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Sample records for 3d periodic lattice

  1. Ultracold polar molecules in a 3D optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Ultracold polar molecules, with their long-range electric dipolar interactions, offer new opportunities for studying quantum magnetism and many-body physics. KRb molecules loaded into a three-dimensional (3D) optical lattice allow one to study such a spin-lattice system in a stable environment without losses arising from chemical reactions. In the case with strong lattice confinement along two directions and a weak lattice potential along the third, we find the loss rate is suppressed by the quantum Zeno effect. In a deep 3D lattice with no tunneling, we observe evidences for spin exchange interactions. We use Ramsey spectroscopy to investigate the spin dynamics. By choosing the appropriate lattice polarizations and implementing a spin echo sequence, the single particle dephasing is largely suppressed, leaving the dipolar exchange interactions as the dominant contribution to the observed dynamics. This is supported by many-body theoretical calculations. While this initial demonstration was done with low lattice fillings, our current experimental efforts are focused on increasing the lattice filling fraction. This will greatly benefit the study of complex many-body dynamics with long-range interactions, such as transport of excitations in an out-of-equilibrium system and spin-orbit coupling in a lattice.

  2. Lattice Boltzmann Method for 3-D Flows with Curved Boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Renwei; Shyy, Wei; Yu, Dazhi; Luo, Li-Shi

    2002-01-01

    In this work, we investigate two issues that are important to computational efficiency and reliability in fluid dynamics applications of the lattice, Boltzmann equation (LBE): (1) Computational stability and accuracy of different lattice Boltzmann models and (2) the treatment of the boundary conditions on curved solid boundaries and their 3-D implementations. Three athermal 3-D LBE models (D3QI5, D3Ql9, and D3Q27) are studied and compared in terms of efficiency, accuracy, and robustness. The boundary treatment recently developed by Filippova and Hanel and Met et al. in 2-D is extended to and implemented for 3-D. The convergence, stability, and computational efficiency of the 3-D LBE models with the boundary treatment for curved boundaries were tested in simulations of four 3-D flows: (1) Fully developed flows in a square duct, (2) flow in a 3-D lid-driven cavity, (3) fully developed flows in a circular pipe, and (4) a uniform flow over a sphere. We found that while the fifteen-velocity 3-D (D3Ql5) model is more prone to numerical instability and the D3Q27 is more computationally intensive, the 63Q19 model provides a balance between computational reliability and efficiency. Through numerical simulations, we demonstrated that the boundary treatment for 3-D arbitrary curved geometry has second-order accuracy and possesses satisfactory stability characteristics.

  3. Quantum Degenerate Strontium in a 3D Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aman, J. A.; Desalvo, B. J.; Killian, T. C.

    2014-05-01

    We present our experiments with quantum degenerate neutral strontium in a 3-D optical lattice formed with 532 nm light. Precision control and manipulation of quantum degenerate gases in optical lattices allows for the realization and investigation of tunable many-body systems. Strontium, in particular, has been studied extensively in optical lattices due to the narrow 5s21S0 --> 5 s 5 p3Pj transitions for use as an atomic clock. However, in the present work, we take advantage of these narrow transitions together with strontium's unique isotopic properties to investigate interaction regimes inaccessible to alkali atoms. Among the topics we plan to explore are formation of ultracold molecules using an optical Feshbach resonance as well as the effects of dissipation on atom dynamics. This work was supported by Rice University, Shell, the Welch Foundation (C-1579) and the National Science Foundation (PHY-1205946).

  4. Lattice percolation approach to 3D modeling of tissue aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshkov, Vyacheslav; Privman, Vladimir; Libert, Sergiy

    2016-11-01

    We describe a 3D percolation-type approach to modeling of the processes of aging and certain other properties of tissues analyzed as systems consisting of interacting cells. Lattice sites are designated as regular (healthy) cells, senescent cells, or vacancies left by dead (apoptotic) cells. The system is then studied dynamically with the ongoing processes including regular cell dividing to fill vacant sites, healthy cells becoming senescent or dying, and senescent cells dying. Statistical-mechanics description can provide patterns of time dependence and snapshots of morphological system properties. The developed theoretical modeling approach is found not only to corroborate recent experimental findings that inhibition of senescence can lead to extended lifespan, but also to confirm that, unlike 2D, in 3D senescent cells can contribute to tissue's connectivity/mechanical stability. The latter effect occurs by senescent cells forming the second infinite cluster in the regime when the regular (healthy) cell's infinite cluster still exists.

  5. 3D printed long period gratings for optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Iezzi, Victor Lambin; Boisvert, Jean-Sébastien; Loranger, Sébastien; Kashyap, Raman

    2016-04-15

    We demonstrate a simple technique for implementing long period grating (LPG) structures by the use of a 3D printer. This Letter shows a way of manipulating the mode coupling within an optical fiber by applying stress through an external 3D printed periodic structure. Different LPG lengths and periods have been studied, as well as the effect of the applied stress on the coupling efficiency from the fundamental mode to cladding modes. The technique is very simple, highly flexible, affordable, and easy to implement without the need of altering the optical fiber. This Letter is part of a growing line of interest in the use of 3D printers for optical applications.

  6. Highly compressible 3D periodic graphene aerogel microlattices

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Cheng; Han, T. Yong-Jin; Duoss, Eric B.; Golobic, Alexandra M.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Worsley, Marcus A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene is a two-dimensional material that offers a unique combination of low density, exceptional mechanical properties, large surface area and excellent electrical conductivity. Recent progress has produced bulk 3D assemblies of graphene, such as graphene aerogels, but they possess purely stochastic porous networks, which limit their performance compared with the potential of an engineered architecture. Here we report the fabrication of periodic graphene aerogel microlattices, possessing an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The 3D printed graphene aerogels are lightweight, highly conductive and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90% compressive strain). Moreover, the Young's moduli of the 3D printed graphene aerogels show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials with comparable geometric density and possess large surface areas. Adapting the 3D printing technique to graphene aerogels realizes the possibility of fabricating a myriad of complex aerogel architectures for a broad range of applications. PMID:25902277

  7. Highly compressible 3D periodic graphene aerogel microlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Cheng; Han, T. Yong-Jin; Duoss, Eric B.; Golobic, Alexandra M.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Worsley, Marcus A.

    2015-04-22

    Graphene is a two-dimensional material that offers a unique combination of low density, exceptional mechanical properties, large surface area and excellent electrical conductivity. Recent progress has produced bulk 3D assemblies of graphene, such as graphene aerogels, but they possess purely stochastic porous networks, which limit their performance compared with the potential of an engineered architecture. Here we report the fabrication of periodic graphene aerogel microlattices, possessing an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The 3D printed graphene aerogels are lightweight, highly conductive and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90% compressive strain). Moreover, the Young’s moduli of the 3D printed graphene aerogels show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials with comparable geometric density and possess large surface areas. Ultimately, adapting the 3D printing technique to graphene aerogels realizes the possibility of fabricating a myriad of complex aerogel architectures for a broad range of applications.

  8. Highly compressible 3D periodic graphene aerogel microlattices.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cheng; Han, T Yong-Jin; Duoss, Eric B; Golobic, Alexandra M; Kuntz, Joshua D; Spadaccini, Christopher M; Worsley, Marcus A

    2015-04-22

    Graphene is a two-dimensional material that offers a unique combination of low density, exceptional mechanical properties, large surface area and excellent electrical conductivity. Recent progress has produced bulk 3D assemblies of graphene, such as graphene aerogels, but they possess purely stochastic porous networks, which limit their performance compared with the potential of an engineered architecture. Here we report the fabrication of periodic graphene aerogel microlattices, possessing an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The 3D printed graphene aerogels are lightweight, highly conductive and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90% compressive strain). Moreover, the Young's moduli of the 3D printed graphene aerogels show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials with comparable geometric density and possess large surface areas. Adapting the 3D printing technique to graphene aerogels realizes the possibility of fabricating a myriad of complex aerogel architectures for a broad range of applications.

  9. Highly compressible 3D periodic graphene aerogel microlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Cheng; Han, T. Yong-Jin; Duoss, Eric B.; Golobic, Alexandra M.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Worsley, Marcus A.

    2015-04-01

    Graphene is a two-dimensional material that offers a unique combination of low density, exceptional mechanical properties, large surface area and excellent electrical conductivity. Recent progress has produced bulk 3D assemblies of graphene, such as graphene aerogels, but they possess purely stochastic porous networks, which limit their performance compared with the potential of an engineered architecture. Here we report the fabrication of periodic graphene aerogel microlattices, possessing an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The 3D printed graphene aerogels are lightweight, highly conductive and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90% compressive strain). Moreover, the Young's moduli of the 3D printed graphene aerogels show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials with comparable geometric density and possess large surface areas. Adapting the 3D printing technique to graphene aerogels realizes the possibility of fabricating a myriad of complex aerogel architectures for a broad range of applications.

  10. Multiple-Relaxation-Time Lattice Boltzmann Models in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    dHumieres, Dominique; Ginzburg, Irina; Krafczyk, Manfred; Lallemand, Pierre; Luo, Li-Shi; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This article provides a concise exposition of the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann equation, with examples of fifteen-velocity and nineteen-velocity models in three dimensions. Simulation of a diagonally lid-driven cavity flow in three dimensions at Re=500 and 2000 is performed. The results clearly demonstrate the superior numerical stability of the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann equation over the popular lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook equation.

  11. 3D printed long period gratings for optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Iezzi, Victor Lambin; Boisvert, Jean-Sébastien; Loranger, Sébastien; Kashyap, Raman

    2016-04-15

    We demonstrate a simple technique for implementing long period grating (LPG) structures by the use of a 3D printer. This Letter shows a way of manipulating the mode coupling within an optical fiber by applying stress through an external 3D printed periodic structure. Different LPG lengths and periods have been studied, as well as the effect of the applied stress on the coupling efficiency from the fundamental mode to cladding modes. The technique is very simple, highly flexible, affordable, and easy to implement without the need of altering the optical fiber. This Letter is part of a growing line of interest in the use of 3D printers for optical applications. PMID:27082365

  12. On Some Periodic Toda Lattices

    PubMed Central

    Kac, M.; Van Moerbeke, Pierre

    1975-01-01

    A discrete version of Floquet's theory is developed and applied to a system of non-linear differential equations related to the periodic Toda lattice. A special solution previously found by Toda is thus seen to fit into the formalism of inverse scattering problems. PMID:16592244

  13. Highly compressible 3D periodic graphene aerogel microlattices

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Cheng; Han, T. Yong-Jin; Duoss, Eric B.; Golobic, Alexandra M.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Worsley, Marcus A.

    2015-04-22

    Graphene is a two-dimensional material that offers a unique combination of low density, exceptional mechanical properties, large surface area and excellent electrical conductivity. Recent progress has produced bulk 3D assemblies of graphene, such as graphene aerogels, but they possess purely stochastic porous networks, which limit their performance compared with the potential of an engineered architecture. Here we report the fabrication of periodic graphene aerogel microlattices, possessing an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The 3D printed graphene aerogels are lightweight, highly conductive and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90% compressive strain). Moreover, the Young’s modulimore » of the 3D printed graphene aerogels show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials with comparable geometric density and possess large surface areas. Ultimately, adapting the 3D printing technique to graphene aerogels realizes the possibility of fabricating a myriad of complex aerogel architectures for a broad range of applications.« less

  14. Magnetic and Lattice Interaction in 3d Transition Metal Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jassim, Ishmaeel Khalil

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The importance and nature of magnetic and lattice degrees of freedom and their interaction in transition metal magnets has been investigated. As an example of localised behaviour, Heusler alloys in which the magnetic moment was confined to Mn atoms were chosen, e.g. Pd_2MnIn. The manganese atoms are separated by more than 4.6A. By systematically changing Pd for either Ag or Au the electron concentration can be varied in a continuous manner. Dependent upon the electron concentration several different antiferromagnetic structures consistent with an fcc lattice are observed at low temperatures. The type of magnetic order gives rise to distinct lattice distortion characteristic of the magnetic symmetry. A wide range of bulk measurements was carried out to characterise the materials, e.g. X-ray, neutron diffraction, magnetic susceptibility and specific heat (using both pulse and continuous heating techniques). The magnetic structures were, in some instances, frustrated as may be expected for antiferromagnetism on an fcc lattice. As an example of itinerant behaviour the Fe-Ni system was chosen. rm Fe_{1 -x}Ni_ x alloy systems have long been of considerable interest since rm Fe_ {65}Ni_{35} shows an anomalously small thermal expansion below T_ {rm c}. Numerous experiments have been carried out to understand this phenomenon, the Invar effect. The effect is most pronounced close to the composition defining the phase boundary between the bcc and fcc structures. The interplay between the magnetic and lattice degrees of freedom were investigated on an atomic scale using inelastic polarised neutron scattering. The polarisation dependence of the magneto vibrational scattering of the one phonon cross-sections has been investigated as a continuous function of q throughout the Brillouin zone in the Invar alloy rm Fe_{65 }Ni_{35}, and in two other FeNi samples out side the Invar region. The magneto vibrational scattering is

  15. Tailored complex 3D vortex lattice structures by perturbed multiples of three-plane waves.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Jolly; Vyas, Sunil; Senthilkumaran, Paramasivam; Joseph, Joby

    2012-04-20

    As three-plane waves are the minimum number required for the formation of vortex-embedded lattice structures by plane wave interference, we present our experimental investigation on the formation of complex 3D photonic vortex lattice structures by a designed superposition of multiples of phase-engineered three-plane waves. The unfolding of the generated complex photonic lattice structures with higher order helical phase is realized by perturbing the superposition of a relatively phase-encoded, axially equidistant multiple of three noncoplanar plane waves. Through a programmable spatial light modulator assisted single step fabrication approach, the unfolded 3D vortex lattice structures are experimentally realized, well matched to our computer simulations. The formation of higher order intertwined helices embedded in these 3D spiraling vortex lattice structures by the superposition of the multiples of phase-engineered three-plane waves interference is also studied.

  16. Controllable 3D atomic Brownian motor in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dion, C. M.; Sjölund, P.; Petra, S. J. H.; Jonsell, S.; Nylén, M.; Sanchez-Palencia, L.; Kastberg, A.

    2008-06-01

    We study a Brownian motor, based on cold atoms in optical lattices, where atomic motion can be induced in a controlled manner in an arbitrary direction, by rectification of isotropic random fluctuations. In contrast with ratchet mechanisms, our Brownian motor operates in a potential that is spatially and temporally symmetric, in apparent contradiction to the Curie principle. Simulations, based on the Fokker-Planck equation, allow us to gain knowledge on the qualitative behaviour of our Brownian motor. Studies of Brownian motors, and in particular ones with unique control properties, are of fundamental interest because of the role they play in protein motors and their potential applications in nanotechnology. In particular, our system opens the way to the study of quantum Brownian motors.

  17. 3D periodic orbits in the restricted four body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltagiannis, A.; Papadakis, K.

    2013-09-01

    One big body (Sun) of mass m1 and two other small bodies of masses m2 and m3 correspondingly, move in circular orbits keeping an equilateral triangle configuration, about the center of mass of the system fixed at the origin of the coordinate system. A massless particle is moving under the Newtonian gravitational attraction of the primaries and does not affect the motion of the three bodies. Using the vertical-critical orbits of planar families of symmetric periodic orbits as starting points, we determine and present in this paper, families of three-dimensional periodic solutions of the problem. Characteristic curves of the 3D-families which emanate from the plane are presented. The stability of every three-dimensional periodic orbit which numerically calculated is also studied.

  18. A lattice-Boltzmann scheme of the Navier-Stokes equations on a 3D cuboid lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Haoda; Peng, Cheng; Wang, Lian-Ping

    2015-11-01

    The standard lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) for fluid flow simulation is based on a square (in 2D) or cubic (in 3D) lattice grids. Recently, two new lattice Boltzmann schemes have been developed on a 2D rectangular grid using the MRT (multiple-relaxation-time) collision model, by adding a free parameter in the definition of moments or by extending the equilibrium moments. Here we developed a lattice Boltzmann model on 3D cuboid lattice, namely, a lattice grid with different grid lengths in different spatial directions. We designed our MRT-LBM model by matching the moment equations from the Chapman-Enskog expansion with the Navier-Stokes equations. The model guarantees correct hydrodynamics. A second-order term is added to the equilibrium moments in order to restore the isotropy of viscosity on a cuboid lattice. The form and the coefficients of the extended equilibrium moments are determined through an inverse design process. An additional benefit of the model is that the viscosity can be adjusted independent of the stress-moment relaxation parameter, thus improving the numerical stability of the model. The resulting cuboid MRT-LBM model is then validated through benchmark simulations using laminar channel flow, turbulent channel flow, and the 3D Taylor-Green vortex flow.

  19. Twisted 3D N=4 supersymmetric YM on deformed A{sub 3}{sup *} lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Saidi, El Hassan

    2014-01-15

    We study a class of twisted 3D N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory on particular 3-dimensional lattice L{sub 3D} formally denoted as L{sub 3D}{sup su{sub 3}×u{sub 1}} and given by non-trivial fibration L{sub 1D}{sup u{sub 1}}×L{sub 2D}{sup su{sub 3}} with base L{sub 2D}{sup su{sub 3}}=A{sub 2}{sup *}, the weight lattice of SU(3). We first, develop the twisted 3D N=4 SYM in continuum by using superspace method where the scalar supercharge Q is manifestly exhibited. Then, we show how to engineer the 3D lattice L{sub 3D}{sup su{sub 3}×u{sub 1}} that host this theory. After that we build the lattice action S{sub latt} invariant under the following three points: (i) U(N) gauge invariance, (ii) BRST symmetry, (iii) the S{sub 3} point group symmetry of L{sub 3D}{sup su{sub 3}×u{sub 1}}. Other features such as reduction to twisted 2D supersymmetry with 8 supercharges living on L{sub 2D}≡L{sub 2D}{sup su{sub 2}×u{sub 1}}, the extension to twisted maximal 5D SYM with 16 supercharges on lattice L{sub 5D}≡L{sub 5D}{sup su{sub 4}×u{sub 1}} as well as the relation with known results are also given.

  20. Loading mode dependent effective properties of octet-truss lattice structures using 3D-printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challapalli, Adithya

    Cellular materials, often called lattice materials, are increasingly receiving attention for their ultralight structures with high specific strength, excellent impact absorption, acoustic insulation, heat dissipation media and compact heat exchangers. In alignment with emerging additive manufacturing (AM) technology, realization of the structural applications of the lattice materials appears to be becoming faster. Considering the direction dependent material properties of the products with AM, by directionally dependent printing resolution, effective moduli of lattice structures appear to be directionally dependent. In this paper, a constitutive model of a lattice structure, which is an octet-truss with a base material having an orthotropic material property considering AM is developed. In a case study, polyjet based 3D printing material having an orthotropic property with a 9% difference in the principal direction provides difference in the axial and shear moduli in the octet-truss by 2.3 and 4.6%. Experimental validation for the effective properties of a 3D printed octet-truss is done for uniaxial tension and compression test. The theoretical value based on the micro-buckling of truss member are used to estimate the failure strength. Modulus value appears a little overestimate compared with the experiment. Finite element (FE) simulations for uniaxial compression and tension of octettruss lattice materials are conducted. New effective properties for the octet-truss lattice structure are developed considering the observed behavior of the octet-truss structure under macroscopic compression and tension trough simulations.

  1. Competing anisotropies on 3d sub-lattice of YNi4-xCoxB compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caraballo Vivas, R. J.; Rocco, D. L.; Costa Soares, T.; Caldeira, L.; Coelho, A. A.; Reis, M. S.

    2014-08-01

    The magnetic anisotropy of 3d sub-lattices has an important rule on the overall magnetic properties of hard magnets. Intermetallics alloys with boron (R-Co/Ni-B, for instance) belong to those hard magnets family and are useful objects to help to understand the magnetic behavior of 3d sub-lattice, specially when the rare earth ions R do not have magnetic nature, like YCo4B ferromagnetic material. Interestingly, YNi4B is a paramagnetic material and Ni ions do not contribute to the magnetic anisotropy. We focused therefore our attention to YNi4-xCoxB series, with x = 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4. The magnetic anisotropy of these compounds is deeper described using statistical and preferential models of Co occupation among the possible Wyckoff positions into the CeCo4B type hexagonal structure. We found that the preferential model is the most suitable to explain the magnetization experimental data.

  2. Enhanced hybrid search algorithm for protein structure prediction using the 3D-HP lattice model.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changjun; Hou, Caixia; Zhang, Qiang; Wei, Xiaopeng

    2013-09-01

    The problem of protein structure prediction in the hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice model is the prediction of protein tertiary structure. This problem is usually referred to as the protein folding problem. This paper presents a method for the application of an enhanced hybrid search algorithm to the problem of protein folding prediction, using the three dimensional (3D) HP lattice model. The enhanced hybrid search algorithm is a combination of the particle swarm optimizer (PSO) and tabu search (TS) algorithms. Since the PSO algorithm entraps local minimum in later evolution extremely easily, we combined PSO with the TS algorithm, which has properties of global optimization. Since the technologies of crossover and mutation are applied many times to PSO and TS algorithms, so enhanced hybrid search algorithm is called the MCMPSO-TS (multiple crossover and mutation PSO-TS) algorithm. Experimental results show that the MCMPSO-TS algorithm can find the best solutions so far for the listed benchmarks, which will help comparison with any future paper approach. Moreover, real protein sequences and Fibonacci sequences are verified in the 3D HP lattice model for the first time. Compared with the previous evolutionary algorithms, the new hybrid search algorithm is novel, and can be used effectively to predict 3D protein folding structure. With continuous development and changes in amino acids sequences, the new algorithm will also make a contribution to the study of new protein sequences. PMID:23824509

  3. Design of Chern and Mott insulators in buckled 3 d oxide honeycomb lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doennig, David; Baidya, Santu; Pickett, Warren E.; Pentcheva, Rossitza

    2016-04-01

    Perovskite (La X O3 )2/(LaAlO3)4(111) superlattices with X spanning the entire 3 d transition-metal series combine the strongly correlated, multiorbital nature of electrons in transition-metal oxides with a honeycomb lattice as a key feature. Based on density functional theory calculations including strong interaction effects, we establish trends in the evolution of electronic states as a function of several control parameters: band filling, interaction strength, spin-orbit coupling (SOC), and lattice instabilities. Competition between local pseudocubic and global trigonal symmetry as well as the additional flexibility provided by the magnetic and spin degrees of freedom of 3 d ions lead to a broad array of distinctive broken-symmetry ground states not accessible for the (001)-growth direction, offering a platform to design two-dimensional electronic functionalities. Constraining the symmetry between the two triangular sublattices causes X =Mn , Co, and Ti to emerge as Chern insulators driven by SOC. For X =Mn we illustrate how interaction strength and lattice distortions can tune these systems between a Dirac semimetal, a Chern and a trivial Mott insulator.

  4. Investigation the effect of lattice angle on the band structure in 3D phononic crystals with rhombohedral(II) lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryadoust, M.; Salehi, H.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the propagation of acoustic waves in the phononic crystals (PC) of 3D with rhombohedral(II) lattice is studied theoretically. The PC are constituted of nickel spheres embedded in epoxy. The calculations of the band structure and density of states are performed with the plane wave expansion method in the irreducible part of the Brillouin zone (BZ). In this study, we analyze the dependence of the band structures inside (the complete band gap width) and outside the complete band gap (negative refraction of acoustic wave) on the lattice angle in the irreducible part of the first BZ. Also the effect of lattice angle has been analyzed on the band structure of the () and (122) planes. Then, the equifrequency surface is calculated for the high symmetry point in the [111] and [100] directions. The results show that the maximum width of AEBG (0.022) in the irreducible part of the BZ of RHL2 is formed for (105∘) and no AEBG is found for γ > 150∘. Also, the maximum of the first and second AEBG width are 0.1076 and 0.0523 for γ = 133∘ in the () plane and the maximum of the first and second AEBG width are 0.1446 and 0.0998 for γ = 113∘ in the (122) plane. In addition, we have found that frequencies in which negative refraction occurs is constant for all lattice angles.

  5. Deconfinement Phase Transition in a 3D Nonlocal U(1) Lattice Gauge Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, Gaku; Ichinose, Ikuo; Matsui, Tetsuo; Sakakibara, Kazuhiko

    2005-06-03

    We introduce a 3D compact U(1) lattice gauge theory having nonlocal interactions in the temporal direction, and study its phase structure. The model is relevant for the compact QED{sub 3} and strongly correlated electron systems like the t-J model of cuprates. For a power-law decaying long-range interaction, which simulates the effect of gapless matter fields, a second-order phase transition takes place separating the confinement and deconfinement phases. For an exponentially decaying interaction simulating matter fields with gaps, the system exhibits no signals of a second-order transition.

  6. Amoeboid migration mode adaption in quasi-3D spatial density gradients of varying lattice geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelashvili, Mari; Emmert, Martin; Hodeck, Kai F.; Heinrich, Doris

    2014-07-01

    Cell migration processes are controlled by sensitive interaction with external cues such as topographic structures of the cell’s environment. Here, we present systematically controlled assays to investigate the specific effects of spatial density and local geometry of topographic structure on amoeboid migration of Dictyostelium discoideum cells. This is realized by well-controlled fabrication of quasi-3D pillar fields exhibiting a systematic variation of inter-pillar distance and pillar lattice geometry. By time-resolved local mean-squared displacement analysis of amoeboid migration, we can extract motility parameters in order to elucidate the details of amoeboid migration mechanisms and consolidate them in a two-state contact-controlled motility model, distinguishing directed and random phases. Specifically, we find that directed pillar-to-pillar runs are found preferably in high pillar density regions, and cells in directed motion states sense pillars as attractive topographic stimuli. In contrast, cell motion in random probing states is inhibited by high pillar density, where pillars act as obstacles for cell motion. In a gradient spatial density, these mechanisms lead to topographic guidance of cells, with a general trend towards a regime of inter-pillar spacing close to the cell diameter. In locally anisotropic pillar environments, cell migration is often found to be damped due to competing attraction by different pillars in close proximity and due to lack of other potential stimuli in the vicinity of the cell. Further, we demonstrate topographic cell guidance reflecting the lattice geometry of the quasi-3D environment by distinct preferences in migration direction. Our findings allow to specifically control amoeboid cell migration by purely topographic effects and thus, to induce active cell guidance. These tools hold prospects for medical applications like improved wound treatment, or invasion assays for immune cells.

  7. Development and validation of a 3D Lattice Boltzmann model for volcano aeroacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogi, Federico; Bonadonna, Costanza; Ripepe, Maurizio; Chopard, Bastien; Malaspinas, Orestis; Latt, Jonas; Falcone, Jean-Luc

    2015-04-01

    Infrasound measurements have a great potential for the real time characterization of volcanic plume source parameters [Ripepe et al., 2013]. Nonetheless many shortcomings have been highlighted in the understanding of the infrasound monitoring. In particular, the application of the classical acoustic source models to volcanic explosive eruptions has shown to be challenging and a better knowledge of the link between the acoustic radiation and actual volcanic fluid dynamics processes is required. New insights into this subject could be given by the study of realistic aeroacoustic numerical simulations of a volcanic jet. Our work mainly focuses on developing and validating such numerical model to determine when and if classical model source theory can be applied to explain volcanic infrasound data. Lattice Boltzmann strategies (LB) provide the opportunity to develop an accurate, computationally fast, 3D physical model for a volcanic jet and wave propagation. In the field of aeroacoustic applications, dedicated LB schemes has been proven to have the low dispersion and dissipative properties needed for capturing the weak acoustic pressure fluctuations. However, when dealing with simulations of realistic flows, artificial boundaries are defined around the flow region. The reflected waves from these boundaries can have significant influence on the flow field and overwhelm the acoustic field of interest. A special absorbing boundary layer has been implemented in our model to suppress the reflected waves [Xu et al., 2013]. In addition, for highly multi-scale turbulent flows, such as volcanic plumes, the number of grid points needed to represent the smallest scales might become intractable and the most complicated physics happen only in small portions of the computational domain. The implementation of the grid refinement, in our model allow us to insert local finer grids only where is actually needed [Lagrava et al., 2012] and to increase the size of the computational domain

  8. Lattice Boltzmann Model of 3D Multiphase Flow in Artery Bifurcation Aneurysm Problem.

    PubMed

    Abas, Aizat; Mokhtar, N Hafizah; Ishak, M H H; Abdullah, M Z; Ho Tian, Ang

    2016-01-01

    This paper simulates and predicts the laminar flow inside the 3D aneurysm geometry, since the hemodynamic situation in the blood vessels is difficult to determine and visualize using standard imaging techniques, for example, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three different types of Lattice Boltzmann (LB) models are computed, namely, single relaxation time (SRT), multiple relaxation time (MRT), and regularized BGK models. The results obtained using these different versions of the LB-based code will then be validated with ANSYS FLUENT, a commercially available finite volume- (FV-) based CFD solver. The simulated flow profiles that include velocity, pressure, and wall shear stress (WSS) are then compared between the two solvers. The predicted outcomes show that all the LB models are comparable and in good agreement with the FVM solver for complex blood flow simulation. The findings also show minor differences in their WSS profiles. The performance of the parallel implementation for each solver is also included and discussed in this paper. In terms of parallelization, it was shown that LBM-based code performed better in terms of the computation time required. PMID:27239221

  9. Lattice Boltzmann Model of 3D Multiphase Flow in Artery Bifurcation Aneurysm Problem

    PubMed Central

    Abas, Aizat; Mokhtar, N. Hafizah; Ishak, M. H. H.; Abdullah, M. Z.; Ho Tian, Ang

    2016-01-01

    This paper simulates and predicts the laminar flow inside the 3D aneurysm geometry, since the hemodynamic situation in the blood vessels is difficult to determine and visualize using standard imaging techniques, for example, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three different types of Lattice Boltzmann (LB) models are computed, namely, single relaxation time (SRT), multiple relaxation time (MRT), and regularized BGK models. The results obtained using these different versions of the LB-based code will then be validated with ANSYS FLUENT, a commercially available finite volume- (FV-) based CFD solver. The simulated flow profiles that include velocity, pressure, and wall shear stress (WSS) are then compared between the two solvers. The predicted outcomes show that all the LB models are comparable and in good agreement with the FVM solver for complex blood flow simulation. The findings also show minor differences in their WSS profiles. The performance of the parallel implementation for each solver is also included and discussed in this paper. In terms of parallelization, it was shown that LBM-based code performed better in terms of the computation time required. PMID:27239221

  10. Advanced quadratures and periodic boundary conditions in parallel 3D S{sub n} transport

    SciTech Connect

    Manalo, K.; Yi, C.; Huang, M.; Sjoden, G.

    2013-07-01

    Significant updates in numerical quadratures have warranted investigation with 3D Sn discrete ordinates transport. We show new applications of quadrature departing from level symmetric (S{sub 2}o). investigating 3 recently developed quadratures: Even-Odd (EO), Linear-Discontinuous Finite Element - Surface Area (LDFE-SA), and the non-symmetric Icosahedral Quadrature (IC). We discuss implementation changes to 3D Sn codes (applied to Hybrid MOC-Sn TITAN and 3D parallel PENTRAN) that can be performed to accommodate Icosahedral Quadrature, as this quadrature is not 90-degree rotation invariant. In particular, as demonstrated using PENTRAN, the properties of Icosahedral Quadrature are suitable for trivial application using periodic BCs versus that of reflective BCs. In addition to implementing periodic BCs for 3D Sn PENTRAN, we implemented a technique termed 'angular re-sweep' which properly conditions periodic BCs for outer eigenvalue iterative loop convergence. As demonstrated by two simple transport problems (3-group fixed source and 3-group reflected/periodic eigenvalue pin cell), we remark that all of the quadratures we investigated are generally superior to level symmetric quadrature, with Icosahedral Quadrature performing the most efficiently for problems tested. (authors)

  11. Dual FIB-SEM 3D imaging and lattice boltzmann modeling of porosimetry and multiphase flow in chalk.

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, Alex; Petrusak, Robin; Heath, Jason E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Yoon, Hongkyu

    2010-12-01

    Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) is an often-applied technique for determining pore throat distributions and seal analysis of fine-grained rocks. Due to closure effects, potential pore collapse, and complex pore network topologies, MIP data interpretation can be ambiguous, and often biased toward smaller pores in the distribution. We apply 3D imaging techniques and lattice-Boltzmann modeling in interpreting MIP data for samples of the Cretaceous Selma Group Chalk. In the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, the Selma Chalk is the apparent seal for oil and gas fields in the underlying Eutaw Fm., and, where unfractured, the Selma Chalk is one of the regional-scale seals identified by the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership for CO2 injection sites. Dual focused ion - scanning electron beam and laser scanning confocal microscopy methods are used for 3D imaging of nanometer-to-micron scale microcrack and pore distributions in the Selma Chalk. A combination of image analysis software is used to obtain geometric pore body and throat distributions and other topological properties, which are compared to MIP results. 3D data sets of pore-microfracture networks are used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations of drainage (wetting fluid displaced by non-wetting fluid via the Shan-Chen algorithm), which in turn are used to model MIP procedures. Results are used in interpreting MIP results, understanding microfracture-matrix interaction during multiphase flow, and seal analysis for underground CO2 storage.

  12. UV photodetectors based on 3D periodic Au-decorated nanocone ZnO films.

    PubMed

    Fan, Haowen; Sun, Mengwei; Ma, Pengsha; Yin, Min; Lu, Linfeng; Xue, Xinzhong; Zhu, Xufei; Li, Dongdong; Ma, Jing

    2016-09-01

    Thermal nanoimprinting technology was employed to fabricate 3D periodic nanocone ZnO films with different height/pitch values for photodetectors to optimize their light capturing property. The photocurrents of patterned film photodetectors increase with the height/pitch values. The patterned ZnO-Au hybrid film further boosts the ultraviolet (UV) response. Due to the co-contribution of the light trapping of 3D periodic structures and the driving force of the Schottky barrier in the Au/ZnO interface, the patterned ZnO-Au hybrid films with height/pitch of 40 nm/866 nm exhibit the best UV photoresponse (I on/I off = 779.927), which is 3.8 times higher than its film counterpart (I on/I off = 164.1). PMID:27482636

  13. UV photodetectors based on 3D periodic Au-decorated nanocone ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Haowen; Sun, Mengwei; Ma, Pengsha; Yin, Min; Lu, Linfeng; Xue, Xinzhong; Zhu, Xufei; Li, Dongdong; Ma, Jing

    2016-09-01

    Thermal nanoimprinting technology was employed to fabricate 3D periodic nanocone ZnO films with different height/pitch values for photodetectors to optimize their light capturing property. The photocurrents of patterned film photodetectors increase with the height/pitch values. The patterned ZnO-Au hybrid film further boosts the ultraviolet (UV) response. Due to the co-contribution of the light trapping of 3D periodic structures and the driving force of the Schottky barrier in the Au/ZnO interface, the patterned ZnO-Au hybrid films with height/pitch of 40 nm/866 nm exhibit the best UV photoresponse (I on/I off = 779.927), which is 3.8 times higher than its film counterpart (I on/I off = 164.1).

  14. UV photodetectors based on 3D periodic Au-decorated nanocone ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Haowen; Sun, Mengwei; Ma, Pengsha; Yin, Min; Lu, Linfeng; Xue, Xinzhong; Zhu, Xufei; Li, Dongdong; Ma, Jing

    2016-09-01

    Thermal nanoimprinting technology was employed to fabricate 3D periodic nanocone ZnO films with different height/pitch values for photodetectors to optimize their light capturing property. The photocurrents of patterned film photodetectors increase with the height/pitch values. The patterned ZnO–Au hybrid film further boosts the ultraviolet (UV) response. Due to the co-contribution of the light trapping of 3D periodic structures and the driving force of the Schottky barrier in the Au/ZnO interface, the patterned ZnO–Au hybrid films with height/pitch of 40 nm/866 nm exhibit the best UV photoresponse (I on/I off = 779.927), which is 3.8 times higher than its film counterpart (I on/I off = 164.1).

  15. Investigation the effect of lattice angle on the band gap width in 3D phononic crystals with rhombohedral(I) lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, H.; Aryadoust, M.; Shoushtari, M. Zargar

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, the propagation of acoustic waves in the phononic crystal of 3D with rhombohedral(I) lattice is studied theoretically. The crystal composite constituted of nickel spheres embedded in epoxy. The calculations of the band structure and density of states are performed with the plane wave expansion method in the irreducible part of Brillouin zone. In the present work, we have investigated the effect of lattice angle on the band structure and width of the band gap rhombohedral(I) lattice in the irreducible part of the first Brillouin zone and its planes separately. The results show that more than one complete band gape are formed in the four planes of the irreducible part. The most complete band gaps are formed in the (111) plane and the widest complete band gap in (443) with an angle greater than 80. So, if the sound passes through the (111) and (443) planes for the lattice angle close to 90, the crystal phononic displays the excellent insulation behavior. Moreover, in the other planes, the lattice angle does not affect on the width and the number of band gaps. Also, for the filling fraction 5 %, the widest complete band gap is formed. These results are consistent with the effect of symmetry on the band gap width, because the (111) plane has the most symmetry.

  16. Vibration of prestressed periodic lattice structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    Equations are developed for vibration of general lattice structures that have repetitive geometry. The method of solution is an extension of a previous paper for buckling of similar structures. The theory is based on representing each member of the structure with the exact dynamic stiffness matrix and taking advantage of the repetitive geometry to obtain an eigenvalue problem involving the degrees-of-freedom at a single node in the lattice. Results are given for shell-and beam-like lattice structures and for rings stiffened with tension cables and a central mast. The variation of frequency with external loading and the effect of local member vibration on overall modes is shown.

  17. Periodic table of 3d-metal dimers and their ions.

    PubMed

    Gutsev, G L; Mochena, M D; Jena, P; Bauschlicher, C W; Partridge, H

    2004-10-01

    The ground states of the mixed 3d-metal dimers TiV, TiCr, TiMn, TiFe, TiCo, TiNi, TiCu, TiZn, VCr, VMn, VFe, VCo, VNi, VCu, VZn, CrMn, CrFe, CrCo, CrNi, CrCu, CrZn, MnFe, MnCo, MnNi, MnCu, MnZn, FeCo, FeNi, FeCu, FeZn, CoNi, CoCu, CoZn, NiCu, NiZn, and CuZn along with their singly negatively and positively charged ions are assigned based on the results of computations using density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation functional. Except for TiCo and CrMn, our assignment agrees with experiment. Computed spectroscopic constants (r(e),omega(e),D(o)) are in fair agreement with experiment. The ground-state spin multiplicities of all the ions are found to differ from the spin multiplicities of the corresponding neutral parents by +/-1. Except for TiV, MnFe, and MnCu, the number of unpaired electrons, N, in a neutral ground-state dimer is either N(1)+N(2) or mid R:N(1)-N(2)mid R:, where N(1) and N(2) are the numbers of unpaired 3d electrons in the 3d(n)4s(1) occupation of the constituent atoms. Combining the present and previous results obtained at the same level of theory for homonuclear 3d-metal and ScX (X=Ti-Zn) dimers allows one to construct "periodic" tables of all 3d-metal dimers along with their singly charged ions.

  18. Metallic and Insulating Phases of Interacting Fermions in a 3D Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackermueller, Lucia

    2010-03-01

    Ultracold fermions in optical lattices are a promising tool to simulate solid state physics, since they represent an ideal and highly tunable implementation of the Hubbard Hamiltonian. A proof of principle is to demonstrate a Mott insulating state, where repulsive interactions between the atoms lead to an insulating behavior in a half-filled conduction band. In our experiments we study repulsively and attractively interacting ^40K atoms within the combination of a red-detuned dipole trap and a blue detuned lattice. This setup allows us to gradually transform the system from metallic to Mott-insulating and band insulating states. We measure the phase of the system by analyzing the system size and the number of doubly occupied sites and compare our findings to DMFT theory. In addition we investigate the dynamical behavior of interacting fermionic mixtures. We prepare a band insulating system and suddenly release it into a homogenous lattice. We detect a symmetric behavior from a ballistic expansion for non-interacting clouds to a strongly suppressed expansion due to the formation of attractively or repulsively bound pairs. This experiment allows us to study transport properties of the Hubbard model. This work was done together with U.Schneider, S. Will, Th. Best, S. Braun, I. Bloch and with theoretical support from T.A. Costi, R.W. Helmes, D. Rasch, A.Rosch, B. Paredes, M. Moreno-Cardoner, T. Kitagawa, E.Demler.

  19. Single qubit gates on neutral atoms in a 3d Optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Aishwarya; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xianli; Corcovilos, Theodore A.; Weiss, David S.

    2015-05-01

    Neutral atoms are especially promising candidates for quantum computing because of their inherent scalability. To realize this scalability requires being able to manipulate the quantum information at target qubits with high fidelity and low crosstalk. We will present two single qubit gate addressing protocols. We have experimentally applied them both to targeted sites in a 5 × 5 × 5 3D array. The two distinct approaches both use crossed MEMS-mirror directed addressing beams along with microwave pulses to target atoms at single sites, while having minimal impact on the quantum information at non-target sites. Supported by DARPA, QUEST and ARO.

  20. Coherent Addressing of Individual Neutral Atoms in a 3D Optical Lattice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xianli; Corcovilos, Theodore A; Kumar, Aishwarya; Weiss, David S

    2015-07-24

    We demonstrate arbitrary coherent addressing of individual neutral atoms in a 5×5×5 array formed by an optical lattice. Addressing is accomplished using rapidly reconfigurable crossed laser beams to selectively ac Stark shift target atoms, so that only target atoms are resonant with state-changing microwaves. The effect of these targeted single qubit gates on the quantum information stored in nontargeted atoms is smaller than 3×10^{-3} in state fidelity. This is an important step along the path of converting the scalability promise of neutral atoms into reality.

  1. Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of a Flow over a 3D Cube in a wind Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shock, Richard; Chen, Hudong; Yakhot, Victor

    2001-06-01

    It is argued that even a simplified version of the Boltzmann equation in a relaxation time approximation is equivalent to the hydrodynamic equations, involving infinite number of non-linear terms. Used for turbulence modelling, where the relaxation time and mean -free path are both space and field dependent, this equation is equivalent to the classic Navier-Stokes + turbulent model representations, provided the gradients are small. If, however, the non-equilibrium effects are strong, all higher non-linearities cannot be neglected. Thus, the Boltmann approximation can be extremely usefull for description of strongly non-equilibrium and time - dependent flows. This fact has been demonstrated on a wide variety of flows of both academic and industrial interest ranging from a simple 2D channel flow to 3D flows over various production cars. In this talk the quality of the approach is demonstrated on a simulation of the flow over a 3D cube in a wind tunnel. The predicted parameters of this strongly unsteady flow are compared with experimental data. The agreement is very good.

  2. Protein folding optimization based on 3D off-lattice model via an improved artificial bee colony algorithm.

    PubMed

    Li, Bai; Lin, Mu; Liu, Qiao; Li, Ya; Zhou, Changjun

    2015-10-01

    Protein folding is a fundamental topic in molecular biology. Conventional experimental techniques for protein structure identification or protein folding recognition require strict laboratory requirements and heavy operating burdens, which have largely limited their applications. Alternatively, computer-aided techniques have been developed to optimize protein structures or to predict the protein folding process. In this paper, we utilize a 3D off-lattice model to describe the original protein folding scheme as a simplified energy-optimal numerical problem, where all types of amino acid residues are binarized into hydrophobic and hydrophilic ones. We apply a balance-evolution artificial bee colony (BE-ABC) algorithm as the minimization solver, which is featured by the adaptive adjustment of search intensity to cater for the varying needs during the entire optimization process. In this work, we establish a benchmark case set with 13 real protein sequences from the Protein Data Bank database and evaluate the convergence performance of BE-ABC algorithm through strict comparisons with several state-of-the-art ABC variants in short-term numerical experiments. Besides that, our obtained best-so-far protein structures are compared to the ones in comprehensive previous literature. This study also provides preliminary insights into how artificial intelligence techniques can be applied to reveal the dynamics of protein folding. Graphical Abstract Protein folding optimization using 3D off-lattice model and advanced optimization techniques.

