recent extensions in the development of an efficient Euler solver for adaptively-refined Cartesian meshes with embedded boundaries. The paper will focus on extensions of the basic method to include solution adaptation, time-dependent flow simulation, and arbitrary rigid domain motion. The parallel multilevel method makes use of on-the-fly parallel domain decomposition to achieve extremely good scalability on large numbers of processors, and is coupled with an automatic coarse mesh generation algorithm for efficient processing by a multigrid smoother. Numerical results are presented demonstrating parallel speed-ups of up to 435 on 512 processors. Solution-based adaptation may be keyed off truncation error estimates using tau-extrapolation or a variety of feature detection based refinement parameters. The multigrid method is extended to for time-dependent flows through the use of a dual-time approach. The extension to rigid domain motion uses an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerlarian (ALE) formulation, and results will be presented for a variety of two- and three-dimensional example problems with both simple and complex geometry.

  16. Regional 3D Numerical Modeling of the Lithosphere-Mantle System: Implications for Continental Rift-Parallel Surface Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamps, S.; Bangerth, W.; Hager, B. H.

    2014-12-01

    The East African Rift System (EARS) is an active divergent plate boundary with slow, approximately E-W extension rates ranging from <1-6 mm/yr. Previous work using thin-sheet modeling indicates lithospheric buoyancy dominates the force balance driving large-scale Nubia-Somalia divergence, however GPS observations within the Western Branch of the EARS show along-rift motions that contradict this simple model. Here, we test the role of mantle flow at the rift-scale using our new, regional 3D numerical model based on the open-source code ASPECT. We define a thermal lithosphere with thicknesses that are systematically changed for generic models or based on geophysical constraints in the Western branch (e.g. melting depths, xenoliths, seismic tomography). Preliminary results suggest existing variations in lithospheric thicknesses along-rift in the Western Branch can drive upper mantle flow that is consistent with geodetic observations.

  17. Statistical representation of high-dimensional deformation fields with application to statistically constrained 3D warping.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhong; Shen, Dinggang; Davatzikos, Christos

    2006-10-01

    This paper proposes a 3D statistical model aiming at effectively capturing statistics of high-dimensional deformation fields and then uses this prior knowledge to constrain 3D image warping. The conventional statistical shape model methods, such as the active shape model (ASM), have been very successful in modeling shape variability. However, their accuracy and effectiveness typically drop dramatically in high-dimensionality problems involving relatively small training datasets, which is customary in 3D and 4D medical imaging applications. The proposed statistical model of deformation (SMD) uses wavelet-based decompositions coupled with PCA in each wavelet band, in order to more accurately estimate the pdf of high-dimensional deformation fields, when a relatively small number of training samples are available. SMD is further used as statistical prior to regularize the deformation field in an SMD-constrained deformable registration framework. As a result, more robust registration results are obtained relative to using generic smoothness constraints on deformation fields, such as Laplacian-based regularization. In experiments, we first illustrate the performance of SMD in representing the variability of deformation fields and then evaluate the performance of the SMD-constrained registration, via comparing a hierarchical volumetric image registration algorithm, HAMMER, with its SMD-constrained version, referred to as SMD+HAMMER. This SMD-constrained deformable registration framework can potentially incorporate various registration algorithms to improve robustness and stability via statistical shape constraints.

  18. Fast, high-resolution 3D dosimetry utilizing a novel optical-CT scanner incorporating tertiary telecentric collimation.

    PubMed

    Sakhalkar, H S; Oldham, M

    2008-01-01

    This study introduces a charge coupled device (CCD) area detector based optical-computed tomography (optical-CT) scanner for comprehensive verification of radiation dose distributions recorded in nonscattering radiochromic dosimeters. Defining characteristics include: (i) a very fast scanning time of approximately 5 min to acquire a complete three-dimensional (3D) dataset, (ii) improved image formation through the use of custom telecentric optics, which ensures accurate projection images and minimizes artifacts from scattered and stray-light sources, and (iii) high resolution (potentially 50 microm) isotropic 3D dose readout. The performance of the CCD scanner for 3D dose readout was evaluated by comparison with independent 3D readout from the single laser beam OCTOPUS-scanner for the same PRESAGE dosimeters. The OCTOPUS scanner was considered the "gold standard" technique in light of prior studies demonstrating its accuracy. Additional comparisons were made against calculated dose distributions from the ECLIPSE treatment-planning system. Dose readout for the following treatments were investigated: (i) a single rectangular beam irradiation to investigate small field and very steep dose gradient dosimetry away from edge effects, (ii) a 2-field open beam parallel-opposed irradiation to investigate dosimetry along steep dose gradients, and (iii) a 7-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) irradiation to investigate dosimetry for complex treatment delivery involving modulation of fluence and for dosimetry along moderate dose gradients. Dose profiles, dose-difference plots, and gamma maps were employed to evaluate quantitative estimates of agreement between independently measured and calculated dose distributions. Results indicated that dose readout from the CCD scanner was in agreement with independent gold-standard readout from the OCTOPUS-scanner as well as the calculated ECLIPSE dose distribution for all treatments, except in regions within a few

  19. Fast, high-resolution 3D dosimetry utilizing a novel optical-CT scanner incorporating tertiary telecentric collimation

    SciTech Connect

    Sakhalkar, H. S.; Oldham, M.

    2008-01-15

    This study introduces a charge coupled device (CCD) area detector based optical-computed tomography (optical-CT) scanner for comprehensive verification of radiation dose distributions recorded in nonscattering radiochromic dosimeters. Defining characteristics include: (i) a very fast scanning time of {approx}5 min to acquire a complete three-dimensional (3D) dataset, (ii) improved image formation through the use of custom telecentric optics, which ensures accurate projection images and minimizes artifacts from scattered and stray-light sources, and (iii) high resolution (potentially 50 {mu}m) isotropic 3D dose readout. The performance of the CCD scanner for 3D dose readout was evaluated by comparison with independent 3D readout from the single laser beam OCTOPUS-scanner for the same PRESAGE dosimeters. The OCTOPUS scanner was considered the 'gold standard' technique in light of prior studies demonstrating its accuracy. Additional comparisons were made against calculated dose distributions from the ECLIPSE treatment-planning system. Dose readout for the following treatments were investigated: (i) a single rectangular beam irradiation to investigate small field and very steep dose gradient dosimetry away from edge effects, (ii) a 2-field open beam parallel-opposed irradiation to investigate dosimetry along steep dose gradients, and (iii) a 7-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) irradiation to investigate dosimetry for complex treatment delivery involving modulation of fluence and for dosimetry along moderate dose gradients. Dose profiles, dose-difference plots, and gamma maps were employed to evaluate quantitative estimates of agreement between independently measured and calculated dose distributions. Results indicated that dose readout from the CCD scanner was in agreement with independent gold-standard readout from the OCTOPUS-scanner as well as the calculated ECLIPSE dose distribution for all treatments, except in regions within a few millimeters of

  20. A 3D porous Ni-Cu alloy film for high-performance hydrazine electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ming; Lu, Zhiyi; Luo, Liang; Chang, Zheng; Sun, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Structural design and catalyst screening are two most important factors for achieving exceptional electrocatalytic performance. Herein we demonstrate that constructing a three-dimensional (3D) porous Ni-Cu alloy film is greatly beneficial for improving the hydrazine oxidation reaction (HzOR) performance. A facile electrodeposition process is employed to synthesize a Ni-Cu alloy film with a 3D hierarchical porous structure. As an integrated electrode for HzOR, the Ni-Cu alloy film exhibits superior catalytic activity and stability to the Ni or Cu counterparts. The synthesis parameters are also systematically tuned for optimizing the HzOR performance. The excellent HzOR performance of the Ni-Cu alloy film is attributed to its high intrinsic activity, large electrochemical specific surface area, and 3D porous architecture which offers a ``superaerophobic'' surface to effectively remove the gas product in a small volume. It is believed that the Ni-Cu alloy film electrode has potential application in direct hydrazine fuel cells as well as other catalytic fields.Structural design and catalyst screening are two most important factors for achieving exceptional electrocatalytic performance. Herein we demonstrate that constructing a three-dimensional (3D) porous Ni-Cu alloy film is greatly beneficial for improving the hydrazine oxidation reaction (HzOR) performance. A facile electrodeposition process is employed to synthesize a Ni-Cu alloy film with a 3D hierarchical porous structure. As an integrated electrode for HzOR, the Ni-Cu alloy film exhibits superior catalytic activity and stability to the Ni or Cu counterparts. The synthesis parameters are also systematically tuned for optimizing the HzOR performance. The excellent HzOR performance of the Ni-Cu alloy film is attributed to its high intrinsic activity, large electrochemical specific surface area, and 3D porous architecture which offers a ``superaerophobic'' surface to effectively remove the gas product in a small

  1. View planetary differentiation process through high-resolution 3D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Core-mantle separation is one of the most important processes in planetary evolution, defining the structure and chemical distribution in the planets. Iron-dominated core materials could migrate through silicate mantle to the core by efficient liquid-liquid separation and/or by percolation of liquid metal through solid silicate matrix. We can experimentally simulate these processes to examine the efficiency and time of core formation and its geochemical signatures. The quantitative measure of the efficiency of percolation is usually the dihedral angle, related to the interfacial energies of the liquid and solid phases. To determine the true dihedral angle at high pressure and temperatures, it is necessary to measure the relative frequency distributions of apparent dihedral angles between the quenched liquid metal and silicate grains for each experiment. Here I present a new imaging technique to visualize the distribution of liquid metal in silicate matrix in 3D by combination of focus ion beam (FIB) milling and high-resolution SEM image. The 3D volume rendering provides precise determination of the dihedral angle and quantitative measure of volume fraction and connectivity. I have conducted a series of experiments using mixtures of San Carlos olivine and Fe-S (10wt%S) metal with different metal-silicate ratios, up to 25 GPa and at temperatures above 1800C. High-quality 3D volume renderings were reconstructed from FIB serial sectioning and imaging with 10-nm slice thickness and 14-nm image resolution for each quenched sample. The unprecedented spatial resolution at nano scale allows detailed examination of textural features and precise determination of the dihedral angle as a function of pressure, temperature and composition. The 3D reconstruction also allows direct assessment of connectivity in multi-phase matrix, providing a new way to investigate the efficiency of metal percolation in a real silicate mantle.

  2. The 3D modeling of high numerical aperture imaging in thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flagello, D. G.; Milster, Tom

    1992-01-01

    A modelling technique is described which is used to explore three dimensional (3D) image irradiance distributions formed by high numerical aperture (NA is greater than 0.5) lenses in homogeneous, linear films. This work uses a 3D modelling approach that is based on a plane-wave decomposition in the exit pupil. Each plane wave component is weighted by factors due to polarization, aberration, and input amplitude and phase terms. This is combined with a modified thin-film matrix technique to derive the total field amplitude at each point in a film by a coherent vector sum over all plane waves. Then the total irradiance is calculated. The model is used to show how asymmetries present in the polarized image change with the influence of a thin film through varying degrees of focus.

  3. Graph-regularized 3D shape reconstruction from highly anisotropic and noisy images

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Stephanie; Drewe, Philipp; Lou, Xinghua; Umrania, Shefali; Rätsch, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of microscopy images can provide insight into many biological processes. One particularly challenging problem is cellular nuclear segmentation in highly anisotropic and noisy 3D image data. Manually localizing and segmenting each and every cellular nucleus is very time-consuming, which remains a bottleneck in large-scale biological experiments. In this work, we present a tool for automated segmentation of cellular nuclei from 3D fluorescent microscopic data. Our tool is based on state-of-the-art image processing and machine learning techniques and provides a user-friendly graphical user interface. We show that our tool is as accurate as manual annotation and greatly reduces the time for the registration. PMID:25866587

  4. A highly heterogeneous 3D PWR core benchmark: deterministic and Monte Carlo method comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaboulay, J.-C.; Damian, F.; Douce, S.; Lopez, F.; Guenaut, C.; Aggery, A.; Poinot-Salanon, C.

    2014-06-01

    Physical analyses of the LWR potential performances with regards to the fuel utilization require an important part of the work dedicated to the validation of the deterministic models used for theses analyses. Advances in both codes and computer technology give the opportunity to perform the validation of these models on complex 3D core configurations closed to the physical situations encountered (both steady-state and transient configurations). In this paper, we used the Monte Carlo Transport code TRIPOLI-4®; to describe a whole 3D large-scale and highly-heterogeneous LWR core. The aim of this study is to validate the deterministic CRONOS2 code to Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI-4®; in a relevant PWR core configuration. As a consequence, a 3D pin by pin model with a consistent number of volumes (4.3 millions) and media (around 23,000) is established to precisely characterize the core at equilibrium cycle, namely using a refined burn-up and moderator density maps. The configuration selected for this analysis is a very heterogeneous PWR high conversion core with fissile (MOX fuel) and fertile zones (depleted uranium). Furthermore, a tight pitch lattice is selcted (to increase conversion of 238U in 239Pu) that leads to harder neutron spectrum compared to standard PWR assembly. In these conditions two main subjects will be discussed: the Monte Carlo variance calculation and the assessment of the diffusion operator with two energy groups for the core calculation.

  5. Interactive 3D Visualization of Humboldt Bay Bridge Earthquake Simulation With High Definition Stereo Output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, P. B.; Nayak, A.; Yan, J.; Elgamal, A.

    2006-12-01

    This visualization project involves the study of the Humboldt Bay Middle Channel Bridge, a Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research (PEER) testbed site, subjected to an earthquake simulated by the Department of Structural Engineering, UCSD. The numerical simulation and data generation was carried out using the OpenSees finite element analysis platform, and GiD was employed for the mesh generation in preprocessing. In collaboration with the Scripps Visualization Center, the data was transformed into a virtual 3D world that a viewer could rotate around, zoom into, pan about, step through each timestep or examine in true stereo. The data consists of the static mesh of the bridge-foundation-ground elements, material indices for each type of element, the displacement amount of each element nodes over time, and the shear stress levels for each ground element over time. The Coin3D C++ Open Inventor API was used to parse the data and to render the bridge system in full 3D at 1130 individual time steps to show how the bridge structure and the surrounding soil elements interact during the full course of an earthquake. The results can be viewed interactively while using the program, saved as images and processed into animated movies, in resolutions as high as High Definition (1920x1080), or in stereo modes such as red-blue anaglyph.

  6. High performance 3D adaptive filtering for DSP based portable medical imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockenbach, Olivier; Ali, Murtaza; Wainwright, Ian; Nadeski, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Portable medical imaging devices have proven valuable for emergency medical services both in the field and hospital environments and are becoming more prevalent in clinical settings where the use of larger imaging machines is impractical. Despite their constraints on power, size and cost, portable imaging devices must still deliver high quality images. 3D adaptive filtering is one of the most advanced techniques aimed at noise reduction and feature enhancement, but is computationally very demanding and hence often cannot be run with sufficient performance on a portable platform. In recent years, advanced multicore digital signal processors (DSP) have been developed that attain high processing performance while maintaining low levels of power dissipation. These processors enable the implementation of complex algorithms on a portable platform. In this study, the performance of a 3D adaptive filtering algorithm on a DSP is investigated. The performance is assessed by filtering a volume of size 512x256x128 voxels sampled at a pace of 10 MVoxels/sec with an Ultrasound 3D probe. Relative performance and power is addressed between a reference PC (Quad Core CPU) and a TMS320C6678 DSP from Texas Instruments.

  7. High-resolution 2D NMR spectra in inhomogeneous fields via 3D acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yanqin; Wei, Zhiliang; Zhang, Liandi; Lin, Liangjie; Chen, Zhong

    2014-04-01

    High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy plays an important role in chemical studies. Here, a pulse sequence, based on coherence transfer module of tracking differences of precession frequencies of two spins and spin echo module, is proposed to obtain two dimension (2D) high-resolution NMR spectra via 3D acquisition under large field inhomogeneity. The proposed scheme composes of simple hard pulses and rectangle gradients. Resulting 2D spectra exhibit chemical shift differences and J coupling splittings in two orthogonal dimensions. The method developed here may offer a promising way for in situ high-resolution NMR studies on combinatorial chemistry.

  8. Model based assessment of vestibular jawbone thickness using high frequency 3D ultrasound micro-scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habor, Daniel; Neuhaus, Sarah; Vollborn, Thorsten; Wolfart, Stefan; Radermacher, Klaus; Heger, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    Endosseous implants are well-established in modern dentistry. However, without appropriate therapeutic intervention, progressive peri-implant bone loss may lead to failing implants. Conventionally, the particularly relevant vestibular jawbone thickness is monitored using radiographic 3D imaging methods. Ionizing radiation, as well as imaging artifacts caused by metallic implants and superstructures are major drawbacks of these imaging modalities. In this study, a high frequency ultrasound (HFUS) based approach to assess the vestibular jawbone thickness is being introduced. It should be emphasized that the presented method does not require ultrasound penetration of the jawbone. An in-vitro study using two porcine specimens with inserted endosseous implants has been carried out to assess the accuracy of our approach. The implant of the first specimen was equipped with a gingiva former while a polymer superstructure was mounted onto the implant of the second specimen. Ultrasound data has been acquired using a 4 degree of freedom (DOF) high frequency (<50MHz) laboratory ultrasound scanner. The ultrasound raw data has been converted to polygon meshes including the surfaces of bone, gingiva, gingiva former (first specimen) and superstructure (second specimen). The meshes are matched with a-priori acquired 3D models of the implant, the superstructure and the gingiva former using a best-fit algorithm. Finally, the vestibular peri-implant bone thickness has been assessed in the resulting 3D models. The accuracy of this approach has been evaluated by comparing the ultrasound based thickness measurement with a reference measurement acquired with an optical extra-oral 3D scanner prior to covering the specimens with gingiva. As a final result, the bone thicknesses of the two specimens were measured yielding an error of -46+/-89μm (first specimen) and 70+/-93μm (second specimen).

  9. Simultaneous multiplane imaging for 3D confocal microscopy using high-speed z-scanning multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duocastella, Marti; Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Diaspro, Alberto

    2015-03-01

    One of the key frontiers in optical imaging is to maximize the spatial information retrieved from a sample while minimizing acquisition time. Confocal laser scanning microscopy is a powerful imaging modality that allows real-time and high-resolution acquisition of two-dimensional (2D) sections. However, in order to obtain information from threedimensional (3D) volumes it is currently limited by a stepwise process that consists of acquiring multiple 2D sections from different focal planes by slow z-focus translation. Here, we present a novel method that enables the capture of an entire 3D sample in a single step. Our approach is based on an acoustically-driven varifocal lens integrated in a commercial confocal system that enables axial focus scanning at speeds of 140 kHz or above. Such high-speed allows for one or multiple focus sweeps on a pixel by pixel basis. By using a fast acquisition card, we can assign the photons detected at each pixel to their corresponding focal plane allowing simultaneous multiplane imaging. We exemplify this novel 3D confocal microscopy technique by imaging different biological fluorescent samples and comparing them with those obtained using traditional z-scanners. Based on these results, we find that image quality in this novel approach is similar to that obtained with traditional confocal methods, while speed is only limited by signal-to-noise-ratio. As the sensitivity of photodetectors increases and more efficient fluorescent labeling is developed, this novel 3D method can result in significant reduction in acquisition time allowing the study of new fundamental processes in science.

  10. Inclusion of high resolution MODIS maps on a 3D tropospheric water vapor GPS tomography model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benevides, Pedro; Catalao, Joao; Nico, Giovanni; Miranda, Pedro M. A.

    2015-10-01

    Observing the water vapor distribution on the troposphere remains a challenge for the weather forecast. Radiosondes provide precise water vapor profiles of the troposphere, but lack geographical and temporal coverage, while satellite meteorological maps have good spatial resolution but even poorer temporal resolution. GPS has proved its capacity to measure the integrated water vapor in all weather conditions with high temporal sampling frequency. However these measurements lack a vertical water vapor discretization. Reconstruction of the slant path GPS observation to the satellite allows oblique water vapor measurements. Implementation of a 3D grid of voxels along the troposphere over an area where GPS stations are available enables the observation ray tracing. A relation between the water vapor density and the distanced traveled inside the voxels is established, defining GPS tomography. An inverse problem formulation is needed to obtain a water vapor solution. The combination of precipitable water vapor (PWV) maps obtained from MODIS satellite data with the GPS tomography is performed in this work. The MODIS PWV maps can have 1 or 5 km pixel resolution, being obtained 2 times per day in the same location at most. The inclusion of MODIS PWV maps provides an enhanced horizontal resolution for the tomographic solution and benefits the stability of the inversion problem. A 3D tomographic grid was adjusted over a regional area covering Lisbon, Portugal, where a GNSS network of 9 receivers is available. Radiosonde measurements in the area are used to evaluate the 3D water vapor tomography maps.

  11. A 3-D organoid kidney culture model engineered for high-throughput nephrotoxicity assays.

    PubMed

    Astashkina, Anna I; Mann, Brenda K; Prestwich, Glenn D; Grainger, David W

    2012-06-01

    Cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions control cell phenotypes and functions in vivo. Maintaining these interactions in vitro is essential to both produce and retain cultured cell fidelity to normal phenotype and function in the context of drug efficacy and toxicity screening. Two-dimensional (2-D) cultures on culture plastics rarely recapitulate any of these desired conditions. Three dimensional (3-D) culture systems provide a critical junction between traditional, yet often irrelevant, in vitro cell cultures and more accurate, yet costly, in vivo models. This study describes development of an organoid-derived 3-D culture of kidney proximal tubules (PTs) that maintains native cellular interactions in tissue context, regulating phenotypic stability of primary cells in vitro for up to 6 weeks. Furthermore, unlike immortalized cells on plastic, these 3-D organoid kidney cultures provide a more physiologically-relevant response to nephrotoxic agent exposure, with production of toxicity biomarkers found in vivo. This biomimetic primary kidney model has broad applicability to high-throughput drug and biomarker nephrotoxicity screening, as well as more mechanistic drug toxicology, pharmacology, and metabolism studies.

  12. Accepting the T3D

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.

    1994-10-01

    In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

  13. Holographic patterning of high-performance on-chip 3D lithium-ion microbatteries

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Hailong; Pikul, James H.; Zhang, Runyu; Li, Xuejiao; Xu, Sheng; Wang, Junjie; Rogers, John A.; King, William P.; Braun, Paul V.

    2015-01-01

    As sensors, wireless communication devices, personal health monitoring systems, and autonomous microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) become distributed and smaller, there is an increasing demand for miniaturized integrated power sources. Although thin-film batteries are well-suited for on-chip integration, their energy and power per unit area are limited. Three-dimensional electrode designs have potential to offer much greater power and energy per unit area; however, efforts to date to realize 3D microbatteries have led to prototypes with solid electrodes (and therefore low power) or mesostructured electrodes not compatible with manufacturing or on-chip integration. Here, we demonstrate an on-chip compatible method to fabricate high energy density (6.5 μWh cm−2⋅μm−1) 3D mesostructured Li-ion microbatteries based on LiMnO2 cathodes, and NiSn anodes that possess supercapacitor-like power (3,600 μW cm−2⋅μm−1 peak). The mesostructured electrodes are fabricated by combining 3D holographic lithography with conventional photolithography, enabling deterministic control of both the internal electrode mesostructure and the spatial distribution of the electrodes on the substrate. The resultant full cells exhibit impressive performances, for example a conventional light-emitting diode (LED) is driven with a 500-μA peak current (600-C discharge) from a 10-μm-thick microbattery with an area of 4 mm2 for 200 cycles with only 12% capacity fade. A combined experimental and modeling study where the structural parameters of the battery are modulated illustrates the unique design flexibility enabled by 3D holographic lithography and provides guidance for optimization for a given application. PMID:25964360

  14. Holographic patterning of high-performance on-chip 3D lithium-ion microbatteries.

    PubMed

    Ning, Hailong; Pikul, James H; Zhang, Runyu; Li, Xuejiao; Xu, Sheng; Wang, Junjie; Rogers, John A; King, William P; Braun, Paul V

    2015-05-26

    As sensors, wireless communication devices, personal health monitoring systems, and autonomous microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) become distributed and smaller, there is an increasing demand for miniaturized integrated power sources. Although thin-film batteries are well-suited for on-chip integration, their energy and power per unit area are limited. Three-dimensional electrode designs have potential to offer much greater power and energy per unit area; however, efforts to date to realize 3D microbatteries have led to prototypes with solid electrodes (and therefore low power) or mesostructured electrodes not compatible with manufacturing or on-chip integration. Here, we demonstrate an on-chip compatible method to fabricate high energy density (6.5 μWh cm(-2)⋅μm(-1)) 3D mesostructured Li-ion microbatteries based on LiMnO2 cathodes, and NiSn anodes that possess supercapacitor-like power (3,600 μW cm(-2)⋅μm(-1) peak). The mesostructured electrodes are fabricated by combining 3D holographic lithography with conventional photolithography, enabling deterministic control of both the internal electrode mesostructure and the spatial distribution of the electrodes on the substrate. The resultant full cells exhibit impressive performances, for example a conventional light-emitting diode (LED) is driven with a 500-μA peak current (600-C discharge) from a 10-μm-thick microbattery with an area of 4 mm(2) for 200 cycles with only 12% capacity fade. A combined experimental and modeling study where the structural parameters of the battery are modulated illustrates the unique design flexibility enabled by 3D holographic lithography and provides guidance for optimization for a given application. PMID:25964360

  15. Highly Omnidirectional and Frequency Controllable Carbon/Polyaniline-based 2D and 3D Monopole Antenna.

    PubMed

    Shin, Keun-Young; Kim, Minkyu; Lee, James S; Jang, Jyongsik

    2015-01-01

    Highly omnidirectional and frequency controllable carbon/polyaniline (C/PANI)-based, two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) monopole antennas were fabricated using screen-printing and a one-step, dimensionally confined hydrothermal strategy, respectively. Solvated C/PANI was synthesized by low-temperature interfacial polymerization, during which strong π-π interactions between graphene and the quinoid rings of PANI resulted in an expanded PANI conformation with enhanced crystallinity and improved mechanical and electrical properties. Compared to antennas composed of pristine carbon or PANI-based 2D monopole structures, 2D monopole antennas composed of this enhanced hybrid material were highly efficient and amenable to high-frequency, omnidirectional electromagnetic waves. The mean frequency of C/PANI fiber-based 3D monopole antennas could be controlled by simply cutting and stretching the antenna. These antennas attained high peak gain (3.60 dBi), high directivity (3.91 dBi) and radiation efficiency (92.12%) relative to 2D monopole antenna. These improvements were attributed the high packing density and aspect ratios of C/PANI fibers and the removal of the flexible substrate. This approach offers a valuable and promising tool for producing highly omnidirectional and frequency-controllable, carbon-based monopole antennas for use in wireless networking communications on industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) bands. PMID:26338090

  16. Highly Omnidirectional and Frequency Controllable Carbon/Polyaniline-based 2D and 3D Monopole Antenna

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Keun-Young; Kim, Minkyu; Lee, James S.; Jang, Jyongsik

    2015-01-01

    Highly omnidirectional and frequency controllable carbon/polyaniline (C/PANI)-based, two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) monopole antennas were fabricated using screen-printing and a one-step, dimensionally confined hydrothermal strategy, respectively. Solvated C/PANI was synthesized by low-temperature interfacial polymerization, during which strong π–π interactions between graphene and the quinoid rings of PANI resulted in an expanded PANI conformation with enhanced crystallinity and improved mechanical and electrical properties. Compared to antennas composed of pristine carbon or PANI-based 2D monopole structures, 2D monopole antennas composed of this enhanced hybrid material were highly efficient and amenable to high-frequency, omnidirectional electromagnetic waves. The mean frequency of C/PANI fiber-based 3D monopole antennas could be controlled by simply cutting and stretching the antenna. These antennas attained high peak gain (3.60 dBi), high directivity (3.91 dBi) and radiation efficiency (92.12%) relative to 2D monopole antenna. These improvements were attributed the high packing density and aspect ratios of C/PANI fibers and the removal of the flexible substrate. This approach offers a valuable and promising tool for producing highly omnidirectional and frequency-controllable, carbon-based monopole antennas for use in wireless networking communications on industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) bands. PMID:26338090

  17. Highly Omnidirectional and Frequency Controllable Carbon/Polyaniline-based 2D and 3D Monopole Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Keun-Young; Kim, Minkyu; Lee, James S.; Jang, Jyongsik

    2015-09-01

    Highly omnidirectional and frequency controllable carbon/polyaniline (C/PANI)-based, two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) monopole antennas were fabricated using screen-printing and a one-step, dimensionally confined hydrothermal strategy, respectively. Solvated C/PANI was synthesized by low-temperature interfacial polymerization, during which strong π-π interactions between graphene and the quinoid rings of PANI resulted in an expanded PANI conformation with enhanced crystallinity and improved mechanical and electrical properties. Compared to antennas composed of pristine carbon or PANI-based 2D monopole structures, 2D monopole antennas composed of this enhanced hybrid material were highly efficient and amenable to high-frequency, omnidirectional electromagnetic waves. The mean frequency of C/PANI fiber-based 3D monopole antennas could be controlled by simply cutting and stretching the antenna. These antennas attained high peak gain (3.60 dBi), high directivity (3.91 dBi) and radiation efficiency (92.12%) relative to 2D monopole antenna. These improvements were attributed the high packing density and aspect ratios of C/PANI fibers and the removal of the flexible substrate. This approach offers a valuable and promising tool for producing highly omnidirectional and frequency-controllable, carbon-based monopole antennas for use in wireless networking communications on industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) bands.

  18. Multiplex acquisition approach for high speed 3D measurements with a chromatic confocal microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taphanel, Miro; Zink, Ralf; Längle, Thomas; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2015-05-01

    A technical realization of a multispectral camera is proposed, by multiplexing a light source with six different spectra. A monochrome line scan camera with six pixel rows is used as detector. The special feature of this acquisition approach is its high speed capability. The scan speed is as high as the frame rate of the line scan camera and not affected by the multiplexing. As application a chromatic confocal microscope was build up. From a data acquisition perspective up to 284 million 3D points per second can be measured. A real time signal processing is proposed, too.

  19. A Diffusion-Based and Dynamic 3D-Printed Device That Enables Parallel in Vitro Pharmacokinetic Profiling of Molecules.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Sarah Y; Meisel, Jayda E; Monsma, Frederick J; Spence, Dana M

    2016-02-01

    The process of bringing a drug to market involves many steps, including the preclinical stage, where various properties of the drug candidate molecule are determined. These properties, which include drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, are often displayed in a pharmacokinetic (PK) profile. While PK profiles are determined in animal models, in vitro systems that model in vivo processes are available, although each possesses shortcomings. Here, we present a 3D-printed, diffusion-based, and dynamic in vitro PK device. The device contains six flow channels, each with integrated porous membrane-based insert wells. The pores of these membranes enable drugs to freely diffuse back and forth between the flow channels and the inserts, thus enabling both loading and clearance portions of a standard PK curve to be generated. The device is designed to work with 96-well plate technology and consumes single-digit milliliter volumes to generate multiple PK profiles, simultaneously. Generation of PK profiles by use of the device was initially performed with fluorescein as a test molecule. Effects of such parameters as flow rate, loading time, volume in the insert well, and initial concentration of the test molecule were investigated. A prediction model was generated from this data, enabling the user to predict the concentration of the test molecule at any point along the PK profile within a coefficient of variation of ∼ 5%. Depletion of the analyte from the well was characterized and was determined to follow first-order rate kinetics, indicated by statistically equivalent (p > 0.05) depletion half-lives that were independent of the starting concentration. A PK curve for an approved antibiotic, levofloxacin, was generated to show utility beyond the fluorescein test molecule.

  20. 3D High-Resolution Seismic Imaging of Fluid Flow Anomalies on the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planke, S.; Eriksen, F. N.; Eriksen, O. K.; Myklebust, R.; Stokke, H. H.

    2015-12-01

    Fluid flow anomalies are common on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. Such features are imaged by multiple P-Cable high resolution seismic 2D lines and 3D cubes in the Norwegian Barents Sea. P-Cable is a high resolution 3D seismic system consisting of multiple streamers attached to a cross cable that is towed perpendicular to the vessels steaming direction. The short offset, high frequency source and closely spaced streamers facilitates for excellent vertical and horizontal resolution that provides key information for understanding the sub-surface. Recent data have been broadband processed, and the method has proven to enhance the imaging of the sub-surface significantly. Barents Sea P-Cable surveys have targeted shallow fluid anomalies in the uppermost ca. 500 meters of the sub-surface. New data have been acquired in 2012, 2014 and 2015. The most recent data focus on the southeast part of the Norwegian Barents Sea where P-Cable data give a new insight into the subsurface not provided by conventional seismic data in the region. Geologically, the Barents Sea region is characterized by Paleozoic and Mesozoic siliciclastic successions overlaid in most areas by a thin cover of Cenozoic glacial sediments. Hydrocarbon-rich Jurassic and Triassic sequences are locally situated in the shallow sub-surface as a result of extensive late Cenozoic uplift and erosion. The unloading has been reported to reactivate and create new faults in addition to initiate further migration of fluids in the sub-surface (Chand et al., 2012). The presence of shallow hydrocarbon systems creates an optimal setting for imaging fluid flow anomalies with high resolution 3D seismic data. The Barents Sea P-Cable data image a range of fluid related features such as cross-cutting reflections and bright spots, chimney structures, acoustic masking, pockmarks and mud volcanoes.

  1. Application of high resolution 2D/3D spectral induced polarization (SIP) in metalliferous ore exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R.; Zhao, X.; Yao, H.; He, X.; Zeng, P.; Chang, F.; Yang, Y.; Zhang, X.; Xi, X.; He, L.