  3. The Calculation of the Band Structure in 3D Phononic Crystal with Hexagonal Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryadoust, Mahrokh; Salehi, H.

    2015-12-01

    In this article, the propagation of acoustic waves in the phononic crystals (PCs) of three dimensions with the hexagonal (HEX) lattice is studied theoretically. The PCs are constituted of nickel (Ni) spheres embedded in epoxy. The calculations of the band structure and the density of states are performed using the plane wave expansion (PWE) method in the irreducible part of the Brillouin zone (BZ). In this study, we analyse the dependence of the band structures inside (the complete band gap width) on c/a and filling fraction in the irreducible part of the first BZ. Also, we have analysed the band structure of the ALHA and MLHKM planes. The results show that the maximum width of absolute elastic band gap (AEBG) (0.045) in the irreducible part of the BZ of HEX lattice is formed for c/a=6 and filling fraction equal to 0.01. In addition, the maximum of the first and second AEBG widths are 0.0884 and 0.0474, respectively, in the MLHKM plane, and the maximum of the first and second AEBG widths are 0.0851 and 0.0431, respectively, in the ALHA plane.

  4. An effective evolutionary algorithm for protein folding on 3D FCC HP model by lattice rotation and generalized move sets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Proteins are essential biological molecules which play vital roles in nearly all biological processes. It is the tertiary structure of a protein that determines its functions. Therefore the prediction of a protein's tertiary structure based on its primary amino acid sequence has long been the most important and challenging subject in biochemistry, molecular biology and biophysics. In the past, the HP lattice model was one of the ab initio methods that many researchers used to forecast the protein structure. Although these kinds of simplified methods could not achieve high resolution, they provided a macrocosm-optimized protein structure. The model has been employed to investigate general principles of protein folding, and plays an important role in the prediction of protein structures. Methods In this paper, we present an improved evolutionary algorithm for the protein folding problem. We study the problem on the 3D FCC lattice HP model which has been widely used in previous research. Our focus is to develop evolutionary algorithms (EA) which are robust, easy to implement and can handle various energy functions. We propose to combine three different local search methods, including lattice rotation for crossover, K-site move for mutation, and generalized pull move; these form our key components to improve previous EA-based approaches. Results We have carried out experiments over several data sets which were used in previous research. The results of the experiments show that our approach is able to find optimal conformations which were not found by previous EA-based approaches. Conclusions We have investigated the geometric properties of the 3D FCC lattice and developed several local search techniques to improve traditional EA-based approaches to the protein folding problem. It is known that EA-based approaches are robust and can handle arbitrary energy functions. Our results further show that by extensive development of local searches, EA can also be very

  5. Periodic table of 3d-metal dimers and their ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutsev, G. L.; Mochena, M. D.; Jena, P.; Bauschlicher, C. W.; Partridge, H.

    2004-10-01

    The ground states of the mixed 3d-metal dimers TiV, TiCr, TiMn, TiFe, TiCo, TiNi, TiCu, TiZn, VCr, VMn, VFe, VCo, VNi, VCu, VZn, CrMn, CrFe, CrCo, CrNi, CrCu, CrZn, MnFe, MnCo, MnNi, MnCu, MnZn, FeCo, FeNi, FeCu, FeZn, CoNi, CoCu, CoZn, NiCu, NiZn, and CuZn along with their singly negatively and positively charged ions are assigned based on the results of computations using density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation functional. Except for TiCo and CrMn, our assignment agrees with experiment. Computed spectroscopic constants (re,ωe,Do) are in fair agreement with experiment. The ground-state spin multiplicities of all the ions are found to differ from the spin multiplicities of the corresponding neutral parents by ±1. Except for TiV, MnFe, and MnCu, the number of unpaired electrons, N, in a neutral ground-state dimer is either N1+N2 or |N1-N2|, where N1 and N2 are the numbers of unpaired 3d electrons in the 3dn4s1 occupation of the constituent atoms. Combining the present and previous results obtained at the same level of theory for homonuclear [Gutsev and Bauschlicher, J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 4755 (2003)] 3d-metal and ScX (X=Ti-Zn) dimers [Gutsev, Bauschlicher, and Andrews, in Theoretical Prospects of Negative Ions, edited by J. Kalcher (Research Signpost, Trivandrum, 2002), pp. 43-60] allows one to construct "periodic" tables of all 3d-metal dimers along with their singly charged ions.

  6. Dual FIB-SEM 3D Imaging and Lattice Boltzmann Modeling of Porosimetry and Multiphase Flow in Chalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinehart, A. J.; Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.; Heath, J. E.; Petrusak, R.

    2010-12-01

    Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) is an often-applied technique for determining pore throat distributions and seal analysis of fine-grained rocks. Due to closure effects, potential pore collapse, and complex pore network topologies, MIP data interpretation can be ambiguous, and often biased toward smaller pores in the distribution. We apply 3D imaging techniques and lattice-Boltzmann modeling in interpreting MIP data for samples of the Cretaceous Selma Group Chalk. In the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, the Selma Chalk is the apparent seal for oil and gas fields in the underlying Eutaw Fm., and, where unfractured, the Selma Chalk is one of the regional-scale seals identified by the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership for CO2 injection sites. Dual focused ion - scanning electron beam and laser scanning confocal microscopy methods are used for 3D imaging of nanometer-to-micron scale microcrack and pore distributions in the Selma Chalk. A combination of image analysis software is used to obtain geometric pore body and throat distributions and other topological properties, which are compared to MIP results. 3D data sets of pore-microfracture networks are used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations of drainage (wetting fluid displaced by non-wetting fluid via the Shan-Chen algorithm), which in turn are used to model MIP procedures. Results are used in interpreting MIP results, understanding microfracture-matrix interaction during multiphase flow, and seal analysis for underground CO2 storage. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences as part of an Energy Frontier Research Center. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  7. LBM-EP: Lattice-Boltzmann method for fast cardiac electrophysiology simulation from 3D images.

    PubMed

    Rapaka, S; Mansi, T; Georgescu, B; Pop, M; Wright, G A; Kamen, A; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2012-01-01

    Current treatments of heart rhythm troubles require careful planning and guidance for optimal outcomes. Computational models of cardiac electrophysiology are being proposed for therapy planning but current approaches are either too simplified or too computationally intensive for patient-specific simulations in clinical practice. This paper presents a novel approach, LBM-EP, to solve any type of mono-domain cardiac electrophysiology models at near real-time that is especially tailored for patient-specific simulations. The domain is discretized on a Cartesian grid with a level-set representation of patient's heart geometry, previously estimated from images automatically. The cell model is calculated node-wise, while the transmembrane potential is diffused using Lattice-Boltzmann method within the domain defined by the level-set. Experiments on synthetic cases, on a data set from CESC'10 and on one patient with myocardium scar showed that LBM-EP provides results comparable to an FEM implementation, while being 10 - 45 times faster. Fast, accurate, scalable and requiring no specific meshing, LBM-EP paves the way to efficient and detailed models of cardiac electrophysiology for therapy planning. PMID:23286029

  8. Switchable 3D liquid crystal grating generated by periodic photo-alignment on both substrates.

    PubMed

    Nys, I; Beeckman, J; Neyts, K

    2015-10-21

    A planar liquid crystal (LC) cell is developed in which two photo-alignment layers have been illuminated with respectively a horizontal and a vertical diffraction pattern of interfering left- and right-handed circularly polarized light. In the bulk of the cell, a complex LC configuration is obtained with periodicity in two dimensions. Remarkably, the period of the structure is larger than the period of the interference pattern, indicating that lowering of the symmetry allows a reduction in the elastic energy. The liquid crystal configuration depends on the periodicity of the alignment but also on the thickness of the cell. By applying a voltage over the electrodes, the power going into the different diffracted orders can be tuned. Finite element (FE) simulations based on Q-tensor theory are used to find the 3D equilibrium director distribution, which is used to simulate the near-field transmission profile based on the Jones calculus. A 2D Fourier transform is performed for both the x- and y-component of the transmitted wave to find the diffraction efficiency. PMID:26313442

  9. Micro-Macro Scale Mixing Interactions by Intestinal Villi Enhance Absorption: a 3D Lattice-Boltzmann Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanxing; Brasseur, James; Banco, Gino

    2010-11-01

    Muscle-induced villi motions may create a micro-scale flow that couples with a lumen-scale macro flow to enhance nutrient transport and absorption in the intestine. Using a 3D multiscale lattice Boltzmann model of a lid-driven cavity flow with microscale 3-D leaf and finger-like villi in pendular motion at the lower surface, we analyze the coupling between micro and macro-scale nutrient mixing and absorption at the villi surfaces. RESULTS: The villi motions enhance absorption by creating a micro-mixing layer (MML) that pumps low concentration fluid from between villi groups and attracts fluid with high concentration from the macro flow. The MML couples with the macro flow via a diffusion layer. Leaf-like villi create the strongest MML and, consequently, the highest absorption rates. The finger-like villi create a weaker MML due to the existence of flow between villi. The strength of the MML and nutrient absorption increases with villus frequency. The absorption rate also increases with villus length; however the simulations predict an optimal length close to the physiological length of villi in humans. The complex flow structure will be discussed. We conclude that the interaction between micro-scale villi-induced fluid motions and macro-scale motility-induced flow may play a significant role in intestinal absorption. Supported by NSF Grant CTS-056215.

  10. Chaotic advection and heat transfer in two similar 2-D periodic flows and in their corresponding 3-D periodic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinsard, G.; Dufour, S.; Saatdjian, E.; Mota, J. P. B.

    2016-03-01

    Chaotic advection can effectively enhance the heat transfer rate between a boundary and fluids with high Prandtl number. These fluids are usually highly viscous and thus turbulent agitation is not a viable solution since the energy required to mix the fluid would be prohibitive. Here, we analyze previously obtained results on chaotic advection and heat transfer in two similar 2-D periodic flows and on their corresponding 3-D periodic flows when an axial velocity component is superposed. The two flows studied are the flow between eccentric rotating cylinders and the flow between confocal ellipses. For both of these flows the analysis is simplified because the Stokes equations can be solved analytically to obtain a closed form solution. For both 2-D periodic flows, we show that chaotic heat transfer is enhanced by the displacement of the saddle point location during one period. Furthermore, the enhancement by chaotic advection in the elliptical geometry is approximately double that obtained in the cylindrical geometry because there are two saddle points instead of one. We also explain why, for high eccentricity ratios, there is no heat transfer enhancement in the cylindrical geometry. When an axial velocity component is added to both of these flows so that they become 3-D, previous work has shown that there is an optimum modulation frequency for which chaotic advection and heat transfer enhancement is a maximum. Here we show that the optimum modulation frequency can be derived from results without an axial flow. We also explain by physical arguments other previously unanswered questions in the published data.

  11. 3D Bioprinting of Carboxymethylated-Periodate Oxidized Nanocellulose Constructs for Wound Dressing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Gethin, David T.; Syverud, Kristin; Hill, Katja E.; Thomas, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Nanocellulose has a variety of advantages, which make the material most suitable for use in biomedical devices such as wound dressings. The material is strong, allows for production of transparent films, provides a moist wound healing environment, and can form elastic gels with bioresponsive characteristics. In this study, we explore the application of nanocellulose as a bioink for modifying film surfaces by a bioprinting process. Two different nanocelluloses were used, prepared with TEMPO mediated oxidation and a combination of carboxymethylation and periodate oxidation. The combination of carboxymethylation and periodate oxidation produced a homogeneous material with short nanofibrils, having widths <20 nm and lengths <200 nm. The small dimensions of the nanofibrils reduced the viscosity of the nanocellulose, thus yielding a material with good rheological properties for use as a bioink. The nanocellulose bioink was thus used for printing 3D porous structures, which is exemplified in this study. We also demonstrated that both nanocelluloses did not support bacterial growth, which is an interesting property of these novel materials. PMID:26090461

  12. 3D Bioprinting of Carboxymethylated-Periodate Oxidized Nanocellulose Constructs for Wound Dressing Applications.

    PubMed

    Rees, Adam; Powell, Lydia C; Chinga-Carrasco, Gary; Gethin, David T; Syverud, Kristin; Hill, Katja E; Thomas, David W

    2015-01-01

    Nanocellulose has a variety of advantages, which make the material most suitable for use in biomedical devices such as wound dressings. The material is strong, allows for production of transparent films, provides a moist wound healing environment, and can form elastic gels with bioresponsive characteristics. In this study, we explore the application of nanocellulose as a bioink for modifying film surfaces by a bioprinting process. Two different nanocelluloses were used, prepared with TEMPO mediated oxidation and a combination of carboxymethylation and periodate oxidation. The combination of carboxymethylation and periodate oxidation produced a homogeneous material with short nanofibrils, having widths <20 nm and lengths <200 nm. The small dimensions of the nanofibrils reduced the viscosity of the nanocellulose, thus yielding a material with good rheological properties for use as a bioink. The nanocellulose bioink was thus used for printing 3D porous structures, which is exemplified in this study. We also demonstrated that both nanocelluloses did not support bacterial growth, which is an interesting property of these novel materials. PMID:26090461

  13. Buckling and vibration of periodic lattice structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    Lattice booms and platforms composed of flexible members or large diameter rings which may be stiffened by cables in order to support membrane-like antennas or reflector surfaces are the main components of some large space structures. The nature of these structures, repetitive geometry with few different members, makes possible relatively simple solutions for buckling and vibration of a certain class of these structures. Each member is represented by a stiffness matrix derived from the exact solution of the beam column equation. This transcendental matrix gives the current member stiffness at any end load or frequency. Using conventional finite element techniques, equilibrium equations can be written involving displacements and rotations of a typical node and its neighbors. The assumptions of a simple trigonometric mode shape is found to satisfy these equations exactly; thus the entire problem is governed by just one 6 x 6 matrix equation involving the amplitude of the displacement and rotation mode shapes. The boundary conditions implied by this solution are simple supported ends for the column type configurations.

  14. Influence of surface roughness on nonlinear flow behaviors in 3D self-affine rough fractures: Lattice Boltzmann simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min; Chen, Yi-Feng; Ma, Guo-Wei; Zhou, Jia-Qing; Zhou, Chuang-Bing

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates the impacts of surface roughness on the nonlinear fluid flow through three-dimensional (3D) self-affine rock fractures, whose original surface roughness is decomposed into primary roughness (i.e. the large-scale waviness of the fracture morphology) and secondary roughness (i.e. the small-scale unevenness) with a wavelet analysis technique. A 3D Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is adopted to predict the flow physics in rock fractures numerically created with and without consideration of the secondary roughness, respectively. The simulation results show that the primary roughness mostly controls the pressure distribution and fracture flow paths at a large scale, whereas the secondary roughness determines the nonlinear properties of the fluid flow at a local scale. As the pressure gradient increases, the secondary roughness enhances the local complexity of velocity distribution by generating and expanding the eddy flow and back flow regions in the vicinity of asperities. It was found that the Forchheimer's law characterizes well the nonlinear flow behavior in fractures of varying roughness. The inertial effects induced by the primary roughness differ only marginally in fractures with the roughness exponent varying from 0.5 to 0.8, and it is the secondary roughness that significantly enhances the nonlinear flow and leads to earlier onset of nonlinearity. Further examined were the effects of surface roughness on the transmissivity, hydraulic aperture and the tortuosity of flow paths, demonstrating again the dominant role of the secondary roughness, especially for the apparent transmissivity and the equivalent hydraulic aperture at high pressure gradient or high Reynolds number. The results may enhance our understanding of the role of surface roughness in the nonlinear flow behaviors in natural rock fractures.

  15. Efficient Second Harmonic Generation in 3D Nonlinear Optical-Lattice-Like Cladding Waveguide Splitters by Femtosecond Laser Inscription

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Weijie; Jia, Yuechen; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R.; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Integrated photonic devices with beam splitting function are intriguing for a broad range of photonic applications. Through optical-lattice-like cladding waveguide structures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing, the light propagation can be engineered via the track-confined refractive index profiles, achieving tailored output beam distributions. In this work, we report on the fabrication of 3D laser-written optical-lattice-like structures in a nonlinear KTP crystal to implement 1 × 4 beam splitting. Second harmonic generation (SHG) of green light through these nonlinear waveguide beam splitter structures provides the capability for the compact visible laser emitting devices. With Type II phase matching of the fundamental wavelength (@ 1064 nm) to second harmonic waves (@ 532 nm), the frequency doubling has been achieved through this three-dimensional beam splitter. Under 1064-nm continuous-wave fundamental-wavelength pump beam, guided-wave SHG at 532 nm are measured with the maximum power of 0.65 mW and 0.48 mW for waveguide splitters (0.67 mW and 0.51 mW for corresponding straight channel waveguides), corresponding to a SH conversion efficiency of approximately ~14.3%/W and 13.9%/W (11.2%/W, 11.3%/W for corresponding straight channel waveguides), respectively. This work paves a way to fabricate compact integrated nonlinear photonic devices in a single chip with beam dividing functions. PMID:26924255

  16. Efficient Second Harmonic Generation in 3D Nonlinear Optical-Lattice-Like Cladding Waveguide Splitters by Femtosecond Laser Inscription.

    PubMed

    Nie, Weijie; Jia, Yuechen; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Chen, Feng

    2016-02-29

    Integrated photonic devices with beam splitting function are intriguing for a broad range of photonic applications. Through optical-lattice-like cladding waveguide structures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing, the light propagation can be engineered via the track-confined refractive index profiles, achieving tailored output beam distributions. In this work, we report on the fabrication of 3D laser-written optical-lattice-like structures in a nonlinear KTP crystal to implement 1 × 4 beam splitting. Second harmonic generation (SHG) of green light through these nonlinear waveguide beam splitter structures provides the capability for the compact visible laser emitting devices. With Type II phase matching of the fundamental wavelength (@ 1064 nm) to second harmonic waves (@ 532 nm), the frequency doubling has been achieved through this three-dimensional beam splitter. Under 1064-nm continuous-wave fundamental-wavelength pump beam, guided-wave SHG at 532 nm are measured with the maximum power of 0.65 mW and 0.48 mW for waveguide splitters (0.67 mW and 0.51 mW for corresponding straight channel waveguides), corresponding to a SH conversion efficiency of approximately ~14.3%/W and 13.9%/W (11.2%/W, 11.3%/W for corresponding straight channel waveguides), respectively. This work paves a way to fabricate compact integrated nonlinear photonic devices in a single chip with beam dividing functions.

  17. Efficient Second Harmonic Generation in 3D Nonlinear Optical-Lattice-Like Cladding Waveguide Splitters by Femtosecond Laser Inscription.

    PubMed

    Nie, Weijie; Jia, Yuechen; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Integrated photonic devices with beam splitting function are intriguing for a broad range of photonic applications. Through optical-lattice-like cladding waveguide structures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing, the light propagation can be engineered via the track-confined refractive index profiles, achieving tailored output beam distributions. In this work, we report on the fabrication of 3D laser-written optical-lattice-like structures in a nonlinear KTP crystal to implement 1 × 4 beam splitting. Second harmonic generation (SHG) of green light through these nonlinear waveguide beam splitter structures provides the capability for the compact visible laser emitting devices. With Type II phase matching of the fundamental wavelength (@ 1064 nm) to second harmonic waves (@ 532 nm), the frequency doubling has been achieved through this three-dimensional beam splitter. Under 1064-nm continuous-wave fundamental-wavelength pump beam, guided-wave SHG at 532 nm are measured with the maximum power of 0.65 mW and 0.48 mW for waveguide splitters (0.67 mW and 0.51 mW for corresponding straight channel waveguides), corresponding to a SH conversion efficiency of approximately ~14.3%/W and 13.9%/W (11.2%/W, 11.3%/W for corresponding straight channel waveguides), respectively. This work paves a way to fabricate compact integrated nonlinear photonic devices in a single chip with beam dividing functions. PMID:26924255

  18. Characteristics of pore structures in Selma Chalk using dual FIB-SEM 3D imaging and Lattice Boltzmann Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate prediction of coupled geophysical and chemical processes at the pore scale requires realistic representation of pore structures. This is especially true for chalk materials, where pore networks are small and complex, and often characterized at sub-micron scale. Common techniques such as X-ray microtomography, microscopic imaging, or mercury intrusion porosimetry often show a limit on determining pore throat distributions and seal analysis of such fine-grained rocks. Focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) and laser scanning confocal microscopy methods are used for 3D imaging of nanometer-to-micron scale microcrack and pore distributions in samples of the Cretaceous Selma Group Chalk. The Selma Chalk is considered the seal for oil and gas fields in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and a proposed regional-scale seal identified for CO2 sequestration sites. A series of image analysis techniques is used to process raw images in order to recover both nano-scale pore structure and continuous fracture networks. We apply 3D imaging techniques in interpreting FIB-SEM binary data for characterizing geometric pore body and throat distributions and other topological properties, and lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) for obtaining permeability at several different scales. In particular, comparison of primary flow paths obtained from 3D image analysis and LBM demonstrates that image analysis results may have too many equally plausible flow paths, compared to LBM results. Upscaling of permeability and LB multiphase flow results with image dataset will be discussed with emphasis on understanding microfracture-matrix interaction during multiphase flow, and seal analysis for geologic CO2 storage. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001114

  19. Modified Iterated perturbation theory in the strong coupling regime and its application to the 3d FCC lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, Louis-François; Sémon, Patrick; Shastry, B. Sriram; Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    2012-02-01

    The Dynamical Mean-Field theory(DMFT) approach to the Hubbard model requires a method to solve the problem of a quantum impurity in a bath of non-interacting electrons. Iterated Perturbation Theory(IPT)[1] has proven its effectiveness as a solver in many cases of interest. Based on general principles and on comparisons with an essentially exact Continuous-Time Quantum Monte Carlo (CTQMC)[2], here we show that the standard implementation of IPT fails when the interaction is much larger than the bandwidth. We propose a slight modification to the IPT algorithm by requiring that double occupancy calculated with IPT gives the correct value. We call this method IPT-D. We show how this approximate impurity solver compares with respect to CTQMC. We consider a face centered cubic lattice(FCC) in 3d for different physical properties. We also use IPT-D to study the thermopower using two recently proposed approximations[3]S^* and SKelvin that do not require analytical continuation and show how thermopower is essentially the entropy per particle in the incoherent regime but not in the coherent one.[1]H.Kajueter et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 131(1996)[2]P. Werner, et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 076405(2006)[3]B.S. Sriram Shastry Rep. Prog. Phys. 72 016501(2009)

  20. From micro-scale 3D simulations to macro-scale model of periodic porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crevacore, Eleonora; Tosco, Tiziana; Marchisio, Daniele; Sethi, Rajandrea; Messina, Francesca

    2015-04-01

    In environmental engineering, the transport of colloidal suspensions in porous media is studied to understand the fate of potentially harmful nano-particles and to design new remediation technologies. In this perspective, averaging techniques applied to micro-scale numerical simulations are a powerful tool to extrapolate accurate macro-scale models. Choosing two simplified packing configurations of soil grains and starting from a single elementary cell (module), it is possible to take advantage of the periodicity of the structures to reduce the computation costs of full 3D simulations. Steady-state flow simulations for incompressible fluid in laminar regime are implemented. Transport simulations are based on the pore-scale advection-diffusion equation, that can be enriched introducing also the Stokes velocity (to consider the gravity effect) and the interception mechanism. Simulations are carried on a domain composed of several elementary modules, that serve as control volumes in a finite volume method for the macro-scale method. The periodicity of the medium involves the periodicity of the flow field and this will be of great importance during the up-scaling procedure, allowing relevant simplifications. Micro-scale numerical data are treated in order to compute the mean concentration (volume and area averages) and fluxes on each module. The simulation results are used to compare the micro-scale averaged equation to the integral form of the macroscopic one, making a distinction between those terms that could be computed exactly and those for which a closure in needed. Of particular interest it is the investigation of the origin of macro-scale terms such as the dispersion and tortuosity, trying to describe them with micro-scale known quantities. Traditionally, to study the colloidal transport many simplifications are introduced, such those concerning ultra-simplified geometry that usually account for a single collector. Gradual removal of such hypothesis leads to a

  1. Floquet engineering with quasienergy bands of periodically driven optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holthaus, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A primer on the Floquet theory of periodically time-dependent quantum systems is provided, and it is shown how to apply this framework for computing the quasienergy band structure governing the dynamics of ultracold atoms in driven optical cosine lattices. Such systems are viewed here as spatially and temporally periodic structures living in an extended Hilbert space, giving rise to spatio-temporal Bloch waves whose dispersion relations can be manipulated at will by exploiting ac-Stark shifts and multiphoton resonances. The elements required for numerical calculations are introduced in a tutorial manner, and some example calculations are discussed in detail, thereby illustrating future prospects of Floquet engineering.

  2. Automated quantitative analysis of 3D morphology and mean corpuscular hemoglobin in human red blood cells stored in different periods.

    PubMed

    Moon, Inkyu; Yi, Faliu; Lee, Yeon H; Javidi, Bahram; Boss, Daniel; Marquet, Pierre

    2013-12-16

    Quantitative phase (QP) images of red blood cells (RBCs), which are obtained by off-axis digital holographic microscopy, can provide quantitative information about three-dimensional (3D) morphology of human RBCs and the characteristic properties such as mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and MCH surface density (MCHSD). In this paper, we investigate modifications of the 3D morphology and MCH in RBCs induced by the period of storage time for the purpose of classification of RBCs with different periods of storage by using off-axis digital holographic microscopy. The classification of RBCs based on the duration of storage is highly relevant because a long storage of blood before transfusion may alter the functionality of RBCs and, therefore, cause complications in patients. To analyze any changes in the 3D morphology and MCH of RBCs due to storage, we use data sets from RBC samples stored for 8, 13, 16, 23, 27, 30, 34, 37, 40, 47, and 57 days, respectively. The data sets consist of more than 3,300 blood cells in eleven classes, with more than 300 blood cells per class. The classes indicate the storage period of RBCs and are listed in chronological order. Using the RBCs donated by healthy persons, the off-axis digital holographic microscopy reconstructs several quantitative phase images of RBC samples stored for eleven different periods. We employ marker-controlled watershed transform to remove the background in the RBC quantitative phase images obtained by the off-axis digital holographic microscopy. More than 300 single RBCs are extracted from the segmented quantitative phase images for each class. Such a large number of RBC samples enable us to obtain statistical distributions of the characteristic properties of RBCs after a specific period of storage. Experimental results show that the 3D morphology of the RBCs, in contrast to MCH, is essentially related to the aging of the RBCs.

  3. Unequal-period combination approach of gray code and phase-shifting for 3-D visual measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shuang; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Xiaoyang; Sun, Xiaoming; Wu, Haibin

    2016-09-01

    Combination of Gray code and phase-shifting is the most practical and advanced approach for the structured light 3-D measurement so far, which is able to measure objects with complex and discontinuous surface. However, for the traditional combination of the Gray code and phase-shifting, the captured Gray code images are not always sharp cut-off in the black-white conversion boundaries, which may lead to wrong decoding analog code orders. Moreover, during the actual measurement, there also exists local decoding error for the wrapped analog code obtained with the phase-shifting approach. Therefore, for the traditional approach, the wrong analog code orders and the local decoding errors will consequently introduce the errors which are equivalent to a fringe period when the analog code is unwrapped. In order to avoid one-fringe period errors, we propose an approach which combines Gray code with phase-shifting according to unequal period. With theoretical analysis, we build the measurement model of the proposed approach, determine the applicable condition and optimize the Gray code encoding period and phase-shifting fringe period. The experimental results verify that the proposed approach can offer a reliable unwrapped analog code, which can be used in 3-D shape measurement.

  4. Sun Oven Grown Cuprates Superconductivity and Periodic Lattice Distortions PLD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acrivos, Juana V.; Chidvinadze, J. G.; Gulanova, D. D.; Loy, D.

    2011-03-01

    Bi 1.7 Pb 0.3 Sr 2 Ca n-1 Cu n O4 + 2 n + δ identified by the layer heavy element composition with substitution, s (2 s :2:n-1:n > 2) cuprates grown by green chemistry, transition temperatures to superconductivity Tc = 87 to 150K are related to their structure. Enhanced XRD at energies near but below the Cu K, and Pb and Bi L3-edges for pure n=2, 3 phases show Darwin shaped preferred [HKL] reflections that identify the magnitude of the allowed transition moment from the core state to extended unoccupied states determined by the electron density symmetry in that plane, confirmed by XAS of 3 μ m thick films. Weak PLD are still detected, but the stability gained by substitution of Bi by Pb is the formation of nearly symmetric Pb8 cubes in (2s : 2 : 1 : 2)13 and (2s < formula > < ? TeX super-lattices. The preferred 2D [HKL] reflection planes play the same role in the chemical activity of 3D solids as the linear bonds do in molecular reactions, governed by scattering dependent on the electron density symmetry in their highest and lowest unoccupied states. Supported by US NSF, Dreyfus, DOE Laboratories SSRL-SLAC, STUC-Ukraine and Georgia NSF.

  5. On the Helicity in 3D-Periodic Navier-Stokes Equations II: The Statistical Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foias, Ciprian; Hoang, Luan; Nicolaenko, Basil

    2009-09-01

    We study the asymptotic behavior of the statistical solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations using the normalization map [9]. It is then applied to the study of mean energy, mean dissipation rate of energy, and mean helicity of the spatial periodic flows driven by potential body forces. The statistical distribution of the asymptotic Beltrami flows are also investigated. We connect our mathematical analysis with the empirical theory of decaying turbulence. With appropriate mathematically defined ensemble averages, the Kolmogorov universal features are shown to be transient in time. We provide an estimate for the time interval in which those features may still be present. Our collaborator and friend Basil Nicolaenko passed away in September of 2007, after this work was completed. Honoring his contribution and friendship, we dedicate this article to him.

  6. Bone response to 3-D periodic hydroxyapatite scaffolds with and without tailored microporosity to deliver bone morphogenetic protein 2.

    SciTech Connect

    Eurell, Jo Ann; Dellinger, Jennifer Gwynne; Cesarano, Joseph, III; Jamison, Russell D.

    2005-06-01

    The in vivo bone response of 3D periodic hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds is investigated. Two groups of HA scaffolds (11 mm diameter x 3.5 mm thick) are fabricated by direct-write assembly of a concentrated HA ink. The scaffolds consist of cylindrical rods periodically arranged into four quadrants with varying separation distances between rods. In the first group, HA rods (250 {micro}m in diameter) are patterned to create pore channels, whose areal dimensions are 250 x 250 {micro}m{sup 2} in quadrant 1, 250 x 500 {micro}m{sup 2} in quadrants 2 and 4, and 500 x 500 {micro}m{sup 2} in quadrant 3. In the second group, HA rods (400 {micro}m in diameter) are patterned to create pore channels, whose areal dimensions of 500 x 500 {micro}m{sup 2} in quadrant 1, 500 x 750 {micro}m{sup 2} in quadrants 2 and 4, and 750 x 750 {micro}m{sup 2} in quadrant 3. Each group of scaffolds is partially densified by sintering at 1200 C prior to being implanted bilaterally in trephine defects of skeletally mature New Zealand White rabbits. Their tissue response is evaluated at 8 and 16 weeks using micro-computed tomography, histology, and scanning electron microscopy. New trabecular bone is conducted rapidly and efficiently across substantial distances within these patterned 3D HA scaffolds. Our observations suggest that HA rods are first coated with a layer of new bone followed by subsequent scaffold infilling via outward and inward radial growth of the coated regions. Direct-write assembly of 3D periodic scaffolds composed of micro-porous HA rods arrayed to produce macro-pores that are size-matched to trabecular bone may represent an optimal strategy for bone repair and replacement structures.

  7. Competing anisotropies on 3d sub-lattice of YNi{sub 4–x}Co{sub x}B compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Caraballo Vivas, R. J.; Rocco, D. L.; Reis, M. S.; Caldeira, L.; Coelho, A. A.

    2014-08-14

    The magnetic anisotropy of 3d sub-lattices has an important rule on the overall magnetic properties of hard magnets. Intermetallics alloys with boron (R-Co/Ni-B, for instance) belong to those hard magnets family and are useful objects to help to understand the magnetic behavior of 3d sub-lattice, specially when the rare earth ions R do not have magnetic nature, like YCo{sub 4}B ferromagnetic material. Interestingly, YNi{sub 4}B is a paramagnetic material and Ni ions do not contribute to the magnetic anisotropy. We focused therefore our attention to YNi{sub 4–x}Co{sub x}B series, with x = 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4. The magnetic anisotropy of these compounds is deeper described using statistical and preferential models of Co occupation among the possible Wyckoff positions into the CeCo{sub 4}B type hexagonal structure. We found that the preferential model is the most suitable to explain the magnetization experimental data.

  8. Chiral d -Wave Superfluid in Periodically Driven Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shao-Liang; Lang, Li-Jun; Zhou, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A chiral d -wave superfluid is a preliminary example of interacting topological matter. However, unlike s -wave superfluids prevalent in nature, its existence requires a strong d -wave interaction, a criterion that is difficult to access in ordinary systems. There is no experimental observation of such unconventional superfluid at the moment. Here, we present a new principle for creating a two-dimensional (2D) chiral d -wave superfluid using periodically driven lattices. Because of an imprinted 2D pseudospin-orbit coupling, where the sublattice index serves as the pseudospin, the s -wave interaction between two hyperfine spin states naturally creates a chiral d -wave superfluid. This scheme can be directly implemented in current experiments.

  9. Quantum 3D spin-glass system on the scales of space-time periods of external electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Gevorkyan, A. S.

    2012-10-15

    A dielectric medium consisting of rigidly polarized molecules has been treated as a quantum 3D disordered spin system. It is shown that using Birkhoff's ergodic hypothesis the initial 3D disordered spin problem on scales of space-time periods of external field is reduced to two conditionally separable 1D problems. The first problem describes a 1D disordered N-particle quantum system with relaxation in random environment while the second one describes statistical properties of ensemble of disordered 1D steric spin chains of certain length. Basing on constructions which are developed in both problems, the coefficient of polarizability related to collective orientational effects under the influence of external field was calculated. On the basis of these investigations the equation of Clausius-Mossotti (CM) has been generalized as well as the equation for permittivity. It is shown that under the influence of weak standing electromagnetic fields in the equation of CM arising of catastrophe is possible, that can substantially change behavior of permittivity in the X-ray region on the macroscopic scale of space.

  10. Multi-scale 3D characterization of long period stacking ordered structure in Mg-Zn-Gd cast alloys.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Masahiro; Yoshioka, Satoru; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Yasuda, Kazuhiro; Matsumura, Syo

    2014-11-01

    Magnesium alloys containing rare earth elements are attractive as lightweight structural materials due to their low density, high-specific strength and recycling efficiency. Mg-Zn-Gd system is one of promising systems because of their high creep-resistant property[1]. It is reported that the coherent precipitation formation of the 14H long period stacking ordered structure (LPSO) in Mg-Zn-Gd system at temperatures higher than 623 K[2,3]. In this study, the 14H LPSO phase formed in Mg-Zn-Gd alloys were investigated by multi-scale characterization with X-ray computer tomography (X-CT), focused ion beam (FIB) tomography and aberration-corrected STEM observation for further understanding of the LPSO formation mechanism.The Mg89.5 Zn4.5 Gd6 alloy ingots were cast using high-frequency induction heating in argon atmosphere. The specimens were aged at 753 K for 24 h in air. The aged specimen were cut and polished mechanically for microstructural analysis. The micrometer resolution X-CT observation was performed by conventional scaner (Bruker SKY- SCAN1172) at 80 kV. The FIB tomography and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were carried out by a dual beam FIB-SEM system (Hitachi MI-4000L) with silicon drift detector (SDD) (Oxford X-Max(N)). The electron acceleration voltages were used with 3 kV for SEM observation and 10 kV for EDX spectroscopy. The 3D reconstruction from image series was performed by Avizo Fire 8.0 software (FEI). TEM/STEM observations were also performed by transmission electron microscopes (JEOL JEM 2100, JEM-ARM 200F) at the acceleration voltage of 200 keV.The LPSO phase was observed clearly in SEM image of the Mg89.5Zn4.5Gd6 alloy at 753 K for 2h (Fig.1 (a)). The atomic structure of LPSO phase observed as white gray region of SEM image was also confirmed as 14H LPSO structure by using selected electron diffraction patterns and high-resolution STEM observations. The elemental composition of LPSO phase was determined as Mg97Zn1Gd2 by EDS analyses

  11. 3D Finite Element Model for Writing Long-Period Fiber Gratings by CO2 Laser Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, João M. P.; Nespereira, Marta; Abreu, Manuel; Rebordão, José

    2013-01-01

    In the last years, mid-infrared radiation emitted by CO2 lasers has become increasing popular as a tool in the development of long-period fiber gratings. However, although the development and characterization of the resulting sensing devices have progressed quickly, further research is still necessary to consolidate functional models, especially regarding the interaction between laser radiation and the fiber's material. In this paper, a 3D finite element model is presented to simulate the interaction between laser radiation and an optical fiber and to determine the resulting refractive index change. Dependence with temperature of the main parameters of the optical fiber materials (with special focus on the absorption of incident laser radiation) is considered, as well as convection and radiation losses. Thermal and residual stress analyses are made for a standard single mode fiber, and experimental results are presented. PMID:23941908

  12. Large-eddy simulations of 3D Taylor-Green vortex: comparison of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, Lattice Boltzmann and Finite Volume methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajzer, A.; Pozorski, J.; Szewc, K.

    2014-08-01

    In the paper we present Large-eddy simulation (LES) results of 3D Taylor- Green vortex obtained by the three different computational approaches: Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) and Finite Volume Method (FVM). The Smagorinsky model was chosen as a subgrid-scale closure in LES for all considered methods and a selection of spatial resolutions have been investigated. The SPH and LBM computations have been carried out with the use of the in-house codes executed on GPU and compared, for validation purposes, with the FVM results obtained using the open-source CFD software OpenFOAM. A comparative study in terms of one-point statistics and turbulent energy spectra shows a good agreement of LES results for all methods. An analysis of the GPU code efficiency and implementation difficulties has been made. It is shown that both SPH and LBM may offer a significant advantage over mesh-based CFD methods.

  13. A simulation study of microwave field effects on a 3D orthorhombic lattice of rotating dipoles: short-range potential energy variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapranov, Sergey V.; Kouzaev, Guennadi A.

    2016-05-01

    Variation of the short-range potential energy of interaction of nearest dipoles in a three-dimensional (3D) orthorhombic lattice exposed to microwave electric fields is studied by means of the Langevin dynamics simulations. The global increase of the mean potential energy is typical for all the frequencies and intensities at lower temperatures, whereas separate potential energy peaks or peak chains are observed at intermediate temperatures. A simple statistical model proposed to account for the temperature dependence of the field intensity for potential energy peaks suggests the concerted collective rotation of the dipoles. The temperature dependence of the peak frequency is explained using a combination of the one-dimensional Kramers and the resonant activation theories applied to the field-driven collective rotation, with the nearly degenerate angular coordinates of the dipoles being used as a single effective coordinate.

  14. Accuracy and Computational Efficiency in 3D Dispersion via Lattice-Boltzmann:. Models for Dispersion in Rough Fractures and Double-Diffusive Fingering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockman, Harlan W.; Glass, Robert J.; Cooper, Clay; Rajaram, Harihar

    In the presence of buoyancy, multiple diffusion coefficients, and porous media, the dispersion of solutes can be remarkably complex. The lattice-Boltzmann (LB) method is ideal for modeling dispersion in flow through complex geometries; yet, LB models of solute fingers or slugs can suffer from peculiar numerical conditions (e.g., denormal generation) that degrade computational performance by factors of 6 or more. Simple code optimizations recover performance and yield simulation rates up to ~3 million site updates per second on inexpensive, single-CPU systems. Two examples illustrate limits of the methods: (1) Dispersion of solute in a thin duct is often approximated with dispersion between infinite parallel plates. However, Doshi, Daiya and Gill (DDG) showed that for a smooth-walled duct, this approximation is in error by a factor of ~8. But in the presence of wall roughness (found in all real fractures), the DDG phenomenon can be diminished. (2) Double-diffusive convection drives "salt-fingering", a process for mixing of fresh-cold and warm-salty waters in many coastal regions. Fingering experiments are typically performed in Hele-Shaw cells, and can be modeled with the 2D (pseudo-3D) LB method with velocity-proportional drag forces. However, the 2D models cannot capture Taylor-Aris dispersion from the cell walls. We compare 2D and true 3D fingering models against observations from laboratory experiments.

  15. External control of the Drosophila melanogaster egg to imago development period by specific combinations of 3D low-frequency electric and magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Makarov, Vladimir I; Khmelinskii, Igor

    2016-01-01

    We report that the duration of the egg-to-imago development period of the Drosophila melanogaster, and the imago longevity, are both controllable by combinations of external 3-dimensional (3D) low-frequency electric and magnetic fields (LFEMFs). Both these periods may be reduced or increased by applying an appropriate configuration of external 3D LFEMFs. We report that the longevity of D. melanogaster imagoes correlates with the duration of the egg-to-imago development period of the respective eggs. We infer that metabolic processes in both eggs and imago are either accelerated (resulting in reduced time periods) or slowed down (resulting in increased time periods). We propose that external 3D LFEMFs induce electric currents in live systems as well as mechanical vibrations on sub-cell, whole-cell and cell-group levels. These external fields induce media polarization due to ionic motion and orientation of electric dipoles that could moderate the observed effects. We found that the longevity of D. melanogaster imagoes is affected by action of 3D LFEMFs on the respective eggs in the embryonic development period (EDP). We interpret this effect as resulting from changes in the regulation mechanism of metabolic processes in D. melanogaster eggs, inherited by the resulting imagoes. We also tested separate effects of either 3D electric or 3D magnetic fields, which were significantly weaker.

  16. 3D imaging of cone photoreceptors over extended time periods using optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocaoglu, Omer P.; Lee, Sangyeol; Jonnal, Ravi S.; Wang, Qiang; Herde, Ashley E.; Besecker, Jason; Gao, Weihua; Miller, Donald T.

    2011-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics (AO-OCT) is a highly sensitive, noninvasive method for 3D imaging of the microscopic retina. The purpose of this study is to advance AO-OCT technology by enabling repeated imaging of cone photoreceptors over extended periods of time (days). This sort of longitudinal imaging permits monitoring of 3D cone dynamics in both normal and diseased eyes, in particular the physiological processes of disc renewal and phagocytosis, which are disrupted by retinal diseases such as age related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. For this study, the existing AO-OCT system at Indiana underwent several major hardware and software improvements to optimize system performance for 4D cone imaging. First, ultrahigh speed imaging was realized using a Basler Sprint camera. Second, a light source with adjustable spectrum was realized by integration of an Integral laser (Femto Lasers, λc=800nm, ▵λ=160nm) and spectral filters in the source arm. For cone imaging, we used a bandpass filter with λc=809nm and ▵λ=81nm (2.6 μm nominal axial resolution in tissue, and 167 KHz A-line rate using 1,408 px), which reduced the impact of eye motion compared to previous AO-OCT implementations. Third, eye motion artifacts were further reduced by custom ImageJ plugins that registered (axially and laterally) the volume videos. In two subjects, cone photoreceptors were imaged and tracked over a ten day period and their reflectance and outer segment (OS) lengths measured. High-speed imaging and image registration/dewarping were found to reduce eye motion to a fraction of a cone width (1 μm root mean square). The pattern of reflections in the cones was found to change dramatically and occurred on a spatial scale well below the resolution of clinical instruments. Normalized reflectance of connecting cilia (CC) and OS posterior tip (PT) of an exemplary cone was 54+/-4, 47+/-4, 48+/-6, 50+/-5, 56+/-1% and 46+/-4, 53+/-4, 52+/-6, 50+/-5, 44

  17. An evaluation of 3-D velocity models of the Kanto basin for long-period ground motion simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Yadab P.; Yamanaka, Hiroaki

    2013-07-01

    We performed three-dimensional (3-D) finite difference simulations of long-period ground motions (2-10 s) in the Kanto basin using the Japan Seismic Hazard Information Station (J-SHIS 2009), Yamada and Yamanaka (Exploration Geophysics 65(3):139-150, 2012) (YY), and Head Quarter for Earthquake Research Promotion (HERP 2012) velocity models for two intermediate depth (68-80 km) moderate earthquakes (Mw 5.8-5.9), which occurred beneath the Kanto basin. The models primarily differ in the basic data set used in the construction of the velocity models. The J-SHIS and HERP models are the results of integration of mainly geological, geophysical, and earthquake data. On the other hand, the YY model is oriented towards the microtremor-array-observation data. We obtained a goodness of fit between the observed and synthetic data based on three parameters, peak ground velocities (PGVs), smoothed Fourier spectra (FFT), and cross-correlations, using an algorithm proposed by Olsen and Mayhew (Seism Res Lett 81:715-723, 2010). We found that the three models reproduced the PGVs and FFT satisfactorily at most sites. However, the models performed poorly in terms of cross-correlations especially at the basin edges. We found that the synthetics using the YY model overestimate the observed waveforms at several sites located in the areas having V s 0.3 km/s in the top layer; on the other hand, the J-SHIS and HERP models explain the waveforms better at the sites and perform similarly at most sites. We also found that the J-SHIS and HERP models consist of thick sediments beneath some sites, where the YY model is preferable. Thus, we have concluded that the models require revisions for the reliable prediction of long-period ground motions from future large earthquakes.

  18. Modeling of mass and charge transport in a solid oxide fuel cell anode structure by a 3D lattice Boltzmann approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradis, Hedvig; Andersson, Martin; Sundén, Bengt

    2016-08-01

    A 3D model at microscale by the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is proposed for part of an anode of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to analyze the interaction between the transport and reaction processes and structural parameters. The equations of charge, momentum, heat and mass transport are simulated in the model. The modeling geometry is created with randomly placed spheres to resemble the part of the anode structure close to the electrolyte. The electrochemical reaction processes are captured at specific sites where spheres representing Ni and YSZ materials are present with void space. This work focuses on analyzing the effect of structural parameters such as porosity, and percentage of active reaction sites on the ionic current density and concentration of H2 using LBM. It is shown that LBM can be used to simulate an SOFC anode at microscale and evaluate the effect of structural parameters on the transport processes to improve the performance of the SOFC anode. It was found that increasing the porosity from 30 to 50 % decreased the ionic current density due to a reduction in the number of reaction sites. Also the consumption of H2 decreased with increasing porosity. When the percentage of active reaction sites was increased while the porosity was kept constant, the ionic current density increased. However, the H2 concentration was slightly reduced when the percentage of active reaction sites was increased. The gas flow tortuosity decreased with increasing porosity.

  19. Fundamental cycle of a periodic box ball system and solvable lattice models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mada, Jun; Idzumi, Makoto; Tokihiro, Tetsuji

    2006-05-01

    We investigate the fundamental cycle of a periodic box-ball system (PBBS) from a relation between the PBBS and a solvable lattice model. We show that the fundamental cycle of the PBBS is obtained from eigenvalues of the transfer matrix of the solvable lattice model.

  20. Nano-spatial parameters from 3D to 2D lattice dimensionality by organic variant in [ZnCl4]- [R]+ hybrid materials: Structure, architecture-lattice dimensionality, microscopy, optical Eg and PL correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajit; Verma, Sanjay K.; Alvi, P. A.; Jasrotia, Dinesh

    2016-04-01

    The nanospatial morphological features of [ZnCl]- [C5H4NCH3]+ hybrid derivative depicts 28 nm granular size and 3D spreader shape packing pattern as analyzed by FESEM and single crystal XRD structural studies. The organic moiety connect the inorganic components through N-H+…Cl- hydrogen bond to form a hybrid composite, the replacement of organic derivatives from 2-methylpyridine to 2-Amino-5-choloropyridine results the increase in granular size from 28nm to 60nm and unit cell packing pattern from 3D-2D lattice dimensionality along ac plane. The change in optical energy direct band gap value from 3.01eV for [ZnCl]- [C5H4NCH3]+ (HM1) to 3.42eV for [ZnCl]- [C5H5ClN2]+ (HM2) indicates the role of organic moiety in optical properties of hybrid materials. The photoluminescence emission spectra is observed in the wavelength range of 370 to 600 nm with maximum peak intensity of 9.66a.u. at 438 nm for (HM1) and 370 to 600 nm with max peak intensity of 9.91 a.u. at 442 nm for (HM2), indicating that the emission spectra lies in visible range. PL excitation spectra depicts the maximum excitation intensity [9.8] at 245.5 nm for (HM1) and its value of 9.9 a.u. at 294 nm, specify the excitation spectra lies in UV range. Photoluminescence excitation spectra is observed in the wavelength range of 280 to 350 nm with maximum peak intensity of 9.4 a.u. at 285.5 nm and 9.9 a.u. at 294 and 297 nm, indicating excitation in the UV spectrum. Single crystal growth process and detailed physiochemical characterization such as XRD, FESEM image analysis photoluminescence property reveals the structure stability with non-covalent interactions, lattice dimensionality (3D-2D) correlations interweaving into the design of inorganic-organic hybrid materials.

  1. Electrostatic modulation of periodic potentials in a two-dimensional electron gas: From antidot lattice to quantum dot lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, Srijit; Aamir, Mohammed Ali; Shamim, Saquib; Ghosh, Arindam; Siegert, Christoph; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David A.; Pepper, Michael

    2013-12-04

    We use a dual gated device structure to introduce a gate-tuneable periodic potential in a GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Using only a suitable choice of gate voltages we can controllably alter the potential landscape of the bare 2DEG, inducing either a periodic array of antidots or quantum dots. Antidots are artificial scattering centers, and therefore allow for a study of electron dynamics. In particular, we show that the thermovoltage of an antidot lattice is particularly sensitive to the relative positions of the Fermi level and the antidot potential. A quantum dot lattice, on the other hand, provides the opportunity to study correlated electron physics. We find that its current-voltage characteristics display a voltage threshold, as well as a power law scaling, indicative of collective Coulomb blockade in a disordered background.

  2. Realization of uniform synthetic magnetic fields by periodically shaking an optical square lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creffield, C. E.; Pieplow, G.; Sols, F.; Goldman, N.

    2016-09-01

    Shaking a lattice system, by modulating the location of its sites periodically in time, is a powerful method to create effective magnetic fields in engineered quantum systems, such as cold gases trapped in optical lattices. However, such schemes are typically associated with space-dependent effective masses (tunneling amplitudes) and non-uniform flux patterns. In this work we investigate this phenomenon theoretically, by computing the effective Hamiltonians and quasienergy spectra associated with several kinds of lattice-shaking protocols. A detailed comparison with a method based on moving lattices, which are added on top of a main static optical lattice, is provided. This study allows the identification of novel shaking schemes, which simultaneously provide uniform effective mass and magnetic flux, with direct implications for cold-atom experiments and photonics.

  3. Insertion of a single-molecule magnet inside a ferromagnetic lattice based on a 3D bimetallic oxalate network: towards molecular analogues of permanent magnets.

    PubMed

    Clemente-León, Miguel; Coronado, Eugenio; Gómez-García, Carlos J; López-Jordà, Maurici; Camón, Agustín; Repollés, Ana; Luis, Fernando

    2014-02-01

    The insertion of the single-molecule magnet (SMM) [Mn(III)(salen)(H2O)]2(2+) (salen(2-) = N,N'-ethylenebis-(salicylideneiminate)) into a ferromagnetic bimetallic oxalate network affords the hybrid compound [Mn(III)(salen)(H2O)]2[Mn(II)Cr(III)(ox)3]2⋅(CH3OH)⋅(CH3CN)2 (1). This cationic Mn2 cluster templates the growth of crystals formed by an unusual achiral 3D oxalate network. The magnetic properties of this hybrid magnet are compared with those of the analogous compounds [Mn(III)(salen)(H2O)]2[Zn(II)Cr(III)(ox)3]2⋅(CH3OH)⋅(CH3CN)2 (2) and [In(III)(sal2-trien)][Mn(II)Cr(III)(ox)3]⋅(H2O)0.25⋅(CH3OH)0.25⋅(CH3CN)0.25 (3), which are used as reference compounds. In 2 it has been shown that the magnetic isolation of the Mn2 clusters provided by their insertion into a paramagnetic oxalate network of Cr(III) affords a SMM behavior, albeit with blocking temperatures well below 500 mK even for frequencies as high as 160 kHz. In 3 the onset of ferromagnetism in the bimetallic Mn(II) Cr(III) network is observed at Tc = 5 K. Finally, in the hybrid compound 1 the interaction between the two magnetic networks leads to the antiparallel arrangement of their respective magnetizations, that is, to a ferrimagnetic phase. This coupling induces also important changes on the magnetic properties of 1 with respect to those of the reference compounds 2 and 3. In particular, compound 1 shows a large magnetization hysteresis below 1 K, which is in sharp contrast with the near-reversible magnetizations that the SMMs and the oxalate ferromagnetic lattice show under the same conditions.

  4. Electromagnetic coupling and array packing induce exchange of dominance on complex modes in 3D periodic arrays of spheres with large permittivity

    DOE PAGES

    Campione, Salvatore; Capolino, Filippo

    2016-01-25

    In this study, we investigate the effect on wave propagation of array packing and electromagnetic coupling between spheres in a three-dimensional (3D) lattice of microspheres with large permittivity that exhibit strong magnetic polarizability. We report on the complex wavenumber of Bloch waves in the lattice when each sphere is assumed to possess both electric and magnetic dipoles and full electromagnetic coupling is accounted for. While for small material-filling fractions we always determine one dominant mode with low attenuation constant, the same does not happen for large filling fractions, when electromagnetic coupling is included. In the latter case we peculiarly observemore » two dominant modes with low attenuation constant, dominant in different frequency ranges. The filling fraction threshold for which two dominant modes appear varies for different metamaterial constituents, as proven by considering spheres made by either titanium dioxide or lead telluride. As further confirmation of our findings, we retrieve the complex propagation constant of the dominant mode(s) via a field fitting procedure employing two sets of waves (direct and reflected) pertaining to two distinct modes, strengthening the presence of the two distinct dominant modes for increasing filling fractions. However, given that one mode only, with transverse polarization, at any given frequency, is dominant and able to propagate inside the lattice, we are able to accurately treat the metamaterial that is known to exhibit artificial magnetism as a homogeneous material with effective parameters, such as the refractive index. Results clearly show that the account of both electric and magnetic scattering processes in evaluating all electromagnetic intersphere couplings is essential for a proper description of the electromagnetic propagation in lattices.« less

  5. Tailoring the filamentation of intense femtosecond laser pulses with periodic lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Panagiotopoulos, P.; Tzortzakis, S.; Efremidis, N. K.; Papazoglou, D. G.; Couairon, A.

    2010-12-15

    We show numerically that by using periodic lattices the filamentation of intense femtosecond laser pulses, otherwise a result of competing nonlinear effects, can be well controlled with respect to its properties. The diffraction induced by the lattice provides a regularizing mechanism to the nonlinear self-action effects involved in filamentation. We demonstrate a new propagation regime of intense lattice solitons bridging the field of spatial solitons with that of femtosecond laser filamentation. The effective filamentation control is expected to have an important impact on numerous applications.

  6. Re-analysis data base from a 3D data assimilation tool covering the RBSP-time period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdarie, Sebastien; Lazaro, Didier; RBSP ECT Team

    2016-04-01

    An Ensemble Kalman filter combined with the Salammbô 3D tool has been used to produce a re-analysis data base of the electron radiation belt from September 2012 to end of 2015. RBSP-A&B/MagEis data, GOES-13/MagEd and GOES-13/SEM data were ingested by the system. So far only omni-directional fluxes have been considered in this study. The time resolution of the re-analysis data base is 10 minutes and covers electron energies above 300 keV. The results obtained are compared/validated against INTEGRAL/SREM data. Performance of the data assimilation tool will be discussed as well as ways of improvement for the future.

  7. Tunable subwavelength photonic lattices and solitons in periodically patterned graphene monolayer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Changming; Ye, Fangwei; Sun, Zhipei; Chen, Xianfeng

    2014-12-01

    We study linear and nonlinear mode properties in a periodically patterned graphene sheet. We demonstrate that a subwavelength one-dimensional photonic lattice can be defined across the graphene monolayer, with its modulation depth and correspondingly the associated photonic band structures being controlled rapidly, by an external gate voltage. We find the existences of graphene lattice solitons at the deep-subwavelength scales in both dimensions, thanks to the combination of graphene intrinsic self-focusing nonlinearity and the graphene plasmonic confinement effects.

  8. Verification of Long Period Surface Waves from Ambient Noise and Its Application in Constructing 3D Shear Wave Structure of Lithosphere in United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, J.; Yang, Y.; Ni, S.; Zhao, K.

    2015-12-01

    In the past decade, ambient noise tomography (ANT) has become an estimated method to construct the earth's interior structures thanks to its advantage in extracting surface waves from cross-correlations of ambient noise without using earthquake data. However, most of previous ambient noise tomography studies concentrate on short and intermediate periods (<50sec) due to the dominant energy of the microseism at these periods. Studies of long period surface waves from cross-correlation of ambient noise are limited. In this study, we verify the accuracy of the long period (50-250sec) surface wave (Rayleigh wave) from ambient noise by comparing both dispersion curves and seismic waveforms from ambient noise with those from earthquake records quantitatively. After that, we calculate vertical-vertical cross-correlation functions among more than1800 USArray Transportable Array stations and extract high quality interstation phase velocity dispersion curves from them at 10-200 sec periods. Then, we adopt a finite frequency ambient noise tomography method based on Born approximation to obtain high resolution phase velocity maps using the obtained dispersion measurements at 10-150 sec periods. Afterward, we extract local dispersion curves from these dispersion maps and invert them for 1D shear wave velocity profiles at individual grids using a Bayesian Monte Carlo method. Finally, a 3D shear velocity model is constructed by assembling all the 1D Vs profiles. Our 3D model is overall similar to other models constructed using earthquake surface waves and body waves. In summary, we demonstrate that the long period surface waves can be extracted from ambient noise, and the long period dispersion measurements from ambient noise are as accurate as those from earthquake data and can be used to construct 3D lithospheric structure from surface down to lithosphere/asthenosphere depths.

  9. Tensor network algorithm by coarse-graining tensor renormalization on finite periodic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui-Hai; Xie, Zhi-Yuan; Xiang, Tao; Imada, Masatoshi

    2016-03-01

    We develop coarse-graining tensor renormalization group algorithms to compute physical properties of two-dimensional lattice models on finite periodic lattices. Two different coarse-graining strategies, one based on the tensor renormalization group and the other based on the higher-order tensor renormalization group, are introduced. In order to optimize the tensor network model globally, a sweeping scheme is proposed to account for the renormalization effect from the environment tensors under the framework of second renormalization group. We demonstrate the algorithms by the classical Ising model on the square lattice and the Kitaev model on the honeycomb lattice, and show that the finite-size algorithms achieve substantially more accurate results than the corresponding infinite-size ones.

  10. Cyclic period-3 window in antiferromagnetic potts and Ising models on recursive lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananikian, N. S.; Ananikyan, L. N.; Chakhmakhchyan, L. A.

    2011-09-01

    The magnetic properties of the antiferromagnetic Potts model with two-site interaction and the antiferromagnetic Ising model with three-site interaction on recursive lattices have been studied. A cyclic period-3 window has been revealed by the recurrence relation method in the antiferromagnetic Q-state Potts model on the Bethe lattice (at Q < 2) and in the antiferromagnetic Ising model with three-site interaction on the Husimi cactus. The Lyapunov exponents have been calculated, modulated phases and a chaotic regime in the cyclic period-3 window have been found for one-dimensional rational mappings determined the properties of these systems.

  11. The advantage of CT scans and 3D visualizations in the analysis of three child mummies from the Graeco-Roman Period.

    PubMed

    Villa, Chiara; Davey, Janet; Craig, Pamela J G; Drummer, Olaf H; Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Three child mummies from the Graeco-Roman Period (332 BCE - c. 395 CE) were examined using CT scans and 3D visualizations generated with Vitrea 2 and MIMICS graphic workstations with the aim of comparing the results with previous X-ray examinations performed by Dawson and Gray in 1968. Although the previous analyses reported that the children had been excerebrated and eviscerated, no evidence of incisions or breaches of the cranial cavity were found; 3D visualizations were generated showing the brain and the internal organs to be in situ. A larger number of skeletal post-mortem damages were identified, such as dislocation of mandible, ribs, and vertebrae, probably suffered at the time of embalming procedure. Different radio-opaque granular particles were observed throughout bodies (internally and externally) and could be explained as presence of natron, used as external desiccating agent by the embalmers, or as adipocerous alteration, a natural alteration of body fat. Age-at-death was estimated using the 3D visualization of the teeth, the state of fusion of the vertebrae and the presence of the secondary centers of the long bones: two mummies died at the age of 4 years ± 12 months, the third one at the age of 6 years ± 24 months. Hyperdontia or polydontia, a dental anomaly, could also be identified in one child using 3D visualizations of the teeth: two supernumerary teeth were found behind the maxillary permanent central incisors which had not been noticed in the Dawson and Gray's X-ray analysis. In conclusion, CT-scan investigations and especially 3D visualizations are important tools in the non-invasive analysis of the mummies and, in this case, provided revised and additional information compared to the only X-ray examination.

  12. Anisotropy-induced wave steering in periodic linear and nonlinear lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casadei, Filippo; Rimoli, Julian; Ruzzene, Massimo

    2012-02-01

    Structural lattice configurations can be designed with tailored topologies which provide them with unusual behaviors, such as negative bulk modulus, negative Poisson's ratios, or extreme anisotropyootnotetextM. Ruzzene et al. Phisica Status Solidi B, 242, 665 (2005). The latter is of particular relevance to explore the inherent anisotropic behavior of periodic lattices as a design paradigm for wave guiding and steering applications. The equivalent material anisotropy of square and skew periodic lattices is investigated through the application of Bloch's theoremootnotetextBloch F., Z. Physik 52, 555 (1928) to the finite element discretization of the representative unit cell. The in-plane directions of wave propagation are determined through detailed analysis of the longitudinal and shear wave velocities, and verified through full-field wave propagation simulations. Similar wave behaviors are investigated analytically and experimentally for multilayer composite panels with anisotropic lay-ups in order to demonstrate the feasibility of micro structural design as an effective approach for wave management.

  13. Long-time asymptotics of the periodic Toda lattice under short-range perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamvissis, Spyridon; Teschl, Gerald

    2012-07-01

    We compute the long-time asymptotics of periodic (and slightly more generally of algebro-geometric finite-gap) solutions of the doubly infinite Toda lattice under a short-range perturbation. In particular, we prove that the perturbed lattice asymptotically approaches a modulated lattice. More precisely, let g be the genus of the hyperelliptic curve associated with the unperturbed solution. We show that, apart from the phenomenon of solitons travelling in a quasi-periodic background, the n/t-pane contains g + 2 areas where the perturbed solution is close to a finite-gap solution on the same isospectral torus. In between there are g + 1 regions where the perturbed solution is asymptotically close to a modulated lattice which undergoes a continuous phase transition (in the Jacobian variety) and which interpolates between these isospectral solutions. In the special case of the free lattice (g = 0), the isospectral torus consists of just one point and we recover the known result. Both the solutions in the isospectral torus and the phase transition are explicitly characterized in terms of Abelian integrals on the underlying hyperelliptic curve. Our method relies on the equivalence of the inverse spectral problem to a vector Riemann-Hilbert problem defined on the hyperelliptic curve and generalizes the so-called nonlinear stationary phase/steepest descent method for Riemann-Hilbert problem deformations to Riemann surfaces.

  14. 3D periodic multiscale TiO2 architecture: a platform decorated with graphene quantum dots for enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhen; Yin, Min; Sun, Jing; Ding, Guqiao; Lu, Linfeng; Chang, Paichun; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Li, Dongdong

    2016-03-01

    Micropatterned TiO2 nanorods (TiO2NRs) via three-dimensional (3D) geometry engineering in both microscale and nanoscale decorated with graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have been demonstrated successfully. First, micropillar (MP) and microcave (MC) arrays of anatase TiO2 films are obtained through the sol-gel based thermal nanoimprinting method. Then they are employed as seed layers in hydrothermal growth to fabricate the 3D micropillar/microcave arrays of rutile TiO2NRs (NR), which show much-improved photoelectrochemical water-splitting performance than the TiO2NRs grown on flat seed layer. The zero-dimensional GQDs are sequentially deposited onto the surfaces of the microscale patterned nanorods. Owing to the fast charge separation that resulted from the favorable band alignment of the GQDs and rutile TiO2, the MP-NR-GQDs electrode achieves a photocurrent density up to 2.92 mA cm-2 under simulated one-sun illumination. The incident-photon-to-current-conversion efficiency (IPCE) value up to 72% at 370 nm was achieved on the MP-NR-GQDs electrode, which outperforms the flat-NR counterpart by 69%. The IPCE results also imply that the improved photocurrent mainly benefits from the distinctly enhanced ultraviolet response. The work provides a cost-effective and flexible pathway to develop periodic 3D micropatterned photoelectrodes and is promising for the future deployment of high performance optoelectronic devices.

  15. Sleep as spatiotemporal integration of biological processes that evolved to periodically reinforce neurodynamic and metabolic homeostasis: The 2m3d paradigm of sleep.

    PubMed

    Mader, Edward Claro; Mader, Annie Cielo Llave

    2016-08-15

    Sleep continues to perplex scientists and researchers. Despite decades of sleep research, we still lack a clear understanding of the biological functions and evolution of sleep. In this review, we will examine sleep from a functional and phylogenetic perspective and describe some important conceptual gaps in understanding sleep. Classical theories of the biology and evolution of sleep emphasize sensory activation, energy balance, and metabolic homeostasis. Advances in electrophysiology, functional neuroimaging, and neuroplasticity allow us to view sleep within the framework of neural dynamics. With this paradigm shift, we have come to realize the importance of neurodynamic homeostasis in shaping the biology of sleep. Evidently, animals sleep to achieve neurodynamic and metabolic homeostasis. We are not aware of any framework for understanding sleep where neurodynamic, metabolic, homeostatic, chronophasic, and afferent variables are all taken into account. This motivated us to propose the two-mode three-drive (2m3d) paradigm of sleep. In the 2m3d paradigm, local neurodynamic/metabolic (N/M) processes switch between two modes-m0 and m1-in response to three drives-afferent, chronophasic, and homeostatic. The spatiotemporal integration of local m0/m1 operations gives rise to the global states of sleep and wakefulness. As a framework of evolution, the 2m3d paradigm allows us to view sleep as a robust adaptive strategy that evolved so animals can periodically reinforce neurodynamic and metabolic homeostasis while remaining sensitive to their internal and external environment.

  16. Alternative exact method for random walks on finite and periodic lattices with traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, Jose M.

    1982-07-01

    An alternative general method for random walks in finite or periodic lattices with traps is presented. The method gives, in a straightforward manner and in very little computing time, the exact probability that a random walker, starting from a given site, will undergo n steps before trapping. Another version gives the probability that the walker is at any other given position after n steps. The expected walk lengths calculated for simple lattices agree exactly with those given by a previous exact method by Walsh and Kozak.

  17. Quasi-periodic solutions to the hierarchy of four-component Toda lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jiao; Geng, Xianguo; Zeng, Xin

    2016-08-01

    Starting from a discrete 3×3 matrix spectral problem, the hierarchy of four-component Toda lattices is derived by using the stationary discrete zero-curvature equation. Resorting to the characteristic polynomial of the Lax matrix for the hierarchy, we introduce a trigonal curve Km-2 of genus m - 2 and present the related Baker-Akhiezer function and meromorphic function on it. Asymptotic expansions for the Baker-Akhiezer function and meromorphic function are given near three infinite points on the trigonal curve, from which explicit quasi-periodic solutions for the hierarchy of four-component Toda lattices are obtained in terms of the Riemann theta function.

  18. Enumeration and stability analysis of simple periodic orbits in β-Fermi Pasta Ulam lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Sonone, Rupali L. Jain, Sudhir R.

    2014-04-24

    We study the well-known one-dimensional problem of N particles with a nonlinear interaction. The special case of quadratic and quartic interaction potential among nearest neighbours is the β-Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model. We enumerate and classify the simple periodic orbits for this system and find the stability zones, employing Floquet theory. Such stability analysis is crucial to understand the transition of FPU lattice from recurrences to globally chaotic behavior, energy transport in lower dimensional system, dynamics of optical lattices and also its impact on shape parameter of bio-polymers such as DNA and RNA.

  19. Multiple period states of the superfluid Fermi gas in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sukjin; Dalfovo, Franco; Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Watanabe, Gentaro

    2016-02-01

    We study multiple period states of a two-component unpolarized superfluid Fermi gas in an optical lattice along the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) to Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) crossover. The existence of states whose period is a multiple of the lattice spacing is a direct consequence of the nonlinear behavior of the gas, which is due to the presence of the order parameter associated with superfluidity. By solving Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations for a superfluid flow with finite quasimomentum, we find that, in the BCS side of the crossover, the multiple period states can be energetically favorable compared to the normal Bloch states and their survival time against dynamical instability drastically increases, suggesting that these states can be accessible in current experiments, in sharp contrast to the situation in BECs.

  20. Multiple Period States of the Superfluid Fermi Gas in an Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Gentaro; Yoon, Sukjin; Dalfovo, Franco; Nakatsukasa, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    We study multiple period states (i.e., states whose period is a multiple of the lattice constant) of a two-component unpolarized superfluid Fermi gas in an optical lattice along the crossover between the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) and Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) states. By solving Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations for a superfluid flow with finite quasimomentum, we find that, in the BCS side of the crossover, the multiple period states can be energetically favorable compared to the normal Bloch states and their survival time against dynamical instability drastically increases, suggesting that these states can be accessible in current experiments. This is in sharp contrast to the situation in BECs.

  1. Locally resonant band gaps in periodic beam lattices by tuning connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pai; Casadei, Filippo; Kang, Sung Hoon; Bertoldi, Katia

    2015-01-01

    Lattice structures have long fascinated physicists and engineers not only because of their outstanding functionalities, but also for their ability to control the propagation of elastic waves. While the study of the relation between the connectivity of these systems and their static properties has a long history that goes back to Maxwell, rules that connect the dynamic response to the network topology have not been established. Here, we demonstrate that by tuning the average connectivity of a beam network (z ¯), locally resonant band gaps can be generated in the structures without embedding additional resonating units. In particular, a critical threshold for z ¯ is identified, far from which the band gap size is purely dictated by the global lattice topology. By contrast, near this critical value, the detailed local geometry of the lattice also has strong effects. Moreover, in stark contrast to the static case, we find that the nature of the joints is irrelevant to the dynamic response of the lattices. Our results not only shed new light on the rich dynamic properties of periodic lattices, but also outline a new strategy to manipulate mechanical waves in elastic systems.

  2. Ryukyu Subduction Zone: 3D Geodynamic Simulations of the Effects of Slab Shape and Depth on Lattice-Preferred Orientation (LPO) and Seismic Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarlow, S.; Tan, E.; Billen, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    At the Ryukyu subduction zone, seismic anisotropy observations suggest that there may be strong trench-parallel flow within the mantle wedge driven by complex 3D slab geometry. However, previous simulations have either failed to account for 3D flow or used the infinite strain axis (ISA) approximation for LPO, which is known to be inaccurate in complex flow fields. Additionally, both the slab depth and shape of the Ryukyu slab are contentious. Development of strong trench-parallel flow requires low viscosity to decouple the mantle wedge from entrainment by the sinking slab. Therefore, understanding the relationship between seismic anisotropy and the accompanying flow field will better constrain the material and dynamic properties of the mantle near subduction zones. In this study, we integrate a kinematic model for calculation of LPO (D-Rex) into a buoyancy-driven, instantaneous 3D flow simulation (ASPECT), using composite non-Newtonian rheology to investigate the dependence of LPO on slab geometry and depth at the Ryukyu Trench. To incorporate the 3D flow effects, the trench and slab extends from the southern tip of Japan to the western edge of Taiwan and the model region is approximately 1/4 of a spherical shell extending from the surface to the core-mantle boundary. In the southern-most region we vary the slab depth and shape to test for the effects of the uncertainties in the observations. We also investigate the effect of adding locally hydrated regions above the slab that affect both the mantle rheology and development of LPO through the consequent changes in mantle flow and dominate (weakest) slip system. We characterize how changes in the simulation conditions affect the LPO within the mantle wedge, subducting slab and sub-slab mantle and relate these to surface observations of seismic anisotropy.

  3. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  4. 3D crustal structure and long-period ground motions from a M9.0 megathrust earthquake in the Pacific Northwest region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, K.B.; Stephenson, W.J.; Geisselmeyer, A.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a community velocity model for the Pacific Northwest region from northern California to southern Canada and carried out the first 3D simulation of a Mw 9.0 megathrust earthquake rupturing along the Cascadia subduction zone using a parallel supercomputer. A long-period (<0.5 Hz) source model was designed by mapping the inversion results for the December 26, 2004 Sumatra–Andaman earthquake (Han et al., Science 313(5787):658–662, 2006) onto the Cascadia subduction zone. Representative peak ground velocities for the metropolitan centers of the region include 42 cm/s in the Seattle area and 8–20 cm/s in the Tacoma, Olympia, Vancouver, and Portland areas. Combined with an extended duration of the shaking up to 5 min, these long-period ground motions may inflict significant damage on the built environment, in particular on the highrises in downtown Seattle.

  5. A generalized crystal-cutting method for modeling arbitrarily oriented crystals in 3D periodic simulation cells with applications to crystal-crystal interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroonblawd, Matthew P.; Mathew, Nithin; Jiang, Shan; Sewell, Thomas D.

    2016-10-01

    A Generalized Crystal-Cutting Method (GCCM) is developed that automates construction of three-dimensionally periodic simulation cells containing arbitrarily oriented single crystals and thin films, two-dimensionally (2D) infinite crystal-crystal homophase and heterophase interfaces, and nanostructures with intrinsic N-fold interfaces. The GCCM is based on a simple mathematical formalism that facilitates easy definition of constraints on cut crystal geometries. The method preserves the translational symmetry of all Bravais lattices and thus can be applied to any crystal described by such a lattice including complicated, low-symmetry molecular crystals. Implementations are presented with carefully articulated combinations of loop searches and constraints that drastically reduce computational complexity compared to simple loop searches. Orthorhombic representations of monoclinic and triclinic crystals found using the GCCM overcome some limitations in standard distributions of popular molecular dynamics software packages. Stability of grain boundaries in β-HMX was investigated using molecular dynamics and molecular statics simulations with 2D infinite crystal-crystal homophase interfaces created using the GCCM. The order of stabilities for the four grain boundaries studied is predicted to correlate with the relative prominence of particular crystal faces in lab-grown β-HMX crystals. We demonstrate how nanostructures can be constructed through simple constraints applied in the GCCM framework. Example GCCM constructions are shown that are relevant to some current problems in materials science, including shock sensitivity of explosives, layered electronic devices, and pharmaceuticals.

  6. Implementation of general background electromagnetic fields on a periodic hypercubic lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoudi, Zohreh; Detmold, William

    2015-10-01

    Nonuniform background electromagnetic fields, once implemented in lattice quantum chromodynamics calculations of hadronic systems, provide a means to constrain a large class of electromagnetic properties of hadrons and nuclei, from their higher electromagnetic moments and charge radii to their electromagnetic form factors. We show how nonuniform fields can be constructed on a periodic hypercubic lattice under certain conditions and determine the precise form of the background U (1 ) gauge links that must be imposed on the quantum chromodynamics gauge-field configurations to maintain periodicity. Once supplemented by a set of quantization conditions on the background-field parameters, this construction guarantees that no nonuniformity occurs in the hadronic correlation functions across the boundary of the lattice. The special cases of uniform electric and magnetic fields, a nonuniform electric field that varies linearly in one spatial coordinate (relevant to the determination of quadruple moment and charge radii), nonuniform electric and magnetic fields with given temporal and spatial dependences (relevant to the determination of nucleon spin polarizabilities) and plane-wave electromagnetic fields (relevant to the determination of electromagnetic form factors) are discussed explicitly.

  7. Spectroscopy for cold atom gases in periodically modulated optical lattice potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuno, Akiyuki; Giamarchi, Thierry

    2011-03-01

    Cold atoms in optical lattices are vigorously studied experimentally and theoretically as one of the candidates for a quantum simulator. At the same time, further development of probes to microscopic structure of systems is needed. We propose a novel spectroscopy in cold atom experiments by use of periodic phase-modulation of optical lattice potentials. Corresponding to the statistics of atoms, we formulate the different observables: The energy absorption rate for bosonic atom gases, and the doublon production rate for fermionic atom gases. These observables are formulated within the linear response theory. Interestingly they are given by the imaginary part of the retarded current-current correlation function which is familiar as a quantity corresponding to an optical conductivity. As an example, we discuss one-dimensional Mott insulating state, and also compare our spectroscopy with another known spectroscopy by amplitude-modulation of an optical lattice. This work was supported in part by the Swiss SNF under MaNEP and division II.

  8. Ferrimagnetism and single-particle excitations in a periodic Anderson model on the honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Kazuhiro; Shirakawa, Tomonori; Zhang, Qinfang; Li, Tao; Yunoki, Seiji

    2015-04-01

    By using the variationalcluster approximation and cluster perturbation theory, we investigate the magnetism and single-particle excitations of a periodic Anderson model on the honeycomb lattice as an effective model for the single-side hydrogenated graphene, namely, graphone. We calculate the magnetic moment as a function of U (Coulomb interaction on impurity sites) with showing that the ground state is ferrimagneticfor any U > 0. We then calculate the single-particle excitations and show that the single-particle excitations are gapless and exhibit quadratic dispersion relation near the Fermi energy.

  9. Thermally-induced single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformations from a 2D two-fold interpenetrating square lattice layer to a 3D four-fold interpenetrating diamond framework and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Fan, Rui Qing; Wang, Xin Ming; Wei, Li Guo; Song, Yang; Du, Xi; Xing, Kai; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yu Lin

    2016-07-28

    In this work, a rare 2D → 3D single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation (SCSC) is observed in metal-organic coordination complexes, which is triggered by thermal treatment. The 2D two-fold interpenetrating square lattice layer [Cd(IBA)2]n (1) is irreversibly converted into a 3D four-fold interpenetrating diamond framework {[Cd(IBA)2(H2O)]·2.5H2O}n (2) (HIBA = 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzoic acid). Consideration is given to these two complexes with different interpenetrating structures and dimensionality, and their influence on photovoltaic properties are studied. Encouraged by the UV-visible absorption and HOMO-LUMO energy states matched for sensitizing TiO2, the two complexes are employed in combination with N719 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to compensate absorption in the ultraviolet and blue-violet region, offset competitive visible light absorption of I3(-) and reducing charge the recombination of injected electrons. After co-sensitization with 1 and 2, the device co-sensitized by 1/N719 and 2/N719 to yield overall efficiencies of 7.82% and 8.39%, which are 19.94% and 28.68% higher than that of the device sensitized only by N719 (6.52%). Consequently, high dimensional interpenetrating complexes could serve as excellent co-sensitizers and have application in DSSCs. PMID:27356177

  10. Thermally-induced single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformations from a 2D two-fold interpenetrating square lattice layer to a 3D four-fold interpenetrating diamond framework and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Fan, Rui Qing; Wang, Xin Ming; Wei, Li Guo; Song, Yang; Du, Xi; Xing, Kai; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yu Lin

    2016-07-28

    In this work, a rare 2D → 3D single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation (SCSC) is observed in metal-organic coordination complexes, which is triggered by thermal treatment. The 2D two-fold interpenetrating square lattice layer [Cd(IBA)2]n (1) is irreversibly converted into a 3D four-fold interpenetrating diamond framework {[Cd(IBA)2(H2O)]·2.5H2O}n (2) (HIBA = 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzoic acid). Consideration is given to these two complexes with different interpenetrating structures and dimensionality, and their influence on photovoltaic properties are studied. Encouraged by the UV-visible absorption and HOMO-LUMO energy states matched for sensitizing TiO2, the two complexes are employed in combination with N719 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to compensate absorption in the ultraviolet and blue-violet region, offset competitive visible light absorption of I3(-) and reducing charge the recombination of injected electrons. After co-sensitization with 1 and 2, the device co-sensitized by 1/N719 and 2/N719 to yield overall efficiencies of 7.82% and 8.39%, which are 19.94% and 28.68% higher than that of the device sensitized only by N719 (6.52%). Consequently, high dimensional interpenetrating complexes could serve as excellent co-sensitizers and have application in DSSCs.

  11. Ultrafast time dynamics studies of periodic lattices with free electron laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Quevedo, W.; Busse, G.; Hallmann, J.; More, R.; Petri, M.; Rajkovic, I.; Krasniqi, F.; Rudenko, A.; Tschentscher, T.; Stojanovic, N.; Duesterer, S.; Treusch, R.; Tolkiehn, M.; Techert, S.

    2012-11-01

    It has been proposed that radiation from free electron laser (FEL) at Hamburg (FLASH) can be used for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray diffraction experiments based on the near-infrared (NIR) pump/FEL probe scheme. Here, investigation probing the ultrafast structural dynamics of periodic nano-crystalline organic matter (silver behenate) with such a scheme is reported. Excitation with a femtosecond NIR laser leads to an ultrafast lattice modification which time evolution has been studied through the scattering of vacuum ultraviolet FEL pulses. The found effect last for 6 ps and underpins the possibility for studying nanoperiodic dynamics down to the FEL source time resolution. Furthermore, the possibility of extending the use of silver behenate (AgBh) as a wavelength and temporal calibration tool for experiments with soft x-ray/FEL sources is suggested.

  12. Nonlinear modes of an intense laser beam interacting with a periodic lattice of nanoparticle

    SciTech Connect

    Sepehri Javan, N. Homami, S. H. H.

    2015-08-15

    Self-guided nonlinear propagation of an intense laser beam through a periodic lattice of nanoparticle is studied. Using a perturbative method, a cubic nonlinear wave equation describing the laser-nanoparticle interaction in the weakly relativistic regime is derived. Transverse Eigen modes of the laser, nonlinear dispersion relation and its related group velocity are obtained. It is shown that the best fitted function to the transverse profile is Gaussian. Effect of the laser amplitude and also the ratio of nanoparticles radius to their separation on the nonlinear dispersion and amplitude profiles are investigated. It is found that the increase in the just mentioned parameters leads to the localization of transverse profile around the propagation axis.

  13. Using 3D Multi-Fluid Simulations to Investigate the Periodicity of the Auroral Brightness at Ganymede and its Dependence on Precipitating Particle Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payan, A. P.; Paty, C. S.; Retherford, K. D.; Bonfond, B.

    2011-12-01

    The electrodynamic interaction of Ganymede's mini-magnetosphere with Jupiter's co-rotating magnetospheric plasma has been shown to give rise to strong current systems closing through the moon and its ionosphere as well as through its magnetopause and magnetotail current sheet. This interaction is strongly evidenced by the presence of aurorae at Ganymede and Ganymede's bright auroral footprint in Jupiter's ionosphere. This footprint is located equatorward of the main auroral emissions, at the magnetic longitude of the field line threading Ganymede. The brightness of Ganymede's auroral footprint at Jupiter along with its latitudinal position have been shown to depend on the position of Ganymede relative to the Jovian plasma sheet and on the variations of the current flowing in the Jovian current sheet. Previous studies based on ultraviolet images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have demonstrated that the size of the auroral footprint was not limited to that of the moon alone. Rather, it mapped to a region corresponding to Ganymede's magnetosphere (Grodent et al., 2009). It was recently shown that Ganymede's auroral footprint brightness is characterized by three timescales of variations: a long 5-hour periodic variation, a non-systematic 10-40-minute variation, and a short 100-second quasi-periodic variation (Grodent et al., 2009). As for Ganymede's aurora, observations with the HST revealed longitudinally non-uniform oxygen emissions, with the brightest emissions confined to the geomagnetic latitudes defining the boundaries of the polar caps (Feldman et al., 2000). The goal of the present study is to examine the relationship between the longest and the shortest timescale periodicities of Ganymede's auroral footprint brightness and local processes occurring at Ganymede, using a 3D multi-fluid model. The model allows characterization of the interaction between Ganymede's magnetosphere and the local Jovian plasma environment by tracking the energies and

  14. Normally attracting manifolds and periodic behavior in one-dimensional and two-dimensional coupled map lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giberti, Claudio; Vernia, Cecilia

    1994-12-01

    We consider diffusively coupled logistic maps in one- and two-dimensional lattices. We investigate periodic behaviors as the coupling parameter varies, i.e., existence and bifurcations of some periodic orbits with the largest domain of attraction. Similarity and differences between the two lattices are shown. For small coupling the periodic behavior appears to be characterized by a number of periodic orbits structured in such a way to give rise to distinct, reverse period-doubling sequences. For intermediate values of the coupling a prominent role in the dynamics is played by the presence of normally attracting manifolds that contain periodic orbits. The dynamics on these manifolds is very weakly hyperbolic, which implies long transients. A detailed investigation allows the understanding of the mechanism of their formation. A complex bifurcation is found which causes an attracting manifold to become unstable.

  15. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  16. Mutations of the cluster algebra of type {A}_{1}^{(1)} and the periodic discrete Toda lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobe, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    A direct connection between two sequences of points, one of which is generated by seed mutations of the cluster algebra of type {A}1(1) and the other by time evolutions of the periodic discrete Toda lattice, is explicitly given. In this construction, each of them is realized as an orbit of a QRT map, and specialization of the parameters in the maps and appropriate choices of the initial points relate them. The connection with the periodic discrete Toda lattice enables us a geometric interpretation of the seed mutations of the cluster algebra of type {A}1(1) as an addition of points on an elliptic curve.

  17. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  18. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  19. Drift Compression and Final Focus for Intense Heavy Ion Beams with Non-periodic, Time-dependent Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Qin; Ronald C. Davidson; John J. Barnard; Edward P. Lee

    2005-02-14

    In the currently envisioned configurations for heavy ion fusion, it is necessary to longitudinally compress the beam bunches by a large factor after the acceleration phase. Because the space-charge force increases as the beam is compressed, the beam size in the transverse direction will increase in a periodic quadrupole lattice. If an active control of the beam size is desired, a larger focusing force is needed to confine the beam in the transverse direction, and a non-periodic quadrupole lattice along the beam path is necessary. In this paper, we describe the design of such a focusing lattice using the transverse envelope equations. A drift compression and final focus lattice should focus the entire beam pulse onto the same focal spot on the target. This is difficult with a fixed lattice, because different slices of the beam may have different perveance and emittance. Four time-dependent magnets are introduced in the upstream of drift compression to focus the entire pulse onto the sam e focal spot. Drift compression and final focusing schemes are developed for a typical heavy ion fusion driver and for the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) being designed by the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory.