    2015-12-01

    Induced polarization (IP) is a powerful tool in metalliferous ore exploration. However, there are many sources, such as clay and graphite, which can generate IP anomaly. Spectral induced polarization (SIP) measures IP response on a wide frequency range. This method provides a way to discriminate IP response generated by metalliferous ore or other objects. The best way to explore metalliferous ore is 3D SIP exploration. However, if we consider the exploration cost and efficiency, we can use SIP profiling to find an anomaly, and then use 2D/3D SIP sounding to characterize the anomaly. Based on above idea, we used a large-scale distributed SIP measurement system which can realize 800 sounding sites in one direction at the same time. This system can be used for SIP profiling, 2D/3D SIP sounding with high efficiency, high resolution, and large depth of investigation (> 1000 m). Qiushuwan copper - molybdenum deposit is located in Nanyang city, Henan province, China. It is only a middle-size deposit although over 100 holes were drilled and over 40 years of exploration were spent because of very complex geological setting. We made SIP measurement over 100 rock and ore samples to discriminate IP responses of ore and rock containing graphite. Then we carried out 7 lines of 2D SIP exploration with the depth of investigation great than 1000 m. The minimum electode spacing for potential difference is only 20 m. And we increase the spacing of current electodes at linear scale. This acquisition setting ensures high density data acquired and high quality data acquisition. Modeling and inversion result proves that we can get underground information with high resolution by our method. Our result shows that there exists a strong SIP response related to ore body in depth > 300 m. Pseudo-3D inversion of five 2D SIP sounding lines shows the location and size of IP anomaly. The new drillings based our result found a big copper-molybdenum ore body in new position with depth > 300 m and

  2. Mars-solar wind interaction: LatHyS, an improved parallel 3-D multispecies hybrid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modolo, Ronan; Hess, Sebastien; Mancini, Marco; Leblanc, Francois; Chaufray, Jean-Yves; Brain, David; Leclercq, Ludivine; Esteban-Hernández, Rosa; Chanteur, Gerard; Weill, Philippe; González-Galindo, Francisco; Forget, Francois; Yagi, Manabu; Mazelle, Christian

    2016-07-01

    In order to better represent Mars-solar wind interaction, we present an unprecedented model achieving spatial resolution down to 50 km, a so far unexplored resolution for global kinetic models of the Martian ionized environment. Such resolution approaches the ionospheric plasma scale height. In practice, the model is derived from a first version described in Modolo et al. (2005). An important effort of parallelization has been conducted and is presented here. A better description of the ionosphere was also implemented including ionospheric chemistry, electrical conductivities, and a drag force modeling the ion-neutral collisions in the ionosphere. This new version of the code, named LatHyS (Latmos Hybrid Simulation), is here used to characterize the impact of various spatial resolutions on simulation results. In addition, and following a global model challenge effort, we present the results of simulation run for three cases which allow addressing the effect of the suprathermal corona and of the solar EUV activity on the magnetospheric plasma boundaries and on the global escape. Simulation results showed that global patterns are relatively similar for the different spatial resolution runs, but finest grid runs provide a better representation of the ionosphere and display more details of the planetary plasma dynamic. Simulation results suggest that a significant fraction of escaping O+ ions is originated from below 1200 km altitude.

  3. 3-D synthetic aperture processing on high-frequency wide-beam microwave systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofani, Edison; Brook, Anna; Vandewal, Marijke

    2012-06-01

    The use of High-Frequency MicroWaves (HFMW) for high-resolution imagery has gained interest over the last years. Very promising in-depth applications can be foreseen for composite non-metal, non-polarized materials, widely used in the aeronautic and aerospace industries. Most of these materials present a high transparency in the HFMW range and, therefore, defects, delaminations or occlusions within the material can be located. This property can be exploited by applying 3-D HFMW imaging where conventional focused imaging systems are typically used but a different approach such as Synthetic Aperture (SA) radar can be addressed. This paper will present an end-to-end 3-D imagery system for short-range, non-destructive testing based on a frequency-modulated continuous-wave HFMWsensor operating at 100 GHz, implying no health concerns to the human body as well as relatively low cost and limited power requirements. The sensor scans the material while moving sequentially in every elevation plane following a 2-D grid and uses a significantly wide beam antenna for data acquisition, in contrast to focused systems. Collected data must be coherently combined using a SA algorithm to form focused images. Range-independent, synthetically improved cross-range resolutions are remarkable added values of SA processing. Such algorithms can be found in the literature and operate in the time or frequency domains, being the former computationally impractical and the latter the best option for in-depth 3-D imaging. A balanced trade-off between performance and image focusing quality is investigated for several SA algorithms.

  4. A nanofiber based artificial electronic skin with high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Weibin; Liu, Qiongzhen; Wu, Yongzhi; Wang, Yuedan; Qing, Xing; Li, Mufang; Liu, Ke; Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Dong

    2016-06-16

    Pressure sensors with 3D conformability are highly desirable components for artificial electronic skin or e-textiles that can mimic natural skin, especially for application in real-time monitoring of human physiological signals. Here, a nanofiber based electronic skin with ultra-high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability is designed and built by interlocking two elastic patterned nanofibrous membranes. The patterned membrane is facilely prepared by casting conductive nanofiber ink into a silicon mould to form an array of semi-spheroid-like protuberances. The protuberances composed of intertwined elastic POE nanofibers and PPy@PVA-co-PE nanofibers afford a tunable effective elastic modulus that is capable of capturing varied strains and stresses, thereby contributing to a high sensitivity for pressure sensing. This electronic skin-like sensor demonstrates an ultra-high sensitivity (1.24 kPa(-1)) below 150 Pa with a detection limit as low as about 1.3 Pa. The pixelated sensor array and a RGB-LED light are then assembled into a circuit and show a feasibility for visual detection of spatial pressure. Furthermore, a nanofiber based proof-of-concept wireless pressure sensor with a bluetooth module as a signal transmitter is proposed and has demonstrated great promise for wireless monitoring of human physiological signals, indicating a potential for large scale wearable electronic devices or e-skin. PMID:27250529

  5. 3D numerical thermal stress analysis of the high power target for the SLC Positron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Reuter, E.M.; Hodgson, J.A.

    1991-05-01

    The volumetrically nonuniform power deposition of the incident 33 GeV electron beam in the SLC Positron Source Target is hypothesized to be the most likely cause target failure. The resultant pulsed temperature distributions are known to generate complicated stress fields with no known closed-form analytical solution. 3D finite element analyses of these temperature distributions and associated thermal stress fields in the new High Power Target are described here. Operational guidelines based on the results of these analyses combined with assumptions made about the fatigue characteristics of the exotic target material are proposed. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Fiber optic vibration sensor for high-power electric machines realized using 3D printing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igrec, Bojan; Bosiljevac, Marko; Sipus, Zvonimir; Babic, Dubravko; Rudan, Smiljko

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate a lightweight and inexpensive fiber-optic vibration sensor, built using 3D printing technology, for high-power electric machines and similar applications. The working principle is based on modulating the light intensity using a blade attached to a bendable membrane. The sensor prototype was manufactured using PolyJet Matrix technology with DM 8515 Grey 35 Polymer. The sensor shows linear response, expected bandwidth (< 150 Hz), and from our measurements we estimated the damping ratio for used polymer to be ζ ≍ 0.019. The developed prototype is simple to assemble, adjust, calibrate and repair.

  7. Highly parallel sparse Cholesky factorization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, John R.; Schreiber, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Several fine grained parallel algorithms were developed and compared to compute the Cholesky factorization of a sparse matrix. The experimental implementations are on the Connection Machine, a distributed memory SIMD machine whose programming model conceptually supplies one processor per data element. In contrast to special purpose algorithms in which the matrix structure conforms to the connection structure of the machine, the focus is on matrices with arbitrary sparsity structure. The most promising algorithm is one whose inner loop performs several dense factorizations simultaneously on a 2-D grid of processors. Virtually any massively parallel dense factorization algorithm can be used as the key subroutine. The sparse code attains execution rates comparable to those of the dense subroutine. Although at present architectural limitations prevent the dense factorization from realizing its potential efficiency, it is concluded that a regular data parallel architecture can be used efficiently to solve arbitrarily structured sparse problems. A performance model is also presented and it is used to analyze the algorithms.

  8. Wireless Rover Meets 3D Design and Product Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F., III; Hsiung, Steve C.

    2016-01-01

    Today there are a number of 3D printing technologies that are low cost and within the budgets of middle and high school programs. Educational technology companies offer a variety of 3D printing technologies and parallel curriculum materials to enable technology and engineering teachers to easily add 3D learning activities to their programs.…

  9. 3-D simulations of magnetic reconnection in high-energy-density laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Germaschewski, K.

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection has recently been observed and studied in high-energy-density, laser-produced plasmas, in a regime characterized by extremely high magnetic fields, high plasma beta and strong, supersonic plasma inflow. These experiments are interesting both for obtaining fundamental data on reconnection, and may also be relevant for inertial fusion, as this magnetic reconnection geometry, with multiple, colliding, magnetized plasma bubbles occurs naturally inside ICF hohlraums. Previous 2-d particle-in-cell reconnection simulations, with parameters and geometry relevant to the experiments, identified key ingredients for obtaining the very fast reconnection rates, namely two-fluid reconnection mediated by collisionless effects (the Hall current and electron pressure tensor), and strong flux pile-up of the inflowing magnetic field [1]. We present results from extending the previous simulations to 3-d, and discuss 3-d effects in the experiments, including instabilities in the reconnection layer, the topological skeleton of null-null lines, and field-generation from the Biermann battery effect. [4pt] [1] W. Fox, A. Bhattacharjee, and K. Germaschewski, PRL 106, 215003 (2011).

  10. Measuring the 3D shape of high temperature objects using blue sinusoidal structured light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xianling; Liu, Jiansheng; Zhang, Huayu; Wu, Yingchun

    2015-12-01

    The visible light radiated by some high temperature objects (less than 1200 °C) almost lies in the red and infrared waves. It will interfere with structured light projected on a forging surface if phase measurement profilometry (PMP) is used to measure the shapes of objects. In order to obtain a clear deformed pattern image, a 3D measurement method based on blue sinusoidal structured light is proposed in this present work. Moreover, a method for filtering deformed pattern images is presented for correction of the unwrapping phase. Blue sinusoidal phase-shifting fringe pattern images are projected on the surface by a digital light processing (DLP) projector, and then the deformed patterns are captured by a 3-CCD camera. The deformed pattern images are separated into R, G and B color components by the software. The B color images filtered by a low-pass filter are used to calculate the fringe order. Consequently, the 3D shape of a high temperature object is obtained by the unwrapping phase and the calibration parameter matrixes of the DLP projector and 3-CCD camera. The experimental results show that the unwrapping phase is completely corrected with the filtering method by removing the high frequency noise from the first harmonic of the B color images. The measurement system can complete the measurement in a few seconds with a relative error of less than 1 : 1000.

  11. Focus Variation - A New Technology for High Resolution Optical 3D Surface Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, S.

    2009-04-01

    Focus Variation - A New Technology for High Resolution Optical 3D Surface Metrology S. Scherer1, E. Cristea1, O. Huber1, A. Krenn1 1 ALICONA GmbH Graz, Austria The need for increasing accuracy is a characteristic of all geo-applications, and hence of the instruments contributing to obtaining relevant data. Small and fine sensors are being developed, measuring different parameters of our geosystem and requiring continuous validation and calibration. These sensors have often very small components (fine sensors able to sense dust, atmospheric water vapour characteristics, pressure change, gravimeters, satellite micro-components), showing complex topographies including steep flanks and having varying reflective properties. In order to get valid and reliable results, quality assurance of these instruments and sensors is required. The optical technology Focus-Variation, developed by Alicona and added in the latest draft of the upcoming ISO standard 25178, provides high resolution 3D surface metrology even at those complex topographies. The technique of Focus-Variation combines the small depth of focus of an optical system with vertical scanning to provide topographical and color information from the variation of focus. It is used for high-resolution optical 3D surface measurements. The traceable and repeatable measurement results are further being used for calibration and validation purposes. Some of the characteristics of the technology are: - Measurement of instruments / samples with steep flanks up to 80° - Measurement of materials with strongly varying reflection properties - Measurement of surfaces presenting fine (from 10nm) or strong roughness Here, we present the operating principle and possible applications of the optical 3D measurement system "InfiniteFocus", which is based on the technology of Focus-Variation and used for quality assurance in the lab and in production. With the vertical resolution of up to 10nm, InfiniteFocus yields meaningful form and

  12. DC characterization and 3D modelling of a triangular, epoxy-impregnated high temperature superconducting coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, D.; Ainslie, M. D.; Rush, J. P.; Durrell, J. H.; Zou, J.; Raine, M. J.; Hampshire, D. P.

    2015-06-01

    The direct current (dc) characterization of high temperature superconducting (HTS) coils is important for applications, such as electric machines, superconducting magnetic energy storage and transformers. In this paper, the dc characterization of a triangular-shaped, epoxy-impregnated HTS coil wound with YBCO coated conductor intended for use in an axial-flux HTS motor is presented. Voltage was measured at several points along the coil to provide detailed information of its dc characteristics. The coil is modelled based on the H -formulation using a new three-dimensional (3D) technique that utilizes the real superconducting layer thickness, and this model allows simulation of the actual geometrical layout of the HTS coil structure. Detailed information on the critical current density’s dependence on the magnitude and orientation of the magnetic flux density, Jc(B,θ), determined from experimental measurement of a short sample of the coated conductor comprising the coil is included directly in the numerical model by a two-variable direct interpolation to avoid developing complicated equations for data fitting and greatly improve the computational speed. Issues related to meshing the finite elements of the real thickness 3D model are also discussed in detail. Based on a comparison of the measurement and simulation results, it is found that non-uniformity along the length exists in the coil, which implies imperfect superconducting properties in the coated conductor, and hence, coil. By evaluating the current-voltage (I-V) curves using the experimental data, and after taking into account a more practical n value and critical current for the non-uniform region, the modelling results show good agreement with the experimental results, validating this model as an appropriate tool to estimate the dc I-V relationship of a superconducting coil. This work provides a further step towards effective and efficient 3D modelling of superconducting devices for large

  13. 3D-information fusion from very high resolution satellite sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, T.; d'Angelo, P.; Kuschk, G.; Tian, J.; Partovi, T.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we show the pre-processing and potential for environmental applications of very high resolution (VHR) satellite stereo imagery like these from WorldView-2 or Pl'eiades with ground sampling distances (GSD) of half a metre to a metre. To process such data first a dense digital surface model (DSM) has to be generated. Afterwards from this a digital terrain model (DTM) representing the ground and a so called normalized digital elevation model (nDEM) representing off-ground objects are derived. Combining these elevation based data with a spectral classification allows detection and extraction of objects from the satellite scenes. Beside the object extraction also the DSM and DTM can directly be used for simulation and monitoring of environmental issues. Examples are the simulation of floodings, building-volume and people estimation, simulation of noise from roads, wave-propagation for cellphones, wind and light for estimating renewable energy sources, 3D change detection, earthquake preparedness and crisis relief, urban development and sprawl of informal settlements and much more. Also outside of urban areas volume information brings literally a new dimension to earth oberservation tasks like the volume estimations of forests and illegal logging, volume of (illegal) open pit mining activities, estimation of flooding or tsunami risks, dike planning, etc. In this paper we present the preprocessing from the original level-1 satellite data to digital surface models (DSMs), corresponding VHR ortho images and derived digital terrain models (DTMs). From these components we present how a monitoring and decision fusion based 3D change detection can be realized by using different acquisitions. The results are analyzed and assessed to derive quality parameters for the presented method. Finally the usability of 3D information fusion from VHR satellite imagery is discussed and evaluated.

  14. 3D Cryo-Imaging: A Very High-Resolution View of the Whole Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Debashish; Steyer, Grant J.; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Stone, Meredith E.; Wilson, David L.

    2009-01-01

    We developed the Case Cryo-imaging system that provides information rich, very high-resolution, color brightfield, and molecular fluorescence images of a whole mouse using a section-and-image block-face imaging technology. The system consists of a mouse-sized, motorized cryo-microtome with special features for imaging, a modified, brightfield/ fluorescence microscope, and a robotic xyz imaging system positioner, all of which is fully automated by a control system. Using the robotic system, we acquired microscopic tiled images at a pixel size of 15.6 µm over the block face of a whole mouse sectioned at 40 µm, with a total data volume of 55 GB. Viewing 2D images at multiple resolutions, we identified small structures such as cardiac vessels, muscle layers, villi of the small intestine, the optic nerve, and layers of the eye. Cryo-imaging was also suitable for imaging embryo mutants in 3D. A mouse, in which enhanced green fluorescent protein was expressed under gamma actin promoter in smooth muscle cells, gave clear 3D views of smooth muscle in the urogenital and gastrointestinal tracts. With cryo-imaging, we could obtain 3D vasculature down to 10 µm, over very large regions of mouse brain. Software is fully automated with fully programmable imaging/sectioning protocols, email notifications, and automatic volume visualization. With a unique combination of field-of-view, depth of field, contrast, and resolution, the Case Cryo-imaging system fills the gap between whole animal in vivo imaging and histology. PMID:19248166

  15. 3D-printed surface mould applicator for high-dose-rate brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Mark; Lasso, Andras; Cumming, Ian; Rankin, Adam; Falkson, Conrad B.; Schreiner, L. John; Joshi, Chandra; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2015-03-01

    In contemporary high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment of superficial tumors, catheters are placed in a wax mould. The creation of current wax models is a difficult and time consuming proces.The irradiation plan can only be computed post-construction and requires a second CT scan. In case no satisfactory dose plan can be created, the mould is discarded and the process is repeated. The objective of this work was to develop an automated method to replace suboptimal wax moulding. We developed a method to design and manufacture moulds that guarantee to yield satisfactory dosimetry. A 3D-printed mould with channels for the catheters designed from the patient's CT and mounted on a patient-specific thermoplastic mesh mask. The mould planner was implemented as an open-source module in the 3D Slicer platform. Series of test moulds were created to accommodate standard brachytherapy catheters of 1.70mm diameter. A calibration object was used to conclude that tunnels with a diameter of 2.25mm, minimum 12mm radius of curvature, and 1.0mm open channel gave the best fit for this printer/catheter combination. Moulds were created from the CT scan of thermoplastic mesh masks of actual patients. The patient-specific moulds have been visually verified to fit on the thermoplastic meshes. The masks were visually shown to fit onto the thermoplastic meshes, next the resulting dosimetry will have to be compared with treatment plans and dosimetry achieved with conventional wax moulds in order to validate our 3D printed moulds.

  16. From Tls to Hbim. High Quality Semantically-Aware 3d Modeling of Complex Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrini, R.; Malinverni, E. S.; Clini, P.; Nespeca, R.; Orlietti, E.

    2015-02-01

    In order to improve the framework for 3D modeling, a great challenge is to obtain the suitability of Building Information Model (BIM) platform for historical architecture. A specific challenge in HBIM is to guarantee appropriateness of geometrical accuracy. The present work demonstrates the feasibility of a whole HBIM approach for complex architectural shapes, starting from TLS point clouds. A novelty of our method is to work in a 3D environment throughout the process and to develop semantics during the construction phase. This last feature of HBIM was analyzed in the present work verifying the studied ontologies, enabling the data enrichment of the model with non-geometrical information, such as historical notes, decay or deformation evidence, decorative elements etc. The case study is the Church of Santa Maria at Portonovo, an abbey from the Romanesque period. Irregular or complex historical architecture, such as Romanesque, needs the construction of shared libraries starting from the survey of its already existing elements. This is another key aspect in delivering Building Information Modeling standards. In particular, we focus on the quality assessment of the obtained model, using an open-source sw and the point cloud as reference. The proposed work shows how it is possible to develop a high quality 3D model semantic-aware, capable of connecting geometrical-historical survey with descriptive thematic databases. In this way, a centralized HBIM will serve as comprehensive dataset of information about all disciplines, particularly for restoration and conservation. Moreover, the geometric accuracy will ensure also reliable visualization outputs.

  17. 3D Reconstruction of the Vortex in a Human Right Ventricle Model using High Speed PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheradvar, Arash; Falahatpisheh, Ahmad

    2011-11-01

    This work aims to characterize the formation process and translation of the vortex, which forms along with the trans-tricuspid jet in a realistic model of a human right ventricle (RV). A clear model of the RV made of silicone rubber was carefully casted in real size from echocardiographic data of an adult human heart. The RV model was used in our heart pulsed-flow simulator at KLAB at UCI to perform experiments. Bioprosthetic heart valves in appropriate sizes were used at tricuspid and pulmonary positions. Multi-planar high-speed PIV was performed to capture and reconstruct the 3D flow field with a 1-millisecond time gap between each two velocity frames. λ2 iso-surfaces were used to illustrate the evolution of vortex cores. The highly asymmetric shape of the RV chamber results in a complex 3D trans-tricuspid vortex that forms and translates toward right ventricular outflow tract, and finally departs RV from pulmonary valve. Through this study, -for the first time- the formation, evolution and pathway of the RV vortex have been characterized in vitro.

  18. Dual-frequency pattern scheme for high-speed 3-D shape measurement.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Wang, Yongchang; Lau, Daniel L; Hao, Qi; Hassebrook, Laurence G

    2010-03-01

    A novel dual-frequency pattern is developed which combines a high-frequency sinusoid component with a unit-frequency sinusoid component, where the high-frequency component is used to generate robust phase information, and the unit-frequency component is used to reduce phase unwrapping ambiguities. With our proposed pattern scheme, phase unwrapping can overcome the major shortcomings of conventional spatial phase unwrapping: phase jumping and discontinuities. Compared with conventional temporal phase unwrapped approaches, the proposed pattern scheme can achieve higher quality phase data using a less number of patterns. To process data in real time, we also propose and develop look-up table based fast and accurate algorithms for phase generation and 3-D reconstruction. Those fast algorithms can be applied to our pattern scheme as well as traditional phase measuring profilometry. For a 640 x 480 video stream, we can generate phase data at 1063.8 frames per second and full 3-D coordinate point clouds at 8.3 frames per second. These achievements are 25 and 10 times faster than previously reported studies.

  19. Development of 3D photonic crystals using sol-gel process for high power laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, F.; Dieudonné, E.; Bertussi, B.; Vallé, K.; Belleville, P.; Mallejac, N.; Enoch, S.; Sanchez, C.

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional photonic crystals (PCs) are periodic materials with a modulated refractive index on a length scale close to the light wavelength. This optical property allows the preparation of specific optical components like highly reflective mirrors. Moreover, these structured materials are known to have a high laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) in the sub-nanosecond range compared to multi-layered dielectric mirrors. This property is obtained because only one high LIDT material (silica) is used. The second material used in the layer stack is replaced by air. In this work, we present the development of 3D PCs with narrow-sized colloidal silica particles, prepared by sol-gel process and deposited with Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Different syntheses routes have been investigated and compared regarding the optical properties of the PCs. Finally a numerical model based on an ideal opal network including defect influence is used to explain these experimental results.

  20. 3-D High-Lift Flow-Physics Experiment - Transition Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinley, Catherine B.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Watson, Ralph D.; Bertelrud, Arild

    2005-01-01

    An analysis of the flow state on a trapezoidal wing model from the NASA 3-D High Lift Flow Physics Experiment is presented. The objective of the experiment was to characterize the flow over a non-proprietary semi-span three-element high-lift configuration to aid in assessing the state of the art in the computation of three-dimensional high-lift flows. Surface pressures and hot-film sensors are used to determine the flow conditions on the slat, main, and flap. The locations of the attachments lines and the values of the attachment line Reynolds number are estimated based on the model surface pressures. Data from the hot-films are used to determine if the flow is laminar, transitional, or turbulent by examining the hot-film time histories, statistics, and frequency spectra.

  1. Mapping cardiac fiber orientations from high-resolution DTI to high-frequency 3D ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xulei; Wang, Silun; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wagner, Mary B.; Fei, Baowei

    2014-03-01

    The orientation of cardiac fibers affects the anatomical, mechanical, and electrophysiological properties of the heart. Although echocardiography is the most common imaging modality in clinical cardiac examination, it can only provide the cardiac geometry or motion information without cardiac fiber orientations. If the patient's cardiac fiber orientations can be mapped to his/her echocardiography images in clinical examinations, it may provide quantitative measures for diagnosis, personalized modeling, and image-guided cardiac therapies. Therefore, this project addresses the feasibility of mapping personalized cardiac fiber orientations to three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound image volumes. First, the geometry of the heart extracted from the MRI is translated to 3D ultrasound by rigid and deformable registration. Deformation fields between both geometries from MRI and ultrasound are obtained after registration. Three different deformable registration methods were utilized for the MRI-ultrasound registration. Finally, the cardiac fiber orientations imaged by DTI are mapped to ultrasound volumes based on the extracted deformation fields. Moreover, this study also demonstrated the ability to simulate electricity activations during the cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) process. The proposed method has been validated in two rat hearts and three canine hearts. After MRI/ultrasound image registration, the Dice similarity scores were more than 90% and the corresponding target errors were less than 0.25 mm. This proposed approach can provide cardiac fiber orientations to ultrasound images and can have a variety of potential applications in cardiac imaging.

  2. An overset mesh approach for 3D mixed element high-order discretizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazell, Michael J.; Sitaraman, Jayanarayanan; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.

    2016-10-01

    A parallel high-order Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is used to solve the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in an overset mesh framework. The DG solver has many capabilities including: hp-adaption, curved cells, support for hybrid, mixed-element meshes, and moving meshes. Combining these capabilities with overset grids allows the DG solver to be used in problems with bodies in relative motion and in a near-body off-body solver strategy. The overset implementation is constructed to preserve the design accuracy of the baseline DG discretization. Multiple simulations are carried out to validate the accuracy and performance of the overset DG solver. These simulations demonstrate the capability of the high-order DG solver to handle complex geometry and large scale parallel simulations in an overset framework.

  3. VA-086 methacrylate gelatine photopolymerizable hydrogels: A parametric study for highly biocompatible 3D cell embedding.

    PubMed

    Occhetta, Paola; Visone, Roberta; Russo, Laura; Cipolla, Laura; Moretti, Matteo; Rasponi, Marco

    2015-06-01

    The ability to replicate in vitro the native extracellular matrix (ECM) features and to control the three-dimensional (3D) cell organization plays a fundamental role in obtaining functional engineered bioconstructs. In tissue engineering (TE) applications, hydrogels have been successfully implied as biomatrices for 3D cell embedding, exhibiting high similarities to the natural ECM and holding easily tunable mechanical properties. In the present study, we characterized a promising photocrosslinking process to generate cell-laden methacrylate gelatin (GelMA) hydrogels in the presence of VA-086 photoinitiator using a ultraviolet LED source. We investigated the influence of prepolymer concentration and light irradiance on mechanical and biomimetic properties of resulting hydrogels. In details, the increasing of gelatin concentration resulted in enhanced rheological properties and shorter polymerization time. We then defined and validated a reliable photopolymerization protocol for cell embedding (1.5% VA-086, LED 2 mW/cm2) within GelMA hydrogels, which demonstrated to support bone marrow stromal cells viability when cultured up to 7 days. Moreover, we showed how different mechanical properties, derived from different crosslinking parameters, strongly influence cell behavior. In conclusion, this protocol can be considered a versatile tool to obtain biocompatible cell-laden hydrogels with properties easily adaptable for different TE applications.

  4. Computational Study of 3-D Hot-Spot Initiation in Shocked Insensitive High-Explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najjar, F. M.; Howard, W. M.; Fried, L. E.

    2011-06-01

    High explosive shock sensitivity is controlled by a combination of mechanical response, thermal properties, and chemical properties. The interplay of these physical phenomena in realistic condensed energetic materials is currently lacking. A multiscale computational framework is developed investigating hot spot (void) ignition in a single crystal of an insensitive HE, TATB. Atomistic MD simulations are performed to provide the key chemical reactions and these reaction rates are used in 3-D multiphysics simulations. The multiphysics code, ALE3D, is linked to the chemistry software, Cheetah, and a three-way coupled approach is pursued including hydrodynamics, thermal and chemical analyses. A single spherical air bubble is embedded in the insensitive HE and its collapse due to shock initiation is evolved numerically in time; while the ignition processes due chemical reactions are studied. Our current predictions showcase several interesting features regarding hot spot dynamics including the formation of a ``secondary'' jet. Results obtained with hydro-thermo-chemical processes leading to ignition growth will be discussed for various pore sizes and different shock pressures. LLNL-ABS-471438. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Early Earth plume-lid tectonics: A high-resolution 3D numerical modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, R.; Gerya, T.

    2016-10-01

    Geological-geochemical evidence point towards higher mantle potential temperature and a different type of tectonics (global plume-lid tectonics) in the early Earth (>3.2 Ga) compared to the present day (global plate tectonics). In order to investigate tectono-magmatic processes associated with plume-lid tectonics and crustal growth under hotter mantle temperature conditions, we conduct a series of 3D high-resolution magmatic-thermomechanical models with the finite-difference code I3ELVIS. No external plate tectonic forces are applied to isolate 3D effects of various plume-lithosphere and crust-mantle interactions. Results of the numerical experiments show two distinct phases in coupled crust-mantle evolution: (1) a longer (80-100 Myr) and relatively quiet 'growth phase' which is marked by growth of crust and lithosphere, followed by (2) a short (∼20 Myr) and catastrophic 'removal phase', where unstable parts of the crust and mantle lithosphere are removed by eclogitic dripping and later delamination. This modelling suggests that the early Earth plume-lid tectonic regime followed a pattern of episodic growth and removal also called episodic overturn with a periodicity of ∼100 Myr.

  6. High-resolution 3D seismic model of the crustal and uppermost mantle structure in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grad, Marek; Polkowski, Marcin; Ostaficzuk, Stanisław R.

    2016-01-01

    In the area of Poland a contact between the Precambrian and Phanerozoic Europe and the Carpathians has a complicated structure and a complex P-wave velocity of the sedimentary cover, crystalline crust, Moho depth and the uppermost mantle. The geometry of the uppermost several kilometers of sediments is relatively well recognized from over 100,000 boreholes. The vertical seismic profiling (VSP) from 1188 boreholes provided detailed velocity data for regional tectonic units and for stratigraphic successions from Permian to the Tertiary and Quaternary deposits. These data, however, do not provide information about the velocity and basement depth in the central part of the Trans-European suture zone (TESZ) and in the Carpathians. So, the data set is supplemented by 2D velocity models from 32 deep seismic sounding refraction profiles which also provide information about the crust and uppermost mantle. Together with the results of other methods: vertical seismic profiling, magnetotelluric, allow for the creation of a detailed, high-resolution 3D model for the entire Earth's crust and the uppermost mantle down to a depth of 60 km. The thinnest sedimentary cover in the Mazury-Belarus anteclise is only 0.3 to 1 km thick, which increases to 7 to 8 km along the East European Craton (EEC) margin, and 9 to 12 km in the TESZ. The Variscan domain is characterized by a 1-4 km thick sedimentary cover, while the Carpathians are characterized by very thick sedimentary layers, up to about 20 km. The crystalline crust is differentiated and has a layered structure. The crust beneath the West European Platform (WEP; Variscan domain) is characterized by P-wave velocities of 5.8-6.6 km/s. The upper and middle crusts beneath the EEC are characterized by velocities of 6.1-6.6 km/s, and are underlain by a high velocity lower crust with a velocity of about 7 km/s. A general decrease in velocity is observed from the older to the younger tectonic domains. The TESZ is associated with a steep dip

  7. Effect of high magnetic field on a quasi-3D silver dendrite growing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Fengzhi; Katsuki, Akio; Tanimoto, Yoshifumi

    2006-05-01

    The Ag+/Cu liquid-solid redox reaction was investigated in a vertical and inhomogeneous high magnetic field (up to 15 T). According to a comparison between the morphologies of quasi-3D silver dendrites generated under different magnetic flux densities, the imposition of a high magnetic field strongly affected the aggregation process of the silver dendrites. The present experiment used four kinds of liquid-solid boundaries, which are affected by the reaction direction and solution condition, as bases for the diffusion limited aggregation (DLA)-like dendritic growth of silver deposition. Results are interpreted in terms of convections of the aqueous solution and a tentative quantitative analysis of forces acting on particles arising from the magnetic field. A new force is predicted theoretically and is discussed in detail.