  20. 3D shallow structures in the Baogutu area, Karamay, determined by eikonal tomography of short-period ambient noise surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hongrui; Luo, Yinhe; Chen, Chao; Xu, Yixian

    2016-06-01

    Eikonal tomography based on ambient noise data is one of the most effective methods to reveal shallow earth structures. By tracking surface wave phase fronts, constructing travel time surfaces, and computing the gradients of travel time surfaces to generate phase velocity maps, eikonal tomography avoids the ray tracing and matrix construction and inversion in the traditional surface wave tomography methods. In this study, we collect continuous ambient noise data recorded by a dense seismic array in Karamay, Xinjiang to construct a 3D model of shallow structures using eikonal tomography. The seismic array consists of 35 stations with shortest interstation distance close to 1 km. 890 empirical surface wave Green's functions (EGFs) between each station pair are retrieved by cross-correlating one or two months of continuous ambient noise data. From these EGFs, surface wave travel times in the frequency range of 1.8 to 4.0 Hz are measured by a frequency-time analysis technique (FTAN). Then, eikonal tomography is adopted to construct Rayleigh wave phase velocity maps and estimate the phase velocity uncertainties. Finally, we invert the obtained phase velocity dispersion curves for 1D shear velocity profiles and then assemble these 1D profiles to construct a 3D shear velocity model. Major velocity features of our 3D model are correlated well with the known geological features. A shallow east-west velocity discontinuity is observed, which clearly reflects the lithological change between Baogutu formation (C1b) and Xibeikulasi formation (C1x) of lower Carboniferous system. Low shear velocities are observed beneath the location of porphyry copper deposit (V), possibly related to stockwork fracture and hydrothermal brecciation developed during the intrusion of deep magma in forming the deposit.

  1. Influence of crystal orientation on the formation of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures and lattice defects accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Sedao, Xxx; Garrelie, Florence Colombier, Jean-Philippe; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Pigeon, Florent; Maurice, Claire; Quey, Romain

    2014-04-28

    The influence of crystal orientation on the formation of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) has been investigated on a polycrystalline nickel sample. Electron Backscatter Diffraction characterization has been exploited to provide structural information within the laser spot on irradiated samples to determine the dependence of LIPSS formation and lattice defects (stacking faults, twins, dislocations) upon the crystal orientation. Significant differences are observed at low-to-medium number of laser pulses, outstandingly for (111)-oriented surface which favors lattice defects formation rather than LIPSS formation.

  2. Cartilage Repair and Subchondral Bone Migration Using 3D Printing Osteochondral Composites: A One-Year-Period Study in Rabbit Trochlea

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dichen; Wang, Kunzheng; Hao, Dingjun; Bian, Weiguo; He, Jiankang; Jin, Zhongmin

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidences show that subchondral bone may play a significant role in the repair or progression of cartilage damage in situ. However, the exact change of subchondral bone during osteochondral repair is still poorly understood. In this paper, biphasic osteochondral composite scaffolds were fabricated by 3D printing technology using PEG hydrogel and β-TCP ceramic and then implanted in rabbit trochlea within a critical size defect model. Animals were euthanized at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 52 weeks after implantation. Histological results showed that hyaline-like cartilage formed along with white smooth surface and invisible margin at 24 weeks postoperatively, typical tidemark formation at 52 weeks. The repaired subchondral bone formed from 16 to 52 weeks in a “flow like” manner from surrounding bone to the defect center gradually. Statistical analysis illustrated that both subchondral bone volume and migration area percentage were highly correlated with the gross appearance Wayne score of repaired cartilage. Therefore, subchondral bone migration is related to cartilage repair for critical size osteochondral defects. Furthermore, the subchondral bone remodeling proceeds in a “flow like” manner and repaired cartilage with tidemark implies that the biphasic PEG/β-TCP composites fabricated by 3D printing provides a feasible strategy for osteochondral tissue engineering application. PMID:25177697

  3. Cartilage repair and subchondral bone migration using 3D printing osteochondral composites: a one-year-period study in rabbit trochlea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weijie; Lian, Qin; Li, Dichen; Wang, Kunzheng; Hao, Dingjun; Bian, Weiguo; He, Jiankang; Jin, Zhongmin

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidences show that subchondral bone may play a significant role in the repair or progression of cartilage damage in situ. However, the exact change of subchondral bone during osteochondral repair is still poorly understood. In this paper, biphasic osteochondral composite scaffolds were fabricated by 3D printing technology using PEG hydrogel and β-TCP ceramic and then implanted in rabbit trochlea within a critical size defect model. Animals were euthanized at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 52 weeks after implantation. Histological results showed that hyaline-like cartilage formed along with white smooth surface and invisible margin at 24 weeks postoperatively, typical tidemark formation at 52 weeks. The repaired subchondral bone formed from 16 to 52 weeks in a "flow like" manner from surrounding bone to the defect center gradually. Statistical analysis illustrated that both subchondral bone volume and migration area percentage were highly correlated with the gross appearance Wayne score of repaired cartilage. Therefore, subchondral bone migration is related to cartilage repair for critical size osteochondral defects. Furthermore, the subchondral bone remodeling proceeds in a "flow like" manner and repaired cartilage with tidemark implies that the biphasic PEG/β-TCP composites fabricated by 3D printing provides a feasible strategy for osteochondral tissue engineering application. PMID:25177697

  4. Cartilage repair and subchondral bone migration using 3D printing osteochondral composites: a one-year-period study in rabbit trochlea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weijie; Lian, Qin; Li, Dichen; Wang, Kunzheng; Hao, Dingjun; Bian, Weiguo; He, Jiankang; Jin, Zhongmin

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidences show that subchondral bone may play a significant role in the repair or progression of cartilage damage in situ. However, the exact change of subchondral bone during osteochondral repair is still poorly understood. In this paper, biphasic osteochondral composite scaffolds were fabricated by 3D printing technology using PEG hydrogel and β-TCP ceramic and then implanted in rabbit trochlea within a critical size defect model. Animals were euthanized at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 52 weeks after implantation. Histological results showed that hyaline-like cartilage formed along with white smooth surface and invisible margin at 24 weeks postoperatively, typical tidemark formation at 52 weeks. The repaired subchondral bone formed from 16 to 52 weeks in a "flow like" manner from surrounding bone to the defect center gradually. Statistical analysis illustrated that both subchondral bone volume and migration area percentage were highly correlated with the gross appearance Wayne score of repaired cartilage. Therefore, subchondral bone migration is related to cartilage repair for critical size osteochondral defects. Furthermore, the subchondral bone remodeling proceeds in a "flow like" manner and repaired cartilage with tidemark implies that the biphasic PEG/β-TCP composites fabricated by 3D printing provides a feasible strategy for osteochondral tissue engineering application.

  5. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  6. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  7. Sub-micron period metal lattices fabricated by interfering ultraviolet femtosecond laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Yoshiki; Matsuba, Yoshiki; Miyanaga, Noriaki

    2016-05-01

    The interference pattern of a femtosecond laser has been utilized to fabricate nanostructures in the lattice. In this paper, SH (second-harmonic) waves (λ = 392.5 {{nm}}) of a femtosecond laser were applied to four beams interfering laser processing using a demagnification system as a beam correlator. The lattice constant of the resultant matrix was shortened to 760 nm. The unit structures fabricated on gold thin films were nanoholes, nanobumps, nanodrops or nanowhiskers, and their unit size was minimized compared to the case with a greater lattice constant formed by fundamental wavelengths. The radius of a nanoball on top of a nanodrop was between 42 and 76 nm, and the radius of metallic hole arrays (MHA) was 220 nm. The energy efficiency of the laser increased by 4.79 times due to better absorption coefficient of gold at ultraviolet wavelengths. In addition, the smallest lattice constant was estimated with the use of a commercial plano-convex fused-silica lens and a NIR (near-infrared) achromatic lens.

  8. Topological order in an exactly solvable 3D spin model

    SciTech Connect

    Bravyi, Sergey; Leemhuis, Bernhard; Terhal, Barbara M.

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: RHtriangle We study exactly solvable spin model with six-qubit nearest neighbor interactions on a 3D face centered cubic lattice. RHtriangle The ground space of the model exhibits topological quantum order. RHtriangle Elementary excitations can be geometrically described as the corners of rectangular-shaped membranes. RHtriangle The ground space can encode 4g qubits where g is the greatest common divisor of the lattice dimensions. RHtriangle Logical operators acting on the encoded qubits are described in terms of closed strings and closed membranes. - Abstract: We study a 3D generalization of the toric code model introduced recently by Chamon. This is an exactly solvable spin model with six-qubit nearest-neighbor interactions on an FCC lattice whose ground space exhibits topological quantum order. The elementary excitations of this model which we call monopoles can be geometrically described as the corners of rectangular-shaped membranes. We prove that the creation of an isolated monopole separated from other monopoles by a distance R requires an operator acting on {Omega}(R{sup 2}) qubits. Composite particles that consist of two monopoles (dipoles) and four monopoles (quadrupoles) can be described as end-points of strings. The peculiar feature of the model is that dipole-type strings are rigid, that is, such strings must be aligned with face-diagonals of the lattice. For periodic boundary conditions the ground space can encode 4g qubits where g is the greatest common divisor of the lattice dimensions. We describe a complete set of logical operators acting on the encoded qubits in terms of closed strings and closed membranes.

  9. Homogenization of metasurfaces formed by random resonant particles in periodical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.; Petrov, Mihail; Tretyakov, Sergei A.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we suggest a simple analytical method for description of electromagnetic properties of a geometrically regular two-dimensional subwavelength arrays (metasurfaces) formed by particles with randomly fluctuating polarizabilities. We propose an analytical homogenization method applicable for normal wave incidence on particle arrays with dominating electric dipole responses and validate it with numerical point-dipole modeling using the supercell approach. We demonstrate that fluctuations of particle polarizabilities lead to increased diffuse scattering despite the subwavelength lattice constant of the array.

  10. Modulation of periodic field on the atomic current in optical lattices with Landau-Zener tunneling considered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jie-Yun; Wang, Lan-Yu

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the atomic current in optical lattices under the presence of both constant and periodic external field with Landau-Zener tunneling considered. By simplifying the system to a two-band model, the atomic current is obtained based on the Boltzmann equations. We focus on three situations to discuss the influence of the Landau-Zener tunneling and periodic field on the atomic current. Numerical calculations show the atomic transient current would finally become the stable oscillation, whose amplitude and average value can be further adjusted by the periodic external field. It is concluded that the periodic external field could provide an effective modulation on the atomic current even when the Landau-Zener tunneling probability has almostly become a constant.

  11. Vibration band-gap properties of three-dimensional Kagome lattices using the spectral element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhi-Jing; Li, Feng-Ming; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2015-04-01

    The spectral element method (SEM) is extended to investigate the vibration band-gap properties of three-dimensional (3D) Kagome lattices. The dynamic stiffness matrix of the 3D element which contains bending, tensional and torsional components is derived. The spectral equations of motion of the whole 3D Kagome lattice are then established. Comparing with frequency-domain solutions calculated by the finite element method (FEM), the accuracy and the feasibility of the SEM solutions are verified. It can be shown that the SEM is suitable for analyzing the vibration band-gap properties. Due to the band-gap characteristics, the periodic 3D Kagome lattice has the performance of vibration isolation. The influences of the structural and material parameters on the vibration band-gaps are discussed and a new type of 3D Kagome lattice is designed to obtain the improved vibration isolation capability.

  12. [Comparative study of the toxic, anaphylactoid, and sensitizing properties of 5-sulfo-8-mercaptoquinolinates of metals of the 8th and 3d groups of the periodic table].

    PubMed

    Tomilets, V A; Zakharova, I A; Dontsov, V I; Ado, V A

    1980-04-01

    Pronounced allergizing action of the compounds of group VIII metals of the periodic system, observed in occupational pathology and commencement of their wide clinical application as cancerostatic agents require a comprehensive study of the properties of these substances. Anaphylactoid, toxic and genuine sensitizing action of 5-sulfo-8-mercapto-quinolinates of group YIII metals and those of group III metals having similar properties was studied and compared with reference to 8 compounds. It was shown that histamine liberation from mast cells induced by these substances as well as inhibition of the respiration of mast cells depend on the central atom and electronic structure of the ligand. The mechanism of histamine liberation observed was similar to that of specific antigen and was related to the preservation of the respiratory processes, the system of microtubules and cell cyclic nucleotides. The compounds tested were also capable of sensitizing the animal in intracutaneous injection of the substance without exogenous carrier. Sensitization developed according to the reaction of both the immediate and delayed types.

  13. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  14. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.

    2009-05-01

    This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

  15. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    DOE PAGES

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  16. Dynamics of an Electron in a Magnetic Field and in a Periodic Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adorjan, A. J.; Kaufman, M.

    1996-11-01

    We study the trajectory and the time dependence of the velocity of an electron moving in a 2d crystal in the presence of a magnetic field. This model is relevant to artificial 2d lattices(T.Geisel, J.Wagenhuber, P.Niebauer, G.Obermair, Phys.Rev.Lett.64,1581(1990)). The model is analyzed numerically by approximating the differential equations of motion with difference equations. To perform the calculations we use the mathematical package MathCad. We plan to use this study in undergraduate classes as an as an example of a research topic of current interest.

  17. 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Maria

    The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.

  18. Venus in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaut, J. J.

    1993-08-01

    Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.

  19. 3D reservoir visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Van, B.T.; Pajon, J.L.; Joseph, P. )

    1991-11-01

    This paper shows how some simple 3D computer graphics tools can be combined to provide efficient software for visualizing and analyzing data obtained from reservoir simulators and geological simulations. The animation and interactive capabilities of the software quickly provide a deep understanding of the fluid-flow behavior and an accurate idea of the internal architecture of a reservoir.

  20. 3D rapid mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaksson, Folke; Borg, Johan; Haglund, Leif

    2008-04-01

    In this paper the performance of passive range measurement imaging using stereo technique in real time applications is described. Stereo vision uses multiple images to get depth resolution in a similar way as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) uses multiple measurements to obtain better spatial resolution. This technique has been used in photogrammetry for a long time but it will be shown that it is now possible to do the calculations, with carefully designed image processing algorithms, in e.g. a PC in real time. In order to get high resolution and quantitative data in the stereo estimation a mathematical camera model is used. The parameters to the camera model are settled in a calibration rig or in the case of a moving camera the scene itself can be used for calibration of most of the parameters. After calibration an ordinary TV camera has an angular resolution like a theodolite, but to a much lower price. The paper will present results from high resolution 3D imagery from air to ground. The 3D-results from stereo calculation of image pairs are stitched together into a large database to form a 3D-model of the area covered.

  1. A reciprocal lattice approach to assessing the luster of hair fibers, based on scattering by periodically deformed cylinders.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, A John

    2004-01-01

    In a recent prize-winning study (1), Nagase et al. presented an analysis, using geometrical optics, of the perception of luster of hair based on the different directions of light reflection from the front and internal rear surfaces of the fiber. These two reflections, from cuticle cells inclined to the fiber axis, lead to a specular peak and an associated bright zone, displaced in reflection angle, which is associated with luster perception. This work built upon the experimental observations of Bustard and Smith (2). Both these papers employed a model of the fiber which may be described as a linear stack of cone frusta, defined by the exposed axial length and angle of inclination to the fiber axis of the cuticle scales. This fiber model is readily amenable to an alternative treatment, in which the model is recognized as a convolution of a cone frustum with a one-dimensional lattice. The scattering properties are then given in reciprocal (scattering) space as the product of the scattering function of a single frustum and that of the one-dimensional lattice. This problem was addressed, in principle, long ago by Bear and Bolduan (3,4) in work on the scattering of periodically distorted collagen fibrils. The author presents a related theory based on conical shells. It is demonstrated that the scattering from such a model extends over a number of non-equatorial reciprocal lattice planes and is able to reproduce, in a crudely quantitative fashion, several of the features of the experimentally observed scattering. A major benefit of this approach is that it gives a three-dimensional appreciation of light scattering by fibers. PMID:15645101

  2. Taming supersymmetric defects in 3d-3d correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Dongmin; Kim, Nakwoo; Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-07-01

    We study knots in 3d Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group {SL}(N,{{C}}), in the context of its relation with 3d { N }=2 theory (the so-called 3d-3d correspondence). The defect has either co-dimension 2 or co-dimension 4 inside the 6d (2,0) theory, which is compactified on a 3-manifold \\hat{M}. We identify such defects in various corners of the 3d-3d correspondence, namely in 3d {SL}(N,{{C}}) CS theory, in 3d { N }=2 theory, in 5d { N }=2 super Yang-Mills theory, and in the M-theory holographic dual. We can make quantitative checks of the 3d-3d correspondence by computing partition functions at each of these theories. This Letter is a companion to a longer paper [1], which contains more details and more results.

  3. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  4. Optimal lattice-structured materials

    DOE PAGES

    Messner, Mark C.

    2016-07-09

    This paper describes a method for optimizing the mesostructure of lattice-structured materials. These materials are periodic arrays of slender members resembling efficient, lightweight macroscale structures like bridges and frame buildings. Current additive manufacturing technologies can assemble lattice structures with length scales ranging from nanometers to millimeters. Previous work demonstrates that lattice materials have excellent stiffness- and strength-to-weight scaling, outperforming natural materials. However, there are currently no methods for producing optimal mesostructures that consider the full space of possible 3D lattice topologies. The inverse homogenization approach for optimizing the periodic structure of lattice materials requires a parameterized, homogenized material model describingmore » the response of an arbitrary structure. This work develops such a model, starting with a method for describing the long-wavelength, macroscale deformation of an arbitrary lattice. The work combines the homogenized model with a parameterized description of the total design space to generate a parameterized model. Finally, the work describes an optimization method capable of producing optimal mesostructures. Several examples demonstrate the optimization method. One of these examples produces an elastically isotropic, maximally stiff structure, here called the isotruss, that arguably outperforms the anisotropic octet truss topology.« less

  5. Maintenance of a bone collagen phenotype by osteoblast-like cells in 3D periodic porous titanium (Ti-6Al-4 V) structures fabricated by selective electron beam melting.

    PubMed

    Hrabe, Nikolas W; Heinl, Peter; Bordia, Rajendra K; Körner, Carolin; Fernandes, Russell J

    2013-01-01

    Regular 3D periodic porous Ti-6Al-4 V structures were fabricated by the selective electron beam melting method (EBM) over a range of relative densities (0.17-0.40) and pore sizes (500-1500 µm). Structures were seeded with human osteoblast-like cells (SAOS-2) and cultured for four weeks. Cells multiplied within these structures and extracellular matrix collagen content increased. Type I and type V collagens typically synthesized by osteoblasts were deposited in the newly formed matrix with time in culture. High magnification scanning electron microscopy revealed cells attached to surfaces on the interior of the structures with an increasingly fibrous matrix. The in-vitro results demonstrate that the novel EBM-processed porous structures, designed to address the effect of stress-shielding, are conducive to osteoblast attachment, proliferation and deposition of a collagenous matrix characteristic of bone.

  6. Quantum diffusion of electrons in quasiperiodic and periodic approximant lattices in the rare earth-cadmium system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, N. M. R.; Mortimer, K. D.; Kong, T.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Basov, D. N.; Timusk, T.

    2016-04-01

    Icosahedral quasicrystals are characterised by the absence of a distinct Drude peak in their low-frequency optical conductivity and the same is true of their crystalline approximants. We have measured the optical conductivity of i-GdCd?, an icosahedral quasicrystal, and two approximants, GdCd? and YCd?. We find that there is a significant difference in the optical properties of these compounds. The approximants have a zero frequency peak, characteristic of a metal, whereas the quasicrystal has a striking minimum. This is the first example where the transport properties of a quasicrystal and its approximant differ in such a fundamental way. Using a generalised Drude model introduced by Mayou, we find that our data are well described by this model. It implies that the quantum diffusion of electron wave packets through the periodic and quasiperiodic lattices is responsible for these dramatic differences: in the approximants, the transport is superdiffusive, whereas the quasicrystals show subdiffusive motion of the electrons.

  7. Self-focusing of an intense laser pulse interacting with a periodic lattice of metallic nanoparticle

    SciTech Connect

    Sepehri Javan, N.

    2015-09-15

    The motivation for the present work is the study of self-focusing of an intense laser beam propagating through a periodic array of metallic nanoparticle. Using a perturbative method, a wave equation describing the nonlinear interaction of a laser beam with nanoparticles is derived. Evolution of laser spot size with the Gaussian profile for the circular and linear polarizations is considered. It is found that, in the same intensity, the linear polarization in a special interval of frequency resonantly acts better than the circular one.

  8. Construction of invariant whiskered tori by a parameterization method. Part II: Quasi-periodic and almost periodic breathers in coupled map lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontich, Ernest; de la Llave, Rafael; Sire, Yannick

    2015-09-01

    We construct quasi-periodic and almost periodic solutions for coupled Hamiltonian systems on an infinite lattice which is translation invariant. The couplings can be long range, provided that they decay moderately fast with respect to the distance. For the solutions we construct, most of the sites are moving in a neighborhood of a hyperbolic fixed point, but there are oscillating sites clustered around a sequence of nodes. The amplitude of these oscillations does not need to tend to zero. In particular, the almost periodic solutions do not decay at infinity. The main result is an a posteriori theorem. We formulate an invariance equation. Solutions of this equation are embeddings of an invariant torus on which the motion is conjugate to a rotation. We show that, if there is an approximate solution of the invariance equation that satisfies some non-degeneracy conditions, there is a true solution close by. This does not require that the system is close to integrable, hence it can be used to validate numerical calculations or formal expansions. The proof of this a posteriori theorem is based on a Nash-Moser iteration, which does not use transformation theory. Simpler versions of the scheme were developed in [28]. One technical tool, important for our purposes, is the use of weighted spaces that capture the idea that the maps under consideration are local interactions. Using these weighted spaces, the estimates of iterative steps are similar to those in finite dimensional spaces. In particular, the estimates are independent of the number of nodes that get excited. Using these techniques, given two breathers, we can place them apart and obtain an approximate solution, which leads to a true solution nearby. By repeating the process infinitely often, we can get solutions with infinitely many frequencies which do not tend to zero at infinity.

  9. 3D palmprint data fast acquisition and recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoxu; Huang, Shujun; Gao, Nan; Zhang, Zonghua

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a fast 3D (Three-Dimension) palmprint capturing system and develops an efficient 3D palmprint feature extraction and recognition method. In order to fast acquire accurate 3D shape and texture of palmprint, a DLP projector triggers a CCD camera to realize synchronization. By generating and projecting green fringe pattern images onto the measured palm surface, 3D palmprint data are calculated from the fringe pattern images. The periodic feature vector can be derived from the calculated 3D palmprint data, so undistorted 3D biometrics is obtained. Using the obtained 3D palmprint data, feature matching test have been carried out by Gabor filter, competition rules and the mean curvature. Experimental results on capturing 3D palmprint show that the proposed acquisition method can fast get 3D shape information of palmprint. Some initial experiments on recognition show the proposed method is efficient by using 3D palmprint data.

  10. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  11. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  12. Martian terrain - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This area of terrain near the Sagan Memorial Station was taken on Sol 3 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  13. 3D grain boundary migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J. K.; Bons, P. D.

    2009-04-01

    Microstructures of rocks play an important role in determining rheological properties and help to reveal the processes that lead to their formation. Some of these processes change the microstructure significantly and may thus have the opposite effect in obliterating any fabrics indicative of the previous history of the rocks. One of these processes is grain boundary migration (GBM). During static recrystallisation, GBM may produce a foam texture that completely overprints a pre-existing grain boundary network and GBM actively influences the rheology of a rock, via its influence on grain size and lattice defect concentration. We here present a new numerical simulation software that is capable of simulating a whole range of processes on the grain scale (it is not limited to grain boundary migration). The software is polyhedron-based, meaning that each grain (or phase) is represented by a polyhedron that has discrete boundaries. The boundary (the shell) of the polyhedron is defined by a set of facets which in turn is defined by a set of vertices. Each structural entity (polyhedron, facets and vertices) can have an unlimited number of parameters (depending on the process to be modeled) such as surface energy, concentration, etc. which can be used to calculate changes of the microstructre. We use the processes of grain boundary migration of a "regular" and a partially molten rock to demonstrate the software. Since this software is 3D, the formation of melt networks in a partially molten rock can also be studied. The interconnected melt network is of fundamental importance for melt segregation and migration in the crust and mantle and can help to understand the core-mantle differentiation of large terrestrial planets.

  14. A pseudo-3D approach based on electron backscatter diffraction and backscatter electron imaging to study the character of phase boundaries between Mg and long period stacking ordered phase in a Mg–2Y–Zn alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Afshar, Mehran Zaefferer, Stefan

    2015-03-15

    In Mg–2 at.% Y–1 at.% Zn alloys, the LPSO (Long Period Stacking Ordered) phase is important to improve mechanical properties of the material. The aim of this paper is to present a study on the phase boundary character in these two-phase alloys. Using EBSD pattern analysis it was found that the 24R structure is the dominant LPSO phase structure in the current alloy. The phase boundary character between the Mg matrix and the LPSO phase was investigated using an improved pseudo-3D EBSD (electron backscatter diffraction) technique in combination with BSE or SE (backscatter or secondary electron) imaging. A large amount of very low-angle phase boundaries was detected. The (0 0 0 2) plane in the Mg matrix which is parallel to the (0 0 0 24) plane in the LPSO phase was found to be the most frequent plane for these phase boundaries. This plane is supposed to be the habit plane of the eutectic co-solidification of the Mg matrix and the LPSO phase. - Highlights: • It is shown that for the investigated alloy the LPSO phase has mainly 24R crystal structure. • A new method is presented which allows accurate determination of the 5-parameter grain or phase boundary character. • It is found that the low-angle phase boundaries appearing in the alloy all have basal phase boundary planes.

  15. Self-trapping and its periodic modulation of superfluid Fermi gases in one-dimensional accelerating optical lattice from BEC to unitarity regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ming; Duan, Wen-Shan; Dou, Fu-Quan; Gou, Xue-Qiang; Zhang, Heng

    2014-08-01

    We study the tunneling dynamics of superfluid Fermi gases in an optical lattice from BEC to unitarity regime. Four different cases are found, namely Josephson oscillations (JO), oscillating-phase-type self-trapping (OST), running-phase-type self-trapping (RST) and self-trapping (ST). We find that the s-wave scattering length has a crucial role on the tunneling dynamics. Periodic modulation can also affect the tunneling phenomena, for example, in the high frequency modulation, the optical lattice is splitted at the zero points of the zeroth order Bessel function J 0 and strong suppression of tunneling by the modulation is observed at these points.

  16. Progress in sorting individual atoms in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tsung-Yao; Kumar, Aishwarya; Wang, Yang; Weiss, David

    2016-05-01

    An exactly unity filled optical lattice is a desirable initial state for a neutral atom quantum computer. We have previously proposed an efficient way to compact a partially filled lattice into a perfectly filled one, by combining site-resolved imaging, site-selective qubit rotations and state-selective motion steps. We have previously demonstrated site-resolved imaging and site-selective rotations in our system of cesium atoms in a 40% filled 5x5x5 3D lattice. We have now demonstrated the final element, state-selective motion steps in 3D produced by rotating the polarizations of one of the lattice beams in each pair. We will present our progress in putting all the elements together to reach perfect unity filling. Supported by NSF.

  17. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  18. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  19. Lattice parameters from direct-space images at two tilts.

    PubMed

    Qin, W; Fraundorf, P

    2003-04-01

    Lattices in three dimensions are oft studied from the "reciprocal space" perspective of diffraction. Today, the full lattice of a crystal can often be inferred from direct-space information about three sets of non-parallel lattice planes. Such data can come from electron-phase (or less easily Z contrast images) taken at two tilts, provided that one image shows two non-parallel lattice periodicities, and the other shows a periodicity not coplanar with the first two. We outline here protocols for measuring the 3D parameters of cubic lattice types in this way. For randomly oriented nano-crystals with cell side greater than twice the continuous transfer limit, orthogonal +/-15 degrees and +/-10 degrees tilt ranges might allow one to measure 3D parameters of all such lattice types in a specimen from only two well-chosen images. The strategy is illustrated by measuring the lattice parameters of a 10nm WC(1-x) crystal in a plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposited thin film.

  20. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  1. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  2. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  3. LLNL-Earth3D

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  4. [3-D ultrasound in gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Zoller, W G; Liess, H

    1994-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a 3D effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate 3D presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of 3D images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of 3D images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal 3D presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the 3D imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. 3D ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible.

  5. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  6. 3D printed diffractive terahertz lenses.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Walter D; Ferrando, Vicente; Monsoriu, Juan A; Zagrajek, Przemysław; Czerwińska, Elżbieta; Szustakowski, Mieczysław

    2016-04-15

    A 3D printer was used to realize custom-made diffractive THz lenses. After testing several materials, phase binary lenses with periodic and aperiodic radial profiles were designed and constructed in polyamide material to work at 0.625 THz. The nonconventional focusing properties of such lenses were assessed by computing and measuring their axial point spread function (PSF). Our results demonstrate that inexpensive 3D printed THz diffractive lenses can be reliably used in focusing and imaging THz systems. Diffractive THz lenses with unprecedented features, such as extended depth of focus or bifocalization, have been demonstrated. PMID:27082335

  7. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435

  8. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  9. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  10. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  11. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  12. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  13. DYNA3D Code Practices and Developments

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, L.; Zywicz, E.; Raboin, P.

    2000-04-21

    DYNA3D is an explicit, finite element code developed to solve high rate dynamic simulations for problems of interest to the engineering mechanics community. The DYNA3D code has been under continuous development since 1976[1] by the Methods Development Group in the Mechanical Engineering Department of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The pace of code development activities has substantially increased in the past five years, growing from one to between four and six code developers. This has necessitated the use of software tools such as CVS (Concurrent Versions System) to help manage multiple version updates. While on-line documentation with an Adobe PDF manual helps to communicate software developments, periodically a summary document describing recent changes and improvements in DYNA3D software is needed. The first part of this report describes issues surrounding software versions and source control. The remainder of this report details the major capability improvements since the last publicly released version of DYNA3D in 1996. Not included here are the many hundreds of bug corrections and minor enhancements, nor the development in DYNA3D between the manual release in 1993[2] and the public code release in 1996.

  14. New 3D Bolton standards: coregistration of biplane x rays and 3D CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, David; Subramanyan, Krishna; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    1997-04-01

    The Bolton Standards 'normative' cohort (16 males, 16 females) have been invited back to the Bolton-Brush Growth Study Center for new biorthogonal plain film head x-rays and 3D (three dimensional) head CT-scans. A set of 29 3D landmarks were identified on both their biplane head film and 3D CT images. The current 3D CT image is then superimposed onto the landmarks collected from the current biplane head films. Three post-doctoral fellows have collected 37 3D landmarks from the Bolton Standards' 40 - 70 year old biplane head films. These films were captured annually during their growing period (ages 3 - 18). Using 29 of these landmarks the current 3D CT image is next warped (via thin plate spline) to landmarks taken from each participant's 18th year biplane head films, a process that is successively reiterated back to age 3. This process is demonstrated here for one of the Bolton Standards. The outer skull surfaces will be extracted from each warped 3D CT image and an average will be generated for each age/sex group. The resulting longitudinal series of average 'normative' boney skull surface images may be useful for craniofacial patient: diagnosis, treatment planning, stereotactic procedures, and outcomes assessment.

  15. From molecular to macroscopic via the rational design of a self-assembled 3D DNA crystal.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jianping; Birktoft, Jens J; Chen, Yi; Wang, Tong; Sha, Ruojie; Constantinou, Pamela E; Ginell, Stephan L; Mao, Chengde; Seeman, Nadrian C

    2009-09-01

    We live in a macroscopic three-dimensional (3D) world, but our best description of the structure of matter is at the atomic and molecular scale. Understanding the relationship between the two scales requires a bridge from the molecular world to the macroscopic world. Connecting these two domains with atomic precision is a central goal of the natural sciences, but it requires high spatial control of the 3D structure of matter. The simplest practical route to producing precisely designed 3D macroscopic objects is to form a crystalline arrangement by self-assembly, because such a periodic array has only conceptually simple requirements: a motif that has a robust 3D structure, dominant affinity interactions between parts of the motif when it self-associates, and predictable structures for these affinity interactions. Fulfilling these three criteria to produce a 3D periodic system is not easy, but should readily be achieved with well-structured branched DNA motifs tailed by sticky ends. Complementary sticky ends associate with each other preferentially and assume the well-known B-DNA structure when they do so; the helically repeating nature of DNA facilitates the construction of a periodic array. It is essential that the directions of propagation associated with the sticky ends do not share the same plane, but extend to form a 3D arrangement of matter. Here we report the crystal structure at 4 A resolution of a designed, self-assembled, 3D crystal based on the DNA tensegrity triangle. The data demonstrate clearly that it is possible to design and self-assemble a well-ordered macromolecular 3D crystalline lattice with precise control. PMID:19727196

  16. Spatially resolved 3D noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haefner, David P.; Preece, Bradley L.; Doe, Joshua M.; Burks, Stephen D.

    2016-05-01

    When evaluated with a spatially uniform irradiance, an imaging sensor exhibits both spatial and temporal variations, which can be described as a three-dimensional (3D) random process considered as noise. In the 1990s, NVESD engineers developed an approximation to the 3D power spectral density (PSD) for noise in imaging systems known as 3D noise. In this correspondence, we describe how the confidence intervals for the 3D noise measurement allows for determination of the sampling necessary to reach a desired precision. We then apply that knowledge to create a smaller cube that can be evaluated spatially across the 2D image giving the noise as a function of position. The method presented here allows for both defective pixel identification and implements the finite sampling correction matrix. In support of the reproducible research effort, the Matlab functions associated with this work can be found on the Mathworks file exchange [1].

  17. Autofocus for 3D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Elkin, Forest

    2008-04-01

    Three dimensional (3D) autofocus remains a significant challenge for the development of practical 3D multipass radar imaging. The current 2D radar autofocus methods are not readily extendable across sensor passes. We propose a general framework that allows a class of data adaptive solutions for 3D auto-focus across passes with minimal constraints on the scene contents. The key enabling assumption is that portions of the scene are sparse in elevation which reduces the number of free variables and results in a system that is simultaneously solved for scatterer heights and autofocus parameters. The proposed method extends 2-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) methods to an arbitrary number of passes allowing the consideration of scattering from multiple height locations. A specific case from the proposed autofocus framework is solved and demonstrates autofocus and coherent multipass 3D estimation across the 8 passes of the "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set" X-Band radar data.

  18. Accepting the T3D

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.

    1994-10-01

    In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

  19. LASTRAC.3d: Transition Prediction in 3D Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2004-01-01

    Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) is a general-purpose, physics-based transition prediction code released by NASA for laminar flow control studies and transition research. This paper describes the LASTRAC extension to general three-dimensional (3D) boundary layers such as finite swept wings, cones, or bodies at an angle of attack. The stability problem is formulated by using a body-fitted nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system constructed on the body surface. The nonorthogonal coordinate system offers a variety of marching paths and spanwise waveforms. In the extreme case of an infinite swept wing boundary layer, marching with a nonorthogonal coordinate produces identical solutions to those obtained with an orthogonal coordinate system using the earlier release of LASTRAC. Several methods to formulate the 3D parabolized stability equations (PSE) are discussed. A surface-marching procedure akin to that for 3D boundary layer equations may be used to solve the 3D parabolized disturbance equations. On the other hand, the local line-marching PSE method, formulated as an easy extension from its 2D counterpart and capable of handling the spanwise mean flow and disturbance variation, offers an alternative. A linear stability theory or parabolized stability equations based N-factor analysis carried out along the streamline direction with a fixed wavelength and downstream-varying spanwise direction constitutes an efficient engineering approach to study instability wave evolution in a 3D boundary layer. The surface-marching PSE method enables a consistent treatment of the disturbance evolution along both streamwise and spanwise directions but requires more stringent initial conditions. Both PSE methods and the traditional LST approach are implemented in the LASTRAC.3d code. Several test cases for tapered or finite swept wings and cones at an angle of attack are discussed.

  20. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  1. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  2. Remote 3D Medical Consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

    Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

  3. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  4. Numerical study of the 3-D effect on FEL performance and its application to the APS LEUTL FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, Y.C.

    1998-09-01

    A Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) is under construction at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). In LEUTL periodic focusing is provided by external quadrupoles. This results in an elliptical beam with its betatron oscillation envelope varying along the undulators. The free-electron laser (FEL) interaction with such a beam will exhibit truly 3-D effects. Thus the investigation of 3-D effects is important in optimizing the FEL performance. The programs GINGER and TDA3D, coupled with theoretically known facts, have been used for this purpose. Both programs are fully 3-D in moving the particle, but model the interaction between particles and axially symmetric electromagnetic waves. Even though TDA3D can include a few azimuthal modes in the interaction, it is still not a fully 3-D FEL code. However, they show that these 2-D programs can still be used for an elliptical beam whose aspect ratio is within certain limits. The author presents numerical results of FEL performance for the circular beam, the elliptical beam, and finally for the beam in the realistic LEUTL lattice.

  5. 3D-Printed Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony K; Huynh, Wilson; Horowitz, Lisa F; Folch, Albert

    2016-03-14

    The advent of soft lithography allowed for an unprecedented expansion in the field of microfluidics. However, the vast majority of PDMS microfluidic devices are still made with extensive manual labor, are tethered to bulky control systems, and have cumbersome user interfaces, which all render commercialization difficult. On the other hand, 3D printing has begun to embrace the range of sizes and materials that appeal to the developers of microfluidic devices. Prior to fabrication, a design is digitally built as a detailed 3D CAD file. The design can be assembled in modules by remotely collaborating teams, and its mechanical and fluidic behavior can be simulated using finite-element modeling. As structures are created by adding materials without the need for etching or dissolution, processing is environmentally friendly and economically efficient. We predict that in the next few years, 3D printing will replace most PDMS and plastic molding techniques in academia.

  6. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  7. Application of geologic-mathematical 3D modeling for complex structure deposits by the example of Lower- Cretaceous period depositions in Western Ust - Balykh oil field (Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perevertailo, T.; Nedolivko, N.; Prisyazhnyuk, O.; Dolgaya, T.

    2015-11-01

    The complex structure of the Lower-Cretaceous formation by the example of the reservoir BC101 in Western Ust - Balykh Oil Field (Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District) has been studied. Reservoir range relationships have been identified. 3D geologic- mathematical modeling technique considering the heterogeneity and variability of a natural reservoir structure has been suggested. To improve the deposit geological structure integrity methods of mathematical statistics were applied, which, in its turn, made it possible to obtain equal probability models with similar input data and to consider the formation conditions of reservoir rocks and cap rocks.

  8. Periodic ordering of clusters and stripes in a two-dimensional lattice model. II. Results of Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Almarza, N G; Pȩkalski, J; Ciach, A

    2014-04-28

    The triangular lattice model with nearest-neighbor attraction and third-neighbor repulsion, introduced by Pȩkalski, Ciach, and Almarza [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 114701 (2014)] is studied by Monte Carlo simulation. Introduction of appropriate order parameters allowed us to construct a phase diagram, where different phases with patterns made of clusters, bubbles or stripes are thermodynamically stable. We observe, in particular, two distinct lamellar phases-the less ordered one with global orientational order and the more ordered one with both orientational and translational order. Our results concern spontaneous pattern formation on solid surfaces, fluid interfaces or membranes that is driven by competing interactions between adsorbing particles or molecules.

  9. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  10. SNL3dFace

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmore » of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.« less

  11. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  12. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  13. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  14. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  15. 3D Printable Graphene Composite.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-08

    In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  16. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  17. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  18. 3D light scanning macrography.

    PubMed

    Huber, D; Keller, M; Robert, D

    2001-08-01

    The technique of 3D light scanning macrography permits the non-invasive surface scanning of small specimens at magnifications up to 200x. Obviating both the problem of limited depth of field inherent to conventional close-up macrophotography and the metallic coating required by scanning electron microscopy, 3D light scanning macrography provides three-dimensional digital images of intact specimens without the loss of colour, texture and transparency information. This newly developed technique offers a versatile, portable and cost-efficient method for the non-invasive digital and photographic documentation of small objects. Computer controlled device operation and digital image acquisition facilitate fast and accurate quantitative morphometric investigations, and the technique offers a broad field of research and educational applications in biological, medical and materials sciences. PMID:11489078

  19. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  20. [Real time 3D echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Bauer, F; Shiota, T; Thomas, J D

    2001-07-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:11494630

  1. DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.; Englemann, B.E. )

    1993-11-30

    DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

  2. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer themore » second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.« less

  3. A parallel algorithm for solving the 3d Schroedinger equation

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, Michael; Yager-Elorriaga, David

    2010-08-20

    We describe a parallel algorithm for solving the time-independent 3d Schroedinger equation using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. We introduce an optimized parallelization scheme that reduces communication overhead between computational nodes. We demonstrate that the compute time, t, scales inversely with the number of computational nodes as t {proportional_to} (N{sub nodes}){sup -0.95} {sup {+-} 0.04}. This makes it possible to solve the 3d Schroedinger equation on extremely large spatial lattices using a small computing cluster. In addition, we present a new method for precisely determining the energy eigenvalues and wavefunctions of quantum states based on a symmetry constraint on the FDTD initial condition. Finally, we discuss the usage of multi-resolution techniques in order to speed up convergence on extremely large lattices.

  4. Simulating Photons and Plasmons in a Three-dimensional Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Pletzer, A.; Shvets, G.

    2002-09-03

    Three-dimensional metallic photonic structures are studied using a newly developed mixed finite element-finite difference (FE-FD) code, Curly3d. The code solves the vector Helmholtz equation as an eigenvalue problem in the unit cell of a triply periodic lattice composed of conductors and/or dielectrics. The mixed FE-FD discretization scheme ensures rapid numerical convergence of the eigenvalue and allows the code to run at low resolution. Plasmon and photonic band structure calculations are presented.

  5. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  6. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  7. A Preliminary Study of 3D Printing on Rock Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chao; Zhao, Gao-Feng

    2015-05-01

    3D printing is an innovative manufacturing technology that enables the printing of objects through the accumulation of successive layers. This study explores the potential application of this 3D printing technology for rock mechanics. Polylactic acid (PLA) was used as the printing material, and the specimens were constructed with a "3D Touch" printer that employs fused deposition modelling (FDM) technology. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests and direct tensile strength (DTS) tests were performed to determine the Young's modulus ( E) and Poisson's ratio ( υ) for these specimens. The experimental results revealed that the PLA specimens exhibited elastic to brittle behaviour in the DTS tests and exhibited elastic to plastic behaviour in the UCS tests. The influence of structural changes in the mechanical response of the printed specimen was investigated; the results indicated that the mechanical response is highly influenced by the input structures, e.g., granular structure, and lattice structure. Unfortunately, our study has demonstrated that the FDM 3D printing with PLA is unsuitable for the direct simulation of rock. However, the ability for 3D printing on manufactured rock remains appealing for researchers of rock mechanics. Additional studies should focus on the development of an appropriate substitution for the printing material (brittle and stiff) and modification of the printing technology (to print 3D grains with arbitrary shapes).

  8. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  9. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  10. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  11. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie

    2015-01-09

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  12. 3-D printed composites with ultrasonically arranged complex microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llewellyn-Jones, Thomas M.; Drinkwater, Bruce W.; Trask, Richard S.

    2016-04-01

    This paper demonstrates the efficacy of implementing ultrasonic manipulation within a modified form of stereolithographic 3D printing to form complex microstructures in printed components. Currently 3D printed components are limited both in terms of structural performance and specialised functionality. This study aims to demonstrate a novel method for 3D printing composite materials, by arranging microparticles suspended within a photocurable resin. The resin is selectively cured by a 3-axis gantry-mounted 405nm laser. Ultrasonic forces are used to arrange the microfibres into predetermined patterns within the resin, with unidirectional microfibre alignment and a hexagonal lattice structure demonstrated. An example of dynamic microstructure variation within a single print layer is also presented.

  13. Fabrication of 3D polymer photonic crystals for near-IR applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Peng; Qiu, Liang; Shi, Shouyuan; Schneider, Garrett J.; Prather, Dennis W.; Sharkawy, Ahmed; Kelmelis, Eric

    2008-02-01

    Photonic crystals[1, 2] have stirred enormous research interest and became a growing enterprise in the last 15 years. Generally, PhCs consist of periodic structures that possess periodicity comparable with the wavelength that the PhCs are designed to modulate. If material and periodic pattern are properly selected, PhCs can be applied to many applications based on their unique properties, including photonic band gaps (PBG)[3], self-collimation[4], super prism[5], etc. Strictly speaking, PhCs need to possess periodicity in three dimensions to maximize their advantageous capabilities. However, many current research is based on scaled two-dimensional PhCs, mainly due to the difficulty of fabrication such three-dimensional PhCs. Many approaches have been explored for the fabrication of 3D photonic crystals, including layer-by-layer surface micromachining[6], glancing angle deposition[7], 3D micro-sculpture method[8], self-assembly[9] and lithographical methods[10-12]. Among them, lithographic methods became increasingly accepted due to low costs and precise control over the photonic crystal structure. There are three mostly developed lithographical methods, namely X-ray lithography[10], holographic lithography[11] and two-photon polymerization[12]. Although significant progress has been made in developing these lithography-based technologies, these approaches still suffer from significant disadvantages. X-ray lithography relies on an expensive radiation source. Holographic lithography lacks the flexibility to create engineered defects, and multi-photon polymerization is not suitable for parallel fabrication. In our previous work, we developed a multi-layer photolithography processes[13, 14] that is based on multiple resist application and enhanced absorption upon exposure. Using a negative lift-off resist (LOR) and 254nm DUV source, we have demonstrated fabrication of 3D arbitrary structures with feature size of several microns. However, severe intermixing problem

  14. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  15. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  16. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  17. 3D acoustic atmospheric tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.

  18. Gravitation in 3D Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubenstein, John; Cockream, Kandi

    2009-05-01

    3D spacetime was developed by the IWPD Scale Metrics (SM) team using a coordinate system that translates n dimensions to n-1. 4-vectors are expressed in 3D along with a scaling factor representing time. Time is not orthogonal to the three spatial dimensions, but rather in alignment with an object's axis-of-motion. We have defined this effect as the object's ``orientation'' (X). The SM orientation (X) is equivalent to the orientation of the 4-velocity vector positioned tangent to its worldline, where X-1=θ+1 and θ is the angle of the 4-vector relative to the axis-of -motion. Both 4-vectors and SM appear to represent valid conceptualizations of the relationship between space and time. Why entertain SM? Scale Metrics gravity is quantized and may suggest a path for the full unification of gravitation with quantum theory. SM has been tested against current observation and is in agreement with the age of the universe, suggests a physical relationship between dark energy and dark matter, is in agreement with the accelerating expansion rate of the universe, contributes to the understanding of the fine-structure constant and provides a physical explanation of relativistic effects.

  19. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  20. 3D medical thermography device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Peyman

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.

  1. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  2. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  3. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  4. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

    2004-09-01

    The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data

  5. Periodic ordering of clusters and stripes in a two-dimensional lattice model. I. Ground state, mean-field phase diagram and structure of the disordered phases

    SciTech Connect

    Pekalski, J.; Ciach, A.; Almarza, N. G.

    2014-03-21

    The short-range attraction and long-range repulsion between nanoparticles or macromolecules can lead to spontaneous pattern formation on solid surfaces, fluid interfaces, or membranes. In order to study the self-assembly in such systems we consider a triangular lattice model with nearest-neighbor attraction and third-neighbor repulsion. At the ground state of the model (T = 0) the lattice is empty for small values of the chemical potential μ, and fully occupied for large μ. For intermediate values of μ periodically distributed clusters, bubbles, or stripes appear if the repulsion is sufficiently strong. At the phase coexistences between the vacuum and the ordered cluster phases and between the cluster and the lamellar (stripe) phases the entropy per site does not vanish. As a consequence of this ground state degeneracy, disordered fluid phases consisting of clusters or stripes are stable, and the surface tension vanishes. For T > 0 we construct the phase diagram in the mean-field approximation and calculate the correlation function in the self-consistent Brazovskii-type field theory.

  6. Discovering Structural Regularity in 3D Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, Mark; Mitra, Niloy J.; Wallner, Johannes; Pottmann, Helmut; Guibas, Leonidas J.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a computational framework for discovering regular or repeated geometric structures in 3D shapes. We describe and classify possible regular structures and present an effective algorithm for detecting such repeated geometric patterns in point- or mesh-based models. Our method assumes no prior knowledge of the geometry or spatial location of the individual elements that define the pattern. Structure discovery is made possible by a careful analysis of pairwise similarity transformations that reveals prominent lattice structures in a suitable model of transformation space. We introduce an optimization method for detecting such uniform grids specifically designed to deal with outliers and missing elements. This yields a robust algorithm that successfully discovers complex regular structures amidst clutter, noise, and missing geometry. The accuracy of the extracted generating transformations is further improved using a novel simultaneous registration method in the spatial domain. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm on a variety of examples and show applications to compression, model repair, and geometry synthesis. PMID:21170292

  7. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.

  8. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction. PMID:26861680

  9. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  10. 3D Elastic Wavefield Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guasch, L.; Warner, M.; Stekl, I.; Umpleby, A.; Shah, N.

    2010-12-01

    Wavefield tomography, or waveform inversion, aims to extract the maximum information from seismic data by matching trace by trace the response of the solid earth to seismic waves using numerical modelling tools. Its first formulation dates from the early 80's, when Albert Tarantola developed a solid theoretical basis that is still used today with little change. Due to computational limitations, the application of the method to 3D problems has been unaffordable until a few years ago, and then only under the acoustic approximation. Although acoustic wavefield tomography is widely used, a complete solution of the seismic inversion problem requires that we account properly for the physics of wave propagation, and so must include elastic effects. We have developed a 3D tomographic wavefield inversion code that incorporates the full elastic wave equation. The bottle neck of the different implementations is the forward modelling algorithm that generates the synthetic data to be compared with the field seismograms as well as the backpropagation of the residuals needed to form the direction update of the model parameters. Furthermore, one or two extra modelling runs are needed in order to calculate the step-length. Our approach uses a FD scheme explicit time-stepping by finite differences that are 4th order in space and 2nd order in time, which is a 3D version of the one developed by Jean Virieux in 1986. We chose the time domain because an explicit time scheme is much less demanding in terms of memory than its frequency domain analogue, although the discussion of wich domain is more efficient still remains open. We calculate the parameter gradients for Vp and Vs by correlating the normal and shear stress wavefields respectively. A straightforward application would lead to the storage of the wavefield at all grid points at each time-step. We tackled this problem using two different approaches. The first one makes better use of resources for small models of dimension equal

  11. Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes

    PubMed Central

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Castillo-León, Jaime; Emnéus, Jenny; Svendsen, Winnie E.

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements. PMID:22163508

  12. ShowMe3D

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  13. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  14. Highly-stretchable 3D-architected Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yanhui; Wang, Qiming

    2016-09-01

    Soft materials featuring both 3D free-form architectures and high stretchability are highly desirable for a number of engineering applications ranging from cushion modulators, soft robots to stretchable electronics; however, both the manufacturing and fundamental mechanics are largely elusive. Here, we overcome the manufacturing difficulties and report a class of mechanical metamaterials that not only features 3D free-form lattice architectures but also poses ultrahigh reversible stretchability (strain > 414%), 4 times higher than that of the existing counterparts with the similar complexity of 3D architectures. The microarchitected metamaterials, made of highly stretchable elastomers, are realized through an additive manufacturing technique, projection microstereolithography, and its postprocessing. With the fabricated metamaterials, we reveal their exotic mechanical behaviors: Under large-strain tension, their moduli follow a linear scaling relationship with their densities regardless of architecture types, in sharp contrast to the architecture-dependent modulus power-law of the existing engineering materials; under large-strain compression, they present tunable negative-stiffness that enables ultrahigh energy absorption efficiencies. To harness their extraordinary stretchability and microstructures, we demonstrate that the metamaterials open a number of application avenues in lightweight and flexible structure connectors, ultraefficient dampers, 3D meshed rehabilitation structures and stretchable electronics with designed 3D anisotropic conductivity.

  15. Highly-stretchable 3D-architected Mechanical Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanhui; Wang, Qiming

    2016-01-01

    Soft materials featuring both 3D free-form architectures and high stretchability are highly desirable for a number of engineering applications ranging from cushion modulators, soft robots to stretchable electronics; however, both the manufacturing and fundamental mechanics are largely elusive. Here, we overcome the manufacturing difficulties and report a class of mechanical metamaterials that not only features 3D free-form lattice architectures but also poses ultrahigh reversible stretchability (strain > 414%), 4 times higher than that of the existing counterparts with the similar complexity of 3D architectures. The microarchitected metamaterials, made of highly stretchable elastomers, are realized through an additive manufacturing technique, projection microstereolithography, and its postprocessing. With the fabricated metamaterials, we reveal their exotic mechanical behaviors: Under large-strain tension, their moduli follow a linear scaling relationship with their densities regardless of architecture types, in sharp contrast to the architecture-dependent modulus power-law of the existing engineering materials; under large-strain compression, they present tunable negative-stiffness that enables ultrahigh energy absorption efficiencies. To harness their extraordinary stretchability and microstructures, we demonstrate that the metamaterials open a number of application avenues in lightweight and flexible structure connectors, ultraefficient dampers, 3D meshed rehabilitation structures and stretchable electronics with designed 3D anisotropic conductivity. PMID:27667638

  16. Reduction of thermal conductivity by nanoscale 3D phononic crystal.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lina; Yang, Nuo; Li, Baowen

    2013-01-01

    We studied how the period length and the mass ratio affect the thermal conductivity of isotopic nanoscale three-dimensional (3D) phononic crystal of Si. Simulation results by equilibrium molecular dynamics show isotopic nanoscale 3D phononic crystals can significantly reduce the thermal conductivity of bulk Si at high temperature (1000 K), which leads to a larger ZT than unity. The thermal conductivity decreases as the period length and mass ratio increases. The phonon dispersion curves show an obvious decrease of group velocities in 3D phononic crystals. The phonon's localization and band gap is also clearly observed in spectra of normalized inverse participation ratio in nanoscale 3D phononic crystal.

  17. Reduction of Thermal Conductivity by Nanoscale 3D Phononic Crystal

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lina; Yang, Nuo; Li, Baowen

    2013-01-01

    We studied how the period length and the mass ratio affect the thermal conductivity of isotopic nanoscale three-dimensional (3D) phononic crystal of Si. Simulation results by equilibrium molecular dynamics show isotopic nanoscale 3D phononic crystals can significantly reduce the thermal conductivity of bulk Si at high temperature (1000 K), which leads to a larger ZT than unity. The thermal conductivity decreases as the period length and mass ratio increases. The phonon dispersion curves show an obvious decrease of group velocities in 3D phononic crystals. The phonon's localization and band gap is also clearly observed in spectra of normalized inverse participation ratio in nanoscale 3D phononic crystal. PMID:23378898

  18. Dimensional phase transition from an array of 1D Luttinger liquids to a 3D Bose-Einstein condensate.

    PubMed

    Vogler, Andreas; Labouvie, Ralf; Barontini, Giovanni; Eggert, Sebastian; Guarrera, Vera; Ott, Herwig

    2014-11-21

    We study the thermodynamic properties of a 2D array of coupled one-dimensional Bose gases. The system is realized with ultracold bosonic atoms loaded in the potential tubes of a two-dimensional optical lattice. For negligible coupling strength, each tube is an independent weakly interacting 1D Bose gas featuring Tomonaga Luttinger liquid behavior. By decreasing the lattice depth, we increase the coupling strength between the 1D gases and allow for the phase transition into a 3D condensate. We extract the phase diagram for such a system and compare our results with theoretical predictions. Because of the high effective mass across the periodic potential and the increased 1D interaction strength, the phase transition is shifted to large positive values of the chemical potential. Our results are prototypical to a variety of low-dimensional systems, where the coupling between the subsystems is realized in a higher spatial dimension such as coupled spin chains in magnetic insulators.

  19. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  20. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  1. Analytic theory of the adsorption-desorption transition of Gaussian polymers interacting with a periodic lattice of adsorbing centers.

    PubMed

    Chervanyov, A I; Heinrich, G

    2008-08-21

    Based on the obtained exact analytic solution, we calculate the adsorption-desorption diagram that describes the adsorption of Gaussian polymers onto a rigid surface that bears a periodic array of the adsorbing centers. It is shown that the polymer adsorption onto this substrate is fully governed by a delicate balance between the entropic depletion repulsion of polymers from the rigid surface and their attraction to the adsorbing centers. Magnitudes of these competitive effects are calculated in terms of the reduced overall affinity of the substrate eta(-1) and the reduced separation between the adsorbing centers d. The calculated exact adsorption-desorption diagram eta(d) that describes the equilibrium between the above depletion and adsorption interactions, is shown to obey the scaling law eta approximately d(-1.17).

  2. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-21

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K(+) channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44(+) EGFR(+) KV1.1(+) MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44(-) EGFR(-) KV1.1(+) 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third

  3. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  4. Locomotive wheel 3D reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xin; Luo, Zhisheng; Gao, Xiaorong; Wu, Jianle

    2010-08-01

    In the article, a system, which is used to reconstruct locomotive wheels, is described, helping workers detect the condition of a wheel through a direct view. The system consists of a line laser, a 2D camera, and a computer. We use 2D camera to capture the line-laser light reflected by the object, a wheel, and then compute the final coordinates of the structured light. Finally, using Matlab programming language, we transform the coordinate of points to a smooth surface and illustrate the 3D view of the wheel. The article also proposes the system structure, processing steps and methods, and sets up an experimental platform to verify the design proposal. We verify the feasibility of the whole process, and analyze the results comparing to standard date. The test results show that this system can work well, and has a high accuracy on the reconstruction. And because there is still no such application working in railway industries, so that it has practical value in railway inspection system.

  5. 3D ultrafast laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2013-03-01

    Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.

  6. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  7. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  8. Novel Hamiltonian method for collective dynamics analysis of an intense charged particle beam propagating through a periodic focusing quadrupole lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2011-05-15

    Identifying regimes for quiescent propagation of intense beams over long distances has been a major challenge in accelerator research. In particular, the development of systematic theoretical approaches that are able to treat self-consistently the applied oscillating force and the nonlinear self-field force of the beam particles simultaneously has been a major challenge of modern beam physics. In this paper, the recently developed Hamiltonian averaging technique [E. A. Startsev, R. C. Davidson, and M. Dorf, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13, 064402 (2010)] which incorporates both the applied periodic focusing force and the self-field force of the beam particles, is generalized to the case of time-dependent beam distributions. The new formulation allows not only a determination of quasi-equilibrium solutions of the non-linear Vlasov-Poison system of equations but also a detailed study of their stability properties. The corrections to the well-known ''smooth-focusing'' approximation are derived, and the results are applied to a matched beam with thermal equilibrium distribution function. It is shown that the corrections remain small even for moderate values of the vacuum phase advance {sigma}{sub {upsilon}}. Nonetheless, because the corrections to the average self-field potential are non-axisymmetric, the stability properties of the different beam quasi-equilibria can change significantly.

  9. 3D Finite Element Analysis of Particle-Reinforced Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, H.; Lissenden, C. J.

    2002-01-01

    Deformation in particle-reinforced aluminum has been simulated using three distinct types of finite element model: a three-dimensional repeating unit cell, a three-dimensional multi-particle model, and two-dimensional multi-particle models. The repeating unit cell model represents a fictitious periodic cubic array of particles. The 3D multi-particle (3D-MP) model represents randomly placed and oriented particles. The 2D generalized plane strain multi-particle models were obtained from planar sections through the 3D-MP model. These models were used to study the tensile macroscopic stress-strain response and the associated stress and strain distributions in an elastoplastic matrix. The results indicate that the 2D model having a particle area fraction equal to the particle representative volume fraction of the 3D models predicted the same macroscopic stress-strain response as the 3D models. However, there are fluctuations in the particle area fraction in a representative volume element. As expected, predictions from 2D models having different particle area fractions do not agree with predictions from 3D models. More importantly, it was found that the microscopic stress and strain distributions from the 2D models do not agree with those from the 3D-MP model. Specifically, the plastic strain distribution predicted by the 2D model is banded along lines inclined at 45 deg from the loading axis while the 3D model prediction is not. Additionally, the triaxial stress and maximum principal stress distributions predicted by 2D and 3D models do not agree. Thus, it appears necessary to use a multi-particle 3D model to accurately predict material responses that depend on local effects, such as strain-to-failure, fracture toughness, and fatigue life.

  10. [Evaluation of Motion Sickness Induced by 3D Video Clips].

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Yasuyuki; Takada, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    The use of stereoscopic images has been spreading rapidly. Nowadays, stereoscopic movies are nothing new to people. Stereoscopic systems date back to 280 A.D. when Euclid first recognized the concept of depth perception by humans. Despite the increase in the production of three-dimensional (3D) display products and many studies on stereoscopic vision, the effect of stereoscopic vision on the human body has been insufficiently understood. However, symptoms such as eye fatigue and 3D sickness have been the concerns when viewing 3D films for a prolonged period of time; therefore, it is important to consider the safety of viewing virtual 3D contents as a contribution to society. It is generally explained to the public that accommodation and convergence are mismatched during stereoscopic vision and that this is the main reason for the visual fatigue and visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) during 3D viewing. We have devised a method to simultaneously measure lens accommodation and convergence. We used this simultaneous measurement device to characterize 3D vision. Fixation distance was compared between accommodation and convergence during the viewing of 3D films with repeated measurements. Time courses of these fixation distances and their distributions were compared in subjects who viewed 2D and 3D video clips. The results indicated that after 90 s of continuously viewing 3D images, the accommodative power does not correspond to the distance of convergence. In this paper, remarks on methods to measure the severity of motion sickness induced by viewing 3D films are also given. From the epidemiological viewpoint, it is useful to obtain novel knowledge for reduction and/or prevention of VIMS. We should accumulate empirical data on motion sickness, which may contribute to the development of relevant fields in science and technology.

  11. Testing long-period ground-motion simulations of scenario earthquakes using the Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah mainshock: Evaluation of finite-fault rupture characterization and 3D seismic velocity models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graves, Robert W.; Aagaard, Brad T.

    2011-01-01

    Using a suite of five hypothetical finite-fault rupture models, we test the ability of long-period (T>2.0 s) ground-motion simulations of scenario earthquakes to produce waveforms throughout southern California consistent with those recorded during the 4 April 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake. The hypothetical ruptures are generated using the methodology proposed by Graves and Pitarka (2010) and require, as inputs, only a general description of the fault location and geometry, event magnitude, and hypocenter, as would be done for a scenario event. For each rupture model, two Southern California Earthquake Center three-dimensional community seismic velocity models (CVM-4m and CVM-H62) are used, resulting in a total of 10 ground-motion simulations, which we compare with recorded ground motions. While the details of the motions vary across the simulations, the median levels match the observed peak ground velocities reasonably well, with the standard deviation of the residuals generally within 50% of the median. Simulations with the CVM-4m model yield somewhat lower variance than those with the CVM-H62 model. Both models tend to overpredict motions in the San Diego region and underpredict motions in the Mojave desert. Within the greater Los Angeles basin, the CVM-4m model generally matches the level of observed motions, whereas the CVM-H62 model tends to overpredict the motions, particularly in the southern portion of the basin. The variance in the peak velocity residuals is lowest for a rupture that has significant shallow slip (<5 km depth), whereas the variance in the residuals is greatest for ruptures with large asperities below 10 km depth. Overall, these results are encouraging and provide confidence in the predictive capabilities of the simulation methodology, while also suggesting some regions in which the seismic velocity models may need improvement.

  12. Research on the printability of hydrogels in 3D bioprinting.

    PubMed

    He, Yong; Yang, FeiFei; Zhao, HaiMing; Gao, Qing; Xia, Bing; Fu, JianZhong

    2016-01-01

    As the biocompatible materials, hydrogels have been widely used in three- dimensional (3D) bioprinting/organ printing to load cell for tissue engineering. It is important to precisely control hydrogels deposition during printing the mimic organ structures. However, the printability of hydrogels about printing parameters is seldom addressed. In this paper, we systemically investigated the printability of hydrogels from printing lines (one dimensional, 1D structures) to printing lattices/films (two dimensional, 2D structures) and printing 3D structures with a special attention to the accurate printing. After a series of experiments, we discovered the relationships between the important factors such as air pressure, feedrate, or even printing distance and the printing quality of the expected structures. Dumbbell shape was observed in the lattice structures printing due to the hydrogel diffuses at the intersection. Collapses and fusion of adjacent layer would result in the error accumulation at Z direction which was an important fact that could cause printing failure. Finally, we successfully demonstrated a 3D printing hydrogel scaffold through harmonize with all the parameters. The cell viability after printing was compared with the casting and the results showed that our bioprinting method almost had no extra damage to the cells. PMID:27436509

  13. Research on the printability of hydrogels in 3D bioprinting

    PubMed Central

    He, Yong; Yang, FeiFei; Zhao, HaiMing; Gao, Qing; Xia, Bing; Fu, JianZhong

    2016-01-01

    As the biocompatible materials, hydrogels have been widely used in three- dimensional (3D) bioprinting/organ printing to load cell for tissue engineering. It is important to precisely control hydrogels deposition during printing the mimic organ structures. However, the printability of hydrogels about printing parameters is seldom addressed. In this paper, we systemically investigated the printability of hydrogels from printing lines (one dimensional, 1D structures) to printing lattices/films (two dimensional, 2D structures) and printing 3D structures with a special attention to the accurate printing. After a series of experiments, we discovered the relationships between the important factors such as air pressure, feedrate, or even printing distance and the printing quality of the expected structures. Dumbbell shape was observed in the lattice structures printing due to the hydrogel diffuses at the intersection. Collapses and fusion of adjacent layer would result in the error accumulation at Z direction which was an important fact that could cause printing failure. Finally, we successfully demonstrated a 3D printing hydrogel scaffold through harmonize with all the parameters. The cell viability after printing was compared with the casting and the results showed that our bioprinting method almost had no extra damage to the cells. PMID:27436509

  14. Research on the printability of hydrogels in 3D bioprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yong; Yang, Feifei; Zhao, Haiming; Gao, Qing; Xia, Bing; Fu, Jianzhong

    2016-07-01

    As the biocompatible materials, hydrogels have been widely used in three- dimensional (3D) bioprinting/organ printing to load cell for tissue engineering. It is important to precisely control hydrogels deposition during printing the mimic organ structures. However, the printability of hydrogels about printing parameters is seldom addressed. In this paper, we systemically investigated the printability of hydrogels from printing lines (one dimensional, 1D structures) to printing lattices/films (two dimensional, 2D structures) and printing 3D structures with a special attention to the accurate printing. After a series of experiments, we discovered the relationships between the important factors such as air pressure, feedrate, or even printing distance and the printing quality of the expected structures. Dumbbell shape was observed in the lattice structures printing due to the hydrogel diffuses at the intersection. Collapses and fusion of adjacent layer would result in the error accumulation at Z direction which was an important fact that could cause printing failure. Finally, we successfully demonstrated a 3D printing hydrogel scaffold through harmonize with all the parameters. The cell viability after printing was compared with the casting and the results showed that our bioprinting method almost had no extra damage to the cells.

  15. Forward ramp in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder's forward rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This ramp was not used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. When this image was taken, Sojourner was still latched to one of the lander's petals, waiting for the command sequence that would execute its descent off of the lander's petal.

    The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine whether to deploy the rover using the forward or backward ramps and the nature of the first rover traverse. The metallic object at the lower left of the image is the lander's low-gain antenna. The square at the end of the ramp is one of the spacecraft's magnetic targets. Dust that accumulates on the magnetic targets will later be examined by Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer instrument for chemical analysis. At right, a lander petal is visible.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  16. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  17. Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.

    2012-07-01

    It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.

  18. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology.

  19. Beowulf 3D: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Rob

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.

  20. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  1. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  2. 3D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code

    1998-09-23

    E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output.

  3. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  4. A 3D polarizing display system base on backlight control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pu; Huang, Ziqiang

    2011-08-01

    In this paper a new three-dimensional (3D) liquid crystal display (LCD) display mode based on backlight control is presented to avoid the left and right eye images crosstalk in 3D display. There are two major issues in this new black frame 3D display mode. One is continuously playing every frame images twice. The other is controlling the backlight switch periodically. First, this paper explains the cause of the left and right eye images crosstalk, and presents a solution to avoid this problem. Then, we propose to play the entire frame images twice by repeating each frame image after it was played instead of playing the left images and the right images frame by frame alternately. Finally, the backlight is switched periodically instead of turned on all the time. The backlight is turned off while a frame of image is played for the first time, then turned on during the second time, after that it will be turned off again and run the next period with the next frame of image start to refresh. Controlling the backlight switch periodically like this is the key to achieve the black frame 3D display mode. This mode can not only achieve better 3D display effect by avoid the left and right image crosstalk, but also save the backlight power consumption. Theoretical analysis and experiments show that our method is reasonable and efficient.

  5. Combining 3D human in vitro methods for a 3Rs evaluation of novel titanium surfaces in orthopaedic applications

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, G.; Rehman, S.; Draper, E.; Hernández‐Nava, E.; Hunt, J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, we report on a group of complementary human osteoblast in vitro test methods for the preclinical evaluation of 3D porous titanium surfaces. The surfaces were prepared by additive manufacturing (electron beam melting [EBM]) and plasma spraying, allowing the creation of complex lattice surface geometries. Physical properties of the surfaces were characterized by SEM and profilometry and 3D in vitro cell culture using human osteoblasts. Primary human osteoblast cells were found to elicit greater differences between titanium sample surfaces than an MG63 osteoblast‐like cell line, particularly in terms of cell survival. Surface morphology was associated with higher osteoblast metabolic activity and mineralization on rougher titanium plasma spray coated surfaces than smoother surfaces. Differences in osteoblast survival and metabolic activity on titanium lattice structures were also found, despite analogous surface morphology at the cellular level. 3D confocal microscopy identified osteoblast organization within complex titanium surface geometries, adhesion, spreading, and alignment to the biomaterial strut geometries. Mineralized nodule formation throughout the lattice structures was also observed, and indicative of early markers of bone in‐growth on such materials. Testing methods such as those presented are not traditionally considered by medical device manufacturers, but we suggest have value as an increasingly vital tool in efficiently translating pre‐clinical studies, especially in balance with current regulatory practice, commercial demands, the 3Rs, and the relative merits of in vitro and in vivo studies. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1586–1599. © 2015 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26702609

  6. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  7. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  8. RELAP5-3D User Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Riemke, Richard Allan

    2002-09-01

    The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability1 (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics2 and 3D neutron kinetics3,4. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature5,6,7,8,9,10. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution.

  9. 3D laptop for defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David

    2012-06-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.

  10. Radiation Transport in 3D Heterogeneous Materials: DNS

    SciTech Connect

    Graziani, F

    2003-07-09

    In order to develop a phenomenological approach to transport in 3D heterogeneous media, we have performed direct numerical simulation studies. Using an algorithm based on the lattice random walk to generate random media, we have performed radiographic shots of the sample and digitized both the chord length and optical depth distributions. The optical depth distribution is then used to compute an effective mean free path. As theory predicts, the atomically averaged mean free path is always a minimum value. We have also demonstrated a dependency of mean free path on the distribution of random material.

  11. Analysis of wave propagation in periodic 3D waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaal, Christoph; Bischoff, Stefan; Gaul, Lothar

    2013-11-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is a growing research field in the realm of civil engineering. SHM concepts are implemented using integrated sensors and actuators to evaluate the state of a structure. Within this work, wave-based techniques are addressed. Dispersion effects for propagating waves in waveguides of different materials are analyzed for various different cross-sections. Since analytical theory is limited, a general approach based on the Waveguide Finite Element Method is applied. Numerical results are verified experimentally.

  12. Caustic design in periodic lattices.

    PubMed

    Efremidis, Nikolaos K; Chremmos, Ioannis D

    2012-04-01

    We study curved trajectory dynamics and design in discrete array settings. We find that beams with power law phases produce curved caustics associated with the fold and cusp type catastrophes. A parabolic phase produces a focus that suffers from spherical aberrations. More important, we find that by designing the initial phase or wavefront of the beam we can construct trajectories with pure power law caustics as well as aberration-free focusing of discrete waves.

  13. Surface Plasmon Resonance and Dielectric Core Effects on Two-Dimensional Periodic Arrays of Silver Nanospheres in a Square Lattice Embedded at Different Depths in a Silica Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuh-Sien; Jheng, Ci-Yao

    2013-12-01

    The dielectric core effects and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) modes of a two-dimensional (2D) periodic array of silver nanospheres (PASNSs) in a square lattice embedded at different depths in a silica substrate normally illuminated with the x-polarization plane wave are numerically investigated by using the finite element method with three-dimensional calculations. The unit cell of the 2D PASNSs examined is a unique structure, which is composed of a metallic nanoshell and a dielectric core (DC). Results show that the near-field optical properties and SPR modes obtained from the embedding cases of 2D PASNS are quite different from those of the solid cases of their counterpart, resulting in a field intensity increase and a redshift due to the plasmon hybridization of metallic nanoshells and their DCs. The strength of the hybridization depends on the geometry of the composite metallic nanoparticles and the surrounding media. On the basis of our simulations, we find two important parameters, i.e., the permittivity of the media filling DCs and the depth of the 2D PASNSs embedded in a silica substrate, which can affect the transmittance spectra and the position of SPR wavelengths. The intensity of transmittance spectra is reduced and the peak resonance is redshifted as the depth of the embedded 2D PASNSs is increased.

  14. 3D Reconstruction of Human Motion from Monocular Image Sequences.

    PubMed

    Wandt, Bastian; Ackermann, Hanno; Rosenhahn, Bodo

    2016-08-01

    This article tackles the problem of estimating non-rigid human 3D shape and motion from image sequences taken by uncalibrated cameras. Similar to other state-of-the-art solutions we factorize 2D observations in camera parameters, base poses and mixing coefficients. Existing methods require sufficient camera motion during the sequence to achieve a correct 3D reconstruction. To obtain convincing 3D reconstructions from arbitrary camera motion, our method is based on a-priorly trained base poses. We show that strong periodic assumptions on the coefficients can be used to define an efficient and accurate algorithm for estimating periodic motion such as walking patterns. For the extension to non-periodic motion we propose a novel regularization term based on temporal bone length constancy. In contrast to other works, the proposed method does not use a predefined skeleton or anthropometric constraints and can handle arbitrary camera motion. We achieve convincing 3D reconstructions, even under the influence of noise and occlusions. Multiple experiments based on a 3D error metric demonstrate the stability of the proposed method. Compared to other state-of-the-art methods our algorithm shows a significant improvement. PMID:27093439

  15. 3D Reconstruction of Human Motion from Monocular Image Sequences.

    PubMed

    Wandt, Bastian; Ackermann, Hanno; Rosenhahn, Bodo

    2016-08-01

    This article tackles the problem of estimating non-rigid human 3D shape and motion from image sequences taken by uncalibrated cameras. Similar to other state-of-the-art solutions we factorize 2D observations in camera parameters, base poses and mixing coefficients. Existing methods require sufficient camera motion during the sequence to achieve a correct 3D reconstruction. To obtain convincing 3D reconstructions from arbitrary camera motion, our method is based on a-priorly trained base poses. We show that strong periodic assumptions on the coefficients can be used to define an efficient and accurate algorithm for estimating periodic motion such as walking patterns. For the extension to non-periodic motion we propose a novel regularization term based on temporal bone length constancy. In contrast to other works, the proposed method does not use a predefined skeleton or anthropometric constraints and can handle arbitrary camera motion. We achieve convincing 3D reconstructions, even under the influence of noise and occlusions. Multiple experiments based on a 3D error metric demonstrate the stability of the proposed method. Compared to other state-of-the-art methods our algorithm shows a significant improvement.

  16. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  17. Automatic 3D video format detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Zhe; Zhai, Jiefu; Doyen, Didier

    2011-03-01

    Many 3D formats exist and will probably co-exist for a long time even if 3D standards are today under definition. The support for multiple 3D formats will be important for bringing 3D into home. In this paper, we propose a novel and effective method to detect whether a video is a 3D video or not, and to further identify the exact 3D format. First, we present how to detect those 3D formats that encode a pair of stereo images into a single image. The proposed method detects features and establishes correspondences between features in the left and right view images, and applies the statistics from the distribution of the positional differences between corresponding features to detect the existence of a 3D format and to identify the format. Second, we present how to detect the frame sequential 3D format. In the frame sequential 3D format, the feature points are oscillating from frame to frame. Similarly, the proposed method tracks feature points over consecutive frames, computes the positional differences between features, and makes a detection decision based on whether the features are oscillating. Experiments show the effectiveness of our method.

  18. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  19. Pressure effects on CrCl63- embedded in cubic Cs2NaMCl6 (M=Sc,Y) lattices: Study through periodic and cluster calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Lastra, J. M.; Moreno, M.; Barriuso, M. T.

    2008-04-01

    The structural, elastic, vibrational, and optical properties of cubic elpasolites Cs2NaMCl6 (M=Sc,Y) containing CrCl63- complexes have been investigated by means of both periodic and cluster calculations as a function of pressure in the framework of density functional theory. Aside from calculating the host lattice bulk modulus BH and the local modulus B1 associated with the CrCl63-, complex particular attention is paid to the pressure dependence of Huang-Rhys factors, Sa and Se (related to local a1g and eg modes), and the Stokes shift associated with the first electronic excited state T2g4 (t2g2eg) of CrCl63-. The present calculations provide a big difference between BH=231kbars and B1=676kbars derived for Cs2NaScCl6:Cr3+ at zero pressure which plays a key role for a right interpretation of pressure effects on vibration frequencies and optical parameters due to CrCl63-. The significant decrease of Huang-Rhys factors, Sa and Se, due to the pressure observed experimentally is well accounted for by the present work which supports that ∂Sa/∂P is determined by the Grüneisen constant γa of the a1g local mode (whose frequency is νa) and the dependence of 10Dq on the metal-ligand distance. At the same time, the present results point out that the Stokes shift would be little pressure dependent in the range of 0-50kbars. Accordingly the Ham effect in the T2g4 (t2g2eg) state of CrCl63- in the cubic elpasolites would also happen for a pressure up to 50kbars but the spin-orbit constant would increase with respect to that at zero pressure. From the analysis carried out in this work it is also concluded that the figures dνa/dP =0.55cm-1/kbar and dSa/dP =-7.2×10-3kbar-1 extracted from the complex emission band of Cs2NaScCl6:Cr3+ are hardly compatible. This fact underlines the usefulness of ab initio calculations for helping in the analysis of complex experimental findings. Finally, as the CrCl63- unit is found to be to a good extent elastically decoupled from the rest of

  20. Interfacing graphene and related 2D materials with the 3D world.

    PubMed

    Tománek, David

    2015-04-10

    An important prerequisite to translating the exceptional intrinsic performance of 2D materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides into useful devices precludes their successful integration within the current 3D technology. This review provides theoretical insight into nontrivial issues arising from interfacing 2D materials with 3D systems including epitaxy and ways to accommodate lattice mismatch, the key role of contact resistance and the effect of defects in electrical and thermal transport.

  1. An image encryption algorithm based on 3D cellular automata and chaotic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Rey, A. Martín; Sánchez, G. Rodríguez

    2015-05-01

    A novel encryption algorithm to cipher digital images is presented in this work. The digital image is rendering into a three-dimensional (3D) lattice and the protocol consists of two phases: the confusion phase where 24 chaotic Cat maps are applied and the diffusion phase where a 3D cellular automata is evolved. The encryption method is shown to be secure against the most important cryptanalytic attacks.

  2. Automation of 3D cell culture using chemically defined hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Rimann, Markus; Angres, Brigitte; Patocchi-Tenzer, Isabel; Braum, Susanne; Graf-Hausner, Ursula

    2014-04-01

    Drug development relies on high-throughput screening involving cell-based assays. Most of the assays are still based on cells grown in monolayer rather than in three-dimensional (3D) formats, although cells behave more in vivo-like in 3D. To exemplify the adoption of 3D techniques in drug development, this project investigated the automation of a hydrogel-based 3D cell culture system using a liquid-handling robot. The hydrogel technology used offers high flexibility of gel design due to a modular composition of a polymer network and bioactive components. The cell inert degradation of the gel at the end of the culture period guaranteed the harmless isolation of live cells for further downstream processing. Human colon carcinoma cells HCT-116 were encapsulated and grown in these dextran-based hydrogels, thereby forming 3D multicellular spheroids. Viability and DNA content of the cells were shown to be similar in automated and manually produced hydrogels. Furthermore, cell treatment with toxic Taxol concentrations (100 nM) had the same effect on HCT-116 cell viability in manually and automated hydrogel preparations. Finally, a fully automated dose-response curve with the reference compound Taxol showed the potential of this hydrogel-based 3D cell culture system in advanced drug development.

  3. Magnetic-film atom chip with 10 μm period lattices of microtraps for quantum information science with Rydberg atoms.

    PubMed

    Leung, V Y F; Pijn, D R M; Schlatter, H; Torralbo-Campo, L; La Rooij, A L; Mulder, G B; Naber, J; Soudijn, M L; Tauschinsky, A; Abarbanel, C; Hadad, B; Golan, E; Folman, R; Spreeuw, R J C

    2014-05-01

    We describe the fabrication and construction of a setup for creating lattices of magnetic microtraps for ultracold atoms on an atom chip. The lattice is defined by lithographic patterning of a permanent magnetic film. Patterned magnetic-film atom chips enable a large variety of trapping geometries over a wide range of length scales. We demonstrate an atom chip with a lattice constant of 10 μm, suitable for experiments in quantum information science employing the interaction between atoms in highly excited Rydberg energy levels. The active trapping region contains lattice regions with square and hexagonal symmetry, with the two regions joined at an interface. A structure of macroscopic wires, cutout of a silver foil, was mounted under the atom chip in order to load ultracold (87)Rb atoms into the microtraps. We demonstrate loading of atoms into the square and hexagonal lattice sections simultaneously and show resolved imaging of individual lattice sites. Magnetic-film lattices on atom chips provide a versatile platform for experiments with ultracold atoms, in particular for quantum information science and quantum simulation.

  4. Magnetic-film atom chip with 10 μm period lattices of microtraps for quantum information science with Rydberg atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, V. Y. F.; Pijn, D. R. M.; Schlatter, H.; Torralbo-Campo, L.; La Rooij, A. L.; Mulder, G. B.; Naber, J.; Soudijn, M. L.; Tauschinsky, A.; Spreeuw, R. J. C.; Abarbanel, C.; Hadad, B.; Golan, E.; Folman, R.

    2014-05-15

    We describe the fabrication and construction of a setup for creating lattices of magnetic microtraps for ultracold atoms on an atom chip. The lattice is defined by lithographic patterning of a permanent magnetic film. Patterned magnetic-film atom chips enable a large variety of trapping geometries over a wide range of length scales. We demonstrate an atom chip with a lattice constant of 10 μm, suitable for experiments in quantum information science employing the interaction between atoms in highly excited Rydberg energy levels. The active trapping region contains lattice regions with square and hexagonal symmetry, with the two regions joined at an interface. A structure of macroscopic wires, cutout of a silver foil, was mounted under the atom chip in order to load ultracold {sup 87}Rb atoms into the microtraps. We demonstrate loading of atoms into the square and hexagonal lattice sections simultaneously and show resolved imaging of individual lattice sites. Magnetic-film lattices on atom chips provide a versatile platform for experiments with ultracold atoms, in particular for quantum information science and quantum simulation.

  5. Magnetic-film atom chip with 10 μm period lattices of microtraps for quantum information science with Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, V. Y. F.; Pijn, D. R. M.; Schlatter, H.; Torralbo-Campo, L.; La Rooij, A. L.; Mulder, G. B.; Naber, J.; Soudijn, M. L.; Tauschinsky, A.; Abarbanel, C.; Hadad, B.; Golan, E.; Folman, R.; Spreeuw, R. J. C.

    2014-05-01

    We describe the fabrication and construction of a setup for creating lattices of magnetic microtraps for ultracold atoms on an atom chip. The lattice is defined by lithographic patterning of a permanent magnetic film. Patterned magnetic-film atom chips enable a large variety of trapping geometries over a wide range of length scales. We demonstrate an atom chip with a lattice constant of 10 μm, suitable for experiments in quantum information science employing the interaction between atoms in highly excited Rydberg energy levels. The active trapping region contains lattice regions with square and hexagonal symmetry, with the two regions joined at an interface. A structure of macroscopic wires, cutout of a silver foil, was mounted under the atom chip in order to load ultracold 87Rb atoms into the microtraps. We demonstrate loading of atoms into the square and hexagonal lattice sections simultaneously and show resolved imaging of individual lattice sites. Magnetic-film lattices on atom chips provide a versatile platform for experiments with ultracold atoms, in particular for quantum information science and quantum simulation.

  6. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  7. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-03-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The current paper describes the modern stereo 3-D technologies that are applicable to various tasks in teaching physics in schools, colleges, and universities. Examples of stereo 3-D simulations developed by the author can be observed on online.

  8. Software for 3D radiotherapy dosimetry. Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Karwowski, Andrzej C.

    2014-08-01

    The subject of this work is polyGeVero® software (GeVero Co., Poland), which has been developed to fill the requirements of fast calculations of 3D dosimetry data with the emphasis on polymer gel dosimetry for radiotherapy. This software comprises four workspaces that have been prepared for: (i) calculating calibration curves and calibration equations, (ii) storing the calibration characteristics of the 3D dosimeters, (iii) calculating 3D dose distributions in irradiated 3D dosimeters, and (iv) comparing 3D dose distributions obtained from measurements with the aid of 3D dosimeters and calculated with the aid of treatment planning systems (TPSs). The main features and functions of the software are described in this work. Moreover, the core algorithms were validated and the results are presented. The validation was performed using the data of the new PABIGnx polymer gel dosimeter. The polyGeVero® software simplifies and greatly accelerates the calculations of raw 3D dosimetry data. It is an effective tool for fast verification of TPS-generated plans for tumor irradiation when combined with a 3D dosimeter. Consequently, the software may facilitate calculations by the 3D dosimetry community. In this work, the calibration characteristics of the PABIGnx obtained through four calibration methods: multi vial, cross beam, depth dose, and brachytherapy, are discussed as well.

  9. [3D reconstructions in radiotherapy planning].

    PubMed

    Schlegel, W

    1991-10-01

    3D Reconstructions from tomographic images are used in the planning of radiation therapy to study important anatomical structures such as the body surface, target volumes, and organs at risk. The reconstructed anatomical models are used to define the geometry of the radiation beams. In addition, 3D voxel models are used for the calculation of the 3D dose distributions with an accuracy, previously impossible to achieve. Further uses of 3D reconstructions are in the display and evaluation of 3D therapy plans, and in the transfer of treatment planning parameters to the irradiation situation with the help of digitally reconstructed radiographs. 3D tomographic imaging with subsequent 3D reconstruction must be regarded as a completely new basis for the planning of radiation therapy, enabling tumor-tailored radiation therapy of localized target volumes with increased radiation doses and improved sparing of organs at risk. 3D treatment planning is currently being evaluated in clinical trials in connection with the new treatment techniques of conformation radiotherapy. Early experience with 3D treatment planning shows that its clinical importance in radiotherapy is growing, but will only become a standard radiotherapy tool when volumetric CT scanning, reliable and user-friendly treatment planning software, and faster and cheaper PACS-integrated medical work stations are accessible to radiotherapists.

  10. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  11. Directing Matter: Toward Atomic-Scale 3D Nanofabrication.