  8. A nanofiber based artificial electronic skin with high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Weibin; Liu, Qiongzhen; Wu, Yongzhi; Wang, Yuedan; Qing, Xing; Li, Mufang; Liu, Ke; Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Dong

    2016-06-01

    Pressure sensors with 3D conformability are highly desirable components for artificial electronic skin or e-textiles that can mimic natural skin, especially for application in real-time monitoring of human physiological signals. Here, a nanofiber based electronic skin with ultra-high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability is designed and built by interlocking two elastic patterned nanofibrous membranes. The patterned membrane is facilely prepared by casting conductive nanofiber ink into a silicon mould to form an array of semi-spheroid-like protuberances. The protuberances composed of intertwined elastic POE nanofibers and PPy@PVA-co-PE nanofibers afford a tunable effective elastic modulus that is capable of capturing varied strains and stresses, thereby contributing to a high sensitivity for pressure sensing. This electronic skin-like sensor demonstrates an ultra-high sensitivity (1.24 kPa-1) below 150 Pa with a detection limit as low as about 1.3 Pa. The pixelated sensor array and a RGB-LED light are then assembled into a circuit and show a feasibility for visual detection of spatial pressure. Furthermore, a nanofiber based proof-of-concept wireless pressure sensor with a bluetooth module as a signal transmitter is proposed and has demonstrated great promise for wireless monitoring of human physiological signals, indicating a potential for large scale wearable electronic devices or e-skin.Pressure sensors with 3D conformability are highly desirable components for artificial electronic skin or e-textiles that can mimic natural skin, especially for application in real-time monitoring of human physiological signals. Here, a nanofiber based electronic skin with ultra-high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability is designed and built by interlocking two elastic patterned nanofibrous membranes. The patterned membrane is facilely prepared by casting conductive nanofiber ink into a silicon mould to form an array of semi-spheroid-like protuberances. The

  9. BioMEA: a versatile high-density 3D microelectrode array system using integrated electronics.

    PubMed

    Charvet, Guillaume; Rousseau, Lionel; Billoint, Olivier; Gharbi, Sadok; Rostaing, Jean-Pierre; Joucla, Sébastien; Trevisiol, Michel; Bourgerette, Alain; Chauvet, Philippe; Moulin, Céline; Goy, François; Mercier, Bruno; Colin, Mikael; Spirkovitch, Serge; Fanet, Hervé; Meyrand, Pierre; Guillemaud, Régis; Yvert, Blaise

    2010-04-15

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) offer a powerful tool to both record activity and deliver electrical microstimulations to neural networks either in vitro or in vivo. Microelectronics microfabrication technologies now allow building high-density MEAs containing several hundreds of microelectrodes. However, dense arrays of 3D micro-needle electrodes, providing closer contact with the neural tissue than planar electrodes, are not achievable using conventional isotropic etching processes. Moreover, increasing the number of electrodes using conventional electronics is difficult to achieve into compact devices addressing all channels independently for simultaneous recording and stimulation. Here, we present a full modular and versatile 256-channel MEA system based on integrated electronics. First, transparent high-density arrays of 3D-shaped microelectrodes were realized by deep reactive ion etching techniques of a silicon substrate reported on glass. This approach allowed achieving high electrode aspect ratios, and different shapes of tip electrodes. Next, we developed a dedicated analog 64-channel Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) including one amplification stage and one current generator per channel, and analog output multiplexing. A full modular system, called BIOMEA, has been designed, allowing connecting different types of MEAs (64, 128, or 256 electrodes) to different numbers of ASICs for simultaneous recording and/or stimulation on all channels. Finally, this system has been validated experimentally by recording and electrically eliciting low-amplitude spontaneous rhythmic activity (both LFPs and spikes) in the developing mouse CNS. The availability of high-density MEA systems with integrated electronics will offer new possibilities for both in vitro and in vivo studies of large neural networks.

  10. PolyHIPE Derived Freestanding 3D Carbon Foam for Cobalt Hydroxide Nanorods Based High Performance Supercapacitor

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Umakant M.; Ghorpade, Ravindra V.; Nam, Min Sik; Nalawade, Archana C.; Lee, Sangrae; Han, Haksoo; Jun, Seong Chan

    2016-01-01

    The current paper describes enhanced electrochemical capacitive performance of chemically grown Cobalt hydroxide (Co(OH)2) nanorods (NRs) decorated porous three dimensional graphitic carbon foam (Co(OH)2/3D GCF) as a supercapacitor electrode. Freestanding 3D porous GCF is prepared by carbonizing, high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) polymerized styrene and divinylbenzene. The PolyHIPE was sulfonated and carbonized at temperature up to 850 °C to obtain graphitic 3D carbon foam with high surface area (389 m2 g−1) having open voids (14 μm) interconnected by windows (4 μm) in monolithic form. Moreover, entangled Co(OH)2 NRs are anchored on 3D GCF electrodes by using a facile chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The wide porous structure with high specific surface area (520 m2 g−1) access offered by the interconnected 3D GCF along with Co(OH)2 NRs morphology, displays ultrahigh specific capacitance, specific energy and power. The Co(OH)2/3D GCF electrode exhibits maximum specific capacitance about ~1235 F g−1 at ~1 A g−1 charge-discharge current density, in 1 M aqueous KOH solution. These results endorse potential applicability of Co(OH)2/3D GCF electrode in supercapacitors and signifies that, the porous GCF is a proficient 3D freestanding framework for loading pseudocapacitive nanostructured materials. PMID:27762284

  11. Sensory epithelia of the fish inner ear in 3D: studied with high-resolution contrast enhanced microCT

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction While a number of studies have illustrated and analyzed 3D models of inner ears in higher vertebrates, inner ears in fishes have rarely been investigated in 3D, especially with regard to the sensory epithelia of the end organs, the maculae. It has been suggested that the 3D curvature of these maculae may also play an important role in hearing abilities in fishes. We therefore set out to develop a fast and reliable approach for detailed 3D visualization of whole inner ears as well as maculae. Results High-resolution microCT imaging of black mollies Poecilia sp. (Poeciliidae, Teleostei) and Steatocranus tinanti (Cichlidae, Teleostei) stained with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) resulted in good tissue contrast, enabling us to perform a reliable 3D reconstruction of all three sensory maculae of the inner ears. Comparison with maculae that have been 3D reconstructed based on histological serial sections and phalloidin-stained maculae showed high congruence in overall shape of the maculae studied here. Conclusions PTA staining and subsequent high-resolution contrast enhanced microCT imaging is a powerful method to obtain 3D models of fish inner ears and maculae in a fast and more reliable manner. Future studies investigating functional morphology, phylogenetic potential of inner ear features, or evolution of hearing and inner ear specialization in fishes may benefit from the use of 3D models of inner ears and maculae. PMID:24160754

  12. An imaging-based platform for high-content, quantitative evaluation of therapeutic response in 3D tumour models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, Jonathan P.; Rizvi, Imran; Blanden, Adam R.; Massodi, Iqbal; Glidden, Michael D.; Pogue, Brian W.; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2014-01-01

    While it is increasingly recognized that three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models recapitulate drug responses of human cancers with more fidelity than monolayer cultures, a lack of quantitative analysis methods limit their implementation for reliable and routine assessment of emerging therapies. Here, we introduce an approach based on computational analysis of fluorescence image data to provide high-content readouts of dose-dependent cytotoxicity, growth inhibition, treatment-induced architectural changes and size-dependent response in 3D tumour models. We demonstrate this approach in adherent 3D ovarian and pancreatic multiwell extracellular matrix tumour overlays subjected to a panel of clinically relevant cytotoxic modalities and appropriately designed controls for reliable quantification of fluorescence signal. This streamlined methodology reads out the high density of information embedded in 3D culture systems, while maintaining a level of speed and efficiency traditionally achieved with global colorimetric reporters in order to facilitate broader implementation of 3D tumour models in therapeutic screening.

  13. Highly Parallel, High-Precision Numerical Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2005-04-22

    This paper describes a scheme for rapidly computing numerical values of definite integrals to very high accuracy, ranging from ordinary machine precision to hundreds or thousands of digits, even for functions with singularities or infinite derivatives at endpoints. Such a scheme is of interest not only in computational physics and computational chemistry, but also in experimental mathematics, where high-precision numerical values of definite integrals can be used to numerically discover new identities. This paper discusses techniques for a parallel implementation of this scheme, then presents performance results for 1-D and 2-D test suites. Results are also given for a certain problem from mathematical physics, which features a difficult singularity, confirming a conjecture to 20,000 digit accuracy. The performance rate for this latter calculation on 1024 CPUs is 690 Gflop/s. We believe that this and one other 20,000-digit integral evaluation that we report are the highest-precision non-trivial numerical integrations performed to date.

  14. A 3D CZT high resolution detector for x- and gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvvetli, I.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.; Zappettini, A.; Zambelli, N.; Benassi, G.; Kalemci, E.; Caroli, E.; Stephen, J. B.; Auricchio, N.

    2014-07-01

    At DTU Space we have developed a high resolution three dimensional (3D) position sensitive CZT detector for high energy astronomy. The design of the 3D CZT detector is based on the CZT Drift Strip detector principle. The position determination perpendicular to the anode strips is performed using a novel interpolating technique based on the drift strip signals. The position determination in the detector depth direction, is made using the DOI technique based the detector cathode and anode signals. The position determination along the anode strips is made with the help of 10 cathode strips orthogonal to the anode strips. The position resolutions are at low energies dominated by the electronic noise and improve therefore with increased signal to noise ratio as the energy increases. The achievable position resolution at higher energies will however be dominated by the extended spatial distribution of the photon produced ionization charge. The main sources of noise contribution of the drift signals are the leakage current between the strips and the strip capacitance. For the leakage current, we used a metallization process that reduces the leakage current by means of a high resistive thin layer between the drift strip electrodes and CZT detector material. This method was applied to all the proto type detectors and was a very effective method to reduce the surface leakage current between the strips. The proto type detector was recently investigated at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble which provided a fine 50 × 50 μm2 collimated X-ray beam covering an energy band up to 600 keV. The Beam positions are resolved very well with a ~ 0.2 mm position resolution (FWHM ) at 400 keV in all directions.

  15. Nitrogen-doped 3D macroporous graphene frameworks as anode for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaowu; Wu, Ying; Yang, Zhenzhong; Pan, Fusen; Zhong, Xiongwu; Wang, Jiaqing; Gu, Lin; Yu, Yan

    2015-10-01

    Nitrogen-doped 3D graphene frameworks (N-3D GFs) were synthesized by a facile two-step method: Polystyrene (PS) encapsulated in graphene oxide (GO) composites (denoted as PS@GO) are first synthesized, followed by a post-thermal annealing in ammonia step to get N-doped 3D GFs. The resulting N-3D GFs inherit the advantages of graphene, which possesses high electrical conductivity and high specific surface area. Furthermore, the well-defined 3D interconnected structure can facilitate the access of the electrolyte to the electrode surface, thus shortening the diffusion length of both Li+/e-, keeping the overall electrode highly conductive and active in lithium storage. Simultaneously, the in-situ formation of pyridinic N and pyrrolic N in 3D GFs provide high electronic conductivity and structure stability for lithium storage. The designed N-3D GFs electrode delivers a high specific capacity of 1094 mAhg-1 after 100 cycles at 200 mAg-1 and superior rate capability (691 mAhg-1 after 500 cycles at 1000 mAg-1) when used as anode for LIBs. We believe that such an inherently inexpensive, scalable, facile method can significantly increase the feasibility of building high performance energy storage system.

  16. Parallel Algebraic Multigrid Methods - High Performance Preconditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, U M

    2004-11-11

    The development of high performance, massively parallel computers and the increasing demands of computationally challenging applications have necessitated the development of scalable solvers and preconditioners. One of the most effective ways to achieve scalability is the use of multigrid or multilevel techniques. Algebraic multigrid (AMG) is a very efficient algorithm for solving large problems on unstructured grids. While much of it can be parallelized in a straightforward way, some components of the classical algorithm, particularly the coarsening process and some of the most efficient smoothers, are highly sequential, and require new parallel approaches. This chapter presents the basic principles of AMG and gives an overview of various parallel implementations of AMG, including descriptions of parallel coarsening schemes and smoothers, some numerical results as well as references to existing software packages.

  17. Numerical Simulation of 3D Hydraulic Fracturing Based on an Improved Flow-Stress-Damage Model and a Parallel FEM Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. C.; Tang, C. A.; Li, G.; Wang, S. Y.; Liang, Z. Z.; Zhang, Y. B.

    2012-09-01

    The failure mechanism of hydraulic fractures in heterogeneous geological materials is an important topic in mining and petroleum engineering. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model that considers the coupled effects of seepage, damage, and the stress field is introduced. This model is based on a previously developed two-dimensional (2D) version of the model (RFPA2D-Rock Failure Process Analysis). The RFPA3D-Parallel model is developed using a parallel finite element method with a message-passing interface library. The constitutive law of this model considers strength and stiffness degradation, stress-dependent permeability for the pre-peak stage, and deformation-dependent permeability for the post-peak stage. Using this model, 3D modelling of progressive failure and associated fluid flow in rock are conducted and used to investigate the hydro-mechanical response of rock samples at laboratory scale. The responses investigated are the axial stress-axial strain together with permeability evolution and fracture patterns at various stages of loading. Then, the hydraulic fracturing process inside a rock specimen is numerically simulated. Three coupled processes are considered: (1) mechanical deformation of the solid medium induced by the fluid pressure acting on the fracture surfaces and the rock skeleton, (2) fluid flow within the fracture, and (3) propagation of the fracture. The numerically simulated results show that the fractures from a vertical wellbore propagate in the maximum principal stress direction without branching, turning, and twisting in the case of a large difference in the magnitude of the far-field stresses. Otherwise, the fracture initiates in a non-preferred direction and plane then turns and twists during propagation to become aligned with the preferred direction and plane. This pattern of fracturing is common when the rock formation contains multiple layers with different material properties. In addition, local heterogeneity of the rock

  18. Reversible Assembly of Graphitic Carbon Nitride 3D Network for Highly Selective Dyes Absorption and Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuye; Zhou, Zhixin; Shen, Yanfei; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Jianhai; Liu, Anran; Liu, Songqin; Zhang, Yuanjian

    2016-09-27

    Responsive assembly of 2D materials is of great interest for a range of applications. In this work, interfacial functionalized carbon nitride (CN) nanofibers were synthesized by hydrolyzing bulk CN in sodium hydroxide solution. The reversible assemble and disassemble behavior of the as-prepared CN nanofibers was investigated by using CO2 as a trigger to form a hydrogel network at first. Compared to the most widespread absorbent materials such as active carbon, graphene and previously reported supramolecular gel, the proposed CN hydrogel not only exhibited a competitive absorbing capacity (maximum absorbing capacity of methylene blue up to 402 mg/g) but also overcame the typical deficiencies such as poor selectivity and high energy-consuming regeneration. This work would provide a strategy to construct a 3D CN network and open an avenue for developing smart assembly for potential applications ranging from environment to selective extraction. PMID:27608277

  19. Bioimaging TOF-SIMS: High resolution 3D imaging of single cells.

    PubMed

    Nygren, Håkan; Hagenhoff, Birgit; Malmberg, Per; Nilsson, Mikael; Richter, Katrin

    2007-11-01

    The distribution of phosphocholine ions (m/z 184, m/z 86), sodium ions, and potassium ions in thyroid tumor cells was analyzed by imaging TOF-SIMS. Repeated sputtering with a C(60) (+) source and subsequent analysis with a Bi(3) (+) gun produced a series of 138 images that were stacked to make a 3D display of the chemistry of cells. Phosphocholine was seen in the plasma membrane (m/z 184) and intracellular membranes (m/z 86). The different fragmentation of the phospholipid probably reflects the chemical composition of membranes at these sites. High intensity of secondary ion signals of potassium was seen in membrane-encompassed cellular compartments. The data indicate that potassium ions are compartmentalized in thyroid tumor cells.

  20. QUASI-OPTICAL 3-dB HYBRID FOR FUTURE HIGH-ENERGY ACCELERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2005-12-15

    Phase-controlled wave combiners-commutators and isolators for protecting rf sources against reflection from the accelerating structure can be built using a 3-dB hybrid built around a metallic grating used in a ''magic-Y'' configuration. Models of the magic-Y were designed and tested, both at 34.272 GHz using the Omega-P Ka-band magnicon, and at 11.424 GHz using the Omega-P/NRL X-band magnicon. All elements of the magic-Y were optimized analytically and numerically. A non-vacuum 34 GHz model of the magic Y was built and tested experimentally at a low power. An engineering design for the high power (vacuum) compressor was configured. Similar steps were taken for the 11-GHz version.

  1. Structural optimization of 3D-printed synthetic spider webs for high strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhao; Compton, Brett G.; Lewis, Jennifer A.; Buehler, Markus J.

    2015-05-01

    Spiders spin intricate webs that serve as sophisticated prey-trapping architectures that simultaneously exhibit high strength, elasticity and graceful failure. To determine how web mechanics are controlled by their topological design and material distribution, here we create spider-web mimics composed of elastomeric filaments. Specifically, computational modelling and microscale 3D printing are combined to investigate the mechanical response of elastomeric webs under multiple loading conditions. We find the existence of an asymptotic prey size that leads to a saturated web strength. We identify pathways to design elastomeric material structures with maximum strength, low density and adaptability. We show that the loading type dictates the optimal material distribution, that is, a homogeneous distribution is better for localized loading, while stronger radial threads with weaker spiral threads is better for distributed loading. Our observations reveal that the material distribution within spider webs is dictated by the loading condition, shedding light on their observed architectural variations.

  2. 3-D simulations of limiter stabilization of high-beta external kink-tearing modes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.K.; Ohyabu, N.

    1984-03-01

    The effects of finite-size poloidal limiters, toroidal limiters, and general mushroom limiters are examined for high-beta finite-resistivity tokamak plamas in free boundary. Even for a linear stability analysis, a 3-D simulation is necessary, in which many poloidal and toroidal modes are coupled because of the limiter constraint and finite-beta. When the plasma pressure and resistivity are small, a poloidal limiter is effective in reducing the growth rate with a small limiter-size, while a toroidal limiter requires a large size for a comparable effect. As the plasma pressure or resistivity increases, a toroidal limiter becomes more effective in reducing the growth rate than a poloidal limiter of the same size. A small optimized mushroom limiter might have a stabilizing effect similar to a conducting shell.

  3. Fast 3D visualization of endogenous brain signals with high-sensitivity laser scanning photothermal microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Jun; Iida, Tadatsune; Tanaka, Shinji; Hayashi-Takagi, Akiko; Kasai, Haruo; Okabe, Shigeo; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2016-01-01

    A fast, high-sensitivity photothermal microscope was developed by implementing a spatially segmented balanced detection scheme into a laser scanning microscope. We confirmed a 4.9 times improvement in signal-to-noise ratio in the spatially segmented balanced detection compared with that of conventional detection. The system demonstrated simultaneous bi-modal photothermal and confocal fluorescence imaging of transgenic mouse brain tissue with a pixel dwell time of 20 μs. The fluorescence image visualized neurons expressing yellow fluorescence proteins, while the photothermal signal detected endogenous chromophores in the mouse brain, allowing 3D visualization of the distribution of various features such as blood cells and fine structures probably due to lipids. This imaging modality was constructed using compact and cost-effective laser diodes, and will thus be widely useful in the life and medical sciences. PMID:27231615

  4. Structural optimization of 3D-printed synthetic spider webs for high strength.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhao; Compton, Brett G; Lewis, Jennifer A; Buehler, Markus J

    2015-01-01

    Spiders spin intricate webs that serve as sophisticated prey-trapping architectures that simultaneously exhibit high strength, elasticity and graceful failure. To determine how web mechanics are controlled by their topological design and material distribution, here we create spider-web mimics composed of elastomeric filaments. Specifically, computational modelling and microscale 3D printing are combined to investigate the mechanical response of elastomeric webs under multiple loading conditions. We find the existence of an asymptotic prey size that leads to a saturated web strength. We identify pathways to design elastomeric material structures with maximum strength, low density and adaptability. We show that the loading type dictates the optimal material distribution, that is, a homogeneous distribution is better for localized loading, while stronger radial threads with weaker spiral threads is better for distributed loading. Our observations reveal that the material distribution within spider webs is dictated by the loading condition, shedding light on their observed architectural variations. PMID:25975372

  5. High-resolution 3D analysis of mouse small-intestinal stroma.

    PubMed

    Bernier-Latmani, Jeremiah; Petrova, Tatiana V

    2016-09-01

    Here we detail a protocol for whole-mount immunostaining of mouse small-intestinal villi that can be used to generate high-resolution 3D images of all gut cell types, including blood and lymphatic vessel cells, neurons, smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts and immune cells. The procedure describes perfusion, fixation, dissection, immunostaining, mounting, clearing, confocal imaging and quantification, using intestinal vasculature as an example. As intestinal epithelial cells prevent visualization with some antibodies, we also provide an optional protocol to remove these cells before fixation. In contrast to alternative current techniques, our protocol enables the entire villus to be visualized with increased spatial resolution of cell location, morphology and cell-cell interactions, thus allowing for easy quantification of phenotypes. The technique, which takes 7 d from mouse dissection to microscopic examination, will be useful for researchers who are interested in most aspects of intestinal biology, including mucosal immunology, infection, nutrition, cancer biology and intestinal microbiota. PMID:27560169

  6. Structural optimization of 3D-printed synthetic spider webs for high strength

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Zhao; Compton, Brett G.; Lewis, Jennifer A.; Buehler, Markus J.

    2015-01-01

    Spiders spin intricate webs that serve as sophisticated prey-trapping architectures that simultaneously exhibit high strength, elasticity and graceful failure. To determine how web mechanics are controlled by their topological design and material distribution, here we create spider-web mimics composed of elastomeric filaments. Specifically, computational modelling and microscale 3D printing are combined to investigate the mechanical response of elastomeric webs under multiple loading conditions. We find the existence of an asymptotic prey size that leads to a saturated web strength. We identify pathways to design elastomeric material structures with maximum strength, low density and adaptability. We show that the loading type dictates the optimal material distribution, that is, a homogeneous distribution is better for localized loading, while stronger radial threads with weaker spiral threads is better for distributed loading. Our observations reveal that the material distribution within spider webs is dictated by the loading condition, shedding light on their observed architectural variations. PMID:25975372

  7. 3D imaging provides a high-resolution, volumetric approach for analyzing biofouling.

    PubMed

    First, Matthew R; Policastro, Steven A; Strom, Matthew J; Riley, Scott C; Robbins-Wamsley, Stephanie H; Drake, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    A volumetric approach for determining the fouling burden on surfaces is presented, consisting of a 3D camera imaging system with fine (5 μm) resolution. Panels immersed in an estuary on the southwest coast of Florida, USA were imaged and the data were used to quantify seasonal changes in the biofouling community. Test panels, which were submerged in seawater for up to one year, were analyzed before and after gentle scrubbing to quantify the biovolume of the total fouling community (ie soft and hard organisms) and the hard fouling community. Total biofouling ranged from 0.01 to 1.16 cm(3) cm(-2) throughout the immersion period; soft fouling constituted 22-87% of the total biovolume. In the future, this approach may be used to inform numerical models of fluid-surface interfaces and to evaluate, with high resolution, the morphology of fouling organisms in response to antifouling technologies.

  8. Interpreting Irradiance Distributions Using High-Resolution 3D MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peck, Courtney; Rast, Mark; Criscuoli, Serena; Uitenbroek, Han; Rempel, Matthias D.

    2016-05-01

    We present initial results of studies aimed at understanding the impact of the unresolved magnetic field distribution on solar spectral irradiance. Using high-resolution 3D MHD simulations (from MURaM code) and spectral synthesis (with the RH code), we examine the emergent spectra of two atmospheres with similar mean field strengths but differing imposed-field conditions at wavelengths spanning from visible to infrared. Comparing the contrast against the magnetic field strength for the two magnetic simulations, we find differences in the distributions of contrasts versus field strength. We repeat the analysis after convolving the images with the PSF of a typical solar telescope (1-meter) and discuss the potential implications for irradiance modeling and future steps.

  9. Reversible Assembly of Graphitic Carbon Nitride 3D Network for Highly Selective Dyes Absorption and Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuye; Zhou, Zhixin; Shen, Yanfei; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Jianhai; Liu, Anran; Liu, Songqin; Zhang, Yuanjian

    2016-09-27

    Responsive assembly of 2D materials is of great interest for a range of applications. In this work, interfacial functionalized carbon nitride (CN) nanofibers were synthesized by hydrolyzing bulk CN in sodium hydroxide solution. The reversible assemble and disassemble behavior of the as-prepared CN nanofibers was investigated by using CO2 as a trigger to form a hydrogel network at first. Compared to the most widespread absorbent materials such as active carbon, graphene and previously reported supramolecular gel, the proposed CN hydrogel not only exhibited a competitive absorbing capacity (maximum absorbing capacity of methylene blue up to 402 mg/g) but also overcame the typical deficiencies such as poor selectivity and high energy-consuming regeneration. This work would provide a strategy to construct a 3D CN network and open an avenue for developing smart assembly for potential applications ranging from environment to selective extraction.

  10. Roughness of stylolites: implications of 3D high resolution topography measurements.

    PubMed

    Schmittbuhl, J; Renard, F; Gratier, J P; Toussaint, R

    2004-12-01

    Stylolites are natural pressure-dissolution surfaces in sedimentary rocks. We present 3D high resolution measurements at laboratory scales of their complex roughness. The topography is shown to be described by a self-affine scaling invariance. At large scales, the Hurst exponent is zeta(1) approximately 0.5 and very different from that at small scales where zeta(2) approximately 1.2. A crossover length scale at around L(c)=1 mm is well characterized. Measurements are consistent with a Langevin equation that describes the growth of a stylolitic interface as a competition between stabilizing long range elastic interactions at large scales or local surface tension effects at small scales and a destabilizing quenched material disorder.

  11. Portable high-intensity focused ultrasound system with 3D electronic steering, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms: a preclinical study in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and accuracy of a new portable ultrasonography-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USg-HIFU) system with a 3-dimensional (3D) electronic steering transducer, a simultaneous ablation and imaging module, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms. Methods: To address the accuracy of the transducer, hydrophones in a water chamber were used to assess the generation of sonic fields. An animal study was also performed in five pigs by ablating in vivo thighs by single-point sonication (n=10) or volume sonication (n=10) and ex vivo kidneys by single-point sonication (n=10). Histological and statistical analyses were performed. Results: In the hydrophone study, peak voltages were detected within 1.0 mm from the targets on the y- and z-axes and within 2.0-mm intervals along the x-axis (z-axis, direction of ultrasound propagation; y- and x-axes, perpendicular to the direction of ultrasound propagation). Twenty-nine of 30 HIFU sessions successfully created ablations at the target. The in vivo porcine thigh study showed only a small discrepancy (width, 0.5-1.1 mm; length, 3.0 mm) between the planning ultrasonograms and the pathological specimens. Inordinate thermal damage was not observed in the adjacent tissues or sonic pathways in the in vivo thigh and ex vivo kidney studies. Conclusion: Our study suggests that this new USg-HIFU system may be a safe and accurate technique for ablating soft tissues and encapsulated organs. PMID:25038809

  12. 3D Reconstruction of Human Laryngeal Dynamics Based on Endoscopic High-Speed Recordings.

    PubMed

    Semmler, Marion; Kniesburges, Stefan; Birk, Veronika; Ziethe, Anke; Patel, Rita; Dollinger, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Standard laryngoscopic imaging techniques provide only limited two-dimensional insights into the vocal fold vibrations not taking the vertical component into account. However, previous experiments have shown a significant vertical component in the vibration of the vocal folds. We present a 3D reconstruction of the entire superior vocal fold surface from 2D high-speed videoendoscopy via stereo triangulation. In a typical camera-laser set-up the structured laser light pattern is projected on the vocal folds and captured at 4000 fps. The measuring device is suitable for in vivo application since the external dimensions of the miniaturized set-up barely exceed the size of a standard rigid laryngoscope. We provide a conservative estimate on the resulting resolution based on the hardware components and point out the possibilities and limitations of the miniaturized camera-laser set-up. In addition to the 3D vocal fold surface, we extended previous approaches with a G2-continuous model of the vocal fold edge. The clinical applicability was successfully established by the reconstruction of visual data acquired from 2D in vivo high-speed recordings of a female and a male subject. We present extracted dynamic parameters like maximum amplitude and velocity in the vertical direction. The additional vertical component reveals deeper insights into the vibratory dynamics of the vocal folds by means of a non-invasive method. The successful miniaturization allows for in vivo application giving access to the most realistic model available and hence enables a comprehensive understanding of the human phonation process. PMID:26829782

  13. Anechoic Sphere Phantoms for Estimating 3-D Resolution of Very High Frequency Ultrasound Scanners

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Ernest L.; Frank, Gary R.; McCormick, Matthew M.; Deaner, Meagan E.; Stiles, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    Two phantoms have been constructed for assessing the performance of high frequency ultrasound imagers. They also allow for periodic quality assurance tests. The phantoms contain eight blocks of tissue-mimicking material where each block contains a spatially random distribution of suitably small anechoic spheres having a small distribution of diameters. The eight mean sphere diameters are distributed from 0.10 to 1.09 mm. The two phantoms differ primarily in terms of the backscatter coefficient of the background material in which the spheres are suspended. The mean scatterer diameter for one phantom is larger than that for the other phantom resulting in a lesser increase in backscatter coefficient for the second phantom; however, the backscatter curves cross at about 35 MHz. Since spheres have no preferred orientation, all three (spatial) dimensions of resolution contribute to sphere detection on an equal basis; thus, the resolution is termed 3-D. Two high frequency scanners are compared. One employs single-element (fixed focus) transducers, and the other employs variable focus linear arrays. The nominal frequency for the single element transducers were 25 and 55 MHz and for the linear array transducers were 20, 30 and 40 MHz. The depth range for detection of spheres of each size is determined corresponding to determination of 3-D resolution as a function of depth. As expected, the single-element transducers are severely limited in useful imaging depth ranges compared with the linear arrays. Note that these phantoms could also be useful for training technicians in using higher frequency scanners. PMID:20889416

  14. A High-resolution 3D Geodynamical Model of the Present-day India-Asia Collision System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaus, B.; Baumann, T.

    2015-12-01

    We present a high-resolution, 3D geodynamic model of the present-day India-Asia collision system. The model is separated into multiple tectonic blocks, for which we estimate the first order rheological properties and the impact on the dynamics of the collision system. This is done by performing systematic simulations with different rheologies to minimize the misfit to observational constraints such as the GPS-velocity field. The simulations are performed with the parallel staggered grid FD code LaMEM using a numerical resolution of at least 512x512x256 cells to resolve dynamically important shear zones reasonably well. A fundamental part of this study is the reconstruction of the 3D present-day geometry of Tibet and the adjacent regions. Our interpretations of crust and mantle lithosphere geometry are jointly based on a globally available shear wave tomography (Schaeffer and Lebedev, 2013) and the Crust 1.0 model (Laske et al. http://igppweb.ucsd.edu/~gabi/crust1.html). We regionally refined and modified our interpretations based on seismicity distributions and focal mechanisms and incorporated regional receiver function studies to improve the accuracy of the Moho in particular. Results suggest that we can identify at least one "best-fit" solution in terms of rheological model properties that reproduces the observed velocity field reasonably well, including the strong rotation of the GPS velocity around the eastern syntax of the Himalaya. We also present model co-variances to illustrate the trade-offs between the rheological model parameters, their respective uncertainties, and the model fit. Schaeffer, A.J., Lebedev, S., 2013. Global shear speed structure of the upper mantle and transition zone. Geophysical Journal International 194, 417-449. doi:10.1093/gji/ggt095

  15. The Quantitative Measurement Of Temperature Distribution In 3-D Thermal Field With High-Speed Real-Time Holographic Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji-zong, Wu; Wei-qiao, Fu; Qin, Wu

    1989-06-01

    The theory of using high-speed real-time holographic interferometry to measure quantitatively 3-D thermal field is discussed in thispaper. An experimental arrangement, and the holographic interference fringes of thermal field formed by the electrAc heating coil wires which were taken by the high-speed camera are given. With CONCEPT 32/2725 computer system and corresponding programms the distribution of 3-D thermal field is calculated and plotted Finally, the problems required to be improved and solved for the method of measuring quantitatively 3-D thermal field are discussed.

  16. A system for high resolution 3D mapping using laser radar and requiring no beam scanning mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rademacher, Paul

    1988-06-01

    The inherently high angular and range resolution capabilities associated with radar systems operating at optical frequencies are at once a blessing and a curse. Standard implementations consist of very narrow field of view optical receivers operating in conjunction with laser transmitters or even narrower illumination beamwidth. While high angular resolution is thus achieved, mechanical scanning is required to gather data over extended fields of view. The many laser pulse transmissions necessary to cover the entire field of view increase the detectability of the system by enemy sensors. A system concept is proposed which, through the use of a single laser transmitter and multiple optical receivers, largely eliminate these deficiencies. Complete 3D data over a broad angular field of view and depth of field can be gathered based upon the reflections from a single transmitted laser pulse. Covert operation is enhanced as a result of the sparse laser transmissions required. The eye safety characteristics of the system are also enhanced. Proprietary coding of optical shutters in each of the multiple optical receivers permits the number of such receivers to be reduced to a very practical few. An alternative configuration of the system reduces the number of receivers required to one, at the expense of increased data acquisition time. The multiple receiver configuration is simply a parallel processing implementation of the single receiver approach. While data rate is reduced by the single receiver configuration, it still greatly exceeds that of scanning systems, and hardware complexity is also reduced significantly.

  17. High-resolution 3D seismic investigation of giant seafloor craters in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waage, Malin; Bünz, Stefan; Andreassen, Karin

    2016-04-01

    Multiple giant craters exist on the seafloor in an area of ~ 100 km2 east of Bear Island Trough in the west-central Barents Sea. It has been hypothesized that these craters might have been caused by gas eruptions following the last deglaciation. Gas seepage from the seafloor occurs abundantly in this area. The crater area is still likely to represent one of the largest hot-spots for shallow marine methane release in the arctic. In summer 2015, we acquired high-resolution P-Cable 3D seismic data in this area covering several of the craters and their associated pingo structures. Due to the shallow and hard Triassic bedrock, penetration of the seismic signals is limited to approximately 450 ms bsf. The crater structures are up to 1 km wide and 40 m deep. Pingo structures occur on the rim of some of the craters and are up to 700 m wide and up to 15 m high above the surrounding seafloor. The 3D seismic data reveals faults, fracture networks and weakness zone that resemble pipes or similar vertical, focused fluid-flow structures in the Triassic sedimentary rocks below the craters. The principal orientation of the faults is in a ~ NW-SE direction that coincides with regional faulting from Permo-Triassic extension. The seismic data also show high-amplitude anomalies beneath some of representing shallow gas accumulations that might be the intermediate source of the gas seepage. This might suggest that craters are caused by high pressured gas that migrated from deeper petroleum systems and accumulated in the shallow Triassic rocks during the last glaciation. Previous work indicate that craters of similar size are likely a cause of enormous blow-outs of gas. Our study discusses the formation mechanisms and timing of these potential blow-out craters and whether they formed during the last deglaciation, when this area was likely quite unstable as severe glacial erosion caused localized high isostatic rebound rates here. We also investigate the role of gas hydrates that might

  18. Closed-loop high-speed 3D thermal probe nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoll, A. W.; Zientek, M.; Cheong, L. L.; Rawlings, C.; Paul, P.; Holzner, F.; Hedrick, J. L.; Coady, D. J.; Allen, R.; Dürig, U.