    PubMed

    Jesse, Stephen; Borisevich, Albina Y; Fowlkes, Jason D; Lupini, Andrew R; Rack, Philip D; Unocic, Raymond R; Sumpter, Bobby G; Kalinin, Sergei V; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S

    2016-06-28

    Enabling memristive, neuromorphic, and quantum-based computing as well as efficient mainstream energy storage and conversion technologies requires the next generation of materials customized at the atomic scale. This requires full control of atomic arrangement and bonding in three dimensions. The last two decades witnessed substantial industrial, academic, and government research efforts directed toward this goal through various lithographies and scanning-probe-based methods. These technologies emphasize 2D surface structures, with some limited 3D capability. Recently, a range of focused electron- and ion-based methods have demonstrated compelling alternative pathways to achieving atomically precise manufacturing of 3D structures in solids, liquids, and at interfaces. Electron and ion microscopies offer a platform that can simultaneously observe dynamic and static structures at the nano- and atomic scales and also induce structural rearrangements and chemical transformation. The addition of predictive modeling or rapid image analytics and feedback enables guiding these in a controlled manner. Here, we review the recent results that used focused electron and ion beams to create free-standing nanoscale 3D structures, radiolysis, and the fabrication potential with liquid precursors, epitaxial crystallization of amorphous oxides with atomic layer precision, as well as visualization and control of individual dopant motion within a 3D crystal lattice. These works lay the foundation for approaches to directing nanoscale level architectures and offer a potential roadmap to full 3D atomic control in materials. In this paper, we lay out the gaps that currently constrain the processing range of these platforms, reflect on indirect requirements, such as the integration of large-scale data analysis with theory, and discuss future prospects of these technologies.

  12. Directing Matter: Toward Atomic-Scale 3D Nanofabrication.

    PubMed

    Jesse, Stephen; Borisevich, Albina Y; Fowlkes, Jason D; Lupini, Andrew R; Rack, Philip D; Unocic, Raymond R; Sumpter, Bobby G; Kalinin, Sergei V; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S

    2016-06-28

    Enabling memristive, neuromorphic, and quantum-based computing as well as efficient mainstream energy storage and conversion technologies requires the next generation of materials customized at the atomic scale. This requires full control of atomic arrangement and bonding in three dimensions. The last two decades witnessed substantial industrial, academic, and government research efforts directed toward this goal through various lithographies and scanning-probe-based methods. These technologies emphasize 2D surface structures, with some limited 3D capability. Recently, a range of focused electron- and ion-based methods have demonstrated compelling alternative pathways to achieving atomically precise manufacturing of 3D structures in solids, liquids, and at interfaces. Electron and ion microscopies offer a platform that can simultaneously observe dynamic and static structures at the nano- and atomic scales and also induce structural rearrangements and chemical transformation. The addition of predictive modeling or rapid image analytics and feedback enables guiding these in a controlled manner. Here, we review the recent results that used focused electron and ion beams to create free-standing nanoscale 3D structures, radiolysis, and the fabrication potential with liquid precursors, epitaxial crystallization of amorphous oxides with atomic layer precision, as well as visualization and control of individual dopant motion within a 3D crystal lattice. These works lay the foundation for approaches to directing nanoscale level architectures and offer a potential roadmap to full 3D atomic control in materials. In this paper, we lay out the gaps that currently constrain the processing range of these platforms, reflect on indirect requirements, such as the integration of large-scale data analysis with theory, and discuss future prospects of these technologies. PMID:27183171

  13. A 3D Serious City Building Game on Waste Disposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuccurullo, Stefania; Francese, Rita; Passero, Ignazio; Tortora, Genoveffa

    2013-01-01

    The environmental priority requires structural interventions that will be effective in the long period only if they are accompanied by modifications of behaviors, orientations and beliefs, specially investing in the new generations. This paper presents a 3D Virtual World serious game named Pappi World, designed according to pedagogical theories…

  14. 3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

  15. Emulsion Inks for 3D Printing of High Porosity Materials.

    PubMed

    Sears, Nicholas A; Dhavalikar, Prachi S; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth M

    2016-08-01

    Photocurable emulsion inks for use with solid freeform fabrication (SFF) to generate constructs with hierarchical porosity are presented. A high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) templating technique was utilized to prepare water-in-oil emulsions from a hydrophobic photopolymer, surfactant, and water. These HIPEs displayed strong shear thinning behavior that permitted layer-by-layer deposition into complex shapes and adequately high viscosity at low shear for shape retention after extrusion. Each layer was actively polymerized with an ultraviolet cure-on-dispense (CoD) technique and compositions with sufficient viscosity were able to produce tall, complex scaffolds with an internal lattice structure and microscale porosity. Evaluation of the rheological and cure properties indicated that the viscosity and cure rate both played an important role in print fidelity. These 3D printed polyHIPE constructs benefit from the tunable pore structure of emulsion templated material and the designed architecture of 3D printing. As such, these emulsion inks can be used to create ultra high porosity constructs with complex geometries and internal lattice structures not possible with traditional manufacturing techniques.

  16. Emulsion Inks for 3D Printing of High Porosity Materials.

    PubMed

    Sears, Nicholas A; Dhavalikar, Prachi S; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth M

    2016-08-01

    Photocurable emulsion inks for use with solid freeform fabrication (SFF) to generate constructs with hierarchical porosity are presented. A high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) templating technique was utilized to prepare water-in-oil emulsions from a hydrophobic photopolymer, surfactant, and water. These HIPEs displayed strong shear thinning behavior that permitted layer-by-layer deposition into complex shapes and adequately high viscosity at low shear for shape retention after extrusion. Each layer was actively polymerized with an ultraviolet cure-on-dispense (CoD) technique and compositions with sufficient viscosity were able to produce tall, complex scaffolds with an internal lattice structure and microscale porosity. Evaluation of the rheological and cure properties indicated that the viscosity and cure rate both played an important role in print fidelity. These 3D printed polyHIPE constructs benefit from the tunable pore structure of emulsion templated material and the designed architecture of 3D printing. As such, these emulsion inks can be used to create ultra high porosity constructs with complex geometries and internal lattice structures not possible with traditional manufacturing techniques. PMID:27305061

  17. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability.

  18. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  19. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  20. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  1. Reversible Nanoparticle Cubic Lattices in Blue Phase Liquid Crystals.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, Mohamed Amine; Manet, Sabine; Lhermitte, Julien; Brown, Sarah; Milette, Jonathan; Toader, Violeta; Sutton, Mark; Reven, Linda

    2016-03-22

    Blue phases (BPs), a distinct class of liquid crystals (LCs) with 3D periodic ordering of double twist cylinders involving orthogonal helical director twists, have been theoretically studied as potential templates for tunable colloidal crystals. Here, we report the spontaneous formation of thermally reversible, cubic crystal nanoparticle (NP) assemblies in BPs. Gold NPs, functionalized to be highly miscible in cyanobiphenyl-based LCs, were dispersed in BP mixtures and characterized by polarized optical microscopy and synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The NPs assemble by selectively migrating to periodic strong trapping sites in the BP disclination lines. The NP lattice, remarkably robust given the small particle size (4.5 nm diameter), is commensurate with that of the BP matrix. At the BP I to BP II phase transition, the NP lattice reversibly switches between two different cubic structures. The simultaneous presence of two different symmetries in a single material presents an interesting opportunity to develop novel dynamic optical materials.

  2. Hadronic Interactions from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantinos Orginos

    2006-03-19

    In this talk I discuss a few recent results on lattice calculations of scattering lengths in hadronic processes. In particular, I present the scattering length of the pion-pion scattering in the I=2 channel and the nucleon-nucleon {sup 1}S{sub 0} channel and {sup 3}S{sub 1}-{sup 3}D{sub 1} coupled channels.

  3. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  4. 3D, or Not to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  5. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  6. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  7. 3D elastic control for mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Hachet, Martin; Pouderoux, Joachim; Guitton, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    To increase the input space of mobile devices, the authors developed a proof-of-concept 3D elastic controller that easily adapts to mobile devices. This embedded device improves the completion of high-level interaction tasks such as visualization of large documents and navigation in 3D environments. It also opens new directions for tomorrow's mobile applications.

  8. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    1996-07-15

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  9. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  10. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  11. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, W. W.; Stevenson, Graig; Patel, Ketan; Wang, Jun

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  12. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D…

  13. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  14. Clinical applications of 3-D dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuu, Cheng-Shie

    2015-01-01

    Both 3-D gels and radiochromic plastic dosimeters, in conjunction with dose image readout systems (MRI or optical-CT), have been employed to measure 3-D dose distributions in many clinical applications. The 3-D dose maps obtained from these systems can provide a useful tool for clinical dose verification for complex treatment techniques such as IMRT, SRS/SBRT, brachytherapy, and proton beam therapy. These complex treatments present high dose gradient regions in the boundaries between the target and surrounding critical organs. Dose accuracy in these areas can be critical, and may affect treatment outcome. In this review, applications of 3-D gels and PRESAGE dosimeter are reviewed and evaluated in terms of their performance in providing information on clinical dose verification as well as commissioning of various treatment modalities. Future interests and clinical needs on studies of 3-D dosimetry are also discussed.

  15. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  16. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  17. Real-Time 3D Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Butler Hine, former director of the Intelligent Mechanism Group (IMG) at Ames Research Center, and five others partnered to start Fourth Planet, Inc., a visualization company that specializes in the intuitive visual representation of dynamic, real-time data over the Internet and Intranet. Over a five-year period, the then NASA researchers performed ten robotic field missions in harsh climes to mimic the end- to-end operations of automated vehicles trekking across another world under control from Earth. The core software technology for these missions was the Virtual Environment Vehicle Interface (VEVI). Fourth Planet has released VEVI4, the fourth generation of the VEVI software, and NetVision. VEVI4 is a cutting-edge computer graphics simulation and remote control applications tool. The NetVision package allows large companies to view and analyze in virtual 3D space such things as the health or performance of their computer network or locate a trouble spot on an electric power grid. Other products are forthcoming. Fourth Planet is currently part of the NASA/Ames Technology Commercialization Center, a business incubator for start-up companies.

  18. 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  19. The psychology of the 3D experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  20. Low-cost 3D rangefinder system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bor-Tow; Lou, Wen-Shiou; Chen, Chia-Chen; Lin, Hsien-Chang

    1998-06-01

    Nowadays, 3D data are popularly performed in computer, and 3D browsers manipulate 3D model in the virtual world. Yet, till now, 3D digitizer is still a high-cost product and not a familiar equipment. In order to meet the requirement of 3D fancy world, in this paper, the concept of a low-cost 3D digitizer system is proposed to catch 3D range data from objects. The specified optical design of the 3D extraction is effective to depress the size, and the processing software of the system is compatible with PC to promote its portable capability. Both features contribute a low-cost system in PC environment in contrast to a large system bundled in an expensive workstation platform. In the structure of 3D extraction, laser beam and CCD camera are adopted to construct a 3D sensor. Instead of 2 CCD cameras for capturing laser lines twice before, a 2-in-1 system is proposed to merge 2 images in one CCD which still retains the information of two fields of views to inhibit occlusion problems. Besides, optical paths of two camera views are reflected by mirror in order that the volume of the system can be minified with one rotary axis only. It makes a portable system be more possible to work. Combined with the processing software executable in PC windows system, the proposed system not only saves hardware cost but also processing time of software. The system performance achieves 0.05 mm accuracy. It shows that a low- cost system is more possible to be high-performance.

  1. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  2. Creating three-dimensional lattice patterns using programmable Dammann gratings.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jeffrey A; Moreno, Ignacio; Martínez, José Luis; Hernandez, Travis J; Cottrell, Don M

    2011-07-10

    We demonstrate the creation of a three dimensional (3D) lattice of focus spots using a 3D Dammann grating structure. Such a 3D lattice of focus spots can be used for probing 3D structures or for creating 3D photonic crystal structures in optically sensitive media. Experimental results are included where the patterns are encoded onto a programmable liquid crystal display. We demonstrate the generation of five planar arrays each having 6×6 points surrounding another set of four planar arrays each having 5×5 points with a single pattern. PMID:21743578

  3. 3D coaxial out-of-plane metallic antennas for filtering and multi-spectral imaging in the infrared range.

    PubMed

    Jacassi, Andrea; Bozzola, Angelo; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Tantussi, Francesco; De Angelis, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We fabricated and investigated a new configuration of 3D coaxial metallic antennas working in the infrared which combines the strong lateral light scattering of vertical plasmonic structures with the selective spectral transmission of 2D arrays of coaxial apertures. The coaxial structures are fabricated with a top-down method based on a template of hollow 3D antennas. Each antenna has a multilayer radial structure consisting of dielectric and metallic materials not achievable in a 2D configuration. A planar metallic layer is inserted normally to the antennas. The outer dielectric shell of the antenna defines a nanometric gap between the horizontal plane and the vertical walls. Thanks to this aperture, light can tunnel to the other side of the plane, and be transmitted to the far field in a set of resonances. These are investigated with finite-elements electromagnetic calculations and with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. The spectral position of the resonances can be tuned by changing the lattice period and/or the antenna length. Thanks to the strong scattering provided by the 3D geometry, the transmission peaks possess a high signal-to-noise ratio even when the illuminated area is less than 2 × 2 times the operation wavelength. This opens new possibilities for multispectral imaging in the IR with wavelength-scale spatial resolution. PMID:27345517

  4. 3D coaxial out-of-plane metallic antennas for filtering and multi-spectral imaging in the infrared range.

    PubMed

    Jacassi, Andrea; Bozzola, Angelo; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Tantussi, Francesco; De Angelis, Francesco

    2016-06-27

    We fabricated and investigated a new configuration of 3D coaxial metallic antennas working in the infrared which combines the strong lateral light scattering of vertical plasmonic structures with the selective spectral transmission of 2D arrays of coaxial apertures. The coaxial structures are fabricated with a top-down method based on a template of hollow 3D antennas. Each antenna has a multilayer radial structure consisting of dielectric and metallic materials not achievable in a 2D configuration. A planar metallic layer is inserted normally to the antennas. The outer dielectric shell of the antenna defines a nanometric gap between the horizontal plane and the vertical walls. Thanks to this aperture, light can tunnel to the other side of the plane, and be transmitted to the far field in a set of resonances. These are investigated with finite-elements electromagnetic calculations and with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. The spectral position of the resonances can be tuned by changing the lattice period and/or the antenna length. Thanks to the strong scattering provided by the 3D geometry, the transmission peaks possess a high signal-to-noise ratio even when the illuminated area is less than 2 × 2 times the operation wavelength. This opens new possibilities for multispectral imaging in the IR with wavelength-scale spatial resolution.

  5. 3D coaxial out-of-plane metallic antennas for filtering and multi-spectral imaging in the infrared range

    PubMed Central

    Jacassi, Andrea; Bozzola, Angelo; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Tantussi, Francesco; De Angelis, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We fabricated and investigated a new configuration of 3D coaxial metallic antennas working in the infrared which combines the strong lateral light scattering of vertical plasmonic structures with the selective spectral transmission of 2D arrays of coaxial apertures. The coaxial structures are fabricated with a top-down method based on a template of hollow 3D antennas. Each antenna has a multilayer radial structure consisting of dielectric and metallic materials not achievable in a 2D configuration. A planar metallic layer is inserted normally to the antennas. The outer dielectric shell of the antenna defines a nanometric gap between the horizontal plane and the vertical walls. Thanks to this aperture, light can tunnel to the other side of the plane, and be transmitted to the far field in a set of resonances. These are investigated with finite-elements electromagnetic calculations and with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. The spectral position of the resonances can be tuned by changing the lattice period and/or the antenna length. Thanks to the strong scattering provided by the 3D geometry, the transmission peaks possess a high signal-to-noise ratio even when the illuminated area is less than 2 × 2 times the operation wavelength. This opens new possibilities for multispectral imaging in the IR with wavelength-scale spatial resolution. PMID:27345517

  6. Sperm navigation along helical paths in 3D chemoattractant landscapes.

    PubMed

    Jikeli, Jan F; Alvarez, Luis; Friedrich, Benjamin M; Wilson, Laurence G; Pascal, René; Colin, Remy; Pichlo, Magdalena; Rennhack, Andreas; Brenker, Christoph; Kaupp, U Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Sperm require a sense of direction to locate the egg for fertilization. They follow gradients of chemical and physical cues provided by the egg or the oviduct. However, the principles underlying three-dimensional (3D) navigation in chemical landscapes are unknown. Here using holographic microscopy and optochemical techniques, we track sea urchin sperm navigating in 3D chemoattractant gradients. Sperm sense gradients on two timescales, which produces two different steering responses. A periodic component, resulting from the helical swimming, gradually aligns the helix towards the gradient. When incremental path corrections fail and sperm get off course, a sharp turning manoeuvre puts sperm back on track. Turning results from an 'off' Ca(2+) response signifying a chemoattractant stimulation decrease and, thereby, a drop in cyclic GMP concentration and membrane voltage. These findings highlight the computational sophistication by which sperm sample gradients for deterministic klinotaxis. We provide a conceptual and technical framework for studying microswimmers in 3D chemical landscapes. PMID:26278469

  7. Sperm navigation along helical paths in 3D chemoattractant landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jikeli, Jan F.; Alvarez, Luis; Friedrich, Benjamin M.; Wilson, Laurence G.; Pascal, René; Colin, Remy; Pichlo, Magdalena; Rennhack, Andreas; Brenker, Christoph; Kaupp, U. Benjamin

    2015-08-01

    Sperm require a sense of direction to locate the egg for fertilization. They follow gradients of chemical and physical cues provided by the egg or the oviduct. However, the principles underlying three-dimensional (3D) navigation in chemical landscapes are unknown. Here using holographic microscopy and optochemical techniques, we track sea urchin sperm navigating in 3D chemoattractant gradients. Sperm sense gradients on two timescales, which produces two different steering responses. A periodic component, resulting from the helical swimming, gradually aligns the helix towards the gradient. When incremental path corrections fail and sperm get off course, a sharp turning manoeuvre puts sperm back on track. Turning results from an `off' Ca2+ response signifying a chemoattractant stimulation decrease and, thereby, a drop in cyclic GMP concentration and membrane voltage. These findings highlight the computational sophistication by which sperm sample gradients for deterministic klinotaxis. We provide a conceptual and technical framework for studying microswimmers in 3D chemical landscapes.

  8. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  9. 3D facial expression modeling for recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaoguang; Jain, Anil K.; Dass, Sarat C.

    2005-03-01

    Current two-dimensional image based face recognition systems encounter difficulties with large variations in facial appearance due to the pose, illumination and expression changes. Utilizing 3D information of human faces is promising for handling the pose and lighting variations. While the 3D shape of a face does not change due to head pose (rigid) and lighting changes, it is not invariant to the non-rigid facial movement and evolution, such as expressions and aging effect. We propose a facial surface matching framework to match multiview facial scans to a 3D face model, where the (non-rigid) expression deformation is explicitly modeled for each subject, resulting in a person-specific deformation model. The thin plate spline (TPS) is applied to model the deformation based on the facial landmarks. The deformation is applied to the 3D neutral expression face model to synthesize the corresponding expression. Both the neutral and the synthesized 3D surface models are used to match a test scan. The surface registration and matching between a test scan and a 3D model are achieved by a modified Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate that the proposed expression modeling and recognition-by-synthesis schemes improve the 3D matching accuracy.

  10. Digital relief generation from 3D models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meili; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Hongming; Qian, Kun; Chang, Jian; He, Dongjian

    2016-09-01

    It is difficult to extend image-based relief generation to high-relief generation, as the images contain insufficient height information. To generate reliefs from three-dimensional (3D) models, it is necessary to extract the height fields from the model, but this can only generate bas-reliefs. To overcome this problem, an efficient method is proposed to generate bas-reliefs and high-reliefs directly from 3D meshes. To produce relief features that are visually appropriate, the 3D meshes are first scaled. 3D unsharp masking is used to enhance the visual features in the 3D mesh, and average smoothing and Laplacian smoothing are implemented to achieve better smoothing results. A nonlinear variable scaling scheme is then employed to generate the final bas-reliefs and high-reliefs. Using the proposed method, relief models can be generated from arbitrary viewing positions with different gestures and combinations of multiple 3D models. The generated relief models can be printed by 3D printers. The proposed method provides a means of generating both high-reliefs and bas-reliefs in an efficient and effective way under the appropriate scaling factors.

  11. NUBEAM developments and 3d halo modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkova, M. V.; Medley, S. S.; Kaye, S. M.

    2012-10-01

    Recent developments related to the 3D halo model in NUBEAM code are described. To have a reliable halo neutral source for diagnostic simulation, the TRANSP/NUBEAM code has been enhanced with full implementation of ADAS atomic physic ground state and excited state data for hydrogenic beams and mixed species plasma targets. The ADAS codes and database provide the density and temperature dependence of the atomic data, and the collective nature of the state excitation process. To be able to populate 3D halo output with sufficient statistical resolution, the capability to control the statistics of fast ion CX modeling and for thermal halo launch has been added to NUBEAM. The 3D halo neutral model is based on modification and extension of the ``beam in box'' aligned 3d Cartesian grid that includes the neutral beam itself, 3D fast neutral densities due to CX of partially slowed down fast ions in the beam halo region, 3D thermal neutral densities due to CX deposition and fast neutral recapture source. More details on the 3D halo simulation design will be presented.

  12. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26562233

  13. Perception of detail in 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heynderickx, Ingrid; Kaptein, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    A lot of current 3D displays suffer from the fact that their spatial resolution is lower compared to their 2D counterparts. One reason for this is that the multiple views needed to generate 3D are often spatially multiplexed. Besides this, imperfect separation of the left- and right-eye view leads to blurring or ghosting, and therefore to a decrease in perceived sharpness. However, people watching stereoscopic videos have reported that the 3D scene contained more details, compared to the 2D scene with identical spatial resolution. This is an interesting notion, that has never been tested in a systematic and quantitative way. To investigate this effect, we had people compare the amount of detail ("detailedness") in pairs of 2D and 3D images. A blur filter was applied to one of the two images, and the blur level was varied using an adaptive staircase procedure. In this way, the blur threshold for which the 2D and 3D image contained perceptually the same amount of detail could be found. Our results show that the 3D image needed to be blurred more than the 2D image. This confirms the earlier qualitative findings that 3D images contain perceptually more details than 2D images with the same spatial resolution.

  14. 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology. PMID:25093879

  15. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist

    PubMed Central

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26562233

  16. Peptide Directed 3D Assembly of Nanoparticles through Biomolecular Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Prerna

    The current challenge of the 'bottom up' process is the programmed self-assembly of nanoscale building blocks into complex and larger-scale superstructures with unique properties that can be integrated as components in solar cells, microelectronics, meta materials, catalysis, and sensors. Recent trends in the complexity of device design demand the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) superstructures from multi-nanomaterial components in precise configurations. Bio mimetic assembly is an emerging technique for building hybrid materials because living organisms are efficient, inexpensive, and environmentally benign material generators, allowing low temperature fabrication. Using this approach, a novel peptide-directed nanomaterial assembly technology based on bio molecular interaction of streptavidin and biotin is presented for assembling nanomaterials with peptides for the construction of 3D peptide-inorganic superlattices with defined 3D shape. We took advantage of robust natural collagen triple-helix peptides and used them as nanowire building blocks for 3D peptide-gold nanoparticles superlattice generation. The type of 3D peptide superlattice assembly with hybrid NP building blocks described herein shows potential for the fabrication of complex functional device which demands precise long-range arrangement and periodicity of NPs.

  17. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Norman A.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  18. FUN3D Manual: 12.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  19. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  20. FUN3D Manual: 12.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  1. FUN3D Manual: 12.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  2. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  3. FUN3D Manual: 12.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  4. FUN3D Manual: 12.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  5. VALIDATION OF IMPROVED 3D ATR MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Soon Sam Kim; Bruce G. Schnitzler

    2005-11-01

    A full-core Monte Carlo based 3D model of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) was previously developed. [1] An improved 3D model has been developed by the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) to eliminate homogeneity of fuel plates of the old model, incorporate core changes into the new model, and to validate against a newer, more complicated core configuration. This new 3D model adds capability for fuel loading design and azimuthal power peaking studies of the ATR fuel elements.

  6. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, includingmore » frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.« less

  7. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models.

  8. How We 3D-Print Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-23

    A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.

  9. FIT3D: Fitting optical spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; González, J. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Cano-Díaz, M.; López-Cobá, C.; Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Mollá, M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.

    2016-09-01

    FIT3D fits optical spectra to deblend the underlying stellar population and the ionized gas, and extract physical information from each component. FIT3D is focused on the analysis of Integral Field Spectroscopy data, but is not restricted to it, and is the basis of Pipe3D, a pipeline used in the analysis of datasets like CALIFA, MaNGA, and SAMI. It can run iteratively or in an automatic way to derive the parameters of a large set of spectra.

  10. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  11. Investigations in massive 3D gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Accioly, Antonio; Helayeel-Neto, Jose; Morais, Jefferson; Turcati, Rodrigo; Scatena, Eslley

    2011-05-15

    Some interesting gravitational properties of the Bergshoeff-Hohm-Townsend model (massive 3D gravity), such as the presence of a short-range gravitational force in the nonrelativistic limit and the existence of an impact-parameter-dependent gravitational deflection angle, are studied. Interestingly enough, these phenomena have no counterpart in the usual Einstein 3D gravity. In order to better understand the two aforementioned gravitational properties, they are also analyzed in the framework of 3D higher-derivative gravity with the Einstein-Hilbert term with the 'wrong sign'.

  12. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-07-29

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  13. 24-th Order high temperature expansion for the 3-d Ising model

    SciTech Connect

    Glaessner, U.; Schilling, K.; Bhanot, G.; Creutz, M.

    1994-12-01

    The authors present the series for the free energy and their estimate for the critical exponent {alpha}, as computed by a recursive bookkeeping algorithm on the CM5. They begin with a discussion of the algorithm to compute the High-Temperature expansion on finite 3-D Ising lattices.

  14. JAR3D Webserver: Scoring and aligning RNA loop sequences to known 3D motifs

    PubMed Central

    Roll, James; Zirbel, Craig L.; Sweeney, Blake; Petrov, Anton I.; Leontis, Neocles

    2016-01-01

    Many non-coding RNAs have been identified and may function by forming 2D and 3D structures. RNA hairpin and internal loops are often represented as unstructured on secondary structure diagrams, but RNA 3D structures show that most such loops are structured by non-Watson–Crick basepairs and base stacking. Moreover, different RNA sequences can form the same RNA 3D motif. JAR3D finds possible 3D geometries for hairpin and internal loops by matching loop sequences to motif groups from the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, by exact sequence match when possible, and by probabilistic scoring and edit distance for novel sequences. The scoring gauges the ability of the sequences to form the same pattern of interactions observed in 3D structures of the motif. The JAR3D webserver at http://rna.bgsu.edu/jar3d/ takes one or many sequences of a single loop as input, or else one or many sequences of longer RNAs with multiple loops. Each sequence is scored against all current motif groups. The output shows the ten best-matching motif groups. Users can align input sequences to each of the motif groups found by JAR3D. JAR3D will be updated with every release of the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, and so its performance is expected to improve over time. PMID:27235417

  15. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing. PMID:24808080

  16. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  17. Directing Matter: Toward Atomic-Scale 3D Nanofabrication

    DOE PAGES

    Jesse, Stephen; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Rack, Philip D.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.

    2016-05-16

    Here we report that enabling memristive, neuromorphic, and quantum based computing as well as efficient mainstream energy storage and conversion technologies requires next generation of materials customized at the atomic scale. This requires full control of atomic arrangement and bonding in three dimensions. The last two decades witnessed substantial industrial, academic, and government research efforts directed towards this goal through various lithographies and scanning probe based methods. These technologies emphasize 2D surface structures, with some limited 3D capability. Recently, a range of focused electron and ion based methods have demonstrated compelling alternative pathways to achieving atomically precise manufacturing of 3Dmore » structures in solids, liquids, and at interfaces. Electron and ion microscopies offer a platform that can simultaneously observe dynamic and static structures at the nano and atomic scales, and also induce structural rearrangements and chemical transformation. The addition of predictive modeling or rapid image analytics and feedback enables guiding these in a controlled manner. Here, we review the recent results that used focused electron and ion beams to create free-standing nanoscale 3D structures, radiolysis and the fabrication potential with liquid precursors, epitaxial crystallization of amorphous oxides with atomic layer precision, as well as visualization and control of individual dopant motion within a 3D crystal lattice. These works lay the foundation for new approaches to directing nanoscale level architectures and offer a potential roadmap to full 3D atomic control in materials. Lastly, in this perspective we lay out the gaps that currently constrain the processing range of these platforms, reflect on indirect requirements, such as the integration of large scale data analysis with theory, and discuss future prospects of these technologies.« less

  18. Full Core 3-D Simulation of a Partial MOX LWR Core

    SciTech Connect

    S. Bays; W. Skerjanc; M. Pope

    2009-05-01

    A comparative analysis and comparison of results obtained between 2-D lattice calculations and 3-D full core nodal calculations, in the frame of MOX fuel design, was conducted. This study revealed a set of advantages and disadvantages, with respect to each method, which can be used to guide the level of accuracy desired for future fuel and fuel cycle calculations. For the purpose of isotopic generation for fuel cycle analyses, the approach of using a 2-D lattice code (i.e., fuel assembly in infinite lattice) gave reasonable predictions of uranium and plutonium isotope concentrations at the predicted 3-D core simulation batch average discharge burnup. However, it was found that the 2-D lattice calculation can under-predict the power of pins located along a shared edge between MOX and UO2 by as much as 20%. In this analysis, this error did not occur in the peak pin. However, this was a coincidence and does not rule out the possibility that the peak pin could occur in a lattice position with high calculation uncertainty in future un-optimized studies. Another important consideration in realistic fuel design is the prediction of the peak axial burnup and neutron fluence. The use of 3-D core simulation gave peak burnup conditions, at the pellet level, to be approximately 1.4 times greater than what can be predicted using back-of-the-envelope assumptions of average specific power and irradiation time.

  19. TRMM 3-D Flyby of Ingrid

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Ingrid's rainfall was created from TRMM satellite data for Sept. 16. Heaviest rainfall appears in red towers over the Gulf of Mexico, while moderate rainfall stretc...

  20. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset.

    PubMed

    Tafti, Ahmad P; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B; Holz, Jessica D; Owen, Heather A; Yu, Zeyun

    2016-03-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples. PMID:26779561

  1. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset

    PubMed Central

    Tafti, Ahmad P.; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B.; Holz, Jessica D.; Owen, Heather A.; Yu, Zeyun

    2015-01-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples. PMID:26779561

  2. Tropical Cyclone Jack in Satellite 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby from NASA's TRMM satellite of Tropical Cyclone Jack on April 21 shows that some of the thunderstorms were shown by TRMM PR were still reaching height of at least 17 km (10.5 miles). ...

  3. An Augmented Reality based 3D Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Ryo; Kishimoto, Katsumi

    This paper presents a 3D catalog system that uses Augmented Reality technology. The use of Web-based catalog systems that present products in 3D form is increasing in various fields, along with the rapid and widespread adoption of Electronic Commerce. However, 3D shapes could previously only be seen in a virtual space, and it was difficult to understand how the products would actually look in the real world. To solve this, we propose a method that combines the virtual and real worlds simply and intuitively. The method applies Augmented Reality technology, and the system developed based on the method enables users to evaluate 3D virtual products in a real environment.

  4. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F

    2016-07-15

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  5. Cyclone Rusty's Landfall in 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D image derived from NASA's TRMM satellite Precipitation Radar data on February 26, 2013 at 0654 UTC showed that the tops of some towering thunderstorms in Rusty's eye wall were reaching hei...

  6. 3-D Animation of Typhoon Bopha

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D animation of NASA's TRMM satellite data showed Typhoon Bopha tracking over the Philippines on Dec. 3 and moving into the Sulu Sea on Dec. 4, 2012. TRMM saw heavy rain (red) was falling at ...

  7. Palacios field: A 3-D case history

    SciTech Connect

    McWhorter, R.; Torguson, B.

    1994-12-31

    In late 1992, Mitchell Energy Corporation acquired a 7.75 sq mi (20.0 km{sup 2}) 3-D seismic survey over Palacios field. Matagorda County, Texas. The company shot the survey to help evaluate the field for further development by delineating the fault pattern of the producing Middle Oligocene Frio interval. They compare the mapping of the field before and after the 3-D survey. This comparison shows that the 3-D volume yields superior fault imaging and interpretability compared to the dense 2-D data set. The problems with the 2-D data set are improper imaging of small and oblique faults and insufficient coverage over a complex fault pattern. Whereas the 2-D data set validated a simple fault model, the 3-D volume revealed a more complex history of faulting that includes three different fault systems. This discovery enabled them to reconstruct the depositional and structural history of Palacios field.

  8. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  9. 3-D TRMM Flyby of Hurricane Amanda

    NASA Video Gallery

    The TRMM satellite flew over Hurricane Amanda on Tuesday, May 27 at 1049 UTC (6:49 a.m. EDT) and captured rainfall rates and cloud height data that was used to create this 3-D simulated flyby. Cred...

  10. Eyes on the Earth 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

    2013-01-01

    Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

  11. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication. PMID:26869728

  12. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset.

    PubMed

    Tafti, Ahmad P; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B; Holz, Jessica D; Owen, Heather A; Yu, Zeyun

    2016-03-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples.

  13. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F

    2016-07-15

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices. PMID:27250897

  14. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  15. 3-D Flyover Visualization of Veil Nebula

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D visualization flies across a small portion of the Veil Nebula as photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope. This region is a small part of a huge expanding remnant from a star that explod...

  16. Future Engineers 3-D Print Timelapse

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Challenges K-12 students to create a model of a container for space using 3-D modeling software. Astronauts need containers of all kinds - from advanced containers that can study fruit flies t...

  17. Modeling Cellular Processes in 3-D

    PubMed Central

    Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

    2011-01-01

    Summary Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated, we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3-D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3-D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3-D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2-D or 1-D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3-D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling. PMID:22036197

  18. 3D goes digital: from stereoscopy to modern 3D imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerwien, N.

    2014-11-01

    In the 19th century, English physicist Charles Wheatstone discovered stereopsis, the basis for 3D perception. His construction of the first stereoscope established the foundation for stereoscopic 3D imaging. Since then, many optical instruments were influenced by these basic ideas. In recent decades, the advent of digital technologies revolutionized 3D imaging. Powerful readily available sensors and displays combined with efficient pre- or post-processing enable new methods for 3D imaging and applications. This paper draws an arc from basic concepts of 3D imaging to modern digital implementations, highlighting instructive examples from its 175 years of history.

  19. Motif3D: Relating protein sequence motifs to 3D structure.

    PubMed

    Gaulton, Anna; Attwood, Teresa K

    2003-07-01

    Motif3D is a web-based protein structure viewer designed to allow sequence motifs, and in particular those contained in the fingerprints of the PRINTS database, to be visualised on three-dimensional (3D) structures. Additional functionality is provided for the rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors, enabling fingerprint motifs of any of the receptors in this family to be mapped onto the single structure available, that of bovine rhodopsin. Motif3D can be used via the web interface available at: http://www.bioinf.man.ac.uk/dbbrowser/motif3d/motif3d.html.

  20. Assessing 3d Photogrammetry Techniques in Craniometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshobane, M. C.; de Bruyn, P. J. N.; Bester, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features) has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc®) three-dimensional (3D) modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model's accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  1. Exploring interaction with 3D volumetric displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Tovi; Wigdor, Daniel; Balakrishnan, Ravin

    2005-03-01

    Volumetric displays generate true volumetric 3D images by actually illuminating points in 3D space. As a result, viewing their contents is similar to viewing physical objects in the real world. These displays provide a 360 degree field of view, and do not require the user to wear hardware such as shutter glasses or head-trackers. These properties make them a promising alternative to traditional display systems for viewing imagery in 3D. Because these displays have only recently been made available commercially (e.g., www.actuality-systems.com), their current use tends to be limited to non-interactive output-only display devices. To take full advantage of the unique features of these displays, however, it would be desirable if the 3D data being displayed could be directly interacted with and manipulated. We investigate interaction techniques for volumetric display interfaces, through the development of an interactive 3D geometric model building application. While this application area itself presents many interesting challenges, our focus is on the interaction techniques that are likely generalizable to interactive applications for other domains. We explore a very direct style of interaction where the user interacts with the virtual data using direct finger manipulations on and around the enclosure surrounding the displayed 3D volumetric image.

  2. Recording stereoscopic 3D neurosurgery with a head-mounted 3D camera system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Brian; Chen, Brian R; Chen, Beverly B; Lu, James Y; Giannotta, Steven L

    2015-06-01

    Stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) imaging can present more information to the viewer and further enhance the learning experience over traditional two-dimensional (2D) video. Most 3D surgical videos are recorded from the operating microscope and only feature the crux, or the most important part of the surgery, leaving out other crucial parts of surgery including the opening, approach, and closing of the surgical site. In addition, many other surgeries including complex spine, trauma, and intensive care unit procedures are also rarely recorded. We describe and share our experience with a commercially available head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to obtain stereoscopic 3D recordings of these seldom recorded aspects of neurosurgery. The strengths and limitations of using the GoPro(®) 3D system as a head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system in the operating room are reviewed in detail. Over the past several years, we have recorded in stereoscopic 3D over 50 cranial and spinal surgeries and created a library for education purposes. We have found the head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to be a valuable asset to supplement 3D footage from a 3D microscope. We expect that these comprehensive 3D surgical videos will become an important facet of resident education and ultimately lead to improved patient care.

  3. CFL3D, FUN3d, and NSU3D Contributions to the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Laflin, Kelly R.; Chaffin, Mark S.; Powell, Nicholas; Levy, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Results presented at the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop using CFL3D, FUN3D, and NSU3D are described. These are calculations on the workshop provided grids and drag adapted grids. The NSU3D results have been updated to reflect an improvement to skin friction calculation on skewed grids. FUN3D results generated after the workshop are included for custom participant generated grids and a grid from a previous workshop. Uniform grid refinement at the design condition shows a tight grouping in calculated drag, where the variation in the pressure component of drag is larger than the skin friction component. At this design condition, A fine-grid drag value was predicted with a smaller drag adjoint adapted grid via tetrahedral adaption to a metric and mixed-element subdivision. The buffet study produced larger variation than the design case, which is attributed to large differences in the predicted side-of-body separation extent. Various modeling and discretization approaches had a strong impact on predicted side-of-body separation. This large wing root separation bubble was not observed in wind tunnel tests indicating that more work is necessary in modeling wing root juncture flows to predict experiments.

  4. Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Bornyakov, V.G.

    2005-06-01

    Possibilities that are provided by a lattice regularization of QCD for studying nonperturbative properties of QCD are discussed. A review of some recent results obtained from computer calculations in lattice QCD is given. In particular, the results for the QCD vacuum structure, the hadron mass spectrum, and the strong coupling constant are considered.

  5. Self assembled structures for 3D integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Madhav

    Three dimensional (3D) micro-scale structures attached to a silicon substrate have various applications in microelectronics. However, formation of 3D structures using conventional micro-fabrication techniques are not efficient and require precise control of processing parameters. Self assembly is a method for creating 3D structures that takes advantage of surface area minimization phenomena. Solder based self assembly (SBSA), the subject of this dissertation, uses solder as a facilitator in the formation of 3D structures from 2D patterns. Etching a sacrificial layer underneath a portion of the 2D pattern allows the solder reflow step to pull those areas out of the substrate plane resulting in a folded 3D structure. Initial studies using the SBSA method demonstrated low yields in the formation of five different polyhedra. The failures in folding were primarily attributed to nonuniform solder deposition on the underlying metal pads. The dip soldering method was analyzed and subsequently refined. A modified dip soldering process provided improved yield among the polyhedra. Solder bridging referred as joining of solder deposited on different metal patterns in an entity influenced the folding mechanism. In general, design parameters such as small gap-spacings and thick metal pads were found to favor solder bridging for all patterns studied. Two types of soldering: face and edge soldering were analyzed. Face soldering refers to the application of solder on the entire metal face. Edge soldering indicates application of solder only on the edges of the metal face. Mechanical grinding showed that face soldered SBSA structures were void free and robust in nature. In addition, the face soldered 3D structures provide a consistent heat resistant solder standoff height that serve as attachments in the integration of dissimilar electronic technologies. Face soldered 3D structures were developed on the underlying conducting channel to determine the thermo-electric reliability of

  6. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  7. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies.

  8. Superradiance Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Da-Wei; Liu, Ren-Bao; Zhu, Shi-Yao; Scully, Marlan O.

    2015-01-01

    We show that the timed Dicke states of a collection of three-level atoms can form a tight-binding lattice in momentum space. This lattice, coined the superradiance lattice (SL), can be constructed based on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). For a one-dimensional SL, we need the coupling field of the EIT system to be a standing wave. The detuning between the two components of the standing wave introduces an effective uniform force in momentum space. The quantum lattice dynamics, such as Bloch oscillations, Wannier-Stark ladders, Bloch band collapsing, and dynamic localization can be observed in the SL. The two-dimensional SL provides a flexible platform for Dirac physics in graphene. The SL can be extended to three and higher dimensions where no analogous real space lattices exist with new physics waiting to be explored.

  9. 3D Framework DNA Origami with Layered Crossovers.

    PubMed

    Hong, Fan; Jiang, Shuoxing; Wang, Tong; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao

    2016-10-01

    Designer DNA architectures with nanoscale geometric controls provide a programmable molecular toolbox for engineering complex nanodevices. Scaffolded DNA origami has dramatically improved our ability to design and construct DNA nanostructures with finite size and spatial addressability. Here we report a novel design strategy to engineer multilayered wireframe DNA structures by introducing crossover pairs that connect neighboring layers of DNA double helices. These layered crossovers (LX) allow the scaffold or helper strands to travel through different layers and can control the relative orientation of DNA helices in neighboring layers. Using this design strategy, we successfully constructed four versions of two-layer parallelogram structures with well-defined interlayer angles, a three-layer structure with triangular cavities, and a 9- and 15-layer square lattices. This strategy provides a general route to engineer 3D framework DNA nanostructures with controlled cavities and opportunities to design host-guest networks analogs to those produced with metal organic frameworks.

  10. Validation of 3D simulations of reverse osmosis membrane biofouling.

    PubMed

    Pintelon, Thomas R R; Creber, Sarah A; von der Schulenburg, Daniel A Graf; Johns, Michael L

    2010-07-01

    The increasing demand for drinking water and its stricter quality requirements have resulted in an exponentially expanding industry of membrane filtration processes. Currently, reverse osmosis (RO) is the most common method of desalination, able to produce water that is virtually free of pollutants and pathogenic micro-organisms. Biofouling of these devices however is a significant limitation. Here we present a 3D simulation of RO membrane biofouling based on a lattice Boltzmann (LB) platform that we subsequently favorably compare with experimental data. This data consists of temporally (and spatially) resolved velocity measurements acquired for a RO membrane using magnetic resonance techniques. The effect of biofilm cohesive strength on system pressure drop is then explored; weaker biomass is observed to have a reduced impact on pressure drop (per unit biomass accumulated).

  11. Validation of 3D simulations of reverse osmosis membrane biofouling.

    PubMed

    Pintelon, Thomas R R; Creber, Sarah A; von der Schulenburg, Daniel A Graf; Johns, Michael L

    2010-07-01

    The increasing demand for drinking water and its stricter quality requirements have resulted in an exponentially expanding industry of membrane filtration processes. Currently, reverse osmosis (RO) is the most common method of desalination, able to produce water that is virtually free of pollutants and pathogenic micro-organisms. Biofouling of these devices however is a significant limitation. Here we present a 3D simulation of RO membrane biofouling based on a lattice Boltzmann (LB) platform that we subsequently favorably compare with experimental data. This data consists of temporally (and spatially) resolved velocity measurements acquired for a RO membrane using magnetic resonance techniques. The effect of biofilm cohesive strength on system pressure drop is then explored; weaker biomass is observed to have a reduced impact on pressure drop (per unit biomass accumulated). PMID:20205206

  12. 3D Framework DNA Origami with Layered Crossovers.

    PubMed

    Hong, Fan; Jiang, Shuoxing; Wang, Tong; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao

    2016-10-01

    Designer DNA architectures with nanoscale geometric controls provide a programmable molecular toolbox for engineering complex nanodevices. Scaffolded DNA origami has dramatically improved our ability to design and construct DNA nanostructures with finite size and spatial addressability. Here we report a novel design strategy to engineer multilayered wireframe DNA structures by introducing crossover pairs that connect neighboring layers of DNA double helices. These layered crossovers (LX) allow the scaffold or helper strands to travel through different layers and can control the relative orientation of DNA helices in neighboring layers. Using this design strategy, we successfully constructed four versions of two-layer parallelogram structures with well-defined interlayer angles, a three-layer structure with triangular cavities, and a 9- and 15-layer square lattices. This strategy provides a general route to engineer 3D framework DNA nanostructures with controlled cavities and opportunities to design host-guest networks analogs to those produced with metal organic frameworks. PMID:27628457

  13. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    DOE PAGES

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally describedmore » in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.« less

  14. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.

  15. RAG-3D: a search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    PubMed Central

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    To address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding. PMID:26304547

  16. ICER-3D Hyperspectral Image Compression Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Hua; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, matthew; Aranki, Nazeeh

    2010-01-01

    Software has been developed to implement the ICER-3D algorithm. ICER-3D effects progressive, three-dimensional (3D), wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images. If a compressed data stream is truncated, the progressive nature of the algorithm enables reconstruction of hyperspectral data at fidelity commensurate with the given data volume. The ICER-3D software is capable of providing either lossless or lossy compression, and incorporates an error-containment scheme to limit the effects of data loss during transmission. The compression algorithm, which was derived from the ICER image compression algorithm, includes wavelet-transform, context-modeling, and entropy coding subalgorithms. The 3D wavelet decomposition structure used by ICER-3D exploits correlations in all three dimensions of sets of hyperspectral image data, while facilitating elimination of spectral ringing artifacts, using a technique summarized in "Improving 3D Wavelet-Based Compression of Spectral Images" (NPO-41381), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 3 (March 2009), page 7a. Correlation is further exploited by a context-modeling subalgorithm, which exploits spectral dependencies in the wavelet-transformed hyperspectral data, using an algorithm that is summarized in "Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images" (NPO-43239), which follows this article. An important feature of ICER-3D is a scheme for limiting the adverse effects of loss of data during transmission. In this scheme, as in the similar scheme used by ICER, the spatial-frequency domain is partitioned into rectangular error-containment regions. In ICER-3D, the partitions extend through all the wavelength bands. The data in each partition are compressed independently of those in the other partitions, so that loss or corruption of data from any partition does not affect the other partitions. Furthermore, because compression is progressive within each partition, when data are lost, any data from that partition received

  17. T-HEMP3D user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.

    1983-08-01

    The T-HEMP3D (Transportable HEMP3D) computer program is a derivative of the STEALTH three-dimensional thermodynamics code developed by Science Applications, Inc., under the direction of Ron Hofmann. STEALTH, in turn, is based entirely on the original HEMP3D code written at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary advantage STEALTH has over its predecessors is that it was designed using modern structured design techniques, with rigorous programming standards enforced. This yields two benefits. First, the code is easily changeable; this is a necessity for a physics code used for research. The second benefit is that the code is easily transportable between different types of computers. The STEALTH program was transferred to LLNL under a cooperative development agreement. Changes were made primarily in three areas: material specification, coordinate generation, and the addition of sliding surface boundary conditions. The code was renamed T-HEMP3D to avoid confusion with other versions of STEALTH. This document summarizes the input to T-HEMP3D, as used at LLNL. It does not describe the physics simulated by the program, nor the numerical techniques employed. Furthermore, it does not describe the separate job steps of coordinate generation and post-processing, including graphical display of results. (WHK)

  18. The importance of 3D dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been getting progressively more complex for the past 20 years. Early radiation therapy techniques needed only basic dosimetry equipment; motorized water phantoms, ionization chambers, and basic radiographic film techniques. As intensity modulated radiation therapy and image guided therapy came into widespread practice, medical physicists were challenged with developing effective and efficient dose measurement techniques. The complex 3-dimensional (3D) nature of the dose distributions that were being delivered demanded the development of more quantitative and more thorough methods for dose measurement. The quality assurance vendors developed a wide array of multidetector arrays that have been enormously useful for measuring and characterizing dose distributions, and these have been made especially useful with the advent of 3D dose calculation systems based on the array measurements, as well as measurements made using film and portal imagers. Other vendors have been providing 3D calculations based on data from the linear accelerator or the record and verify system, providing thorough evaluation of the dose but lacking quality assurance (QA) of the dose delivery process, including machine calibration. The current state of 3D dosimetry is one of a state of flux. The vendors and professional associations are trying to determine the optimal balance between thorough QA, labor efficiency, and quantitation. This balance will take some time to reach, but a necessary component will be the 3D measurement and independent calculation of delivered radiation therapy dose distributions.

  19. 3D Spray Droplet Distributions in Sneezes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Techet, Alexandra; Scharfman, Barry; Bourouiba, Lydia

    2015-11-01

    3D spray droplet clouds generated during human sneezing are investigated using the Synthetic Aperture Feature Extraction (SAFE) method, which relies on light field imaging (LFI) and synthetic aperture (SA) refocusing computational photographic techniques. An array of nine high-speed cameras are used to image sneeze droplets and tracked the droplets in 3D space and time (3D + T). An additional high-speed camera is utilized to track the motion of the head during sneezing. In the SAFE method, the raw images recorded by each camera in the array are preprocessed and binarized, simplifying post processing after image refocusing and enabling the extraction of feature sizes and positions in 3D + T. These binary images are refocused using either additive or multiplicative methods, combined with thresholding. Sneeze droplet centroids, radii, distributions and trajectories are determined and compared with existing data. The reconstructed 3D droplet centroids and radii enable a more complete understanding of the physical extent and fluid dynamics of sneeze ejecta. These measurements are important for understanding the infectious disease transmission potential of sneezes in various indoor environments.

  20. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  1. 3D dynamic roadmapping for abdominal catheterizations.

    PubMed

    Bender, Frederik; Groher, Martin; Khamene, Ali; Wein, Wolfgang; Heibel, Tim Hauke; Navab, Nassir

    2008-01-01

    Despite rapid advances in interventional imaging, the navigation of a guide wire through abdominal vasculature remains, not only for novice radiologists, a difficult task. Since this navigation is mostly based on 2D fluoroscopic image sequences from one view, the process is slowed down significantly due to missing depth information and patient motion. We propose a novel approach for 3D dynamic roadmapping in deformable regions by predicting the location of the guide wire tip in a 3D vessel model from the tip's 2D location, respiratory motion analysis, and view geometry. In a first step, the method compensates for the apparent respiratory motion in 2D space before backprojecting the 2D guide wire tip into three dimensional space, using a given projection matrix. To countervail the error connected to the projection parameters and the motion compensation, as well as the ambiguity caused by vessel deformation, we establish a statistical framework, which computes a reliable estimate of the guide wire tip location within the 3D vessel model. With this 2D-to-3D transfer, the navigation can be performed from arbitrary viewing angles, disconnected from the static perspective view of the fluoroscopic sequence. Tests on a realistic breathing phantom and on synthetic data with a known ground truth clearly reveal the superiority of our approach compared to naive methods for 3D roadmapping. The concepts and information presented in this paper are based on research and are not commercially available. PMID:18982662

  2. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies.

  3. Shim3d Helmholtz Solution Package

    2009-01-29

    This suite of codes solves the Helmholtz Equation for the steady-state propagation of single-frequency electromagnetic radiation in an arbitrary 2D or 3D dielectric medium. Materials can be either transparent or absorptive (including metals) and are described entirely by their shape and complex dielectric constant. Dielectric boundaries are assumed to always fall on grid boundaries and the material within a single grid cell is considered to be uniform. Input to the problem is in the formmore » of a Dirichlet boundary condition on a single boundary, and may be either analytic (Gaussian) in shape, or a mode shape computed using a separate code (such as the included eigenmode solver vwave20), and written to a file. Solution is via the finite difference method using Jacobi iteration for 3D problems or direct matrix inversion for 2D problems. Note that 3D problems that include metals will require different iteration parameters than described in the above reference. For structures with curved boundaries not easily modeled on a rectangular grid, the auxillary codes helmholtz11(2D), helm3d (semivectoral), and helmv3d (full vectoral) are provided. For these codes the finite difference equations are specified on a topological regular triangular grid and solved using Jacobi iteration or direct matrix inversion as before. An automatic grid generator is supplied.« less

  4. Full-color holographic 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio

    2003-05-01

    A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (λ=633nm), green (λ=533nm), and blue (λ=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.

  5. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  6. Lifting Object Detection Datasets into 3D.

    PubMed

    Carreira, Joao; Vicente, Sara; Agapito, Lourdes; Batista, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    While data has certainly taken the center stage in computer vision in recent years, it can still be difficult to obtain in certain scenarios. In particular, acquiring ground truth 3D shapes of objects pictured in 2D images remains a challenging feat and this has hampered progress in recognition-based object reconstruction from a single image. Here we propose to bypass previous solutions such as 3D scanning or manual design, that scale poorly, and instead populate object category detection datasets semi-automatically with dense, per-object 3D reconstructions, bootstrapped from:(i) class labels, (ii) ground truth figure-ground segmentations and (iii) a small set of keypoint annotations. Our proposed algorithm first estimates camera viewpoint using rigid structure-from-motion and then reconstructs object shapes by optimizing over visual hull proposals guided by loose within-class shape similarity assumptions. The visual hull sampling process attempts to intersect an object's projection cone with the cones of minimal subsets of other similar objects among those pictured from certain vantage points. We show that our method is able to produce convincing per-object 3D reconstructions and to accurately estimate cameras viewpoints on one of the most challenging existing object-category detection datasets, PASCAL VOC. We hope that our results will re-stimulate interest on joint object recognition and 3D reconstruction from a single image. PMID:27295458

  7. Magnetic Properties of 3D Printed Toroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollig, Lindsey; Otto, Austin; Hilpisch, Peter; Mowry, Greg; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Renewable Energy; Alternatives Lab (REAL) Team

    Transformers are ubiquitous in electronics today. Although toroidal geometries perform most efficiently, transformers are traditionally made with rectangular cross-sections due to the lower manufacturing costs. Additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) can easily achieve toroidal geometries by building up a part through a series of 2D layers. To get strong magnetic properties in a 3D printed transformer, a composite filament is used containing Fe dispersed in a polymer matrix. How the resulting 3D printed toroid responds to a magnetic field depends on two structural factors of the printed 2D layers: fill factor (planar density) and fill pattern. In this work, we investigate how the fill factor and fill pattern affect the magnetic properties of 3D printed toroids. The magnetic properties of the printed toroids are measured by a custom circuit that produces a hysteresis loop for each toroid. Toroids with various fill factors and fill patterns are compared to determine how these two factors can affect the magnetic field the toroid can produce. These 3D printed toroids can be used for numerous applications in order to increase the efficiency of transformers by making it possible for manufacturers to make a toroidal geometry.

  8. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies. PMID:26724184

  9. 3D culture for cardiac cells.

    PubMed

    Zuppinger, Christian

    2016-07-01

    This review discusses historical milestones, recent developments and challenges in the area of 3D culture models with cardiovascular cell types. Expectations in this area have been raised in recent years, but more relevant in vitro research, more accurate drug testing results, reliable disease models and insights leading to bioartificial organs are expected from the transition to 3D cell culture. However, the construction of organ-like cardiac 3D models currently remains a difficult challenge. The heart consists of highly differentiated cells in an intricate arrangement.Furthermore, electrical “wiring”, a vascular system and multiple cell types act in concert to respond to the rapidly changing demands of the body. Although cardiovascular 3D culture models have been predominantly developed for regenerative medicine in the past, their use in drug screening and for disease models has become more popular recently. Many sophisticated 3D culture models are currently being developed in this dynamic area of life science. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  10. Miniaturized 3D microscope imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yung-Sung; Chang, Chir-Weei; Sung, Hsin-Yueh; Wang, Yen-Chang; Chang, Cheng-Yi

    2015-05-01

    We designed and assembled a portable 3-D miniature microscopic image system with the size of 35x35x105 mm3 . By integrating a microlens array (MLA) into the optical train of a handheld microscope, the biological specimen's image will be captured for ease of use in a single shot. With the light field raw data and program, the focal plane can be changed digitally and the 3-D image can be reconstructed after the image was taken. To localize an object in a 3-D volume, an automated data analysis algorithm to precisely distinguish profundity position is needed. The ability to create focal stacks from a single image allows moving or specimens to be recorded. Applying light field microscope algorithm to these focal stacks, a set of cross sections will be produced, which can be visualized using 3-D rendering. Furthermore, we have developed a series of design rules in order to enhance the pixel using efficiency and reduce the crosstalk between each microlens for obtain good image quality. In this paper, we demonstrate a handheld light field microscope (HLFM) to distinguish two different color fluorescence particles separated by a cover glass in a 600um range, show its focal stacks, and 3-D position.

  11. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    DOE PAGES

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universalmore » 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.« less

  12. 3D optical measuring technologies and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yuri V.

    2005-02-01

    The results of the R & D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for noncontact 3D optical dimensional inspection applied to atomic and railway industry safety problems are presented. This activity includes investigations of diffraction phenomena on some 3D objects, using the original constructive calculation method. The efficient algorithms for precise determining the transverse and longitudinal sizes of 3D objects of constant thickness by diffraction method, peculiarities on formation of the shadow and images of the typical elements of the extended objects were suggested. Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and running trains as well as their high exploitation reliability requires a 100% noncontact precise inspection of geometrical parameters of their components. To solve this problem we have developed methods and produced the technical vision measuring systems LMM, CONTROL, PROFIL, and technologies for noncontact 3D dimensional inspection of grid spacers and fuel elements for the nuclear reactor VVER-1000 and VVER-440, as well as automatic laser diagnostic COMPLEX for noncontact inspection of geometric parameters of running freight car wheel pairs. The performances of these systems and the results of industrial testing are presented and discussed. The created devices are in pilot operation at Atomic and Railway Companies.

  13. 3D Simulation: Microgravity Environments and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most, if not all, 3-D and Virtual Reality (VR) software programs are designed for one-G gravity applications. Space environments simulations require gravity effects of one one-thousandth to one one-million of that of the Earth's surface (10(exp -3) - 10(exp -6) G), thus one must be able to generate simulations that replicate those microgravity effects upon simulated astronauts. Unfortunately, the software programs utilized by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration does not have the ability to readily neutralize the one-G gravity effect. This pre-programmed situation causes the engineer or analysis difficulty during micro-gravity simulations. Therefore, microgravity simulations require special techniques or additional code in order to apply the power of 3D graphic simulation to space related applications. This paper discusses the problem and possible solutions to allow microgravity 3-D/VR simulations to be completed successfully without program code modifications.

  14. 3D differential phase contrast microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Michael; Tian, Lei; Waller, Laura

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) optical phase and amplitude reconstruction based on coded source illumination using a programmable LED array. Multiple stacks of images along the optical axis are computed from recorded intensities captured by multiple images under off-axis illumination. Based on the first Born approximation, a linear differential phase contrast (DPC) model is built between 3D complex index of refraction and the intensity stacks. Therefore, 3D volume reconstruction can be achieved via a fast inversion method, without the intermediate 2D phase retrieval step. Our system employs spatially partially coherent illumination, so the transverse resolution achieves twice the NA of coherent systems, while axial resolution is also improved 2× as compared to holographic imaging.

  15. The CIFIST 3D model atmosphere grid.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, H.-G.; Caffau, E.; Steffen, M.; Freytag, B.; Bonifacio, P.; Kučinskas, A.

    Grids of stellar atmosphere models and associated synthetic spectra are numerical products which have a large impact in astronomy due to their ubiquitous application in the interpretation of radiation from individual stars and stellar populations. 3D model atmospheres are now on the verge of becoming generally available for a wide range of stellar atmospheric parameters. We report on efforts to develop a grid of 3D model atmospheres for late-type stars within the CIFIST Team at Paris Observatory. The substantial demands in computational and human labor for the model production and post-processing render this apparently mundane task a challenging logistic exercise. At the moment the CIFIST grid comprises 77 3D model atmospheres with emphasis on dwarfs of solar and sub-solar metallicities. While the model production is still ongoing, first applications are already worked upon by the CIFIST Team and collaborators.

  16. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve.

    PubMed

    Keating, Steven J; Gariboldi, Maria Isabella; Patrick, William G; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics.

  17. Simnple, portable, 3-D projection routine

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.S.

    1987-04-01

    A 3-D projection routine is presented for use in computer graphics applications. The routine is simple enough to be considered portable, and easily modified for special problems. There is often the need to draw three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional plotting surface. For the object to appear realistic, perspective effects must be included that allow near objects to appear larger than distant objects. Several 3-D projection routines are commercially available, but they are proprietary, not portable, and not easily changed by the user. Most are restricted to surfaces that are functions of two variables. This makes them unsuitable for viewing physical objects such as accelerator prototypes or propagating beams. This report develops a very simple algorithm for 3-D projections; the core routine is only 39 FORTRAN lines long. It can be easily modified for special problems. Software dependent calls are confined to simple drivers that can be exchanged when different plotting software packages are used.

  18. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Ryan

    2014-02-13

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  19. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, William G.; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S.; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  20. Structured light field 3D imaging.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zewei; Liu, Xiaoli; Peng, Xiang; Yin, Yongkai; Li, Ameng; Wu, Jiachen; Gao, Bruce Z

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a method by means of light field imaging under structured illumination to deal with high dynamic range 3D imaging. Fringe patterns are projected onto a scene and modulated by the scene depth then a structured light field is detected using light field recording devices. The structured light field contains information about ray direction and phase-encoded depth, via which the scene depth can be estimated from different directions. The multidirectional depth estimation can achieve high dynamic 3D imaging effectively. We analyzed and derived the phase-depth mapping in the structured light field and then proposed a flexible ray-based calibration approach to determine the independent mapping coefficients for each ray. Experimental results demonstrated the validity of the proposed method to perform high-quality 3D imaging for highly and lowly reflective surfaces. PMID:27607639

  1. 3D-printed microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Amin, Reza; Knowlton, Stephanie; Hart, Alexander; Yenilmez, Bekir; Ghaderinezhad, Fariba; Katebifar, Sara; Messina, Michael; Khademhosseini, Ali; Tasoglu, Savas

    2016-06-20

    Microfluidics is a flourishing field, enabling a wide range of biochemical and clinical applications such as cancer screening, micro-physiological system engineering, high-throughput drug testing, and point-of-care diagnostics. However, fabrication of microfluidic devices is often complicated, time consuming, and requires expensive equipment and sophisticated cleanroom facilities. Three-dimensional (3D) printing presents a promising alternative to traditional techniques such as lithography and PDMS-glass bonding, not only by enabling rapid design iterations in the development stage, but also by reducing the costs associated with institutional infrastructure, equipment installation, maintenance, and physical space. With the recent advancements in 3D printing technologies, highly complex microfluidic devices can be fabricated via single-step, rapid, and cost-effective protocols, making microfluidics more accessible to users. In this review, we discuss a broad range of approaches for the application of 3D printing technology to fabrication of micro-scale lab-on-a-chip devices.

  2. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve.

    PubMed

    Keating, Steven J; Gariboldi, Maria Isabella; Patrick, William G; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  3. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Christon, M. A.; Dovey, D.; Stillman, D. W.; Hallquist, J. O.; Rainsberger, R. B

    1994-04-07

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

  4. 3D holoscopic video imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steurer, Johannes H.; Pesch, Matthias; Hahne, Christopher

    2012-03-01

    Since many years, integral imaging has been discussed as a technique to overcome the limitations of standard still photography imaging systems where a three-dimensional scene is irrevocably projected onto two dimensions. With the success of 3D stereoscopic movies, a huge interest in capturing three-dimensional motion picture scenes has been generated. In this paper, we present a test bench integral imaging camera system aiming to tailor the methods of light field imaging towards capturing integral 3D motion picture content. We estimate the hardware requirements needed to generate high quality 3D holoscopic images and show a prototype camera setup that allows us to study these requirements using existing technology. The necessary steps that are involved in the calibration of the system as well as the technique of generating human readable holoscopic images from the recorded data are discussed.

  5. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Tokola, Ryan A; Mikkilineni, Aravind K; Boehnen, Chris Bensing

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  6. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer

    1992-02-01

    TOPAZ3D is a three-dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ3D can be used to solve for the steady-state or transient temperature field on three-dimensional geometries. Material properties may be temperature-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functionalmore » representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. TOPAZ3D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.« less

  7. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    ScienceCinema

    Ott, Ryan

    2016-07-12

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  8. Nanomagnetic Levitation 3-D Cultures of Breast and Colorectal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Bumpers, Harvey L.; Janagama, Dasharatham G.; Manne, Upender; Basson, Marc D.; Katkoori, Venkat

    2014-01-01

    Background Innovative technologies for drug discovery and development, cancer models, stem cell research, tissue engineering, and drug testing in various cell-based platforms require an application similar to the in vivo system. Materials and Methods We developed for the first time nanomagnetically levitated three dimensional (3-D) cultures of breast cancer (BC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) cells using carbon encapsulated cobalt magnetic nanoparticles. BC and CRC xenografts grown in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice were evaluated for N-cadherin and Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expressions. These phenotypes were compared with 2-D cultures and 3-D cultures grown in a gel matrix. Results The BC and CRC cells grown by magnetic levitation formed microtissues. The levitated cultures had high viability and were maintained in culture for long periods of time. It has been observed that N-cadherin and EGFR activities were highly expressed in the levitated 3-D tumor spheres and xenografts of CRC and BC cells. Conclusions Nanomagnetically levitated 3-D cultures tend to form stable microtissues of BC and CRC and may be more feasible for a range of applications in drug discovery or regenerative medicine. PMID:25617973

  9. 3D vertical nanostructures for enhanced infrared plasmonics

    PubMed Central

    Malerba, Mario; Alabastri, Alessandro; Miele, Ermanno; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Patrini, Maddalena; Bajoni, Daniele; Messina, Gabriele C.; Dipalo, Michele; Toma, Andrea; Proietti Zaccaria, Remo; De Angelis, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The exploitation of surface plasmon polaritons has been mostly limited to the visible and near infrared range, due to the low frequency limit for coherent plasmon excitation and the reduction of confinement on the metal surface for lower energies. In this work we show that 3D - out of plane - nanostructures can considerably increase the intrinsic quality of the optical output, light confinement and electric field enhancement factors, also in the near and mid-infrared. We suggest that the physical principle relies on the combination of far field and near field interactions between neighboring antennas, promoted by the 3D out-of-plane geometry. We first analyze the changes in the optical behavior, which occur when passing from a single on-plane nanostructure to a 3D out-of-plane configuration. Then we show that by arranging the nanostructures in periodic arrays, 3D architectures can provide, in the mid-IR, a much stronger plasmonic response, compared to that achievable with the use of 2D configurations, leading to higher energy harvesting properties and improved Q-factors, with bright perspective up to the terahertz range. PMID:26552340

  10. Use scenarios: mobile 3D television and video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohmeier, Dominik; Weitzel, Mandy; Jumisko-Pyykkö, Satu

    2009-02-01

    The focus of 3D television and video has been in technical development while hardly any attention has been paid on user expectations and needs of related applications. The object of the study is to examine user requirements for mobile 3D television and video in depth. We conducted two qualitative studies, focus groups and probe studies, to improve the understanding of user approach. Eight focus groups were carried out with altogether 46 participants focusing on use scenario development. The data-collection of the probe study was done over the period of 4 weeks in the field with nine participants to reveal intrinsic user needs and expectations. Both studies were conducted and analyzed independently so that they did not influence each other. The results of both studies provide novel aspects of users, system and content, and context of use. In the paper, we present personas as first archetype users of mobile 3D television and video. Putting these personas into contexts, we summarize the results of our studies and previous related work in the form of use scenarios to guide the user-centered development of 3D television and video.

  11. 3D vertical nanostructures for enhanced infrared plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Malerba, Mario; Alabastri, Alessandro; Miele, Ermanno; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Patrini, Maddalena; Bajoni, Daniele; Messina, Gabriele C; Dipalo, Michele; Toma, Andrea; Proietti Zaccaria, Remo; De Angelis, Francesco

    2015-11-10

    The exploitation of surface plasmon polaritons has been mostly limited to the visible and near infrared range, due to the low frequency limit for coherent plasmon excitation and the reduction of confinement on the metal surface for lower energies. In this work we show that 3D--out of plane--nanostructures can considerably increase the intrinsic quality of the optical output, light confinement and electric field enhancement factors, also in the near and mid-infrared. We suggest that the physical principle relies on the combination of far field and near field interactions between neighboring antennas, promoted by the 3D out-of-plane geometry. We first analyze the changes in the optical behavior, which occur when passing from a single on-plane nanostructure to a 3D out-of-plane configuration. Then we show that by arranging the nanostructures in periodic arrays, 3D architectures can provide, in the mid-IR, a much stronger plasmonic response, compared to that achievable with the use of 2D configurations, leading to higher energy harvesting properties and improved Q-factors, with bright perspective up to the terahertz range.

  12. 3D vertical nanostructures for enhanced infrared plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Malerba, Mario; Alabastri, Alessandro; Miele, Ermanno; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Patrini, Maddalena; Bajoni, Daniele; Messina, Gabriele C; Dipalo, Michele; Toma, Andrea; Proietti Zaccaria, Remo; De Angelis, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The exploitation of surface plasmon polaritons has been mostly limited to the visible and near infrared range, due to the low frequency limit for coherent plasmon excitation and the reduction of confinement on the metal surface for lower energies. In this work we show that 3D--out of plane--nanostructures can considerably increase the intrinsic quality of the optical output, light confinement and electric field enhancement factors, also in the near and mid-infrared. We suggest that the physical principle relies on the combination of far field and near field interactions between neighboring antennas, promoted by the 3D out-of-plane geometry. We first analyze the changes in the optical behavior, which occur when passing from a single on-plane nanostructure to a 3D out-of-plane configuration. Then we show that by arranging the nanostructures in periodic arrays, 3D architectures can provide, in the mid-IR, a much stronger plasmonic response, compared to that achievable with the use of 2D configurations, leading to higher energy harvesting properties and improved Q-factors, with bright perspective up to the terahertz range. PMID:26552340

  13. Real-time monitoring of 3D cell culture using a 3D capacitance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Han, Nalae; Lee, Rimi; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Yong-Beom; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-03-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures have recently received attention because they represent a more physiologically relevant environment compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. However, 2D-based imaging techniques or cell sensors are insufficient for real-time monitoring of cellular behavior in 3D cell culture. Here, we report investigations conducted with a 3D capacitance cell sensor consisting of vertically aligned pairs of electrodes. When GFP-expressing human breast cancer cells (GFP-MCF-7) encapsulated in alginate hydrogel were cultured in a 3D cell culture system, cellular activities, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis at different heights, could be monitored non-invasively and in real-time by measuring the change in capacitance with the 3D capacitance sensor. Moreover, we were able to monitor cell migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with our 3D capacitance sensor.

  14. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  15. 3D whiteboard: collaborative sketching with 3D-tracked smart phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, James; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2014-02-01

    We present the results of our investigation of the feasibility of a new approach for collaborative drawing in 3D, based on Android smart phones. Our approach utilizes a number of fiduciary markers, placed in the working area where they can be seen by the smart phones' cameras, in order to estimate the pose of each phone in the room. Our prototype allows two users to draw 3D objects with their smart phones by moving their phones around in 3D space. For example, 3D lines are drawn by recording the path of the phone as it is moved around in 3D space, drawing line segments on the screen along the way. Each user can see the virtual drawing space on their smart phones' displays, as if the display was a window into this space. Besides lines, our prototype application also supports 3D geometry creation, geometry transformation operations, and it shows the location of the other user's phone.

  16. Real-time monitoring of 3D cell culture using a 3D capacitance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Han, Nalae; Lee, Rimi; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Yong-Beom; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-03-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures have recently received attention because they represent a more physiologically relevant environment compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. However, 2D-based imaging techniques or cell sensors are insufficient for real-time monitoring of cellular behavior in 3D cell culture. Here, we report investigations conducted with a 3D capacitance cell sensor consisting of vertically aligned pairs of electrodes. When GFP-expressing human breast cancer cells (GFP-MCF-7) encapsulated in alginate hydrogel were cultured in a 3D cell culture system, cellular activities, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis at different heights, could be monitored non-invasively and in real-time by measuring the change in capacitance with the 3D capacitance sensor. Moreover, we were able to monitor cell migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with our 3D capacitance sensor. PMID:26386332

  17. Spatial watermarking of 3D triangle meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayre, Francois; Macq, Benoit M. M.

    2001-12-01

    Although it is obvious that watermarking has become of great interest in protecting audio, videos, and still pictures, few work has been done considering 3D meshes. We propose a new method for watermarking 3D triangle meshes. This method embeds the watermark as triangles deformations. The list of watermarked triangles is obtained through a similar way to the one used in the TSPS (Triangle Strip Peeling Sequence) method. Unlike TSPS, our method is automatic and more secure. We also show that it is reversible.

  18. Acquisition and applications of 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterian, Paul; Mocanu, Elena

    2007-08-01

    The moiré fringes method and their analysis up to medical and entertainment applications are discussed in this paper. We describe the procedure of capturing 3D images with an Inspeck Camera that is a real-time 3D shape acquisition system based on structured light techniques. The method is a high-resolution one. After processing the images, using computer, we can use the data for creating laser fashionable objects by engraving them with a Q-switched Nd:YAG. In medical field we mention the plastic surgery and the replacement of X-Ray especially in pediatric use.

  19. Superplastic forming using NIKE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Puso, M.

    1996-12-04

    The superplastic forming process requires careful control of strain rates in order to avoid strain localizations. A load scheduler was developed and implemented into the nonlinear finite element code NIKE3D to provide strain rate control during forming simulation and process schedule output. Often the sheets being formed in SPF are very thin such that less expensive membrane elements can be used as opposed to shell elements. A large strain membrane element was implemented into NIKE3D to assist in SPF process modeling.

  20. The Galicia 3D experiment: an Introduction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reston, Timothy; Martinez Loriente, Sara; Holroyd, Luke; Merry, Tobias; Sawyer, Dale; Morgan, Julia; Jordan, Brian; Tesi Sanjurjo, Mari; Alexanian, Ara; Shillington, Donna; Gibson, James; Minshull, Tim; Karplus, Marianne; Bayracki, Gaye; Davy, Richard; Klaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Ranero, Cesar; Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Martinez, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    In June and July 2013, scientists from 8 institutions took part in the Galicia 3D seismic experiment, the first ever crustal -scale academic 3D MCS survey over a rifted margin. The aim was to determine the 3D structure of a critical portion of the west Galicia rifted margin. At this margin, well-defined tilted fault blocks, bound by west-dipping faults and capped by synrift sediments are underlain by a bright reflection, undulating on time sections, termed the S reflector and thought to represent a major detachment fault of some kind. Moving west, the crust thins to zero thickness and mantle is unroofed, as evidence by the "Peridotite Ridge" first reported at this margin, but since observed at many other magma-poor margins. By imaging such a margin in detail, the experiment aimed to resolve the processes controlling crustal thinning and mantle unroofing at a type example magma poor margin. The experiment set out to collect several key datasets: a 3D seismic reflection volume measuring ~20x64km and extending down to ~14s TWT, a 3D ocean bottom seismometer dataset suitable for full wavefield inversion (the recording of the complete 3D seismic shots by 70 ocean bottom instruments), the "mirror imaging" of the crust using the same grid of OBS, a single 2D combined reflection/refraction profile extending to the west to determine the transition from unroofed mantle to true oceanic crust, and the seismic imaging of the water column, calibrated by regular deployment of XBTs to measure the temperature structure of the water column. We collected 1280 km2 of seismic reflection data, consisting of 136533 shots recorded on 1920 channels, producing 260 million seismic traces, each ~ 14s long. This adds up to ~ 8 terabytes of data, representing, we believe, the largest ever academic 3D MCS survey in terms of both the area covered and the volume of data. The OBS deployment was the largest ever within an academic 3D survey.

  1. 3D Modeling Engine Representation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Timothy Yang

    2014-09-01

    Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This summary report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a 3D modeling engine to represent risk analysis simulation for advanced small modular reactor structures and components. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.

  2. Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2014-05-01

    Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river

  3. Recent developments in DFD (depth-fused 3D) display and arc 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyama, Shiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    2015-05-01

    We will report our recent developments in DFD (Depth-fused 3D) display and arc 3D display, both of which have smooth movement parallax. Firstly, fatigueless DFD display, composed of only two layered displays with a gap, has continuous perceived depth by changing luminance ratio between two images. Two new methods, called "Edge-based DFD display" and "Deep DFD display", have been proposed in order to solve two severe problems of viewing angle and perceived depth limitations. Edge-based DFD display, layered by original 2D image and its edge part with a gap, can expand the DFD viewing angle limitation both in 2D and 3D perception. Deep DFD display can enlarge the DFD image depth by modulating spatial frequencies of front and rear images. Secondly, Arc 3D display can provide floating 3D images behind or in front of the display by illuminating many arc-shaped directional scattering sources, for example, arcshaped scratches on a flat board. Curved Arc 3D display, composed of many directional scattering sources on a curved surface, can provide a peculiar 3D image, for example, a floating image in the cylindrical bottle. The new active device has been proposed for switching arc 3D images by using the tips of dual-frequency liquid-crystal prisms as directional scattering sources. Directional scattering can be switched on/off by changing liquid-crystal refractive index, resulting in switching of arc 3D image.

  4. Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A

    2014-02-01

    3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints. PMID:24288392

  5. Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A

    2014-02-01

    3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints.

  6. Improved hybrid optimization algorithm for 3D protein structure prediction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changjun; Hou, Caixia; Wei, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Qiang

    2014-07-01

    A new improved hybrid optimization algorithm - PGATS algorithm, which is based on toy off-lattice model, is presented for dealing with three-dimensional protein structure prediction problems. The algorithm combines the particle swarm optimization (PSO), genetic algorithm (GA), and tabu search (TS) algorithms. Otherwise, we also take some different improved strategies. The factor of stochastic disturbance is joined in the particle swarm optimization to improve the search ability; the operations of crossover and mutation that are in the genetic algorithm are changed to a kind of random liner method; at last tabu search algorithm is improved by appending a mutation operator. Through the combination of a variety of strategies and algorithms, the protein structure prediction (PSP) in a 3D off-lattice model is achieved. The PSP problem is an NP-hard problem, but the problem can be attributed to a global optimization problem of multi-extremum and multi-parameters. This is the theoretical principle of the hybrid optimization algorithm that is proposed in this paper. The algorithm combines local search and global search, which overcomes the shortcoming of a single algorithm, giving full play to the advantage of each algorithm. In the current universal standard sequences, Fibonacci sequences and real protein sequences are certified. Experiments show that the proposed new method outperforms single algorithms on the accuracy of calculating the protein sequence energy value, which is proved to be an effective way to predict the structure of proteins. PMID:25069136

  7. 3D Extracellular Matrix from Sectioned Human Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Catherine B; Cukierman, Edna; Artym, Vira V

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) matrices have significant advantages compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) matrices for studying cell adhesion, migration, and tissue organization. Cellular behavior is dependent on the surrounding matrix environment for signaling and induction of biological responses (Carletti, et al., 2011; Pampaloni, et al., 2007; Vlodavsky, 1999). 2D cultures induce an artificial polarity in cultured cells between upper and lower surfaces not present normally in the in vivo environment. No longer nonpolar, many aspects of cellular behavior are altered (Beacham, et al., 2007; Grinnell and Petroll, 2010; Yamada and Cukierman, 2007). In addition, 2D models lack the physical properties of 3D matrix, such as topography, stiffness, and dimensionality. To begin to mimic the 3D environment of in vivo connective tissue extracellular matrix (ECM), collagen gels have been used widely (see Unit 10.3). Culture of cells in collagen gels results in a bipolar fibroblast morphology that resembles the in vivo phenotype (Friedl and Brocker, 2000; Even-Ram and Yamada, 2005; Grinnell and Petroll, 2010). Although more physiological, 3D collagen gels lack the complex biochemical and physical microenvironment present in an in vivo ECM that regulates cellular physiological properties (Beacham, et al., 2007). A variety of methods to create a more in vivo-like ECM have been published (Yamada and Cukierman, 2007). Adding critical ECM components to 3D collagen matrices, including fibronectin, hyaluronan, link protein and glycosaminoglycans, can more accurately mimic the structural microenvironment of the native ECM (Friedl and Brocker, 2000). Other ECM models use cultured cell lines, such as fibroblasts, to derive an ECM lattice through secretion of an organized ECM (Beacham, et al., 2007). Different cell lines have been chosen to generate a specific microenvironment for study of particularly types of cellular behavior (Kutys and Yamada, 2013). For example, cultured bovine

  8. The EISCAT_3D Science Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjulin, A.; Mann, I.; McCrea, I.; Aikio, A. T.

    2013-05-01

    EISCAT_3D will be a world-leading international research infrastructure using the incoherent scatter technique to study the atmosphere in the Fenno-Scandinavian Arctic and to investigate how the Earth's atmosphere is coupled to space. The EISCAT_3D phased-array multistatic radar system will be operated by EISCAT Scientific Association and thus be an integral part of an organisation that has successfully been running incoherent scatter radars for more than thirty years. The baseline design of the radar system contains a core site with transmitting and receiving capabilities located close to the intersection of the Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish borders and five receiving sites located within 50 to 250 km from the core. The EISCAT_3D project is currently in its Preparatory Phase and can smoothly transit into implementation in 2014, provided sufficient funding. Construction can start 2016 and first operations in 2018. The EISCAT_3D Science Case is prepared as part of the Preparatory Phase. It is regularly updated with annual new releases, and it aims at being a common document for the whole future EISCAT_3D user community. The areas covered by the Science Case are atmospheric physics and global change; space and plasma physics; solar system research; space weather and service applications; and radar techniques, new methods for coding and analysis. Two of the aims for EISCAT_3D are to understand the ways natural variability in the upper atmosphere, imposed by the Sun-Earth system, can influence the middle and lower atmosphere, and to improve the predictivity of atmospheric models by providing higher resolution observations to replace the current parametrised input. Observations by EISCAT_3D will also be used to monitor the direct effects from the Sun on the ionosphere-atmosphere system and those caused by solar wind magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction. In addition, EISCAT_3D will be used for remote sensing the large-scale behaviour of the magnetosphere from its

  9. Scoops3D: software to analyze 3D slope stability throughout a digital landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Mark E.; Christian, Sarah B.; Brien, Dianne L.; Henderson, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    The computer program, Scoops3D, evaluates slope stability throughout a digital landscape represented by a digital elevation model (DEM). The program uses a three-dimensional (3D) method of columns approach to assess the stability of many (typically millions) potential landslides within a user-defined size range. For each potential landslide (or failure), Scoops3D assesses the stability of a rotational, spherical slip surface encompassing many DEM cells using a 3D version of either Bishop’s simplified method or the Ordinary (Fellenius) method of limit-equilibrium analysis. Scoops3D has several options for the user to systematically and efficiently search throughout an entire DEM, thereby incorporating the effects of complex surface topography. In a thorough search, each DEM cell is included in multiple potential failures, and Scoops3D records the lowest stability (factor of safety) for each DEM cell, as well as the size (volume or area) associated with each of these potential landslides. It also determines the least-stable potential failure for the entire DEM. The user has a variety of options for building a 3D domain, including layers or full 3D distributions of strength and pore-water pressures, simplistic earthquake loading, and unsaturated suction conditions. Results from Scoops3D can be readily incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) or other visualization software. This manual includes information on the theoretical basis for the slope-stability analysis, requirements for constructing and searching a 3D domain, a detailed operational guide (including step-by-step instructions for using the graphical user interface [GUI] software, Scoops3D-i) and input/output file specifications, practical considerations for conducting an analysis, results of verification tests, and multiple examples illustrating the capabilities of Scoops3D. Easy-to-use software installation packages are available for the Windows or Macintosh operating systems; these packages

  10. Effect of viewing distance on 3D fatigue caused by viewing mobile 3D content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Sungchul; Lee, Dong-Su; Park, Min-Chul; Yano, Sumio

    2013-05-01

    With an advent of autostereoscopic display technique and increased needs for smart phones, there has been a significant growth in mobile TV markets. The rapid growth in technical, economical, and social aspects has encouraged 3D TV manufacturers to apply 3D rendering technology to mobile devices so that people have more opportunities to come into contact with many 3D content anytime and anywhere. Even if the mobile 3D technology leads to the current market growth, there is an important thing to consider for consistent development and growth in the display market. To put it briefly, human factors linked to mobile 3D viewing should be taken into consideration before developing mobile 3D technology. Many studies have investigated whether mobile 3D viewing causes undesirable biomedical effects such as motion sickness and visual fatigue, but few have examined main factors adversely affecting human health. Viewing distance is considered one of the main factors to establish optimized viewing environments from a viewer's point of view. Thus, in an effort to determine human-friendly viewing environments, this study aims to investigate the effect of viewing distance on human visual system when exposing to mobile 3D environments. Recording and analyzing brainwaves before and after watching mobile 3D content, we explore how viewing distance affects viewing experience from physiological and psychological perspectives. Results obtained in this study are expected to provide viewing guidelines for viewers, help ensure viewers against undesirable 3D effects, and lead to make gradual progress towards a human-friendly mobile 3D viewing.

  11. Counter-sniper 3D laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Orr; LePage, Andrew J.; Wijntjes, Geert J.; Zehnpfennig, Theodore F.; Sackos, John T.; Nellums, Robert O.

    1999-01-01

    Visidyne, Inc., teaming with Sandia National Laboratories, has developed the preliminary design for an innovative scannerless 3-D laser radar capable of acquiring, tracking, and determining the coordinates of small caliber projectiles in flight with sufficient precision, so their origin can be established by back projecting their tracks to their source. The design takes advantage of the relatively large effective cross-section of a bullet at optical wavelengths. Kay to its implementation is the use of efficient, high- power laser diode arrays for illuminators and an imaging laser receiver using a unique CCD imager design, that acquires the information to establish x, y (angle-angle) and range coordinates for each bullet at very high frame rates. The detection process achieves a high degree of discrimination by using the optical signature of the bullet, solar background mitigation, and track detection. Field measurements and computer simulations have been used to provide the basis for a preliminary design of a robust bullet tracker, the Counter Sniper 3-D Laser Radar. Experimental data showing 3-D test imagery acquired by a lidar with architecture similar to that of the proposed Counter Sniper 3-D Lidar are presented. A proposed Phase II development would yield an innovative, compact, and highly efficient bullet-tracking laser radar. Such a device would meet the needs of not only the military, but also federal, state, and local law enforcement organizations.

  12. How to See Shadows in 3D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parikesit, Gea O. F.

    2014-01-01

    Shadows can be found easily everywhere around us, so that we rarely find it interesting to reflect on how they work. In order to raise curiosity among students on the optics of shadows, we can display the shadows in 3D, particularly using a stereoscopic set-up. In this paper we describe the optics of stereoscopic shadows using simple schematic…

  13. Spatial Visualization by Realistic 3D Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Jianping

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the popular Purdue Spatial Visualization Test-Visualization by Rotations (PSVT-R) in isometric drawings was recreated with CAD software that allows 3D solid modeling and rendering to provide more realistic pictorial views. Both the original and the modified PSVT-R tests were given to students and their scores on the two tests were…

  14. Virtual Representations in 3D Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shonfeld, Miri; Kritz, Miki

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the extent to which virtual worlds can serve as online collaborative learning environments for students by increasing social presence and engagement. 3D environments enable learning, which simulates face-to-face encounters while retaining the advantages of online learning. Students in Education departments created avatars…

  15. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Therese; Auk-Emblem, Pia; Dornish, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent), and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell–matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue. PMID:27600217

  16. GPM 3D Flyby of Hurricane Lester

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby of Lester was created using GPM's Radar data. NASA/JAXA's GPM core observatory satellite flew over Hurricane Lester on August 29, 2016 at 7:21 p.m. EDT. Rain was measured by GPM's ra...