    2014-03-01

    Thermal Scanning Probe Lithography (tSPL) is an AFM based patterning technique, which uses heated tips to locally evaporate organic resists such as molecular glasses [1] or thermally sensitive polymers.[2][3] Organic resists offer the versatility of the lithography process known from the CMOS environment and simultaneously ensure a highly stable and low wear tip-sample contact due to the soft nature of the resists. Patterning quality is excellent up to a resolution of sub 15 nm,[1] at linear speeds of up to 20 mm/s and pixel rates of up to 500 kHz.[4] The patterning depth is proportional to the applied force which allows for the creation of 3-D profiles in a single patterning run.[2] In addition, non-destructive imaging can be done at pixel rates of more than 500 kHz.[4] If the thermal stimulus for writing the pattern is switched off the same tip can be used to record the written topography with Angstrom depth resolution. We utilize this unique feature of SPL to implement an efficient control system for reliable patterning at high speed and high resolution. We combine the writing and imaging process in a single raster scan of the surface. In this closed loop lithography (CLL) approach, we use the acquired data to optimize the writing parameters on the fly. Excellent control is in particular important for an accurate reproduction of complex 3D patterns. These novel patterning capabilities are equally important for a high quality transfer of two-dimensional patterns into the underlying substrate. We utilize an only 3-4 nm thick SiOx hardmask to amplify the 8±0.5 nm deep patterns created by tSPL into a 50 nm thick transfer polymer. The structures in the transfer polymer can be used to create metallic lines by a lift-off process or to further process the pattern into the substrate. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of 27 nm wide lines and trenches 60 nm deep into the Silicon substrate.[5] In addition, the combined read and write approach ensures that the lateral

  19. 3D high throughput screening and profiling of embryoid bodies in thermoformed microwell plates.

    PubMed

    Vrij, E J; Espinoza, S; Heilig, M; Kolew, A; Schneider, M; van Blitterswijk, C A; Truckenmüller, R K; Rivron, N C

    2016-02-21

    3D organoids using stem cells to study development and disease are now widespread. These models are powerful to mimic in vivo situations but are currently associated with high variability and low throughput. For biomedical research, platforms are thus necessary to increase reproducibility and allow high-throughput screens (HTS). Here, we introduce a microwell platform, integrated in standard culture plates, for functional HTS. Using micro-thermoforming, we form round-bottom microwell arrays from optically clear cyclic olefin polymer films, and assemble them with bottom-less 96-well plates. We show that embryonic stem cells aggregate faster and more reproducibly (centricity, circularity) as compared to a state-of-the-art microwell array. We then run a screen of a chemical library to direct differentiation into primitive endoderm (PrE) and, using on-chip high content imaging (HCI), we identify molecules, including regulators of the cAMP pathway, regulating tissue size, morphology and PrE gene activity. We propose that this platform will benefit to the systematic study of organogenesis in vitro. PMID:26775648

  20. 3D Hollow Framework Silver Nanowire Electrodes for High-Performance Bottom-Contact Organic Transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiye; Lee, So Hee; Kim, Haekyoung; Kim, Se Hyun; Park, Chan Eon

    2015-07-01

    We successfully fabricated high performance bottom-contact organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) using silver nanowire (AgNW) network electrodes by spray deposition. The synthesized AgNWs have the dimensions of 40-80 nm in diameter and 30-80 μm in length and are randomly distributed and interconnected to form a 3D hollow framework. The AgNWs networks, deposited by spray coating, yield an average optical transmittance of up to 88% and a sheet resistance as low as 10 ohm/sq. For using AgNWs as source/drain electrodes of OFETs with a bottom-contact configuration, the large contact resistance at the AgNWs/organic channel remains a critical issue for charge injection. To enhance charge injection, we fabricate semiconductor crystals on the AgNW using an adsorbed residual poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) layer. The resulting bottom-contact OFETs exhibit high mobility up to 1.02 cm(2)/(V s) and are similar to that of the top-contact Au electrodes OFETs with low contact resistance. A morphological study shows that the pentacene crystals coalesced to form continuous morphology on the nanowires and are highly interconnected with those on the channel. These features contribute to efficient charge injection and encourage the improvement of the bottom-contact device performance. Furthermore, the large contact area of individual AgNWs spreading out to the channel at the edge of the electrode also improves device performance.

  1. 3D high throughput screening and profiling of embryoid bodies in thermoformed microwell plates.

    PubMed

    Vrij, E J; Espinoza, S; Heilig, M; Kolew, A; Schneider, M; van Blitterswijk, C A; Truckenmüller, R K; Rivron, N C

    2016-02-21

    3D organoids using stem cells to study development and disease are now widespread. These models are powerful to mimic in vivo situations but are currently associated with high variability and low throughput. For biomedical research, platforms are thus necessary to increase reproducibility and allow high-throughput screens (HTS). Here, we introduce a microwell platform, integrated in standard culture plates, for functional HTS. Using micro-thermoforming, we form round-bottom microwell arrays from optically clear cyclic olefin polymer films, and assemble them with bottom-less 96-well plates. We show that embryonic stem cells aggregate faster and more reproducibly (centricity, circularity) as compared to a state-of-the-art microwell array. We then run a screen of a chemical library to direct differentiation into primitive endoderm (PrE) and, using on-chip high content imaging (HCI), we identify molecules, including regulators of the cAMP pathway, regulating tissue size, morphology and PrE gene activity. We propose that this platform will benefit to the systematic study of organogenesis in vitro.

  2. Foldable and High Sulfur Loading 3D Carbon Electrode for High-performance Li-S Battery Application

    PubMed Central

    He, Na; Zhong, Lei; Xiao, Min; Wang, Shuanjin; Han, Dongmei; Meng, Yuezhong

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur is a promising cathode material with a high theoretical capacity of 1672 mAh g−1, however, the practical energy density of Li-S battery is far away from such promising due to its low active material utilization and low sulfur loading. Moreover, the challenges of the low electrical conductivity of sulfur and the high solubility of polysulfide intermediates still hinder its practical application. Here, we report a kind of free-standing and foldable cathodes consisting of 3D activated carbon fiber matrix and sulfur cathode. The 3D activated carbon fiber matrix (ACFC) has continuous conductive framework and sufficient internal space to provide a long-distance and continuous high-speed electron pathway. It also gives a very larger internal space and tortuous cathode region to ACFC accommodate a highly sulfur loading and keeps polysulfide within the cathode. The unique structured 3D foldable sulfur cathode using a foldable ACFC as matrix delivers a reversible capacity of about 979 mAh g−1 at 0.2C, a capacity retention of 98% after 100 cycles, and 0.02% capacity attenuation per cycle. Even at an areal capacity of 6 mAh cm−2, which is 2 times higher than the values of Li-ion battery, it still maintains an excellent rate capability and cycling performance. PMID:27677602

  3. A Fast Full Tensor Gravity computation algorithm for High Resolution 3D Geologic Interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaram, V.; Crain, K.; Keller, G. R.

    2011-12-01

    We present an algorithm to rapidly calculate the vertical gravity and full tensor gravity (FTG) values due to a 3-D geologic model. This algorithm can be implemented on single, multi-core CPU and graphical processing units (GPU) architectures. Our technique is based on the line element approximation with a constant density within each grid cell. This type of parameterization is well suited for high-resolution elevation datasets with grid size typically in the range of 1m to 30m. The large high-resolution data grids in our studies employ a pre-filtered mipmap pyramid type representation for the grid data known as the Geometry clipmap. The clipmap was first introduced by Microsoft Research in 2004 to do fly-through terrain visualization. This method caches nested rectangular extents of down-sampled data layers in the pyramid to create view-dependent calculation scheme. Together with the simple grid structure, this allows the gravity to be computed conveniently on-the-fly, or stored in a highly compressed format. Neither of these capabilities has previously been available. Our approach can perform rapid calculations on large topographies including crustal-scale models derived from complex geologic interpretations. For example, we used a 1KM Sphere model consisting of 105000 cells at 10m resolution with 100000 gravity stations. The line element approach took less than 90 seconds to compute the FTG and vertical gravity on an Intel Core i7 CPU at 3.07 GHz utilizing just its single core. Also, unlike traditional gravity computational algorithms, the line-element approach can calculate gravity effects at locations interior or exterior to the model. The only condition that must be met is the observation point cannot be located directly above the line element. Therefore, we perform a location test and then apply appropriate formulation to those data points. We will present and compare the computational performance of the traditional prism method versus the line element

  4. Data-fusion of high resolution X-ray CT, SEM and EDS for 3D and pseudo-3D chemical and structural characterization of sandstone.

    PubMed

    De Boever, Wesley; Derluyn, Hannelore; Van Loo, Denis; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Cnudde, Veerle

    2015-07-01

    When dealing with the characterization of the structure and composition of natural stones, problems of representativeness and choice of analysis technique almost always occur. Since feature-sizes are typically spread over the nanometer to centimeter range, there is never one single technique that allows a rapid and complete characterization. Over the last few decades, high resolution X-ray CT (μ-CT) has become an invaluable tool for the 3D characterization of many materials, including natural stones. This technique has many important advantages, but there are also some limitations, including a tradeoff between resolution and sample size and a lack of chemical information. For geologists, this chemical information is of importance for the determination of minerals inside samples. We suggest a workflow for the complete chemical and structural characterization of a representative volume of a heterogeneous geological material. This workflow consists of combining information derived from CT scans at different spatial resolutions with information from scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. PMID:25939085

  5. Data-fusion of high resolution X-ray CT, SEM and EDS for 3D and pseudo-3D chemical and structural characterization of sandstone.

    PubMed

    De Boever, Wesley; Derluyn, Hannelore; Van Loo, Denis; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Cnudde, Veerle

    2015-07-01

    When dealing with the characterization of the structure and composition of natural stones, problems of representativeness and choice of analysis technique almost always occur. Since feature-sizes are typically spread over the nanometer to centimeter range, there is never one single technique that allows a rapid and complete characterization. Over the last few decades, high resolution X-ray CT (μ-CT) has become an invaluable tool for the 3D characterization of many materials, including natural stones. This technique has many important advantages, but there are also some limitations, including a tradeoff between resolution and sample size and a lack of chemical information. For geologists, this chemical information is of importance for the determination of minerals inside samples. We suggest a workflow for the complete chemical and structural characterization of a representative volume of a heterogeneous geological material. This workflow consists of combining information derived from CT scans at different spatial resolutions with information from scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  6. Recipe for High Moment Materials with Rare-earth and 3d Transition Metal Composites.

    PubMed

    Autieri, Carmine; Kumar, P Anil; Walecki, Dirk; Webers, Samira; Gubbins, Mark A; Wende, Heiko; Sanyal, Biplab

    2016-01-01

    Materials with high volume magnetization are perpetually needed for the generation of sufficiently large magnetic fields by writer pole of magnetic hard disks, especially for achieving increased areal density in storage media. In search of suitable materials combinations for this purpose, we have employed density functional theory to predict the magnetic coupling between iron and gadolinium layers separated by one to several monolayers of 3d transition metals (Sc-Zn). We demonstrate that it is possible to find ferromagnetic coupling for many of them and in particular for the early transition metals giving rise to high moment. Cr and Mn are the only elements able to produce a significant ferromagnetic coupling for thicker spacer layers. We also present experimental results on two trilayer systems Fe/Sc/Gd and Fe/Mn/Gd. From the experiments, we confirm a ferromagnetic coupling between Fe and Gd across a 3 monolayers Sc spacer or a Mn spacer thicker than 1 monolayer. In addition, we observe a peculiar dependence of Fe/Gd magnetic coupling on the Mn spacer thickness. PMID:27381456

  7. High-content 3D multicolor super-resolution localization microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Pedro M; Almada, Pedro; Henriques, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Super-resolution (SR) methodologies permit the visualization of cellular structures at near-molecular scale (1-30 nm), enabling novel mechanistic analysis of key events in cell biology not resolvable by conventional fluorescence imaging (∼300-nm resolution). When this level of detail is combined with computing power and fast and reliable analysis software, high-content screenings using SR becomes a practical option to address multiple biological questions. The importance of combining these powerful analytical techniques cannot be ignored, as they can address phenotypic changes on the molecular scale and in a statistically robust manner. In this work, we suggest an easy-to-implement protocol that can be applied to set up a high-content 3D SR experiment with user-friendly and freely available software. The protocol can be divided into two main parts: chamber and sample preparation, where a protocol to set up a direct STORM (dSTORM) sample is presented; and a second part where a protocol for image acquisition and analysis is described. We intend to take the reader step-by-step through the experimental process highlighting possible experimental bottlenecks and possible improvements based on recent developments in the field.

  8. Recipe for High Moment Materials with Rare-earth and 3d Transition Metal Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autieri, Carmine; Kumar, P. Anil; Walecki, Dirk; Webers, Samira; Gubbins, Mark A.; Wende, Heiko; Sanyal, Biplab

    2016-07-01

    Materials with high volume magnetization are perpetually needed for the generation of sufficiently large magnetic fields by writer pole of magnetic hard disks, especially for achieving increased areal density in storage media. In search of suitable materials combinations for this purpose, we have employed density functional theory to predict the magnetic coupling between iron and gadolinium layers separated by one to several monolayers of 3d transition metals (Sc-Zn). We demonstrate that it is possible to find ferromagnetic coupling for many of them and in particular for the early transition metals giving rise to high moment. Cr and Mn are the only elements able to produce a significant ferromagnetic coupling for thicker spacer layers. We also present experimental results on two trilayer systems Fe/Sc/Gd and Fe/Mn/Gd. From the experiments, we confirm a ferromagnetic coupling between Fe and Gd across a 3 monolayers Sc spacer or a Mn spacer thicker than 1 monolayer. In addition, we observe a peculiar dependence of Fe/Gd magnetic coupling on the Mn spacer thickness.

  9. Numerical Calculations of 3-D High-Lift Flows and Comparison with Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, William B, III

    2015-01-01

    Solutions were obtained with the Navier-Stokes CFD code TLNS3D to predict the flow about the NASA Trapezoidal Wing, a high-lift wing composed of three elements: the main-wing element, a deployed leading-edge slat, and a deployed trailing-edge flap. Turbulence was modeled by the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation turbulence model. One case with massive separation was repeated using Menter's two-equation SST (Menter's Shear Stress Transport) k-omega turbulence model in an attempt to improve the agreement with experiment. The investigation was conducted at a free stream Mach number of 0.2, and at angles of attack ranging from 10.004 degrees to 34.858 degrees. The Reynolds number based on the mean aerodynamic chord of the wing was 4.3 x 10 (sup 6). Compared to experiment, the numerical procedure predicted the surface pressures very well at angles of attack in the linear range of the lift. However, computed maximum lift was 5% low. Drag was mainly under predicted. The procedure correctly predicted several well-known trends and features of high-lift flows, such as off-body separation. The two turbulence models yielded significantly different solutions for the repeated case.

  10. Study of a high-resolution, 3-D positioning cadmium zinc telluride detector for PET

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Y; Matteson, J L; Skelton, R T; Deal, A C; Stephan, E A; Duttweiler, F; Gasaway, T M; Levin, C S

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of 1 mm resolution Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors for positron emission tomography (PET) capable of positioning the 3-D coordinates of individual 511 keV photon interactions. The detectors comprise 40 mm × 40 mm × 5 mm monolithic CZT crystals that employ a novel cross-strip readout with interspersed steering electrodes to obtain high spatial and energy resolution. The study found a single anode FWHM energy resolution of 3.06±0.39% at 511 keV throughout most the detector volume. Improved resolution is expected with properly shielded front-end electronics. Measurements made using a collimated beam established the efficacy of the steering electrodes in facilitating enhanced charge collection across anodes, as well as a spatial resolution of 0.44±0.07 mm in the direction orthogonal to the electrode planes. Finally, measurements based on coincidence electronic collimation yielded a point spread function with 0.78±0.10 mm FWHM, demonstrating 1 mm spatial resolution capability transverse to the anodes – as expected from the 1 mm anode pitch. These findings indicate that the CZT-based detector concept has excellent performance and shows great promise for a high-resolution PET system. PMID:21335649

  11. High-content 3D multicolor super-resolution localization microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Pedro M; Almada, Pedro; Henriques, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Super-resolution (SR) methodologies permit the visualization of cellular structures at near-molecular scale (1-30 nm), enabling novel mechanistic analysis of key events in cell biology not resolvable by conventional fluorescence imaging (∼300-nm resolution). When this level of detail is combined with computing power and fast and reliable analysis software, high-content screenings using SR becomes a practical option to address multiple biological questions. The importance of combining these powerful analytical techniques cannot be ignored, as they can address phenotypic changes on the molecular scale and in a statistically robust manner. In this work, we suggest an easy-to-implement protocol that can be applied to set up a high-content 3D SR experiment with user-friendly and freely available software. The protocol can be divided into two main parts: chamber and sample preparation, where a protocol to set up a direct STORM (dSTORM) sample is presented; and a second part where a protocol for image acquisition and analysis is described. We intend to take the reader step-by-step through the experimental process highlighting possible experimental bottlenecks and possible improvements based on recent developments in the field. PMID:25640426

  12. Recipe for High Moment Materials with Rare-earth and 3d Transition Metal Composites

    PubMed Central

    Autieri, Carmine; Kumar, P. Anil; Walecki, Dirk; Webers, Samira; Gubbins, Mark A.; Wende, Heiko; Sanyal, Biplab

    2016-01-01

    Materials with high volume magnetization are perpetually needed for the generation of sufficiently large magnetic fields by writer pole of magnetic hard disks, especially for achieving increased areal density in storage media. In search of suitable materials combinations for this purpose, we have employed density functional theory to predict the magnetic coupling between iron and gadolinium layers separated by one to several monolayers of 3d transition metals (Sc-Zn). We demonstrate that it is possible to find ferromagnetic coupling for many of them and in particular for the early transition metals giving rise to high moment. Cr and Mn are the only elements able to produce a significant ferromagnetic coupling for thicker spacer layers. We also present experimental results on two trilayer systems Fe/Sc/Gd and Fe/Mn/Gd. From the experiments, we confirm a ferromagnetic coupling between Fe and Gd across a 3 monolayers Sc spacer or a Mn spacer thicker than 1 monolayer. In addition, we observe a peculiar dependence of Fe/Gd magnetic coupling on the Mn spacer thickness. PMID:27381456

  13. Airborne LIDAR and high resolution satellite data for rapid 3D feature extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawak, S. D.; Panditrao, S. N.; Luis, A. J.

    2014-11-01

    This work uses the canopy height model (CHM) based workflow for individual tree crown delineation and 3D feature extraction approach (Overwatch Geospatial's proprietary algorithm) for building feature delineation from high-density light detection and ranging (LiDAR) point cloud data in an urban environment and evaluates its accuracy by using very high-resolution panchromatic (PAN) (spatial) and 8-band (multispectral) WorldView-2 (WV-2) imagery. LiDAR point cloud data over San Francisco, California, USA, recorded in June 2010, was used to detect tree and building features by classifying point elevation values. The workflow employed includes resampling of LiDAR point cloud to generate a raster surface or digital terrain model (DTM), generation of a hill-shade image and an intensity image, extraction of digital surface model, generation of bare earth digital elevation model (DEM) and extraction of tree and building features. First, the optical WV-2 data and the LiDAR intensity image were co-registered using ground control points (GCPs). The WV-2 rational polynomial coefficients model (RPC) was executed in ERDAS Leica Photogrammetry Suite (LPS) using supplementary *.RPB file. In the second stage, ortho-rectification was carried out using ERDAS LPS by incorporating well-distributed GCPs. The root mean square error (RMSE) for the WV-2 was estimated to be 0.25 m by using more than 10 well-distributed GCPs. In the second stage, we generated the bare earth DEM from LiDAR point cloud data. In most of the cases, bare earth DEM does not represent true ground elevation. Hence, the model was edited to get the most accurate DEM/ DTM possible and normalized the LiDAR point cloud data based on DTM in order to reduce the effect of undulating terrain. We normalized the vegetation point cloud values by subtracting the ground points (DEM) from the LiDAR point cloud. A normalized digital surface model (nDSM) or CHM was calculated from the LiDAR data by subtracting the DEM from the DSM

  14. High-throughput screening with nanoimprinting 3D culture for efficient drug development by mimicking the tumor environment.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, Yukie; Furukawa, Takako; Waki, Atsuo; Okuyama, Hiroaki; Inoue, Masahiro; Itoh, Manabu; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Sogawa, Chizuru; Kiyono, Yasushi; Yoshii, Hiroshi; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Saga, Tsuneo

    2015-05-01

    Anti-cancer drug development typically utilizes high-throughput screening with two-dimensional (2D) cell culture. However, 2D culture induces cellular characteristics different from tumors in vivo, resulting in inefficient drug development. Here, we report an innovative high-throughput screening system using nanoimprinting 3D culture to simulate in vivo conditions, thereby facilitating efficient drug development. We demonstrated that cell line-based nanoimprinting 3D screening can more efficiently select drugs that effectively inhibit cancer growth in vivo as compared to 2D culture. Metabolic responses after treatment were assessed using positron emission tomography (PET) probes, and revealed similar characteristics between the 3D spheroids and in vivo tumors. Further, we developed an advanced method to adopt cancer cells from patient tumor tissues for high-throughput drug screening with nanoimprinting 3D culture, which we termed Cancer tissue-Originated Uniformed Spheroid Assay (COUSA). This system identified drugs that were effective in xenografts of the original patient tumors. Nanoimprinting 3D spheroids showed low permeability and formation of hypoxic regions inside, similar to in vivo tumors. Collectively, the nanoimprinting 3D culture provides easy-handling high-throughput drug screening system, which allows for efficient drug development by mimicking the tumor environment. The COUSA system could be a useful platform for drug development with patient cancer cells.

  15. High-Performance and Omnidirectional Thin-Film Amorphous Silicon Solar Cell Modules Achieved by 3D Geometry Design.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dongliang; Yin, Min; Lu, Linfeng; Zhang, Hanzhong; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Zhu, Xufei; Che, Jianfei; Li, Dongdong

    2015-11-01

    High-performance thin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells are achieved by combining macroscale 3D tubular substrates and nanoscaled 3D cone-like antireflective films. The tubular geometry delivers a series of advantages for large-scale deployment of photovoltaics, such as omnidirectional performance, easier encapsulation, decreased wind resistance, and easy integration with a second device inside the glass tube. PMID:26418573

  16. Monolayer MoS2 films supported by 3D nanoporous metals for high-efficiency electrocatalytic hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yongwen; Liu, Pan; Chen, Luyang; Cong, Weitao; Ito, Yoshikazu; Han, Jiuhui; Guo, Xianwei; Tang, Zheng; Fujita, Takeshi; Hirata, Akihiko; Chen, Mingwei W

    2014-12-17

    The "edge-free" monolayer MoS2 films supported by 3D nanoporous gold show high catalytic activities towards hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), originating from large out-of-plane strains that are geometrically required to manage the 3D curvature of bicontinuous nanoporosity. The large lattice bending leads to local semiconductor-to-metal transition of 2H MoS2 and the formation of catalytically active sites for HER.

  17. Precise 3D printing of micro/nanostructures using highly conductive carbon nanotube-thiol-acrylate composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Xiong, W.; Jiang, L. J.; Zhou, Y. S.; Lu, Y. F.

    2016-04-01

    Two-photon polymerization (TPP) is of increasing interest due to its unique combination of truly three-dimensional (3D) fabrication capability and ultrahigh spatial resolution of ~40 nm. However, the stringent requirements of non-linear resins seriously limit the material functionality of 3D printing via TPP. Precise fabrication of 3D micro/nanostructures with multi-functionalities such as high electrical conductivity and mechanical strength is still a long-standing challenge. In this work, TPP fabrication of arbitrary 3D micro/nanostructures using multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT)-thiolacrylate (MTA) composite resins has been developed. Up to 0.2 wt% MWNTs have been incorporated into thiol-acrylate resins to form highly stable and uniform composite photoresists without obvious degradation for one week at room temperature. Various functional 3D micro/nanostructures including woodpiles, micro-coils, spiral-like photonic crystals, suspended micro-bridges, micro-gears and complex micro-cars have been successfully fabricated. The MTA composite resin offers significant enhancements in electrical conductivity and mechanical strength, and on the same time, preserving high optical transmittance and flexibility. Tightly controlled alignment of MWNTs and the strong anisotropy effect were confirmed. Microelectronic devices including capacitors and resistors made of the MTA composite polymer were demonstrated. The 3D micro/nanofabrication using the MTA composite resins enables the precise 3D printing of micro/nanostructures of high electrical conductivity and mechanical strength, which is expected to lead a wide range of device applications, including micro/nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS), integrated photonics and 3D electronics.

  18. Detection of 3D tree root systems using high resolution ground penetration radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altdorff, D.; Honds, M.; Botschek, J.; Van Der Kruk, J.

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge of root systems and its distribution are important for biomass estimation as well as for the prevention of subsurface distribution network damages. Ground penetration radar (GPR) is a promising technique that enables a non-invasive imaging of tree roots. Due to the polarisation-dependent reflection coefficients and complicated three-dimensional root structure, accurate measurements with perpendicularly polarized antennas are needed. In this study, we show GPR data from two planes and one chestnut at two locations with different soil conditions. Perpendicular 10 x 10 cm grid measurements were made with a shielded 250 MHz antenna in combination with a high precision self-tracking laser theodolite that provides geo-referenced traces with a spatial resolution of ~ 2 cm. After selecting potential root hyperbolas within the perpendicular GPR profiles, the corresponding three-dimensional coordinates were extracted and visualized in planar view to reveal any linear structure that indicates a possible tree root. The coordinates of the selected linear structures were projected back to the surface by means of the laser-theodolite to indicate the locations for groundtruthing. Additionally, we interpolated the measured data into a 3D cube where time slices confirmed the locations of linear reflection events. We validated the indicated predictions by excavation of the soil with a suction dredge. Subsequent georeferencing of the true root distribution and comparison with the selected linear events showed that the approach was able to identify the precise position of roots with a diameter between 3 and 10 cm and a depth of up to 70 cm. However, not all linear events were roots; also mouse channels were found in these depths, since they also generate GPR hyperbolas aligned in linear structures. Roots at a second location at depths of 1 to 1.20 m did not generate identifiable hyperboles, which was probably due to an increased electrical conductivity below 86 cm depth. The

  19. 3D CFD Model of High Temperature H2O/CO2 Co-electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Hawkes; James O'Brien; Carl Stoots; Stephen Herring; Joe Hartvigsen

    2007-06-01

    3D CFD Model of High Temperature H2O/CO2 Co-Electrolysis Grant Hawkes1, James O’Brien1, Carl Stoots1, Stephen Herring1 Joe Hartvigsen2 1 Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, grant.hawkes@inl.gov 2 Ceramatec Inc, Salt Lake City, Utah INTRODUCTION A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been created to model high temperature co-electrolysis of steam and carbon dioxide in a planar solid oxide electrolyzer (SOE) using solid oxide fuel cell technology. A research program is under way at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to simultaneously address the research and scale-up issues associated with the implementation of planar solid-oxide electrolysis cell technology for syn-gas production from CO2 and steam. Various runs have been performed under different run conditions to help assess the performance of the SOE. This paper presents CFD results of this model compared with experimental results. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City, USA) has been researching for several years the use of solid-oxide fuel cell technology to electrolyze steam for large-scale nuclear-powered hydrogen production. Now, an experimental research project is underway at the INL to produce syngas by simultaneously electrolyzing at high-temperature steam and carbon dioxide (CO2) using solid oxide fuel cell technology. A strong interest exists in the large-scale production of syn-gas from CO2 and steam to be reformed into a usable transportation fuel. If biomass is used as the carbon source, the overall process is climate neutral. Consequently, there is a high level of interest in production of syn-gas from CO2 and steam electrolysis. With the price of oil currently around $60 / barrel, synthetically-derived hydrocarbon fuels (synfuels) have become economical. Synfuels are typically produced from syngas – hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) -- using the Fischer-Tropsch process, discovered by Germany before World

  20. Modeling thermally driven energetic response of high explosives in ALE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Aro, C.; McCallen, R.C.; Neely, R.; Nichols, A.L. III; Sharp, R.

    1998-10-01

    The authors have improved their ability to model the response of energetic materials to thermal stimuli and the processes involved in the energetic response. Traditionally, the analyses of energetic materials have involved coupled thermal transport/chemical reaction codes. This provides only a reasonable estimate of the time and location of ensuing rapid reaction. To predict the violence of the reaction, the mechanical motion must be included in the wide range of time scales associated with the thermal hazard. The ALE3D code has been modified to assess the hazards associated with heating energetic materials in weapons by coupling to thermal transport model and chemistry models. They have developed an implicit time step option to efficiently and accurately compute the hours of heating to reaction of the energetic material. Since, on these longer time scales materials can be expected to have significant motion, it is even more important to provide high-order advection for all components, including the chemical species. They show two examples of coupled thermal/mechanical/chemical models of energetic materials in thermal environments.

  1. Highly Porous Gelatin Reinforced 3D Scaffolds for Articular Cartilage Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Amadori, Sofia; Torricelli, Paola; Panzavolta, Silvia; Parrilli, Annapaola; Fini, Milena; Bigi, Adriana

    2015-07-01

    3D highly porous (93% total porosity) gelatin scaffolds were prepared according to a novel, simple method, which implies gelatin foaming, gelification, soaking into ethanol and successive freeze-drying. Reinforcement of the as-prepared scaffolds (GEL) was performed through immersion in aqueous solutions at different gelatin concentrations. Reinforcement solutions with and without genipin addition allowed to prepare two series of samples:cross-linked and uncross-linked samples, respectively. The amount of gelatin adsorbed onto the reinforced samples increases as a function of gelatin concentration in solution and provokes a drastic improvement of the compressive modulus and collapse strength up to values of about 30 and 4 MPa, respectively. The open and interconnected porosity, although slightly reduced, is still of the order of 80% in the samples reinforced with the highest concentration of gelatin. Water uptake ability evaluated after immersion in PBS for 20 s decreases with gelatin reinforcement. The presence of genipin in cross-linked samples reduces gelatin release and stabilizes the scaffolds in solution. Chondrocytes from human articular cartilage adhere, proliferate, and penetrate into the scaffolds. The evaluation of differentiation markers both on the supernatants of cell culture and by means of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) indicates a dose-dependent promotion of cell differentiation.

  2. Recording High Resolution 3D Lagrangian Motions In Marine Dinoflagellates using Digital Holographic Microscopic Cinematography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, J.; Malkiel, E.; Katz, J.; Place, A. R.; Belas, R.

    2006-11-01

    Detailed data on swimming behavior and locomotion for dense population of dinoflagellates constitutes a key component to understanding cell migration, cell-cell interactions and predator-prey dynamics, all of which affect algae bloom dynamics. Due to the multi-dimensional nature of flagellated cell motions, spatial-temporal Lagrangian measurements of multiple cells in high concentration are very limited. Here we present detailed data on 3D Lagrangian motions for three marine dinoflagellates: Oxyrrhis marina, Karlodinium veneficum, and Pfiesteria piscicida, using digital holographic microscopic cinematography. The measurements are performed in a 5x5x25mm cuvette with cell densities varying from 50,000 ˜ 90,000 cells/ml. Approximately 200-500 cells are tracked simultaneously for 12s at 60fps in a sample volume of 1x1x5 mm at a spatial resolution of 0.4x0.4x2 μm. We fully resolve the longitudinal flagella (˜200nm) along with the Lagrangian trajectory of each organism. Species dependent swimming behavior are identified and categorized quantitatively by velocities, radii of curvature, and rotations of pitch. Statistics on locomotion, temporal & spatial scales, and diffusion rate show substantial differences between species. The scaling between turning radius and cell dimension can be explained by a distributed stokeslet model for a self-propelled body.

  3. 3D MHD modelling of low current-high voltage dc plasma torch under restrike mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebouvier, A.; Delalondre, C.; Fresnet, F.; Cauneau, F.; Fulcheri, L.

    2012-01-01

    We present in this paper a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modelling of the gliding arc behaviour of a dc plasma torch operating with air under low current and high voltage conditions. The low current leads to instabilities and difficulties with simulating the process because the magnetic field is not sufficient to constrict the arc. The model is 3D, time dependent and the MHD equations are solved using CFD software Code_Saturne®. Although the arc is definitively non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), the LTE assumption is considered as a first approach. The injection of air is tangential. A hot gas channel reattachment model has been used to simulate the restriking process of the arc root. After the description of the model, the most appropriate electrical voltage breakdown parameter has been selected in comparing with experimental results. A typical operating point is then studied in detail and shows the helical shape of the arc discharge in the nozzle. Finally, the mass flow rate and the current have been varied in the range 0.16-0.5 g s-1 and 100-300 mA, respectively, corresponding to typical glidarc operating points of our experimental plasma torch. The model shows good consistency with experimental data in terms of global behaviour, arc length, mean voltage and glidarc frequency.

  4. Liquid immersion thermal crosslinking of 3D polymer nanopatterns for direct carbonisation with high structural integrity

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Da-Young; Kim, Cheolho; Park, Gyurim; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    The direct pyrolytic carbonisation of polymer patterns has attracted interest for its use in obtaining carbon materials. In the case of carbonisation of nanopatterned polymers, the polymer flow and subsequent pattern change may occur in order to relieve their high surface energies. Here, we demonstrated that liquid immersion thermal crosslinking of polymer nanopatterns effectively enhanced the thermal resistance and maintained the structure integrity during the heat treatment. We employed the liquid immersion thermal crosslinking for 3D porous SU8 photoresist nanopatterns and successfully converted them to carbon nanopatterns while maintaining their porous features. The thermal crosslinking reaction and carbonisation of SU8 nanopatterns were characterised. The micro-crystallinity of the SU8-derived carbon nanopatterns was also characterised. The liquid immersion heat treatment can be extended to the carbonisation of various polymer or photoresist nanopatterns and also provide a facile way to control the surface energy of polymer nanopatterns for various purposes, for example, to block copolymer or surfactant self-assemblies. PMID:26677949

  5. Liquid immersion thermal crosslinking of 3D polymer nanopatterns for direct carbonisation with high structural integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Da-Young; Kim, Cheolho; Park, Gyurim; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2015-12-01

    The direct pyrolytic carbonisation of polymer patterns has attracted interest for its use in obtaining carbon materials. In the case of carbonisation of nanopatterned polymers, the polymer flow and subsequent pattern change may occur in order to relieve their high surface energies. Here, we demonstrated that liquid immersion thermal crosslinking of polymer nanopatterns effectively enhanced the thermal resistance and maintained the structure integrity during the heat treatment. We employed the liquid immersion thermal crosslinking for 3D porous SU8 photoresist nanopatterns and successfully converted them to carbon nanopatterns while maintaining their porous features. The thermal crosslinking reaction and carbonisation of SU8 nanopatterns were characterised. The micro-crystallinity of the SU8-derived carbon nanopatterns was also characterised. The liquid immersion heat treatment can be extended to the carbonisation of various polymer or photoresist nanopatterns and also provide a facile way to control the surface energy of polymer nanopatterns for various purposes, for example, to block copolymer or surfactant self-assemblies.

  6. Study of CT-based positron range correction in high resolution 3D PET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cal-González, J.; Herraiz, J. L.; España, S.; Vicente, E.; Herranz, E.; Desco, M.; Vaquero, J. J.; Udías, J. M.

    2011-08-01

    Positron range limits the spatial resolution of PET images and has a different effect for different isotopes and positron propagation materials. Therefore it is important to consider it during image reconstruction, in order to obtain optimal image quality. Positron range distributions for most common isotopes used in PET in different materials were computed using the Monte Carlo simulations with PeneloPET. The range profiles were introduced into the 3D OSEM image reconstruction software FIRST and employed to blur the image either in the forward projection or in the forward and backward projection. The blurring introduced takes into account the different materials in which the positron propagates. Information on these materials may be obtained, for instance, from a segmentation of a CT image. The results of introducing positron blurring in both forward and backward projection operations was compared to using it only during forward projection. Further, the effect of different shapes of positron range profile in the quality of the reconstructed images with positron range correction was studied. For high positron energy isotopes, the reconstructed images show significant improvement in spatial resolution when positron range is taken into account during reconstruction, compared to reconstructions without positron range modeling.

  7. In vivo high-resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging of superficial vascular anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, E. Z.; Laufer, J. G.; Pedley, R. B.; Beard, P. C.

    2009-02-01

    The application of a photoacoustic imaging instrument based upon a Fabry-Perot polymer film ultrasound sensor to imaging the superficial vasculature is described. This approach provides a backward mode-sensing configuration that has the potential to overcome the limitations of current piezoelectric based detection systems used in superficial photoacoustic imaging. The system has been evaluated by obtaining non-invasive images of the vasculature in human and mouse skin as well as mouse models of human colorectal tumours. These studies showed that the system can provide high-resolution 3D images of vascular structures to depths of up to 5 mm. It is considered that this type of instrument may find a role in the clinical assessment of conditions characterized by changes in the vasculature such as skin tumours and superficial soft tissue damage due to burns, wounds or ulceration. It may also find application in the characterization of small animal cancer models where it is important to follow the tumour vasculature over time in order to study its development and/or response to therapy.

  8. High-resolution modelling of 3D hydrodynamics in coastal archipelagos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miettunen, Elina; Tuomi, Laura; Ropponen, Janne; Lignell, Risto

    2016-04-01

    Dynamics of the coastal seas are affected by eutrophication, over-fishing, coastal construction and climate change. To enable the sustainable development of these areas, monitoring and modelling of the state of the sea are needed. The Archipelago Sea, located in the northern part of the semi-enclosed and brackish water Baltic Sea, is one of the most complex coastal areas with over 40 000 small islands and islets. It is also very vulnerable area already heavily stressed with eutrophication. Applicable modelling tools are needed to support the decision making and to provide sufficiently reliable information on the effects of the planned actions on the state of the coastal waters. We used 3D hydrodynamic model COHERENS to model the Archipelago Sea area with high spatial resolution of 0.25 nmi. Boundary conditions for this limited area were provided from coarser resolution, 2 nmi, Baltic Sea grid. In order to evaluate the performance of the high-resolution coastal model implementation a comprehensive measurement dataset was gathered, including hydrographic data from three intensive monitoring stations and several more rarely visited monitoring or research stations. The hydrodynamic model was able to simulate the surface temperature and salinity fields and their seasonal variation with good accuracy in this complex area. The sharp depth gradients typical for this area provided some challenges to the modelling. There was some over mixing and related to too strong vertical currents in the steep slopes of the deeper fault lines. Also the water exchange between the more open sea and coastal areas through narrow channels between the islands is not sufficiently well reproduced with the current resolution, leading to too high bottom temperatures.

  9. The Double Hierarchy Method. A parallel 3D contact method for the interaction of spherical particles with rigid FE boundaries using the DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santasusana, Miquel; Irazábal, Joaquín; Oñate, Eugenio; Carbonell, Josep Maria

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we present a new methodology for the treatment of the contact interaction between rigid boundaries and spherical discrete elements (DE). Rigid body parts are present in most of large-scale simulations. The surfaces of the rigid parts are commonly meshed with a finite element-like (FE) discretization. The contact detection and calculation between those DE and the discretized boundaries is not straightforward and has been addressed by different approaches. The algorithm presented in this paper considers the contact of the DEs with the geometric primitives of a FE mesh, i.e. facet, edge or vertex. To do so, the original hierarchical method presented by Horner et al. (J Eng Mech 127(10):1027-1032, 2001) is extended with a new insight leading to a robust, fast and accurate 3D contact algorithm which is fully parallelizable. The implementation of the method has been developed in order to deal ideally with triangles and quadrilaterals. If the boundaries are discretized with another type of geometries, the method can be easily extended to higher order planar convex polyhedra. A detailed description of the procedure followed to treat a wide range of cases is presented. The description of the developed algorithm and its validation is verified with several practical examples. The parallelization capabilities and the obtained performance are presented with the study of an industrial application example.

  10. Exploring the Potential of Aerial Photogrammetry for 3d Modelling of High-Alpine Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legat, K.; Moe, K.; Poli, D.; Bollmannb, E.

    2016-03-01

    cameras of Microsoft's UltraCam series and the in-house processing chain centred on the Dense-Image-Matching (DIM) software SURE by nFrames. This paper reports the work carried out at AVT for the surface- and terrain modelling of several high-alpine areas using DIM- and ALS-based approaches. A special focus is dedicated to the influence of terrain morphology, flight planning, GNSS/IMU measurements, and ground-control distribution in the georeferencing process on the data quality. Based on the very promising results, some general recommendations for aerial photogrammetry processing in high-alpine areas are made to achieve best possible accuracy of the final 3D-, 2.5D- and 2D products.

  11. CellSegm - a MATLAB toolbox for high-throughput 3D cell segmentation.

    PubMed

    Hodneland, Erlend; Kögel, Tanja; Frei, Dominik Michael; Gerdes, Hans-Hermann; Lundervold, Arvid

    2013-08-09

    : The application of fluorescence microscopy in cell biology often generates a huge amount of imaging data. Automated whole cell segmentation of such data enables the detection and analysis of individual cells, where a manual delineation is often time consuming, or practically not feasible. Furthermore, compared to manual analysis, automation normally has a higher degree of reproducibility. CellSegm, the software presented in this work, is a Matlab based command line software toolbox providing an automated whole cell segmentation of images showing surface stained cells, acquired by fluorescence microscopy. It has options for both fully automated and semi-automated cell segmentation. Major algorithmic steps are: (i) smoothing, (ii) Hessian-based ridge enhancement, (iii) marker-controlled watershed segmentation, and (iv) feature-based classfication of cell candidates. Using a wide selection of image recordings and code snippets, we demonstrate that CellSegm has the ability to detect various types of surface stained cells in 3D. After detection and outlining of individual cells, the cell candidates can be subject to software based analysis, specified and programmed by the end-user, or they can be analyzed by other software tools. A segmentation of tissue samples with appropriate characteristics is also shown to be resolvable in CellSegm. The command-line interface of CellSegm facilitates scripting of the separate tools, all implemented in Matlab, offering a high degree of flexibility and tailored workflows for the end-user. The modularity and scripting capabilities of CellSegm enable automated workflows and quantitative analysis of microscopic data, suited for high-throughput image based screening.

  12. Magnetic resonance virtual histology for embryos: 3D atlases for automated high-throughput phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Jon O; Modat, Marc; Norris, Francesca C; Price, Anthony N; Jayakody, Sujatha A; Martinez-Barbera, Juan Pedro; Greene, Nicholas D E; Hawkes, David J; Ordidge, Roger J; Scambler, Peter J; Ourselin, Sebastien; Lythgoe, Mark F

    2011-01-15

    Ambitious international efforts are underway to produce gene-knockout mice for each of the 25,000 mouse genes, providing a new platform to study mammalian development and disease. Robust, large-scale methods for morphological assessment of prenatal mice will be essential to this work. Embryo phenotyping currently relies on histological techniques but these are not well suited to large volume screening. The qualitative nature of these approaches also limits the potential for detailed group analysis. Advances in non-invasive imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may surmount these barriers. We present a high-throughput approach to generate detailed virtual histology of the whole embryo, combined with the novel use of a whole-embryo atlas for automated phenotypic assessment. Using individual 3D embryo MRI histology, we identified new pituitary phenotypes in Hesx1 mutant mice. Subsequently, we used advanced computational techniques to produce a whole-body embryo atlas from 6 CD-1 embryos, creating an average image with greatly enhanced anatomical detail, particularly in CNS structures. This methodology enabled unsupervised assessment of morphological differences between CD-1 embryos and Chd7 knockout mice (n=5 Chd7(+/+) and n=8 Chd7(+/-), C57BL/6 background). Using a new atlas generated from these three groups, quantitative organ volumes were automatically measured. We demonstrated a difference in mean brain volumes between Chd7(+/+) and Chd7(+/-) mice (42.0 vs. 39.1mm(3), p<0.05). Differences in whole-body, olfactory and normalised pituitary gland volumes were also found between CD-1 and Chd7(+/+) mice (C57BL/6 background). Our work demonstrates the feasibility of combining high-throughput embryo MRI with automated analysis techniques to distinguish novel mouse phenotypes. PMID:20656039

  13. 3D MODELING OF GJ1214b's ATMOSPHERE: FORMATION OF INHOMOGENEOUS HIGH CLOUDS AND OBSERVATIONAL IMPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Charnay, B.; Meadows, V.; Misra, A.; Arney, G.; Leconte, J.

    2015-11-01

    The warm sub-Neptune GJ1214b has a featureless transit spectrum that may be due to the presence of high and thick clouds or haze. Here, we simulate the atmosphere of GJ1214b with a 3D General Circulation Model for cloudy hydrogen-dominated atmospheres, including cloud radiative effects. We show that the atmospheric circulation is strong enough to transport micrometric cloud particles to the upper atmosphere and generally leads to a minimum of cloud at the equator. By scattering stellar light, clouds increase the planetary albedo to 0.4–0.6 and cool the atmosphere below 1 mbar. However, the heating by ZnS clouds leads to the formation of a stratospheric thermal inversion above 10 mbar, with temperatures potentially high enough on the dayside to evaporate KCl clouds. We show that flat transit spectra consistent with Hubble Space Telescope observations are possible if cloud particle radii are around 0.5 μm, and that such clouds should be optically thin at wavelengths >3 μm. Using simulated cloudy atmospheres that fit the observed spectra we generate transit, emission, and reflection spectra and phase curves for GJ1214b. We show that a stratospheric thermal inversion would be readily accessible in near- and mid-infrared atmospheric spectral windows. We find that the amplitude of the thermal phase curves is strongly dependent on metallicity, but only slightly impacted by clouds. Our results suggest that primary and secondary eclipses and phase curves observed by the James Webb Space Telescope in the near- to mid-infrared should provide strong constraints on the nature of GJ1214b's atmosphere and clouds.

  14. CellSegm - a MATLAB toolbox for high-throughput 3D cell segmentation.

    PubMed

    Hodneland, Erlend; Kögel, Tanja; Frei, Dominik Michael; Gerdes, Hans-Hermann; Lundervold, Arvid

    2013-01-01

    : The application of fluorescence microscopy in cell biology often generates a huge amount of imaging data. Automated whole cell segmentation of such data enables the detection and analysis of individual cells, where a manual delineation is often time consuming, or practically not feasible. Furthermore, compared to manual analysis, automation normally has a higher degree of reproducibility. CellSegm, the software presented in this work, is a Matlab based command line software toolbox providing an automated whole cell segmentation of images showing surface stained cells, acquired by fluorescence microscopy. It has options for both fully automated and semi-automated cell segmentation. Major algorithmic steps are: (i) smoothing, (ii) Hessian-based ridge enhancement, (iii) marker-controlled watershed segmentation, and (iv) feature-based classfication of cell candidates. Using a wide selection of image recordings and code snippets, we demonstrate that CellSegm has the ability to detect various types of surface stained cells in 3D. After detection and outlining of individual cells, the cell candidates can be subject to software based analysis, specified and programmed by the end-user, or they can be analyzed by other software tools. A segmentation of tissue samples with appropriate characteristics is also shown to be resolvable in CellSegm. The command-line interface of CellSegm facilitates scripting of the separate tools, all implemented in Matlab, offering a high degree of flexibility and tailored workflows for the end-user. The modularity and scripting capabilities of CellSegm enable automated workflows and quantitative analysis of microscopic data, suited for high-throughput image based screening. PMID:23938087

  15. Gold@silver bimetal nanoparticles/pyramidal silicon 3D substrate with high reproducibility for high-performance SERS

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Jiang, Shou Zhen; Yang, Cheng; Li, Chong Hui; Huo, Yan Yan; Liu, Xiao Yun; Liu, Ai Hua; Wei, Qin; Gao, Sai Sai; Gao, Xing Guo; Man, Bao Yuan

    2016-01-01

    A novel and efficient surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate has been presented based on Gold@silver/pyramidal silicon 3D substrate (Au@Ag/3D-Si). By combining the SERS activity of Ag, the chemical stability of Au and the large field enhancement of 3D-Si, the Au@Ag/3D-Si substrate possesses perfect sensitivity, homogeneity, reproducibility and chemical stability. Using R6G as probe molecule, the SERS results imply that the Au@Ag/3D-Si substrate is superior to the 3D-Si, Ag/3D-Si and Au/3D-Si substrate. We also confirmed these excellent behaviors in theory via a commercial COMSOL software. The corresponding experimental and theoretical results indicate that our proposed Au@Ag/3D-Si substrate is expected to develop new opportunities for label-free SERS detections in biological sensors, biomedical diagnostics and food safety. PMID:27143507

  16. Gold@silver bimetal nanoparticles/pyramidal silicon 3D substrate with high reproducibility for high-performance SERS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Jiang, Shou Zhen; Yang, Cheng; Li, Chong Hui; Huo, Yan Yan; Liu, Xiao Yun; Liu, Ai Hua; Wei, Qin; Gao, Sai Sai; Gao, Xing Guo; Man, Bao Yuan

    2016-01-01

    A novel and efficient surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate has been presented based on Gold@silver/pyramidal silicon 3D substrate (Au@Ag/3D-Si). By combining the SERS activity of Ag, the chemical stability of Au and the large field enhancement of 3D-Si, the Au@Ag/3D-Si substrate possesses perfect sensitivity, homogeneity, reproducibility and chemical stability. Using R6G as probe molecule, the SERS results imply that the Au@Ag/3D-Si substrate is superior to the 3D-Si, Ag/3D-Si and Au/3D-Si substrate. We also confirmed these excellent behaviors in theory via a commercial COMSOL software. The corresponding experimental and theoretical results indicate that our proposed Au@Ag/3D-Si substrate is expected to develop new opportunities for label-free SERS detections in biological sensors, biomedical diagnostics and food safety. PMID:27143507

  17. Gold@silver bimetal nanoparticles/pyramidal silicon 3D substrate with high reproducibility for high-performance SERS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Jiang, Shou Zhen; Yang, Cheng; Li, Chong Hui; Huo, Yan Yan; Liu, Xiao Yun; Liu, Ai Hua; Wei, Qin; Gao, Sai Sai; Gao, Xing Guo; Man, Bao Yuan

    2016-05-01

    A novel and efficient surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate has been presented based on Gold@silver/pyramidal silicon 3D substrate (Au@Ag/3D-Si). By combining the SERS activity of Ag, the chemical stability of Au and the large field enhancement of 3D-Si, the Au@Ag/3D-Si substrate possesses perfect sensitivity, homogeneity, reproducibility and chemical stability. Using R6G as probe molecule, the SERS results imply that the Au@Ag/3D-Si substrate is superior to the 3D-Si, Ag/3D-Si and Au/3D-Si substrate. We also confirmed these excellent behaviors in theory via a commercial COMSOL software. The corresponding experimental and theoretical results indicate that our proposed Au@Ag/3D-Si substrate is expected to develop new opportunities for label-free SERS detections in biological sensors, biomedical diagnostics and food safety.

  18. Special subpixel arrangement-based 3D display with high horizontal resolution.

    PubMed

    Lv, Guo-Jiao; Wang, Qiong-Hua; Zhao, Wu-Xiang; Wu, Fei

    2014-11-01

    A special subpixel arrangement-based 3D display is proposed. This display consists of a 2D display panel and a parallax barrier. On the 2D display panel, subpixels have a special arrangement, so they can redefine the formation of color pixels. This subpixel arrangement can bring about triple horizontal resolution for a conventional 2D display panel. Therefore, when these pixels are modulated by the parallax barrier, the 3D images formed also have triple horizontal resolution. A prototype of this display is developed. Experimental results show that this display with triple horizontal resolution can produce a better display effect than the conventional one.

  19. Synthesis on structure and properties of zinc nanocrystal in high ordered 3D nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Sathyaseelan, B.; Manigandan, A.; Anbarasu, V.; Sivakumar, K.

    2015-06-24

    The wet impregnation method was employed to prepare ZnO encapsulated in mesoporous silica (ZnO/KIT-6). The prepared ZnO/KIT-6 samples have been studied by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, and nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm. The low angle powder XRD patterns of Calcined ZnO/KIT-6 materials showed a phase that can be indexed to cubic Ia3d. Tem images revealed well ordered cubic 3D nanoporous chennels. The ZnO encapsulated in KIT-6 can be used as light-emitting diodes and ultraviolet nanolasers.

  20. Evaluation of segmented 3D acquisition schemes for whole-brain high-resolution arterial spin labeling at 3 T.

    PubMed

    Vidorreta, Marta; Balteau, Evelyne; Wang, Ze; De Vita, Enrico; Pastor, María A; Thomas, David L; Detre, John A; Fernández-Seara, María A

    2014-11-01

    Recent technical developments have significantly increased the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion MRI. Despite this, typical ASL acquisitions still employ large voxel sizes. The purpose of this work was to implement and evaluate two ASL sequences optimized for whole-brain high-resolution perfusion imaging, combining pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL), background suppression (BS) and 3D segmented readouts, with different in-plane k-space trajectories. Identical labeling and BS pulses were implemented for both sequences. Two segmented 3D readout schemes with different in-plane trajectories were compared: Cartesian (3D GRASE) and spiral (3D RARE Stack-Of-Spirals). High-resolution perfusion images (2 × 2 × 4 mm(3) ) were acquired in 15 young healthy volunteers with the two ASL sequences at 3 T. The quality of the perfusion maps was evaluated in terms of SNR and gray-to-white matter contrast. Point-spread-function simulations were carried out to assess the impact of readout differences on the effective resolution. The combination of pCASL, in-plane segmented 3D readouts and BS provided high-SNR high-resolution ASL perfusion images of the whole brain. Although both sequences produced excellent image quality, the 3D RARE Stack-Of-Spirals readout yielded higher temporal and spatial SNR than 3D GRASE (spatial SNR = 8.5 ± 2.8 and 3.7 ± 1.4; temporal SNR = 27.4 ± 12.5 and 15.6 ± 7.6, respectively) and decreased through-plane blurring due to its inherent oversampling of the central k-space region, its reduced effective TE and shorter total readout time, at the expense of a slight increase in the effective in-plane voxel size. PMID:25263944

  1. High resolution diameter estimation of microthin wires by a novel 3D diffraction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, Khushi; Lolla, Kameswara Rao

    2011-08-01

    Micro-thin wires are of significant importance to academia, research laboratories as well as industries engaged in micro-fabrication of products related to diverse fields like micromechanics, bio-instrumentation, optoelectronics etc. Critical dimension metrology of such wires often demands diameter estimation with tight tolerances. Amongst other measurement techniques, Optical Diffractometry under Fraunhofer approximation has emerged over years as a nondestructive, robust and precise technique for on-line diameter estimation of thin wires. However, it is observed that existing Fraunhofer models invariably result in experimental overestimation of wire diameter, leading to unacceptable error performances particularly for diameters below 50 μm. In this paper, a novel diffraction model based on Geometric theory is proposed and demonstrated to theoretically quantify this diameter overestimation. The proposed model utilizes hitherto unused paths-ways for the two lateral rays that contribute to the first diffraction minimum. Based the 3-D geometry of the suggested model, a new 'diffraction formulation' is proposed. The theoretical analysis reveals the following. For diffraction experiment, the Actual diameter of the diffracting wire is a function of four parameters: source wavelength 'λ', axial distance 'z', diffraction angle corresponding to first diffraction minimum 'θd' and a newly defined characteristic parameter 'm'. The analysis reveals further that the proposed characteristic parameter 'm' varies non-linearly with diameter and presents a dependence only on the experimentally measured diffraction angle 'θd'. Based on the proposed model, the communication reports for the first time, a novel diameter-inversion procedure which, not only corrects for the overestimated but also facilitates wire diameter-inversion with high resolution. Micro-thin metallic wires having diameters spanning the range 1-50 μm are examined. Experimental results are obtained that

  2. Accuracy assessment of high frequency 3D ultrasound for digital impression-taking of prepared teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heger, Stefan; Vollborn, Thorsten; Tinschert, Joachim; Wolfart, Stefan; Radermacher, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    Silicone based impression-taking of prepared teeth followed by plaster casting is well-established but potentially less reliable, error-prone and inefficient, particularly in combination with emerging techniques like computer aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) of dental prosthesis. Intra-oral optical scanners for digital impression-taking have been introduced but until now some drawbacks still exist. Because optical waves can hardly penetrate liquids or soft-tissues, sub-gingival preparations still need to be uncovered invasively prior to scanning. High frequency ultrasound (HFUS) based micro-scanning has been recently investigated as an alternative to optical intra-oral scanning. Ultrasound is less sensitive against oral fluids and in principal able to penetrate gingiva without invasively exposing of sub-gingival preparations. Nevertheless, spatial resolution as well as digitization accuracy of an ultrasound based micro-scanning system remains a critical parameter because the ultrasound wavelength in water-like media such as gingiva is typically smaller than that of optical waves. In this contribution, the in-vitro accuracy of ultrasound based micro-scanning for tooth geometry reconstruction is being investigated and compared to its extra-oral optical counterpart. In order to increase the spatial resolution of the system, 2nd harmonic frequencies from a mechanically driven focused single element transducer were separated and corresponding 3D surface models were calculated for both fundamentals and 2nd harmonics. Measurements on phantoms, model teeth and human teeth were carried out for evaluation of spatial resolution and surface detection accuracy. Comparison of optical and ultrasound digital impression taking indicate that, in terms of accuracy, ultrasound based tooth digitization can be an alternative for optical impression-taking.

  3. High-speed biometrics ultrasonic system for 3D fingerprint imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maev, Roman G.; Severin, Fedar

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a new robust fingerprint identification technology based upon forming surface-subsurface (under skin) ultrasonic 3D images of the finger pads. The presented work aims to create specialized ultrasonic scanning methods for biometric purposes. Preliminary research has demonstrated the applicability of acoustic microscopy for fingerprint reading. The additional information from internal skin layers and dermis structures contained in the scan can essentially improve confidence in the identification. Advantages of this system include high resolution and quick scanning time. Operating in pulse-echo mode provides spatial resolution up to 0.05 mm. Technology advantages of the proposed technology are the following: • Full-range scanning of the fingerprint area "nail to nail" (2.5 x 2.5 cm) can be done in less than 5 sec with a resolution of up to 1000 dpi. • Collection of information about the in-depth structure of the fingerprint realized by the set of spherically focused 50 MHz acoustic lens provide the resolution ~ 0.05 mm or better • In addition to fingerprints, this technology can identify sweat porous at the surface and under the skin • No sensitivity to the contamination of the finger's surface • Detection of blood velocity using Doppler effect can be implemented to distinguish living specimens • Utilization as polygraph device • Simple connectivity to fingerprint databases obtained with other techniques • The digitally interpolated images can then be enhanced allowing for greater resolution • Method can be applied to fingernails and underlying tissues, providing more information • A laboratory prototype of the biometrics system based on these described principles was designed, built and tested. It is the first step toward a practical implementation of this technique.

  4. Fabrication of 3D Printed Metal Structures by Use of High-Viscosity Cu Paste and a Screw Extruder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seongik; Sanchez, Cesar; Du, Hanuel; Kim, Namsoo

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an important, rapidly growing industry. However, traditional 3D printing technology has problems with some materials. To solve the problem of the limited number of 3D-printable materials, high-viscosity materials and a new method for 3D printing were investigated. As an example of a high-viscosity material, Cu paste was synthesized and a screw extruder printer was developed to print the paste. As a fundamental part of the research, the viscosity of the Cu paste was measured for different Cu content. The viscosity of the paste increased with increasing Cu content. To print high-viscosity Cu paste, printing conditions were optimized. 3D structures were printed, by use of an extruder and high-viscosity metal paste with appropriate printing conditions, and then heat treated. After sintering, however, approximately 75% shrinkage of the final product was observed. To achieve less shrinkage, the packing factor of the Cu paste was increased by adding more Cu particles. The shrinkage factor decreased as the packing factor increased, and the size of final product was 77% of that expected.

  5. New insights into high resolution DEM structural analysis with Coltop3D software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, R.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Oppikofer, T.

    2009-04-01

    Modern measurement devices such a terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) systems allow for collecting tremendous amount of (x,y,z) points (up to 20 millions) within a few minutes. However, data analysis still may be impaired because of software limitations, which are usually not designed to handle such huge data sets. To overcome this shortcoming, a software - Coltop3D - was written from scratch. Coltop3D aims at providing the geosciences community a powerful tool to visually handle seamlessly large point clouds and large regular grids DEM, at allowing for straightforward visual analysis of the data with different colour scheme, and at providing specific geologist and/or geoscientist treatment methods such as structural analysis. The main features of Coltop3D are as follow: 1) Ability to handle huge data sets (up to 150 millions points); 2) Coloring the surface with a color scheme linking computer graphics HSV wheel and Schmidt-Lambert stereonet projection; 3) Ability to select a subset of a point cloud with complex geometric shapes; 4) Ability to select a subset of a point cloud with dip and dip direction values; 5) Creating density stereonets with selected subset; 6) Easily import from or export point cloud data to third party software. Besides the technical and basic capabilities of Coltop3D, specific case studies such as structural analysis and rock fall analysis will be presented.

  6. Final report: high resolution lensless 3D imaging of nanostructures with coherent x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, Chris

    2011-04-14

    This project helped pioneer the core capabilities of coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) using X rays at synchrotron light source facilities. We developed an apparatus that was used for CDI at the Advanced Light Source, and applied it to 2D and 3D imaging of nanostructures. We also explored a number of conceptual and computational issues on the reconstruction of CDI data.

  7. Simultaneous high-speed 3D flame front detection and tomographic PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebi, Dominik; Clemens, Noel T.

    2016-03-01

    A technique capable of detecting the instantaneous, time-resolved, 3D flame topography is successfully demonstrated in a lean-premixed swirl flame undergoing flashback. A simultaneous measurement of the volumetric velocity field is possible without the need for additional hardware. Droplets which vaporize in the preheat zone of the flame serve as the marker for the flame front. The droplets are illuminated with a laser and imaged from four different views followed by a tomographic reconstruction to obtain the volumetric particle field. Void regions in the reconstructed particle field, which correspond to regions of burnt gas, are detected with a series of image processing steps. The interface separating the void region from regions filled with particles is defined as the flame surface. The velocity field in the unburnt gas is measured using tomographic PIV. The resulting data include the simultaneous 3D flame front and 3D volumetric velocity field at 5 kHz. The technique is applied to a lean-premixed (ϕ  =  0.8), swirling methane-air flame and validated against simultaneously acquired planar measurements. The mean error associated with the reconstructed 3D flame topography is about 0.4 mm, which is smaller than the flame thickness under the studied conditions. The mean error associated with the volumetric velocity field is about 0.2 m s-1.

  8. Preparation of 3D nanoporous copper-supported cuprous oxide for high-performance lithium ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dequan; Yang, Zhibo; Wang, Peng; Li, Fei; Wang, Desheng; He, Deyan

    2013-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous architectures can provide efficient and rapid pathways for Li-ion and electron transport as well as short solid-state diffusion lengths in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, 3D nanoporous copper-supported cuprous oxide was successfully fabricated by low-cost selective etching of an electron-beam melted Cu(50)Al(50) alloy and subsequent in situ thermal oxidation. The architecture was used as an anode in lithium ion batteries. In the first cycle, the sample delivered an extremely high lithium storage capacity of about 2.35 mA h cm(-2). A high reversible capacity of 1.45 mA h cm(-2) was achieved after 120 cycles. This work develops a promising approach to building reliable 3D nanostructured electrodes for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

  9. 3D high spectral and spatial resolution imaging of ex vivo mouse brain

    SciTech Connect

    Foxley, Sean Karczmar, Gregory S.; Domowicz, Miriam; Schwartz, Nancy

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Widely used MRI methods show brain morphology both in vivo and ex vivo at very high resolution. Many of these methods (e.g., T{sub 2}{sup *}-weighted imaging, phase-sensitive imaging, or susceptibility-weighted imaging) are sensitive to local magnetic susceptibility gradients produced by subtle variations in tissue composition. However, the spectral resolution of commonly used methods is limited to maintain reasonable run-time combined with very high spatial resolution. Here, the authors report on data acquisition at increased spectral resolution, with 3-dimensional high spectral and spatial resolution MRI, in order to analyze subtle variations in water proton resonance frequency and lineshape that reflect local anatomy. The resulting information compliments previous studies based on T{sub 2}{sup *} and resonance frequency. Methods: The proton free induction decay was sampled at high resolution and Fourier transformed to produce a high-resolution water spectrum for each image voxel in a 3D volume. Data were acquired using a multigradient echo pulse sequence (i.e., echo-planar spectroscopic imaging) with a spatial resolution of 50 × 50 × 70 μm{sup 3} and spectral resolution of 3.5 Hz. Data were analyzed in the spectral domain, and images were produced from the various Fourier components of the water resonance. This allowed precise measurement of local variations in water resonance frequency and lineshape, at the expense of significantly increased run time (16–24 h). Results: High contrast T{sub 2}{sup *}-weighted images were produced from the peak of the water resonance (peak height image), revealing a high degree of anatomical detail, specifically in the hippocampus and cerebellum. In images produced from Fourier components of the water resonance at −7.0 Hz from the peak, the contrast between deep white matter tracts and the surrounding tissue is the reverse of the contrast in water peak height images. This indicates the presence of a shoulder in

  10. Experience in highly parallel processing using DAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, D.

    1987-01-01

    Distributed Array Processors (DAP) have been in day to day use for ten years and a large amount of user experience has been gained. The profile of user applications is similar to that of the Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) working group. Experience has shown that contrary to expectations, highly parallel systems provide excellent performance on so-called dirty problems such as the physics part of meteorological codes. The reasons for this observation are discussed. The arguments against replacing bit processors with floating point processors are also discussed.

  11. Operation of high power converters in parallel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, D. K.; Inouye, L. Y.

    1993-01-01

    High power converters that are used in space power subsystems are limited in power handling capability due to component and thermal limitations. For applications, such as Space Station Freedom, where multi-kilowatts of power must be delivered to user loads, parallel operation of converters becomes an attractive option when considering overall power subsystem topologies. TRW developed three different unequal power sharing approaches for parallel operation of converters. These approaches, known as droop, master-slave, and proportional adjustment, are discussed and test results are presented.

  12. High-speed real-time 3-D coordinates measurement based on fringe projection profilometry considering camera lens distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shijie; Chen, Qian; Zuo, Chao; Sun, Jiasong; Yu, Shi Ling

    2014-10-01

    Optical three-dimensional (3-D) profilometry is gaining increasing attention for its simplicity, flexibility, high accuracy, and non-contact nature. Recent advances in imaging sensors and digital projection technology further its progress in high-speed, real-time applications, enabling 3-D shapes reconstruction of moving objects and dynamic scenes. However, the camera lens is never perfect and the lens distortion does influence the accuracy of the measurement result, which is often overlooked in the existing real-time 3-D shape measurement systems. To this end, here we present a novel high-speed real-time 3-D coordinates measuring technique based on fringe projection with the consideration of the camera lens distortion. A pixel mapping relation between a distorted image and a corrected one is pre-determined and stored in computer memory for real-time fringe correction. The out-of-plane height is obtained firstly and the acquisition for the two corresponding in-plane coordinates follows on the basis of the solved height. Besides, a method of lookup table (LUT) is introduced as well for fast data processing. Our experimental results reveal that the measurement error of the in-plane coordinates has been reduced by one order of magnitude and the accuracy of the out-plane coordinate been tripled after the distortions being eliminated. Moreover, owing to the generated LUTs, a 3-D reconstruction speed of 92.34 frames per second can be achieved.