  17. Invertible authentication for 3D meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, Jana; Benedens, Oliver

    2003-06-01

    Digital watermarking has become an accepted technology for enabling multimedia protection schemes. Based on the introduced media independent protocol schemes for invertible data authentication in references 2, 4 and 5 we discuss the design of a new 3D invertible labeling technique to ensure and require high data integrity. We combine digital signature schemes and digital watermarking to provide a public verifiable integrity. Furthermore the protocol steps in the other papers to ensure that the original data can only be reproduced with a secret key is adopted for 3D meshes. The goal is to show how the existing protocol can be used for 3D meshes to provide solutions for authentication watermarking. In our design concept and evaluation we see that due to the nature of 3D meshes the invertible function are different from the image and audio concepts to achieve invertibility to guaranty reversibility of the original. Therefore we introduce a concept for distortion free invertibility and a concept for adjustable minimum distortion invertibility.

  18. Metrological characterization of 3D imaging devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, G.

    2013-04-01

    Manufacturers often express the performance of a 3D imaging device in various non-uniform ways for the lack of internationally recognized standard requirements for metrological parameters able to identify the capability of capturing a real scene. For this reason several national and international organizations in the last ten years have been developing protocols for verifying such performance. Ranging from VDI/VDE 2634, published by the Association of German Engineers and oriented to the world of mechanical 3D measurements (triangulation-based devices), to the ASTM technical committee E57, working also on laser systems based on direct range detection (TOF, Phase Shift, FM-CW, flash LADAR), this paper shows the state of the art about the characterization of active range devices, with special emphasis on measurement uncertainty, accuracy and resolution. Most of these protocols are based on special objects whose shape and size are certified with a known level of accuracy. By capturing the 3D shape of such objects with a range device, a comparison between the measured points and the theoretical shape they should represent is possible. The actual deviations can be directly analyzed or some derived parameters can be obtained (e.g. angles between planes, distances between barycenters of spheres rigidly connected, frequency domain parameters, etc.). This paper shows theoretical aspects and experimental results of some novel characterization methods applied to different categories of active 3D imaging devices based on both principles of triangulation and direct range detection.

  19. [3D virtual endoscopy of heart].

    PubMed

    Du, Aan; Yang, Xin; Xue, Haihong; Yao, Liping; Sun, Kun

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we present a virtual endoscopy (VE) for diagnosis of heart diseases, which is proved efficient and affordable, easy to popularize for viewing the interior of the heart. The dual source CT (DSCT) data were used as primary data in our system. The 3D structure of virtual heart was reconstructed with 3D texture mapping technology based on graphics processing unit (GPU), and could be displayed dynamically in real time. When we displayed it in real time, we could not only observe the inside of the chambers of heart but also examine from the new angle of view by the 3D data which were already clipped according to doctor's desire. In the pattern of observation, we used both mutual interactive mode and auto mode. In the auto mode, we used Dijkstra Algorithm which treated the 3D Euler distance as weighting factor to find out the view path quickly, and, used view path to calculate the four chamber plane. PMID:23198444

  20. 3D Virtual Reality for Teaching Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speck, Angela; Ruzhitskaya, L.; Laffey, J.; Ding, N.

    2012-01-01

    We are developing 3D virtual learning environments (VLEs) as learning materials for an undergraduate astronomy course, in which will utilize advances both in technologies available and in our understanding of the social nature of learning. These learning materials will be used to test whether such VLEs can indeed augment science learning so that it is more engaging, active, visual and effective. Our project focuses on the challenges and requirements of introductory college astronomy classes. Here we present our virtual world of the Jupiter system and how we plan to implement it to allow students to learn course material - physical laws and concepts in astronomy - while engaging them into exploration of the Jupiter's system, encouraging their imagination, curiosity, and motivation. The VLE can allow students to work individually or collaboratively. The 3D world also provides an opportunity for research in astronomy education to investigate impact of social interaction, gaming features, and use of manipulatives offered by a learning tool on students’ motivation and learning outcomes. Use of this VLE is also a valuable source for exploration of how the learners’ spatial awareness can be enhanced by working in 3D environment. We will present the Jupiter-system environment along with a preliminary study of the efficacy and usability of our Jupiter 3D VLE.

  1. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Therese; Auk-Emblem, Pia; Dornish, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent), and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell–matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue.

  2. Collaborative annotation of 3D crystallographic models.

    PubMed

    Hunter, J; Henderson, M; Khan, I

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the AnnoCryst system-a tool that was designed to enable authenticated collaborators to share online discussions about 3D crystallographic structures through the asynchronous attachment, storage, and retrieval of annotations. Annotations are personal comments, interpretations, questions, assessments, or references that can be attached to files, data, digital objects, or Web pages. The AnnoCryst system enables annotations to be attached to 3D crystallographic models retrieved from either private local repositories (e.g., Fedora) or public online databases (e.g., Protein Data Bank or Inorganic Crystal Structure Database) via a Web browser. The system uses the Jmol plugin for viewing and manipulating the 3D crystal structures but extends Jmol by providing an additional interface through which annotations can be created, attached, stored, searched, browsed, and retrieved. The annotations are stored on a standardized Web annotation server (Annotea), which has been extended to support 3D macromolecular structures. Finally, the system is embedded within a security framework that is capable of authenticating users and restricting access only to trusted colleagues.

  3. A Rotation Invariant in 3-D Reaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Suvobrata; Turvey, M. T.

    2004-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors investigated changes in hand orientation during a 3-D reaching task that imposed specific position and orientation requirements on the hand's initial and final postures. Instantaneous hand orientation was described using 3-element rotation vectors representing current orientation as a rotation from a fixed reference…

  4. Spacecraft 3D Augmented Reality Mobile App

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussey, Kevin J.; Doronila, Paul R.; Kumanchik, Brian E.; Chan, Evan G.; Ellison, Douglas J.; Boeck, Andrea; Moore, Justin M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spacecraft 3D application allows users to learn about and interact with iconic NASA missions in a new and immersive way using common mobile devices. Using Augmented Reality (AR) techniques to project 3D renditions of the mission spacecraft into real-world surroundings, users can interact with and learn about Curiosity, GRAIL, Cassini, and Voyager. Additional updates on future missions, animations, and information will be ongoing. Using a printed AR Target and camera on a mobile device, users can get up close with these robotic explorers, see how some move, and learn about these engineering feats, which are used to expand knowledge and understanding about space. The software receives input from the mobile device's camera to recognize the presence of an AR marker in the camera's field of view. It then displays a 3D rendition of the selected spacecraft in the user's physical surroundings, on the mobile device's screen, while it tracks the device's movement in relation to the physical position of the spacecraft's 3D image on the AR marker.

  5. The New Realm of 3-D Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Dimension Technologies Inc., developed a line of 2-D/3-D Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screens, including a 15-inch model priced at consumer levels. DTI's family of flat panel LCD displays, called the Virtual Window(TM), provide real-time 3-D images without the use of glasses, head trackers, helmets, or other viewing aids. Most of the company initial 3-D display research was funded through NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The images on DTI's displays appear to leap off the screen and hang in space. The display accepts input from computers or stereo video sources, and can be switched from 3-D to full-resolution 2-D viewing with the push of a button. The Virtual Window displays have applications in data visualization, medicine, architecture, business, real estate, entertainment, and other research, design, military, and consumer applications. Displays are currently used for computer games, protein analysis, and surgical imaging. The technology greatly benefits the medical field, as surgical simulators are helping to increase the skills of surgical residents. Virtual Window(TM) is a trademark of Dimension Technologies Inc.

  6. NASA Sees Typhoon Rammasun in 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's TRMM satellite flew over on July 14, 2014 at 1819 UTC and data was used to make this 3-D flyby showing thunderstorms to heights of almost 17km (10.5 miles). Rain was measured falling at a ra...

  7. 3-D Teaching Models for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Joan; Farland-Smith, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Allowing a student to "see" through touch what other students see through a microscope can be a challenging task. Therefore, author Joan Bradley created three-dimensional (3-D) models with one student's visual impairment in mind. They are meant to benefit all students and can be used to teach common high school biology topics, including the…

  8. Evolution of Archaea in 3D modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Tankosic, Dragana; Sheldon, Rob

    2012-11-01

    The analysis of all groups of Archaea performed in two-dimensions have demonstrated a specific distribution of Archaean species as a function of pH/temperature, temperature/salinity and pH/salinity. Work presented here is an extension of this analysis with a three dimensional (3D) modeling in logarithmic scale. As it was shown in 2D representation, the "Rules of the Diagonal" have been expressed even more clearly in 3D modeling. In this article, we used a 3D Mesh modeling to show the range of distribution of each separate group of Archaea as a function of pH, temperature, and salinity. Visible overlap and links between different groups indicate a direction of evolution in Archaea. The major direction in ancestral life (vector of evolution) has been indicated: from high temperature, acidic, and low-salinity system towards low temperature, alkaline and high salinity systems. Specifics of the geometrical coordinates and distribution of separate groups of Archaea in 3 D scale were analyzed with a mathematical description of the functions. Based on the obtained data, a new model for the origin and evolution of life on Earth is proposed. The geometry of this model is described by a hyperboloid of one sheet. Conclusions of this research are consistent with previous results derived from the two-dimensional diagrams. This approach is suggested as a new method for analyzing any biological group in accordance to its environmental parameters.

  9. Introduction to 3D Graphics through Excel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benacka, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a method of explaining the principles of 3D graphics through making a revolvable and sizable orthographic parallel projection of cuboid in Excel. No programming is used. The method was tried in fourteen 90 minute lessons with 181 participants, which were Informatics teachers, undergraduates of Applied Informatics and gymnasium…

  10. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Therese; Auk-Emblem, Pia; Dornish, Michael

    2015-03-24

    This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent), and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell-matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue.

  11. Multi Sensor Data Integration for AN Accurate 3d Model Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhatkuli, S.; Satoh, T.; Tachibana, K.

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a novel technique of data integration between two different data sets, i.e. laser scanned RGB point cloud and oblique imageries derived 3D model, to create a 3D model with more details and better accuracy. In general, aerial imageries are used to create a 3D city model. Aerial imageries produce an overall decent 3D city models and generally suit to generate 3D model of building roof and some non-complex terrain. However, the automatically generated 3D model, from aerial imageries, generally suffers from the lack of accuracy in deriving the 3D model of road under the bridges, details under tree canopy, isolated trees, etc. Moreover, the automatically generated 3D model from aerial imageries also suffers from undulated road surfaces, non-conforming building shapes, loss of minute details like street furniture, etc. in many cases. On the other hand, laser scanned data and images taken from mobile vehicle platform can produce more detailed 3D road model, street furniture model, 3D model of details under bridge, etc. However, laser scanned data and images from mobile vehicle are not suitable to acquire detailed 3D model of tall buildings, roof tops, and so forth. Our proposed approach to integrate multi sensor data compensated each other's weakness and helped to create a very detailed 3D model with better accuracy. Moreover, the additional details like isolated trees, street furniture, etc. which were missing in the original 3D model derived from aerial imageries could also be integrated in the final model automatically. During the process, the noise in the laser scanned data for example people, vehicles etc. on the road were also automatically removed. Hence, even though the two dataset were acquired in different time period the integrated data set or the final 3D model was generally noise free and without unnecessary details.

  12. The Impact of Web3D Technologies on Medical Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Nigel W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of medical applications that make use of Web3D technologies, covering the period from 1995 to 2005. We assess the impact that Web3D has made on medical education and training during this time and highlight current and future trends. The applications identified are categorized into: general education tools; tools for…

  13. Developmental neurotoxic effects of Malathion on 3D neurosphere system

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Mohamed; Lotfy, Ahmed; Fathy, Khaled; Makar, Maria; El-emam, Mona; El-gamal, Aya; El-gamal, Mohamed; Badawy, Ahmad; Mohamed, Wael M.Y.; Sobh, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) refers to the toxic effects induced by various chemicals on brain during the early childhood period. As human brains are vulnerable during this period, various chemicals would have significant effects on brains during early childhood. Some toxicants have been confirmed to induce developmental toxic effects on CNS; however, most of agents cannot be identified with certainty. This is because available animal models do not cover the whole spectrum of CNS developmental periods. A novel alternative method that can overcome most of the limitations of the conventional techniques is the use of 3D neurosphere system. This in-vitro system can recapitulate many of the changes during the period of brain development making it an ideal model for predicting developmental neurotoxic effects. In the present study we verified the possible DNT of Malathion, which is one of organophosphate pesticides with suggested possible neurotoxic effects on nursing children. Three doses of Malathion (0.25 μM, 1 μM and 10 μM) were used in cultured neurospheres for a period of 14 days. Malathion was found to affect proliferation, differentiation and viability of neurospheres, these effects were positively correlated to doses and time progress. This study confirms the DNT effects of Malathion on 3D neurosphere model. Further epidemiological studies will be needed to link these results to human exposure and effects data. PMID:27054080

  14. 3D Printed Programmable Release Capsules.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Maneesh K; Meng, Fanben; Johnson, Blake N; Kong, Yong Lin; Tian, Limei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Masters, Nina; Singamaneni, Srikanth; McAlpine, Michael C

    2015-08-12

    The development of methods for achieving precise spatiotemporal control over chemical and biomolecular gradients could enable significant advances in areas such as synthetic tissue engineering, biotic-abiotic interfaces, and bionanotechnology. Living organisms guide tissue development through highly orchestrated gradients of biomolecules that direct cell growth, migration, and differentiation. While numerous methods have been developed to manipulate and implement biomolecular gradients, integrating gradients into multiplexed, three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains a critical challenge. Here we present a method to 3D print stimuli-responsive core/shell capsules for programmable release of multiplexed gradients within hydrogel matrices. These capsules are composed of an aqueous core, which can be formulated to maintain the activity of payload biomolecules, and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA, an FDA approved polymer) shell. Importantly, the shell can be loaded with plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs), which permits selective rupturing of the capsule when irradiated with a laser wavelength specifically determined by the lengths of the nanorods. This precise control over space, time, and selectivity allows for the ability to pattern 2D and 3D multiplexed arrays of enzyme-loaded capsules along with tunable laser-triggered rupture and release of active enzymes into a hydrogel ambient. The advantages of this 3D printing-based method include (1) highly monodisperse capsules, (2) efficient encapsulation of biomolecular payloads, (3) precise spatial patterning of capsule arrays, (4) "on the fly" programmable reconfiguration of gradients, and (5) versatility for incorporation in hierarchical architectures. Indeed, 3D printing of programmable release capsules may represent a powerful new tool to enable spatiotemporal control over biomolecular gradients. PMID:26042472

  15. Parallel CARLOS-3D code development

    SciTech Connect

    Putnam, J.M.; Kotulski, J.D.

    1996-02-01

    CARLOS-3D is a three-dimensional scattering code which was developed under the sponsorship of the Electromagnetic Code Consortium, and is currently used by over 80 aerospace companies and government agencies. The code has been extensively validated and runs on both serial workstations and parallel super computers such as the Intel Paragon. CARLOS-3D is a three-dimensional surface integral equation scattering code based on a Galerkin method of moments formulation employing Rao- Wilton-Glisson roof-top basis for triangular faceted surfaces. Fully arbitrary 3D geometries composed of multiple conducting and homogeneous bulk dielectric materials can be modeled. This presentation describes some of the extensions to the CARLOS-3D code, and how the operator structure of the code facilitated these improvements. Body of revolution (BOR) and two-dimensional geometries were incorporated by simply including new input routines, and the appropriate Galerkin matrix operator routines. Some additional modifications were required in the combined field integral equation matrix generation routine due to the symmetric nature of the BOR and 2D operators. Quadrilateral patched surfaces with linear roof-top basis functions were also implemented in the same manner. Quadrilateral facets and triangular facets can be used in combination to more efficiently model geometries with both large smooth surfaces and surfaces with fine detail such as gaps and cracks. Since the parallel implementation in CARLOS-3D is at high level, these changes were independent of the computer platform being used. This approach minimizes code maintenance, while providing capabilities with little additional effort. Results are presented showing the performance and accuracy of the code for some large scattering problems. Comparisons between triangular faceted and quadrilateral faceted geometry representations will be shown for some complex scatterers.

  16. 3-D Force-balanced Magnetospheric Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Sorin Zaharia; C.Z. Cheng; K. Maezawa

    2003-02-10

    The knowledge of plasma pressure is essential for many physics applications in the magnetosphere, such as computing magnetospheric currents and deriving magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. A thorough knowledge of the 3-D pressure distribution has however eluded the community, as most in-situ pressure observations are either in the ionosphere or the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. With the assumption of pressure isotropy there have been attempts to obtain the pressure at different locations by either (a) mapping observed data (e.g., in the ionosphere) along the field lines of an empirical magnetospheric field model or (b) computing a pressure profile in the equatorial plane (in 2-D) or along the Sun-Earth axis (in 1-D) that is in force balance with the magnetic stresses of an empirical model. However, the pressure distributions obtained through these methods are not in force balance with the empirical magnetic field at all locations. In order to find a global 3-D plasma pressure distribution in force balance with the magnetospheric magnetic field, we have developed the MAG-3D code, that solves the 3-D force balance equation J x B = (upside-down delta) P computationally. Our calculation is performed in a flux coordinate system in which the magnetic field is expressed in terms of Euler potentials as B = (upside-down delta) psi x (upside-down delta) alpha. The pressure distribution, P = P(psi,alpha), is prescribed in the equatorial plane and is based on satellite measurements. In addition, computational boundary conditions for y surfaces are imposed using empirical field models. Our results provide 3-D distributions of magnetic field and plasma pressure as well as parallel and transverse currents for both quiet-time and disturbed magnetospheric conditions.

  17. Laser printing of 3D metallic interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniam, Iyoel; Mathews, Scott A.; Charipar, Nicholas A.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Piqué, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The use of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) techniques for the printing of functional materials has been demonstrated for numerous applications. The printing gives rise to patterns, which can be used to fabricate planar interconnects. More recently, various groups have demonstrated electrical interconnects from laser-printed 3D structures. The laser printing of these interconnects takes place through aggregation of voxels of either molten metal or of pastes containing dispersed metallic particles. However, the generated 3D structures do not posses the same metallic conductivity as a bulk metal interconnect of the same cross-section and length as those formed by wire bonding or tab welding. An alternative is to laser transfer entire 3D structures using a technique known as lase-and-place. Lase-and-place is a LIFT process whereby whole components and parts can be transferred from a donor substrate onto a desired location with one single laser pulse. This paper will describe the use of LIFT to laser print freestanding, solid metal foils or beams precisely over the contact pads of discrete devices to interconnect them into fully functional circuits. Furthermore, this paper will also show how the same laser can be used to bend or fold the bulk metal foils prior to transfer, thus forming compliant 3D structures able to provide strain relief for the circuits under flexing or during motion from thermal mismatch. These interconnect "ridges" can span wide gaps (on the order of a millimeter) and accommodate height differences of tens of microns between adjacent devices. Examples of these laser printed 3D metallic bridges and their role in the development of next generation electronics by additive manufacturing will be presented.

  18. 3D microscopy for microfabrication quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Matthew S.; De Jean, Paul D.

    2015-03-01

    A novel stereo microscope adapter, the SweptVue, has been developed to rapidly perform quantitative 3D microscopy for cost-effective microfabrication quality control. The SweptVue adapter uses the left and right stereo channels of an Olympus SZX7 stereo microscope for sample illumination and detection, respectively. By adjusting the temporal synchronization between the illumination lines projected from a Texas Instruments DLP LightCrafter and the rolling shutter on a Point Grey Flea3 CMOS camera, micrometer-scale depth features can be easily and rapidly measured at up to 5 μm resolution on a variety of microfabricated samples. In this study, the build performance of an industrial-grade Stratasys Object 300 Connex 3D printer was examined. Ten identical parts were 3D printed with a lateral and depth resolution of 42 μm and 30 μm, respectively, using both a rigid and flexible Stratasys PolyJet material. Surface elevation precision and accuracy was examined over multiple regions of interest on plateau and hemispherical surfaces. In general, the dimensions of the examined features were reproducible across the parts built using both materials. However, significant systemic lateral and height build errors were discovered, such as: decreased heights when approaching the edges of plateaus, inaccurate height steps, and poor tolerances on channel width. For 3D printed parts to be used in functional applications requiring micro-scale tolerances, they need to conform to specification. Despite appearing identical, our 3D printed parts were found to have a variety of defects that the SweptVue adapter quickly revealed.

  19. 3D Printed Programmable Release Capsules

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Maneesh K.; Meng, Fanben; Johnson, Blake N.; Kong, Yong Lin; Tian, Limei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Masters, Nina; Singamaneni, Srikanth; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    The development of methods for achieving precise spatiotemporal control over chemical and biomolecular gradients could enable significant advances in areas such as synthetic tissue engineering, biotic–abiotic interfaces, and bionanotechnology. Living organisms guide tissue development through highly orchestrated gradients of biomolecules that direct cell growth, migration, and differentiation. While numerous methods have been developed to manipulate and implement biomolecular gradients, integrating gradients into multiplexed, three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains a critical challenge. Here we present a method to 3D print stimuli-responsive core/shell capsules for programmable release of multiplexed gradients within hydrogel matrices. These capsules are composed of an aqueous core, which can be formulated to maintain the activity of payload biomolecules, and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA, an FDA approved polymer) shell. Importantly, the shell can be loaded with plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs), which permits selective rupturing of the capsule when irradiated with a laser wavelength specifically determined by the lengths of the nanorods. This precise control over space, time, and selectivity allows for the ability to pattern 2D and 3D multiplexed arrays of enzyme-loaded capsules along with tunable laser-triggered rupture and release of active enzymes into a hydrogel ambient. The advantages of this 3D printing-based method include (1) highly monodisperse capsules, (2) efficient encapsulation of biomolecular payloads, (3) precise spatial patterning of capsule arrays, (4) “on the fly” programmable reconfiguration of gradients, and (5) versatility for incorporation in hierarchical architectures. Indeed, 3D printing of programmable release capsules may represent a powerful new tool to enable spatiotemporal control over biomolecular gradients. PMID:26042472

  20. 3D Printed Programmable Release Capsules.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Maneesh K; Meng, Fanben; Johnson, Blake N; Kong, Yong Lin; Tian, Limei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Masters, Nina; Singamaneni, Srikanth; McAlpine, Michael C

    2015-08-12

    The development of methods for achieving precise spatiotemporal control over chemical and biomolecular gradients could enable significant advances in areas such as synthetic tissue engineering, biotic-abiotic interfaces, and bionanotechnology. Living organisms guide tissue development through highly orchestrated gradients of biomolecules that direct cell growth, migration, and differentiation. While numerous methods have been developed to manipulate and implement biomolecular gradients, integrating gradients into multiplexed, three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains a critical challenge. Here we present a method to 3D print stimuli-responsive core/shell capsules for programmable release of multiplexed gradients within hydrogel matrices. These capsules are composed of an aqueous core, which can be formulated to maintain the activity of payload biomolecules, and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA, an FDA approved polymer) shell. Importantly, the shell can be loaded with plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs), which permits selective rupturing of the capsule when irradiated with a laser wavelength specifically determined by the lengths of the nanorods. This precise control over space, time, and selectivity allows for the ability to pattern 2D and 3D multiplexed arrays of enzyme-loaded capsules along with tunable laser-triggered rupture and release of active enzymes into a hydrogel ambient. The advantages of this 3D printing-based method include (1) highly monodisperse capsules, (2) efficient encapsulation of biomolecular payloads, (3) precise spatial patterning of capsule arrays, (4) "on the fly" programmable reconfiguration of gradients, and (5) versatility for incorporation in hierarchical architectures. Indeed, 3D printing of programmable release capsules may represent a powerful new tool to enable spatiotemporal control over biomolecular gradients.

  1. Simulation-Guided 3D Nanomanufacturing via Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Fowlkes, Jason D.; Winkler, Robert; Lewis, Brett B.; Stanford, Michael G.; Plank, Harald; Rack, Philip D.

    2016-06-10

    Focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) is one of the few techniques that enables direct-write synthesis of free-standing 3D nanostructures. While the fabrication of simple architectures such as vertical or curving nanowires has been achieved by simple trial and error, processing complex 3D structures is not tractable with this approach. This is due, inpart, to the dynamic interplay between electron–solid interactions and the transient spatial distribution of absorbed precursor molecules on the solid surface. Here, we demonstrate the ability to controllably deposit 3D lattice structures at the micro/nanoscale, which have received recent interest owing to superior mechanical and optical properties.more » Moreover, a hybrid Monte Carlo–continuum simulation is briefly overviewed, and subsequently FEBID experiments and simulations are directly compared. Finally, a 3D computer-aided design (CAD) program is introduced, which generates the beam parameters necessary for FEBID by both simulation and experiment. In using this approach, we demonstrate the fabrication of various 3D lattice structures using Pt-, Au-, and W-based precursors.« less

  2. 3D Printing: 3D Printing of Highly Stretchable and Tough Hydrogels into Complex, Cellularized Structures.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sungmin; Sycks, Dalton; Chan, Hon Fai; Lin, Shaoting; Lopez, Gabriel P; Guilak, Farshid; Leong, Kam W; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2015-07-15

    X. Zhao and co-workers develop on page 4035 a new biocompatible hydrogel system that is extremely tough and stretchable and can be 3D printed into complex structures, such as the multilayer mesh shown. Cells encapsulated in the tough and printable hydrogel maintain high viability. 3D-printed structures of the tough hydrogel can sustain high mechanical loads and deformations.

  3. R3D-2-MSA: the RNA 3D structure-to-multiple sequence alignment server

    PubMed Central

    Cannone, Jamie J.; Sweeney, Blake A.; Petrov, Anton I.; Gutell, Robin R.; Zirbel, Craig L.; Leontis, Neocles

    2015-01-01

    The RNA 3D Structure-to-Multiple Sequence Alignment Server (R3D-2-MSA) is a new web service that seamlessly links RNA three-dimensional (3D) structures to high-quality RNA multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) from diverse biological sources. In this first release, R3D-2-MSA provides manual and programmatic access to curated, representative ribosomal RNA sequence alignments from bacterial, archaeal, eukaryal and organellar ribosomes, using nucleotide numbers from representative atomic-resolution 3D structures. A web-based front end is available for manual entry and an Application Program Interface for programmatic access. Users can specify up to five ranges of nucleotides and 50 nucleotide positions per range. The R3D-2-MSA server maps these ranges to the appropriate columns of the corresponding MSA and returns the contents of the columns, either for display in a web browser or in JSON format for subsequent programmatic use. The browser output page provides a 3D interactive display of the query, a full list of sequence variants with taxonomic information and a statistical summary of distinct sequence variants found. The output can be filtered and sorted in the browser. Previous user queries can be viewed at any time by resubmitting the output URL, which encodes the search and re-generates the results. The service is freely available with no login requirement at http://rna.bgsu.edu/r3d-2-msa. PMID:26048960

  4. 3-D transient analysis of pebble-bed HTGR by TORT-TD/ATTICA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Seubert, A.; Sureda, A.; Lapins, J.; Buck, M.; Bader, J.; Laurien, E.

    2012-07-01

    As most of the acceptance criteria are local core parameters, application of transient 3-D fine mesh neutron transport and thermal hydraulics coupled codes is mandatory for best estimate evaluations of safety margins. This also applies to high-temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR). Application of 3-D fine-mesh transient transport codes using few energy groups coupled with 3-D thermal hydraulics codes becomes feasible in view of increasing computing power. This paper describes the discrete ordinates based coupled code system TORT-TD/ATTICA3D that has recently been extended by a fine-mesh diffusion solver. Based on transient analyses for the PBMR-400 design, the transport/diffusion capabilities are demonstrated and 3-D local flux and power redistribution effects during a partial control rod withdrawal are shown. (authors)

  5. The dimension added by 3D scanning and 3D printing of meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vet, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    An overview for the 3D photodocumentation of meteorites is presented, focussing on two 3D scanning methods in relation to 3D printing. The 3D photodocumention of meteorites provides new ways for the digital preservation of culturally, historically or scientifically unique meteorites. It has the potential for becoming a new documentation standard of meteorites that can exist complementary to traditional photographic documentation. Notable applications include (i.) use of physical properties in dark flight-, strewn field-, or aerodynamic modelling; (ii.) collection research of meteorites curated by different museum collections, and (iii.) public dissemination of meteorite models as a resource for educational users. The possible applications provided by the additional dimension of 3D illustrate the benefits for the meteoritics community.

  6. 3D spatial resolution and spectral resolution of interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Obara, Masaki; Yoshimori, Kyu

    2016-04-01

    Recently developed interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry (J. Opt. Soc. Am A18, 765 [2001]1084-7529JOAOD610.1364/JOSAA.18.000765) enables obtainment of the spectral information and 3D spatial information for incoherently illuminated or self-luminous object simultaneously. Using this method, we can obtain multispectral components of complex holograms, which correspond directly to the phase distribution of the wavefronts propagated from the polychromatic object. This paper focuses on the analysis of spectral resolution and 3D spatial resolution in interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry. Our analysis is based on a novel analytical impulse response function defined over four-dimensional space. We found that the experimental results agree well with the theoretical prediction. This work also suggests a new criterion and estimate method regarding 3D spatial resolution of digital holography. PMID:27139648

  7. SB3D User Manual, Santa Barbara 3D Radiative Transfer Model

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hirok, William

    1999-01-01

    SB3D is a three-dimensional atmospheric and oceanic radiative transfer model for the Solar spectrum. The microphysics employed in the model are the same as used in the model SBDART. It is assumed that the user of SB3D is familiar with SBDART and IDL. SB3D differs from SBDART in that computations are conducted on media in three-dimensions rather than a single column (i.e. plane-parallel), and a stochastic method (Monte Carlo) is employed instead of a numerical approach (Discrete Ordinates) for estimating a solution to the radiative transfer equation. Because of these two differences between SB3D and SBDART, the input and running of SB3D is more unwieldy and requires compromises between model performance and computational expense. Hence, there is no one correct method for running the model and the user must develop a sense to the proper input and configuration of the model.

  8. 3D Seismic Reflection Experiment over the Galicia Deep Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, D. S.; Jordan, B.; Reston, T. J.; Minshull, T. A.; Klaeschen, D.; Ranero, C.; Shillington, D. J.; Morgan, J. K.

    2014-12-01

    In June thru September, 2013, a 3D reflection and a long offset seismic experiment were conducted at the Galicia rifted margin by investigators from the US, UK, Germany, and Spain. The 3D multichannel experiment covered 64 km by 20 km (1280 km2), using the RV Marcus Langseth. Four streamers 6 km long were deployed at 12.5 m hydrophone channel spacing. The streamers were 200 m apart. Two airgun arrays, each 3300 cu in, were fired alternately every 37.5 m, to collectively yield a 400 m wide sail line consisting of 8 CMP lines at 50 m spacing. The long offset seismic experiment included 72 short period OBS's deployed below the 3D reflection survey box. Most of the instruments recorded all the shots from the airgun array shots. The 3D seismic box covered a variety of geologic features. The Peridotite Ridge (PR), is associated with the exhumation of upper mantle rocks to the seafloor during the final stage of the continental separation between the Galicia Bank and the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. The S reflector is present below most of the continental blocks under the deep Galicia basin. S is interpreted to be a low-angle detachment fault formed late in the rifting process, and a number of rotated fault block basins and ranges containing pre and syn-rift sediments. Initial observations from stacked 3D seismic data, and samples of 2D pre-stack time migrated (PSTM) 3D seismic data show that the PR is elevated above the present seafloor in the South and not exposed through the seafloor in the North. The relative smoothness of the PR surface for the entire 20 km N-S contrasts with the more complex, shorter wavelength, faulting of the continental crustal blocks to the east. The PR does not seem to show offsets or any apparent internal structure. The PSTM dip lines show substantial improvement for the structures in the deep sedimentary basin East of the PR. These seem to extend the S reflector somewhat farther to the West. The migrated data show a substantial network of

  9. Quasi 3D dosimetry (EPID, conventional 2D/3D detector matrices)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäck, A.

    2015-01-01

    Patient specific pretreatment measurement for IMRT and VMAT QA should preferably give information with a high resolution in 3D. The ability to distinguish complex treatment plans, i.e. treatment plans with a difference between measured and calculated dose distributions that exceeds a specified tolerance, puts high demands on the dosimetry system used for the pretreatment measurements and the results of the measurement evaluation needs a clinical interpretation. There are a number of commercial dosimetry systems designed for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. 2D arrays such as MapCHECK® (Sun Nuclear), MatriXXEvolution (IBA Dosimetry) and OCTAVIOUS® 1500 (PTW), 3D phantoms such as OCTAVIUS® 4D (PTW), ArcCHECK® (Sun Nuclear) and Delta4 (ScandiDos) and software for EPID dosimetry and 3D reconstruction of the dose in the patient geometry such as EPIDoseTM (Sun Nuclear) and Dosimetry CheckTM (Math Resolutions) are available. None of those dosimetry systems can measure the 3D dose distribution with a high resolution (full 3D dose distribution). Those systems can be called quasi 3D dosimetry systems. To be able to estimate the delivered dose in full 3D the user is dependent on a calculation algorithm in the software of the dosimetry system. All the vendors of the dosimetry systems mentioned above provide calculation algorithms to reconstruct a full 3D dose in the patient geometry. This enables analyzes of the difference between measured and calculated dose distributions in DVHs of the structures of clinical interest which facilitates the clinical interpretation and is a promising tool to be used for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. However, independent validation studies on the accuracy of those algorithms are scarce. Pretreatment IMRT QA using the quasi 3D dosimetry systems mentioned above rely on both measurement uncertainty and accuracy of calculation algorithms. In this article, these quasi 3D dosimetry systems and their use in patient specific pretreatment IMRT

  10. INCORPORATING DYNAMIC 3D SIMULATION INTO PRA

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R Prescott; Curtis Smith

    2011-07-01

    Through continued advancement in computational resources, development that was previously done by trial and error production is now performed through computer simulation. These virtual physical representations have the potential to provide accurate and valid modeling results and are being used in many different technical fields. Risk assessment now has the opportunity to use 3D simulation to improve analysis results and insights, especially for external event analysis. By using simulations, the modeler only has to determine the likelihood of an event without having to also predict the results of that event. The 3D simulation automatically determines not only the outcome of the event, but when those failures occur. How can we effectively incorporate 3D simulation into traditional PRA? Most PRA plant modeling is made up of components with different failure modes, probabilities, and rates. Typically, these components are grouped into various systems and then are modeled together (in different combinations) as a “system” with logic structures to form fault trees. Applicable fault trees are combined through scenarios, typically represented by event tree models. Though this method gives us failure results for a given model, it has limitations when it comes to time-based dependencies or dependencies that are coupled to physical processes which may themselves be space- or time-dependent. Since, failures from a 3D simulation are naturally time related, they should be used in that manner. In our simulation approach, traditional static models are converted into an equivalent state diagram representation with start states, probabilistic driven movements between states and terminal states. As the state model is run repeatedly, it converges to the same results as the PRA model in cases where time-related factors are not important. In cases where timing considerations are important (e.g., when events are dependent upon each other), then the simulation approach will typically

  11. 3D visualization of polymer nanostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, James H

    2009-01-01

    Soft materials and structured polymers are extremely useful nanotechnology building blocks. Block copolymers, in particular, have served as 2D masks for nanolithography and 3D scaffolds for photonic crystals, nanoparticle fabrication, and solar cells. F or many of these applications, the precise 3 dimensional structure and the number and type of defects in the polymer is important for ultimate function. However, directly visualizing the 3D structure of a soft material from the nanometer to millimeter length scales is a significant technical challenge. Here, we propose to develop the instrumentation needed for direct 3D structure determination at near nanometer resolution throughout a nearly millimeter-cubed volume of a soft, potentially heterogeneous, material. This new capability will be a valuable research tool for LANL missions in chemistry, materials science, and nanoscience. Our approach to soft materials visualization builds upon exciting developments in super-resolution optical microscopy that have occurred over the past two years. To date, these new, truly revolutionary, imaging methods have been developed and almost exclusively used for biological applications. However, in addition to biological cells, these super-resolution imaging techniques hold extreme promise for direct visualization of many important nanostructured polymers and other heterogeneous chemical systems. Los Alamos has a unique opportunity to lead the development of these super-resolution imaging methods for problems of chemical rather than biological significance. While these optical methods are limited to systems transparent to visible wavelengths, we stress that many important functional chemicals such as polymers, glasses, sol-gels, aerogels, or colloidal assemblies meet this requirement, with specific examples including materials designed for optical communication, manipulation, or light-harvesting Our Research Goals are: (1) Develop the instrumentation necessary for imaging materials

  12. CASTLE3D - A Computer Aided System for Labelling Archaeological Excavations in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houshiar, H.; Borrmann, D.; Elseberg, J.; Nüchter, A.; Näth, F.; Winkler, S.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation of archaeological excavation sites with conventional methods and tools such as hand drawings, measuring tape and archaeological notes is time consuming. This process is prone to human errors and the quality of the documentation depends on the qualification of the archaeologist on site. Use of modern technology and methods in 3D surveying and 3D robotics facilitate and improve this process. Computer-aided systems and databases improve the documentation quality and increase the speed of data acquisition. 3D laser scanning is the state of the art in modelling archaeological excavation sites, historical sites and even entire cities or landscapes. Modern laser scanners are capable of data acquisition of up to 1 million points per second. This provides a very detailed 3D point cloud of the environment. 3D point clouds and 3D models of an excavation site provide a better representation of the environment for the archaeologist and for documentation. The point cloud can be used both for further studies on the excavation and for the presentation of results. This paper introduces a Computer aided system for labelling archaeological excavations in 3D (CASTLE3D). Consisting of a set of tools for recording and georeferencing the 3D data from an excavation site, CASTLE3D is a novel documentation approach in industrial archaeology. It provides a 2D and 3D visualisation of the data and an easy-to-use interface that enables the archaeologist to select regions of interest and to interact with the data in both representations. The 2D visualisation and a 3D orthogonal view of the data provide cuts of the environment that resemble the traditional hand drawings. The 3D perspective view gives a realistic view of the environment. CASTLE3D is designed as an easy-to-use on-site semantic mapping tool for archaeologists. Each project contains a predefined set of semantic information that can be used to label findings in the data. Multiple regions of interest can be joined under

  13. Lattice engineering through nanoparticle-DNA frameworks.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Zhang, Yugang; Wang, Tong; Xin, Huolin L; Li, Huilin; Gang, Oleg

    2016-06-01

    Advances in self-assembly over the past decade have demonstrated that nano- and microscale particles can be organized into a large diversity of ordered three-dimensional (3D) lattices. However, the ability to generate different desired lattice types from the same set of particles remains challenging. Here, we show that nanoparticles can be assembled into crystalline and open 3D frameworks by connecting them through designed DNA-based polyhedral frames. The geometrical shapes of the frames, combined with the DNA-assisted binding properties of their vertices, facilitate the well-defined topological connections between particles in accordance with frame geometry. With this strategy, different crystallographic lattices using the same particles can be assembled by introduction of the corresponding DNA polyhedral frames. This approach should facilitate the rational assembly of nanoscale lattices through the design of the unit cell. PMID:26901516

  14. Lattice engineering through nanoparticle-DNA frameworks.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Zhang, Yugang; Wang, Tong; Xin, Huolin L; Li, Huilin; Gang, Oleg

    2016-06-01

    Advances in self-assembly over the past decade have demonstrated that nano- and microscale particles can be organized into a large diversity of ordered three-dimensional (3D) lattices. However, the ability to generate different desired lattice types from the same set of particles remains challenging. Here, we show that nanoparticles can be assembled into crystalline and open 3D frameworks by connecting them through designed DNA-based polyhedral frames. The geometrical shapes of the frames, combined with the DNA-assisted binding properties of their vertices, facilitate the well-defined topological connections between particles in accordance with frame geometry. With this strategy, different crystallographic lattices using the same particles can be assembled by introduction of the corresponding DNA polyhedral frames. This approach should facilitate the rational assembly of nanoscale lattices through the design of the unit cell.

  15. Lattice engineering through nanoparticle–DNA frameworks

    DOE PAGES

    Tian, Ye; Zhang, Yugang; Wang, Tong; Xin, Huolin L.; Li, Huilin; Gang, Oleg

    2016-02-22

    Advances in self-assembly over the past decade have demonstrated that nano- and microscale particles can be organized into a large diversity of ordered three-dimensional (3D) lattices. However, the ability to generate different desired lattice types from the same set of particles remains challenging. Here, we show that nanoparticles can be assembled into crystalline and open 3D frameworks by connecting them through designed DNA-based polyhedral frames. The geometrical shapes of the frames, combined with the DNA-assisted binding properties of their vertices, facilitate the well-defined topological connections between particles in accordance with frame geometry. With this strategy, different crystallographic lattices using themore » same particles can be assembled by introduction of the corresponding DNA polyhedral frames. As a result, this approach should facilitate the rational assembly of nanoscale lattices through the design of the unit cell.« less

  16. Lattice engineering through nanoparticle-DNA frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ye; Zhang, Yugang; Wang, Tong; Xin, Huolin L.; Li, Huilin; Gang, Oleg

    2016-06-01

    Advances in self-assembly over the past decade have demonstrated that nano- and microscale particles can be organized into a large diversity of ordered three-dimensional (3D) lattices. However, the ability to generate different desired lattice types from the same set of particles remains challenging. Here, we show that nanoparticles can be assembled into crystalline and open 3D frameworks by connecting them through designed DNA-based polyhedral frames. The geometrical shapes of the frames, combined with the DNA-assisted binding properties of their vertices, facilitate the well-defined topological connections between particles in accordance with frame geometry. With this strategy, different crystallographic lattices using the same particles can be assembled by introduction of the corresponding DNA polyhedral frames. This approach should facilitate the rational assembly of nanoscale lattices through the design of the unit cell.

  17. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  18. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P. G.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  19. Crashworthiness simulations with DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Schauer, D.A.; Hoover, C.G.; Kay, G.J.; Lee, A.S.; De Groot, A.J.

    1996-04-01

    Current progress in parallel algorithm research and applications in vehicle crash simulation is described for the explicit, finite element algorithms in DYNA3D. Problem partitioning methods and parallel algorithms for contact at material interfaces are the two challenging algorithm research problems that are addressed. Two prototype parallel contact algorithms have been developed for treating the cases of local and arbitrary contact. Demonstration problems for local contact are crashworthiness simulations with 222 locally defined contact surfaces and a vehicle/barrier collision modeled with arbitrary contact. A simulation of crash tests conducted for a vehicle impacting a U-channel small sign post embedded in soil has been run on both the serial and parallel versions of DYNA3D. A significant reduction in computational time has been observed when running these problems on the parallel version. However, to achieve maximum efficiency, complex problems must be appropriately partitioned, especially when contact dominates the computation.

  20. Automating Shallow 3D Seismic Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Steeples, Don; Tsoflias, George

    2009-01-15

    Our efforts since 1997 have been directed toward developing ultra-shallow seismic imaging as a cost-effective method applicable to DOE facilities. This report covers the final year of grant-funded research to refine 3D shallow seismic imaging, which built on a previous 7-year grant (FG07-97ER14826) that refined and demonstrated the use of an automated method of conducting shallow seismic surveys; this represents a significant departure from conventional seismic-survey field procedures. The primary objective of this final project was to develop an automated three-dimensional (3D) shallow-seismic reflection imaging capability. This is a natural progression from our previous published work and is conceptually parallel to the innovative imaging methods used in the petroleum industry.