  13. Lifetimes of the hyperfine levels of 3d94s 3D3 in high-Z Ni-like ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Weijie; Andersson, Martin; Yao, Ke; Brage, Tomas; Hutton, Roger; Zou, Yaming

    2013-07-01

    Based on the multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock method and using the GRASPVU package, a theoretical investigation was performed to study the lifetimes of hyperfine levels of the first excited level 3d94s 3D3 in Ni-like ions (Z = 72-79) for all stable isotopes with nuclear spin. Comparisons between hyperfine-induced electric quadrupole transition rates and the pure magnetic octupole transition rates show that the extra electric quadrupole transition channel caused by the nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction is important for most hyperfine levels in each individual ion. Lifetimes of most hyperfine levels are sensitive to this extra decay channel. Extreme cases are found in 181Ta, 185Re and 187Re, where lifetimes of some hyperfine levels are shortened by more than an order of magnitude.

  14. High-Resolution 3-D Imaging and Tissue Differentiation with Transmission Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmarelis, V. Z.; Jeong, J.; Shin, D. C.; Do, S.

    A three-dimensional High-resolution Ultrasonic Transmission Tomography (HUTT) system has been developed recently under the sponsorship of the Alfred Mann Institute at the University of Southern California that holds the promise of early detection of breast cancer (mm-size lesions) with greater sensitivity (true positives) and specificity (true negatives) than current x-ray mammograghy. In addition to sub-mm resolution in 3-D, the HUTT system has the unique capability of reliable tissue classification by means of the frequency-dependent attenuation characteristics of individual voxels that are extracted from the tomographic data through novel signal processing methods. These methods yield "multi-band signatures" of the various tissue types that are utilized to achieve reliable tissue differentiation via novel segmentation and classification algorithms. The unparalleled high-resolution and tissue differentiation capabilities of the HUTT system have been demonstrated so far with man-made and animal-tissue phantoms. Illustrative results are presented that corroborate these claims, although several challenges remain to make HUTT a clinically acceptable technology. The next critical step is to collect and analyze data from human subjects (female breasts) in order to demonstrate the key capability of the HUTT system to detect breast lesions early (at the mm-size stage) and to differentiate between malignant and benign lesions in a manner that is far superior (in terms of sensitivity and specificity) to the current x-ray mammography. The key initial application of the HUTT imaging technology is envisioned to be the early (at the mm-size) detection of breast cancer, which represents a major threat to the well-being of women around the world. The potential impact is estimated in hundreds of thousands lives saved, millions of unnecessary biopsies avoided, and billions of dollars saved in national health-care costs every year - to say nothing of the tens of thousands of

  15. Enhancement of USM3D Unstructured Flow Solver for High-Speed High-Temperature Shear Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandya, Mohagna J.; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Frink, Neal T.

    2009-01-01

    Large temperature and pressure fluctuations have a profound effect on turbulence development in transonic and supersonic jets. For high-speed, high-temperature jet flows, standard turbulence models lack the ability to predict the observed mixing rate of a shear layer. Several proposals to address this deficiency have been advanced in the literature to modify the turbulence transport equations in a variety of ways. In the present study, some of the most proven and simple modifications to two-equation turbulence models have been selected and implemented in NASA's USM3D tetrahedral Navier-Stokes flow solver. The modifications include the addition of compressibility correction and pressure dilatation terms in the turbulence transport equations for high-speed flows, and the addition of a simple modification to the Boussinesq's closure model coefficient for high-temperature jets. The efficacy of the extended models is demonstrated by comparison with experimental data for two supersonic axisymmetric jet test cases at design pressure ratio.

  16. Rapid and high-throughput formation of 3D embryoid bodies in hydrogels using the dielectrophoresis technique.

    PubMed

    Ahadian, Samad; Yamada, Shukuyo; Ramón-Azcón, Javier; Ino, Kosuke; Shiku, Hitoshi; Khademhosseini, Ali; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2014-10-01

    In this manuscript, we demonstrate the rapid formation of three-dimensional (3D) embryonic stem cell (ESC) aggregates with controllable sizes and shapes in hydrogels using dielectrophoresis (DEP). The ESCs encapsulated within a methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) prepolymer were introduced into a DEP device and, upon applying an electric field and crosslinking of the GelMA hydrogel, formed 3D ESC aggregates. Embryoid bodies (EBs) fabricated using this method showed high cellular viability and pluripotency. The proposed technique enables production of EBs on a large scale and in a high-throughput manner for potential cell therapy and tissue regeneration applications.

  17. MoS2 Nanosheets Supported on 3D Graphene Aerogel as a Highly Efficient Catalyst for Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yufei; Xie, Xiuqiang; Zhang, Jinqiang; Liu, Hao; Ahn, Hyo-Jun; Sun, Kening; Wang, Guoxiu

    2015-11-01

    The development of efficient catalysts for electrochemical hydrogen evolution is essential for energy conversion technologies. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 ) has emerged as a promising electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction, and its performance greatly depends on its exposed edge sites and conductivity. Layered MoS2 nanosheets supported on a 3D graphene aerogel network (GA-MoS2 ) exhibit significant catalytic activity in hydrogen evolution. The GA-MoS2 composite displays a unique 3D architecture with large active surface areas, leading to high catalytic performance with low overpotential, high current density, and good stability.

  18. Feasibility study on 3-D shape analysis of high-aspect-ratio features using through-focus scanning optical microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Attota, Ravi Kiran; Weck, Peter; Kramar, John A.; Bunday, Benjamin; Vartanian, Victor

    2016-01-01

    In-line metrologies currently used in the semiconductor industry are being challenged by the aggressive pace of device scaling and the adoption of novel device architectures. Metrology and process control of three-dimensional (3-D) high-aspect-ratio (HAR) features are becoming increasingly important and also challenging. In this paper we present a feasibility study of through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM) for 3-D shape analysis of HAR features. TSOM makes use of 3-D optical data collected using a conventional optical microscope for 3-D shape analysis. Simulation results of trenches and holes down to the 11 nm node are presented. The ability of TSOM to analyze an array of HAR features or a single isolated HAR feature is also presented. This allows for the use of targets with area over 100 times smaller than that of conventional gratings, saving valuable real estate on the wafers. Indications are that the sensitivity of TSOM may match or exceed the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) measurement requirements for the next several years. Both simulations and preliminary experimental results are presented. The simplicity, lowcost, high throughput, and nanometer scale 3-D shape sensitivity of TSOM make it an attractive inspection and process monitoring solution for nanomanufacturing. PMID:27464112

  19. Automated detection, 3D segmentation and analysis of high resolution spine MR images using statistical shape models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubert, A.; Fripp, J.; Engstrom, C.; Schwarz, R.; Lauer, L.; Salvado, O.; Crozier, S.

    2012-12-01

    Recent advances in high resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the spine provide a basis for the automated assessment of intervertebral disc (IVD) and vertebral body (VB) anatomy. High resolution three-dimensional (3D) morphological information contained in these images may be useful for early detection and monitoring of common spine disorders, such as disc degeneration. This work proposes an automated approach to extract the 3D segmentations of lumbar and thoracic IVDs and VBs from MR images using statistical shape analysis and registration of grey level intensity profiles. The algorithm was validated on a dataset of volumetric scans of the thoracolumbar spine of asymptomatic volunteers obtained on a 3T scanner using the relatively new 3D T2-weighted SPACE pulse sequence. Manual segmentations and expert radiological findings of early signs of disc degeneration were used in the validation. There was good agreement between manual and automated segmentation of the IVD and VB volumes with the mean Dice scores of 0.89 ± 0.04 and 0.91 ± 0.02 and mean absolute surface distances of 0.55 ± 0.18 mm and 0.67 ± 0.17 mm respectively. The method compares favourably to existing 3D MR segmentation techniques for VBs. This is the first time IVDs have been automatically segmented from 3D volumetric scans and shape parameters obtained were used in preliminary analyses to accurately classify (100% sensitivity, 98.3% specificity) disc abnormalities associated with early degenerative changes.

  20. Feasibility study on 3-D shape analysis of high-aspect-ratio features using through-focus scanning optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Attota, Ravi Kiran; Weck, Peter; Kramar, John A; Bunday, Benjamin; Vartanian, Victor

    2016-07-25

    In-line metrologies currently used in the semiconductor industry are being challenged by the aggressive pace of device scaling and the adoption of novel device architectures. Metrology and process control of three-dimensional (3-D) high-aspect-ratio (HAR) features are becoming increasingly important and also challenging. In this paper we present a feasibility study of through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM) for 3-D shape analysis of HAR features. TSOM makes use of 3-D optical data collected using a conventional optical microscope for 3-D shape analysis. Simulation results of trenches and holes down to the 11 nm node are presented. The ability of TSOM to analyze an array of HAR features or a single isolated HAR feature is also presented. This allows for the use of targets with area over 100 times smaller than that of conventional gratings, saving valuable real estate on the wafers. Indications are that the sensitivity of TSOM may match or exceed the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) measurement requirements for the next several years. Both simulations and preliminary experimental results are presented. The simplicity, lowcost, high throughput, and nanometer scale 3-D shape sensitivity of TSOM make it an attractive inspection and process monitoring solution for nanomanufacturing. PMID:27464112

  1. Three dimensional microfluidics with embedded microball lenses for parallel and high throughput multicolor fluorescence detection

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Y. J.; Wu, Y. C.; Chen, Y.; Kung, Y. C.; Wu, T. H.; Huang, K. W.; Sheen, H. J.; Chiou, P. Y.

    2013-01-01

    We report a 3D microfluidic device with 32 detection channels and 64 sheath flow channels and embedded microball lens array for high throughput multicolor fluorescence detection. A throughput of 358 400 cells/s has been accomplished. This device is realized by utilizing solid immersion micro ball lens arrays for high sensitivity and parallel fluorescence detection. High refractive index micro ball lenses (n = 2.1) are embedded underneath PDMS channels close to cell detection zones in channels. This design permits patterning high N.A. micro ball lenses in a compact fashion for parallel fluorescence detection on a small footprint device. This device also utilizes 3D microfluidic fabrication to address fluid routing issues in two-dimensional parallel sheath focusing and allows simultaneous pumping of 32 sample channels and 64 sheath flow channels with only two inlets. PMID:24404054

  2. 3-D Surface Depression Profiling Using High Frequency Focused Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Kautz, Harold E.; Abel, Phillip B.; Whalen, Mike F.; Hendricks, J. Lynne; Bodis, James R.

    1999-01-01

    Surface topography is an important variable in the performance of many industrial components and is normally measured with diamond-tip profilometry over a small area or using optical scattering methods for larger area measurement. This article shows quantitative surface topography profiles as obtained using only high-frequency focused air-coupled ultrasonic pulses. The profiles were obtained using a profiling system developed by NASA Glenn Research Center and Sonix, Inc (via a formal cooperative agreement). (The air transducers are available as off-the-shelf items from several companies.) The method is simple and reproducible because it relies mainly on knowledge and constancy of the sound velocity through the air. The air transducer is scanned across the surface and sends pulses to the sample surface where they are reflected back from the surface along the same path as the incident wave. Time-of-flight images of the sample surface are acquired and converted to depth/surface profile images using the simple relation (d = V*t/2) between distance (d), time-of-flight (t), and the velocity of sound in air (V). The system has the ability to resolve surface depression variations as small as 25 microns, is useable over a 1.4 mm vertical depth range, and can profile large areas only limited by the scan limits of the particular ultrasonic system. (Best-case depth resolution is 0.25 microns which may be achievable with improved isolation from vibration and air currents.) The method using an optimized configuration is reasonably rapid and has all quantitative analysis facilities on-line including 2-D and 3-D visualization capability, extreme value filtering (for faulty data), and leveling capability. Air-coupled surface profilometry is applicable to plate-like and curved samples. In this article, results are shown for several proof-of-concept samples, plastic samples burned in microgravity on the STS-54 space shuttle mission, and a partially-coated cylindrical ceramic

  3. Transvaginal 3D Image-Guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, Robert; Nguyen, Thuc Nghi; Vaezy, Shahram

    2005-03-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a transvaginal image-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) device using piezocomposite HIFU array technology, and commercially-available ultrasound imaging. Potential applications include treatment of uterine fibroids and abnormal uterine bleeding. The HIFU transducer was an annular phased array, with a focal length range of 30-60 mm, an elliptically-shaped aperture of 35×60 mm, and an operating frequency of 3 MHz. A pillow-shaped bag with water circulation will be used for coupling the HIFU energy into the tissue. An intra-cavity imaging probe (C9-5, Philips) was integrated with the HIFU array such that the focal axis of the HIFU transducer was within the image plane. The entire device will be covered by a gel-filled condom when inserted in the vaginal cavity. To control it, software packages were developed in the LabView programming environment. An imaging algorithm processed the ultrasound image to remove noise patterns due to the HIFU signal. The device will be equipped with a three-dimensional tracking system, using a six-degrees-of-freedom articulating arm. Necrotic lesions were produced in a tissue-mimicking phantom and a turkey breast sample for all focal lengths. Various HIFU doses allow various necrotic lesion shapes, including thin ellipsoidal, spherical, wide cylindrical, and teardrop-shaped. Software control of the device allows multiple foci to be activated sequentially for desired lesion patterns. Ultrasound imaging synchronization can be achieved using hardware signals obtained from the imaging system, or software signals determined empirically for various imaging probes. The image-guided HIFU device will provide a valuable tool in visualization of uterine fibroid tumors for the purposes of planning and subsequent HIFU treatment of the tumor, all in a 3D environment. The control system allows for various lesions of different shapes to be optimally positioned in the tumor to cover the entire tumor

  4. Parameter Estimation of Fossil Oysters from High Resolution 3D Point Cloud and Image Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djuricic, Ana; Harzhauser, Mathias; Dorninger, Peter; Nothegger, Clemens; Mandic, Oleg; Székely, Balázs; Molnár, Gábor; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    A unique fossil oyster reef was excavated at Stetten in Lower Austria, which is also the highlight of the geo-edutainment park 'Fossilienwelt Weinviertel'. It provides the rare opportunity to study the Early Miocene flora and fauna of the Central Paratethys Sea. The site presents the world's largest fossil oyster biostrome formed about 16.5 million years ago in a tropical estuary of the Korneuburg Basin. About 15,000 up to 80-cm-long shells of Crassostrea gryphoides cover a 400 m2 large area. Our project 'Smart-Geology for the World's largest fossil oyster reef' combines methods of photogrammetry, geology and paleontology to document, evaluate and quantify the shell bed. This interdisciplinary approach will be applied to test hypotheses on the genesis of the taphocenosis (e.g.: tsunami versus major storm) and to reconstruct pre- and post-event processes. Hence, we are focusing on using visualization technologies from photogrammetry in geology and paleontology in order to develop new methods for automatic and objective evaluation of 3D point clouds. These will be studied on the basis of a very dense surface reconstruction of the oyster reef. 'Smart Geology', as extension of the classic discipline, exploits massive data, automatic interpretation, and visualization. Photogrammetry provides the tools for surface acquisition and objective, automated interpretation. We also want to stress the economic aspect of using automatic shape detection in paleontology, which saves manpower and increases efficiency during the monitoring and evaluation process. Currently, there are many well known algorithms for 3D shape detection of certain objects. We are using dense 3D laser scanning data from an instrument utilizing the phase shift measuring principle, which provides accurate geometrical basis < 3 mm. However, the situation is difficult in this multiple object scenario where more than 15,000 complete or fragmentary parts of an object with random orientation are found. The goal

  5. High-accuracy 3-D modeling of cultural heritage: the digitizing of Donatello's "Maddalena".

    PubMed

    Guidi, Gabriele; Beraldin, J Angelo; Atzeni, Carlo

    2004-03-01

    Three-dimensional digital modeling of Heritage works of art through optical scanners, has been demonstrated in recent years with results of exceptional interest. However, the routine application of three-dimensional (3-D) modeling to Heritage conservation still requires the systematic investigation of a number of technical problems. In this paper, the acquisition process of the 3-D digital model of the Maddalena by Donatello, a wooden statue representing one of the major masterpieces of the Italian Renaissance which was swept away by the Florence flood of 1966 and successively restored, is described. The paper reports all the steps of the acquisition procedure, from the project planning to the solution of the various problems due to range camera calibration and to material non optically cooperative. Since the scientific focus is centered on the 3-D model overall dimensional accuracy, a methodology for its quality control is described. Such control has demonstrated how, in some situations, the ICP-based alignment can lead to incorrect results. To circumvent this difficulty we propose an alignment technique based on the fusion of ICP with close-range digital photogrammetry and a non-invasive procedure in order to generate a final accurate model. In the end detailed results are presented, demonstrating the improvement of the final model, and how the proposed sensor fusion ensure a pre-specified level of accuracy.

  6. High-throughput 3D whole-brain quantitative histopathology in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberghe, Michel E.; Hérard, Anne-Sophie; Souedet, Nicolas; Sadouni, Elmahdi; Santin, Mathieu D.; Briet, Dominique; Carré, Denis; Schulz, Jocelyne; Hantraye, Philippe; Chabrier, Pierre-Etienne; Rooney, Thomas; Debeir, Thomas; Blanchard, Véronique; Pradier, Laurent; Dhenain, Marc; Delzescaux, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Histology is the gold standard to unveil microscopic brain structures and pathological alterations in humans and animal models of disease. However, due to tedious manual interventions, quantification of histopathological markers is classically performed on a few tissue sections, thus restricting measurements to limited portions of the brain. Recently developed 3D microscopic imaging techniques have allowed in-depth study of neuroanatomy. However, quantitative methods are still lacking for whole-brain analysis of cellular and pathological markers. Here, we propose a ready-to-use, automated, and scalable method to thoroughly quantify histopathological markers in 3D in rodent whole brains. It relies on block-face photography, serial histology and 3D-HAPi (Three Dimensional Histology Analysis Pipeline), an open source image analysis software. We illustrate our method in studies involving mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease and show that it can be broadly applied to characterize animal models of brain diseases, to evaluate therapeutic interventions, to anatomically correlate cellular and pathological markers throughout the entire brain and to validate in vivo imaging techniques. PMID:26876372

  7. Contribution to the standardization of 3D measurements using a high-resolution PMD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lietz, Henrik; Eberhardt, Jörg

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional image acquisition is still a growing field in optical metrology. Various methods are available to reconstruct an object's three-dimensional surface. The five main types of 3D cameras are stereo cameras, triangulation (pattern or laser scanning), interferometry, light-field cameras and ToF (time-of-flight) cameras. PMD (photonic mixing device) cameras measure the time of light, and thus belong to the field of ToF cameras. Each camera type has fields of application for which it is particularly well suited. Even within PMD cameras, there is a distinction made between applications for indoor and outdoor use. Until today, there is no method to measure and characterize 3D cameras uniformly. Desirable would be a method, which is able to measure all types of cameras equally. With this work, we want to contribute to the standardization of 3D cameras. In this case, we use a PMD camera for outdoor applications with relatively large pixels. It is shown how to determine the spatial resolution of a PMD camera from both, the amplitude and the distance image. Further, a novel method is presented how to determine the resolution enhancement in an image via gradient image evaluation. Finally, a method is proposed which evaluates the quality of resolution enhancement, when no ground truth data is available. Both are particularly interesting for the use of super-resolution (SR) applications.

  8. Fast 3D coronary artery contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography with magnetization transfer contrast, fat suppression and parallel imaging as applied on an anthropomorphic moving heart phantom.

    PubMed

    Irwan, Roy; Rüssel, Iris K; Sijens, Paul E

    2006-09-01

    A magnetic resonance sequence for high-resolution imaging of coronary arteries in a very short acquisition time is presented. The technique is based on fast low-angle shot and uses fat saturation and magnetization transfer contrast prepulses to improve image contrast. GeneRalized Autocalibrating Partially Parallel Acquisitions (GRAPPA) is implemented to shorten acquisition time. The sequence was tested on a moving anthropomorphic silicone heart phantom where the coronary arteries were filled with a gadolinium contrast agent solution, and imaging was performed at varying heart rates using GRAPPA. The clinical relevance of the phantom was validated by comparing the myocardial relaxation times of the phantom's homogeneous silicone cardiac wall to those of humans. Signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were higher when parallel imaging was used, possibly benefiting from the acquisition of one partition per heartbeat. Another advantage of parallel imaging for visualizing the coronary arteries is that the entire heart can be imaged within a few breath-holds.

  9. High resolution 3D ERT to help GPR data interpretation for researching archaeological items in a geologically complex subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negri, S.; Leucci, G.; Mazzone, F.

    2008-09-01

    Muro Leccese (Lecce) contains one the most important Messapian archaeological sites in southern Italy. The archaeological interest of the site arises from the discovery of the remains of Messapian walls, tombs, roads, etc. (4th-2nd centuries BC) in the neighbourhood. The archaeological remains were found at about 0.3 m depth. At present the site belongs to the municipality, which intends to build a new sewer network through it. The risk of destroying potentially interesting ancient archaeological structures during the works prompted an archaeological survey of the area. The relatively large dimensions of the area (almost 10,000 m 2), together with time and cost constraints, made it necessary to use geophysical investigations as a faster means to ascertain the presence of archaeological items. Since the most important targets were expected to be located at a soil depth of about 0.3 m, a ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey was carried out in an area located near the archaeological excavations. Unfortunately the geological complexity did not allow an easy interpretation of the GPR data. Therefore a 3D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) scan was conducted in order to resolve these interpretation problems. A three-way comparison of the results of the dense ERT measurements parallel to the x axis, the results of the measurements parallel to the y axis and the combined results was performed. Subsequently the synthetic model approach was used to provide a better characterization of the resistivity anomalies visible on the ERT field data. The 3D inversion results clearly illustrate the capability to resolve in view of quality 3D structures of archaeological interest. According to the presented data the inversion models along one direction ( x or y) seems to be adequate in reconstructing the subsurface structures. Naturally field data produce good quality reconstructions of the archaeological features only if the x-line and y-line measurements are considered together

  10. Automatic 3D Segmentation and Quantification of Lenticulostriate Arteries from High-Resolution 7 Tesla MRA Images.

    PubMed

    Wei Liao; Rohr, Karl; Chang-Ki Kang; Zang-Hee Cho; Worz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel hybrid approach for automatic 3D segmentation and quantification of high-resolution 7 Tesla magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) images of the human cerebral vasculature. Our approach consists of two main steps. First, a 3D model-based approach is used to segment and quantify thick vessels and most parts of thin vessels. Second, remaining vessel gaps of the first step in low-contrast and noisy regions are completed using a 3D minimal path approach, which exploits directional information. We present two novel minimal path approaches. The first is an explicit approach based on energy minimization using probabilistic sampling, and the second is an implicit approach based on fast marching with anisotropic directional prior. We conducted an extensive evaluation with over 2300 3D synthetic images and 40 real 3D 7 Tesla MRA images. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation shows that our approach achieves superior results compared with a previous minimal path approach. Furthermore, our approach was successfully used in two clinical studies on stroke and vascular dementia.

  11. Automatic 3D Segmentation and Quantification of Lenticulostriate Arteries from High-Resolution 7 Tesla MRA Images.

    PubMed

    Wei Liao; Rohr, Karl; Chang-Ki Kang; Zang-Hee Cho; Worz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel hybrid approach for automatic 3D segmentation and quantification of high-resolution 7 Tesla magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) images of the human cerebral vasculature. Our approach consists of two main steps. First, a 3D model-based approach is used to segment and quantify thick vessels and most parts of thin vessels. Second, remaining vessel gaps of the first step in low-contrast and noisy regions are completed using a 3D minimal path approach, which exploits directional information. We present two novel minimal path approaches. The first is an explicit approach based on energy minimization using probabilistic sampling, and the second is an implicit approach based on fast marching with anisotropic directional prior. We conducted an extensive evaluation with over 2300 3D synthetic images and 40 real 3D 7 Tesla MRA images. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation shows that our approach achieves superior results compared with a previous minimal path approach. Furthermore, our approach was successfully used in two clinical studies on stroke and vascular dementia. PMID:26571526

  12. Ultra-high-resolution 3D digitalized imaging of the cerebral angioarchitecture in rats using synchrotron radiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng-Qi; Zhou, Luo; Deng, Qian-Fang; Xie, Yuan-Yuan; Xiao, Ti-Qiao; Cao, Yu-Ze; Zhang, Ji-Wen; Chen, Xu-Meng; Yin, Xian-Zhen; Xiao, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The angioarchitecture is a fundamental aspect of brain development and physiology. However, available imaging tools are unsuited for non-destructive cerebral mapping of the functionally important three-dimensional (3D) vascular microstructures. To address this issue, we developed an ultra-high resolution 3D digitalized angioarchitectural map for rat brain, based on synchrotron radiation phase contrast imaging (SR-PCI) with pixel size of 5.92 μm. This approach provides a systematic and detailed view of the cerebrovascular anatomy at the micrometer level without any need for contrast agents. From qualitative and quantitative perspectives, the present 3D data provide a considerable insight into the spatial vascular network for whole rodent brain, particularly for functionally important regions of interest, such as the hippocampus, pre-frontal cerebral cortex and the corpus striatum. We extended these results to synchrotron-based virtual micro-endoscopy, thus revealing the trajectory of targeted vessels in 3D. The SR-PCI method for systematic visualization of cerebral microvasculature holds considerable promise for wider application in life sciences, including 3D micro-imaging in experimental models of neurodevelopmental and vascular disorders. PMID:26443231

  13. High power density microbial fuel cell with flexible 3D graphene-nickel foam as anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hanyu; Wang, Gongming; Ling, Yichuan; Qian, Fang; Song, Yang; Lu, Xihong; Chen, Shaowei; Tong, Yexiang; Li, Yat

    2013-10-01

    The structure and electrical conductivity of anode play a significant role in the power generation of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this study, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) reduced graphene oxide-nickel (denoted as rGO-Ni) foam as an anode for MFC through controlled deposition of rGO sheets onto the nickel foam substrate. The loading amount of rGO sheets and electrode surface area can be controlled by the number of rGO loading cycles. 3D rGO-Ni foam anode provides not only a large accessible surface area for microbial colonization and electron mediators, but also a uniform macro-porous scaffold for effective mass diffusion of the culture medium. Significantly, at a steady state of the power generation, the MFC device with flexible rGO-Ni electrodes produced an optimal volumetric power density of 661 W m-3 calculated based on the volume of anode material, or 27 W m-3 based on the volume of the anode chamber. These values are substantially higher than that of plain nickel foam, and other conventional carbon based electrodes (e.g., carbon cloth, carbon felt, and carbon paper) measured in the same conditions. To our knowledge, this is the highest volumetric power density reported for mL-scale MFC device with a pure strain of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. We also demonstrated that the MFC device can be operated effectively in a batch-mode at least for a week. These new 3D rGO-Ni electrodes show great promise for improving the power generation of MFC devices.The structure and electrical conductivity of anode play a significant role in the power generation of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this study, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) reduced graphene oxide-nickel (denoted as rGO-Ni) foam as an anode for MFC through controlled deposition of rGO sheets onto the nickel foam substrate. The loading amount of rGO sheets and electrode surface area can be controlled by the number of rGO loading cycles. 3D rGO-Ni foam anode provides not only a large accessible

  14. Technologies for highly parallel optoelectronic integrated circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Lear, K.L.

    1994-10-01

    While summarily reviewing the range of optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs), this paper emphasizes technology for highly parallel optical interconnections. Market volume and integration suitability considerations highlight board-to-board interconnects within systems as an initial insertion point for large OEIC production. The large channel count of these intrasystem interconnects necessitates two-dimensional laser transmitter and photoreceiver arrays. Surface normal optoelectronic components are promoted as a basis for OEICs in this application. An example system is discussed that uses vertical cavity surface emitting lasers for optical buses between layers of stacked multichip modules. Another potentially important application for highly parallel OEICs is optical routing or packet switching, and examples of such systems based on smart pixels are presented.

  15. High power density microbial fuel cell with flexible 3D graphene-nickel foam as anode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanyu; Wang, Gongming; Ling, Yichuan; Qian, Fang; Song, Yang; Lu, Xihong; Chen, Shaowei; Tong, Yexiang; Li, Yat

    2013-11-01

    The structure and electrical conductivity of anode play a significant role in the power generation of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this study, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) reduced graphene oxide-nickel (denoted as rGO-Ni) foam as an anode for MFC through controlled deposition of rGO sheets onto the nickel foam substrate. The loading amount of rGO sheets and electrode surface area can be controlled by the number of rGO loading cycles. 3D rGO-Ni foam anode provides not only a large accessible surface area for microbial colonization and electron mediators, but also a uniform macro-porous scaffold for effective mass diffusion of the culture medium. Significantly, at a steady state of the power generation, the MFC device with flexible rGO-Ni electrodes produced an optimal volumetric power density of 661 W m(-3) calculated based on the volume of anode material, or 27 W m(-3) based on the volume of the anode chamber. These values are substantially higher than that of plain nickel foam, and other conventional carbon based electrodes (e.g., carbon cloth, carbon felt, and carbon paper) measured in the same conditions. To our knowledge, this is the highest volumetric power density reported for mL-scale MFC device with a pure strain of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. We also demonstrated that the MFC device can be operated effectively in a batch-mode at least for a week. These new 3D rGO-Ni electrodes show great promise for improving the power generation of MFC devices.

  16. Ultra-Compact, High-Resolution LADAR System for 3D Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Jing; Gutierrez, Roman

    2009-01-01

    An eye-safe LADAR system weighs under 500 grams and has range resolution of 1 mm at 10 m. This laser uses an adjustable, tiny microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mirror that was made in SiWave to sweep laser frequency. The size of the laser device is small (70x50x13 mm). The LADAR uses all the mature fiber-optic telecommunication technologies in the system, making this innovation an efficient performer. The tiny size and light weight makes the system useful for commercial and industrial applications including surface damage inspections, range measurements, and 3D imaging.

  17. A High-Resolution 3D Weather Radar, MSG, and Lightning Sensor Observation Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diederich, Malte; Senf, Fabian; Wapler, Kathrin; Simmer, Clemens

    2013-04-01

    Within the research group 'Object-based Analysis and SEamless prediction' (OASE) of the Hans Ertel Centre for Weather Research programme (HerZ), a data composite containing weather radar, lightning sensor, and Meteosat Second Generation observations is being developed for the use in object-based weather analysis and nowcasting. At present, a 3D merging scheme combines measurements of the Bonn and Jülich dual polarimetric weather radar systems (data provided by the TR32 and TERENO projects) into a 3-dimensional polar-stereographic volume grid, with 500 meters horizontal, and 250 meters vertical resolution. The merging takes into account and compensates for various observational error sources, such as attenuation through hydrometeors, beam blockage through topography and buildings, minimum detectable signal as a function of noise threshold, non-hydrometeor echos like insects, and interference from other radar systems. In addition to this, the effect of convection during the radar 5-minute volume scan pattern is mitigated through calculation of advection vectors from subsequent scans and their use for advection correction when projecting the measurements into space for any desired timestamp. The Meteosat Second Generation rapid scan service provides a scan in 12 spectral visual and infrared wavelengths every 5 minutes over Germany and Europe. These scans, together with the derived microphysical cloud parameters, are projected into the same polar stereographic grid used for the radar data. Lightning counts from the LINET lightning sensor network are also provided for every 2D grid pixel. The combined 3D radar and 2D MSG/LINET data is stored in a fully documented netCDF file for every 5 minute interval, and is made ready for tracking and object based weather analysis. At the moment, the 3D data only covers the Bonn and Jülich area, but the algorithms are planed to be adapted to the newly conceived DWD polarimetric C-Band 5 minute interval volume scan strategy. An

  18. A Platform for High-Throughput Testing of the Effect of Soluble Compounds on 3D Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Deiss, Frédérique; Mazzeo, Aaron; Hong, Estrella; Ingber, Donald E.; Derda, Ratmir; Whitesides, George M.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro 3D culture could provide an important model of tissues in vivo, but assessing the effects of chemical compounds on cells in specific regions of 3D culture requires physical isolation of cells, and thus currently relies mostly on delicate and low-throughput methods. This paper describes a technique (“cells-in-gels-in-paper” CiGiP) that permits rapid assembly of arrays of 3D cell cultures, and convenient isolation of cells from specific regions of these cultures. The 3D cultures were generated by stacking sheets of 200-μm-thick paper, each sheet supporting 96 individual “spots” (thin circular slabs) of hydrogels containing cells, separated by hydrophobic material (wax, PDMS) impermeable to aqueous solutions, and hydrophilic and most hydrophobic solutes. A custom-made 96-well holder isolated the cell-containing zones from each other. Each well contained media to which a different compound could be added. After culture, and disassembly of the holder, peeling the layers apart ‘sectioned’ the individual 3D cultures into 200-μm-thick sections which were easy to analyze using 2D imaging (e.g., with a commercial gel scanner). This 96-well holder brings new utilities to high-throughput, cell-based screening, by combining the simplicity of CiGiP with the convenience of a microtiter plate. This work demonstrated the potential of this type of assays by examining the cytotoxic effects of phenylarsine oxide (PAO) and cyclophosphamide (CPA) on human breast cancer cells positioned at different separations from culture media in 3D cultures. PMID:23952342

  19. A parallel domain decomposition-based implicit method for the Cahn–Hilliard–Cook phase-field equation in 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Xiang; Yang, Chao; Cai, Xiao-Chuan; Keyes, David

    2015-03-15

    We present a numerical algorithm for simulating the spinodal decomposition described by the three dimensional Cahn–Hilliard–Cook (CHC) equation, which is a fourth-order stochastic partial differential equation with a noise term. The equation is discretized in space and time based on a fully implicit, cell-centered finite difference scheme, with an adaptive time-stepping strategy designed to accelerate the progress to equilibrium. At each time step, a parallel Newton–Krylov–Schwarz algorithm is used to solve the nonlinear system. We discuss various numerical and computational challenges associated with the method. The numerical scheme is validated by a comparison with an explicit scheme of high accuracy (and unreasonably high cost). We present steady state solutions of the CHC equation in two and three dimensions. The effect of the thermal fluctuation on the spinodal decomposition process is studied. We show that the existence of the thermal fluctuation accelerates the spinodal decomposition process and that the final steady morphology is sensitive to the stochastic noise. We also show the evolution of the energies and statistical moments. In terms of the parallel performance, it is found that the implicit domain decomposition approach scales well on supercomputers with a large number of processors.

  20. A parallel domain decomposition-based implicit method for the Cahn-Hilliard-Cook phase-field equation in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiang; Yang, Chao; Cai, Xiao-Chuan; Keyes, David

    2015-03-01

    We present a numerical algorithm for simulating the spinodal decomposition described by the three dimensional Cahn-Hilliard-Cook (CHC) equation, which is a fourth-order stochastic partial differential equation with a noise term. The equation is discretized in space and time based on a fully implicit, cell-centered finite difference scheme, with an adaptive time-stepping strategy designed to accelerate the progress to equilibrium. At each time step, a parallel Newton-Krylov-Schwarz algorithm is used to solve the nonlinear system. We discuss various numerical and computational challenges associated with the method. The numerical scheme is validated by a comparison with an explicit scheme of high accuracy (and unreasonably high cost). We present steady state solutions of the CHC equation in two and three dimensions. The effect of the thermal fluctuation on the spinodal decomposition process is studied. We show that the existence of the thermal fluctuation accelerates the spinodal decomposition process and that the final steady morphology is sensitive to the stochastic noise. We also show the evolution of the energies and statistical moments. In terms of the parallel performance, it is found that the implicit domain decomposition approach scales well on supercomputers with a large number of processors.

  1. 3D printing of high-resolution PLA-based structures by hybrid electrohydrodynamic and fused deposition modeling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Seong, Baekhoon; Nguyen, VuDat; Byun, Doyoung

    2016-02-01

    Recently, the three-dimensional (3D) printing technique has received much attention for shape forming and manufacturing. The fused deposition modeling (FDM) printer is one of the various 3D printers available and has become widely used due to its simplicity, low-cost, and easy operation. However, the FDM technique has a limitation whereby its patterning resolution is too low at around 200 μm. In this paper, we first present a hybrid mechanism of electrohydrodynamic jet printing with the FDM technique, which we name E-FDM. We then develop a novel high-resolution 3D printer based on the E-FDM process. To determine the optimal condition for structuring, we also investigated the effect of several printing parameters, such as temperature, applied voltage, working height, printing speed, flow-rate, and acceleration on the patterning results. This method was capable of fabricating both high resolution 2D and 3D structures with the use of polylactic acid (PLA). PLA has been used to fabricate scaffold structures for tissue engineering, which has different hierarchical structure sizes. The fabrication speed was up to 40 mm/s and the pattern resolution could be improved to 10 μm.

  2. Ultra-Small, High-Frequency, and Substrate-Immune Microtube Inductors Transformed from 2D to 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xin; Huang, Wen; Li, Moyang; Comberiate, Thomas M.; Gong, Songbin; Schutt-Aine, Jose E.; Li, Xiuling

    2015-04-01

    Monolithic on-chip inductors are key passive devices in radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs). Currently, 70-80% of the on-wafer area of most RFIC chips is occupied by the sprawling planar spiral inductors, and its operation frequency is limited to a few GHz. With continuous scaling of the transistor technology, miniaturization and high frequency operation of inductors have become the bottleneck to meet future demands of wireless communication systems. Here we report on-chip self-rolled-up 3D microtube inductors with extremely small footprint, unprecedented high frequency performance and weak dependence on substrate conductivity. The serpentine metal strips are deposited on an oppositely strained silicon nitrides (SiNx) bilayer. After releasing from the sacrificial layer underneath, the metal/SiNx layer is scrolled into a 3D hollow tubular structure by the strain induced unidirectional self-rolled-up technology. Compared to the planar spiral inductors with similar inductances and quality (Q) factors, the footprint of tube inductors is reduced by as much as two orders of magnitude, and the frequency at peak Q factor improves more than 5 times on doped substrates. The self-rolled-up 3D nanotechnology platform employed here, that ``processes in 2D but functions in 3D'', is positioned to serve as a global solution for extreme RFIC miniaturization with improved performance.

  3. UAV based 3D digital surface model to estimate paleolandscape in high mountainous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, János; Árvai, Mátyás; Kohán, Balázs; Deák, Márton; Nagy, Balázs

    2016-04-01

    Our method to present current state of a peat bog was focused on the possible use of a UAV-system and later Structure-from-motion algorithms as processing technique. The peat bog site is located on the Vinderel Plateau, Farcǎu Massif, Maramures Mountains (Romania). The peat bog (1530 m a.s.l., N47°54'11", E24°26'37") lies below Rugasu ridge (c. 1820 m a.s.l.) and the locality serves as a conservation area for fallen down coniferous trees. Peat deposits were formed in a landslide concavity on the western slope of Farcǎu Massif. Nowadays the site is surrounded by a completely deforested landscape, and Farcǎu Massif lies above the depressed treeline. The peat bog has an extraordinary geomorphological situation, because a gully reached the bog and drained the water. In the recent past sedimentological and dendrochronological researches have been initiated. However, an accurate 3D digital surface model also needed for a complex paleoenvironmental research. Last autumn the bog and its surroundings were finally surveyed by a multirotor UAV developed in-house based on an open-source flight management unit and its firmware. During this survey a lightweight action camera (mainly to decrease payload weight) was used to take aerial photographs. While our quadcopter is capable to fly automatically on a predefined flight route, several over- and sidelapping flight lines were generated prior to the actual survey on the ground using a control software running on a notebook. Despite those precautions, limited number of batteries and severe weather affected our final flights, resulting a reduced surveyed area around peat bog. Later, during the processing we looked for a reliable tool which powerful enough to process more than 500 photos taken during flights. After testing several software Agisoft PhotoScan was used to create 3D point cloud and mesh about bog and its environment. Due to large number of photographs PhotoScan had to be configured for network processing to get

  4. Low-Cost 3D Printers Enable High-Quality and Automated Sample Preparation and Molecular Detection

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kamfai; Coen, Mauricio; Hardick, Justin; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Wong, Kah-Yat; Smith, Clayton; Wilson, Scott A.; Vayugundla, Siva Praneeth; Wong, Season

    2016-01-01

    Most molecular diagnostic assays require upfront sample preparation steps to isolate the target’s nucleic acids, followed by its amplification and detection using various nucleic acid amplification techniques. Because molecular diagnostic methods are generally rather difficult to perform manually without highly trained users, automated and integrated systems are highly desirable but too costly for use at point-of-care or low-resource settings. Here, we showcase the development of a low-cost and rapid nucleic acid isolation and amplification platform by modifying entry-level 3D printers that cost between $400 and $750. Our modifications consisted of replacing the extruder with a tip-comb attachment that houses magnets to conduct magnetic particle-based nucleic acid extraction. We then programmed the 3D printer to conduct motions that can perform high-quality extraction protocols. Up to 12 samples can be processed simultaneously in under 13 minutes and the efficiency of nucleic acid isolation matches well against gold-standard spin-column-based extraction technology. Additionally, we used the 3D printer’s heated bed to supply heat to perform water bath-based polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). Using another attachment to hold PCR tubes, the 3D printer was programmed to automate the process of shuttling PCR tubes between water baths. By eliminating the temperature ramping needed in most commercial thermal cyclers, the run time of a 35-cycle PCR protocol was shortened by 33%. This article demonstrates that for applications in resource-limited settings, expensive nucleic acid extraction devices and thermal cyclers that are used in many central laboratories can be potentially replaced by a device modified from inexpensive entry-level 3D printers. PMID:27362424

  5. Low-Cost 3D Printers Enable High-Quality and Automated Sample Preparation and Molecular Detection.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kamfai; Coen, Mauricio; Hardick, Justin; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Wong, Kah-Yat; Smith, Clayton; Wilson, Scott A; Vayugundla, Siva Praneeth; Wong, Season

    2016-01-01

    Most molecular diagnostic assays require upfront sample preparation steps to isolate the target's nucleic acids, followed by its amplification and detection using various nucleic acid amplification techniques. Because molecular diagnostic methods are generally rather difficult to perform manually without highly trained users, automated and integrated systems are highly desirable but too costly for use at point-of-care or low-resource settings. Here, we showcase the development of a low-cost and rapid nucleic acid isolation and amplification platform by modifying entry-level 3D printers that cost between $400 and $750. Our modifications consisted of replacing the extruder with a tip-comb attachment that houses magnets to conduct magnetic particle-based nucleic acid extraction. We then programmed the 3D printer to conduct motions that can perform high-quality extraction protocols. Up to 12 samples can be processed simultaneously in under 13 minutes and the efficiency of nucleic acid isolation matches well against gold-standard spin-column-based extraction technology. Additionally, we used the 3D printer's heated bed to supply heat to perform water bath-based polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). Using another attachment to hold PCR tubes, the 3D printer was programmed to automate the process of shuttling PCR tubes between water baths. By eliminating the temperature ramping needed in most commercial thermal cyclers, the run time of a 35-cycle PCR protocol was shortened by 33%. This article demonstrates that for applications in resource-limited settings, expensive nucleic acid extraction devices and thermal cyclers that are used in many central laboratories can be potentially replaced by a device modified from inexpensive entry-level 3D printers.

  6. Low-Cost 3D Printers Enable High-Quality and Automated Sample Preparation and Molecular Detection.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kamfai; Coen, Mauricio; Hardick, Justin; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Wong, Kah-Yat; Smith, Clayton; Wilson, Scott A; Vayugundla, Siva Praneeth; Wong, Season

    2016-01-01

    Most molecular diagnostic assays require upfront sample preparation steps to isolate the target's nucleic acids, followed by its amplification and detection using various nucleic acid amplification techniques. Because molecular diagnostic methods are generally rather difficult to perform manually without highly trained users, automated and integrated systems are highly desirable but too costly for use at point-of-care or low-resource settings. Here, we showcase the development of a low-cost and rapid nucleic acid isolation and amplification platform by modifying entry-level 3D printers that cost between $400 and $750. Our modifications consisted of replacing the extruder with a tip-comb attachment that houses magnets to conduct magnetic particle-based nucleic acid extraction. We then programmed the 3D printer to conduct motions that can perform high-quality extraction protocols. Up to 12 samples can be processed simultaneously in under 13 minutes and the efficiency of nucleic acid isolation matches well against gold-standard spin-column-based extraction technology. Additionally, we used the 3D printer's heated bed to supply heat to perform water bath-based polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). Using another attachment to hold PCR tubes, the 3D printer was programmed to automate the process of shuttling PCR tubes between water baths. By eliminating the temperature ramping needed in most commercial thermal cyclers, the run time of a 35-cycle PCR protocol was shortened by 33%. This article demonstrates that for applications in resource-limited settings, expensive nucleic acid extraction devices and thermal cyclers that are used in many central laboratories can be potentially replaced by a device modified from inexpensive entry-level 3D printers. PMID:27362424

  7. High-Performance 3D Compressive Sensing MRI Reconstruction Using Many-Core Architectures

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daehyun; Trzasko, Joshua; Smelyanskiy, Mikhail; Haider, Clifton; Dubey, Pradeep; Manduca, Armando

    2011-01-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) describes how sparse signals can be accurately reconstructed from many fewer samples than required by the Nyquist criterion. Since MRI scan duration is proportional to the number of acquired samples, CS has been gaining significant attention in MRI. However, the computationally intensive nature of CS reconstructions has precluded their use in routine clinical practice. In this work, we investigate how different throughput-oriented architectures can benefit one CS algorithm and what levels of acceleration are feasible on different modern platforms. We demonstrate that a CUDA-based code running on an NVIDIA Tesla C2050 GPU can reconstruct a 256 × 160 × 80 volume from an 8-channel acquisition in 19 seconds, which is in itself a significant improvement over the state of the art. We then show that Intel's Knights Ferry can perform the same 3D MRI reconstruction in only 12 seconds, bringing CS methods even closer to clinical viability. PMID:21922017

  8. Toward high-speed 3D nonlinear soft tissue deformation simulations using Abaqus software.

    PubMed

    Idkaidek, Ashraf; Jasiuk, Iwona

    2015-12-01

    We aim to achieve a fast and accurate three-dimensional (3D) simulation of a porcine liver deformation under a surgical tool pressure using the commercial finite element software Abaqus. The liver geometry is obtained using magnetic resonance imaging, and a nonlinear constitutive law is employed to capture large deformations of the tissue. Effects of implicit versus explicit analysis schemes, element type, and mesh density on computation time are studied. We find that Abaqus explicit and implicit solvers are capable of simulating nonlinear soft tissue deformations accurately using first-order tetrahedral elements in a relatively short time by optimizing the element size. This study provides new insights and guidance on accurate and relatively fast nonlinear soft tissue simulations. Such simulations can provide force feedback during robotic surgery and allow visualization of tissue deformations for surgery planning and training of surgical residents. PMID:26530842

  9. Two Eyes, 3D Early Results: Stereoscopic vs 2D Representations of Highly Spatial Scientific Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Aaron

    2013-06-01

    "Two Eyes, 3D" is a 3-year NSF funded research project to study the educational impacts of using stereoscopic representations in informal settings. The first study conducted as part of the project tested children 5-12 on their ability to perceive spatial elements of slides of scientific objects shown to them in either stereoscopic or 2D format. Children were also tested for prior spatial ability. Early results suggest that stereoscopy does not have a major impact on perceiving spatial elements of an image, but it does have a more significant impact on how the children apply that knowledge when presented with a common sense situation. The project is run by the AAVSO and this study was conducted at the Boston Museum of Science.

  10. Balloon Ascent: 3-D Simulation Tool for the Ascent and Float of High-Altitude Balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Rodger E.

    2005-01-01

    The BalloonAscent balloon flight simulation code represents a from-scratch development using Visual Basic 5 as the software platform. The simulation code is a transient analysis of balloon flight, predicting the skin and gas temperatures along with the 3-D position and velocity in a time and spatially varying environment. There are manual and automated controls for gas valving and the dropping of ballast. Also, there are many handy calculators, such as appropriate free lift, and steady-state thermal solutions with temperature gradients. The strength of this simulation model over others in the past is that the infrared environment is deterministic rather than guessed at. The ground temperature is specified along with the emissivity, which creates a ground level IR environment that is then partially absorbed as it travels upward through the atmosphere to the altitude of the balloon.

  11. High transmission 3D printed flex-PCB-based ion funnel.

    PubMed

    Tridas, Eric Miguel; Allemang, Christopher; Mast, Fabian; Anthony, J Mark; Schlaf, Rudiger

    2015-07-01

    In this study a novel fabrication method for a radio frequency (RF) ion funnel is presented. RF ion funnels are important devices for focusing ion clouds at low vacuum conditions for mass spectrometry or deposition-related applications. Typically, ion funnels are constructed of stainless steel plate ring electrodes with a decreasing diameter where RF and direct current potentials are applied to the electrodes to focus the ion cloud. The presented novel design is based on a flexible circuit board that serves both as the signal distribution circuit and as the electrodes of the ion funnel. The flexible circuit board is rolled into a 3D printed scaffold to create a funnel shape with ring electrodes formed by the copper electrodes of the flexible circuit board. The design is characterized in direct comparison with a conventional steel-plate electrode design. The discussed results show that the new funnel has similar performance to the conventionally designed funnel despite much lower manufacturing costs.

  12. Toward high-speed 3D nonlinear soft tissue deformation simulations using Abaqus software.

    PubMed

    Idkaidek, Ashraf; Jasiuk, Iwona

    2015-12-01

    We aim to achieve a fast and accurate three-dimensional (3D) simulation of a porcine liver deformation under a surgical tool pressure using the commercial finite element software Abaqus. The liver geometry is obtained using magnetic resonance imaging, and a nonlinear constitutive law is employed to capture large deformations of the tissue. Effects of implicit versus explicit analysis schemes, element type, and mesh density on computation time are studied. We find that Abaqus explicit and implicit solvers are capable of simulating nonlinear soft tissue deformations accurately using first-order tetrahedral elements in a relatively short time by optimizing the element size. This study provides new insights and guidance on accurate and relatively fast nonlinear soft tissue simulations. Such simulations can provide force feedback during robotic surgery and allow visualization of tissue deformations for surgery planning and training of surgical residents.

  13. Biomimetic staggered composites with highly enhanced energy dissipation: Modeling, 3D printing, and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pu; Heyne, Mary A.; To, Albert C.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the damping enhancement in a class of biomimetic staggered composites via a combination of design, modeling, and experiment. In total, three kinds of staggered composites are designed by mimicking the structure of bone and nacre. These composite designs are realized by 3D printing a rigid plastic and a viscous elastomer simultaneously. Greatly-enhanced energy dissipation in the designed composites is observed from both the experimental results and theoretical prediction. The designed polymer composites have loss modulus up to ~500 MPa, higher than most of the existing polymers. In addition, their specific loss modulus (up to 0.43 km2/s2) is among the highest of damping materials. The damping enhancement is attributed to the large shear deformation of the viscous soft matrix and the large strengthening effect from the rigid inclusion phase.

  14. High linearity SPAD and TDC array for TCSPC and 3D ranging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, Federica; Lussana, Rudi; Bronzi, Danilo; Dalla Mora, Alberto; Contini, Davide; Tisa, Simone; Tosi, Alberto; Zappa, Franco

    2015-01-01

    An array of 32x32 Single-Photon Avalanche-Diodes (SPADs) and Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) has been fabricated in a 0.35 μm automotive-certified CMOS technology. The overall dimension of the chip is 9x9 mm2. Each pixel is able to detect photons in the 300 nm - 900 nm wavelength range with a fill-factor of 3.14% and either to count them or to time stamp their arrival time. In photon-counting mode an in-pixel 6-bit counter provides photon-numberresolved intensity movies at 100 kfps, whereas in photon-timing mode the 10-bit in-pixel TDC provides time-resolved maps (Time-Correlated Single-Photon Counting measurements) or 3D depth-resolved (through direct time-of-flight technique) images and movies, with 312 ps resolution. The photodetector is a 30 μm diameter SPAD with low Dark Count Rate (120 cps at room temperature, 3% hot-pixels) and 55% peak Photon Detection Efficiency (PDE) at 450 nm. The TDC has a 6-bit counter and a 4-bit fine interpolator, based on a Delay Locked Loop (DLL) line, which makes the TDC insensitive to process, voltage, and temperature drifts. The implemented sliding-scale technique improves linearity, giving 2% LSB DNL and 10% LSB INL. The single-shot precision is 260 ps rms, comprising SPAD, TDC and driving board jitter. Both optical and electrical crosstalk among SPADs and TDCs are negligible. 2D fast movies and 3D reconstructions with centimeter resolution are reported.

  15. Zooming in: high resolution 3D reconstruction of differently stained histological whole slide images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotz, Johannes; Berger, Judith; Müller, Benedikt; Breuhahn, Kai; Grabe, Niels; Heldmann, Stefan; Homeyer, André; Lahrmann, Bernd; Laue, Hendrik; Olesch, Janine; Schwier, Michael; Sedlaczek, Oliver; Warth, Arne

    2014-03-01

    Much insight into metabolic interactions, tissue growth, and tissue organization can be gained by analyzing differently stained histological serial sections. One opportunity unavailable to classic histology is three-dimensional (3D) examination and computer aided analysis of tissue samples. In this case, registration is needed to reestablish spatial correspondence between adjacent slides that is lost during the sectioning process. Furthermore, the sectioning introduces various distortions like cuts, folding, tearing, and local deformations to the tissue, which need to be corrected in order to exploit the additional information arising from the analysis of neighboring slide images. In this paper we present a novel image registration based method for reconstructing a 3D tissue block implementing a zooming strategy around a user-defined point of interest. We efficiently align consecutive slides at increasingly fine resolution up to cell level. We use a two-step approach, where after a macroscopic, coarse alignment of the slides as preprocessing, a nonlinear, elastic registration is performed to correct local, non-uniform deformations. Being driven by the optimization of the normalized gradient field (NGF) distance measure, our method is suitable for differently stained and thus multi-modal slides. We applied our method to ultra thin serial sections (2 μm) of a human lung tumor. In total 170 slides, stained alternately with four different stains, have been registered. Thorough visual inspection of virtual cuts through the reconstructed block perpendicular to the cutting plane shows accurate alignment of vessels and other tissue structures. This observation is confirmed by a quantitative analysis. Using nonlinear image registration, our method is able to correct locally varying deformations in tissue structures and exceeds the limitations of globally linear transformations.

  16. Transient Hydraulic Tomography in the Field: 3-D K Estimation and Validation in a Highly Heterogeneous Unconfined Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochstetler, D. L.; Barrash, W.; Kitanidis, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    Characterizing subsurface hydraulic properties is essential for predicting flow and transport, and thus, for making informed decisions, such as selection and execution of a groundwater remediation strategy; however, obtaining accurate estimates at the necessary resolution with quantified uncertainty is an ongoing challenge. For over a decade, the development of hydraulic tomography (HT) - i.e., conducting a series of discrete interval hydraulic tests, observing distributed pressure signals, and analyzing the data through inversion of all tests together - has shown promise as a subsurface imaging method. Numerical and laboratory 3-D HT studies have enhanced and validated such methodologies, but there have been far fewer 3-D field characterization studies. We use 3-D transient hydraulic tomography (3-D THT) to characterize a highly heterogeneous unconfined alluvial aquifer at an active industrial site near Assemini, Italy. With 26 pumping tests conducted from 13 isolated vertical locations, and pressure responses measured at 63 spatial locations through five clusters of continuous multichannel tubing, we recorded over 800 drawdown curves during the field testing. Selected measurements from each curve were inverted in order to obtain an estimate of the distributed hydraulic conductivity field K(x) as well as uniform ("effective") values of specific storage Ss and specific yield Sy. The estimated K values varied across seven orders of magnitude, suggesting that this is one of the most heterogeneous sites at which HT has ever been conducted. Furthermore, these results are validated using drawdown observations from seven independent tests with pumping performed at multiple locations other than the main pumping well. The validation results are encouraging, especially given the uncertain nature of the problem. Overall, this research demonstrates the ability of 3-D THT to provide high-resolution of structure and local K at a non-research site at the scale of a contaminant

  17. 3D branched ZnO nanowire arrays decorated with plasmonic au nanoparticles for high-performance photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xing; Liu, Yang; Kang, Zhenhui

    2014-03-26

    Plasmonic photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is very promising in the conversion of abundant solar energy into chemical energy. However, the solar-to-hydrogen efficiencies reported so far are still too low for practical use, which can be improved by optimizing the design and synthesis of individual blocks (i. e., the compositions, sizes, shapes of the metal and the coupling semiconductors) and the assembly of these blocks into targeted three-dimensional (3D) structures. Here, we constructed a composite plasmonic metal/semiconductor photoanode by decorating gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) on 3D branched ZnO nanowire arrays (B-ZnO NWs) through a series of simple solution chemical routes. The 3D ordered Au/B-ZnO NWs photoanodes exhibited excellent PEC activities in both ultraviolet and visible region. The improved photoactivities in visible region were demonstrated to be caused by the surface-plasmon-resonance effect of Au NPs. The photoconversion efficiency of Au/B-ZnO NWs photoanode reached 0.52% under simulated sunlight illumination. This is a high value of solar-to-hydrogen efficiencies reported till nowadays for plasmonic PEC water splitting, which was mainly benefit from the extensive metal/semiconductor interfaces for efficient extraction of hot electron from Au NPs and excellent charge-carries collection efficiency of the 3D ordered Au/B-ZnO NWs photoelectrode. PMID:24598779

  18. Automatic Building Damage Detection Method Using High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images and 3d GIS Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Jihui; Sui, Haigang; Feng, Wenqing; Song, Zhina

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a novel approach of building damaged detection is proposed using high resolution remote sensing images and 3D GIS-Model data. Traditional building damage detection method considers to detect damaged building due to earthquake, but little attention has been paid to analyze various building damaged types(e.g., trivial damaged, severely damaged and totally collapsed.) Therefore, we want to detect the different building damaged type using 2D and 3D feature of scenes because the real world we live in is a 3D space. The proposed method generalizes that the image geometric correction method firstly corrects the post-disasters remote sensing image using the 3D GIS model or RPC parameters, then detects the different building damaged types using the change of the height and area between the pre- and post-disasters and the texture feature of post-disasters. The results, evaluated on a selected study site of the Beichuan earthquake ruins, Sichuan, show that this method is feasible and effective in building damage detection. It has also shown that the proposed method is easily applicable and well suited for rapid damage assessment after natural disasters.

  19. An elastic/viscoelastic finite element analysis method for crustal deformation using a 3-D island-scale high-fidelity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichimura, Tsuyoshi; Agata, Ryoichiro; Hori, Takane; Hirahara, Kazuro; Hashimoto, Chihiro; Hori, Muneo; Fukahata, Yukitoshi

    2016-07-01

    As a result of the accumulation of high-resolution observation data, 3-D high-fidelity crustal structure data for large domains are becoming available. However, it has been difficult to use such data to perform elastic/viscoelastic crustal deformation analyses in large domains with quality assurance of the numerical simulation that guarantees convergence of the numerical solution with respect to the discretization size because the costs of analysis are significantly high. This paper proposes a method of constructing a high-fidelity crustal structure finite element (FE) model using high-fidelity crustal structure data and fast FE analysis to reduce the costs of analysis (based on automatic FE model generation for parallel computation, OpenMP/MPI hybrid parallel computation on distributed memory computers, a geometric multigrid, variable preconditioning and multiple precision arithmetic). Using the proposed methods, we construct 10 billion degree-of-freedom high-fidelity crustal structure FE models for the entire Japan, and conduct elastic/viscoelastic crustal deformation analysis using this model with enough high accuracy of the numerical simulation.

  20. Observation of a topological 3D Dirac semimetal phase in high-mobility Cd3As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, M.; Xu, S.-Y.; Sankar, R.; Alidoust, N.; Bian, G.; Liu, Chang; Belopolski, I.; Chang, T.-R.; Jeng, H.-T.; Lin, H.; Bansil, A.; Chou, Fangcheng; Hasan, M. Z.

    2014-03-01

    Experimental identification of three-dimensional (3D) Dirac semimetals in solid state systems is critical for realizing exotic topological phenomena and quantum transport. Using high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we performed systematic electronic structure studies on well-known compound Cd3As2. For the first time, we observe a highly linear bulk Dirac cone located at the Brillouin zone center projected onto the (001) surface, which is consistent with a 3D Dirac semimetal phase in Cd3As2. Remarkably, an unusually high Dirac Fermion velocity is seen in samples where the mobility far exceeds 20,000 cm2/V.s suggesting that Cd3As2 can be a promising candidate as a hypercone analog of graphene in many device-applications, which can also incorporate topological quantum phenomena in a large gap setting. This work is primarily supported by U.S. DOE and Princeton University.

  1. High-speed dynamic 3D photoacoustic imaging of sentinel lymph node in a murine model using an ultrasound array.

    PubMed

    Song, Liang; Kim, Chulhong; Maslov, Konstantin; Shung, K Kirk; Wang, Lihong V

    2009-08-01

    Noninvasive photoacoustic sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping with high spatial resolution has the potential to improve the false negative rate and eliminate the use of radioactive tracers in SLN identification. In addition, the demonstrated high spatial resolution may enable physicians to replace SLN biopsy with fine needle aspiration biopsy, and thus reduce the risk of associated morbidity. The primary goal of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of high-speed 3D photoacoustic imaging of the uptake and clearance dynamics of Evans blue dye in SLNs. The photoacoustic imaging system was developed with a 30 MHz ultrasound array and a kHz repetition rate laser system. It acquires one 3D photoacoustic image of 166 B-scan frames in 1 s, with axial, lateral, and elevational resolutions of 25, 70, and 200 microm, respectively. With optic-fiber based light delivery, the entire system is compact and is convenient to use. Upon injection of Evans blue, a blue dye currently used in clinical SLN biopsy, SLNs in mice and rats were accurately and noninvasively mapped in vivo using our imaging system. In our experiments, the SLNs were found to be located at approximately 0.65 mm below the skin surface in mice and approximately 1.2 mm in rats. In some cases, lymph vessels and lymphatic valves were also imaged. The dye dynamics--accumulation and clearance--in SLNs were quantitatively monitored by sequential 3D imaging with temporal resolution of as high as approximately 6 s. The demonstrated capability suggests that high-speed 3D photoacoustic imaging should facilitate the understanding of the dynamics of various dyes in SLNs and potentially help identify SLNs with high accuracy. PMID:19746805

  2. High-resolution 3D ultrasound jawbone surface imaging for diagnosis of periodontal bony defects: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M; Ngan, Peter; Crout, Richard; Mukdadi, Osama M

    2010-11-01

    Although medical specialties have recognized the importance of using ultrasonic imaging, dentistry is only beginning to discover its benefit. This has particularly been important in the field of periodontics which studies infections in the gum and bone tissues that surround the teeth. This study investigates the feasibility of using a custom-designed high-frequency ultrasound imaging system to reconstruct high-resolution (< 50 μm) three-dimensional (3D) surface images of periodontal defects in human jawbone. The system employs single-element focused ultrasound transducers with center frequencies ranging from 30 to 60 MHz. Continuous acquisition using a 1 GHz data acquisition card is synchronized with a high-precision two-dimensional (2D) positioning system of ±1 μm resolution for acquiring accurate measurements of the mandible, in vitro. Signal and image processing algorithms are applied to reconstruct high-resolution ultrasound images and extract the jawbone surface in each frame. Then, all edges are combined and smoothed in order to render a 3D surface image of the jawbone. In vitro experiments were performed to assess the system performance using mandibles with teeth (dentate) or without (nondentate). The system was able to reconstruct 3D images for the mandible's outer surface with superior spatial resolution down to 24 μm, and to perform the whole scanning in < 30 s. Major anatomical landmarks on the images were confirmed with the anatomical structures on the mandibles. All the anatomical landmarks were detected and fully described as 3D images using this novel ultrasound imaging technique, whereas the 2D X-ray radiographic images suffered from poor contrast. These results indicate the great potential of utilizing high-resolution ultrasound as a noninvasive, nonionizing imaging technique for the early diagnosis of the more severe form of periodontal disease.

  3. Highly parallel microbial diagnostics using oligonucleotide microarrays.

    PubMed

    Loy, Alexander; Bodrossy, Levente

    2006-01-01

    Oligonucleotide microarrays are highly parallel hybridization platforms, allowing rapid and simultaneous identification of many different microorganisms and viruses in a single assay. In the past few years, researchers have been confronted with a dramatic increase in the number of studies reporting development and/or improvement of oligonucleotide microarrays for microbial diagnostics, but use of the technology in routine diagnostics is still constrained by a variety of factors. Careful development of microarray essentials (such as oligonucleotide probes, protocols for target preparation and hybridization, etc.) combined with extensive performance testing are thus mandatory requirements for the maturation of diagnostic microarrays from fancy technological gimmicks to robust and routinely applicable tools.

  4. Visualization methods for high-resolution, transient, 3-D, finite element situations

    SciTech Connect

    Christon, M.A.

    1995-01-10

    Scientific visualization is the process whereby numerical data is transformed into a visual form to augment the process of discovery and understanding. Visualizing the data generated by large-scale, transient, three-dimensional finite element simulations poses many challenges due to geometric complexity, the presence of multiple materials and multiple element types, and the inherent unstructured nature of the meshes. In this paper, the direct use of finite element data structures, nodal assembly procedures, and element interpolants for volumetric adaptive surface extraction, surface rendering, vector grids and particle tracing is discussed. A brief description of a {open_quotes}direct-to-disk{close_quotes} animation system is presented, and case studies which demonstrate the use of isosurfaces, vector plots, cutting planes, reference surfaces and particle tracing are then discussed in the context of several case studies for transient incompressible viscous flow, and acoustic fluid-structure interaction simulations. An overview of the implications of massively parallel computers on visualization is presented to highlight the issues in parallel visualization methodology, algorithms. data locality and the ultimate requirements for temporary and archival data storage and network bandwidth.

  5. Rock properties of the upper-crust in Central Apennines (Italy) derived from high-resolution 3-D tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monna, Stephen; Filippi, Luisa; Beranzoli, Laura; Favali, Paolo

    2003-04-01

    High-resolution 3-D P and S-wave velocity models of a central sector of the Apennines (Central Italy) are computed by inverting first arrival times from an aftershock sequence (September-December, 1997) following the Mw 5.7 and Mw 6.0 Umbria-Marche earthquakes that occurred on September 26, 1997. The high quality of the data set, especially for the S-wave, allows us to compute 3-D variations in Vp, Vp/Vs and Vp . Vs. The anomalies can be interpreted as lateral changes in rock type and fracturing, which control fluid diffusion and variation in pore pressure. This is in agreement with a poro-elastic view that can be inferred from the spatio-temporal evolution of the seismic sequence.

  6. 3D hybrid-porous carbon derived from carbonization of metal organic frameworks for high performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Weizhai; Mondal, Anjon Kumar; Xu, Jing; Wang, Chengyin; Su, Dawei; Wang, Guoxiu

    2016-09-01

    We report a rational design and synthesis of 3D hybrid-porous carbon with a hierarchical pore architecture for high performance supercapacitors. It contains micropores (<2 nm diameter) and mesopores (2-4 nm), derived from carbonization of unique porous metal organic frameworks (MOFs). Owning to the synergistic effect of micropores and mesopores, the hybrid-porous carbon has exceptionally high ion-accessible surface area and low ion diffusion resistance, which is desired for supercapacitor applications. When applied as electrode materials in supercapacitors, 3D hybrid-porous carbon demonstrates a specific capacitance of 332 F g-1 at a constant charge/discharge current of 500 mA g-1. The supercapacitors can endure more than 10,000 cycles without degradation of capacitance.

  7. Euro-Maps 3D- A Transnational, High-Resolution Digital Surface Model For Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uttenthaler, A.; Barner, F.; Hass, T.; Makiola, J.; d'Angelo, P.; Reinartz, P.; Carl, S.; Steiner, K.

    2013-12-01

    Euro-Maps 3D is a homogeneous 5 m spaced digital surface model (DSM) semi-automatically derived by Euromap from 2.5 m in-flight stereo data provided by the Indian IRS-P5 Cartosat-1 satellite. This new and innovative product has been developed in close co- operation with the Remote Sensing Technology Institute (IMF) of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and is being jointly exploited. The very detailed and accurate representation of the surface is achieved by using a sophisticated and well adapted algorithm implemented on the basis of the Semi-Global Matching approach. In addition, the final product includes detailed flanking information consisting of several pixel-based quality and traceability layers also including an ortho layer. The product is believed to provide maximum accuracy and transparency. The DSM product meets and exceeds HRE80 qualification standards. The DSM product will be made available transnational in a homogeneous quality for most parts of Europe, North Africa and Turkey by Euromap step-by-step. Other areas around the world are processed on demand.

  8. Automated Analysis of Barley Organs Using 3D Laser Scanning: An Approach for High Throughput Phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Stefan; Dupuis, Jan; Riedel, Sebastian; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    Due to the rise of laser scanning the 3D geometry of plant architecture is easy to acquire. Nevertheless, an automated interpretation and, finally, the segmentation into functional groups are still difficult to achieve. Two barley plants were scanned in a time course, and the organs were separated by applying a histogram-based classification algorithm. The leaf organs were represented by meshing algorithms, while the stem organs were parameterized by a least-squares cylinder approximation. We introduced surface feature histograms with an accuracy of 96% for the separation of the barley organs, leaf and stem. This enables growth monitoring in a time course for barley plants. Its reliability was demonstrated by a comparison with manually fitted parameters with a correlation R2 = 0.99 for the leaf area and R2 = 0.98 for the cumulated stem height. A proof of concept has been given for its applicability for the detection of water stress in barley, where the extension growth of an irrigated and a non-irrigated plant has been monitored. PMID:25029283

  9. In situ visualization of magma deformation at high temperature using time-lapse 3D tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinho, jose; Lee, Peter; Lavallee, Yan; Kendrick, Jackie; Von-Aulock, Felix

    2016-04-01

    We use synchrotron based x-ray computed micro-tomography (sCT) to visualize, in situ, the microstructural evolution of magma samples 3 mm diameter with a resolution of 3 μm during heating and uniaxial compression at temperatures up to 1040 °C. The interaction between crystals, melt and gas bubbles is analysed in 4D (3D + time) during sample deformation. The ability to observe the changes of the microstructure as a function of time allow us to: a) study the effect of temperature in the ability of magma to fracture or deform; b) quantify bubble nucleation and growth rates during heating; c) study the relation between crystal displacement and volatile exsolution. We will show unique beautiful videos of how bubbles grow and coalescence, how samples and crystals within the sample fracture, heal and deform. Our study establishes in situ sCT as a powerful tool to quantify and visualize with micro-scale resolution fast processes taking place in magma that are essential to understand ascent in a volcanic conduit and validate existing models for determining the explosivity of volcanic eruptions. Tracking simultaneously the time and spatial changes of magma microstructures is shown to be primordial to study disequilibrium processes between crystals, melt and gas phases.

  10. Possible use of small UAV to create high resolution 3D model of vertical rock faces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, János; Kerkovits, Krisztian

    2014-05-01

    One of the newest and mostly emerging acquisition technologies is the use of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to photogrammetry and remote sensing. Several successful research project or industrial use can be found worldwide (mine investigation, precision agriculture, mapping etc.) but those surveys are focusing mainly on the survey of horizontal areas. In our research a mixed acquisition method was developed and tested to create a dense, 3D model about a columnar outcrop close to Kő-hegy (Pest County). Our primary goal was to create a model whereat the pattern of different layers is clearly visible and measurable, as well as to test the robustness of our idea. Our method uses a consumer grade camera to take digital photographs about the outcrop. A small, custom made tricopter was built to carry the camera above middle and top parts of the rock, the bottom part can be photographed only from several ground positions. During the field survey ground control points were installed and measured using a kinematic correction GPS. These latter data were used during the georeferencing of generated point cloud. Free online services built on Structure from Motion (SfM) algorithms and desktop software also were tested to generate the relative point cloud and for further processing and analysis.

  11. Detailed and Highly Accurate 3d Models of High Mountain Areas by the Macs-Himalaya Aerial Camera Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauchle, J.; Hein, D.; Berger, R.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing in areas with extreme altitude differences is particularly challenging. In high mountain areas specifically, steep slopes result in reduced ground pixel resolution and degraded quality in the DEM. Exceptionally high brightness differences can in part no longer be imaged by the sensors. Nevertheless, detailed information about mountainous regions is highly relevant: time and again glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs) and debris avalanches claim dozens of victims. Glaciers are sensitive to climate change and must be carefully monitored. Very detailed and accurate 3D maps provide a basic tool for the analysis of natural hazards and the monitoring of glacier surfaces in high mountain areas. There is a gap here, because the desired accuracies are often not achieved. It is for this reason that the DLR Institute of Optical Sensor Systems has developed a new aerial camera, the MACS-Himalaya. The measuring unit comprises four camera modules with an overall aperture angle of 116° perpendicular to the direction of flight. A High Dynamic Range (HDR) mode was introduced so that within a scene, bright areas such as sun-flooded snow and dark areas such as shaded stone can be imaged. In 2014, a measuring survey was performed on the Nepalese side of the Himalayas. The remote sensing system was carried by a Stemme S10 motor glider. Amongst other targets, the Seti Valley, Kali-Gandaki Valley and the Mt. Everest/Khumbu Region were imaged at heights up to 9,200 m. Products such as dense point clouds, DSMs and true orthomosaics with a ground pixel resolution of up to 15 cm were produced. Special challenges and gaps in the investigation of high mountain areas, approaches for resolution of these problems, the camera system and the state of evaluation are presented with examples.

  12. Use of High Resolution 3D Diffusion Tensor Imaging to Study Brain White Matter Development in Live Neonatal Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yu; McMurray, Matthew S.; Oguz, Ipek; Yuan, Hong; Styner, Martin A.; Lin, Weili; Johns, Josephine M.; An, Hongyu

    2011-01-01

    High resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can provide important information on brain development, yet it is challenging in live neonatal rats due to the small size of neonatal brain and motion-sensitive nature of DTI. Imaging in live neonatal rats has clear advantages over fixed brain scans, as longitudinal and functional studies would be feasible to understand neuro-developmental abnormalities. In this study, we developed imaging strategies that can be used to obtain high resolution 3D DTI images in live neonatal rats at postnatal day 5 (PND5) and PND14, using only 3 h of imaging acquisition time. An optimized 3D DTI pulse sequence and appropriate animal setup to minimize physiological motion artifacts are the keys to successful high resolution 3D DTI imaging. Thus, a 3D rapid acquisition relaxation enhancement DTI sequence with twin navigator echoes was implemented to accelerate imaging acquisition time and minimize motion artifacts. It has been suggested that neonatal mammals possess a unique ability to tolerate mild-to-moderate hypothermia and hypoxia without long term impact. Thus, we additionally utilized this ability to minimize motion artifacts in magnetic resonance images by carefully suppressing the respiratory rate to around 15/min for PND5 and 30/min for PND14 using mild-to-moderate hypothermia. These imaging strategies have been successfully implemented to study how the effect of cocaine exposure in dams might affect brain development in their rat pups. Image quality resulting from this in vivo DTI study was comparable to ex vivo scans. fractional anisotropy values were also similar between the live and fixed brain scans. The capability of acquiring high quality in vivo DTI imaging offers a valuable opportunity to study many neurological disorders in brain development in an authentic living environment. PMID:22013426

  13. Rapid indirect trajectory optimization on highly parallel computing architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, Thomas

    Trajectory optimization is a field which can benefit greatly from the advantages offered by parallel computing. The current state-of-the-art in trajectory optimization focuses on the use of direct optimization methods, such as the pseudo-spectral method. These methods are favored due to their ease of implementation and large convergence regions while indirect methods have largely been ignored in the literature in the past decade except for specific applications in astrodynamics. It has been shown that the shortcomings conventionally associated with indirect methods can be overcome by the use of a continuation method in which complex trajectory solutions are obtained by solving a sequence of progressively difficult optimization problems. High performance computing hardware is trending towards more parallel architectures as opposed to powerful single-core processors. Graphics Processing Units (GPU), which were originally developed for 3D graphics rendering have gained popularity in the past decade as high-performance, programmable parallel processors. The Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) framework, a parallel computing architecture and programming model developed by NVIDIA, is one of the most widely used platforms in GPU computing. GPUs have been applied to a wide range of fields that require the solution of complex, computationally demanding problems. A GPU-accelerated indirect trajectory optimization methodology which uses the multiple shooting method and continuation is developed using the CUDA platform. The various algorithmic optimizations used to exploit the parallelism inherent in the indirect shooting method are described. The resulting rapid optimal control framework enables the construction of high quality optimal trajectories that satisfy problem-specific constraints and fully satisfy the necessary conditions of optimality. The benefits of the framework are highlighted by construction of maximum terminal velocity trajectories for a hypothetical

  14. High-quality 3-D coronary artery imaging on an interventional C-arm x-ray system

    SciTech Connect

    Hansis, Eberhard; Carroll, John D.; Schaefer, Dirk; Doessel, Olaf; Grass, Michael

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of the coronary arteries during a cardiac catheter-based intervention can be performed from a C-arm based rotational x-ray angiography sequence. It can support the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, treatment planning, and intervention guidance. 3-D reconstruction also enables quantitative vessel analysis, including vessel dynamics from a time-series of reconstructions. Methods: The strong angular undersampling and motion effects present in gated cardiac reconstruction necessitate the development of special reconstruction methods. This contribution presents a fully automatic method for creating high-quality coronary artery reconstructions. It employs a sparseness-prior based iterative reconstruction technique in combination with projection-based motion compensation. Results: The method is tested on a dynamic software phantom, assessing reconstruction accuracy with respect to vessel radii and attenuation coefficients. Reconstructions from clinical cases are presented, displaying high contrast, sharpness, and level of detail. Conclusions: The presented method enables high-quality 3-D coronary artery imaging on an interventional C-arm system.

  15. Calculating Path-Dependent Travel Time Prediction Variance and Covariance for the SALSA3D Global Tomographic P-Velocity Model with a Distributed Parallel Multi-Core Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipp, J. R.; Encarnacao, A.; Ballard, S.; Young, C. J.; Phillips, W. S.; Begnaud, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    Recently our combined SNL-LANL research team has succeeded in developing a global, seamless 3D tomographic P-velocity model (SALSA3D) that provides superior first P travel time predictions at both regional and teleseismic distances. However, given the variable data quality and uneven data sampling associated with this type of model, it is essential that there be a means to calculate high-quality estimates of the path-dependent variance and covariance associated with the predicted travel times of ray paths through the model. In this paper, we show a methodology for accomplishing this by exploiting the full model covariance matrix. Our model has on the order of 1/2 million nodes, so the challenge in calculating the covariance matrix is formidable: 0.9 TB storage for 1/2 of a symmetric matrix, necessitating an Out-Of-Core (OOC) blocked matrix solution technique. With our approach the tomography matrix (G which includes Tikhonov regularization terms) is multiplied by its transpose (GTG) and written in a blocked sub-matrix fashion. We employ a distributed parallel solution paradigm that solves for (GTG)-1 by assigning blocks to individual processing nodes for matrix decomposition update and scaling operations. We first find the Cholesky decomposition of GTG which is subsequently inverted. Next, we employ OOC matrix multiply methods to calculate the model covariance matrix from (GTG)-1 and an assumed data covariance matrix. Given the model covariance matrix we solve for the travel-time covariance associated with arbitrary ray-paths by integrating the model covariance along both ray paths. Setting the paths equal gives variance for that path. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  16. Early Earth plume-lid tectonics: A high-resolution 3D numerical modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Ria; Gerya, Taras

    2016-04-01

    Early Earth had a higher amount of radiogenic elements as well as a higher amount of leftover primordial heat. Both contribute to the increased temperature in the Earth's interior and it is mainly this increased mantle potential temperature Tp that controls the dynamics of the crust and upper mantle and the predominant style of tectonics in the Archean Earth. We conduct 3D petrological-magmatic-thermomechanical numerical modelling experiments of the crust and upper mantle under Archean conditions using a plume-lid tectonics model setup. For varying crustal compositions and a mantle potential temperature increase ΔTp = 250K (compared to present day conditions), a hot lower thermal boundary layer introduces spontaneously developing mantle plumes and after repeated melt removal, depleted mantle lithosphere is formed self-consistently. New crust is produced in the form of both volcanic and plutonic magmatism. Models show large amounts of subcrustal decompression melting and production of new crust which in turn influences the dynamics. On short-term (10 ‑ 20Myr) rising diapirs and sinking basaltic crust lead to crustal overturn and to the formation of the typical Archean dome-and-keel pattern. On long-term a long (˜ 80Myr) passive 'growth phase' with strong growth of crust and lithosphere is observed. Both crust and lithosphere thickness are regulated by thermochemical instabilities assisted by lower crustal eclogitisation and a subcrustal small-scale convection area. Delamination of lower crust and lithosphere is initiated by linear or cylindrical eclogite drips and occurs as one 'catastrophic' event within a 20Myr 'removal phase'.

  17. Early Earth plume-lid tectonics: A high-resolution 3D numerical modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Ria; Gerya, Taras

    2016-04-01

    Early Earth had a higher amount of radiogenic elements as well as a higher amount of leftover primordial heat. Both contribute to the increased temperature in the Earth's interior and it is mainly this increased mantle potential temperature Tp that controls the dynamics of the crust and upper mantle and the predominant style of tectonics in the Archean Earth. We conduct 3D petrological-magmatic-thermomechanical numerical modelling experiments of the crust and upper mantle under Archean conditions using a plume-lid tectonics model setup. For varying crustal compositions and a mantle potential temperature increase ΔTp = 250K (compared to present day conditions), a hot lower thermal boundary layer introduces spontaneously developing mantle plumes and after repeated melt removal, depleted mantle lithosphere is formed self-consistently. New crust is produced in the form of both volcanic and plutonic magmatism. Models show large amounts of subcrustal decompression melting and production of new crust which in turn influences the dynamics. On short-term (10 - 20Myr) rising diapirs and sinking basaltic crust lead to crustal overturn and to the formation of the typical Archean dome-and-keel pattern. On long-term a long (˜ 80Myr) passive 'growth phase' with strong growth of crust and lithosphere is observed. Both crust and lithosphere thickness are regulated by thermochemical instabilities assisted by lower crustal eclogitisation and a subcrustal small-scale convection area. Delamination of lower crust and lithosphere is initiated by linear or cylindrical eclogite drips and occurs as one 'catastrophic' event within a 20Myr 'removal phase'.

  18. Early Earth tectonics: A high-resolution 3D numerical modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, R.; Gerya, T.

    2014-12-01

    Early Earth had a higher amount of remaining radiogenic elements as well as a higher amount of leftover primordial heat. Both contributed to the increased temperature in the Earth's interior and it is mainly this increased mantle potential temperature ΔTp that controls the dynamics of the crust and upper mantle and the style of Early Earth tectonics. For a minor increase in temperature ΔTp < 175 K a subduction-collision style ensues which is largely similar to present day plate tectonics. For a moderate increase in ΔTp = 175-250 K subduction can still occur, however plates are strongly weakened and buckling, delamination and Rayleigh-Taylor style dripping of the plate is observed in addition. For higher temperatures ΔTp > 250 K no subduction can be observed anymore and tectonics is dominated by delamination and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. We conduct 3D petrological-thermomechanical numerical modelling experiments of the crust and upper mantle under Early Earth conditions and a plume tectonics model setup. For varying crustal structures and an increased mantle potential temperature ΔTp, a thermal anomaly in the bottom temperature boundary introduces a plume. The model is able to self-sufficiently form depleted mantle lithosphere after repeated melt removal. New crust can be produced in the form of volcanics or plutonics. To simulate differentiation the newly formed crust can have a range in composition from basaltic over dacitic to granitic depending on its source rock. Models show large amounts of subcrustal decompression melting and consequently large amounts of new formed crust which in turn influences the dynamics. Mantle and crust are convecting separately. Dome-shaped plutons of mafic or felsic composition can be observed in the crust. Between these domes elongated belts of upper crust, volcanics and sediments are formed. These structures look similar to, for example, the Kaapvaal craton in South Africa where the elongated shape of the Barberton

  19. 3-D modeling of tomato canopies using a high-resolution portable scanning lidar for extracting structural information.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Fumiki; Nakabayashi, Kazushige; Omasa, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt was made to produce a precise 3D image of a tomato canopy using a portable high-resolution scanning lidar. The tomato canopy was scanned by the lidar from three positions surrounding it. Through the scanning, the point cloud data of the canopy were obtained and they were co-registered. Then, points corresponding to leaves were extracted and converted into polygon images. From the polygon images, leaf areas were accurately estimated with a mean absolute percent error of 4.6%. Vertical profile of leaf area density (LAD) and leaf area index (LAI) could be also estimated by summing up each leaf area derived from the polygon images. Leaf inclination angle could be also estimated from the 3-D polygon image. It was shown that leaf inclination angles had different values at each part of a leaf. PMID:22319403

  20. Benchmarking of 3D space charge codes using direct phase space measurements from photoemission high voltage dc gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazarov, Ivan V.; Dunham, Bruce M.; Gulliford, Colwyn; Li, Yulin; Liu, Xianghong; Sinclair, Charles K.; Soong, Ken; Hannon, Fay

    2008-10-01

    We present a comparison between space charge calculations and direct measurements of the transverse phase space of space charge dominated electron bunches from a high voltage dc photoemission gun followed by an emittance compensation solenoid magnet. The measurements were performed using a double-slit emittance measurement system over a range of bunch charge and solenoid current values. The data are compared with detailed simulations using the 3D space charge codes GPT and Parmela3D. The initial particle distributions were generated from measured transverse and temporal laser beam profiles at the photocathode. The beam brightness as a function of beam fraction is calculated for the measured phase space maps and found to approach within a factor of 2 the theoretical maximum set by the thermal energy and the accelerating field at the photocathode.

  1. A Parallel 3d Model for The Multi-Species Low Energy BeamTransport System of the RIA Prototype ECR Ion Source Venus

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, J.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D.

    2005-05-16

    The driver linac of the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) requires a great variety of high intensity, high charge state ion beams. In order to design and to optimize the low energy beamline optics of the RIA front end,we have developed a new parallel three-dimensional model to simulate the low energy, multi-species ion beam formation and transport from the ECR ion source extraction region to the focal plane of the analyzing magnet. A multisection overlapped computational domain has been used to break the original transport system into a number of each subsystem, macro-particle tracking is used to obtain the charge density distribution in this subdomain. The three-dimensional Poisson equation is solved within the subdomain and particle tracking is repeated until the solution converges. Two new Poisson solvers based on a combination of the spectral method and the multigrid method have been developed to solve the Poisson equation in cylindrical coordinates for the beam extraction region and in the Frenet-Serret coordinates for the bending magnet region. Some test examples and initial applications will also be presented.

  2. Facile and rapid generation of 3D chemical gradients within hydrogels for high-throughput drug screening applications.

    PubMed

    Ahadian, Samad; Ramón-Azcón, Javier; Estili, Mehdi; Obregón, Raquel; Shiku, Hitoshi; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2014-09-15

    We propose a novel application of dielectrophoresis (DEP) to make three-dimensional (3D) methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) hydrogels with gradients of micro- and nanoparticles. DEP forces were able to manipulate micro- and nanoparticles of different sizes and materials (i.e., C2C12 myoblasts, polystyrene beads, gold microparticles, and carbon nanotubes) within GelMA hydrogels in a rapid and facile way and create 3D gradients of these particles in a microchamber. Immobilization of drugs, such as fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-dextran) and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), on gold microparticles allowed us to investigate the high-throughput release of these drugs from GelMA-gold microparticle gradient systems. The latter gradient constructs were incubated with C2C12 myoblasts for 24h to examine the cell viability through the release of 6-OHDA. The drug was released from the microparticles in a gradient manner, inducing a cell viability gradient. This novel approach to create 3D chemical gradients within hydrogels is scalable to any arbitrary length scale. It is useful for making anisotropic biomimetic materials and high-throughput platforms to investigate cell-microenvironment interactions in a rapid, simple, cost-effective, and reproducible manner.

  3. "High-precision, reconstructed 3D model" of skull scanned by conebeam CT: Reproducibility verified using CAD/CAM data.

    PubMed

    Katsumura, Seiko; Sato, Keita; Ikawa, Tomoko; Yamamura, Keiko; Ando, Eriko; Shigeta, Yuko; Ogawa, Takumi

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanning has recently been introduced into forensic medicine and dentistry. However, the presence of metal restorations in the dentition can adversely affect the quality of three-dimensional reconstruction from CT scans. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the reproducibility of a "high-precision, reconstructed 3D model" obtained from a conebeam CT scan of dentition, a method that might be particularly helpful in forensic medicine. We took conebeam CT and helical CT images of three dry skulls marked with 47 measuring points; reconstructed three-dimensional images; and measured the distances between the points in the 3D images with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) marker. We found that in comparison with the helical CT, conebeam CT is capable of reproducing measurements closer to those obtained from the actual samples. In conclusion, our study indicated that the image-reproduction from a conebeam CT scan was more accurate than that from a helical CT scan. Furthermore, the "high-precision reconstructed 3D model" facilitates reliable visualization of full-sized oral and maxillofacial regions in both helical and conebeam CT scans. PMID:26832374

  4. Decoding 3-D Reach and Grasp Kinematics from High-Frequency Local Field Potentials in Primate Primary Motor Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Jun; Vargas-Irwin, Carlos; Donoghue, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Intracortical microelectrode array recordings generate a variety of neural signals with potential application as control signals in neural interface systems. Previous studies have focused on single and multiunit activity, as well as low frequency local field potentials (LFPs), but have not explored higher frequency (>200 Hz) LFPs. In addition, the potential to decode three dimensional (3-D) reach and grasp kinematics based on LFPs has not been demonstrated. Here, we use mutual information and decoding analyses to probe the information content about 3-D reaching and grasping of 7 different LFP frequency bands in the range of 0.3 Hz – 400 Hz. LFPs were recorded via 96-microelectrode arrays in primary motor cortex (M1) of two monkeys performing free reaching to grasp moving objects. Mutual information analyses revealed that higher frequency bands (e.g. 100 – 200 Hz and 200 – 400 Hz) carried the most information about the examined kinematics. Furthermore, Kalman filter decoding revealed that broadband high frequency LFPs, likely reflecting multiunit activity, provided the best decoding performance as well as substantial accuracy in reconstructing reach kinematics, grasp aperture and aperture velocity. These results indicate that LFPs, especially high frequency bands, could be useful signals for neural interfaces controlling 3-D reach and grasp kinematics. PMID:20403782

  5. A nickel hydroxide-coated 3D porous graphene hollow sphere framework as a high performance electrode material for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengqiao; Zhu, Dong; Chen, Xi'an; Xu, Xin; Yang, Zhi; Zou, Chao; Yang, Keqin; Huang, Shaoming

    2014-03-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) porous graphene hollow sphere (PGHS) framework has been fabricated via a hard template method and used to anchor α-Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles with the size of about 4 nm through electrochemical deposition. It is found that a 3D PGHS framework can improve the capacitive performance of Ni(OH)2 effectively. In hybrid materials, α-Ni(OH)2 achieves the high specific capacitance of 2815 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 5 mV s(-1) and 1950 F g(-1) even at 200 mV s(-1) with a capacitance retention of about 70%, indicating that the α-Ni(OH)2-coated 3D PGHS framework exhibits high rate capability. The excellent performance of such hybrid material is believed to be due to the smaller size of Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles and the PGHS framework with large specific surface area promoting efficient electron transport and facilitating the electrolyte ions migration. These impressive results suggest that the composite is a promising electrode material for an efficient supercapacitor.

  6. Enhancement of REBUS-3/DIF3D for whole-core neutronic analysis of prismatic very high temperature reactor (VHTR).

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C. H.; Zhong, Z.; Taiwo, T.A.; Yang, W.S.; Khalil, H.S.; Smith, M.A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-10-13

    Enhancements have been made to the REBUS-3/DIF3D code suite to facilitate its use for the design and analysis of prismatic Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTRs). A new cross section structure, using table-lookup, has been incorporated to account for cross section changes with burnup and fuel and moderator temperatures. For representing these cross section dependencies, three new modules have been developed using FORTRAN 90/95 object-oriented data structures and implemented within the REBUS-3 code system. These modules provide a cross section storage procedure, construct microscopic cross section data for all isotopes, and contain a single block of banded scattering data for efficient data management. Fission products other than I, Xe, Pm, and Sm, can be merged into a single lumped fission product to save storage space, memory, and computing time without sacrificing the REBUS-3 solution accuracy. A simple thermal-hydraulic (thermal-fluid) feedback model has been developed for prismatic VHTR cores and implemented in REBUS-3 for temperature feedback calculations. Axial conduction was neglected in the formulation because of its small magnitude compared to radial (planar) conduction. With the simple model, the average fuel and graphite temperatures are accurately estimated compared to reference STAR-CD results. The feedback module is currently operational for the non-equilibrium fuel cycle analysis option of REBUS-3. Future work should include the extension of this capability to the equilibrium cycle option of the code and additional verification of the feedback module. For the simulation of control rods in VHTR cores, macroscopic cross section deviations (deltas) have been defined to account for the effect of control rod insertion. The REBUS-3 code has been modified to use the appropriately revised cross sections when control rods are inserted in a calculation node. In order to represent asymmetric core blocks (e.g., fuel blocks or reflector blocks containing

  7. High Resolution 3d Imaging during the Construction of National Radioactive Waste Repository from BÁTAAPÁTI, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaich, A.; Deák, F.; Pötsch, M.

    2012-12-01

    investigation of the photorealistic 3D models reproducibility in the both cases JMX and SMX. Regularly geotechnical rock mass classifications (Q, RMR and GSI) were used on the basis of the 3D models without field experience of the given tunnel faces. All documentations were analysed with statistical methods considering the circumstances of scanning and picturing. The orientation of main characteristic discontinuities were defined by each geologist, but also some differences occured. These discrepancies had not occurred in the results of geotechnical evaluation. Due to several cases the information provided by the 3D modelling systems could be very useful in different phases of excavation works. These information were applied in geoscience researches for example in surface roughness determination, fracture system modelling of the host rock and geological or technical objects findings behind the shotcrete layer. Beside the above mentioned advanteges we have to emphasize that JMX and SMX systems provide contact free acqusition and assessment of rock and terrain surfaces by metric high resolution 3D images in very short time period.

  8. Real-time visual sensing system achieving high-speed 3D particle tracking with nanometer resolution.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Peng; Jhiang, Sissy M; Menq, Chia-Hsiang

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a real-time visual sensing system, which is created to achieve high-speed three-dimensional (3D) motion tracking of microscopic spherical particles in aqueous solutions with nanometer resolution. The system comprises a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) camera, a field programmable gate array (FPGA), and real-time image processing programs. The CMOS camera has high photosensitivity and superior SNR. It acquires images of 128×120 pixels at a frame rate of up to 10,000 frames per second (fps) under the white light illumination from a standard 100 W halogen lamp. The real-time image stream is downloaded from the camera directly to the FPGA, wherein a 3D particle-tracking algorithm is implemented to calculate the 3D positions of the target particle in real time. Two important objectives, i.e., real-time estimation of the 3D position matches the maximum frame rate of the camera and the timing of the output data stream of the system is precisely controlled, are achieved. Two sets of experiments were conducted to demonstrate the performance of the system. First, the visual sensing system was used to track the motion of a 2 μm polystyrene bead, whose motion was controlled by a three-axis piezo motion stage. The ability to track long-range motion with nanometer resolution in all three axes is demonstrated. Second, it was used to measure the Brownian motion of the 2 μm polystyrene bead, which was stabilized in aqueous solution by a laser trapping system. PMID:24216655

  9. Multimode vibration analysis with high-speed TV holography and a spatiotemporal 3D Fourier transform method.

    PubMed

    Trillo, Cristina; Doval, Angel F; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando; Pérez-López, Carlos; de la Torre-Ibarra, Manuel; Deán, J Luis

    2009-09-28

    The combination of a high-speed TV holography system and a 3D Fourier-transform data processing is proposed for the analysis of multimode vibrations in plates. The out-of-plane displacement of the object under generic vibrational excitation is resolved in time by the fast acquisition rate of a high-speed camera, and recorded in a sequence of interferograms with spatial carrier. A full-field temporal history of the multimode vibration is thus obtained. The optical phase of the interferograms is extracted and subtracted from the phase of a reference state to yield a sequence of optical phase-change maps. Each map represents the change undergone by the object between any given state and the reference state. The sequence of maps is a 3D array of data (two spatial dimensions plus time) that is processed with a 3D Fourier-transform algorithm. The individual vibration modes are separated in the 3D frequency space due to their different vibration frequencies and, to a lesser extent, to the different spatial frequencies of the mode shapes. The contribution of each individual mode (or indeed the superposition of several modes) to the dynamic behaviour of the object can then be separated by means of a bandpass filter (or filters). The final output is a sequence of complex-valued maps that contain the full-field temporal history of the selected mode (or modes) in terms of its mechanical amplitude and phase. The proof-of-principle of the technique is demonstrated with a rectangular, fully clamped, thin metal plate vibrating simultaneously in several of its natural resonant frequencies under white-noise excitation. PMID:19907591

  10. High-Resolution Multibeam Sonar Survey and Interactive 3-D Exploration of the D-Day Wrecks off Normandy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, L. A.; Calder, B.; Schmidt, J. S.

    2003-12-01

    Historically, archaeological investigations use sidescan sonar and marine magnetometers as initial search tools. Targets are then examined through direct observation by divers, video, or photographs. Magnetometers can demonstrate the presence, absence, and relative susceptibility of ferrous objects but provide little indication of the nature of the target. Sidescan sonar can present a clear image of the overall nature of a target and its surrounding environment, but the sidescan image is often distorted and contains little information about the true 3-D shape of the object. Optical techniques allow precise identification of objects but suffer from very limited range, even in the best of situations. Modern high-resolution multibeam sonar offers an opportunity to cover a relatively large area from a safe distance above the target, while resolving the true three-dimensional (3-D) shape of the object with centimeter-level resolution. The combination of 3-D mapping and interactive 3-D visualization techniques provides a powerful new means to explore underwater artifacts. A clear demonstration of the applicability of high-resolution multibeam sonar to wreck and artifact investigations occurred when the Naval Historical Center (NHC), the Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping (CCOM) at the University of New Hampshire, and Reson Inc., collaborated to explore the state of preservation and impact on the surrounding environment of a series of wrecks located off the coast of Normandy, France, adjacent to the American landing sectors The survey augmented previously collected magnetometer and high-resolution sidescan sonar data using a Reson 8125 high-resolution focused multibeam sonar with 240, 0.5° (at nadir) beams distributed over a 120° swath. The team investigated 21 areas in water depths ranging from about three -to 30 meters (m); some areas contained individual targets such as landing craft, barges, a destroyer, troop carrier, etc., while others contained multiple smaller

  11. 3D high-content screening for the identification of compounds that target cells in dormant tumor spheroid regions

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, Carsten; Riefke, Björn; Gründemann, Stephan; Krebs, Alice; Christian, Sven; Prinz, Florian; Osterland, Marc; Golfier, Sven; Räse, Sebastian; Ansari, Nariman; Esner, Milan; Bickle, Marc; Pampaloni, Francesco; Mattheyer, Christian; Stelzer, Ernst H.; Parczyk, Karsten; Prechtl, Stefan; Steigemann, Patrick

    2014-04-15

    Cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions need to adapt to an unfavorable metabolic microenvironment. As distance from supplying blood vessels increases, oxygen and nutrient concentrations decrease and cancer cells react by stopping cell cycle progression and becoming dormant. As cytostatic drugs mainly target proliferating cells, cancer cell dormancy is considered as a major resistance mechanism to this class of anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, substances that target cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions have the potential to enhance cytostatic-based chemotherapy of solid tumors. With three-dimensional growth conditions, multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) reproduce several parameters of the tumor microenvironment, including oxygen and nutrient gradients as well as the development of dormant tumor regions. We here report the setup of a 3D cell culture compatible high-content screening system and the identification of nine substances from two commercially available drug libraries that specifically target cells in inner MCTS core regions, while cells in outer MCTS regions or in 2D cell culture remain unaffected. We elucidated the mode of action of the identified compounds as inhibitors of the respiratory chain and show that induction of cell death in inner MCTS core regions critically depends on extracellular glucose concentrations. Finally, combinational treatment with cytostatics showed increased induction of cell death in MCTS. The data presented here shows for the first time a high-content based screening setup on 3D tumor spheroids for the identification of substances that specifically induce cell death in inner tumor spheroid core regions. This validates the approach to use 3D cell culture screening systems to identify substances that would not be detectable by 2D based screening in otherwise similar culture conditions. - Highlights: • Establishment of a novel method for 3D cell culture based high-content screening. • First reported high